"Sociology / Society" Essays

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Symbolic Interactionism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,389 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Within a dyadic relationship, each individual can maintain his or her identity. When one party to the interaction is no longer interested in maintaining it, the relationship is over. As soon as another person is added, however, the situation and its possibilities change markedly, and group structures, which are separate from, and influence the individuals involved begin to emerge. Two of the people can form a group against the third, one person can become the mediator or the object of competition between the remaining two, and so on. Simmel saw the forms of these interactions as entailing similar options and strategies whether one was dealing with roommates, nation-states, or corporate groups." (Farganis, 2000)

Mead held that language is particularly important to the "development of the mind and the self." (Ritzer, 2013) Mind is defined by Mead "as a conversation that people have with themselves using language." (Ritzer, 2013) According to Mead, the self "is a special kind of mental process in which a person is able to take oneself as an object." (Ritzer, 2013) Mead states that the ability to "…take oneself as an object develops in childhood through two key stages. In the play stage, the child learns to play the role of someone else, and in the game stage, the child learns to play the role of everyone involved in a game. The latter stage leads to the child's ability to take the position of the generalized other, or to see itself from the perspective of a community. When self-development is complete, the child acquires the ability to distinguish between the I and the me. These are two phases in the larger process of the self. The I is an immediate and unthinking response that is also the basis of individual personality. The me is the phase of self that sees itself from the perspective of community values and expectations." (Ritzer, 2013)

V. Application of the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective to Daily Life

Symbolic interactionism occurs through the day as the individual goes about their life. Beginning with their first encounter of other people in the world around them. These encounters may be business related, personal, or even academically related. All the interactions are marked by some level of symbolic interaction and while many of the daily activities are characterized by being nearly identical to other days before the present days interaction, as noted in the work of Simmel, the absence of a specific person or the addition of a person or person to the interaction that takes place may markedly change the nature of the symbolic interaction. From the view of Mead the activities listed in the journal would be on too small of a scale however, to Simmel, the daily symbolic interactionist activities would be just what he sought to examine as they are comprised by very small or micro interactions in the life of the writer. For example the symbolic interactionism in purchasing food, buying gas for the vehicle, or even greeting individuals in the school… [read more]

Who Am I From a Sociological Perspective? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Personality Application


The aspect of personality can be approached from the psychological angel as well as the sociological perspective. The prime concern within the scope of this paper though is on the sociological aspect of personality and the varied issues that shape ones personality.

It is apparent that the sociological approach to personality takes into account the status of the person within the social setting and the conception of the roles that he plays within that group. It is notable that whatever others think of one also plays a role in shaping the personality of the individual (Sociology Guide, 2011). It is therefore indicative that personality is the sum of the values, ideas as well as the attitudes that the person has and consequently determining his role in the society and also becomes an integral part of his daily character.

There are four major factors that are seen to play a role in shaping personality and are applicable to me. The four factors are the physical environment, culture surrounding the individual, heredity as well as particular experiences as indicated by Sociology Guide. In my case, the outstanding factors that played a role in shaping my personality are culture and the particular experiences.

Different sociologists categorize personalities in varied ways. Some have categorizations that are up to eight different categories, yet others have as few as two categories. Going by Discus (2013), a professional personality profiling body, I stand out as the 'Assertive' type otherwise known as type A personality in among other scholars.

I am self-motivated, independent, enthusiastic and self-confident. I am also seen as a person who is direct, outgoing, ambitious in life and sociable. In terms of the values of my values, I am a person who is concerned with results as well as attention. I am an individual who seeks control and approval. I always avoid weakness or isolation in life and will be seen as dictating and attacking. My approach is always friendly and responsive with her strategy being getting power and people under me.

I also know what I want in life and…… [read more]

Homelessness Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The reasons include ignorance at the end of the Canadian government and the economic situation of the country. On the other hand, the comparison of the status of the Aboriginals, Blacks and the normal Canadians has been given by stating that these two ethnicities are not enjoying all facilities of life.

As compared to the required text, the journal article… [read more]

Sociology Research Review and Critique Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Even some conventional markers of success (a desk job, a nice television) were sneered at.

Manual labor and physicality were defined by symbolically central rituals and artifacts that within the 'tribal' context of the men took on much greater symbolic significance. Football is not simply a game but rather a badge of identity and membership in a community. Simply looking at the economics of working to buy tickets for a football game cannot be analyzed purely in terms of the logic of an outsider, who might wonder if the young men might be better off saving their money. This highlights the value of the perspective offered by Nayak, as it does not attempt to judge the young men, as might a social worker, or even members of the community who might see them as 'good for nothing.' Instead, Nayak shows how their actions are comprehensible within a specifically socially-contextualized space.

A materialist or Marxist-realist analysis of the boys, however, would not simply state that their views and beliefs were comprehensible given their social situation, but rather see their behavior as a kind of false consciousness -- rather than focusing on change a world which offered them few truly meaningful opportunities (given that the white-collar jobs and apprenticeships offered were still far less lucrative than the managerial positions of those who came from the 'right' neighborhoods, families and schools) they boys channeled their energies into nonproductive pursuits like football. Localism became stultifying because it meant the boys did not see their struggle mirrored in the difficulties of other working-class youths. Nayak's analysis, although persuasive, ultimately offers no real, meaningful solutions to a social order in which any methods of self-improvement are automatically viewed as a betrayal. These subcultural values ultimately hurt their adherents. Nayak can merely conclude: "recognising the place of education in the global marketplace may not smooth the jagged dissonance between formal schooling and local masculinities (Nayak 2003: 157).


Nayak, Anoop. 2003. 'Boyz to Men': masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-

industrial…… [read more]

Sexism Against Women Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sexism in the workforce caused women to have negative attitude about their work. It van affect their performance and then go on to hurt the company in the long run as well.

Sexism is targeted against women in different forms and in a very subtle manner. The way that it's carried out misses the eye of the victim and the general public. A sad fact is that despite the advances in the society, women are still a victim of this discrimination. Taking statistics from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, it is noted that there is no decrease in the quantity discrimination lawsuits filed in the past twelve years. (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2004). The lawsuits that are filed are against unfair salaries or promotion and the companies have to pay money to compensate for their mistakes before. Even though there is a twelve year history of repetitive stereotyping, organizations still keep on doing it. The organizations, society and countries at large first need to identify and accept the problem of sexism in the workplace. It is only then that sexism against women can be completely eliminated from the workforce.


Barrett, G. And Morris, S. (1993). The American Psychological Association's amicus curiae brief in Price Waterhouse v. Law and Human Behavior, 17 pp.201-215.

Catalyst.org (2012). Knowledge Center | Catalyst.org. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-financial-services [Accessed: 18 Dec 2012].

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2004). EEOC litigation statistics, FY 1992 through FY 2003. [report].

Gotz, I. (1999). The Culture of Sexism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Heilman, M. (2001). Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women's ascent up the organizational. Journal of Social Issues, 57 pp.657-674..

Heilman, M. And Welle, B. (2005). Formal and Informal discrimination against women at work. [e-book] Available through: Center for Public Leadership http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/55933/CPL_WP_05_02_HeilmanWelle.pdf.

Sahgal, P. (2007). Gender Discrimination: Beliefs and Experiences: A Comparative Perspective of Women and Men in the Delhi…… [read more]

Positivist Theory of Crime Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,786 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


This program will serve to assist these individuals in their formulation of a new type of existence in the community that adheres to acceptable norms of behavior.

Summary and Conclusion

Positivistism was formulated by Lombroso and has enabled a more scientific approach to criminology. Three types of positivism exist: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) social. Social control theories holds that societal norms enforce conformity and compliance to the rules of society. These influences include family, school, friends, and the morals, values and beliefs of the individual's peers. Juveniles and adults have been found to be responsive to these social controls.

Proposed in this study is a program for treatment and prevention of criminal behavior based upon the social control theory. The program has several stated requirements including that the participants in the program attend several sessions each week in addition to attending a church of their choice once per week and volunteering for a community group or organization. It is the contention of this study that involvement in community activities at this level will serve to engage the participants in the program and to garner enough social control in the lives of the participants to bring about change in the criminal behavior of those involved in the program.


Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf… [read more]

Social Psychology and the Beliefs of Freud Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The relationship between man and society has interested philosophers for thousands of years. On one hand, civil society needs structure and government institutions. They protect every individual from the abuse of the weakest by the strongest and from mob rule. On the other hand, the need to fit into the structure… [read more]

Migrant How I Feel Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (943 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As such, an individual's Heimat remains his or her Heimat. Our belonging is dictated by our dwellings either being of the same or different Heimat. This is according to Flusser. Humanity belongs to the Heimat of origin, known or unknown. Nonetheless, this does not mean that one cannot belong to a newly acquired Heimat.

With other people's sense of belonging in the world, human life can be regarded as a sensible entity, which can embrace any chance of diversity. The society is gradually turning out to compose many cultures. Multiculturalism is taking place. In fact, the sense of belonging that an individual should embrace should be the one that is derived from the society, which has embraced multiculturalism. This is because the feeling of belonging comes from the sense of belonging to a given Heimat, then extending to other Heimats around in order to appreciate diversity and the belongingness of other people.

How this message affects me as an individual

This message affects my thoughts in various ways. The feeling of Heimat centrally touches on the difference which exists between different communities in the society. This has been given a vivid description by Flusser through his work on the challenges of an immigrant. My thoughts are skewed to accept the fact that being an immigrant faces many challenges and problems. Nonetheless, theses challenges are experienced because of the perceptions other people have upon their own Heimat together with the perceived Heimat of other people. It turns out to be challenging because once an individual has engaged in espousing other Heimats and allow the entry of other Heimats into the conscious mind, the feeling of being a foreigner seems to fade. This is the nice feeling, which coincides with my thoughts as far as Flusser's comments are concerned.

My thoughts take a parallel perception from what Flusser has presented in the article. For instance, I support the fact that universal and diverse sense in everyone will have a propensity of ending the challenges that can be experienced. Rather, only language and its connotations should be the only facets that bring much trouble. In addition, the perceptive realizations from people with different Heimats should not be a massive challenge, but should remain a challenge anyway. As Flusser perceives it, it is challenging and at the same time intriguing. Besides, I am affected by this message through the fact that there is still a sense of eternity in Heimats. This should not be the case under normal circumstances. Although one may observe every implication contained in a Heimat, some chance should be give to change, which beckons at all times. Diversity is relevant.

Work cited

Flusser, Vile-m, and Anke K. Finger. The Freedom of the Migrant: Objections to Nationalism.

Urbana (Ill.: University of Illinois…… [read more]

White Man's Burden the Film Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In the entirety of the society that is presented in the narrative, white men and women are marginalized and minimized because their racial profile puts them on the bottom rung of the social ladder. The discrimination against white people by the society illustrated in the story is not just within the factory setting but all over the narrative of the film. Every person of authority in the society has prejudicial feelings towards white people and the strength of their hegemenous power allows them to use their racially-biased feelings to discriminate against the white characters. Not only does John Travolta's character lose his job, but the discrimination of the social setting allows for him to be evicted from his home and beaten by the police. Both the police authority and the financial authorities have opinions which discriminate against the white characters and without any opposition to that position they are able to commit actions which are highly unethical.

The second social psychological phenomenon that is present in the film White Man's Burden is confirmation bias. This means that the actions of a person are judged based upon the preconceived notions that others have of that person because of social, ethnic, or psychological criteria. In a social situation, the confirmation bias is often ethnically charged such as when a person sees on television about a person who belongs to a certain racial profile who is involved in drugs or violent gang activity. Seeing that news story will get a reaction based upon preconceived notions that the society has about that racial profile and the viewer will either be surprised by the event or it will confirm a stereotype of that racial profile. In the movie, this is seen at the beginning of the film when John Travolta's character is found looking at his boss's wife when she is in a state of undress. Instead of allowing Louis Pinnock to explain his side of the story, that he was ordered to the back of the house to deliver a package and his seeing the wife was accidental, it is assumed that he is a peeping tom and he loses his job over the incident. Pinnock was not doing anything and the situation was entirely innocent but this does not matter. In the society, white people are assumed to be naturally criminal in their behavior and highly sexually obsessed, attributes which have been falsely given to African-Americans in the real world.

Desmond Nakano wrote and directed the movie White Man's Burden in the hopes of explaining the fallacies of racial bias in American society. By examining the film in terms of social psychological phenomena it is clear that the movie tries to showcase certain examples of social inequities. Both discrimination and confirmation bias are exhibited by the narrative of the film and their presence in the story help to explain the discrepancies in society and to highlight how wrong these discrepancies are.

Works Cited:

White Man's Burden. Dir. Desmond Nakano. Prod. Lawrence Bender. Perf.… [read more]

Marx and Goffman Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Marx and Goffman

Karl Marx presents the theory of commonality fetishism in the first chapter of the book, "Capital Critique of Political Economy" of the year 1868. As the chapter concludes, Karl Marx analyses the value-form bestowed in various commodities. In explaining the notion of social origination in labor as ascribed through exchanges in the market, Karl Marx reiterate s… [read more]

Environmental Psychology: Securing Its Future Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


external forces)

Fade = disappear in slow motion

42.3. Security the future sciences are social institutions; cannot escape politics, other forces like social issues-so there is greater demand for science to do something about environmental problems

42.3.1 Problem Oriented

-- Problems studied in ongoing real life context in which they occur

-- to understand and solve environmental problems -- concepts, principles must evolve from specific problems in the settings being studied this method is not guaranteed to be immune from same problems in laboratory research ie. One can mold and shape real-life events to fit a preconceived (a priori) model and therefore distort the events search for a cumulative body of knowledge can help provide solutions cumulative = increasing by addition humanistic social sciences try to use the laboratory too much, distorts view, can't measure attitudes in the lab eg the Kaplan (1977) study

Environmental Psychologist = rejects the search for universal and unifying principles to explain all environmental behavior and experience based on a model of the natural and physical sciences

42.3.2 Systems-Oriented (EXAM)

reject laboratory-experimental paradigm (paradigm = example, archetype, model)

cognizant of wide range of forces underlying environmental problems, cannot be satisfied with methodology that seeks to measure only a few parameters

Level I Research -- confined to study of environmentally relevant psych processes, structures, behaviors (eg privacy, territoriality, place-identity)

Level II -- more complex environmental problems (beyond the individual)

Need more systems analysis for Level I orientation, to show how the individual factors are part of the system -- this means it must be interdisciplinary -- cannot isolate variables, issues, behaviors

Goal is cumulative body of research over time

42.3.3. Interdisciplinary Orientation

Systems approach is necessary bc it is interdisciplinary field (collaboration with other behavioral, environmental sciences)

Linked with the behavioral sciences (psychology in relation to sociology, political science, anthropology, economics, ecology, demography)

Interspecialization collaboration (colleagues with developmental psych, work together)

But also architecture, design

Need interdisciplinary orientation to secure future of environmental psychology

42.3.4. Space over Time Orientation

traditionally researcher in psych eschews (avoids) time dimension when examining behavior but here need it -- life cycles…… [read more]

Discovery and Analysis of a 2,000-Year-Old Hoard Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



There are several types of archaeological errors. One of them is making assumptions, sometimes based on broad misconceptions about the culture, or sometimes based on projecting one's own culture onto another. Bias also emerges, for example in this report where early determinations color the researchers latter findings (Beck & Jones, 1989). One such misconception/assumption in this report derives from… [read more]

Deviant Behavior? Explain the Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Secondary deviance is behavior that takes places after the person has been institutionally labeled and in reaction to the label (whilst primary deviance is the act of deviance itself). I tis therefore (1) reaction (ii) self-reinforcement prophecy iii) resentment towards community who stigmatizes him; offender cannot escape this stigmatization.

5. Both social control / bonding theory (Hirschi) and deterrence theory are "control" theories. One focuses primarily on informal social control, the other formal social control. Explain.

Deterrence theory focuses son the whole legal and police network that it is place -- formal to prevent and punish crimes as well as to formally regulate and monitor offending behavior. Social control theory, on the other hand, discusses the informal community / social support structure that individuals have that deter them from committing crimes / from deviating and that keep them in place.

6. Both Cambridge-Somerville and TARP are cited by Stark as experimental failures. Explain what makes each of these studies "experimental designs" (Hint: 2 conditions of an experiment?) and what each study found (or, in this case, failed to find).

They were randomized and conducted in laboratory situation under laboratory conditions with control class. The Cambridge-Somerville study found that the community program had no impact on members 30 years later or on delinquency in juveniles. Many of those were later likely to be rearrested for crimes. More so, the impact on health of the participants was not only negligible but, in some cases, even negative. The results of TARP showed that ex-prisoners receiving payments were less likely to be re-arrested for property theft-related crimes than those who received only job placement or no services or payments of any kind.

7. According to… [read more]

Karl Marx and Michael Walzer Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Karl Marx and Michael Walzer

Many believe that Karl Marx had much to say regarding communism, but that is actually not the case. Marx actually said little about communism, and what he did say was incomplete and relatively vague. His Communist Manifesto, therefore, should really be read with an eye for inquiring into the validity and logic of capitalism, as… [read more]

Post Modernism What Is Post-Modernism? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Post Modernism

What is post-modernism? What is its relevance to the contemporary world we live in? Is it excessively pessimistic or realistic about political change and popular culture?

There have been numerous attempts to try to identify and better define the world we live in, especially given the ever-changing conditions in our society. Nowadays, the term of globalization has come… [read more]

Conformity and Obedience Beyond Conscious Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,085 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In time, the person assumes those traits, which define what a real deviant does and assumes that role by committing deviations as set forth by the label. Social preoccupation with the label leads the deviant to pursue that expectation (Bottomore, 2008 as qtd in Mupukwa).

Robert K. Merton attributes the breakdown of order in society, or anomie, to the alienation of the self from that society on account of conflicting norms and interests (Mupukwa, 2009). He enumerated 5 different types of actions, which happen, when personal goals conflict with the legitimate means for those goals. The first is when the person accepts the goals and the means simultaneously and confirms. The second is when he accepts the goals but uses unacceptable or illegitimate means to achieve them, such as crimes, in order to follow the values of those who conform. The third is when he ceases to believe in cultural goals but must continue performing acceptable routines in daily life. He practices ritualism. The fourth is when he rejects both the goals and the means and retreats. Examples are drug addicts who use drugs to escape reality. And the fifth is when he rejects the cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them and rebels. In his rebellion, he seeks to redefine social values (Mupukwa).

Edwin Sutherland proposed that criminals learn their behavior and that deviance is not inherent in the nature of the deviant (Mupukwa, 2009). He believes that it is a learned behavior just like other behaviors. He sees deviance as developing with the person's interactions with other like individuals and groups in their use of symbols and ideals. When these symbols and ideas are much more favorable than unfavorable, he takes on a favorable concept of deviance and prefers it to other behaviors. And conflict theorists see deviance as developing from conflict between individuals and groups. Those in power create norms and label who are deviants. Therefore, deviants are those who do not conform to what social institutions direct. The ability of these institutions to simply change norms puts wealth or status into conflict with an individual. In that conflict and in his lack of resources, he can be labeled as deviant (Anderson, 1993 as qtd in Mupukwa).

Social integration is clearly the ideal. It is the attachment of the individual to groups and institutions (Mupukwa, 2009) that is desired for the sake of peace and order. But there are individuals who may or do commit crimes for the good of their individual group or for their own goals. Their ties or the lack of these or societal norms have been weakened by society's own corruption (Douglas Jack, 1998 as qtd in Mupukwa). #


Blessing, M. (2012). Psychology Learning Experiments. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.

Retrieved on October 22, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7311163_psychology-learning-experiments.html

McLeod, S. (2007). Obedience to authority. Simply Psychology. Retrieved on October

20, 2012 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/obedience.html

-. (2008). Asch experiment. Simply Psychology. Retrieved on October 22, 2012

from http://www.simplypsychology.org/ash-conformity.html

Meeus, H.J.W. And Raaijmakers, Q.A.W. (1995).… [read more]

Conscription This Study Makes Assumptions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (526 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In addition, the questions are intended to explain the desired outcome to ensure internal validity. For example the assumption is that the questionnaire will ask questions that help us identify factors such as discipline, mental and physical health, goals orientation and task directedness, as well as the effect of variables such as crime and productivity in society as a result of conscription.

In the same line, it is assumed that the results can be generalized to the target population the survey sample is representing, which is an assurance of external validity. Therefore in this study, it is expected that the study sample as described in the Statement of the Research Objectives, is totally representative of the target population and that the respondents are expected to truthfully answer the interview questions.


This study takes the form of qualitative research and these types of research are often misused and misunderstood. The major reason for pointing out at this possibility is because of the nature of the targeted population. It is a challenge projecting the study to a larger population in the country. It is also possible that it falls short of producing definitive conclusions as a result of the type of study. The study can only represent the initial feelings of the sample population regarding an issue, therefore making it difficult to replicate. Finally, there is a possibility of researcher bias throughout the…… [read more]

Mother's Day and the "Hallmark Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


& Janet, 2006).

Stereotypes and expectations

Unlike professional care givers who expect remuneration, mothers undertake their roles with fulfillment coming out as own contentment. The society has taught women that their ultimate fulfillment is motherhood. The society expects women to undertake their role in society to care for homes, nurture and tender children. A woman's image in the society is not complete without proof of sacrifice of her own goals and needs for the fulfillment of children and husband (Arendell & Terry, 2000).

A woman is seen to have no other pivotal role in society other than care giving to the family. A woman is an emotionally weak being that can only function within the confines of the family care. Women functionality in the economic and political world has come under immense criticisms since they tend to be emotional. The display of emotions shows luck of objectivity in decision making outside the realms of a family.

Considering the extent to that a mother will go to protect and defend a child, women are considered to be extraordinary being. A woman is expected to embrace a child in spite of their misgiving an aspect that comes from their nature and socialization as emotional beings (Arendell & Terry, 2000). This appreciation comes out in mother's day celebrations showing the extents of motherhood. A Mother's roles in giving care to the family hinders to her performance in other societal roles. Their participation in the society outside the realms of care giving to the society is subject to be undervalued considering that they have a bigger role to play in society.


Arendell, & Terry. (2000). conceiving and investigating motherhood: The decade's Scholarship. Journal of Marriage and Family 62(2), 1192-1207.

Saltzman C., & Janet. (2006). "The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology." Pp. 3-24 in Handbook of the…… [read more]

Globalization Has Become a Ubiquitously Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


A recent wave of social movements seems to be occurring globally as workers are becoming more frustrated with the economic system. Furthermore, this isn't limited to just developing economies, it also includes events such as the Arab Spring, the Occupy Wall Street (OWS) movement (Mak), and the unprecedented strikes in the U.K. (Peralta). The economic system has failed many workers in nations regardless of their size or their level of development. Therefore worker resentment has manifested in many countries in the form of riots, protests, or other demonstrations.

These protests have elevated the discussions about the roles of public institutions and private organizations in society. This trend may pave the way entirely new public debate. At the center of the populist movements there seems to be a uniting factor that is having access to information through the internet. These new technologies, Facebook, Twitter, social blogging, etc., have allowed workers to coordinate with other populist movements that have occurred in other regions of the world. The protests in Tunisia quickly spread like wildfires to other countries in the region and then was further incorporated into other movements a crossed the globe. At the center of this wave, there is a call for a more equitable and more sustainable world.


Worker rights are interesting topics of study due to the fact that providing these rights to the world's population is such complex and dynamic endeavor. The scope of the challenge includes provisions for various factors including political, economic, social, and cultural aspects of society. Furthermore, it is as difficult to have a discussion with the workers about their rights because of the fact that there are limited ways to effectively communicate with many of these groups. Many countries hold perceptions of the worker as merely a resource that can help further the overall economy. As a result, it is difficult to navigate these circumstances to ensure that workers are treated fairly and equitably.

Beyond all of the obstacles that today's workers face, when future generations are also added into the equation then it makes the situation even more complex. There are real challenges for the future survival of the human species. The earth faces tremendous threats due to overpopulation and climate change. What may turn the tides is a global shift in public consciousness that is pursuing a better path to sustainability, socially and economically. Furthermore, it is predict that the salience of human rights will become more intense as populist movements continue to become more integrated around the globe.

Works Cited

Chang, D. "Informalising Labour in Asia's Global Factory." Journal of Contemporary Asia (2009): 161-179. Web.

Ghosh, J. "Women, Labor, and Capital Accumulation in Asia." January 2012. Monthly Review. Web. 28 July 2012.

Hanieh, A. "Temporary Migrant Labour and the Spatial Structuring of Class in the Gulf Cooperation Council." Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies (2010): 67-89. Web.

Mak, T. "Occupy Wall Street uses Arab Spring model." 3 September 2011. Politico. Web. 28 July 2012. .

Naim-Ahmed, S. "Counter Currents." 21… [read more]

Michael Powell Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Racial attitudes have changed-most whites now endorse the principle of equal opportunities for blacks in the housing market. However, the evidence…and our analysis of the percent change in segregation in 232 metropolitan areas suggest that most whites are uncomfortable when numerous blacks enter their neighborhoods. Also, few whites will move into neighborhoods with many black residents. The conservative attitudes of whites and their fear of becoming a minority in a neighborhood limit the desegregation that can occur. (Farley & Frey, "Changes in Segregation," Page 40)

The authors conclude that segregation will continually to gradually decrease if patterns continue, but thus far show no signs of decreasing to comparable levels of desegregation with and between Asians and Latinos. They also contend that major changes in segregation occur during and because of changes in the attitudes of whites.

Because segregation resulted from the unwillingness of whites to remain when blacks moved into their neighborhoods and from the reluctance of whites to move into areas that had black residents, integration presumably depended on a liberalization of white attitudes. In the early national samples, whites strongly endorsed the principle of residential segregation. (Farely & Frey, "Changes in Segregation," Page 27)

The subjects of both of these articles are issues of relations between black and whites in America from the sociological point-of-view. The issues within each respective article are not directly related, though they are within the same network of issues regarding the modern history of race relations as they are considered with respect to class, economics, urban development, employment, and real estate. The latter article by Farley & Frey takes on a more academic tone than the more informative and less formal tone in the Powell article from the New York Times. The differences between these articles demonstrate how the sociological perspective is used by a variety of professionals as a means to inform, examine, discuss, and reflect upon lived social realities that occur as a result of a combination and convergence of factors.


Farley, Reynolds, & Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society." American Sociological Association, Vol. 59, No. 1, 23 -- 45.

Powell, Michael. "Blacks in Memphis Lose Decades of Economic Gains." The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/31/business/economy/31memphis.html?pagewanted=all.…… [read more]

Ecological-Evolutionary Theory (EET) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Moreover, the proposal will put emphasis on the role that Ecological-Evolutionary Theory or EET plays in understanding this transition from 'evolution to revolution' -- how, at the point of industrialization of human society, it is inevitable to for social conflict through a revolution to occur.

Nolan (2003), in his study of EET, provided quantitative support to the EET claim that a 'given type of society' would lead to stratification within in and inevitably, create social inequality in the process. In his study of different types of societies (economic development), the author found out that there are indications that population pressure within a society is a critical variable to the likelihood of a society to engage actively in warfare or conflict. Nolan found out that as a population gets denser or as it increases, propensity to engage in warfare is also "greatly affected" (p. 28). This suggests that as economic development progresses towards more advanced societies (such as agrarian or industrialized societies), the population pressure increases as a result of increased resources and food to support a bigger population. In effect, a bigger population results also to a higher tendency to commit warfare or engage in conflicts. The study's findings sets the stage to further explore the reasons or factors contributing to increased propensity or likelihood to engage in conflict or revolution as reflected in EET. This research proposal, then, sets out to identify the variables present in industrialized societies that increases the likelihood of a revolution as an industrialized society continues to evolve.


Nielsen, F. (2003). "The ecological-evolutionary typology of human societies and the evolution of social inequality." Sociological Theory.

Nolan, P. (2003). "Toward an ecological-evolutionary theory of the incidence of warfare in post-industrial…… [read more]

Code of the Street Anderson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Because of this the 'campaign for respect' begins early for inner city youth and is fostered on the street. The struggle for many children that are born and raised in 'decent' homes is that it is more difficult and can be relatively impossible to survive unfettered if they do not conform and understand the code of the street. There then becomes both internal and external conflict as these young people try to balance what they have been taught in their 'decent' homes and trying to survive on the street. What serves to further ingrain the violence that occurs in the community is the younger children's exposure to violence by older youth within the community. They are indoctrinated from an early age that violence outside of the home is the way to resolve problems and to earn respect.

Moreover, Anderson maintains that what serves to bolster street creditability and respect is the 'juice' associated with those who have the power or the things that are valued by those that have the power and respect. For example, emulating and acquiring material things that are considered to be valuable on the street is one way to bolster one's position. Because these things tend to be costly, and many of those who desire them cannot readily afford them, more violence and unrest is created because of boosting or stealing, and violently taking the desired items away from those who have them. Having these things, whether they be shoes, clothes, certain colored attired, jewelry, technology, etc. provides the 'juice' that those who are to be respected must have in order to maintain their position on the street.


Anderson goes on in his essay to describe the contextual framework of manhood in the inner city and what constitutes manhood within the family, the community and larger society to these inner city youth. Manhood as posted by Anderson is predicated upon violence and being physical (179). The juice and the 'nerve' associated with manhood is again derived from violence -- taking what you want and being willing and able to perpetrate a violent act to make sure you have what you desire most. As such being knowledgeable of the code to defend one's life is real for a number of inner city youth who are merely trying to survive.

Although Anderson posits n ethnographic perspective and theories regarding life in the inner city, the code of the street and what constitutes adherence to the code, very little specific information is offered as to the process by which this information was derived. There are no statistical offerings, no theological frame of reference from which Anderson postulates, and no clearly identifiable dependent or independent variables. Further, Anderson does not indicate a clearly stated hypothesis, methodology, data collection or results from any data that was used in the course of the construction of his essay.

Although much information can be garnered from the essay and for some greater insights into inner city life can be derived, it is difficult… [read more]

Foucault Truth Discipline and Punish Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 4


Foucault, Truth, Discipline and Punish

Michel Foucault's book "Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison" deals with the concept of prison as an integral part of society. In spite of the fact that he acknowledges the fact that prison is in some cases used abusively, Foucault appears to consider that people actually need it. To a certain degree, the French philosopher believes that prison has a negative effect on society, but also considers that it would be impossible for society to abolish this concept because it is practically the materialization of people's thinking. It is difficult and almost impossible to determine Foucault's exact opinion in regard to discipline and punish, as in spite of the fact that he appears to accept these two as being essential, he also seems to consider that prison as a whole fails to assist society. The French philosopher believed that there is no universal truth and that the concept of truth is shaped by various powers in society.

The concept of power is probably one of the most divisive issues in Foucault's theories. By being inclined to believe that truth was determined by individuals who hold power or by unconscious power relations present in society, Foucault wanted to emphasize that truth can never be associated with the concept of stability. Focusing on the French philosopher's understanding of truth is probable to generate many discussions, considering that instead of explaining it he actually contributes to making it even more confusing.

One of Foucault's principal points of focus relates to the controversy regarding universal truth. The French philosopher's "work undermines the notion of universal truths about universal subjects" (McLaren 44). Foucault does not necessarily try to distinguish between truth and falsity, as he actually attempts to determine in what circumstances issues concerning these two elements emerge. It appears that he vainly struggles to search for universal truths only to discover that it is practically impossible for such truths to exist.

Foucault considered that truths primarily depend on how people interpret certain concepts. As a consequence, he believed that it would be impossible for an universal truth to exist as long as there will always be someone who can refute the respective truth on account of his or her personal interpretation of the matter. The French philosopher was even inclined to consider that individuals who believe that a concept of universal truth actually exists are indoctrinated. By taking Christianity as an example, he attempted to demonstrate that this religious ideology has the tendency to impose a series of laws that individuals need to respect. As a consequence, it seems pointless to consider particular truths as being universal truths simply because a religious ideology influences one in taking on this attitude.

Subjectivity is one of the most important ideas in Foucault's understanding of universal truth. He virtually believed that it was impossible for a person to be objective because of his or her background and because of his or her personal beliefs. From his perspective, society keeps on… [read more]

Politics Thomas More Wrote Utopia Essay

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Since everyone sees and hears the same things, there is no room for individuality. In Bradbury's world, knowledge is power and it is also what gives someone his or her individuality. Bradbury depicts the media as something that is created in order to cover up the real life experience of individuals and so they are not ever given the opportunity to know the truth about the society that they live in. If they do not know what kind of world they really live in, they how can they make informed decisions or form opinions about their existence? The bottom line is that they can't.

In Utopia, the same thing is happening as in Fahrenheit 451 in that both governments are trying to maintain a collective happiness through means that control individuals in some form. In Utopia, nobody has more than another and nobody has privacy. Individuals are free to have their own thoughts, but they are not allowed to express those thoughts. Thoughts without expression are merely thoughts and they can't do anything to change society and they can't be used as a tool for individualism.

Both Fahrenheit 451 and Utopia are novels that depict societies (one considered dystopian and one considered utopian, respectively) where people who express their uniqueness or their individuality are deemed pariahs. Both societies take away individualism by dictating what is allowed under the guise of creating a society where every individual is on the same level, free, and thus happy. But there can't be any happiness in a world where there is no individuality. Montag in Fahrenhait 451 begins to see this when he is allowed to read books and he finds that he doesn't understand what the books mean. In his quest to discover, to learn and to gain knowledge, he inadvertently frightens those around him, causing even his wife to betray him. In both books we see that individuality is something that should be praised among all other things.


Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. Simon & Schuster; Reprint edition.…… [read more]

Class and Identity Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


¶ … Identity

Class has been an enduring social concept used to explain the nature of inequalities within different societies. While there is disagreement within the different sociological paradigms as to the construction of class, modern social theorizing elucidated a clear link between class and individual identity. This link once considered to be ossified and concrete has come under heavy… [read more]

Kant by Onora O'Neill Analysis Essay

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However, she illustrates how this is not a proper definition of mistreatment, as many will still turn on the charm while intentionally using other individuals for personal gain. Rather, she agrees with Kant in the concept that it is immoral and unacceptable for people to treat other individuals in a manner which those individuals do not give their consent. As such, "to do so treats another as a thing or tool, which cannot, so does not, consent to the ways in which it is used; so fails to treat others as persons, who can choose, so may withhold consent from actions which affect them" (O'Neill 254). Both individuals must agree and give consent for the treatment in order to facilitate trust in worthy behavior and character. Without an individual providing consent to be a part of an action or strategy, they simply resign to the more base level of a tool or instrument at the hands of another individual. In this, people actually become agents who restrict behaviors and actions because of their autonomous natures. In this, what is morally correct is what is done with consent. O'Neill also discusses Kant's theory of action, and how "each act is done on a maxim," or an assumed principle that helps facilitates particular actions and behaviors. Essentially, consent is based on desires, and thus Kant's philosophies appropriately connect desire with the basis for action. This helps better define the Formula of the End in Itself, which states that to live a moral life, actions and behaviors must coincide with popular maxims regarding justice and respect.

There are a number of potential oppositions to the conclusions O'Neill draws. There are those who might bring up the concept of adults who do not have the full capability of making responsible decisions based on consent. For example, there is the case of individuals with Special Needs that may be being taken for granted sexually or economically, because they give consent, but a consent that is not rationally postulated. If such an individual was coaxed into having sexual relations without the full capacity to give consent with all security or a rational mind, is that immoral? Yet, elements such as the ones described here are often seen as a taboo within the society, showing how O'Neill's assumptions of our society being based on morality and justice as still in tact, despite potential objections. Thus, the framework of society, which advocates just behavior, extends Kantian reasoning to illustrate how when consent is not fully an option, the action has negative consequences.

Overall, O'Neill provides a convincing argument that coincides with actual social practice in our contemporary society. With the importance of consent in determining what acceptable behaviors are, it would be immoral for an individual to use another person without their consent for a selfish gain. Today's society still clearly advocates treating others with respect.


O'Neill, Onora. (1985). Consenting adults. Philosophy…… [read more]

Social Order: Institutions, Socializations Essay

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This leads the individual to behave artificially in a sense, as he feels compelled to emphasize certain actions instead of just behaving naturally. The process of dramatic realization


Goffman's dramaturgical approach also explains the socialization of individuals and the manner in which they perform their social roles. Socialization occurs often, but not always, because of the individual's natural self-interest and the desire for the benefits of societal approval. (46-47). Goffman provides the example of the tourist island town of Shetland, where the employees of a hotel, after initial cynicism about the artificial lifestyle they were expected exhibit for the tourists, slowly began to change their attitude as a result of increased prosperity from the tourism industry (48). According to Goffman, they became "enamored of the selves that their clients impute to them." (48). There was a socialization of the employees' behavior and mindset as a result of the tourists' expectation of life on Shetland.

Socialization is maintained through a sort of self-enforced social discipline, where a "mask of manner" can be held in place from within. (54). This requires are large amount of repression of the bodily urges and impulses that may be more capricious or crude than society would like to acknowledge. (53). Goffman compares De Beauvoir's example of a woman dressing in conformity with Durkheim's notion of "

ceremony -- an expressive rejuvenation and reaffirmation of the moral values of the community." (53). The woman is performing this ceremony to give expression to the imaginary social hierarchy and to stabilize and justify herself as a part of this hierarchy. (54).

Internal Validity

Goffman's dramaturgical theory is concrete and generalizable. It gives a clear explanation for the behavior of individuals in society and can be generalized to explain the behavior of individuals in all societies. It is uncertain whether Goffman's theory is falsifiable. Certainly, one could run an experiment to observe whether an individual's behavior changes from one situation or another. For example, a subject could be given a personality test before being subjected to a number of different social situations and any changes in the personality, as represented by behavior, could be observed.

Observed changes in behavior would not prove or disprove the dramaturgical theory because it is concerned with the reason for such changes and the implications for our understanding of the individual and society. Goffman's theory is difficult to prove definitively because many of the processes that define his dramaturgical approach are subjective processes. They are contained in the myriad thoughts, intentions, desires, and doubts of the individual. Most of the reasons for the behavior, the thinking behind it, is not observable.

External Validity

Goffman's theory possesses great external validity. No matter how natural and principled a person considers himself, he will inevitably behave differently in different situations. That is, me must play a number of different roles in life, depending on the situation. If he is a father, he must be gentle and caring at home. However, if the same man is an officer… [read more]

Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Poverty has always existed, but defining poverty must always be considered in relative terms. Poverty in the modern day United States differs dramatically on its face from poverty in many African nations; it is the relative lack of resources when compared to a prevalent social group and social ideal that establishes the definition of poverty. Therefore, the industrial revolution, which… [read more]

Mills Arguements Intrinsic Value Essay

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In either example, however, Mill is arguing that society or the state should not be involved with an individual's behavior that is at variance with its conception of good, and that people should utilize their own right to freedom instrumentally, for the purpose of helping or alienating that person. These applications of freedom lead to an end, one which either ameliorates and individual or ameliorates others from the effects of that individual, which provides tangible, instrumental uses of the value of freedom that society should not constrain.

However, Mill contrasts this notion of the instrumental value of personal liberty with the intrinsic value of freedom later on in this chapter, and actually spends the vast duration of it substantiating his viewpoint that society should not enforce its notions of good on people because of the intrinsic qualities of freedom. Mill makes it quite clear that when issues of an individual's behavior go beyond him or herself and affect other members of society -- no matter how close they may be to that person, such as a family member -- that society is then responsible for intervening and imposing its conceptions of good to keep an individual from harming another (Mill somewhere). Yet when other persons are not harmed from one's negligent behavior, the author views such behavior as mere inconveniences or blights that should be upheld for the sake of maintaining liberty for its own sake -- which is of course highly intrinsic. If someone is only harming himself by his own free will, such an "inconvenience is one which society can afford to bear, for the sake of the greater good of human freedom" (Mill 145). Mill directly alludes to the intrinsic value of freedom with this quotation by placing it in a universal, "human" context, and by implying that an individual's harm to him or herself is a small sacrifice for the all-embracing concept of liberty in general, for its own sake.

Mill then spends the remaining portion of this chapter providing numerous, salient examples of instances in which the state and its society has actually deigned to infringe upon the civil liberties of various personages in order to illustrate the moral incorrectness of such behavior and to further solidify his viewpoint that the state should not impose its conceptions of good on people. Almost all of these examples rely upon the intrinsic nature of freedom as the primary value that is being offended and disregarded by such action of the state. One of the most efficacious of these examples is when Mill examines the tradition of Muslims eschewing the eating of pork, and examines this proclivity in the context in which they actually outlaw such dietary practices (and even provides evidence where dietary habits have been regulated by the state). According to Mill's philosophy, there is no moral rectitude in Muslims or anyone else enforcing their conception of what they perceive to be right on others by utilizing a governmental entity to do so since in such… [read more]

Killer and His Victim Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This place you are now -- inside your daddy's house -- is nothing but a cardboard box I can knock down any time" (Oates 234). His voice "is not angry but only part of an incantation," because Arnold is imbued with the larger-than-life power of a celebrity, and the fact that Oates says that it is "like a stage voice"… [read more]

Courts in World Cultures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


There are certain provisions in other employment protection laws that directly or indirectly deal with this issue. For example, the Women Protection Law, Labor Law, Disabled Persons Protection Law, and Employment Services and Management Regulations contain various clauses on the equal rights of women, disabled people, and the people suffering from epidemic pathogens (Wilson, 2012).

The Chinese Laws and Regulations have devised strict actions against employers that do not respect diversity, racial differences, and minority groups at their workplaces. China, being one of the most stable countries of the world enjoys free market system. But its political infrastructure often intervenes when the employment protection laws and regulations are implemented to eliminate discrimination practices in the country. On the whole, China has introduced a number of anti-discriminatory provisions in its Laws; but has failed to achieve the desired results due to their ineffective implementation (Yang & Li, 2009).


Mayer Brown JSM, (2009). Guide to Discrimination Law in the PRC. Retrieved on March 11th, 2012, from

Wilson, S. (2012). Setting for Discrimination: HIV / AIDS Carriers and their Resolution of Legal Claims. IJAPS, 8 (1): 35 -- 55

Yale Law School, (2008). The China Law Center Co-Hosts Workshop on Anti-Discrimination Law. Retrieved on March 11th, 2012, from

Yang,…… [read more]

Taylorism There Are a Number of Different Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+



There are a number of different modern social theories regarding the nature of society, social change, human's place within society and the idea of how integration and alienation fit within a modern society. These paradigms combine reflexively into a notion of history through labor and economic theory. Many of these theories have been used to buttress political regimes, many social and psychological thoughts, and many simply to readdress the manner in which humans can more appropriate interact in a post-industrial world. A number of scholars and intellectuals have tried to explain society, all the way to the Ancient World, but certainly after the Industrial Revolution (Grint, 2005). For us to understand economic sociology, then, we must first understand some of the theory behind it.

The nature of the Industrial Revolution changed the manner in which labor interacted with management and raw materials. A number of people began to think about labor, about efficiency, and about the manner in which the two interacted so that manufacturing needs for modern developing societies could improve. One of these philosophical tenets, Taylorism, is also known as scientific management. This is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized the process of workflow with the objective to improve both labor and economic productivity. This was also one of the earliest attempts (in the 1880s and 90s) to use scientific theory to improve industry. The actual peak of influence of this view took hold in the 1910s and 1920s, particularly during an era in which manufacturing and machines would take a new high. In general, scientific management requires a high level of managerial control over employees and their work practices. Of course this means a higher ratio of managers to workers than previous methods. The philosophy went out of fashion as the worker population became more literature, for Taylorism became known more as micromanagement than true detail-oriented management, causing tremendous friction between workers and managers, or the blue-collar and white-collar classes (Garson, 1994).

The idea of labor being integral to economic development was certainly not new, nor was the predisposition towards exploiting the working classes -- the proletariat. Karl Marx was one of the most influential political and social philosophers of the 19th century. He and…… [read more]

Karl Marx &amp Class Issues Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


Karl Marx & Class Issues

Karl Marx is notorious for having promoted communism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but moreover, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century Marx is respected as an economist, sociologist, philosopher and author. His views are rarely embraced in the neo-liberal community (that promotes free-market capitalism, globalization and the power of… [read more]

Social Policy Regarding Sexism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Some of the social policies dealing with this issue of heterosexism stated that the gay couples would not be recognized as parents. They were not granted the right to adopt children for quite a long time. Up until 2005, Canada only recognized heterosexual marriages after which things changed and the LGBTQs were given some rights and acceptance. There was much oppression with the gay couples in terms of inheritance, adoption, legal rights, recognition of marriages, immigration, etc. Homophobia existed on a large scale which made life harder for these people with different sexual orientations (Hunt, 1990).

The reason why this social policy was the most important one was because it addressed all aspects of sexual orientation and the serious problem of homophobia and heterosexism in society which was important to talk about and deal with. The Canadian Social Purity Movement in the 1870s dealt with an elimination of the social evils from society and purification of the races and the sexes as well as the taboo subjects in society. The movement aimed to purify the society from phenomena's such as poverty, prostitution, women oppression, sexuality, abortion (Hunt, 1990).

Hence, in my opinion this time period and this policy was most important and it left quite an impact and resolved some of the issues of the society that are not easy to talk about but are problems that need to be addressed and dealt with immediately to minimize and realize the possible drawbacks and the implications that it may have on the society as well as its individuals in not just one aspect.

Like the policy talks about the purification of women and the need to educate the individuals in order to give them a better understanding of things so that they know what is acceptable and what needs to be followed. Societal norms are obviously important to follow and it is essential to keep in mind what the society demands and requires. Although heterosexuality is considered to be the normal way of life and that was what the right thing was but it was still necessary for the society to recognize other forms of sexual orientations and to give the LGBTQs their rights and not make them suffer in society since they were also part of the society.

The concept of heterosexuality did focus on the need to have straight marriages but it also oppressed the other orientations. It was important to recognize the other forms of marriages and couples. Even today in our society, these subjects may be taboo and it should remain that way but it is still a part of society and there should be a certain form of acceptance and recognition given to this phenomenon now. Their drawbacks and implications should be recognized and familiarized but they should not be deprived of their legal rights of education, recognition of their marriages and their right to adopt children and lead the life that they want to.

The biggest challenge in this area of social policy is to… [read more]

Anthem, the Author Ayn Rand Essay

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Within the confines of the tunnel Equality is able to reinvent the electric light for a society that is still relying on candles to provide light. Equality attempts to share his new invention but in presenting it to the Council that runs his society he realizes that the Council is not interested in improving society. The Council's goal is to control every aspect of life in the society and in suppressing anything or anyone who does not conform.

The thing that distinguishes Equality from other men in his society is his integrity. Unlike other in his society he lives by his convictions and is willing to take on whatever what might stand in his way. Somehow Equality is able to not only live and prosper in a society that stifles his creativity he is also able to develop his own ideas without sacrificing his values.

The circumstances surrounding how the Council handles Equality's presentation of the electric light brings into question for Equality the motivation of the Council. Having been brought up to believe in the society in which he lived Equality realizes that the intentions of the Council are less than honorable. For an individual who had struggled with the fact that he was never allowed to pursue his own dream throughout his entire life and, who still conformed, being confronted with the fact those who governed this society were less than honorable was a profound discovery. Although he had always struggled with the lack of freedom in his society, he had never questioned the overall rightness of the society's rules. When the Council failed to support his electric light, despite its obvious benefits, he was forced to confront everything that he had ever been taught. In the process, however, he determines that human beings can be individuals and that such individualism can exist even in a society that does everything that it can to force everyone to conform. Although it was not until the Council rejected his electric light that Equality finally came to the realization that individualism was important, he had essentially lived his entire life in that fashion. In a society where individualism was considered evil and destructive, Equality remained dedicated to his beliefs and never wavered. He had his dreams and ideas and, against heavy obstacles, he managed to live his life in accordance with his virtues and did so without having to question himself. He proved that independence of thought was possible no matter where one lived and no matter how repressive the society in which one lives. His individuality remained strong to the…… [read more]

FCC &amp EEO Federal Contract Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


It is an effort to develop a systematic approach to open the doors of education, employment and business development opportunities to qualified individuals who happen to be members of groups that have experienced long-standing and persistent discrimination (Landau, 2002).

If our society is to breakdown the stereotypical walls of prejudice, affirmative action is needed. But as history has shown, affirmative action has been defined, modified and removed in some sections of the laws that govern our very existence. In America, many different cultures and subcultures exist side by side because everyone is welcome to live and work here, practice their beliefs and voice their opinions (Maltby and Yamada, 1996). Regardless of race, ethnicity, national origin, sex or religion, can pursue their dreams. Anyone pursuing their goals, furthering their abilities, and living a productive life makes a positive impact on the society around them. While EEO law is largely a policy of nondiscrimination, affirmative action requires employers to analyze their workforce and develop a plan of action to correct areas of past discrimination. The EEO commission and the federal contract compliance programs are the enforcing agencies that keep employers and employees safe under the EEO laws and regulations (Hall, 1977). American society is now more aware of equal employment rights and is supportive of the individuals that have unique qualities, talents, and even limitations to offer our diverse workforce. We need to continue providing equal opportunities to all with equal support and acceptance in a truly multicultural society.

Literature Cited:

Dobbin, F., Sutton, J., Meyer, J. And Scott, R. 1993. Equal Employment Law and the Construction of Internal Labor Markets. American J. Of Sociology. 99(2).

Giblin, E.J. 1974. A Total Approach to EEO Compliance. Personnel. 51(5).

Hall, F.S. 1977. Gaining EEO Compliance with a Stable WorkForce. Personnel Journal. 56:454.

Landau, B.W. 2002. State Employees and Soverign Immunity: Alternatives and Strategies for…… [read more]

Culture There Are so Many Facets Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Culture

There are so many facets of discourse when it comes to discussion matters of culture. What culture is and how it defines our lives is still an ongoing discussion, and varies dramatically in terms of different locations. Understanding similarities and differences between different presentations of cultural discussions can then help us understand how complex and abstract of an idea it is in the first place.

The first article to be examined here is titled "Entrapped in Multidimensional Exclusion: The Perpetuation of Poverty Among Conflict-Induced Migrants in an Istanbul Neighborhood" by Bediz Yilmaz in the 2008 edition of New Perspectives on Turkey. It is essentially an examination of the practice of cultural exclusion. The article takes a closer look at Tarlabasi, a neighborhood in Istanbul (Yilmaz 2008). It is so close to more affluent neighborhoods, yet so much more segregated in order to contain its undesirables from seeping into the mainstream society. Yilmaz states that "Tarlabasi generates fear, and the more it is stigmatized as such, the more its inhabitants are trapped in the vicious circle of social exclusion, the less choice they have, other than being involved in fear-generating activities," (Yilmaz 2008 p 26). Essentially, the mainstream majority of Turkish culture has segregated what it deems as undesirable elements in a single physical space. This allows the rest of Turkish society to avoid having contact with the urban poor, therefore allowing them to construct their image of their own culture that is devoid of a major portion of their own society. Here, the author shows a culture which has created social exclusion and special set up of particular neighborhoods to isolate the various groups within the larger society. There are a number of exclusionary dimensions, including: economic, social, political, and spatial elements. The neighborhood deals with huge cultural differences based on large populations of immigrants with different ethnic and cultural backgrounds than mainstream Turks; "namely, the conflict-induced Kurdish migrants who have settled in the neighborhood of Tarlabasi" (Yilmaz 2008 p 26). The degradation of a socioeconomic class based on exclusionary practices of the larger majority society.

Through this segregation, mainstream Turkish society is isolating itself from what it sees as cultureless and taboo. Overall, Yilmaz shows that the majority of Turkish society sees culture as a more up-scale thing. In this, culture is a luxury that only more affluent Turks are supposed to be able to enjoy, leaving urban poor neighborhoods to suppose to be devoid of culture entirely. Therefore, the majority of society thinks that lower class neighborhoods, like the one discussed in the article, are innately devoid of culture (Yilmaz 2008). However, in its isolated segregation, Tarlabasi has created its own subculture that features a number of elements often seen as taboo by the majority society, but is a necessity in the neighborhood itself. This neighborhood has developed its own fluid underground culture that often features what the mainstream society would deem as criminal or taboo, but is necessary in such a poor neighborhood to… [read more]

Karl Marx and Class From the Perspective Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Karl Marx and Class

From the perspective of Karl Marx, modern society is comprised of two distinct classes that are historically pitted against each other, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie consists of the owners of production while the rest of the downtrodden masses make up the proletariat who provide the actual work needed by modern society. Although some societies are intentionally class-less, such as the United States, Marx maintained that such class divisions were the inevitable consequence of capitalism where the bourgeoisie get richer and the proletariat, of course, just get poorer. To determine if Marx's perspective concerning class remains relevant in the early 21st century, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

In his seminal work, Das Kapital (1867), Karl Marx introduced the world to communism and influenced the paths that would be taken by a number of countries in their pursuit of equitable distributions of wealth for the next century (Manton & English, 2008). While the precise circumstances differed from place to place and time to time, Karl Marx believed that by and large, modern society was controlled by a group of "haves" who inevitably come together to control and exploit the "have-nots." In this regard, Szporluk (1999) reports that, "In Marx's view, modern society consisted of two classes that were engaged in an irreconcilable conflict: the ruling class of the bourgeoisie or the capitalists and the exploited class of the proletariat, i.e., the industrial workers" (p. 3). This class arrangement, though, did not just fall out of the sky, but was rather the result of a lengthy series of historical events, with the most recent being the Industrial and French Revolutions (Szporluk, 1999). These historical events were all part of a larger process that was leading to the development of capitalism (Szporluk, 1999). Indeed, in the opening remarks of the Communist Manifesto, Marx argues that all history is "the history of class struggle" (pp. 4-5).

This inevitable struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is based on irreconcilable and mutually exclusive human needs and objectives. In this regard, Fischman (1991) reports that, "That is because each class, in accordance with its place in the mode of production, seizes on certain powers, needs, and ways of appropriating the world. Each class fights to reorganize society so as to emancipate its particular human capacities" (p. 64). Thus far, Marx appears to be on solid ground in his reasoning because after all, everyone acts in their own self-interest, but his reasoning quickly becomes muddied by references to nebulous but innate human desires that compel people to instinctively act in a certain fashion. For example, Fischman (1991) reports that, "We can read Marx's theory of alienation as an attempt to capture in words the plight of an exiled group in a society without purpose: namely, the workers under capitalism. The reality of the proletariat, Marx argues, is structured by its members'… [read more]

Deviance Refers to Behaviors Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … deviance refers to behaviors that are considered wrong or undesirable within a particular cultural context. Deviance is all over society -- from the minor etiquette breaches that engender frowns or gossip to behaviors that require legal or psychological interference. However, what seems to be the real essence of deviance is that it elicits somewhat of a varying degree… [read more]

User Pays System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,423 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Recent financial crises hit hard at the middle class, making them more dependent on welfare support. The public also supports welfare to address the problem of growing income inequality among the rich and the poor. And no less important is the fact that "Hong Kong is a Chinese society. The great majority of residents have always had the cultural tradition… [read more]

Mark and Rawls Karl Marx Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I believe that Marx and Engels would respond to any argument which identifies workers who are not exploited with a question about whether there are any individuals in society who profit without expending any labor. Or whether there are any possessions which have been stolen are appropriated. For instance, in the present sense, if the Native Americans who live on reservations almost as an independent nation were to be held up as an example of emancipated peoples, I think that Marx and Engels would point out the fact that the U.S.A. In its entirety belonged either to the Native Americans or to the Mexicans. This would illustrate for them the idea that justice cannot arise out of injustice. A belief that I think is inevitable in their characterization of exploitation.

Rawls: Two Principles of Justice

In the first instance Rawls articulates the two principles as follows:

"First: each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others.

Second: social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both (a) reasonably expected to be everyone's advantage, and (b) attached to positions and offices open to all." (p.53)

Even a society organized according to Rawls' egalitarian principles of justice would be vulnerable to a critique that the society is exploitative and alienating. Marx's problem with capitalism is not merely a quarrel with the distribution of disadvantage and wealth but rather a problem with the very existence of a model in which labor is exchanged for wages. As such, Rawls' two principles which merely attempt to democratize this exchange would be challenged by Marx. Though Rawls' proposal of a society guided at its foundation by the two principles of justice is egalitarian, Rawls' proposal fails to address the normative question about how society should be organized before we begin discussions about the rights and responsibilities of citizens of a nation.

To a large measure, Rawls' proposal assumes democratic principles, a modern technocratic society, and a world filled with discrimination which needs to be addressed institutionally. The very existence of these factors is not something taken for granted under the Manifesto. Everything including technological advancement is subject to scrutiny. It may be that Marx's characterization of the hallmarks of capitalist society is not necessarily wholly incompatible with a Rawlsian world; perhaps they begin their analysis on different points of the continuum. And as such, their work simply does not ever meet up for a significant conversation.

Work Cited Page

Marx, Karl, and Fredrich Engels, trans. Samuel Moore. The Communist Manifesto, New York, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1964. Print.

Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999. Print.… [read more]

Walk Away From Omelas Tells Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (737 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This story highlights the paradox that society is the sum total of the individuals, yet one individual does not have an impact on society, unless they do something extraordinary. If one person were to speak a kind word and take compassion on the child, the entire society would collapse. Omelas society is dependent on the suffer and of the one special child, but the actions of other individuals do not have an impact on it. Omelas society rests on a rotten foundation, despite all of its beauty (Thripp).

The residents of Omelas are not free and happy because they too are prisoners of their own guilt and they, like the child, will never be free until they leave the city. Even then, they will never be free, because the suffering continues. They are simply choosing not to participate. One must ask, why instead of walking away, one of them did not free the child first, and then walk away from the city. No one truly comes to terms with the idea that their life is ransomed by someone else's. The fact that it takes the citizens a long time to come to terms with the necessity of the suffering of the one on the outside, it is doubtful whether they ever come to terms with it to the point where they can have real peace of mind about the child. The citizens try to rationalize child suffering, suggesting that the child is a little less than human or that the child cannot understand real joy, but the child once had joy and does understand it. This story highlights the extent to which individuals will be willing to sacrifice their own morals and rationalize their own poor decisions in order to tolerate the standards of the society in which they live. The individual must conform their own morals to that of the society in which they live.

Works Cited

LeGuin, Ursula. The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas. New Dimensions 3. Robert

Siverberg (ed.). New York, DoubleDay. 1973. < http://harelbarzilai.org/words/omelas.txt

>. (Accessed 14 December 2011).

Thripp, Richard. Critical Analysis: "The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas." 18 January

2008. Scholarly Essays. < http://richardxthripp.thripp.com/2008/01/critical-analysis- omelas…… [read more]

Marx and Durkheim on Religion Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Durkheim and Marx agree on the fact that religion tends to keep society together. Another way in which this can be expressed is the fact that both of these writers believe that religion tends to retard (or even prevent) social change. The key difference here is that Durkheim believes that overall such cohesion and continuity is good for society while Marx most definitely does not.

Marx is far more concerned with conflict and change than is Durkheim, and so he is far more critical of religion than is Durkheim. This can be seen in the following passage. This quote, from 1843, is Marx's most famous commentary on the nature of the relationship between society and religion:

Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.

It is the opium of the people.

The above quote has no doubt become the most famous quote on the nature of religion because it offended so many people. But the following passage is a more important one because it elaborates the reasons why Marx felt the way that he did about religion (Raines, 2002, Introduction).

It stems from the very nature of estrangement that each sphere applies to me a different and opposite yardstick -- ethics one and political economy another; for each is a specific estrangement of man and focuses attention on a particular field of estranged essential activity, and each stands in an estranged relation to the other.

Marx argued that this is an inherent and constant tension between economic activity and other aspects of social behavior and that -- and this is the key core concept of his philosophy -- the latter forms of social activity disguise the ways in which workers are being oppressed. It is in this way that religion serves as an opiate: It serves as a sort of drug that prevents individuals from recognizing the true condition of their lives (Raines, 2002, Introduction).

Durkheim never denied that societies do and must change, but he felt that they generally did so at a slower pace that allowed people to adjust and not be overwhelmed. Marx believed that societies changed all too slowly because its then-current state ensured that far too many individuals would live their lives oppressed and wretched.

One may conclude after reading both Marx and Durkheim that religion is either one of the greatest goods of society or one of its greatest evils. Durkheim was arguing from what is now known as a functionalist perspective, one that sought to understand society from a perspective that privileged stability and community. Marx, conversely, was arguing from a perspective now called the social conflict. From this perspective religion reduces and even prevents the necessary conflict needed to bring about social justice.

From our perspective a century (and more) on, we can see religion as both a cohesive force… [read more]

Social Interaction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Social Interaction

The concept of social interaction can be defined as the acts, practices or the actions of two or more people mutually oriented towards each other. It is the behaviors that try to cater for or accommodate the subjective experiences or intentions of the other person (Rumel R.J., 1976). This then means that the people involved in the social interaction have to be aware of each other as well as have the ego of the other person in their minds. It may not necessarily mean that they have to be seeing each other one on one at the moment but they must be considering each other's position in their minds while making decisions. It is worth noting that two fiends mailing each other are socially interacting just as much ac two army camp leaders planning opposing wars.

Social interaction is not in any way predetermined by the physical relation or contiguity that there is between the two parties nor the physical relation. It is dictated by the mutual subjective orientation towards each other; hence even though no physical interaction may e involved, there still can be social interaction.

Social interaction also needs mutual orientation of the parties involved for it to be considered a successful interaction. If one of the parties involved in the interaction is not aware of the interaction, then it cannot be considered to a successful social interaction. One instance that falls under this category is the aspect of one person or party spying on the other cannot be categorized as a social interaction since the other party is not aware of the interaction taking place. The interaction between a rapist and the victim cannot also be categorized as social interaction since the victim here is treated like an object, nor the interaction between a guard and a prisoner who is being tortured. In general, any situation where one party to the interaction is treated ad an object cannot then be considered as a social interaction. The same case applies where the involved parties treat each other as inanimate being, animals, reflex machines or a situation that has a cause effect procedure.

Social interaction is therefore beneficial in many aspects as the people involved can benefit from the…… [read more]

Hermes Birkin Bag Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,102 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Hermes Birkin Bag Diffusion of Innovations

Hermes Birkin Bag

Diffusion of Innovations

The Hermes Birkin bag, named after the British film actress Jane Birkin when she worked with the CEO of Hermes to design the "perfect hand bag," was introduced in 1984 (The History Behind The Birkin Bag, 2011, The Brand International). With prices starting at $6,000 and ranging up… [read more]

Weber's Class Conflict Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,214 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The state provides the legitimate resources for operating and maintaining the conflict (as well as, in terms of economics, granting power to corporations and legitimizing their influence. People must be emotionally motivated, too, to sustain their 'Us / them' differences and to remain united in their specific groups.

The Saudi Women for Driving & Weber's theory

Change.com records that Saudi Women for Driving petitioned Hilary Clinton to support women's driving rights. 22,000 people joined after Clinton declined to provide her public support thus gaining media attention fro the drive. The effect of the publicity caused Clinton to reverse her stance ultimately becoming the highest-ranking official to publicly support women driving.

This snippet indicates both holes and support of Weberian theory at least in terms of contemporary America (although Weber does say that an individual's strength depends on conditions of the historic geopolitical milieu). Firstly, Hilary Clinton, representing both power and economic affluence, was overruled by a group of individuals who were nonentities in terms of influence and affluence. This contradicts Weber's theory, which posited that the economically buttressed individual wins.

On the other hand, we see how the emotional drive of the organization (stated by Weber as necessary) accorded it its power and sustained the conflict.

Weber's definition, again, that power is fought for status too, was proved wrong by this (and other instances), which indicate that power can be fought for simply having one's say (in this instance to right a wrong). On the other hand, power, as Weber said, was the aim to "to realize their own will in communal action, even against the resistance of others." (Kasler, 1988, p.20). Also congruent to Weberian theory was the concept of the significance of "social action" where human's actions can impact their position in society. The protest group succeeded in winning Clinton to their side, and in that it is state and influence that counts. The protest group was enabled to be successful only due to American polices and attitude that grants power to the people.

The Saudi Women for Driving was organized on May 22 in response to the arrest of a Saudi technology consultant and mother called Manal-al-Sharif who was detained for driving her car. Supporters started a web campaign and collected 100,000 signatures from 55 countries called for al-Sharif to be released and exonerated of all charges and calling for restraints against women driving cars to be lifted in Saudi Arabia. The protest effected change in Saudi Arabia too, where on Friday of that same week, some Saudi women turned on the key in their ignition as motorized protest.

Hilary Clinton's silence was protested by the protest group who saw the United States as sidestepping the issue to avoid angering the government at as time when they most needed their support. Forced by the group to confront the controversy, Hilary Clinton separated the woman's issue from state matters and publicly opined that:

"What these women are doing is brave and what they are seeking is right…This is… [read more]

Good Socio Economic System Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Socio-Economic System:

The distributive justice principles of John Rawls

According to the philosopher John Rawls, "All social primary goods - liberty and opportunity, income and wealth, and the bases of self-respect - are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution of any or all of these goods is to the advantage of the least favored" (Piccard 2005). This seems to be the most just system to adopt to deal with the difficulties of governing a diverse and complex society, as exists in modernity. Rawls does not state that he believes that society should aggressively act as a leveler, and make all human beings 'the same' as exists under communism. Rather, he believes in creating equality of opportunities in a real and meaningful fashion, which may mean giving certain indigent groups the ability to overcome the natural advantages of education and birth more favored members of society possess.

A good socio-economic system must meet the minimum requirements of ensuring security, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness of all its members. A society that is not secure cannot be just, because brute force will prevail over law and order, and the strong will triumph over the weak. This fear of chaos in a lawless society caused some philosophers, such as Thomas Hobbes, to stress the importance of preserving the rule of a sovereign at all costs, because it was feared that mob rule must be much worse. However, the desire to create a society that was 'worth living' motivated the Enlightenment thinkers of the 16th century like John Locke to emphasize the need for liberty of all residents of a society. Locke believed that the rights of the governing could not outweigh the rights of the governed.

This belief is echoed in Rawls' concept of justice. "According to these principles, humans need liberty and freedom to pursue their interests as long as they do not harm others. People accomplish happiness by freely pursuing interests within a supportive society" (Storelli 49). However, absolute liberty for some may result in a lack of liberty for others. My liberty to profit due to my position on a large corporation enables me to send my children to better schools, to buy markers of class status and gain more social approbation, to reinvest my wealth, and, if society does not engage in redistributive efforts, to infringe upon the opportunities of those who do not possess such advantages.

Rawls modifies Locke's concept of the social contract that exists between ruler and ruled which holds that citizens voluntarily give up certain rights for the protections offered by a society, such as paying taxes to ensure that the state can protect one's property. The social contract Rawls believes should exist is one which is based upon a balance of liberty of equality, or an acknowledgement that a certain degree of enforced equity is demanded within a social context to ensure that the goals of liberty are met. Rawls also affirms Locke's belief in intrinsic, inalienable rights that… [read more]

Stanovich in How to Think Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (485 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is also related to what Stanovich says about people's beliefs. He uses the example that people who are highly religious are supposed to be generous and give to charities. The data, he says, does not reflect this idea. People who are religious are supposed to donate to charities, but they don't. Supposedly this is indicative of the innate hypocrisy between mankind and his beliefs. He points to certain other things that the majority of the population believes to be true, such as the mythology that blink people have stronger hearing.

This also goes back to what he says about people being taught to compare things. They are also taught how to have certain beliefs. The theory of sociology is that all of society is constructed by the population. That is, what is morally right or wrong is decided by the population. Also what something means, such as a black cat or a rabbit's foot, is decided by that society. This seems to make sense. However, I think that people on the whole believe what the society claims to be fact, whether that be the charity of religious peoples or the supposed hearing of blind people. What is real or not is as comparable as anything Stanovich lists. So, he is both right and also wrong, which are also comparable terms.

Works Cited:

Stanovich, Keith. "From How to Think Straight About Psychology." 27-37.… [read more]

Strain Theory Anomie Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Anomie/Strain Theory and Race

Introduction to Anomie and Strain Theory of Social Deviance

Nineteenth century social theorist Emile Durkheim proposed the theory of Anomie to describe the manner in which comparative alienation from society and relative lack of social and economic opportunity leads to feelings of despair and hopelessness and to the rejection of the predominant social norms, value, and… [read more]

Sociological Perspective on Breaking Night Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Sociological Perspective on Breaking Night

The Day After: Conflict Theory in Breaking Night

In many ways, the life and chronology of Liz Murray, whose autobiography, Breaking Night, became a swift bestseller throughout the United States, can be considered a verifiable case study for conflict theory, according to both its classic, Marxist origins, as well as its more modern applications. The… [read more]

Perplexing Questions About Human Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … perplexing questions about human psychology revolves around the role of deviance. We know from empirical observation that if rats are placed in too crowded conditions, aggressive behaviors peak. When we study history, we are often amazed at the dichotomy between a species that can create such phenomenal beauty -- Beethoven, the Sistine Chapel, acts of kindness and benevolence;… [read more]

Social Control Theory of Juvenile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,004 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Rather, the potential weaknesses in Hirschi's theory might be that they fail to account for other factors that might be significant in contributing to the development of the individual in terms of his or her relationship to society. Possible counterexamples to Hirschi's theory would include deviant behavior, juvenile delinquency, and criminality among individuals who exhibit high levels of all of the specific elements of connectedness described by Hirschi. In that regard, one would have to consider the proverbial straight -- A student or "model citizen" who is discovered to be leading a double life as a criminal or who suddenly perpetrates crimes that would have seemed completely out of character and that completely contradict the apparent connectedness of the individual to society and community.

Therefore, the fact that highly connected individuals do sometimes develop deviant, juvenile delinquent, and criminal behavior patterns does suggest strongly that even if Hirschi's Social Control Theory is valid, it is incomplete as an explanation for those types of behaviors. Other possible weaknesses include the fact that Hirschi's theory obviously does not apply where other causes are definitively identified, such as disadvantaged social position of families (Button, 2008) and environmental influences of deviant role models in the immediate community (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007).

Policy Implications

Notwithstanding the possibility that Hirschi's Social Control Theory may not necessarily provide a comprehensive explanation for all instances or pathways to the development of deviance, juvenile delinquency, and criminality in individuals, it likely suggests meaningful relationships between the elements of connectedness he outlined and those behaviors. The social policy implications from Hirschi's theory would be that one of the important strategies to reducing the development of unwanted behaviors in individuals would be to develop programs and methods of enhancing social connectedness along the four channels described by Social Control Theory. Specifically, early education and all public education should promote the development of good relationships between students and their families; they should provide maximum opportunities for the individual to develop interests in shared activities and interests in the community; and they should strive to intervene as early as possible whenever any aspect of apparent non-connectedness is observed in individuals.


Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,

Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American

Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.

Henslin, J. (2009). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston, MA:

Allyn & Bacon.

Huebner, A.J. And Betts, S.C. "Exploring the Utility of Social Control Theory for Youth Development." Youth & Society, Vol. 34, No. 2 (2002):123-145.

Macionis, J. (2008). Sociology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Pinizzotto, A., Davis, E., and Miller, C. "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,

Vol. 76, No.…… [read more]

Building of the Nation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Freedom sisters is one of such movement to appreciate the African Women, who are not only affected by race discrimination but further discriminated through gender discrimination, to get better standards of education by having opportunity which is just for them. This movement has produced big names likes of Constance Baker Motley, Shirley Chisholm, and Myrlie Evers-Williams. They have helped in… [read more]

American Dream What's Wrong Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (640 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Animosities toward those who have and have not are real and warranted.

Individualized failure is more difficult based on the tenants of the American dream. When a person does everything within their control to succeed, as the dream suggests, and then fail, they can be assumed to lack talent or the wherewithal to succeed, since according to the dream, that's all it takes. And lastly, virtue as a part of the American dream invariably equates failure with evil. Resultantly, the evaluation of losers, according to Hochschild, gives people permission to maintain the erroneous belief that the world is just even when there is clear and historical evidence that it is not. Disproportionate group success is also a social problem as it tends to facilitate collective hierarchies (Charon & Vigilant, 2009, p. 36).

Although Hochschild does not specifically articulate the falsehood of the American dream negatively affecting society's future, it is certainly implied in the manner in which the fallacies of the dream are identified and highlighted. As such, it is not incumbent on Hochschild to determine what should be done with regard to this issue. The honest way in which she dissects the American dream denotes the problems that need to be addressed; however, there has to be recognition by those who have historically benefited from the tenants of the dream in order for real and meaningful change to occur. Historically, those who are not the direct benefactors of the American dream have been considered unpatriotic, whiners, and less than credible in highlighting some of the very same issues Hochschild points to. The dream has been and unless there are drastic changes in America, will continue to be a dream of and predominantly realized by White middle and upper class America.


Charon, J., & Vigilant, L. Social problems:…… [read more]

History of Human Services Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The Initiative also provided training and technical support to community groups with budgets of less than $100,000 that had fewer than five staff members. Recent studies indicate that social trust and cohesion declines greatly in neighborhoods and communities with high levels of poverty, crime and unemployment. More educated and affluent middle class persons and professionals are also far more likely to "participate in political and other civic activities" and to trust other people and institutions, while "poorly educated young whites and blacks are extremely distrustful of other people" (Wang, pp. 99-100). In general, older persons with property also have higher levels of social trust and greater civic participation, so the Kalamazoo Foundation continued its programs to increase community involvement among the more alienated minority and youth groups.

In the economic recession that began in 2007-08, these groups suffered even greater levels of poverty and unemployment, although federal efforts to assist them were more limited and less effective than during the New Deal of the 1930s. By 2011, the Kalamazoo Foundation had grown to assets of $313 million with over $15 million in grants, although naturally these were only a fraction of the amount needed to deal with a true economic crisis of this magnitude. Its main mission by this time had become economic and community development, youth programs and early childhood learning. In partnership with United way the new Lifeline Initiative provided funds for food banks, Legal Aid, childcare resources and referrals for working parents, family health care, homeless shelters, the Salvation Army, Goodwill Missions and various community services groups (Kalamazoo Community Foundation 2011). Essentially, most of its funds went to the working poor and very poor, who lacked food, clothing, shelter and medical care, whose numbers had been high in the Rust Belt even before the economic crash but were now skyrocketing. Not since the 1930s had these social and economic needs been greater, and these were far greater than could be met by private charities, churches and community organizations. For the time being though, it appears that the federal government is going to retreat further from upholding the social safety and domestic spending on the poor and unemployed, despite levels of sheer deprivation and desperation not seen in the United States in decades, when many millions of people simply lack the basic necessities to survive.


Kalamazoo Community Foundation (2011). The Lifeline Initiative.

http://www.kalfound.org/AboutUs/AbouttheCommunityFoundation/tabid/259/Default.aspx http://www.kalfound.org/InitiativesImpact/OurInitiatives/LifelineInitiative/tabid/247/Default.aspx

Miller-Adams, M. (2009). The Power of a Promise: Education and Economic Revival in Kalamazoo. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Rakstis, T.J. (1967). "Grass Roots Philanthropy." The Rotarian, March 1967, pp. 34-37.

Wang, L.(2007). Social Capital and Community Philanthropy. Ph.D. Dissertation.…… [read more]

Social Deviance Social Deviancy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When the positive behavior of the socially deviant people will be rewarded than they will also be motivated to change themselves (Fave, Antonella & Marta Bassi, 2009)

Social deviance should be considered as a problem. Intellectuals of the society should try to bring the masses of the society together so that they always remain in touch with the norms and value system. This phenomenon has gained a lot of popularity that is majority of the people try to do the things which can differentiate them from others. It is the duty of the seniors of any society to guide the youth so that they should not deviate from the norms of the culture. Simply a pet on the shoulder can become a motivator to perform the desired behavior. Educational institution should design the courses which can highlight the heroes of the culture so that the children studying at the school level can associate themselves with them. Festivals and fiestas should be arranged which can highlight the culture of the particular society. Such activities will help in reminding our value systems and make the youth proud of their beliefs. However it should also be kept in the mind that such rein forcers should not result in the development of Ethnocentrism in the society. Ethnocentrism is the phenomenon in which people consider its own culture superior while de grading the culture of others. Such a situation might result in ethnical violence in the region. Values and beliefs should be inculcated in the young generation of the society but it should also be kept in mind that preaching of our own culture does not mean that you try to degrade the culture of others. Teachings about the respect of other cultures should also be given so that tolerance can be developed in the youth of the society. People belonging from different cultures of the society should preach the positives of their values and beliefs so that the youth could not deviate from the norm however it should also be kept in mind that extremes of anything is harmful. Social deviance should not be valued by giving it a status of phenomenon but it should be considered as a deformity which can be recovered through proper treatment.


Conrad, P., & Barker, K.K. (2010, November). The Social Construction of Illness Key Insights and Policy Implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1), 567-579.

Bowles, H.R., & Gelfand, M. Status and the Evaluation of Workplace Deviance. Journal of the Association for Psychological Sciences, 21(1), 49-51.

Lombardo, R.M. (2010, May). The hegemonic narrative and the social construction of deviance: the case of the Black Hand. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(4), 263-282.

Hunter, J.A., Figueredo, A.J., & Malamuth, N.M. Developmental Pathways into Social and Sexual Deviance. Jouranl of Family Violence, 25(2), 141-148.

Fave, Antonella D., and Marta Bassi. "The contribution of diversity to happiness research." The…… [read more]

Identity Investigation According to David Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Situation in which a particular social identity category of the person is more salient

John's class identity dominates his work environment. As the organizational leader he is charged with overseeing the daily operations of a school district. His role as decision maker ascribes certain power and expectation in others that significantly influence his status in the work place and define him as a person.

Situation in which the combination of the person's social identities makes the situation conflicted

John's identity as a White, male, middle-class, Christian, heterosexual, and able-bodied person creates certain expectations that others of dissimilar backgrounds are not easily able to identify with. His projected image is sometimes misinterpreted as the arrogance of privilege. He is often perceived as the gatekeeper of the status-quo. This prescribed role can create unwarranted feelings of either hostility, on one hand, or undue compliance, on the other, in the individuals he comes in contact with throughout the day. These feelings may negatively inhibit and color his interpersonal relationships in the workplace, color communication and influence decisions in an unintended manner.

It is important to understand that ascribed and achieved social identity has effects that cross all racial and economic conditions and may create barriers that influence interpersonal contact.


Howard, J.A. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annual review of sociology, Vol. 26, Issue 1, 367- 393. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9d41e83e-4e0b-4b27-8fe3-a0aa7ed2dc5c%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=127

Newman, D.M. (2005) Identities and inequalities: Exploring the intersections of race, class, gender and sexuality, 7th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Scott, D.A. (2009) White male identity development and the world of work: Using the key model. In G.R. Walz, J.C. Bleuer, & R.K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions. VISTAS 2009. 21-29. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas09/Article_3_Scott.pdf… [read more]

Marketing How Is Luxury Defined? Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2



How is luxury defined? Do you agree with this definition and with the role of luxury in society?

In the article, Needing the Unnecessary James Twitchell argues that the views of what is luxurious has changed. Where, most people are continually focused on how to be able to own and enjoy some of those popular items that are considered to be socially affluent. As, a wide variety of folks want to: possess those automobiles and household items that are defined within this category. In most cases, these individuals will use some kind of social proof to influence these decisions. This is when they will look at a number of factors to decide what items are considered to fit within in these categories to include: television and magazines. As a result, this is providing us with a basic definition of what is thought of as luxurious. This has shifted over the years, based upon the experiences and the changing tastes within society itself. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how these kinds of transformations have meant that the definition of luxury is continually changing due to: the shifting views about cultural attitudes. (Twtichell, 2002)

I agree with this definition to a certain extent. The reason why, is because various cultural influences will have an impact on how someone is viewing what is considered to be luxurious. As, people will often use different kinds of social proof to influence what is considered to be trendy and lavish. However, beyond what is seen in magazines there are other factors that will have an impact on what is considered to be luxurious. In this case, there are number of elements that will affect these ideas to include: movies, television programs, the products they see their friends using, the style itself and various extras that will have an impact on these views. This is because; there is a combination of different factors that will influence the opinions of individuals. At which point, all of them together will determine how a person is defining luxury by forming a basic foundation of their viewpoints. Over the course of time, these kinds of shifts will be continually taking place,…… [read more]

Social Programs: Increasing Availability Essay

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Even under ordinary circumstances, the pressures, attention to detail, and constant vigilance required by the responsibilities involved must be daunting. I would be curious to know whether the stress of working in that capacity for the long-term can change the way you perform your duties or change the way you deal with or feel about the children in your care. Likewise, I would like to ask you whether your exposure to so many children and their parents has taught you things about children's behavior and parenting styles that might not be as apparent to those of us who have not spent as much time with so many different children in any regular capacity that would enable us to draw meaningful conclusions in that regard.

On the subject of advocacy and change, I agree with you that change usually involves various aspects of advocacy, I might not agree that all types of changes always necessarily require advocacy. For example, in the field you describe, I would imagine that what is required more than advocacy is simply better education of parents with respect to parenting skills as well as increasingly direct communication between day care service providers and their clients on matters of appropriate consideration and the importance of fulfilling parental responsibilities necessary for care providers to furnish the highest quality of service possible to all their clients.

Response to Post #5

I agree with your description of advocacy as something that is much more easily and effectively pursued in connection with genuinely strong personal convictions about the subject matter. It is difficult to imagine an effective advocacy generated by individuals without a genuine concern for the change they are promoting. However, I might not agree with the way you characterize the difference between change and advocacy. That is because to my mind, change would be an objective or a goal whereas advocacy would be a method or strategy for achieving that goal. In that sense, I would suggest that they cannot be compared directly in the same manner as two different objectives or two different strategies can be compared directly.

Response to Post #6

I was somewhat surprised to read in your post that you perceive the technological information gap between human services professionals and human service clients to be such an important issue. To my mind, teaching technological awareness and basic proficiency is a relatively simple matter in comparison to helping at-risk populations overcome more fundamental barriers to education and gainful employment. In my experience, many at-risk individuals require more basic vocational preparatory training such as in relation to establishing a consistent routine and keeping appointments responsibly. Moreover, many of the types of entry-level jobs available to at-risk individuals do not require significant high-tech familiarity, at least none that cannot be learned on the job. However, I would be curious to know how you envision Lewin's stages of unfreezing, change, and refreezing might manifest itself in connection with the specific area you chose for your focus.

From my limited familiarity… [read more]

Behavior-Cause and Effects Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The very fact that one is aware of the manipulation of social elements and authority and finds ways to cope with these demands without losing one's dignity and sense of integrity, is a source of contentment and satisfaction. In other words, from, this knowledge and insight, a negative determining force is changed into a positive feeling and set of behaviour patterns

At the same time has to be aware of the way that social and cultural institutions determine our lives in society. In this regards one could look at the common flow of our lives from family, to school and to exposure to the economic and media driven world of adulthood. At each stage we are determined to some extent by the norms and values of our society; for example, where we can travel and where we can't, our sexual preferences and a host of other factors and aspects that are directed by society and culture.

All of these factors, as well as the perception of stereotyped by the media, determine our feelings and behaviour to some extent. One needs only think of the image projected in the popular media of the perfect female form and how this has caused discontent and even illness for many women who do not fit or subscribe to this social norm and stereotype. On the other hand, if we have knowledge and insight into the way that our behaviour is shaped we can determine our own lives more effectively and reach a certain level of contentment by refusing to acknowledge social stereotypes.

In conclusion, it is essentially very difficult to determine exactly what causes fear or contentment in our lives. As one article on this subject states; "Some will say it is fate you end up doing certain things a certain way and end up with a certain person. Some others will say it all depends on ourselves how we do things that determine our own fate (As Time Goes By).

The above view suggests that we are responsible for the way that we feel. However, there is also the counter argument to consider, as discussed above; that there are many factors in society that determines the way we act and feel. In the final analysis we are responsible for the way we feel. Our contentment is determined by the way that we react to and understand the world around us, and the extent to which we accept the world as to is and make the best of it, or change it.


As Time Goes By. Retrieved from http://timeaftime.blogspot.com/

Gironda et al. Born Happy: How Much Does Genetics Determine our Happiness

Throughout Our Lives? Retrieved from http://www.estebancalvo.com/files/teaching_files/Genetics_v2.pdf… [read more]

Social Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (756 words)
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Anecdotes, emotions, feelings, etc. are suspect -- this is positivism in its most pure form. Interpretive social science is opposite. It is qualitative, humanistic, and takes into account open ended interpretation, and an approach to working with individuals that has but a general basis in theory, but also tends to use theory as but an approach to problem solving and gaining knowledge, not as a be all - end all.

However, the critical social science is an approach that looks at events and issues in a manner that asks -- "what's missing?" "what needs revised?" "how does this fit?" While it assumes that there are truths that exist, it is more pragmatic in understanding that not all truth can be quantified in the exact same manner. Critical theory does tend to look more at the whole of society rather than the individual, but also wants to improve the overall understanding of society and culture through integration of the major and minor disciplines involved. Comments are sometimes made that it creates more problems than it solves -- but this may be a naive approach. It may seem that it "uncovers" -- but essentially, the issues (challenges, problems, etc.) were already there (in society), and critical theory did not cause them, it simply helped identify them and an action oriented approach to the potential solutions available (Glicken, 2010). In this, one can say that critical social science theory advances a more positivist approach because CSS does tend to quantify rather than qualify information in, and out. While not necessarily being reductionist, it does allow for an approach that tends to move away from the layers and onto the core issues. Like positivism, it also become the active catalyst for change, and insists upon right action, in a realistic timeframe. In this manner, measurable goals can translate into action -- what qualifying issues may still be used to buttress a degree of objectivism within the individual issues under scrutiny.


Brown, M. And S. Keeley. (2009). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical

Thinking. 9th ed. New York: Prentice Hall.

Gilcken, M. (2010). Social Work in the…… [read more]

Social Science_module Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (689 words)
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Let us say, for instance, that we, as social workers were combining sociology with anthropology and looking a baptismal behavior within the Mormon Church (or any other) and examining the ways this impacted the field of social work. The positivist would equate percentages of children who participated in comparison to the time the parents spent in church. The hypothesis may begin that a higher percentage of children would participate in the ritual if their parents were more active in the religion. Data would be gathered and tested against the hypothesis. The conclusion would be that the data confirmed the hypothesis and so the conclusion could be reached that the more active the parents, the more likely that the child would participate in the ritual. The interpretivist, however, would survey and examine why the children were baptized and what the baptism meant to the participants. The final construct for the interpretivist would be that the baptism signified a religious cleansing and a new beginning and acted as a right of passage for the young children.

Both conclusions are correct, the results are vastly different. The positivist looks at the exterior of society, while the interpretivist looks at the interior. It is the difference between examining the electrical synapses in the brain and knowing what someone is thinking. Both inquiries have their value, but in the end, they are looking at different aspects of the same subject. The positivist looks inward for the practical, the known, or easily knowable -- the intpretivism the unknown, the why, the gray in events, the mystery of life (Floersch, 2008)..


Engel, R. And Schutt, R. (2009). The Practice of Research in Social Work. Thousand Oaks,

CA: Sage.

Floersch, J. (2008). "The Critical Realist Critique of the Positivist and the Interpretivist,"

Mandel School of Applied Social Science. Cited in:


Weber, R. (2004). "The Rhetoric of Positivism vs. Interpretivism," MIS Review. 28:1,

iii-xxii, March 2004. Cited in:

http://www.misq.org/archivist/vol/no28/issue1/EdCommentsV28N1.pdf.… [read more]

Reciprocity According to the French Anthropologist Marcel-Israel Web Content

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¶ … Reciprocity

According to the French anthropologist Marcel-Israel Mauss, the exchange of gifts in traditional societies was far "more complex and multivalent than anything we know from modern society" (Mauss, n.d., Anthrobase). Gifts could forge alliances between tribes, and gifts could also take the form of competitive exchanges between peoples, as was common in Native American culture. However, even today, we can see some of Mauss' principles at work in gift-giving. A relative may exercise his or her power over a child by giving the child an expensive gift and subtly hint it is with the expectation the child will get good grades. The gift is as much a demand as a sacrifice. A wealthy businessman may take a client out to an expensive restaurant, and 'treat' the potential rival to dinner as a demonstration of affluence and status in a manner that undercuts rather than bolsters the other man's confidence. Traditional gifts have power beyond their physical utility, as can be seen when little girls give friendship bracelets to one another and exclude other children. Gifts can include but also shut others out, creating a sense of a social bond and an implied social contract.

In the above-cited relationships, gifts are used to demonstrate the power of the giver. There is a clear absence of equality in the relationship. The giver has a certain amount of power over the recipient, and there is an expectation that the recipient will act in a certain manner. According to Mauss, traditional gifts differ from the types of gifts that currently exist in a modern system of capitalist exchange. In capitalism the nature of the gift is quantified and defined in terms of money, versus the demands of a gift where the recipient must give back in terms of his or her time and/or conformity to a certain type of behavior. Although this may be true, it is important to note that this does not mean that traditional gifts of reciprocity are necessarily…… [read more]

Structural Violence Framework in International Assessment

Assessment  |  12 pages (4,133 words)
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Whenever a group or sector of society is prevented from meeting basic needs, there is opportunity for conflict, and often for violence. The relationship between structural violence and actual or direct violence is robust. Like most attributes of social systems, structural violence occurs along a continuum. At the lowest end, is domestic violence; at the highest, war. Importantly, the… [read more]

Freedom Riders Honored Katie Feldhaus ) Talks Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,081 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Freedom Riders Honored; Katie Feldhaus (2011) talks about the impact that Freedom Riders would have on the Civil Rights Movement. These were students and various individuals who were opposed to the Jim Crow laws in the South. During the early 1960's, a wide variety of people from all racial backgrounds intentionally went to these areas to break these segregation laws. In response to these acts of civil disobedience that were occurring many individuals were: imprisoned and attacked. as, they were: risking their lives and their freedom to make a difference.

The article is a reflection of the sacrifice that many individuals made during this time. as, it is discussing these struggles from: the viewpoint of the people who participated in the ride itself. Where, they talk about how they felt and the kind of hardships that they had to endure, as part of their desire to address the injustices that were occurring. An example of this can be seen with comments from Congressman John Lewis who said, "Boarding that Greyhound bus to travel to the heart of the Deep South, I felt good, I felt happy, I felt liberated. I was like a soldier in a nonviolent army. The Freedom Riders changed America forever." (Feldhaus, 2011) This is important, because it is illustrating the overall focus of the article.

Obviously, the group of Freedom Riders was presented in a positive light. The reporting was: both biased and unbiased to a certain extent. The way that it was biased, is when it was discussing the struggles that these individuals were going through at the time. Where, it is painting these people as modern day heroes, who changed the world forever. Yet, beneath the surface some of the actions that they were taking, directly challenged the status quo and the institutions that it represented. In this aspect, one could argue that there was a certain amount of bias in the article, because they are making these individuals appear to be larger than life. When in reality, they are just ordinary people who were trying to make a difference (based upon what they believed). They did not know the outcome of: their actions or if they would have an impact upon society. Instead, they were reacting to the frustrations that they were feeling from the system the only way they could (civil disobedience). This is important, because it is showing how there is a certain amount of historical bias in the article. (Feldhaus, 2011)

The way it is unbiased is: by looking at these events from more of a neutral standpoint. In this situation, the author is examining the long-term impact that the Freedom Riders had on America and the world. as, they were a part of: a larger movement that would no longer stand for the injustices that were taking place. This served as a blueprint for how oppressed minorities and opposition groups would stand up to: the very institutions that were discriminating against them. Over the course of time,… [read more]

Sopranos-Apa Citation Book Report

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Bibliography Sources: 1


2002, p. 45)

The author asserts that in the real world, the "power elite," much like the fictional Tony Soprano, cause a great deal of collateral damage in their quest for financial success. From the Vietnam War to the Product Safety Board, the effects of the "power elite" have been felt by people the world over, including ordinary American citizens.… [read more]

Marxist Critique of Property Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,486 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


" Thus, in Marx's Communist view, the proletariat was the only class to remain. [10: Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 19. ]

The second chapter addresses the difference between proletarians and communists, but differentiating between committed and conscious communists and the rest of the working class. The third and fourth chapters will also advocate differences though between socialism and… [read more]

Karl Marx Begins Essay

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Marx's dialectical materialism proposes an ongoing conflict between the propertied middle classes, or bourgeoisie, and the exploited working class, or proletariat. For Marx, the bourgeoisie -- who produced nothing tangible but who controlled the means of economic production -- were a parasitic class upon the labor of the proletariat. Marx characterized the working classes as engaged in "alienated labor," which he used to characterize the disconnection workers felt from their work, when the fruits were snatched up by the ruling class. Marx then saw this as a historical inevitability that the workers would rise up to seize the means of production -- "You have nothing to lose but your chains," Marx and Engels would exhort in the Communist Manifesto -- which would have entailed proletarian ownership of factories, etc. Soccio notes that the conditions of working men and women were so bad at the time that Marx was writing that "Marx seems to have confused the evils of industrialization with capitalism" itself (Soccio 386).

The negative implications of Marxist thought for society are fairly clear in history -- the gross misinterpretation of Marx practiced by the Soviets, which can hardly be blamed upon Karl Marx himself, who predicted that Tsarist Russia would be the last place in which the proletarian revolution would occur -- Marx thought it would happen first in England. But the value of Marxism is immense, even if it is hard to measure. Any time we contemplate the economic basis of society, or consider the vested interests or co-optation of supposedly impartial writers, or worry about growing inequality we are indebted to Marxist thought. And to a certain degree, later schools of thought such as feminism owe a profound debt to Marx as well. It may be a Marxist observation to note that women continue to earn only 70 cents to every dollar that men earn, indicating that economically oppressed classes do exist -- but to think about the exploitative economic class-basis of society can only be done as a…… [read more]

Race Class Gender Journal

Journal  |  5 pages (1,805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Race, Class & Gender

Color-Blind Racism and Gender-Blind Sexism

Reviewed in this journal:

"Racism in Toyland" by Christine L. Williams

"The Indignities of Unemployment" by Kenneth W. Brown

"Soft' Skills and Race" by Philip Moss and Chris Tilly

"The Invisible Poor" by Katherine W. Newman

"Our Mother's Grief: Racial-Ethnic Women and the Maintenance of Families" by Bonnie Thorton Dill

I… [read more]

Right of Death and Power Over Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (886 words)
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Right of Death and Power Over Life

Michel Foucault's "Right of Death and Power Over Life" seems to be a historical analysis of life and death in Western civilization. He comments on how in older societies life was only part of the sovereign, but in modern times the importance of life is more widespread. Foucault says this is from modern biopolitics which normalize life. He says, "the judicial institution is increasingly incorporated into a continuum of apparatuses (medical, administrative, and so on) whose functions are for the most part regulatory" (Foucault 266). Foucault claims that society changed from older times by making the sovereign more widespread than it was before because politicians, demographers, economists, and social scientists started to see life as valuable to society. Therefore the sovereign was not just the prince but the whole society.

This was important for capitalism because Foucault says capitalism needs the "controlled insertion of bodies into the machinery of production and the adjustment of the phenomena of population to economic processes" (Foucault 263). He says "the deployment of sexuality" is "one of the most important" examples of biopower (Foucault 263). Historically speaking, Foucault says these interventions were all important because of changing perspectives on life and death. This is why the deployment of sex is the most important biopolitics because sex is how a society controls the population by "determining good marriages," "inducing desired fertilities," and "ensuring the health and longevity of children" (Foucault 270). Ultimately Foucault seems unsure about this power, because he says it substituted racism for aristocracy and has led to bloodier wars than were seen before the 19th century. Foucault's thesis is sometimes hard to understand because his topic keeps changing, but it seems to be that modern society is different from ancient society because of biopower and widespread sovereignty.

Foucault's methods are different from most modern sociologists' because he does not use many statistical studies or data. Instead, he talks in a general way about sociological changes by looking at history and trying to understand it by looking at what people were doing at the time. He says that the 18th century led to biopolitics because biopower was "embodied in institutions such as the army and school" and with "the emergence of demography" (Foucault 262). He mentions some of the demographers from the time as evidence of the field's emergence around then. This research method makes it difficult to know what Foucault is sometimes trying to argue, because it is not always clear where he is coming from. However, he usually explains this fairly well, and he may have more evidence in the earlier parts of the book for his claims…… [read more]

Social Science Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Research design. A researcher in the natural and physical sciences expects to complete the review of the literature with a hypothesis clearly in mind. In the social sciences, particularly when a qualitative approach (either descriptive or exploratory) has been selected, a hypothesis may not be stated as such; instead several research questions are posed. The thinking that leads to a formal hypothesis and to stated research questions is similar in both types of scientific inquiry. And while the hypothesis is typically expressed in the form of a question that establishes an expected relationship between two or more variables, research questions in social sciences may not have a casual or predictive aspect. All research using the scientific method is based on a research design.

Data collection. Research design tasks include decisions about data collection and data analysis. If a sample is involved, consideration is given to determining how to generate a representative sample, and to addressing confidence level and confidence intervals, which further determine an appropriate sample size. The data collection processes and the techniques used to analyze the data are integrally connected.

Replication is important to the scientific method across all fields of inquiry in order to verify findings. In the final step of the scientific method, conclusions are generated, and any limitations of the study are specifically mentioned with suggestions for further research. Again, these steps are integral to the scientific method regardless of the field of inquiry.

Comparison of Research Methods for Example Social Science Questions

Differences Between Application.

The scientific method in the social sciences and the natural sciences. The primary differences between application of the scientific analysis method to the social and the natural / physical sciences occurs in the unit of analysis and methods of data collection. In social science, the unit of analysis is individual people or groups of people. The natural sciences and the physical sciences cover a wide spectrum of possible units of analysis; fundamentally, everything that occurs in the natural (climate, plants, animals) and physical (chemistry, physics) environment can be studied through application of the scientific method. Several scientific methods are unique to the social sciences: Case study, ethnographic participant observation, surveys and interviews. The experimental method is used across all types of scientific inquiry.


The step-by-step scientific method is designed to ensure that inquiry progresses in a methodical, repeatable, objective, systematic manner that results in evidence-based conclusions and application of findings. These principles are integral to the scientific method and must be upheld, regardless of the methodology or techniques used. Methods commonly used in social science research are designed to maintain an attitude of skepticism and produce findings that can be generalized. But in the social sciences, research does not emphasize causality, seeking instead to describe and explore phenomenon about human beings. The difference between these schools of thought can perhaps best be represented by consideration of ethnographic research, in which the researcher can become a participant observer of the sample under study. This methodology belongs solidly in the… [read more]

Walked Through the Empty Alleyway Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


They do not want to put taxes into any new programs or give their own money. An adult should be able to take care of themselves without relying on other peoples' hard earned money.

By letting individuals slide into this state of incapacity we are only hurting ourselves. We will never know what talents he could have contributed to society. Every individual has something to contribute and should be considered important. We should not just sit and watch as people fade away or slip through the cracks. Better programs should be put into place, especially for the homeless and alcoholism. Perhaps if an individual is given a chance, he or she can succeed and become an integral piece of society. This is not unheard of. It seems that we are losing a lot by not utilizing resources we already have available. Individuals living on the streets deserve a place to sleep and another chance.

Although funding a program for homeless people will cost money, it is worth it. We need to remove our calluses and remember to feel for other people. As mentioned before, it is not difficult to ignore the issue. Ignoring the issue is not helping us as a whole. We need to get citizens to remember what America was founded on and restore compassion. Everyone deserves a chance, regardless of where they are now. Please help me in getting the word out. We need funding for a homeless shelter. There should also be alcohol awareness classes provided. If even one individual is improved or changed because of the shelter, it will have been…… [read more]

Social Anthropology Course A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (635 words)
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Social Anthropology

Economic Systems:

Generally, there are three major types of economic systems in human communities: capitalism, socialism, and communism. Capitalism emphasizes private ownership, private accumulation of wealth through personal initiative, the relative freedom from government in business, and the natural dynamic of supply and demand. Socialism emphasizes governmental involvement, ownership, and responsibility for major aspects of society and in the maintenance of the general welfare in many respects that are left to private initiative and responsibility in capitalist societies. Communism emphasizes government control of production, the elimination of social classes, and the uniformity of wealth and reciprocal benefits of the individual as a part of society. Traditionally, the three types of societies are highly critical of one another with the greatest tension and mistrust existing between the two polar opposite capitalists and communists.

Political Relations:

Order and power are the defining elements of human societies in relation to the individual. Social order is maintained by the accepted social authorities within a culture through the power of position. Generally, elder members of kinship groups occupy those positions within tribal societies, and tribunals comprising clan leaders from multiple tribes fulfill that role with tribal confederations. Inherited nobility is the traditional basis of authority and power in kingdoms, and within states, publicly elected heads of state establish and maintain authority in democracies and republics, while dictators establish and maintain power through force or the implied threat of force. Generally, the four fundamental functions of society are large populations, some degree of centralized government, socio-economic classes, and some form of market economy.

3. Religion:

In objective principle, there is little conceptual distinction between religion and magic, as both are maintained by doctrinal beliefs passed down from generation to generation and accepted a-priori without critical analysis. Principals of social evolution shape the specific cultural practices and beliefs of magical societies in a manner that allows those concepts to provide some of…… [read more]

Freedom Justice and Racism Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 3


Freedom, Justice, And Racism

Courts have often supported laws and policies that prohibit the public expression of certain obscene words, but do you think that it would ever be justified to prohibit the expression of certain ideas or beliefs? (I have heard that in Germany, Hitler's Mein Kampf cannot be published or sold. Do you approve of that policy?)

In the United States, which is built upon the cornerstone of free speech, it would never be appropriate to prohibit the expression of certain ideas and beliefs. In fact, that type of speech would usually fall under the rubrics of either political speech or religious speech, which get the most protection under the Supreme Court's interpretations of the First Amendment. The freedom of speech is so closely associated with the American identity, that challenging that notion would literally challenge the bedrock of the nation. However, the United States has a different history than Germany. In Germany, hate speech led to the Holocaust, an event that continues to define Germany for much of the world, and for many Germans. Moreover, it is important to realize that the Holocaust was only the last in a series of anti-Semitic legal and social actions that had occurred in Germany. Germany has to consider that history when looking at what legislation is appropriate for their country and for their countrymen. When one considers that unique past, it is very difficult to argue that Germans should allow the publishing or sale of Mein Kampf.

2. Mill believes that even if we know a doctrine is wrong, it would not be beneficial for society to suppress that doctrine. What argument does he give to justify this point?

It is important to understand that Mill's argument that society should not suppress doctrines that are commonly believed to be wrong is not based on tolerance. Instead of tolerance, Mill wants debate. He thinks that the introduction of conflict into discourse is the means of creating faster progress in all sectors of society. Mill wants to avoid social stagnation, and believes that the competition that results naturally from the unfettered spread of ideas is the best way to avoid such stagnation.

3. In most accredited universities in the United States, the Darwinian explanation of how species originated is accepted and the explanation given in the Book of Genesis is not accepted. Do you think this policy is right? Would Mill?

I actually disagree with the premise as you have stated it in your question. In most accredited universities, the Darwinian explanation of the species is accepted in science classes. However, the explanation in the Book of Genesis, or other religious texts, might be perfectly acceptable in religious studies or mythology classes. What explanation is accepted greatly depends upon the context. I think it is appropriate for a university to be able to say that they want its science graduates to leave with certain baseline knowledge about scientific facts as they are currently understood by the scientific community. I do not know… [read more]

America by John Debrizzi Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … America by John Debrizzi. What makes this a bit more difficult is that Debrizzi is a sociologist. To properly understand the novel, one must understand the social theory behind it. Therefore, we will first consider the theoretical implications, specifically Debrizzi's working out of Mills dichotomy between individual and society. In this, we will consider how the Marxist dialectic… [read more]

Social Changes in the 21st Century Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (687 words)
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Social Changes in the 21st Century

What factor(s) do you think will shape and/or determine the major social changes that will occur during the twenty-first century?

In the twentieth century we have perhaps witnessed more social changes than our ancestors had had in the preceding several centuries. Technological developments of the last century have affected our social lives in different ways. Since the pace of technological development is also increasing, it is likely that the changes in the twenty first century will be even more significant. Macionis (2008) defines social change as "the transformation of culture and social institutions over time" (p. 485). He identifies four major characteristics of social changes: they happen all the time, social change may be unplanned but may also be intentional, social change is sometimes controversial, and some social changes are more significant than others. In today's globalized world of mass communications, social changes in one place are likely to take a chain effect of setting up changes in other places as well. Therefore, changes in the twenty-first century will be more sweeping around the world, making the changes too radical for some parts of the world, and will profoundly impact our view of the world.

Most of the changes of the twentieth century were brought about by modernization: industrialization, rise of scientific and empirical inquiry, adoption of the principles of the nation-state by all governing polities in the world, and the development of technology which is leading us to a new era -- postindustrial, postmodern, information-based era. Changes in the twenty-first century are going to take place within the framework of postmodernist thinking. Postmodernity challenges modernist thinking on several grounds. The idea of progress through modernity did not eliminate the most pressing problems of humanity -- problems such as poverty, corruption, wars, slavery, and global inequality. On the contrary, the global inequality has increased in the last several decades and modern means of communication and technology are being utilized for facilitating wars, corruption, and slavery. Therefore, many activists in the twenty first century are going to be…… [read more]

Sociological Imagination Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (630 words)
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Sociological imagination is the capability to see beyond one's own daily life the reason for everyday successes and failures. While a person's sees beyond his everyday life as the cause of success and failure, he/she views the whole society that he/she lives in as the probable cause for his/her daily successes and failures. It is also known as the ability to acknowledge the relationship between people's actions and the social forces of the society within which they live. C. Wright Mills invented the term sociological imagination in 1959 with the purpose of describing the nature of sociology and its significance in everyday life. Sociological imagination is very significant for both individuals and societies to understand because of the connection between the two. Sociological imagination is critical for people because of the significance of relating situations to the local, national and international societal issues.

Failure to understand the relations between personal situations and the society makes it impossible for people to know the societal issues that influence them. Additionally, these people are unable to determine whether the societal issues that affect them need to be changed in order to improve their daily lives. Sociological imagination enables a person to understand the bigger historical scene and its relevance to inner life as well as the outer career of different individuals (Mills par, 8). A person with sociological imagination is able consider how other people usually become wrongly aware of their social positions through the confusion of their everyday experiences. Because of the confusion, the psychologies of different people are formed as they seek the support of modern society.

Various societies have acquired diverse levels of social imagination throughout history with some societies thriving on the acquisition. On the contrary, other societies have not acquired sociological imagination while others have lost is after obtaining it. These kinds of societies are always within countries that continue to suffer from…… [read more]

Welding Confined Spaces. Question: Compare and Contrast Essay

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Confined Spaces. Question: Compare and contrast the confined space recommendations made by the American Welding Society with those of PDF Chapter 13.

Fact Sheet 11 of the American Welding Society and Chapter 13 "Confined Space Entry" both address the potential hazards of working in confined spaces. The American Welding Society specifically focuses on hot work in confined spaces, whereas… [read more]

Human Rights Donnelly, J. ). The Relative Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (916 words)
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Human Rights

Donnelly, J. (2007). The Relative Universality of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, Volume 29, Number 2, May 2007, pp. 281-306.

Human rights are only relatively universal, claims Donnelly (2007). The author distinguishes between substantive and conceptual universality. Substantively universal human rights can be defined as specific rights such as those recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Human Rights Covenants. Conceptually universal human rights are more abstract. If human rights are necessarily "equal" and also "inalienable," then human rights are universal. However, universal human rights are not specific or practical in application.

The author raises important issues about the normalization of human rights and the increasing and perpetual pressure upon all cultures, nations, and individuals to support their implementation. Ethical conundrums are raised when one culture attempts to impose its set of norms upon another, as is the case with Europe or the United States pressuring African nations or China. Donnelly (2007) concludes that rights are relative because residents of nations with a poor track record of human rights do not enjoy automatic access to or recognition of those rights.

The Donnelly (2007) article addresses cultural relativism and ethical relativism, which are important topics for debate in the study of human rights. Where do we draw the line between cultural sensitivity and human rights: at female genital mutilation? What about the burka? The conflict between relativism and universality underlies legal, political, and policy problems. At what point does it become an infringement on human rights to impose one set of cultural values on another society?

Klug, H. (2005). Transnational human rights: exploring the persistence and globalization of human rights. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 2005. 1:85 -- 103.

Beginning with the example of human rights violations perpetrated by the United States during the War in Iraq, Klug (2005) calls for a transnational vision of human rights. In particular, the author is concerned with the intersection of law and society in the field of human rights. The formation of transnational human rights doctrines at first depended on Western hegemony and the imposition of Western-led legal coalitions on the non-Western world. In a post-colonial world, it is important to fuse national sovereignty with individual human liberties. Human rights are, as Klug (2005) points out, often expressed via a struggle against colonial or other forms of social oppression.

Klug (2005) uses gap studies as one approach to the human rights argument. Gap studies refer to the proven rift between human rights in theory and human rights in practice, especially with regards to nations like the United States. On the one hand, a set of legal vehicles is in place to police the world. On the other hand, the police often violate the very rights they…… [read more]

Celebrities as Symbolic Commodities in the Film Industry Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,416 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Celebrities as Symbolic Commodities in the Film Industry

In 2010 the biggest advertisements and movies have a celebrity face. If a celebrity endorses it, then consumers will buy it. Has society lost the scope of what the product does, what it stands for? On the other hand when it comes to film and its success, there are certain expectations when… [read more]