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Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy,

The intended audience is primarily individuals responsible for coach training programs. Yet, the data was collected from the athletes, and apparently no data was collected from coaches with regard to their own perceptions or observations about their use of coaching strategies. Particularly of note is the absence of self-assessment by coaches of any differentiated treatment or interactions based on the gender or ages of the young athletes. Analysis of the relation between coaching styles and gender was not identified as an important variable in the initial approach to the study. The age range of the participants is wide, and calls to question whether different strategies might have different impact on the youth athletes depending on their age, as well as their gender. Moreover, this study -- and many others related to this research topic -- are conducted during sports practice and not during actual competitions. The authors suggest that a different set of dynamics may prevail when competitiveness is emphasized. Discussion of Hypotheses: The hypotheses proposed for this research include the following: Hypothesis 1: Autonomy-supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports; and Hypothesis 2: Controlling coaching style is more effective for male than female athletes in team sports. For both hypotheses, the independent variable is gender (nominal data) and the dependent variable is the effectiveness of autonomy-supportive coaching style (ordinal data). Methods: Data analysis of the responses to the ASCQ was conducted for three models using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The models tested were: 1) Uni-dimensional -- all items loaded on the single factor that represented autonomy-supportive coaching; 2) two uncorrelated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior; and 3) two correlated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior. The one item-factor regression coefficient on each factor was set at 1.0 for the purpose of establishing a metric, and every item was set to load on a specific factor. To analyze the relations between the ASCQ scores and the perceived coaching behaviors and need satisfaction, hierarchical multiple regression were used. As some collinearity between the predictors in each of the models was expected when interpreting the parameter estimates, greater emphasis was placed on the structure coefficients than on the standardized regression coefficients. Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis suggest that youth athletes were able…

Pages: 4  |  Capstone Project  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Exercise Science the Physiological Benefits of Childhood

Exercise Science The Physiological Benefits of Childhood Exercise The problem of childhood obesity has worsened in recent years as children tend to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators which include juvenile diabetes, increased risk of heart disease and diminishing physical dexterity. Therefore,…

Pages: 6  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Sports Science and Sports Medicine-

(Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003) When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick,…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Pilates Exercise Specialists Program, Wellington, New Zealand,

Pilates Exercise Specialists Program, Wellington, New Zealand, is guaranteed to make the user 'feel' the difference after two sessions, 'see' the difference after another few sessions, and make others 'notice' the difference after a few more weeks. What is Pilates Exercise, and how is it done? What is it supposed to do for the individual who opts for the Program,…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Motor Processes in Sport Tom

The approach for Tom might be best if the bilateral transfer notion is ignored and Tom's weakness is approached from a very basic instructional level. If there is bilateral transfer in this case it will reveal itself as Tom begins working on his left foot kicking technique and make the learning process all the smoother. Given the above facts of…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 15


Self-Esteem Exercise Promotes Higher Self-Esteem

"The future is coming -- and it is fat! The rising rate of obesity among children and adolescents bodes poorly for the health and wellness of the coming generation. Close to 10% of exercise psychology research in the past few years addressed questions of youth participation in physical activity. A number of studies focused on age-appropriate appeals to youth through…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Motivation in Sport Take a

The inconsistency in sport confidence that exists in duration of time is influenced in basic by the sources of the confidence. (Weinberg & Gould, 1999, p.24). Researchers can make an effort to realize how the sources of sport confidence would make an impact on the athlete's performance, level of confidence, cognition, emotion and behaviors. They may also carefully analyze the…

Pages: 50  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Psychology in Sports

Sports Psychology Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and the psyche for the task ahead. The topic of sports psychology has garnered a great deal of attention in recent…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Sports Medicine

Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a primary focus of sports medicine is the rapid recovery of patients, which drives many innovations in the field (Sports Medicine).…

Pages: 6  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 7


Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey

Sports Shoes Turkey Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey Brief History of Turkey Turkey is an internationally recognized center for sports enthusiasm and participation. The interest in sports is culturally bound both historically and as an aspect of Turkey's general international cosmopolitan nature. This is especially true as a result of the modern emphasis on European…

Pages: 30  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Turabian  |  Sources: 150


Brand Vision Statement and Rationale

Bally Total Fitness - Branding Bally Total Fitness Holding Corporation (NYSE: BFT) Brand Vision Statement and Rationale The objective of this work is to from the stance of a young professional in an advertising agency who has been invited to pitch a new account to study the client's brand and develop a proposed brand vision statement and rationale based on…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Wellness/Prevention Programs and Therapeutic Exercise

Even mild therapeutic exercise has been shown to benefit participants (Heath, 2002). Most people are deterred from therapeutic exercise programs because they feel regimens must be long or painful to produce results. Studies indicate just the opposite however. For therapeutic exercise to be most beneficial, exercise programs need "focus on long-term sustainability and enjoyment to achieve an optimal overall outcome" (King, 1991 & Heath 2002). Enjoyment does not necessarily involve a lengthy program. Participants who enjoy the exercise program they engage in are also more likely to stay with the program over a longer period of time, resulting in even greater health benefits. In one controlled study of 225 mostly sedentary adults, participants responded to even a brief "physician-delivered exercise program and walking" (Heath, 2002 & Calfas, 1996). In some instances a mere three to five minutes of activity resulted in at least improved mental outlook for patients, which in turn results in overall better wellness. Therapeutic exercise can assist in increasing the "vitality, strength, flexibility, balance and general sense of well being" for patients who adhere to physician guidelines. The rewards may include decreased length of incapacity due to illness or injury, quicker gains as in the case of the stroke patients examined, and mental rewards for both patients and physicians (Heath, 2002). Physicians should be required to take an active role in the health and well being of their patients by routinely prescribing therapeutic exercises to patients. Such exercises, when viewed in a positive light are more likely to be embraced by patients. Patients who are introduced enthusiastically to therapeutic regimens are more likely to overcome their inhibitions and engage in more active lifestyles. The implications for wellness and disease prevention can not be ignored. Therapeutic exercise can result in better health mentally, physically and emotionally. Bibliography Christmas, C, Andersen RA. (2000). Exercise and Older Patients: Guidelines for the Clinician. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 2000; 48:318-24 Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. (1998). American College of Sports Medicine. Journal Science Sports Exercise. 30:992-1008 Calfas, KJ, Long BJ, Sallis JF, Wooten WJ, Pratt M, Patrick K. (1996). A Controlled Trial of Physician Counseling to promote the adoption of Physical Activity. Preventive Medicine; 25:225-33 King, AC, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Kreemer HC. (1991). Group vs. Home-Based Exercise Training in Healthy Older Men and Women. JAMA;266:1535-42. Heath, John M. MD & Stuart, Maria R., PhD. Prescribing Exercise for Frail…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Human Performance Analysis

¶ … Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions This project details the personal experiences of the experimenter in identifying the source of physiological symptoms triggered by sports and fitness activities involving running or extensive (i.e. fast-pace and/or long distance) walking. The experimenter experienced significant discomfort in a localized region of both shins associated with running as a physical fitness activity. Anecdotal…

Pages: 15  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 0


Discourse Community Memoir

¶ … Community Membership I have always had an interest in sports and fitness but I had never joined a gym until last year. To outsiders, the gym can be somewhat intimidating, which is one of the reasons that the slogan "No Judgments" of the Crunch Gym fitness club chain appealed to me. Still, for a person walking into a gym from the street, it can be uncomfortable to walk into a facility that seems to cater to a tight-nit group of regulars who have a well-established routine, a common lingo, and who are very likely to recognize a complete novice immediately. As a new gym member, I realized that there were at least two aspects of knowledge and expertise that I would have to acquire to become comfortable in the gym environment: (1) technical proficiency with the equipment and methods of fitness training, and (2) social fluency in the terminology and etiquette associated with the activity. Joining the Community: The first day in a gym did more to reinforce my initial apprehension than it did to lessen it. That was mainly because the process getting started required a consultation with a membership representative and signing up for an initial two-week trial membership. We sat in a small office adjacent to areas where those who were already part of the community worked out together. The fact that the office walls were circular and glass made me feel as though I were in a display case labeled "Gym Newbies" instead of sitting in a membership sales office. Even worse than the display case experience was the gym tour that followed that ensured that any gym regulars who had not noticed me in the newbie case would catch the newbie on tour. With any hope of trying to blend in as much as possible and keep a low profile at first lost, I finally managed to get changed and situate myself on an elliptical machine somewhat inconspicuously. Luckily, the row of elliptical machines overlooked the main gym area, letting me be the outside observer. I noticed immediately that even though most of the people working out were involved in their own individual exercises, there was still a definite rhythm to the room. Some people seemed to be oblivious to what was going on around them on one level, working on their own and listening to headphones; others worked out in pairs, talking…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Style

(2004). Another factor that is impossible to control given the structure of this study is the fact that there are multiple coaches involved and every coach is different. How they control and pose situations is going differ from person to person, as noted by Stevens (2012). Perhaps it would not be wide enough of a sample to look at one…

Pages: 10  |  Capstone Project  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Glory Road Movie

Glory Road Movie The story of Don Haskins, the long time and Hall of Fame college basketball coach from Texas Western/UTEP had been largely uncelebrated until the 2006 release of Glory Road. Directed by James Gartner and staring Josh Lucas as Coach Haskins, the movie depicts his 1966 National Championship run as the barrier breaking coach who was the first…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 9


Site Rubric on the Multigenerational Center in Henderson

¶ … Facility: The Multigenerational Center is located in Henderson, Nevada, a city that John F. Kennedy called a "city of destiny" (cited on "City History"). Today, Henderson is the second-largest city in Nevada. Its motto is "A Place to Call Home," and the Henderson Multigenerational Center reflects the demographics of the growing family-oriented community. Built in 2002 by the Dekker Perich Holmes Sabatini architectural firm, the recreational center also includes a large aquatic complex with both indoor and outdoor pools. Combined with the aquatic complex the Henderson Multigenerational Center totals 84,120 square feet (Brown, 2006). As its name implies, the Multigenerational Center appeals to persons in all age groups, from toddlers to the elderly. The newly-built recreational center can also be enjoyed by the physically and mentally challenged because its facilities were built with diversity in mind. Primarily a recreational center offering opportunities for exercise and game time, the Multigenerational Center also includes a computer lab and an art gallery. The facility can be home to cultural events, lectures, and courses as well as to sports leagues and teams. All members of the Henderson community are served by the facility, which is located in a recently-developed zone at 250 South Green Valley Parkway. Description of Facility: Henderson's Multigenerational Center is huge, appearing "mammoth from the north but more approachable and inviting from the south" (Brown, 2006). Moreover, the edifice is painted in multiple desert tones, turning what could have been a monotonous industrial-looking complex into a cheerful-looking recreational facility. Desert tones allow the complex to blend in seamlessly into the Nevada environment, indicating appreciation of and respect for the local ecosystem. Furthermore, the ground floor of the recreational center offers stunning views of the city and valley. Visitors can cultivate pride in their community, which is enhanced by the presence of this community center. The programs run at the Multigenerational Center vary considerably. One of the center's most notable features is its art gallery, which regularly invites submissions. Cultural events including music and dance performances can regularly take place on the Multigenerational Center campus. Described by the Henderson Parks and Recreation Department as a "unique facility with a visual interior mall effect," the Multigenerational Center has a modern design, look and feel (City of Henderson, 2003). Indoor spaces have high ceilings with exposed piping and the entire facility is well-lit. The gymnasium spaces are remarkable, including the second-storey jogging…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Boys Men Will Be Boys

However, although most women are as savvy about football as they are about the men in their relationships, however, while she may be yelling about fumbles and hooraying over touchdowns, she is at the same time most likely wondering why game officials wear "beltless pants" (Jenkins 1996). Women may appreciate the game they are watching, but they view it differently than men (Jenkins 1996). According to Dr. Lawrence Wenner, director of the University of San Francisco Sports and Fitness Management Program and editor of 'The Journal of Sport and Social Issues,' "The fact that female viewers are there doesn't mean they are having the same experience" (Jenkins 1996). On the darker side of the sports world, Jenkins points out that historically the NFL may penalize players for drug abuse, yet completely ignore the issue of rape and spousal abuse (Jenkins 1996). Jenkins writes, "In millions of households, game day have been an occasion of passive-aggressive skirmishing - or of outright physical violence, according to much-debated reports of weekend domestic abuse" (Jenkins 1996). On the lighter side, Jenkins includes a humorous transcript of the 2006 Monday Night Football game by an all-female broadcast, as well as transcript of the first NFL Women's League football game that is nationally televised in the year 2022 (Jenkins 1996). Whether one is an avid sports player or simply an arm chair quarter back, Jenkins's book is not only a delightful read but……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Personal Training-Exercise Habits Personal Training

Improvement in any aspect of fitness requires attention to frequency, intensity and volume as adaptations are made to a fitness regimen (Feigenbaum 1997). Frequency is defined as the number of exercise sessions per given time. Volume is the number of units referring to such variables as number of muscles worked, sets, reps or types of intervals performed during a given session. Intensity is the total amount of work performed in the activity in a given time. It must be stressed that for beginner-level fitness participants, increases in any of the three variables at too fast a rate can result in injuries and/or fatigue from overtraining (Campos 2002). For the improvement that "Self" is seeking it is recommended that for the two months, alterations between low and medium intensity at a frequency of 3-4 per sessions per week with manipulations in the kind of aerobic and weight training with little change in that frequency (Buford 2007). Following that initial exercise plan, increases in intensity within the program can be incorporated with corresponding drops in volume and frequency. Although "Self's" specific fitness goals did not address sport-specific metrics, it is nonetheless important to overall fitness to have movement skills in order to provide neuromuscular feedback between muscles and their reactions. Self intends to improve aerobic fitness in locomotor movement skills where walking transitioning to running will help to improve her aerobic capacity. Because movement involves more than simple point to point forward transition, Self intends to incorporate specific movement skills including jumping and lateral hopping to provide strength and stability to muscles involved in those areas. Nonlocomotion skills are also critical to overall fitness but are often overlooked. These skills involve strength of muscles that provide isolation such as balance or changes in load. Self will begin incorporating some balance exercises such as yoga which also has the added benefit of flexibility into her fitness regimen. Finally, manipulation of objects or manipulation movement skills exercise both the locomotion and non-locomotion movement skills through more specialized propulsion of objects. Self does not have specific fitness goals related to this but casual exercises such as volleyball or tennis can be incorporated as occasional active rest days to focus on this type of coordination in movements. Self's primary fitness goal metric is defined by weight loss. At the highest level, a very simple equation of energy coming into Self through food and energy expended through…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Exercise and Fitness

Physical Fitness Recommendations -- Exercise Session Session Objectives and Appropriate Needs-Based Exercises The principal objective of the exercise session is to engage the client in an aerobic workout that allows her to reach the highest appropriate percentage of her maximum physiological capacity and for her to maintain that degree of exertion sufficiently long enough to promote positive aerobic conditioning and other physiological adaptations such as soft-tissue repair and strengthening during the rest period in between successive workouts. A second set of objectives is to help this client minimize the symptoms of ATCS and the discomfort and limitations attributable to them. In that regard, the exercise session is designed to incorporate extensive pre-workout stretching of the area and post-workout treatments to reduce any inflammation associated with the workout. Finally, the workout session is also designed to supplement the running portion of the workout with comparable aerobic exercise to the extent the ATCS symptoms limit her ability to complete a full running workout. Exercise Timing, Sequence, and Detailed Warm-up Plan In this particular exercise session, the client will begin by statically stretching the hamstring, gluteus, quadriceps, and calves. Next, she will perform specifically prescribed stretches for the anterior tibial compartment I conjunction with light downward longitudinal tissue massage of the area to stimulate blood flow to the low-blood-flow tissues of the tendons and fascia that form the anterior tibial compartment sheath to maximize its capacity to expand to accommodate the expansion of the anterior tibial muscle group within that structure. The stretch sequence is followed by walking at increasing speeds to further extend the progression to higher stress gaits and speeds. Subsequently, the client will work to be actively aware of the first signs of pressure and discomfort in order to switch……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Exercise Physiology the Paper Discusses

" 2. Background for the Study: Here, the authors sought to see whether "capacity [to exercise] declines with age and improves with exercise training," as well as "whether changes in oxygen efficiency, defined as the oxygen cost per unit work, contribute […] to the effects of aging or training […]." 3. Methods Employed in the Study: The method utilized by authors consisted of a sample of 61 subjects that were separated into the following groups: younger women (ages 20 to 33 years, n = 15), younger men (ages 20 to 30 years, n = 12), older women (ages 65 to 79 years, n = 16), and older men (ages 65 to 77 years, n = 18). According to the authors, "all subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze aerobic parameters before and after three to six months of supervised aerobic exercise training." The most interesting thing to learn from the study is found in the fourth and fifth pieces of data, which are the results and the conclusions, respectively. These are as follows: 4. Results: The study found that before training, younger subjects had a higher exercise capacity and were able to take a higher intensity. However, with training, it was older subjects that displayed these characteristics, much to the amazement of the researchers. 5. Conclusions: Due to these incredible results, it was concluded that older age "[…] is associated with […] decreased exercise efficiency and an increase in the oxygen cost of exercise, which contribute to a decreased exercise capacity. These age-related changes are reversed with exercise training, which improves efficiency to a greater degree in the elderly than in the young." Article 4: Fatigue during Exercise by Linda Ray (Source: ) The fourth article describes how fatigue can affect exercise. The article takes the form of a counselling piece, separated into five parts, all of which offer advice to the reader in that which regards exercise, which is how the reader learns about combating fatigue while exercising. Thus, the article teaches with every line. It begins, for instance, by explaining that while a person may feel fatigue during the first half of the exercise period, this may dissipate as he or she continues the exercise. Furthermore, the advice given by the article is to eat properly, know one's body and never push it to the brink, and be aware of potential medical concerns that may arise as a…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Fitness Business

¶ … fitness business in Australia The society of the modern day era is undergoing important changes, obvious at all aspects of life. For most individuals, jobs occupy the large majority of their time and they are often sedentary; time to cook and engage in other leisure activities is decreased, resulting as such in additional pressures for the health of…

Pages: 8  |  Case Study  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Athletic Training Whether to Win

Football Football is a sport of power, strength, speed, endurance and finesse. Of all the most popular team sports, the need for weight training in football is probably the most obvious, based on the demands of the sport and the visibly bulky condition of many of the athletes. Conditioning programs and exercises for football must be sport-specific (Football strategies, 2000).…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Sport: Basketball More Sport and

Then each athletes' Peak Power (PP) was calculated as being the highest value over a 5-second period of testing; their mean power was calculated as being the average power via 30 seconds of testing and their fatigue index was determined as being the lowest value over a 5-second period divided by the highest value over a 5-second period were calculated…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Athletic Coach I Have Garnered

"A pronating foot rolls toward the inside. A supinating foot rolls toward the outside. A Morton's foot is a combination of these two abnormalities." (Levy 199). A pronating foot can result in knee problems from the joint being repeatedly twisted. I have found that most people with a pronating foot can be treated with a simple arch support, but naturally,…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Psychology of Health and Exercise

Sports Psychology -- Setting Measurable Goals Declaration of Goals Lose weight through improved diet. Establish optimal physical fitness training routine. Stop smoking. Timeframe for Long and Short-Term Goal Achievement Lose weight through improved diet. Establish specific dietary rules immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. (Identify all junk foods, high-fat foods, high sugar-content foods, simple carbohydrates, and establish a firm limit for alcoholic beverages.) Long-term goal (4 weeks): Reduce consumption of all of the above sufficiently to lose 10 lbs in 4 weeks. Establish optimal physical fitness training routine. Establish specific commitment to workout at least 4 days per week immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. Resolve to forego social activities of any kind until any missed workouts are made up every week. Long-term goal (4 weeks): Reduce missed workouts to 0 per week by completing 16 workouts in 4 weeks. Stop smoking. Establish specific rules for smoking cessation plan immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. Instead of attempting the "cold turkey" approach (again), I will employ a behaviorism-based approach whose principal feature is distinguishing between physiological and psychological nicotine craving. Long-term goal (4 weeks): Completely eliminate all "comfort" cigarettes and "habitual" smoking scenarios. By the end of the 4th week, smoke only half a cigarette at a time, only when necessitated by intense physical symptoms or withdrawal (i.e. headache, nausea, intense physical craving), and only under conditions that introduce some element of unpleasantness (such as standing on one foot, standing outside in the cold without a coat, or while……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Sports Management Facilities as a Sports Events

Sports Management Facilities As a sports events organizers there is a lot of responsibility that is involved. First would be able to find out the condition of the facilities being used for the baseball game. It would be to look for the best baseball fields. It would be important to make sure that facilities and cleaned for the use and…

Pages: 13  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Flow States and Sport

It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs and behavior of individuals. This makes it ideal for the technique, which elicits change at unconscious level to be highly…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 15


Sport Drink Facts and Fictions

Results: Compared to placebo (water), ingesting glucose are regular intervals during the steady state portion of the task significantly improved performance; however, the addition of caffeine did not improve performance significantly compared to glucose alone. Conclusions: The sample size was small and incompletely randomized. Another weakness in the study was the use of water as a placebo, which would not…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Physical Fitness in Children the

The results of studies on aerobic capacity and fitness in children and adolescents suggest that physical fitness needs to be placed in the lower priority than developing healthy exercise habits that will continue into an adult. As children grow they will gain size and strength. Children were found to be able to increase muscular strength in response to resistance training…

Pages: 12  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 16


Public Qualitative Observation: Wow Fitness

The rooms were literally packed like sardines and there seemed to be little personal attention given to the different participants. Some participants seemed very confident about their moves and seemed equally if not more deft and fit than the instructor while others seemed obviously very lost and new to fitness. The rooms were large enough to require the instructor to…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Sports and Gender Discrimination

The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity. Cultural And Social Assessment Feminist theory states that women will be given equal rights in sports and media however this equality doesn't exist and there exist a…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Sports Like NFL and NBA and American Popular Culture

The famous baseball author Roger Kahn noted that Reese didn't say anything but the racists were silenced immediately as Robinsontold Kahn (Ruiz, 2013; Lee, 2012). After 27 years Robinson wore the Brooklyn Dodger uniform, Hank Aaron surpassed Babe Ruth's career home run record (playing with Atlanta Braves). Vin Scully a prominent Dodger play-by-play broadcaster noted on the night of 715th career home run, 'the crowd is giving a standing ovation to a black player for breaking the record in the Deep South of an all-time baseball legend (Hollander, 2014; Lee, 2012). Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012). Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the…

Pages: 7  |  Annotated Bibliography  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Exercise Habits of University Students the Questionnaire

Exercise Habits of University Students The questionnaire used for this study concentrates on the exercise attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of Syracuse University students. Demographic, attitudinal and forced-choice rankings of criterion used to evaluate activities, work-out facilities on and off-campus, and analysis of time demands on students are included in the survey. A total of 26 questions comprise the survey. The…

Pages: 7  |  Case Study  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Personal Training Senior Fitness

Personal Training Senior Fitness Exercising with osteoarthritis can be painful if not done correctly and is too strenuous since cartilage between the joints has broken down, thus resulting in pain. Therefore, an appropriate exercise regime is significant for Maddie, which should include strength training and low-intensity aerobics. The latter form of motion is less taxing on the joints so walking, swimming, and if permitted, cycling can be incorporated. Strength training is important because it helps build muscles and may regress the progress of osteoarthritis. Therefore, Maddie may work with light dumbbells, thera-band stability trainers, and may attend Pilates classes, yoga, stretch, and tai chi. In a study led by Boeer, it showed those who exercised with thera-band stability trainers and had hip osteoarthritis increased their balance, thus reducing the risk of falling. In training Maddie, I would definitely include tai chi because as shown in a study by Song, forms of tai chi were designed to lessen the effects of osteoarthritis. The investigation concluded that performing the various movements of said exercise style, the symptoms of the disease was improved along with better balance. Aquatic aerobics is recommended because the water supports most of Maddie's weight, thus less stress on the joints and body. The client can and will be able to receive a great workout since water creates more resistance, which allows Maddie to create muscle and strengthen muscles with less strain and pain. Exercising in the water is especially helpful with knee and hip osteoarthritis, in particular water walking. This type of regimen tones different muscles depending on the way the client walks, whether backwards or sideways. A study done by Wyatt was to demonstrate the effects of aquatic exercise and traditional exercise on those with knee osteoarthritis. The investigation showed those who undergone water exercise experienced less pain than those who exercised on land. Maddie may also incorporate gym equipment despite her osteoarthritis. She may be on a stationary bike or an elliptical since they do not stress the joints. The former can be a recumbent bike since it leans back and reduces tension. Knee and back strain is further reduced when Maddie orients the pedals further away. The latter machine emulates walking and stair climbing and a bike, but providing the potency of a cardio workout. Maddie can change things up by going on a treadmill, which she can pace herself appropriately and walk, which is…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Exercise Pros and Cons Project

¶ … Exercise The subject of exercise has been consistently brought to the forefront, as it is the focus of increasing attention and discussion. This however is nothing new, as interest has begun to wane, with it suddenly becoming topical once more. To answer the question of: who exercises and why, requires understanding the various reasons for an individual choosing to exercise. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to the overall benefits and drawbacks of exercising. Who Exercises? Simply put, exercise is any bodily activity, which enhances / maintains physical fitness, and health / wellness. It consists of two popular types: aerobic and isometric. Each of these can be of three different intensities to include: light, moderate, and vigorous. The people, who are considered to be active, would be those that exercise at least three times a week for 20 minutes a day. (Wellikson, L., 1987, pg. 216) There are a wide variety of individuals from all walks of life who exercise. This can vary from participating various sports (such as: football, baseball or running) to taking a brisk walk. In some cases, individuals are choosing to exercise as part of a consistent effort, while at other times this could be considered a reality of everyday life. For example, someone who is exercising as part of their career would be doing so for different reasons, in comparison with an individual who chooses to do so. In this case, individuals that are required to exercise as a part of their career; must be able to deal with the rigorous challenges that their body could be forced to endure (i.e. A solider or professional athlete). This is important, because it shows how someone will exercise based on a necessity for their career field. Where, there could be those individuals who are exercising, yet they might not enjoy it. When you compare this to someone who exercising because of personal choice, they are doing so for: health reasons, socialization and enjoyment. This is significant because it shows, how there are wide variety of reasons as to why someone will exercise. In some cases, it is for a host of motivations, while others is based on select factors. Why do people exercise? There are a wide variety of reasons as to why someone will exercise some of the most notable include: weight control and improved circulation. The way exercise…

Pages: 3  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness Research Proposal for Research Concerning a Fitness-Based Intervention With Childhood Obesity Personal Meaningfulness: The problem of obesity has worsened in recent years as Americans have tended culturally to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators that become evident early in life…

Pages: 8  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 12


Gymnastics Is a Sport That Requires Tremendous

Gymnastics is a sport that requires tremendous physical stamina and technical control over the body. Denise Villani, an author and Webmaster of a number sports-related websites, writes that this graceful and artistic sport requires a "combination of strength, balance, agility and muscle coordination" (http://gymnastics-stuff.com). Villani explains that gymnasts must be in top physical shape in order to perform "sequences of…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Pettlep Imagery on Sports Performance Imagery as

¶ … PETTLEP Imagery on Sports Performance Imagery as a means of assisting success has been used in a variety of applications. Specifically, the use of imagery in enhancing sports performance has been particularly researched, in recent years. The PETTLEP motor-based imagery process has demonstrated encouraging results in a variety of sports, including: golf, hockey, gymnastics, and weight lifting. However, there is still a question regarding if these results can be generalized to other sports and even other facets of the sports already involved in studies and whether or not the results will be found long-term. Holmes and Collins (2001) pioneered the seven-component imagery process known as PETTLEP imagery. In Holmes and Collins process, there are seven factors that are taken into consideration when implementing this motor-based imagery. These components include: physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. The authors surmised that the brain stores memories that are accessed by physical preparation and execution, especially motor imagery that is related to preparation and execution. Their seven-point checklist is an evidence-based method that highlights the areas that should be monitored, to enhance the efficacy of the imagery on the physical task. Several researchers have used the PETTLEP imagery practice in their research to determine its effectiveness. Wright and Smith (2009) compared the effects of PETTLEP imagery with the results obtained using more traditional imagery, on muscle strength in its subjects. Fifty participants were divided into five groups consisting of those who used: PETTLEP, traditional imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and practice, and a control group. Over a course of six weeks participants in the PETTLEP, combination and physical practice groups showed improvement in their strength. Interestingly, there were no marked differences in improvement between the participants who used PETTLEP and those who were in the physical practice group. Although these results seem to support the use of PETTLEP for strength improvement, there are limitations to the research. The study period, six weeks, was quite short. The question of whether or not these same results would be seen for longer periods of study needs to be answered. Other muscle groups should be tested to see if the bicep results can be generalized to the entire body. In addition, whether or not these results can be applied to specific tasks needed to complete sports-specific tasks needs to be demonstrated. Smith, Wright, and Cantwell (2008) studied the effects of PETTLEP imagery…

Pages: 3  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Sports and Steroids

Sports and Steroids Steroids and Their Effects Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald & Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they were used to treat under-nourished patients and induce their healing after surgery. It was in the 50s that competitive weightlifters…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10

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