"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays 1-70

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Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy Capstone Project

… The intended audience is primarily individuals responsible for coach training programs. Yet, the data was collected from the athletes, and apparently no data was collected from coaches with regard to their own perceptions or observations about their use of coaching strategies. Particularly of note is the absence of self-assessment by coaches of any differentiated treatment or interactions based on the gender or ages of the young athletes. Analysis of the relation between coaching styles and gender was not identified as an important variable in the initial approach to the study. The age range of the participants is wide, and calls to question whether different strategies might have different impact on the youth athletes depending on their age, as well as their gender. Moreover, this study -- and many others related to this research topic -- are conducted during sports practice and not during actual competitions. The authors suggest that a different set of dynamics may prevail when competitiveness is emphasized.

Discussion of Hypotheses: The hypotheses proposed for this research include the following: Hypothesis 1: Autonomy-supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports; and Hypothesis 2: Controlling coaching style is more effective for male than female athletes in team sports. For both hypotheses, the independent variable is gender (nominal data) and the dependent variable is the effectiveness of autonomy-supportive coaching style (ordinal data).

Methods: Data analysis of the responses to the ASCQ was conducted for three models using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The models tested were: 1) Uni-dimensional -- all items loaded on the single factor that represented autonomy-supportive coaching; 2) two uncorrelated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior; and 3) two correlated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior. The one item-factor regression coefficient on each factor was set at 1.0 for the purpose of establishing a metric, and every item was set to load on a specific factor. To analyze the relations between the ASCQ scores and the perceived coaching behaviors and need satisfaction, hierarchical multiple regression were used. As some collinearity between the predictors in each of the models was expected when interpreting the parameter estimates, greater emphasis was placed on the structure coefficients than on the standardized regression coefficients.

Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis suggest that youth athletes were able to differentiate strategies used by coaches to support autonomy. Moreover, these coaching strategies were strongly positively correlated. The two coaching strategies used to support autonomy in the young athletes were fundamentally supportive and affiliative in nature -- and were considered to be essentially non-controlling coaching behaviors. However, one substantive distinction emerged: No association was found between coaches' interest in the input by the young athletes and perceived blame and punitive control; however, a negative association was found between coaches' praise for autonomous behavior and perceived blame and punitive control.

Learnings and Application: The results indicate that young athletes were better… [read more]

Exercise Science the Physiological Benefits of Childhood Research Proposal

… Exercise Science

The Physiological Benefits of Childhood Exercise

The problem of childhood obesity has worsened in recent years as children tend to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is… [read more]

Sports Science and Sports Medicine Term Paper

… (Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003)

When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago,… [read more]

Motor Processes in Sport Tom Essay

… The approach for Tom might be best if the bilateral transfer notion is ignored and Tom's weakness is approached from a very basic instructional level. If there is bilateral transfer in this case it will reveal itself as Tom begins… [read more]

Pilates Exercise Specialists Program, Wellington, New Zealand Term Paper

… Pilates Exercise Specialists Program, Wellington, New Zealand, is guaranteed to make the user 'feel' the difference after two sessions, 'see' the difference after another few sessions, and make others 'notice' the difference after a few more weeks. What is Pilates… [read more]

Self-Esteem Exercise Promotes Higher Term Paper

… "The future is coming -- and it is fat! The rising rate of obesity among children and adolescents bodes poorly for the health and wellness of the coming generation. Close to 10% of exercise psychology research in the past few… [read more]

Motivation in Sport Term Paper

… The inconsistency in sport confidence that exists in duration of time is influenced in basic by the sources of the confidence. (Weinberg & Gould, 1999, p.24).

Researchers can make an effort to realize how the sources of sport confidence would… [read more]

Psychology in Sports Thesis

… Sports Psychology

Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and… [read more]

Sports Medicine Research Proposal

… Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a… [read more]

Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey Research Proposal

… Sports Shoes Turkey

Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey

Brief History of Turkey

Turkey is an internationally recognized center for sports enthusiasm and participation. The interest in sports is culturally bound both historically and as an… [read more]

Brand Vision Statement and Rationale Term Paper

… Bally Total Fitness - Branding

Bally Total Fitness Holding Corporation (NYSE: BFT)

Brand Vision Statement and Rationale

The objective of this work is to from the stance of a young professional in an advertising agency who has been invited to… [read more]

Wellness/Prevention Programs and Therapeutic Exercise Term Paper

… Even mild therapeutic exercise has been shown to benefit participants (Heath, 2002). Most people are deterred from therapeutic exercise programs because they feel regimens must be long or painful to produce results. Studies indicate just the opposite however. For therapeutic exercise to be most beneficial, exercise programs need "focus on long-term sustainability and enjoyment to achieve an optimal overall outcome" (King, 1991 & Heath 2002). Enjoyment does not necessarily involve a lengthy program. Participants who enjoy the exercise program they engage in are also more likely to stay with the program over a longer period of time, resulting in even greater health benefits. In one controlled study of 225 mostly sedentary adults, participants responded to even a brief "physician-delivered exercise program and walking" (Heath, 2002 & Calfas, 1996). In some instances a mere three to five minutes of activity resulted in at least improved mental outlook for patients, which in turn results in overall better wellness.

Therapeutic exercise can assist in increasing the "vitality, strength, flexibility, balance and general sense of well being" for patients who adhere to physician guidelines. The rewards may include decreased length of incapacity due to illness or injury, quicker gains as in the case of the stroke patients examined, and mental rewards for both patients and physicians (Heath, 2002).

Physicians should be required to take an active role in the health and well being of their patients by routinely prescribing therapeutic exercises to patients. Such exercises, when viewed in a positive light are more likely to be embraced by patients. Patients who are introduced enthusiastically to therapeutic regimens are more likely to overcome their inhibitions and engage in more active lifestyles. The implications for wellness and disease prevention can not be ignored. Therapeutic exercise can result in better health mentally, physically and emotionally.


Christmas, C, Andersen RA. (2000). Exercise and Older Patients: Guidelines for the Clinician. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 2000; 48:318-24

Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. (1998). American College of Sports

Medicine. Journal Science Sports Exercise. 30:992-1008

Calfas, KJ, Long BJ, Sallis JF, Wooten WJ, Pratt M, Patrick K. (1996). A Controlled

Trial of Physician Counseling to promote the adoption of Physical Activity. Preventive Medicine; 25:225-33

King, AC, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Kreemer HC. (1991). Group vs. Home-Based

Exercise Training in Healthy Older Men and Women. JAMA;266:1535-42.

Heath, John M. MD & Stuart, Maria R., PhD.

Prescribing Exercise for Frail Elders."

Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. 15(3): 218-228, 2002. American Board of Family Practice. Retrieved at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/434355

Reuters Health Information.…… [read more]

Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Style Capstone Project

… (2004).

Another factor that is impossible to control given the structure of this study is the fact that there are multiple coaches involved and every coach is different. How they control and pose situations is going differ from person to… [read more]

Human Performance Analysis Essay

… ¶ … Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions

This project details the personal experiences of the experimenter in identifying the source of physiological symptoms triggered by sports and fitness activities involving running or extensive (i.e. fast-pace and/or long distance) walking. The… [read more]

Discourse Community Memoir Thesis

… ¶ … Community Membership

I have always had an interest in sports and fitness but I had never joined a gym until last year. To outsiders, the gym can be somewhat intimidating, which is one of the reasons that the slogan "No Judgments" of the Crunch Gym fitness club chain appealed to me. Still, for a person walking into a gym from the street, it can be uncomfortable to walk into a facility that seems to cater to a tight-nit group of regulars who have a well-established routine, a common lingo, and who are very likely to recognize a complete novice immediately. As a new gym member, I realized that there were at least two aspects of knowledge and expertise that I would have to acquire to become comfortable in the gym environment: (1) technical proficiency with the equipment and methods of fitness training, and (2) social fluency in the terminology and etiquette associated with the activity.

Joining the Community:

The first day in a gym did more to reinforce my initial apprehension than it did to lessen it. That was mainly because the process getting started required a consultation with a membership representative and signing up for an initial two-week trial membership. We sat in a small office adjacent to areas where those who were already part of the community worked out together. The fact that the office walls were circular and glass made me feel as though I were in a display case labeled "Gym Newbies" instead of sitting in a membership sales office. Even worse than the display case experience was the gym tour that followed that ensured that any gym regulars who had not noticed me in the newbie case would catch the newbie on tour.

With any hope of trying to blend in as much as possible and keep a low profile at first lost, I finally managed to get changed and situate myself on an elliptical machine somewhat inconspicuously. Luckily, the row of elliptical machines overlooked the main gym area, letting me be the outside observer. I noticed immediately that even though most of the people working out were involved in their own individual exercises, there was still a definite rhythm to the room. Some people seemed to be oblivious to what was going on around them on one level, working on their own and listening to headphones; others worked out in pairs, talking the whole time. On another level, even the solitary exercisers seemed to have an awareness of a certain flow to the gym, occasionally taking their headphones down momentarily to say something to someone before resuming their solitary exercises.

I realized that there had to be a lot to learn about communicating in the gym environment by the way that nobody ever seemed to get in anybody else's way even though so many people were involved in so many different specific exercises and activities. Some of the most obvious examples included the manner in which people working in the two free… [read more]

Glory Road Movie Term Paper

… Glory Road Movie

The story of Don Haskins, the long time and Hall of Fame college
basketball coach from Texas Western/UTEP had been largely uncelebrated
until the 2006 release of Glory Road. Directed by James Gartner and
staring Josh Lucas… [read more]

Site Rubric on the Multigenerational Center in Henderson Term Paper

… ¶ … Facility: The Multigenerational Center is located in Henderson, Nevada, a city that John F. Kennedy called a "city of destiny" (cited on "City History"). Today, Henderson is the second-largest city in Nevada. Its motto is "A Place to Call Home," and the Henderson Multigenerational Center reflects the demographics of the growing family-oriented community. Built in 2002 by the Dekker Perich Holmes Sabatini architectural firm, the recreational center also includes a large aquatic complex with both indoor and outdoor pools. Combined with the aquatic complex the Henderson Multigenerational Center totals 84,120 square feet (Brown, 2006). As its name implies, the Multigenerational Center appeals to persons in all age groups, from toddlers to the elderly. The newly-built recreational center can also be enjoyed by the physically and mentally challenged because its facilities were built with diversity in mind. Primarily a recreational center offering opportunities for exercise and game time, the Multigenerational Center also includes a computer lab and an art gallery. The facility can be home to cultural events, lectures, and courses as well as to sports leagues and teams. All members of the Henderson community are served by the facility, which is located in a recently-developed zone at 250 South Green Valley Parkway.

Description of Facility: Henderson's Multigenerational Center is huge, appearing "mammoth from the north but more approachable and inviting from the south" (Brown, 2006). Moreover, the edifice is painted in multiple desert tones, turning what could have been a monotonous industrial-looking complex into a cheerful-looking recreational facility. Desert tones allow the complex to blend in seamlessly into the Nevada environment, indicating appreciation of and respect for the local ecosystem. Furthermore, the ground floor of the recreational center offers stunning views of the city and valley. Visitors can cultivate pride in their community, which is enhanced by the presence of this community center. The programs run at the Multigenerational Center vary considerably. One of the center's most notable features is its art gallery, which regularly invites submissions. Cultural events including music and dance performances can regularly take place on the Multigenerational Center campus. Described by the Henderson Parks and Recreation Department as a "unique facility with a visual interior mall effect," the Multigenerational Center has a modern design, look and feel (City of Henderson, 2003). Indoor spaces have high ceilings with exposed piping and the entire facility is well-lit. The gymnasium spaces are remarkable, including the second-storey jogging track that overlooks the gym's basketball courts. Indoor sports and gym facilities allow patrons to work out all year long no matter what the weather. At the same time, the Multigenerational Center capitalizes on the Nevada sun with the outdoor pool and aquatic center facilities.

Analysis of Facility: The Henderson Multigenerational Center serves its purpose and goes beyond what would normally be expected of a community recreational facility. Because…… [read more]

Boys Men Term Paper

… However, although most women are as savvy about football as they are about the men in their relationships, however, while she may be yelling about fumbles and hooraying over touchdowns, she is at the same time most likely wondering why game officials wear "beltless pants" (Jenkins 1996). Women may appreciate the game they are watching, but they view it differently than men (Jenkins 1996). According to Dr. Lawrence Wenner, director of the University of San Francisco Sports and Fitness Management Program and editor of 'The Journal of Sport and Social Issues,' "The fact that female viewers are there doesn't mean they are having the same experience" (Jenkins 1996).

On the darker side of the sports world, Jenkins points out that historically the NFL may penalize players for drug abuse, yet completely ignore the issue of rape and spousal abuse (Jenkins 1996). Jenkins writes, "In millions of households, game day have been an occasion of passive-aggressive skirmishing - or of outright physical violence, according to much-debated reports of weekend domestic abuse" (Jenkins 1996). On the lighter side, Jenkins includes a humorous transcript of the 2006 Monday Night Football game by an all-female broadcast, as well as transcript of the first NFL Women's League football game that is nationally televised in the year 2022 (Jenkins 1996).

Whether one is an avid sports player or simply an arm chair quarter back, Jenkins's book is not only a delightful read but…… [read more]

Personal Training-Exercise Habits Term Paper

… Improvement in any aspect of fitness requires attention to frequency, intensity and volume as adaptations are made to a fitness regimen (Feigenbaum 1997). Frequency is defined as the number of exercise sessions per given time. Volume is the number of units referring to such variables as number of muscles worked, sets, reps or types of intervals performed during a given session. Intensity is the total amount of work performed in the activity in a given time. It must be stressed that for beginner-level fitness participants, increases in any of the three variables at too fast a rate can result in injuries and/or fatigue from overtraining (Campos 2002). For the improvement that "Self" is seeking it is recommended that for the two months, alterations between low and medium intensity at a frequency of 3-4 per sessions per week with manipulations in the kind of aerobic and weight training with little change in that frequency (Buford 2007). Following that initial exercise plan, increases in intensity within the program can be incorporated with corresponding drops in volume and frequency.

Although "Self's" specific fitness goals did not address sport-specific metrics, it is nonetheless important to overall fitness to have movement skills in order to provide neuromuscular feedback between muscles and their reactions. Self intends to improve aerobic fitness in locomotor movement skills where walking transitioning to running will help to improve her aerobic capacity. Because movement involves more than simple point to point forward transition, Self intends to incorporate specific movement skills including jumping and lateral hopping to provide strength and stability to muscles involved in those areas. Nonlocomotion skills are also critical to overall fitness but are often overlooked. These skills involve strength of muscles that provide isolation such as balance or changes in load. Self will begin incorporating some balance exercises such as yoga which also has the added benefit of flexibility into her fitness regimen. Finally, manipulation of objects or manipulation movement skills exercise both the locomotion and non-locomotion movement skills through more specialized propulsion of objects. Self does not have specific fitness goals related to this but casual exercises such as volleyball or tennis can be incorporated as occasional active rest days to focus on this type of coordination in movements.

Self's primary fitness goal metric is defined by weight loss. At the highest level, a very simple equation of energy coming into Self through food and energy expended through work defines whether weight loss, weight gain or no change will take place. The practical implementation of this equation is more complicated. Three basic… [read more]

Sport: Basketball More Research Paper

… Then each athletes' Peak Power (PP) was calculated as being the highest value over a 5-second period of testing; their mean power was calculated as being the average power via 30 seconds of testing and their fatigue index was determined… [read more]

Fitness Business Case Study

… ¶ … fitness business in Australia

The society of the modern day era is undergoing important changes, obvious at all aspects of life. For most individuals, jobs occupy the large majority of their time and they are often sedentary; time… [read more]

Exercise Physiology Research Paper

… "

2. Background for the Study: Here, the authors sought to see whether "capacity [to exercise] declines with age and improves with exercise training," as well as "whether changes in oxygen efficiency, defined as the oxygen cost per unit work, contribute […] to the effects of aging or training […]."

3. Methods Employed in the Study: The method utilized by authors consisted of a sample of 61 subjects that were separated into the following groups: younger women (ages 20 to 33 years, n = 15), younger men (ages 20 to 30 years, n = 12), older women (ages 65 to 79 years, n = 16), and older men (ages 65 to 77 years, n = 18). According to the authors, "all subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze aerobic parameters before and after three to six months of supervised aerobic exercise training."

The most interesting thing to learn from the study is found in the fourth and fifth pieces of data, which are the results and the conclusions, respectively. These are as follows:

4. Results: The study found that before training, younger subjects had a higher exercise capacity and were able to take a higher intensity. However, with training, it was older subjects that displayed these characteristics, much to the amazement of the researchers.

5. Conclusions: Due to these incredible results, it was concluded that older age "[…] is associated with […] decreased exercise efficiency and an increase in the oxygen cost of exercise, which contribute to a decreased exercise capacity. These age-related changes are reversed with exercise training, which improves efficiency to a greater degree in the elderly than in the young."

Article 4: Fatigue during Exercise by Linda Ray (Source: )

The fourth article describes how fatigue can affect exercise. The article takes the form of a counselling piece, separated into five parts, all of which offer advice to the reader in that which regards exercise, which is how the reader learns about combating fatigue while exercising. Thus, the article teaches with every line. It begins, for instance, by explaining that while a person may feel fatigue during the first half of the exercise period, this may dissipate as he or she continues the exercise. Furthermore, the advice given by the article is to eat properly, know one's body and never push it to the brink, and be aware of potential medical concerns that may arise as a result of the exercise. This is all great advice to exercise not only often, and increase performance, but do so in a gradual and healthy way.

Article 5: Exercise: 7 Benefits of Regular Physical Activity by Mayo Clinic Staff (Source: )

The last piece builds upon all the advice offered in the previous articles. The seven benefits of regular physical activity, according to the article, are: controlling one's weight, combating potential diseases, improving mood, boosting energy, sleeping better, having a better sex life, a last but not least, having fun. These positives, as evidenced here, can only improve one's life,… [read more]

Exercise and Fitness Term Paper

… Physical Fitness Recommendations -- Exercise Session

Session Objectives and Appropriate Needs-Based Exercises

The principal objective of the exercise session is to engage the client in an aerobic workout that allows her to reach the highest appropriate percentage of her maximum physiological capacity and for her to maintain that degree of exertion sufficiently long enough to promote positive aerobic conditioning and other physiological adaptations such as soft-tissue repair and strengthening during the rest period in between successive workouts. A second set of objectives is to help this client minimize the symptoms of ATCS and the discomfort and limitations attributable to them. In that regard, the exercise session is designed to incorporate extensive pre-workout stretching of the area and post-workout treatments to reduce any inflammation associated with the workout. Finally, the workout session is also designed to supplement the running portion of the workout with comparable aerobic exercise to the extent the ATCS symptoms limit her ability to complete a full running workout.

Exercise Timing, Sequence, and Detailed Warm-up Plan

In this particular exercise session, the client will begin by statically stretching the hamstring, gluteus, quadriceps, and calves. Next, she will perform specifically prescribed stretches for the anterior tibial compartment I conjunction with light downward longitudinal tissue massage of the area to stimulate blood flow to the low-blood-flow tissues of the tendons and fascia that form the anterior tibial compartment sheath to maximize its capacity to expand to accommodate the expansion of the anterior tibial muscle group within that structure.

The stretch sequence is followed by walking at increasing speeds to further extend the progression to higher stress gaits and speeds. Subsequently, the client will work to be actively aware of the first signs of pressure and discomfort in order to switch…… [read more]

Athletic Training Whether to Win Term Paper

… Football

Football is a sport of power, strength, speed, endurance and finesse. Of all the most popular team sports, the need for weight training in football is probably the most obvious, based on the demands of the sport and the… [read more]

Athletic Coach I Have Garnered Term Paper

… "A pronating foot rolls toward the inside. A supinating foot rolls toward the outside. A Morton's foot is a combination of these two abnormalities." (Levy 199).

A pronating foot can result in knee problems from the joint being repeatedly twisted.… [read more]

Sports Like NFL and NBA and American Popular Culture Annotated Bibliography

… The famous baseball author Roger Kahn noted that Reese didn't say anything but the racists were silenced immediately as Robinsontold Kahn (Ruiz, 2013; Lee, 2012). After 27 years Robinson wore the Brooklyn Dodger uniform, Hank Aaron surpassed Babe Ruth's career home run record (playing with Atlanta Braves). Vin Scully a prominent Dodger play-by-play broadcaster noted on the night of 715th career home run, 'the crowd is giving a standing ovation to a black player for breaking the record in the Deep South of an all-time baseball legend (Hollander, 2014; Lee, 2012).

Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).

Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).

In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths… [read more]

Sports and Gender Discrimination Term Paper

… The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity.

Cultural And Social Assessment

Feminist theory states… [read more]

Public Qualitative Observation: Wow Fitness Essay

… The rooms were literally packed like sardines and there seemed to be little personal attention given to the different participants. Some participants seemed very confident about their moves and seemed equally if not more deft and fit than the instructor… [read more]

Flow States and Sport Essay

… It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs… [read more]

Sport Drink Facts and Fictions Research Paper

… Results: Compared to placebo (water), ingesting glucose are regular intervals during the steady state portion of the task significantly improved performance; however, the addition of caffeine did not improve performance significantly compared to glucose alone. Conclusions: The sample size was… [read more]

Sports Management Facilities as a Sports Events Research Paper

… Sports Management


As a sports events organizers there is a lot of responsibility that is involved. First would be able to find out the condition of the facilities being used for the baseball game. It would be to look… [read more]

Physical Fitness in Children Research Proposal

… The results of studies on aerobic capacity and fitness in children and adolescents suggest that physical fitness needs to be placed in the lower priority than developing healthy exercise habits that will continue into an adult. As children grow they… [read more]

Psychology of Health and Exercise Term Paper

… Sports Psychology -- Setting Measurable Goals

Declaration of Goals

Lose weight through improved diet.

Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.

Stop smoking.

Timeframe for Long and Short-Term Goal Achievement

Lose weight through improved diet.

Establish specific dietary rules immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. (Identify all junk foods, high-fat foods, high sugar-content foods, simple carbohydrates, and establish a firm limit for alcoholic beverages.) Long-term goal (4 weeks): Reduce consumption of all of the above sufficiently to lose 10 lbs in 4 weeks.

Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.

Establish specific commitment to workout at least 4 days per week immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. Resolve to forego social activities of any kind until any missed workouts are made up every week. Long-term goal (4 weeks): Reduce missed workouts to 0 per week by completing 16 workouts in 4 weeks.

Stop smoking.

Establish specific rules for smoking cessation plan immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. Instead of attempting the "cold turkey" approach (again), I will employ a behaviorism-based approach whose principal feature is distinguishing between physiological and psychological nicotine craving. Long-term goal (4 weeks): Completely eliminate all "comfort" cigarettes and "habitual" smoking scenarios. By the end of the 4th week, smoke only half a cigarette at a time, only when necessitated by intense physical symptoms or withdrawal (i.e. headache, nausea, intense physical craving), and only under conditions that introduce some element of unpleasantness (such as standing on one foot, standing outside in the cold without a coat, or while…… [read more]

Dynamics Shaping the Sports Media Industry Research Paper

… Sports Media


The spot media is one of the sectors expected to undergo significant transformations in the future. This will influence the ways in which the society perceives the sports media and consumption of the… [read more]

Sex and Exercise Research Paper

… In the summer of 2009, a study consisting of 24 students was carried out in Tehran. The participants were instructed to continue their normal routines and not to bring any changes in their activity and diet. The main finding of… [read more]

Fitness Trends: Dvds and Their Research Paper

… Still other DVD series have specifically crafted their appeal around promoting the purchase of an item which then can be used in conjunction with the DVD's fitness program. "For instance, the Bosu Cardio Fusion video uses the Bosu for an aerobic workout. The Bosu is half a stability ball with a dome side and a platform side. And sales of elastic resistance training DVDs have been increasing due to numerous products marketing these as a solution for anyone who is short on time and money" (Kaczanowska 13). Although these equipment-based programs can be 'fads' they can experience a brief upsurge in popularity due to the novelty factor which alleviates boredom for consumers and the appeal of getting additional gear in conjunction with a workout DVD.


The hard copy DVD has considerable competition in the mainstream market and the yoga market from streaming services. However, purchases of straightforward fitness DVDs are still common and are likely to remain so. Segmentation has become rife within the market, spanning from increasingly intense programs for those who want to 'get ripped fast' versus DVDs specifically targeting demographics such as Baby Boomers and children. As time grows in increasingly short supply and concerns about obesity grow, interest in convenient at-home workouts is likely to escalate and there remains a core constituency of consumers who wish to purchase the majority of their self-directed fitness content on DVDs. To leverage both markets, one possibility is to offer both DVDs and subscription-based services, given that the demographics likely to be attracted to both (people seeking 'programs' versus those seeking variety as well as niche markets like the elderly) are likely to be quite different.


Bendewald, M. "The Last DVD holdout: How online video is revolutionizing the home fitness industry." Megamace Fitness. [19 Feb 2014]


Gibala, M. (et al.). "Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease." The Journal of Physiology, 590 (2012). 1077-1084. [19 Feb 2014]


Massey, Bob. "Online sites are the latest trends in fitness. Feeling Fit. [19 Feb 2014]


Ning, Tina. "The growth of online yoga and fitness." Lohas. [19 Feb 204]


Kaczanowska, Agata. "No sweat: Fitness DVDs have been banking on their celebrity trainers and cheaper formats." IBIS World. November 2012.

Perez, S. & Tressel, C. "ABC. Healthbeat Report: Exercise to the extreme." ABC.…… [read more]

Gender on Concussion Reporting Annotated Bibliography

… Each of the participants had competed in either a high school sport or a college team. The participants were required to indicate their perceived stress intensity and their typical coping response after experiencing two stressors that they perceived as most… [read more]

Success and Failure in Sport Essay

… e. due to lack of ability or lack of effort, locus of causality between causes that are external, like, a difficult task or good fortune, or between causes that are internal, like, the ability or determination, the failure or success… [read more]

Basketball Game Coverage Sports Assessment

… It is important for me to set goals and meet them. Therefore, having a specific deadline by which to submit my article helped me get the article done. I take my deadlines quite seriously. There is also satisfaction in knowing that one can and does meet all deadlines. There was some professional camaraderie, but there was also some competition among the other sports journalists covering the game. Competition can both hinder and facilitate meeting deadlines. In this case, it did not serve as a hindrance.

The greatest pressures to meet the deadline came from within myself. When a deadline is set, I do my best to meet it. There were some factors that were out of my control, such as waiting for petty cash, or procedures for reimbursement, or approval for travel costs, etc. The pressure to meet the deadline also comes from my editor, and my news organization. Tardiness is not tolerated or excused, or is done so with prejudice and rarely. There was pressure from other news organizations and the journalists representing them for this game. There is also pressure within the game itself. As part of the writing, I commented and described the various pressures in the game -- from coaches, to players, to statistics, to the shot clock. One of the things I appreciate about sports journalism is the epic nature of sports. Sports coverage is very dramatic, and intense. It is one of the reasons why I enjoy the Olympics so much. It is one of the greatest stages for sports in the world and in modern human history. Everything about the Olympics is epic -- from the classical music theme song, to the ornate opening and closing ceremonies, as well as all the backstories of the athletes, teams, and countries participating. This is the kind of energy I brought to writing about basketball games. In a way, I felt pressure to bring a high level of dynamism to the writing, too.

I needed several kinds of information to write an appropriate game story. I needed information about the NCAA. I needed information about the respective universities and teams. I needed quite a lot of information regarding statistics and history. I needed information regarding where the game was taking place and how this game fit within the overall context of March Madness. Additionally, I needed information regarding the quality of resources. I needed information about game schedules and game itineraries so as to plan my comings and goings during the game. I need such information to plan or coordinate interviews, for example.


National Sports Journalism Center. (2013). Home. Indiana University, Web, Available from: http://sportsjournalism.org/. 2013 March 10.

Sherman, G. (2011). How sports journalists learned to go for the hard tackle. New York Magazine, Web, Available from: http://nymag.com/news/intelligencer/sports-journalism-2011-12/. 2013 March 10.

TheJayJones. (2013). Home. One Click Sports Now -- Sports Journalism, Web, Available from: http://oneclicksportsnow.com/now/sports-media-2/sports-journalism/. 2013 March 10.… [read more]

Youth Sports Research Paper

… Youth sports have become a way for children to become distracted from the outside world. Sports shield children from the environment if they are at-risk youths or sports may create a sense of comrade among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds.… [read more]

College Sports and Recreational Activities Article Critique

… The study was conducted during the spring session of 1996. Although the original sample size was 2,000, after attrition was accounted for the final sample size for usable data in the study was 406 responses. This sample size and the… [read more]

Sports Sociology Sports Played Essay

… Often this approach assumes that socio-economic standing is based on what people can afford to do. For instance there are many sports, such as polo or even golf that require a great outlay of money in order to participate in and therefore are limited to those with higher incomes. Thus certain activities or sports are reserved for certain subsets rather than the general population. This includes attending certain sporting events. Thus, viewing or participating in certain sports reflects one's economic or social standing. In addition, most high-paid coaches tend to be white; there is an ethnic split in sports. The feminist approach extends this social conflict to gender and a micro-level approach (Eckstein et al., 2010). Sports teams need to be divided between sexes as women would be unfairly treated in contact sports or sports where they lack the same strength and stamina as men. Sports that are more equal, such as race car driving or target shooting have been traditionally segregated as well. Women should, but often do not, value their femininity over these activities that are traditionally considered male activities. Moreover, women's sports do not receive the same amount importance or prestige form the media as male sports.

3. The Symbolic-Interaction approach is a micro level approach that views society as a product of daily interactions between individuals. A symbol is anything that has particular meaning for a group or culture (Giulianotti, 2005). In this paradigm the focus is on individual interactions, completion, prejudices, etc. So instead of focusing on teams, or sports effects on society as a whole, this approach assumes that sports serve a different function for each player. For example, one person may be motivated by competition or success, while another individual loves the game for its own merits. These individual motivations will often change over time.

With respect to sports sociology, the functionalist paradigm can actually be viewed as subsuming the conflict paradigm, whereas the interactionist paradigm delves more into the psychological motivations and effects of sports. Thus, from a sociological standpoint Eckstein et al. (2010) suggest that the functionalist paradigm is more useful as an overall approach. I agree. However, micro-level views need to be synthesized in order to fully understand how sports affect society and the individual.


Bourdieu, P. (1990). In other words. Cambridge: Polity.

Eckstein, R., Moss, D.M., & Delaney, D.J. (2010). Sports sociology's still untapped potential. Sociological Forum, 25(3), 500-518.

Giulianotti, R. (2005). Sport: A critical sociology. Malden, MA:…… [read more]

How Can Sport Affect Health? Research Paper

… ¶ … citizens in the United States are suffering from mental or physical health problems, scientists agree that the practice of sports on a regular basis is the key to a healthy body and lifestyle. According to a recent survey,… [read more]

Immunity, Exercise, and Chronic Disease Essay

… Immunity, Exercise, And Chronic Disease

Susceptibility to the development of chronic diseases has been shown to depend on at least two processes, a reduced capacity to manage oxidative stress and chronic inflammation (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 18-19). Diseases that have been linked to these conditions are some of the more debilitating and life-threatening diseases found in developed countries and include type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, depression, Parkinson's disease, and cancer (Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 18-19; Walsh et al., p. 34). This essay will review how oxidative stress and chronic inflammation levels can be modified through exercise and antioxidant-focused nutrition to reduce the risk of disease and premature death.

Oxidative Stress, Exercise, and Nutrition

Above normal levels of oxygen radicals (oxidants) in healthy cells activates of a host of genes that encode a large number of enzymes that have antioxidant activity (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19). A failure of this protective process to function normally has disease implications. For example, when the vascular tissue in aging rats was examined antioxidant activity was found to be lower than normal (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19). Heart tissue in mice lacking a master antioxidant control gene was unable to contract normally, similar to what would be expected of an aged heart. There was also evidence of oxidative stress and cell death in these hearts. When the blood flow to rat hearts was restricted artificially and then resumed, to mimic what occurs during a heart attack, levels of the master antioxidant control gene was found to be below normal (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19). These studies reveal how the heart muscle and vascular tissue become susceptible to oxidative damage when burdened with cardiovascular disease and/or the effects of aging.

The above findings encouraged researchers to examine whether antioxidant supplementation could compensate for disease- or aging-compromised endogenous antioxidant activity and thus provide protection against oxidative damage. Phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains have been shown to have antioxidant activity and experiments in laboratory rodents suggest these naturally-occurring compounds induce endogenous antioxidant activity (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19-20). For example, in the heart attack model daily consumption of broccoli increased the expression levels of an antioxidant gene and provided protection against heart attack-induced oxidative damage.

A large number of epidemiological studies have found a link between regular exercise and a reduced prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19-20). Although further studies need to be performed, experiments have revealed the antioxidant enzyme expression levels are increased in the vascular system in laboratory mice and pigs that were exercised on a regular basis. However, endurance athletes have reduced levels of at least one antioxidant gene and may therefore experience increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. The existence of… [read more]

Total Fitness and Wellness Essay

… Fitness experts have long been aware that "exercise and sport are fueled by three different energy systems that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP); the aerobic system, the lactic acid system (anaerobic glycolysis) and the ATP-PC system" (Kerr, 2003) and a quality exercise program will take these energy systems into account. Aerobic training is typified by long distance and low intensity cardiovascular workouts and my daily walks with the dog are great additions to my aerobic fitness. Utilizing the lactic acid, or anaerobic, system involves short bursts of intense activity which tear down and rebuild individual muscles in the absence of oxygen. Short bursts of all-out sprinting during softball games and practices are examples of lactic acid system training, as are steep climbs which require pulling my entire body weight over boulders or cliffs. The rate at which I recover from physical exercise is determined by whether or not a particular activity is aerobic or anaerobic in nature.

To fully achieve the physical adaptation of the body through exercise it is critical that certain periods of time are considered. Muscle growth and development, even for the most dedicated of weight trainers, is a matter of six months at least and this timespan must be taken into consideration when planning an exercise program. Even though noticeable results may be seen in the first few months, the program must be adhered to if the physical changes are to become fully manifested. For walkers and joggers the proper increment to measure one's progress should be a function of distance traveled and time. If my dog walking is to become a legitimate source of exercise I must be sure that I am walking further every week and month to challenge myself and spur muscle growth. Weightlifters measure their progress in pounds or kilograms and use repetitions and sets to gauge their physical adaptation.

To improve my personal exercise routine it is essential that I add a wider range of activities to my over lifestyle which focus on strength training and nonlocomotion skills. A combination of weekly yoga sessions and lifting free weights at home would balance my exercise habits while providing a full range of physical benefits. When my dog is feeling up to it, turning the daily walk through the neighborhood into a light jog is also a great way to increase the intensity of one of my current activities. Carrying a weight in my backpack while I am hiking in the wilderness would add a strength-building component to this area of my fitness program. Staying adaptable and looking for creative ways to keep my exercises fresh and challenging is the key to maintaining a high level of personal fitness.


Kerr, G. (2003, April 17). Endurance conditioning for boxing. RossBoxing.com, Retrieved from http://www.rossboxing.com/thegym/thegym21.htm

Shelton, T. Fayette County School District, Fayette County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction. (2009). Competency assurance documents. Retrieved from http://teach.fcps.net/curriculum/practical-livingskills/primpe.htm… [read more]

Presidential Fitness Testing National Significance Research Paper

… Once again citing the current obesity epidemic and generally poor health of America's population, states like Illinois continue to face significant obstacles in their journey to healthily prepare their students for adulthood. With ghastly increases in fast food consumption and… [read more]

Personal Training Senior Fitness Essay

… Personal Training Senior Fitness

Exercising with osteoarthritis can be painful if not done correctly and is too strenuous since cartilage between the joints has broken down, thus resulting in pain. Therefore, an appropriate exercise regime is significant for Maddie, which should include strength training and low-intensity aerobics. The latter form of motion is less taxing on the joints so walking, swimming, and if permitted, cycling can be incorporated. Strength training is important because it helps build muscles and may regress the progress of osteoarthritis. Therefore, Maddie may work with light dumbbells, thera-band stability trainers, and may attend Pilates classes, yoga, stretch, and tai chi. In a study led by Boeer, it showed those who exercised with thera-band stability trainers and had hip osteoarthritis increased their balance, thus reducing the risk of falling. In training Maddie, I would definitely include tai chi because as shown in a study by Song, forms of tai chi were designed to lessen the effects of osteoarthritis. The investigation concluded that performing the various movements of said exercise style, the symptoms of the disease was improved along with better balance. Aquatic aerobics is recommended because the water supports most of Maddie's weight, thus less stress on the joints and body. The client can and will be able to receive a great workout since water creates more resistance, which allows Maddie to create muscle and strengthen muscles with less strain and pain. Exercising in the water is especially helpful with knee and hip osteoarthritis, in particular water walking. This type of regimen tones different muscles depending on the way the client walks, whether backwards or sideways. A study done by Wyatt was to demonstrate the effects of aquatic exercise and traditional exercise on those with knee osteoarthritis. The investigation showed those who undergone water exercise experienced less pain than those who exercised on land.

Maddie may also incorporate gym equipment despite her osteoarthritis. She may be on a stationary bike or an elliptical since they do not stress the joints. The former can be a recumbent bike since it leans back and reduces tension. Knee and back strain is further reduced when Maddie orients the pedals further away. The latter machine emulates walking and stair climbing and a bike, but providing the potency of a cardio workout. Maddie can change things up by going on a treadmill, which she can pace herself appropriately and walk, which is also low-intensity and great for her osteoarthritis. A study was done by Roddy questioning the efficacy of aerobic walking and quadriceps strengthening exercise at home. The outcome was that one exercise regimen wasn't more effective than the other. In fact, both forms showed reduced pain in those with knee osteoarthritis, which broadens the exercise programs offered to patients. In another study led by Bennell, there was a positive correlation between those who had weak quadriceps and the risk of osteoarthritis. Therefore, ways to build up muscles effectively influence the decreased progression of the condition. In the end, the client may… [read more]

Sports Participation Character Development Opening Research Paper

… In the article, "Justplay: A revolutionary approach to youth sport administration and sportsmanship," Elaine Raakman (2006) asserts that although the potential exists for youth sport participation to build positive character traits, when society diverts its emphasis away from sportsmanship to… [read more]

Exercise Pros and Cons Project Research Paper

… ¶ … Exercise

The subject of exercise has been consistently brought to the forefront, as it is the focus of increasing attention and discussion. This however is nothing new, as interest has begun to wane, with it suddenly becoming topical once more. To answer the question of: who exercises and why, requires understanding the various reasons for an individual choosing to exercise. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to the overall benefits and drawbacks of exercising.

Who Exercises?

Simply put, exercise is any bodily activity, which enhances / maintains physical fitness, and health / wellness. It consists of two popular types: aerobic and isometric. Each of these can be of three different intensities to include: light, moderate, and vigorous. The people, who are considered to be active, would be those that exercise at least three times a week for 20 minutes a day. (Wellikson, L., 1987, pg. 216)

There are a wide variety of individuals from all walks of life who exercise. This can vary from participating various sports (such as: football, baseball or running) to taking a brisk walk. In some cases, individuals are choosing to exercise as part of a consistent effort, while at other times this could be considered a reality of everyday life. For example, someone who is exercising as part of their career would be doing so for different reasons, in comparison with an individual who chooses to do so. In this case, individuals that are required to exercise as a part of their career; must be able to deal with the rigorous challenges that their body could be forced to endure (i.e. A solider or professional athlete). This is important, because it shows how someone will exercise based on a necessity for their career field. Where, there could be those individuals who are exercising, yet they might not enjoy it. When you compare this to someone who exercising because of personal choice, they are doing so for: health reasons, socialization and enjoyment. This is significant because it shows, how there are wide variety of reasons as to why someone will exercise. In some cases, it is for a host of motivations, while others is based on select factors.

Why do people exercise?

There are a wide variety of reasons as to why someone will exercise some of the most notable include: weight control and improved circulation. The way exercise helps to improve weight control is from increased physical activity, which helps to augment the effects of: burning calories and fat. Individuals from a number of different backgrounds will exercise for a host of different reasons. In some cases, there are people who are not obese, but will exercise as way to maintain their current weight levels. However, there are also those times that overweight and obese individuals will exercise. In this situation, the exercise along with a combination…… [read more]

Exercise Habits of University Students the Questionnaire Case Study

… Exercise Habits of University Students

The questionnaire used for this study concentrates on the exercise attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of Syracuse University students. Demographic, attitudinal and forced-choice rankings of criterion used to evaluate activities, work-out facilities on and off-campus, and… [read more]

Physical Fitness Thesis

… Physical Fitness Research

Proposal for Research Concerning a Fitness-Based Intervention With Childhood Obesity

Personal Meaningfulness:

The problem of obesity has worsened in recent years as Americans have tended culturally to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and… [read more]

Gymnastics Is a Sport That Requires Essay

… Gymnastics is a sport that requires tremendous physical stamina and technical control over the body. Denise Villani, an author and Webmaster of a number sports-related websites, writes that this graceful and artistic sport requires a "combination of strength, balance, agility… [read more]

Pettlep Imagery on Sports Performance Research Proposal

… ¶ … PETTLEP Imagery on Sports Performance

Imagery as a means of assisting success has been used in a variety of applications. Specifically, the use of imagery in enhancing sports performance has been particularly researched, in recent years. The PETTLEP motor-based imagery process has demonstrated encouraging results in a variety of sports, including: golf, hockey, gymnastics, and weight lifting. However, there is still a question regarding if these results can be generalized to other sports and even other facets of the sports already involved in studies and whether or not the results will be found long-term.

Holmes and Collins (2001) pioneered the seven-component imagery process known as PETTLEP imagery. In Holmes and Collins process, there are seven factors that are taken into consideration when implementing this motor-based imagery. These components include: physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. The authors surmised that the brain stores memories that are accessed by physical preparation and execution, especially motor imagery that is related to preparation and execution. Their seven-point checklist is an evidence-based method that highlights the areas that should be monitored, to enhance the efficacy of the imagery on the physical task. Several researchers have used the PETTLEP imagery practice in their research to determine its effectiveness.

Wright and Smith (2009) compared the effects of PETTLEP imagery with the results obtained using more traditional imagery, on muscle strength in its subjects. Fifty participants were divided into five groups consisting of those who used: PETTLEP, traditional imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and practice, and a control group. Over a course of six weeks participants in the PETTLEP, combination and physical practice groups showed improvement in their strength. Interestingly, there were no marked differences in improvement between the participants who used PETTLEP and those who were in the physical practice group. Although these results seem to support the use of PETTLEP for strength improvement, there are limitations to the research. The study period, six weeks, was quite short. The question of whether or not these same results would be seen for longer periods of study needs to be answered. Other muscle groups should be tested to see if the bicep results can be generalized to the entire body. In addition, whether or not these results can be applied to specific tasks needed to complete sports-specific tasks needs to be demonstrated.

Smith, Wright, and Cantwell (2008) studied the effects of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two participants were divided into four groups including: PETTLEP imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and physical practice, and a control group. At the end of the six-week experiment, it was found that all groups, apart from the control group, improved significantly. The group who utilized a combination of PETTLEP and physical practice improved the most. Like Wright and Smith (2008), there was also no significant difference found in the level of improvement between the PETTLEP group and the physical practice group. Once again, there is a concern regarding the long-term applicability of the… [read more]

Sports and Steroids Thesis

… Sports and Steroids

Steroids and Their Effects

Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald & Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they… [read more]

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Athletic Population Term Paper

… Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart condition characterized by excessive thickening of the heart muscles. Left ventricular thickening is usually the most common defining feature of the disease though in some patients right ventricular thickening is also noticed. While heart muscle thickening is also observed in patients with a history of high blood pressure and among those with prolonged athletic training, in HCM the thickening is idiopathic. HCM occurs roughly in around 1 in 500 (600,000 to 1.5 million) people in the U.S. And is the single most common cause for sudden death in young athletes. [Cleveland Clinic] Statistics show that roughly around 35% of sudden deaths among athletes are ascribed to HCM. Statistics also reveal that sudden deaths among joggers, marathon racers, and other forms of athletic sports, stands between 1 in 15,000 or 1 in 50,000. [Maron] Though this is a relatively rare form of cardiac malformation it assumes lot of importance, as the victims are mostly young athletes who are normally viewed as the epitome of the fitness and health. A brief overview of the condition, diagnosis and possible treatment methods would help us better understand the disorder.

HCM Demographics and Diagnosis

As mentioned above, HCM is the most common cause for sudden deaths among young athletes. Sudden death occurs usually after intense athletic training or other form of physical exertion. Around 70% of sudden deaths among athletes in the U.S. were from games such as football and basketball. It is also observed that around 90% of sudden deaths occurred in male athletes suggesting that males are more intense in their training. [Maron] it has been noticed that in almost all of these cases of reported deaths the victims were young, healthy looking, and asymtomatic individuals and death followed a period of intense physical exercise. Identifying potentially at risk HCM patient thus remains the main focus of physical examiners. Factors such as family history of sudden death, genetic testing and the identification of the at risk genotype, electrocardiography using HOLTER monitor to identify ventricular trachycardia, the existence of frequent syncopes and left ventricular Hypertrophy values greater than 30 mm are the important risk factors useful in identifying at risk people. Genetic research has revealed that mutations of at least ten different types of genes, responsible for the development of the cardiac muscles, are observed in HCM patients. In particular, mutations are observed in genes that code for proteins such as beta myosin heavy chain, troponin T, alpha tropomyosin, cardiac myosin binding protein-C, etc., that are involved in the heart muscle contraction process. [CMA]

Though the anterior ventricular septum is the most common site for hypertrophy, thickening…… [read more]

Fitness for Women Term Paper

… Fitness for Women

Dorchester is an extremely welcoming community that is saturated with many ways of staying active. There are many activities and opportunities that promote healthy exercise for everyone within in the neighborhood to engage in. With the substantial amount of evidence that indicates that the extent to which social relationships are strong and supportive is directly related to the health of the individuals who live within such social confines (Berkman, 1995).

Dorchester is a quiet, typical urban city that offers the serene life for those who dwell in and around it. There is much focus on the youth of Dorchester in much of the community observation. With a great deal of hype placed in the local youth sports, everyone is usually involved in some way or another. For women, there are several aspects that directly focus in their direction. Many communities have councils that place a specific meeting with the object of focusing on ways to elaborate the promotion of health in their communities (Kreuter, Lezin, Young, 2000). Aside from the common Curves and other fitness for women establishments, there are several MOPS groups (mothers of preschoolers) that aim to join mothers of young children. These particular groups provide some interest into the fitness for women with weekly and daily walking, jogging and hiking sessions. Communities have much to benefit from the promotion of fitness. Studies have indicated that communities with high regard for exercise and health are found be much more economically endowed (Kawachi, Glass, 1999). With that, the entire makeup of the business side of the community also strives to get involved with the promotion of health and exercise.

Outside of the realm of groups focused on mothers, there are also several coffee shops that have…… [read more]

Philosophy of Sports Term Paper

… Philosophy of Sports

But it's good for you!"

An overview of American Sports -- collective and individual anxiety about just having fun

One of the reasons that the ancient Greek ideal of sports came into being is no doubt the… [read more]

Health Benefits of Exercise Term Paper

… Today, exercise does not automatically bring to mind endless workouts, or marathon runs; today, exercise is a form of activity that one would enjoy doing, and this could be anything from dancing to jogging, to fitness walking, and to ballroom… [read more]

Sports and Society Term Paper

… Violence in American Sports Today

Participation in amateur athletic events has grown tremendously over the past few decades in terms of their scope, power, and economic status. In fact, in the United States alone, amateur athletics involve the lives and… [read more]

Health Importance Term Paper

… 105).

In conclusion, it is quite clear that exercise and health are intertwined. It is also quite clear that education is one of the keys to understanding exercise and motivating youth and adults to exercise more frequently. Studies consistently indicate that exercise can elevate mood, reduce health concerns, and allow people to live longer, more fulfilling lives. With the growing problem of obesity and its' health related problems, such as diabetes and heart disease, it is clear additional work needs to be done in educating Americans about the deadly game of inactivity. Exercise does not have to be rigorous to be helpful. The more people that know that, and begin to exercise, even moderately, the healthier the nation will become.


Akande, A., Van Wyk, C.D., & Osagie, J. (2000). Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health. Education, 120(4), 758.

Author not Available. (1999). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/intro.htm18 June 2004.

Editors. (2004). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from the HealthyPeople.gov Web site: http://www.healthypeople.gov/Document/html/uih/uih_bw/uih_4.htm18 June 2004.

Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105.

Grove, N.C., & Spier, B.E. (1999). Motivating the well elderly to exercise. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 16(3), 179-189.

Hausenblas, Heather A. Transtheoretical model: Is termination applicable to exercise? American Journal of Health Studies; 1/1/2004.

Rauh, V.A. (2003). Health and community design: The impact of…… [read more]

Sports and Social Change Essay

… Sports and Social Change

The National Football League (NFL) is changing. It has a new face, and one that everybody -- straight, lesbian, gay bi-sexual transsexual (LGBT) and queer can both recognize and respect.

There have been a number of recent developments within the NFL that show it is taking demonstrable steps to illustrate the same sort of social justice that is increasingly being reflected across America and the world at large. This past winter, NFL hopeful Michael Sams admitted he's a homosexual to a national audience including the New York Times and ESPN. A few weeks later the quarterback of the Washington Redskins, Kirk Cousins, stated that he and his teammates would welcome an openly gay player who could "help us win" (Huffington Post). And just a couple of weeks ago, representatives from the NFL participated in the YOU Belong Initiative's second annual LGBT and Straight Allied Youth Sports and Leadership camp.

As if these occurrences were not signs of the apocalypse, representatives from the NFL (including senior executive and former player Troy Vincent and director of transition and clinical services -- and another former player -- Dwight Hollier) participated in the You Can Play High Five Initiative. You Can Play is an organization headed by former player and openly gay founder Wade Davis, which is dedicated to providing philanthropy opportunities to LGBT youth while utilizing sports (and football in particular) as a medium to reach them.

Quite obviously, the participation of NFL players in all of these events and the expressions of willingness to work with people regardless of their sexual orientations indicates that the image of the organization is subtly changing. Even a cursory interview of the experience of former players who came out as homosexuals after they left the league indicates why such a transformation is both timely and necessary. In a conversation Davis had with Vincent, the former recollected, "I policed my every move and tried to re-create the type of masculinity that I thought was acceptable in the world. I even disclosed how my fear of being rejected, on some level, impacted my ability to perform" (Davis).

In the 21st century, it is no longer appropriate to have players in the NFL -- or anywhere else, for that matter -- have to hide their tendencies because of a fear of a lack of tolerance. The NFL is one of the most eminent places to being exhibiting parity in terms of diversity for its players. As one of the more influential organizations in the U.S., it has a great degree…… [read more]

Attributions in Sports Psychology Article Review

… Interestingly, studies referenced by the authors reveal that as group size increases, individual athletes "…diffuse the responsibility for group action"; hence, individuals in large groups (such as a football team) are not apt to accept failure on their own shoulders (Zaccaro, 257).

And when it comes to group athletic behaviors, there are four characteristics that can result, according to Zaccaro's (referencing Miller and Schlenker (1985). First, a quarterback after a winning performance can attribute the success to his play ("I threw the ball well"). Even though he had 10 players around him making it all work, the quarterback can take credit, the attribution in this case to a single player. Second, the winning game can be attributed to "…factors of the group-including-the-self" (which Zaccaro calls "group-internal") (258). The quarterback might use the tired cliche, "It was a team effort…and I couldn't have done it without the team behind me"; what he really means is there was a sense of cohesiveness between the line and the backfield but he's glad to take some of the credit. The third characteristic is what Zaccaro attributes to "group-excluding-the-self" ("group other); that would be a situation in which the quarterback or captain says "This team worked hard all week for this game and we showed what we can do when every unit is alert and well prepared." And the fourth characteristic is said to be because of environmentally helpful conditions ("environment attributions"); this would be say a rainy day and the team always plays well in the mud. A key point for this article is that "…attributions which enhance the group can raise self-esteem" -- which makes sense because in team sports jealousy can occur if individuals take too much credit.

Ability and Effort in Sports vs. Intellectual Ability and Effort

An article in the Journal of Personality (1980) points to a study of 120 male college undergraduates, who were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer in a physical test. Following the manipulation of the bicycle (unknown to the riders it was made more difficult the second time) the riders experienced decreased performance (Rejeski, et al., 1980). The riders were then quizzed as to the attribution of their less impressive performance. "Successful outcomes were attributed to both ability and effort," but as to the unsuccessful outcomes, they were "…attributed to a lack of ability but not a lack of effort" (Rejeski, 233). The authors suggest that a "motivational bias appears to preclude low ability attribution in intellectual pursuits," but when it comes to sports activities, "…physiologically related ability may be viewed as relatively unstable" (Rejeski, 233).

In conclusion, it is important for sports teams and individual players to understand why and how attributions matter vis-a-vis performance. This paper outlines some of the scholarship on that subject.

Works Cited

Grove, J.R., and Prapavessis, H. (1995). The Effect of Skill Level and Sport Outcomes on Dimensional Aspects of Causal Attributions. Australian Psychologist, 30(2), 92-95.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., and Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: seeking… [read more]

Sports Agent Sports Is Big Essay

… As someone who is at the beginning stages of becoming a sports agent by gathering and learning as much about the field as possible, Ms. Tucker's comments were helpful in seeing how other aspects of the sports industry relates to sports agents and how they are viewed in general.

Second Interview

The next interview I conducted was with Mr. Josh Brown. Josh is a professional basketball player who plays for a team in Russia. Josh is an American who graduated from Towson State University. In our interview he discussed his relationship with his agent and the processes he experienced on that search.

Josh communicated to me that it was difficult to find an agent to represent him because he came from a smaller school and there was not a lot of interest for him domestically in the NBA. Josh was committed to playing basketball somewhere in the world and he knew he needed an agent that could help him reach this goal. Josh conducted much research into finding his agent but through social media he discovered some leads who were excited to take on Josh as a client. Josh's friend ultimately recommended to him, his personal agent and finalized the deal through this networking technique.

Although Josh is working with his current agent, he still fields requests from other agents seeking to represent him. Josh explained to me that difficulty in this constant sales environment, he said "It is very tricky trying to talk with different agents because if two agents try to promote you to the same team it can make you and the participating agencies look unprofessional. When I try to promote myself to elite agencies I try to avoid agents in the same country to avoid this conflict."

Josh told me about how his agent's duties mostly consisted of promoting me to better teams each year, drawing up my contracts and handling endorsements and other legal matters. Josh's agent works as an independent, but he has expressed that most work in firms that have contacted him. Josh is overall satisfied with his agent's work and believes that a smart and honest approach works best in this field. There are many shady individuals out there looking to take advantage, but they are usually found out and exposed. The importance of an agent to an athlete is best summed up by Josh: "An agent's connections are extremely important, thus at times I find myself wanting the big time agents who can help blossom my career even more. Honesty in an agent is most important, seeing as though some agents play games with clients."


After conducting this research I am more dedicated to achieving my aim of becoming a sports agent. The international aspects of the career that I discovered while talking to Josh have taught me the many and differing opportunities that are available in this career choice. I feel that I am currently on the right path towards this goal and will continue to seek out other's… [read more]

Why Does Gender Matter in Sport? Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Matter in Sports?

There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and… [read more]

Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Assessment

… ¶ … Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Sports Event: The Olympics and Wimbledon on London

Impact and Issues of a Mega and Hallmark Sporting Event

Festivals and special events are organized in destinations, places, and regions to celebrate, offer… [read more]

Feminism How Sports Reproduce Research Paper

… For instance, it is easy to realize that all sexual orientations can engage in one sporting event like playing rugby, soccer, and/or football (Brace-Govan, 2010).

Racial norms

Sporting activities have emerged and cut on racial lines. The world soccer slogan… [read more]

Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Sports Research Paper

… Those who are in the professional level and win get more lucrative contracts and are then offered highly profitable endorsement deals (Freudenrich 2). Michael Jordan was a basketball player for the Chicago Bulls but his streak on the court led to many such deals so that even some twenty years after retirement he still pulls in millions of dollars a year through Nike shoes and other endorsements. In winning, there is a great deal of money to be made which is another source of pressure for athletes.

The steroid controversy is far from over but there are becoming more stern restrictions against the use of performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sports. One of the sporting world's most famous names and indeed the most famous bicyclist in the world, Lance Armstrong, had to give back the many medals he had won for finishing first in the Tour d'France because it was alleged that he had taken steroids (Herper 1). Even though Armstrong has yet to admit his guilt, the very fact that he stopped fighting the accusations is enough in many eyes to confirm the fact that even this American legend was a steroid user. He is absolutely not the only one. Barry Bonds, Mark Maguire, and Sammy Sosa all spend the 1990s and 2000s making headlines for their feats in baseball when they took turns trying to win the homerun race, earning the most homeruns in a single season and, for Bonds, the most in a career. However, each of these men has had to deal with the consequences of steroid use which has marred their otherwise illustrious careers. Barry Bonds has had to deal with legal ramifications for lying under oath about his personal drug use. In addition to career consequences, there are now legal ones for choosing to use steroids. Even this is not the worst that could potentially happen to a steroid user. The World Wrestling Entertainment Company (WWE) has had to face allegations that their wrestlers use and abuse steroids, a controversy which came to a head following the double murder-suicide of one of the WWE's most popular athletes Chris Benoit. Benoit had exhibited many of the classic side effects of steroid abuse including a short stature and obvious protrusion of the veins. Unfortunately these were not the only effects. Benoit had several instances where violence had been reported stemming from "roid rage" which is the side effect of aggressiveness and pituitary damage converging to create an uncontrollably angry person with great strength who is unable to be calmed once agitated.

Steroid use is becoming more and more prevalent in both professional and amateur athletics. The need to be better than one's opponent encourages people to go beyond mere human ability. Those who want to be the best are taught that winning is all that matters and many are willing to abuse their bodies in the long-term if it means that they have a better chance of sports glory in the present. Performance-enhancing drugs have been used… [read more]

Sports Finance: The Professional Sports Facilities Essay

… Sports Finance:

The professional sports facilities can have attributes that are regarded as public goods by economists since they provide economic incentives to the entire society or community and not just to the athletes, franchise owners, and fans. The main goal of the development of the professional sports facilities is to enable a franchise and its owners to be practical i.e. To assist private investors in the franchise to make money. In relation to the construction of these professional sports facilities such as a facility that would house a major soccer league professional sport team, the main issue has been who should pay for the new sports facilities. This question or issue has been a major concern since the sport facility would be used by professional athletes and teams and the potential benefits it can bring to the entire society. Most of the debates surrounding the topic have focused on whether, how, and when the government should pay for the construction of a sports facility. While the issue has financial, economic, and socio-political dimensions, it has also included another concern on whether a community should institute a tax or levy on the general public to pay for bonds for a sport facility.

Financing a Sport Facility:

Since the costs of constructing new sporting facilities have increased to approximately $300 million, the process requires huge financial investments. As a result, there are various options for financing the construction of such facilities that include both private and public investments and arrangements (United States Sports Academy, 2001). Therefore, funding for the construction of a new sport facility that would house a major league professional sport team can be divided into two distinct groups i.e. private funding and public funding.

Private funding can be considered as a means of financing a new sport facility without a tax increase and minimal risk to taxpayers. In an ideal world, private funding has been commonly used to finance the construction of professional sports facilities and franchises that become profitable. The main reason attributed to the increased use of private funding investments is the fact that the main goal of developing a new sports facility is to enable the franchise and its owners to enable the private investors to generate money through the facility. However, the option of private funding is selected following an economic evaluation of the conditions that such financing would be positive and profitable.

Notably, private funding has advantages and disadvantages that make it viable and profitable to certain situations and unsuitable to others. The advantages of private funding include the fact that it does not include a tax increase, provides minimal risks to taxpayers, and enables private investors to make profits from the construction and operation of the sport facility. On the contrary, the main disadvantage of this financing option is that it may not be suitable for all communities since not every community has comparable strength in terms of private financial capacity for developing and operating a professional sports facility (Hodgson & Lefebvre,… [read more]

Sport, Which Style of Research, Qualitative Essay

… ¶ … sport, which style of research, qualitative or quantitative is best used to study sport and to report on sport?

Research style in sports research

The sports field is one of the oldest ones in human history, with a long standing tradition and a powerful meaning in the minds of the people. Throughout the past recent decades, more emphasis has come to be placed on the sports sector as a source of increased business revenues. Athletes are more and more sought after to sign and gain from endorsements; the hosting of notable sports events is also pursued in an effort to gain more reputation and advantages, and the sports clubs come to generate impressive sums of money from their games, advertisements, endorsements and so on.

The increasing financial success of the sports field is unequivocally supported by the high popularity of sports among the population. And as the populations and the business community's interest in sports increases, the academic community is also coming to place more emphasis on the field. In other words, the research in the field of sports is continually increasing.

In terms of sports research, a question that is being raised refers to the method that should be employed, referring specifically to the qualitative method vs. The quantitative method. In the case of qualitative research, this implies that the researcher observes the phenomenon and draws conclusion, which are then expressed with the usage of common language and textual presentations.

In the case of the quantitative research method, the researcher analyzes the phenomenon through more objective lenses as they employ facts and figures; the findings are supported by statistically processed data and they can be extrapolated to explain a wider phenomenon. In the case of qualitative research, the findings are only based on the observations of the researcher and they cannot be extrapolated to explain the wider phenomenon or the wider population (the Bangor University).

In such a setting then, the sports researchers often find themselves in a difficulty of choosing which research method to employ. And the difficulty is given by the fact that sports research can be viewed through both qualitative and quantitative lenses.

Through the angle of qualitative research, sports are viewed in a subjective manner, like it is always assessed by the population. The sports teams have their own fans, who are either divided by rivalry, or who are united by common support for their team. Sports is a field of teams, of passion, of values, competitiveness and fair play; it unites people from across the globe to watch an event and it holds them out of breath (Dunning and Coakley, 2000). These features of the sports field are best researched through the qualitative lenses.

Aside from the emotions…… [read more]

Recreational Sports Spectrum Represents Five Unique Opportunities for Participation Essay

… Recreation Sports

Recreational sport is termed as ones involvement in sporting activities during their leisure time. This can be an individual's involvement as an active participant or even as a spectator. This can be at any level of the leisure sport hierarchy. There are sporting activities that are designed for all, this gives everyone an active role in the sport. They do not put into consideration age, gender, race, or a persons athletic ability. These are thus termed as sports for all.

On the other hand there are those that are participant driven in that the people who program this sport put into consideration the specific interest and efforts on the specific wants and needs of the participant. Recreational sport targets all age groups i.e. children, adolescents, youth, adults and even senior citizens. These recreational sports can occur either indoors for example badminton, ice-skating, gymnasiums for basketball and many more. They can also occur outdoor for instance golf courses, soccer, tennis courts and so on. This paper will look at the recreational sports spectrum in terms of the unique opportunities that it represents for participation. There are five opportunities and they will be discussed below.

Instructional sports

This entails the teaching of a recreational sport activity. This teaching takes place in an environment that is non-academic and noncredit. During the process of teaching emphasis is put on the skills that one is required to master. There is also emphasis on the rules that are associated to the particular sport. For instance, in the game of tennis there are various skills that can be taught an example is the serving skill that if mastered enables one to serve and the serve lands in the service box on a fly. Therefore for the ball from a baseline to land into the box it needs to be hit from up and not from down. The learner can also be taken through rules such as the serving rule which is that for a good serve, it should be put in play from the correct area of the court i.e. behind the baseline (Ellyn, 2012).

Informal sports

This involves sports that participation is directed by an individual. The approach to these sports is with the main aim of having fun and keeping fit by the individual. This can be for instance a run after one has taken lunch so that the person remains fit. Another example is during a picnic that has been arranged by friends, there can be playing of games such as volleyball just to have fun.

Intramural sports

This may include organization of tournaments, leagues or contests. This are organized and take place within a particular setting. Examples of intramural sports include playing of various sports during special events such as a tournament organized and arranged to be played during a public holiday. There can also be tournaments that have been arranged between schools. Leagues can be organized between various clubs in a country.

Extramural sports

These are events or activities that… [read more]

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