"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays

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Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  4 pages (1,179 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The intended audience is primarily individuals responsible for coach training programs. Yet, the data was collected from the athletes, and apparently no data was collected from coaches with regard to their own perceptions or observations about their use of coaching strategies. Particularly of note is the absence of self-assessment by coaches of any differentiated treatment or interactions based on the gender or ages of the young athletes. Analysis of the relation between coaching styles and gender was not identified as an important variable in the initial approach to the study. The age range of the participants is wide, and calls to question whether different strategies might have different impact on the youth athletes depending on their age, as well as their gender. Moreover, this study -- and many others related to this research topic -- are conducted during sports practice and not during actual competitions. The authors suggest that a different set of dynamics may prevail when competitiveness is emphasized.

Discussion of Hypotheses: The hypotheses proposed for this research include the following: Hypothesis 1: Autonomy-supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports; and Hypothesis 2: Controlling coaching style is more effective for male than female athletes in team sports. For both hypotheses, the independent variable is gender (nominal data) and the dependent variable is the effectiveness of autonomy-supportive coaching style (ordinal data).

Methods: Data analysis of the responses to the ASCQ was conducted for three models using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The models tested were: 1) Uni-dimensional -- all items loaded on the single factor that represented autonomy-supportive coaching; 2) two uncorrelated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior; and 3) two correlated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior. The one item-factor regression coefficient on each factor was set at 1.0 for the purpose of establishing a metric, and every item was set to load on a specific factor. To analyze the relations between the ASCQ scores and the perceived coaching behaviors and need satisfaction, hierarchical multiple regression were used. As some collinearity between the predictors in each of the models was expected when interpreting the parameter estimates, greater emphasis was placed on the structure coefficients than on the standardized regression coefficients.

Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis suggest that youth athletes were able to differentiate strategies used by coaches to support autonomy. Moreover, these coaching strategies were strongly positively correlated. The two coaching strategies used to support autonomy in the young athletes were fundamentally supportive and affiliative in nature -- and were considered to be essentially non-controlling coaching behaviors. However, one substantive distinction emerged: No association was found between coaches' interest in the input by the young athletes and perceived blame and punitive control; however, a negative association was found between coaches' praise for autonomous behavior and perceived blame and punitive control.

Learnings and Application: The results indicate that young athletes were better… [read more]

Exercise Science the Physiological Benefits of Childhood Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,196 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Exercise Science

The Physiological Benefits of Childhood Exercise

The problem of childhood obesity has worsened in recent years as children tend to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators which include juvenile diabetes, increased risk of heart disease and diminishing physical dexterity. Therefore,… [read more]

Sports Science and Sports Medicine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,436 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003)

When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick,… [read more]

Pilates Exercise Specialists Program, Wellington, New Zealand Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (4,691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pilates Exercise Specialists Program, Wellington, New Zealand, is guaranteed to make the user 'feel' the difference after two sessions, 'see' the difference after another few sessions, and make others 'notice' the difference after a few more weeks. What is Pilates Exercise, and how is it done? What is it supposed to do for the individual who opts for the Program,… [read more]

Motor Processes in Sport Tom Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (4,377 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


The approach for Tom might be best if the bilateral transfer notion is ignored and Tom's weakness is approached from a very basic instructional level. If there is bilateral transfer in this case it will reveal itself as Tom begins working on his left foot kicking technique and make the learning process all the smoother.

Given the above facts of… [read more]

Self-Esteem Exercise Promotes Higher Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,476 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"The future is coming -- and it is fat! The rising rate of obesity among children and adolescents bodes poorly for the health and wellness of the coming generation. Close to 10% of exercise psychology research in the past few years addressed questions of youth participation in physical activity. A number of studies focused on age-appropriate appeals to youth through… [read more]

Motivation in Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  50 pages (19,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The inconsistency in sport confidence that exists in duration of time is influenced in basic by the sources of the confidence. (Weinberg & Gould, 1999, p.24).

Researchers can make an effort to realize how the sources of sport confidence would make an impact on the athlete's performance, level of confidence, cognition, emotion and behaviors. They may also carefully analyze the… [read more]

Psychology in Sports Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,570 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Sports Psychology

Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and the psyche for the task ahead. The topic of sports psychology has garnered a great deal of attention in recent… [read more]

Sports Medicine Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,759 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a primary focus of sports medicine is the rapid recovery of patients, which drives many innovations in the field (Sports Medicine).… [read more]

Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  30 pages (8,792 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 150


Sports Shoes Turkey

Sports Shoes and Sports Clothing Market and Trends in Turkey

Brief History of Turkey

Turkey is an internationally recognized center for sports enthusiasm and participation. The interest in sports is culturally bound both historically and as an aspect of Turkey's general international cosmopolitan nature. This is especially true as a result of the modern emphasis on European… [read more]

Brand Vision Statement and Rationale Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bally Total Fitness - Branding

Bally Total Fitness Holding Corporation (NYSE: BFT)

Brand Vision Statement and Rationale

The objective of this work is to from the stance of a young professional in an advertising agency who has been invited to pitch a new account to study the client's brand and develop a proposed brand vision statement and rationale based on… [read more]

Wellness/Prevention Programs and Therapeutic Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (898 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Even mild therapeutic exercise has been shown to benefit participants (Heath, 2002). Most people are deterred from therapeutic exercise programs because they feel regimens must be long or painful to produce results. Studies indicate just the opposite however. For therapeutic exercise to be most beneficial, exercise programs need "focus on long-term sustainability and enjoyment to achieve an optimal overall outcome" (King, 1991 & Heath 2002). Enjoyment does not necessarily involve a lengthy program. Participants who enjoy the exercise program they engage in are also more likely to stay with the program over a longer period of time, resulting in even greater health benefits. In one controlled study of 225 mostly sedentary adults, participants responded to even a brief "physician-delivered exercise program and walking" (Heath, 2002 & Calfas, 1996). In some instances a mere three to five minutes of activity resulted in at least improved mental outlook for patients, which in turn results in overall better wellness.

Therapeutic exercise can assist in increasing the "vitality, strength, flexibility, balance and general sense of well being" for patients who adhere to physician guidelines. The rewards may include decreased length of incapacity due to illness or injury, quicker gains as in the case of the stroke patients examined, and mental rewards for both patients and physicians (Heath, 2002).

Physicians should be required to take an active role in the health and well being of their patients by routinely prescribing therapeutic exercises to patients. Such exercises, when viewed in a positive light are more likely to be embraced by patients. Patients who are introduced enthusiastically to therapeutic regimens are more likely to overcome their inhibitions and engage in more active lifestyles. The implications for wellness and disease prevention can not be ignored. Therapeutic exercise can result in better health mentally, physically and emotionally.


Christmas, C, Andersen RA. (2000). Exercise and Older Patients: Guidelines for the Clinician. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 2000; 48:318-24

Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. (1998). American College of Sports

Medicine. Journal Science Sports Exercise. 30:992-1008

Calfas, KJ, Long BJ, Sallis JF, Wooten WJ, Pratt M, Patrick K. (1996). A Controlled

Trial of Physician Counseling to promote the adoption of Physical Activity. Preventive Medicine; 25:225-33

King, AC, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Kreemer HC. (1991). Group vs. Home-Based

Exercise Training in Healthy Older Men and Women. JAMA;266:1535-42.

Heath, John M. MD & Stuart, Maria R., PhD.

Prescribing Exercise for Frail Elders."

Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. 15(3): 218-228, 2002. American Board of Family Practice. Retrieved at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/434355

Reuters Health Information.…… [read more]

Human Performance Analysis Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,210 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions

This project details the personal experiences of the experimenter in identifying the source of physiological symptoms triggered by sports and fitness activities involving running or extensive (i.e. fast-pace and/or long distance) walking. The experimenter experienced significant discomfort in a localized region of both shins associated with running as a physical fitness activity. Anecdotal… [read more]

Discourse Community Memoir Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,200 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Community Membership

I have always had an interest in sports and fitness but I had never joined a gym until last year. To outsiders, the gym can be somewhat intimidating, which is one of the reasons that the slogan "No Judgments" of the Crunch Gym fitness club chain appealed to me. Still, for a person walking into a gym from the street, it can be uncomfortable to walk into a facility that seems to cater to a tight-nit group of regulars who have a well-established routine, a common lingo, and who are very likely to recognize a complete novice immediately. As a new gym member, I realized that there were at least two aspects of knowledge and expertise that I would have to acquire to become comfortable in the gym environment: (1) technical proficiency with the equipment and methods of fitness training, and (2) social fluency in the terminology and etiquette associated with the activity.

Joining the Community:

The first day in a gym did more to reinforce my initial apprehension than it did to lessen it. That was mainly because the process getting started required a consultation with a membership representative and signing up for an initial two-week trial membership. We sat in a small office adjacent to areas where those who were already part of the community worked out together. The fact that the office walls were circular and glass made me feel as though I were in a display case labeled "Gym Newbies" instead of sitting in a membership sales office. Even worse than the display case experience was the gym tour that followed that ensured that any gym regulars who had not noticed me in the newbie case would catch the newbie on tour.

With any hope of trying to blend in as much as possible and keep a low profile at first lost, I finally managed to get changed and situate myself on an elliptical machine somewhat inconspicuously. Luckily, the row of elliptical machines overlooked the main gym area, letting me be the outside observer. I noticed immediately that even though most of the people working out were involved in their own individual exercises, there was still a definite rhythm to the room. Some people seemed to be oblivious to what was going on around them on one level, working on their own and listening to headphones; others worked out in pairs, talking the whole time. On another level, even the solitary exercisers seemed to have an awareness of a certain flow to the gym, occasionally taking their headphones down momentarily to say something to someone before resuming their solitary exercises.

I realized that there had to be a lot to learn about communicating in the gym environment by the way that nobody ever seemed to get in anybody else's way even though so many people were involved in so many different specific exercises and activities. Some of the most obvious examples included the manner in which people working in the two free… [read more]

Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Style Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (2,837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Another factor that is impossible to control given the structure of this study is the fact that there are multiple coaches involved and every coach is different. How they control and pose situations is going differ from person to person, as noted by Stevens (2012). Perhaps it would not be wide enough of a sample to look at one… [read more]

Glory Road Movie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,828 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Glory Road Movie

The story of Don Haskins, the long time and Hall of Fame college
basketball coach from Texas Western/UTEP had been largely uncelebrated
until the 2006 release of Glory Road. Directed by James Gartner and
staring Josh Lucas as Coach Haskins, the movie depicts his 1966 National
Championship run as the barrier breaking coach who was the first… [read more]

Site Rubric on the Multigenerational Center in Henderson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (939 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Facility: The Multigenerational Center is located in Henderson, Nevada, a city that John F. Kennedy called a "city of destiny" (cited on "City History"). Today, Henderson is the second-largest city in Nevada. Its motto is "A Place to Call Home," and the Henderson Multigenerational Center reflects the demographics of the growing family-oriented community. Built in 2002 by the Dekker Perich Holmes Sabatini architectural firm, the recreational center also includes a large aquatic complex with both indoor and outdoor pools. Combined with the aquatic complex the Henderson Multigenerational Center totals 84,120 square feet (Brown, 2006). As its name implies, the Multigenerational Center appeals to persons in all age groups, from toddlers to the elderly. The newly-built recreational center can also be enjoyed by the physically and mentally challenged because its facilities were built with diversity in mind. Primarily a recreational center offering opportunities for exercise and game time, the Multigenerational Center also includes a computer lab and an art gallery. The facility can be home to cultural events, lectures, and courses as well as to sports leagues and teams. All members of the Henderson community are served by the facility, which is located in a recently-developed zone at 250 South Green Valley Parkway.

Description of Facility: Henderson's Multigenerational Center is huge, appearing "mammoth from the north but more approachable and inviting from the south" (Brown, 2006). Moreover, the edifice is painted in multiple desert tones, turning what could have been a monotonous industrial-looking complex into a cheerful-looking recreational facility. Desert tones allow the complex to blend in seamlessly into the Nevada environment, indicating appreciation of and respect for the local ecosystem. Furthermore, the ground floor of the recreational center offers stunning views of the city and valley. Visitors can cultivate pride in their community, which is enhanced by the presence of this community center. The programs run at the Multigenerational Center vary considerably. One of the center's most notable features is its art gallery, which regularly invites submissions. Cultural events including music and dance performances can regularly take place on the Multigenerational Center campus. Described by the Henderson Parks and Recreation Department as a "unique facility with a visual interior mall effect," the Multigenerational Center has a modern design, look and feel (City of Henderson, 2003). Indoor spaces have high ceilings with exposed piping and the entire facility is well-lit. The gymnasium spaces are remarkable, including the second-storey jogging track that overlooks the gym's basketball courts. Indoor sports and gym facilities allow patrons to work out all year long no matter what the weather. At the same time, the Multigenerational Center capitalizes on the Nevada sun with the outdoor pool and aquatic center facilities.

Analysis of Facility: The Henderson Multigenerational Center serves its purpose and goes beyond what would normally be expected of a community recreational facility. Because…… [read more]

Boys Men Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


However, although most women are as savvy about football as they are about the men in their relationships, however, while she may be yelling about fumbles and hooraying over touchdowns, she is at the same time most likely wondering why game officials wear "beltless pants" (Jenkins 1996). Women may appreciate the game they are watching, but they view it differently than men (Jenkins 1996). According to Dr. Lawrence Wenner, director of the University of San Francisco Sports and Fitness Management Program and editor of 'The Journal of Sport and Social Issues,' "The fact that female viewers are there doesn't mean they are having the same experience" (Jenkins 1996).

On the darker side of the sports world, Jenkins points out that historically the NFL may penalize players for drug abuse, yet completely ignore the issue of rape and spousal abuse (Jenkins 1996). Jenkins writes, "In millions of households, game day have been an occasion of passive-aggressive skirmishing - or of outright physical violence, according to much-debated reports of weekend domestic abuse" (Jenkins 1996). On the lighter side, Jenkins includes a humorous transcript of the 2006 Monday Night Football game by an all-female broadcast, as well as transcript of the first NFL Women's League football game that is nationally televised in the year 2022 (Jenkins 1996).

Whether one is an avid sports player or simply an arm chair quarter back, Jenkins's book is not only a delightful read but…… [read more]

Personal Training-Exercise Habits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Improvement in any aspect of fitness requires attention to frequency, intensity and volume as adaptations are made to a fitness regimen (Feigenbaum 1997). Frequency is defined as the number of exercise sessions per given time. Volume is the number of units referring to such variables as number of muscles worked, sets, reps or types of intervals performed during a given session. Intensity is the total amount of work performed in the activity in a given time. It must be stressed that for beginner-level fitness participants, increases in any of the three variables at too fast a rate can result in injuries and/or fatigue from overtraining (Campos 2002). For the improvement that "Self" is seeking it is recommended that for the two months, alterations between low and medium intensity at a frequency of 3-4 per sessions per week with manipulations in the kind of aerobic and weight training with little change in that frequency (Buford 2007). Following that initial exercise plan, increases in intensity within the program can be incorporated with corresponding drops in volume and frequency.

Although "Self's" specific fitness goals did not address sport-specific metrics, it is nonetheless important to overall fitness to have movement skills in order to provide neuromuscular feedback between muscles and their reactions. Self intends to improve aerobic fitness in locomotor movement skills where walking transitioning to running will help to improve her aerobic capacity. Because movement involves more than simple point to point forward transition, Self intends to incorporate specific movement skills including jumping and lateral hopping to provide strength and stability to muscles involved in those areas. Nonlocomotion skills are also critical to overall fitness but are often overlooked. These skills involve strength of muscles that provide isolation such as balance or changes in load. Self will begin incorporating some balance exercises such as yoga which also has the added benefit of flexibility into her fitness regimen. Finally, manipulation of objects or manipulation movement skills exercise both the locomotion and non-locomotion movement skills through more specialized propulsion of objects. Self does not have specific fitness goals related to this but casual exercises such as volleyball or tennis can be incorporated as occasional active rest days to focus on this type of coordination in movements.

Self's primary fitness goal metric is defined by weight loss. At the highest level, a very simple equation of energy coming into Self through food and energy expended through work defines whether weight loss, weight gain or no change will take place. The practical implementation of this equation is more complicated. Three basic… [read more]

Exercise and Fitness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Physical Fitness Recommendations -- Exercise Session

Session Objectives and Appropriate Needs-Based Exercises

The principal objective of the exercise session is to engage the client in an aerobic workout that allows her to reach the highest appropriate percentage of her maximum physiological capacity and for her to maintain that degree of exertion sufficiently long enough to promote positive aerobic conditioning and other physiological adaptations such as soft-tissue repair and strengthening during the rest period in between successive workouts. A second set of objectives is to help this client minimize the symptoms of ATCS and the discomfort and limitations attributable to them. In that regard, the exercise session is designed to incorporate extensive pre-workout stretching of the area and post-workout treatments to reduce any inflammation associated with the workout. Finally, the workout session is also designed to supplement the running portion of the workout with comparable aerobic exercise to the extent the ATCS symptoms limit her ability to complete a full running workout.

Exercise Timing, Sequence, and Detailed Warm-up Plan

In this particular exercise session, the client will begin by statically stretching the hamstring, gluteus, quadriceps, and calves. Next, she will perform specifically prescribed stretches for the anterior tibial compartment I conjunction with light downward longitudinal tissue massage of the area to stimulate blood flow to the low-blood-flow tissues of the tendons and fascia that form the anterior tibial compartment sheath to maximize its capacity to expand to accommodate the expansion of the anterior tibial muscle group within that structure.

The stretch sequence is followed by walking at increasing speeds to further extend the progression to higher stress gaits and speeds. Subsequently, the client will work to be actively aware of the first signs of pressure and discomfort in order to switch…… [read more]

Exercise Physiology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



2. Background for the Study: Here, the authors sought to see whether "capacity [to exercise] declines with age and improves with exercise training," as well as "whether changes in oxygen efficiency, defined as the oxygen cost per unit work, contribute […] to the effects of aging or training […]."

3. Methods Employed in the Study: The method utilized by authors consisted of a sample of 61 subjects that were separated into the following groups: younger women (ages 20 to 33 years, n = 15), younger men (ages 20 to 30 years, n = 12), older women (ages 65 to 79 years, n = 16), and older men (ages 65 to 77 years, n = 18). According to the authors, "all subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze aerobic parameters before and after three to six months of supervised aerobic exercise training."

The most interesting thing to learn from the study is found in the fourth and fifth pieces of data, which are the results and the conclusions, respectively. These are as follows:

4. Results: The study found that before training, younger subjects had a higher exercise capacity and were able to take a higher intensity. However, with training, it was older subjects that displayed these characteristics, much to the amazement of the researchers.

5. Conclusions: Due to these incredible results, it was concluded that older age "[…] is associated with […] decreased exercise efficiency and an increase in the oxygen cost of exercise, which contribute to a decreased exercise capacity. These age-related changes are reversed with exercise training, which improves efficiency to a greater degree in the elderly than in the young."

Article 4: Fatigue during Exercise by Linda Ray (Source: )

The fourth article describes how fatigue can affect exercise. The article takes the form of a counselling piece, separated into five parts, all of which offer advice to the reader in that which regards exercise, which is how the reader learns about combating fatigue while exercising. Thus, the article teaches with every line. It begins, for instance, by explaining that while a person may feel fatigue during the first half of the exercise period, this may dissipate as he or she continues the exercise. Furthermore, the advice given by the article is to eat properly, know one's body and never push it to the brink, and be aware of potential medical concerns that may arise as a result of the exercise. This is all great advice to exercise not only often, and increase performance, but do so in a gradual and healthy way.

Article 5: Exercise: 7 Benefits of Regular Physical Activity by Mayo Clinic Staff (Source: )

The last piece builds upon all the advice offered in the previous articles. The seven benefits of regular physical activity, according to the article, are: controlling one's weight, combating potential diseases, improving mood, boosting energy, sleeping better, having a better sex life, a last but not least, having fun. These positives, as evidenced here, can only improve one's life,… [read more]

Fitness Business Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … fitness business in Australia

The society of the modern day era is undergoing important changes, obvious at all aspects of life. For most individuals, jobs occupy the large majority of their time and they are often sedentary; time to cook and engage in other leisure activities is decreased, resulting as such in additional pressures for the health of… [read more]

Athletic Training Whether to Win Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Football is a sport of power, strength, speed, endurance and finesse. Of all the most popular team sports, the need for weight training in football is probably the most obvious, based on the demands of the sport and the visibly bulky condition of many of the athletes. Conditioning programs and exercises for football must be sport-specific (Football strategies, 2000).… [read more]

Sport: Basketball More Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,118 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Then each athletes' Peak Power (PP) was calculated as being the highest value over a 5-second period of testing; their mean power was calculated as being the average power via 30 seconds of testing and their fatigue index was determined as being the lowest value over a 5-second period divided by the highest value over a 5-second period were calculated… [read more]

Athletic Coach I Have Garnered Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"A pronating foot rolls toward the inside. A supinating foot rolls toward the outside. A Morton's foot is a combination of these two abnormalities." (Levy 199).

A pronating foot can result in knee problems from the joint being repeatedly twisted. I have found that most people with a pronating foot can be treated with a simple arch support, but naturally,… [read more]

Psychology of Health and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (522 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sports Psychology -- Setting Measurable Goals

Declaration of Goals

Lose weight through improved diet.

Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.

Stop smoking.

Timeframe for Long and Short-Term Goal Achievement

Lose weight through improved diet.

Establish specific dietary rules immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. (Identify all junk foods, high-fat foods, high sugar-content foods, simple carbohydrates, and establish a firm limit for alcoholic beverages.) Long-term goal (4 weeks): Reduce consumption of all of the above sufficiently to lose 10 lbs in 4 weeks.

Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.

Establish specific commitment to workout at least 4 days per week immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. Resolve to forego social activities of any kind until any missed workouts are made up every week. Long-term goal (4 weeks): Reduce missed workouts to 0 per week by completing 16 workouts in 4 weeks.

Stop smoking.

Establish specific rules for smoking cessation plan immediately (by the end of the week) to enable success. Instead of attempting the "cold turkey" approach (again), I will employ a behaviorism-based approach whose principal feature is distinguishing between physiological and psychological nicotine craving. Long-term goal (4 weeks): Completely eliminate all "comfort" cigarettes and "habitual" smoking scenarios. By the end of the 4th week, smoke only half a cigarette at a time, only when necessitated by intense physical symptoms or withdrawal (i.e. headache, nausea, intense physical craving), and only under conditions that introduce some element of unpleasantness (such as standing on one foot, standing outside in the cold without a coat, or while…… [read more]

Sports Management Facilities as a Sports Events Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,494 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sports Management


As a sports events organizers there is a lot of responsibility that is involved. First would be able to find out the condition of the facilities being used for the baseball game. It would be to look for the best baseball fields. It would be important to make sure that facilities and cleaned for the use and… [read more]

Flow States and Sport Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,445 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs and behavior of individuals. This makes it ideal for the technique, which elicits change at unconscious level to be highly… [read more]

Sport Drink Facts and Fictions Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Results: Compared to placebo (water), ingesting glucose are regular intervals during the steady state portion of the task significantly improved performance; however, the addition of caffeine did not improve performance significantly compared to glucose alone. Conclusions: The sample size was small and incompletely randomized. Another weakness in the study was the use of water as a placebo, which would not… [read more]

Physical Fitness in Children Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (4,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


The results of studies on aerobic capacity and fitness in children and adolescents suggest that physical fitness needs to be placed in the lower priority than developing healthy exercise habits that will continue into an adult. As children grow they will gain size and strength. Children were found to be able to increase muscular strength in response to resistance training… [read more]

Public Qualitative Observation: Wow Fitness Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The rooms were literally packed like sardines and there seemed to be little personal attention given to the different participants. Some participants seemed very confident about their moves and seemed equally if not more deft and fit than the instructor while others seemed obviously very lost and new to fitness. The rooms were large enough to require the instructor to… [read more]

Sports and Gender Discrimination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity.

Cultural And Social Assessment

Feminist theory states that women will be given equal rights in sports and media however this equality doesn't exist and there exist a… [read more]

Sports Like NFL and NBA and American Popular Culture Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


The famous baseball author Roger Kahn noted that Reese didn't say anything but the racists were silenced immediately as Robinsontold Kahn (Ruiz, 2013; Lee, 2012). After 27 years Robinson wore the Brooklyn Dodger uniform, Hank Aaron surpassed Babe Ruth's career home run record (playing with Atlanta Braves). Vin Scully a prominent Dodger play-by-play broadcaster noted on the night of 715th career home run, 'the crowd is giving a standing ovation to a black player for breaking the record in the Deep South of an all-time baseball legend (Hollander, 2014; Lee, 2012).

Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).

Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).

In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths… [read more]

Exercise Habits of University Students the Questionnaire Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Exercise Habits of University Students

The questionnaire used for this study concentrates on the exercise attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of Syracuse University students. Demographic, attitudinal and forced-choice rankings of criterion used to evaluate activities, work-out facilities on and off-campus, and analysis of time demands on students are included in the survey. A total of 26 questions comprise the survey. The… [read more]

Personal Training Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,336 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Personal Training Senior Fitness

Exercising with osteoarthritis can be painful if not done correctly and is too strenuous since cartilage between the joints has broken down, thus resulting in pain. Therefore, an appropriate exercise regime is significant for Maddie, which should include strength training and low-intensity aerobics. The latter form of motion is less taxing on the joints so walking, swimming, and if permitted, cycling can be incorporated. Strength training is important because it helps build muscles and may regress the progress of osteoarthritis. Therefore, Maddie may work with light dumbbells, thera-band stability trainers, and may attend Pilates classes, yoga, stretch, and tai chi. In a study led by Boeer, it showed those who exercised with thera-band stability trainers and had hip osteoarthritis increased their balance, thus reducing the risk of falling. In training Maddie, I would definitely include tai chi because as shown in a study by Song, forms of tai chi were designed to lessen the effects of osteoarthritis. The investigation concluded that performing the various movements of said exercise style, the symptoms of the disease was improved along with better balance. Aquatic aerobics is recommended because the water supports most of Maddie's weight, thus less stress on the joints and body. The client can and will be able to receive a great workout since water creates more resistance, which allows Maddie to create muscle and strengthen muscles with less strain and pain. Exercising in the water is especially helpful with knee and hip osteoarthritis, in particular water walking. This type of regimen tones different muscles depending on the way the client walks, whether backwards or sideways. A study done by Wyatt was to demonstrate the effects of aquatic exercise and traditional exercise on those with knee osteoarthritis. The investigation showed those who undergone water exercise experienced less pain than those who exercised on land.

Maddie may also incorporate gym equipment despite her osteoarthritis. She may be on a stationary bike or an elliptical since they do not stress the joints. The former can be a recumbent bike since it leans back and reduces tension. Knee and back strain is further reduced when Maddie orients the pedals further away. The latter machine emulates walking and stair climbing and a bike, but providing the potency of a cardio workout. Maddie can change things up by going on a treadmill, which she can pace herself appropriately and walk, which is also low-intensity and great for her osteoarthritis. A study was done by Roddy questioning the efficacy of aerobic walking and quadriceps strengthening exercise at home. The outcome was that one exercise regimen wasn't more effective than the other. In fact, both forms showed reduced pain in those with knee osteoarthritis, which broadens the exercise programs offered to patients. In another study led by Bennell, there was a positive correlation between those who had weak quadriceps and the risk of osteoarthritis. Therefore, ways to build up muscles effectively influence the decreased progression of the condition. In the end, the client may… [read more]

Exercise Pros and Cons Project Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (958 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Exercise

The subject of exercise has been consistently brought to the forefront, as it is the focus of increasing attention and discussion. This however is nothing new, as interest has begun to wane, with it suddenly becoming topical once more. To answer the question of: who exercises and why, requires understanding the various reasons for an individual choosing to exercise. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to the overall benefits and drawbacks of exercising.

Who Exercises?

Simply put, exercise is any bodily activity, which enhances / maintains physical fitness, and health / wellness. It consists of two popular types: aerobic and isometric. Each of these can be of three different intensities to include: light, moderate, and vigorous. The people, who are considered to be active, would be those that exercise at least three times a week for 20 minutes a day. (Wellikson, L., 1987, pg. 216)

There are a wide variety of individuals from all walks of life who exercise. This can vary from participating various sports (such as: football, baseball or running) to taking a brisk walk. In some cases, individuals are choosing to exercise as part of a consistent effort, while at other times this could be considered a reality of everyday life. For example, someone who is exercising as part of their career would be doing so for different reasons, in comparison with an individual who chooses to do so. In this case, individuals that are required to exercise as a part of their career; must be able to deal with the rigorous challenges that their body could be forced to endure (i.e. A solider or professional athlete). This is important, because it shows how someone will exercise based on a necessity for their career field. Where, there could be those individuals who are exercising, yet they might not enjoy it. When you compare this to someone who exercising because of personal choice, they are doing so for: health reasons, socialization and enjoyment. This is significant because it shows, how there are wide variety of reasons as to why someone will exercise. In some cases, it is for a host of motivations, while others is based on select factors.

Why do people exercise?

There are a wide variety of reasons as to why someone will exercise some of the most notable include: weight control and improved circulation. The way exercise helps to improve weight control is from increased physical activity, which helps to augment the effects of: burning calories and fat. Individuals from a number of different backgrounds will exercise for a host of different reasons. In some cases, there are people who are not obese, but will exercise as way to maintain their current weight levels. However, there are also those times that overweight and obese individuals will exercise. In this situation, the exercise along with a combination…… [read more]

Physical Fitness Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (3,101 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Physical Fitness Research

Proposal for Research Concerning a Fitness-Based Intervention With Childhood Obesity

Personal Meaningfulness:

The problem of obesity has worsened in recent years as Americans have tended culturally to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators that become evident early in life… [read more]

Gymnastics Is a Sport That Requires Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,000 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Gymnastics is a sport that requires tremendous physical stamina and technical control over the body. Denise Villani, an author and Webmaster of a number sports-related websites, writes that this graceful and artistic sport requires a "combination of strength, balance, agility and muscle coordination" (http://gymnastics-stuff.com). Villani explains that gymnasts must be in top physical shape in order to perform "sequences of… [read more]

Pettlep Imagery on Sports Performance Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,112 words)
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¶ … PETTLEP Imagery on Sports Performance

Imagery as a means of assisting success has been used in a variety of applications. Specifically, the use of imagery in enhancing sports performance has been particularly researched, in recent years. The PETTLEP motor-based imagery process has demonstrated encouraging results in a variety of sports, including: golf, hockey, gymnastics, and weight lifting. However, there is still a question regarding if these results can be generalized to other sports and even other facets of the sports already involved in studies and whether or not the results will be found long-term.

Holmes and Collins (2001) pioneered the seven-component imagery process known as PETTLEP imagery. In Holmes and Collins process, there are seven factors that are taken into consideration when implementing this motor-based imagery. These components include: physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. The authors surmised that the brain stores memories that are accessed by physical preparation and execution, especially motor imagery that is related to preparation and execution. Their seven-point checklist is an evidence-based method that highlights the areas that should be monitored, to enhance the efficacy of the imagery on the physical task. Several researchers have used the PETTLEP imagery practice in their research to determine its effectiveness.

Wright and Smith (2009) compared the effects of PETTLEP imagery with the results obtained using more traditional imagery, on muscle strength in its subjects. Fifty participants were divided into five groups consisting of those who used: PETTLEP, traditional imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and practice, and a control group. Over a course of six weeks participants in the PETTLEP, combination and physical practice groups showed improvement in their strength. Interestingly, there were no marked differences in improvement between the participants who used PETTLEP and those who were in the physical practice group. Although these results seem to support the use of PETTLEP for strength improvement, there are limitations to the research. The study period, six weeks, was quite short. The question of whether or not these same results would be seen for longer periods of study needs to be answered. Other muscle groups should be tested to see if the bicep results can be generalized to the entire body. In addition, whether or not these results can be applied to specific tasks needed to complete sports-specific tasks needs to be demonstrated.

Smith, Wright, and Cantwell (2008) studied the effects of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two participants were divided into four groups including: PETTLEP imagery, physical practice, a combination of PETTLEP and physical practice, and a control group. At the end of the six-week experiment, it was found that all groups, apart from the control group, improved significantly. The group who utilized a combination of PETTLEP and physical practice improved the most. Like Wright and Smith (2008), there was also no significant difference found in the level of improvement between the PETTLEP group and the physical practice group. Once again, there is a concern regarding the long-term applicability of the… [read more]

Sports and Steroids Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,158 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Sports and Steroids

Steroids and Their Effects

Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald & Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they were used to treat under-nourished patients and induce their healing after surgery. It was in the 50s that competitive weightlifters… [read more]

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Athletic Population Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart condition characterized by excessive thickening of the heart muscles. Left ventricular thickening is usually the most common defining feature of the disease though in some patients right ventricular thickening is also noticed. While heart muscle thickening is also observed in patients with a history of high blood pressure and among those with prolonged athletic training, in HCM the thickening is idiopathic. HCM occurs roughly in around 1 in 500 (600,000 to 1.5 million) people in the U.S. And is the single most common cause for sudden death in young athletes. [Cleveland Clinic] Statistics show that roughly around 35% of sudden deaths among athletes are ascribed to HCM. Statistics also reveal that sudden deaths among joggers, marathon racers, and other forms of athletic sports, stands between 1 in 15,000 or 1 in 50,000. [Maron] Though this is a relatively rare form of cardiac malformation it assumes lot of importance, as the victims are mostly young athletes who are normally viewed as the epitome of the fitness and health. A brief overview of the condition, diagnosis and possible treatment methods would help us better understand the disorder.

HCM Demographics and Diagnosis

As mentioned above, HCM is the most common cause for sudden deaths among young athletes. Sudden death occurs usually after intense athletic training or other form of physical exertion. Around 70% of sudden deaths among athletes in the U.S. were from games such as football and basketball. It is also observed that around 90% of sudden deaths occurred in male athletes suggesting that males are more intense in their training. [Maron] it has been noticed that in almost all of these cases of reported deaths the victims were young, healthy looking, and asymtomatic individuals and death followed a period of intense physical exercise. Identifying potentially at risk HCM patient thus remains the main focus of physical examiners. Factors such as family history of sudden death, genetic testing and the identification of the at risk genotype, electrocardiography using HOLTER monitor to identify ventricular trachycardia, the existence of frequent syncopes and left ventricular Hypertrophy values greater than 30 mm are the important risk factors useful in identifying at risk people. Genetic research has revealed that mutations of at least ten different types of genes, responsible for the development of the cardiac muscles, are observed in HCM patients. In particular, mutations are observed in genes that code for proteins such as beta myosin heavy chain, troponin T, alpha tropomyosin, cardiac myosin binding protein-C, etc., that are involved in the heart muscle contraction process. [CMA]

Though the anterior ventricular septum is the most common site for hypertrophy, thickening…… [read more]

Fitness for Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Fitness for Women

Dorchester is an extremely welcoming community that is saturated with many ways of staying active. There are many activities and opportunities that promote healthy exercise for everyone within in the neighborhood to engage in. With the substantial amount of evidence that indicates that the extent to which social relationships are strong and supportive is directly related to the health of the individuals who live within such social confines (Berkman, 1995).

Dorchester is a quiet, typical urban city that offers the serene life for those who dwell in and around it. There is much focus on the youth of Dorchester in much of the community observation. With a great deal of hype placed in the local youth sports, everyone is usually involved in some way or another. For women, there are several aspects that directly focus in their direction. Many communities have councils that place a specific meeting with the object of focusing on ways to elaborate the promotion of health in their communities (Kreuter, Lezin, Young, 2000). Aside from the common Curves and other fitness for women establishments, there are several MOPS groups (mothers of preschoolers) that aim to join mothers of young children. These particular groups provide some interest into the fitness for women with weekly and daily walking, jogging and hiking sessions. Communities have much to benefit from the promotion of fitness. Studies have indicated that communities with high regard for exercise and health are found be much more economically endowed (Kawachi, Glass, 1999). With that, the entire makeup of the business side of the community also strives to get involved with the promotion of health and exercise.

Outside of the realm of groups focused on mothers, there are also several coffee shops that have…… [read more]

Philosophy of Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,208 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Philosophy of Sports

But it's good for you!"

An overview of American Sports -- collective and individual anxiety about just having fun

One of the reasons that the ancient Greek ideal of sports came into being is no doubt the individualistic nature of Greek physical excellence, as embodied by the first Olympic Games. Ancient Olympic, Greek athletes competed in sports… [read more]

How Can Sport Affect Health? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,671 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … citizens in the United States are suffering from mental or physical health problems, scientists agree that the practice of sports on a regular basis is the key to a healthy body and lifestyle. According to a recent survey, sports is a really effective way to prevent against obesity (Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, 3855)… [read more]

Sports and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Violence in American Sports Today

Participation in amateur athletic events has grown tremendously over the past few decades in terms of their scope, power, and economic status. In fact, in the United States alone, amateur athletics involve the lives and athletic experiences of people from their childhood through high school and college and beyond. Not surprisingly, then, high school and… [read more]

Health Benefits of Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Today, exercise does not automatically bring to mind endless workouts, or marathon runs; today, exercise is a form of activity that one would enjoy doing, and this could be anything from dancing to jogging, to fitness walking, and to ballroom dancing. There are others who choose unique forms of activity, like mountain biking to skating, and step aerobics, which is… [read more]

Youth Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Youth sports have become a way for children to become distracted from the outside world. Sports shield children from the environment if they are at-risk youths or sports may create a sense of comrade among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. However, what makes youth sports such an essential component of a child's upbringing is sports ability to build character. Ethics… [read more]

Success &amp Failure in Sport Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 19


e. due to lack of ability or lack of effort, locus of causality between causes that are external, like, a difficult task or good fortune, or between causes that are internal, like, the ability or determination, the failure or success of a performer will be understood by peers, in accordance to attribution theory (Taggar & Neubert, 2004).

In the reactions… [read more]

Gender on Concussion Reporting Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  7 pages (2,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Each of the participants had competed in either a high school sport or a college team. The participants were required to indicate their perceived stress intensity and their typical coping response after experiencing two stressors that they perceived as most intense. The results were analyzed via multivariate analysis.


There were differences by race and gender. Caucasians experienced higher stress… [read more]

Basketball Game Coverage Sports Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is important for me to set goals and meet them. Therefore, having a specific deadline by which to submit my article helped me get the article done. I take my deadlines quite seriously. There is also satisfaction in knowing that one can and does meet all deadlines. There was some professional camaraderie, but there was also some competition among the other sports journalists covering the game. Competition can both hinder and facilitate meeting deadlines. In this case, it did not serve as a hindrance.

The greatest pressures to meet the deadline came from within myself. When a deadline is set, I do my best to meet it. There were some factors that were out of my control, such as waiting for petty cash, or procedures for reimbursement, or approval for travel costs, etc. The pressure to meet the deadline also comes from my editor, and my news organization. Tardiness is not tolerated or excused, or is done so with prejudice and rarely. There was pressure from other news organizations and the journalists representing them for this game. There is also pressure within the game itself. As part of the writing, I commented and described the various pressures in the game -- from coaches, to players, to statistics, to the shot clock. One of the things I appreciate about sports journalism is the epic nature of sports. Sports coverage is very dramatic, and intense. It is one of the reasons why I enjoy the Olympics so much. It is one of the greatest stages for sports in the world and in modern human history. Everything about the Olympics is epic -- from the classical music theme song, to the ornate opening and closing ceremonies, as well as all the backstories of the athletes, teams, and countries participating. This is the kind of energy I brought to writing about basketball games. In a way, I felt pressure to bring a high level of dynamism to the writing, too.

I needed several kinds of information to write an appropriate game story. I needed information about the NCAA. I needed information about the respective universities and teams. I needed quite a lot of information regarding statistics and history. I needed information regarding where the game was taking place and how this game fit within the overall context of March Madness. Additionally, I needed information regarding the quality of resources. I needed information about game schedules and game itineraries so as to plan my comings and goings during the game. I need such information to plan or coordinate interviews, for example.


National Sports Journalism Center. (2013). Home. Indiana University, Web, Available from: http://sportsjournalism.org/. 2013 March 10.

Sherman, G. (2011). How sports journalists learned to go for the hard tackle. New York Magazine, Web, Available from: http://nymag.com/news/intelligencer/sports-journalism-2011-12/. 2013 March 10.

TheJayJones. (2013). Home. One Click Sports Now -- Sports Journalism, Web, Available from: http://oneclicksportsnow.com/now/sports-media-2/sports-journalism/. 2013 March 10.… [read more]

College Sports and Recreational Activities Article Critique

Article Critique  |  5 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The study was conducted during the spring session of 1996. Although the original sample size was 2,000, after attrition was accounted for the final sample size for usable data in the study was 406 responses. This sample size and the random nature of the sample were adequate enough to produce results that could be considered to be reliable.

The specific… [read more]

Sports Sociology Sports Played Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Often this approach assumes that socio-economic standing is based on what people can afford to do. For instance there are many sports, such as polo or even golf that require a great outlay of money in order to participate in and therefore are limited to those with higher incomes. Thus certain activities or sports are reserved for certain subsets rather than the general population. This includes attending certain sporting events. Thus, viewing or participating in certain sports reflects one's economic or social standing. In addition, most high-paid coaches tend to be white; there is an ethnic split in sports. The feminist approach extends this social conflict to gender and a micro-level approach (Eckstein et al., 2010). Sports teams need to be divided between sexes as women would be unfairly treated in contact sports or sports where they lack the same strength and stamina as men. Sports that are more equal, such as race car driving or target shooting have been traditionally segregated as well. Women should, but often do not, value their femininity over these activities that are traditionally considered male activities. Moreover, women's sports do not receive the same amount importance or prestige form the media as male sports.

3. The Symbolic-Interaction approach is a micro level approach that views society as a product of daily interactions between individuals. A symbol is anything that has particular meaning for a group or culture (Giulianotti, 2005). In this paradigm the focus is on individual interactions, completion, prejudices, etc. So instead of focusing on teams, or sports effects on society as a whole, this approach assumes that sports serve a different function for each player. For example, one person may be motivated by competition or success, while another individual loves the game for its own merits. These individual motivations will often change over time.

With respect to sports sociology, the functionalist paradigm can actually be viewed as subsuming the conflict paradigm, whereas the interactionist paradigm delves more into the psychological motivations and effects of sports. Thus, from a sociological standpoint Eckstein et al. (2010) suggest that the functionalist paradigm is more useful as an overall approach. I agree. However, micro-level views need to be synthesized in order to fully understand how sports affect society and the individual.


Bourdieu, P. (1990). In other words. Cambridge: Polity.

Eckstein, R., Moss, D.M., & Delaney, D.J. (2010). Sports sociology's still untapped potential. Sociological Forum, 25(3), 500-518.

Giulianotti, R. (2005). Sport: A critical sociology. Malden, MA:…… [read more]

Immunity, Exercise, and Chronic Disease Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Immunity, Exercise, And Chronic Disease

Susceptibility to the development of chronic diseases has been shown to depend on at least two processes, a reduced capacity to manage oxidative stress and chronic inflammation (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 18-19). Diseases that have been linked to these conditions are some of the more debilitating and life-threatening diseases found in developed countries and include type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, depression, Parkinson's disease, and cancer (Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 18-19; Walsh et al., p. 34). This essay will review how oxidative stress and chronic inflammation levels can be modified through exercise and antioxidant-focused nutrition to reduce the risk of disease and premature death.

Oxidative Stress, Exercise, and Nutrition

Above normal levels of oxygen radicals (oxidants) in healthy cells activates of a host of genes that encode a large number of enzymes that have antioxidant activity (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19). A failure of this protective process to function normally has disease implications. For example, when the vascular tissue in aging rats was examined antioxidant activity was found to be lower than normal (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19). Heart tissue in mice lacking a master antioxidant control gene was unable to contract normally, similar to what would be expected of an aged heart. There was also evidence of oxidative stress and cell death in these hearts. When the blood flow to rat hearts was restricted artificially and then resumed, to mimic what occurs during a heart attack, levels of the master antioxidant control gene was found to be below normal (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19). These studies reveal how the heart muscle and vascular tissue become susceptible to oxidative damage when burdened with cardiovascular disease and/or the effects of aging.

The above findings encouraged researchers to examine whether antioxidant supplementation could compensate for disease- or aging-compromised endogenous antioxidant activity and thus provide protection against oxidative damage. Phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains have been shown to have antioxidant activity and experiments in laboratory rodents suggest these naturally-occurring compounds induce endogenous antioxidant activity (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19-20). For example, in the heart attack model daily consumption of broccoli increased the expression levels of an antioxidant gene and provided protection against heart attack-induced oxidative damage.

A large number of epidemiological studies have found a link between regular exercise and a reduced prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (reviewed by Lee, Park, Zuidema, Hannink, and Zhang, 2011, p. 19-20). Although further studies need to be performed, experiments have revealed the antioxidant enzyme expression levels are increased in the vascular system in laboratory mice and pigs that were exercised on a regular basis. However, endurance athletes have reduced levels of at least one antioxidant gene and may therefore experience increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. The existence of… [read more]

Total Fitness and Wellness Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Fitness experts have long been aware that "exercise and sport are fueled by three different energy systems that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP); the aerobic system, the lactic acid system (anaerobic glycolysis) and the ATP-PC system" (Kerr, 2003) and a quality exercise program will take these energy systems into account. Aerobic training is typified by long distance and low intensity cardiovascular workouts and my daily walks with the dog are great additions to my aerobic fitness. Utilizing the lactic acid, or anaerobic, system involves short bursts of intense activity which tear down and rebuild individual muscles in the absence of oxygen. Short bursts of all-out sprinting during softball games and practices are examples of lactic acid system training, as are steep climbs which require pulling my entire body weight over boulders or cliffs. The rate at which I recover from physical exercise is determined by whether or not a particular activity is aerobic or anaerobic in nature.

To fully achieve the physical adaptation of the body through exercise it is critical that certain periods of time are considered. Muscle growth and development, even for the most dedicated of weight trainers, is a matter of six months at least and this timespan must be taken into consideration when planning an exercise program. Even though noticeable results may be seen in the first few months, the program must be adhered to if the physical changes are to become fully manifested. For walkers and joggers the proper increment to measure one's progress should be a function of distance traveled and time. If my dog walking is to become a legitimate source of exercise I must be sure that I am walking further every week and month to challenge myself and spur muscle growth. Weightlifters measure their progress in pounds or kilograms and use repetitions and sets to gauge their physical adaptation.

To improve my personal exercise routine it is essential that I add a wider range of activities to my over lifestyle which focus on strength training and nonlocomotion skills. A combination of weekly yoga sessions and lifting free weights at home would balance my exercise habits while providing a full range of physical benefits. When my dog is feeling up to it, turning the daily walk through the neighborhood into a light jog is also a great way to increase the intensity of one of my current activities. Carrying a weight in my backpack while I am hiking in the wilderness would add a strength-building component to this area of my fitness program. Staying adaptable and looking for creative ways to keep my exercises fresh and challenging is the key to maintaining a high level of personal fitness.


Kerr, G. (2003, April 17). Endurance conditioning for boxing. RossBoxing.com, Retrieved from http://www.rossboxing.com/thegym/thegym21.htm

Shelton, T. Fayette County School District, Fayette County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction. (2009). Competency assurance documents. Retrieved from http://teach.fcps.net/curriculum/practical-livingskills/primpe.htm… [read more]

Presidential Fitness Testing National Significance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (2,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Once again citing the current obesity epidemic and generally poor health of America's population, states like Illinois continue to face significant obstacles in their journey to healthily prepare their students for adulthood. With ghastly increases in fast food consumption and video gaming throughout the youth population, physical fitness education remains extremely arduous in the modern environment . Additionally, the current… [read more]

Sports Participation Character Development Opening Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


In the article, "Justplay: A revolutionary approach to youth sport administration and sportsmanship," Elaine Raakman (2006) asserts that although the potential exists for youth sport participation to build positive character traits, when society diverts its emphasis away from sportsmanship to focusing more on outcome, children as well as communities may experience negative benefits. Raakman relates the following:

The original goals… [read more]

Health Importance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In conclusion, it is quite clear that exercise and health are intertwined. It is also quite clear that education is one of the keys to understanding exercise and motivating youth and adults to exercise more frequently. Studies consistently indicate that exercise can elevate mood, reduce health concerns, and allow people to live longer, more fulfilling lives. With the growing problem of obesity and its' health related problems, such as diabetes and heart disease, it is clear additional work needs to be done in educating Americans about the deadly game of inactivity. Exercise does not have to be rigorous to be helpful. The more people that know that, and begin to exercise, even moderately, the healthier the nation will become.


Akande, A., Van Wyk, C.D., & Osagie, J. (2000). Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health. Education, 120(4), 758.

Author not Available. (1999). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/intro.htm18 June 2004.

Editors. (2004). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from the HealthyPeople.gov Web site: http://www.healthypeople.gov/Document/html/uih/uih_bw/uih_4.htm18 June 2004.

Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105.

Grove, N.C., & Spier, B.E. (1999). Motivating the well elderly to exercise. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 16(3), 179-189.

Hausenblas, Heather A. Transtheoretical model: Is termination applicable to exercise? American Journal of Health Studies; 1/1/2004.

Rauh, V.A. (2003). Health and community design: The impact of…… [read more]

Fitness Trends: Dvds and Their Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Still other DVD series have specifically crafted their appeal around promoting the purchase of an item which then can be used in conjunction with the DVD's fitness program. "For instance, the Bosu Cardio Fusion video uses the Bosu for an aerobic workout. The Bosu is half a stability ball with a dome side and a platform side. And sales of elastic resistance training DVDs have been increasing due to numerous products marketing these as a solution for anyone who is short on time and money" (Kaczanowska 13). Although these equipment-based programs can be 'fads' they can experience a brief upsurge in popularity due to the novelty factor which alleviates boredom for consumers and the appeal of getting additional gear in conjunction with a workout DVD.


The hard copy DVD has considerable competition in the mainstream market and the yoga market from streaming services. However, purchases of straightforward fitness DVDs are still common and are likely to remain so. Segmentation has become rife within the market, spanning from increasingly intense programs for those who want to 'get ripped fast' versus DVDs specifically targeting demographics such as Baby Boomers and children. As time grows in increasingly short supply and concerns about obesity grow, interest in convenient at-home workouts is likely to escalate and there remains a core constituency of consumers who wish to purchase the majority of their self-directed fitness content on DVDs. To leverage both markets, one possibility is to offer both DVDs and subscription-based services, given that the demographics likely to be attracted to both (people seeking 'programs' versus those seeking variety as well as niche markets like the elderly) are likely to be quite different.


Bendewald, M. "The Last DVD holdout: How online video is revolutionizing the home fitness industry." Megamace Fitness. [19 Feb 2014]


Gibala, M. (et al.). "Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease." The Journal of Physiology, 590 (2012). 1077-1084. [19 Feb 2014]


Massey, Bob. "Online sites are the latest trends in fitness. Feeling Fit. [19 Feb 2014]


Ning, Tina. "The growth of online yoga and fitness." Lohas. [19 Feb 204]


Kaczanowska, Agata. "No sweat: Fitness DVDs have been banking on their celebrity trainers and cheaper formats." IBIS World. November 2012.

Perez, S. & Tressel, C. "ABC. Healthbeat Report: Exercise to the extreme." ABC.…… [read more]

Sex and Exercise Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,418 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In the summer of 2009, a study consisting of 24 students was carried out in Tehran. The participants were instructed to continue their normal routines and not to bring any changes in their activity and diet. The main finding of the study suggested a significant increase in the testosterone level of the individuals after 6-12 weeks of resistance training. This… [read more]

Dynamics Shaping the Sports Media Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Sports Media


The spot media is one of the sectors expected to undergo significant transformations in the future. This will influence the ways in which the society perceives the sports media and consumption of the sports information.

Sports media and competition

The sports media is expected to witness stiff competition from different media and sports… [read more]

Diagnosis of Injuries and Development of Exercise Recovery Plan Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Diagnosis of Injures and Development of Exercise Recovery Program

What has occurred?

James lifted a stretcher while forward bent and twisted to the right. James says he felt his back pull at the time, but he continued with his shift, and after work went home to bed. He woke this morning with low back pain, greater on the left than… [read more]

Legal Issues That Follow Sports Injuries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,120 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Sports Injuries

Legal Issues in Sports Injuries


In the context of sports injury, especially in competitive team contact sports, mere negligence is not sufficient to warrant legal liability (Sawyer 1997). Courts have recognized that in the course of enthusiastic play, inadvertent rule violations and other cases of negligence are bound to occur, and that the expectation of such negligence is a part of the assumption of risk each voluntary participant in the sport takes on (Lazaroff 1990). Instead of using a simple negligence test for liability, a reckless action or intentional action standard has been adopted by most jurisdictions as the test for liability in sports injuries that arise out of competitive play (Sawyer 1997). This has different implications for different types of injuries, and is not always applicable to the situations that might bring about injury.

Heat stress injuries, for example, are relatively common especially among amateur athletics/sports participants, but a coach/manager cannot be held liable for such injuries even if certain circumstances -- the provision of water or shade, for example -- were expected on the part of the participants. Though negligence may exist, no reckless or intentional action was taken in this example. Spinal injuries, concussions, and other injuries arising out of contact between players must meet this same test of recklessness or intentional action in order for the injured part to hold the other(s) involved in the contact legally responsible for injuries and damages. These injuries can arise out of intentional, reckless, merely negligent, or even entirely blameless accidents, and must be examined case-by-case.


The concept of negligence in sports injuries is highly related to the concept of duty. Just as mere negligence does not create legal liability, there is no real duty on the part of any sports participant to protect the other participants(s) from the inherent risks of the sport (Abramson et al. 2010). Again, the assumed risks of the other participants relieves the duty of the other participants to exercise even an ordinary duty of care in protecting the other participants, so long as all actions and behaviors are within normal parameters of the sport -- which includes many instances of rule breaking and other technical violations of the sport's generally accepted mode of play that occur due to simple negligence during the enthusiastic participation in the sport rather than the reckless or intentional actions of the potential defendant (Sawyer 1997; Abramson et al. 2010).

Again, in the case of heat exhaustion or heat stoke, there is no incumbent legal duty on any of the other players, coaches, managers, etc. To ensure that any other participant avoids such injury, as this injury can only be brought about by the injured party's own actions. Injuries as sever as spinal cord columns and concussions might in many instances be evidence of a breach of duty, depending on the sport being played and the specific circumstances of an individual incident, but it is impossible to assign duty generally in regards to these injuries. Duty… [read more]

Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,865 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Senior Fitness

Currently Violet seems to be in relatively good shape and should be able to initiate a fitness program that will not only allow her to improve her fitness level, but it will also allow her to approach life with a positive outlook while remaining a strong, independent individual. One recent study determined that the key to healthy aging… [read more]

Exercise Is a Good Way to Socialize Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Exercise is a good way to socialize as well as to experience enjoyment. One study by Hagberg, Lindahl, Nyberg, and Hellenius (2009) showed that the more a person enjoys a certain physical activity, the harder they will work -- physically speaking -- during the exercise. Enjoyment of exercise was therefore associated with exercise level. This shows that not only will the enjoyment of a certain physical activity result in major positive physical effects, but it can also be very positive for the psychological effects as well.

Though many people have enjoyed the effects of physical exercise, there are so many who drop out of an activity after a very short time. So, the question that then becomes important is: "What motivates a person to stick to an exercise program?" Is it solely about the enjoyment from doing an activity one likes? Or might it have something to do with the people one associates with when participating in a certain exercise?

There are many different elements that may hinder or help exercise enjoyment. One of the major elements to help exercise is liking the people with whom one is engaging. Socialization is an important element for people whether they are engaging in a sport, work, or other type of activity. Enjoying the company of the people we are exercising with can have a great impact on motivation as well. This is why many physical trainers suggest working out with a buddy -- because it keeps a person motivated and it also makes them responsible to another person (i.e., they cannot just decide not to show up or else they will keep their friend waiting).

Other factors that may facilitate exercise are not only the enjoyment of what exercise we are doing, whom we are doing it with, but also why we are doing it. What is the main purpose? Is it simply to lose weight? Is it to become more sociable and…… [read more]

Physiotherapy on Sport Injury Essay

Essay  |  20 pages (5,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Physiotherapy on Sport Injury

ID# Case Management

Case Management Assignment

In this essay thought to be best evidence-based practices for tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon. Tendinopathy has been reported as one of the most common injuries encountered in sports and in the workplace (Woo, Renstrom, & Arnoczky, 2007).tendinopathy is the inability of the Achilles tendon to return to its homeostatic… [read more]

Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School

The new high school which has been opened in the region is in dire need of a sports program. In the creation and implementation of the needed sports program, a multitude of elements have to be addressed. At a most primary level, logistics considerations have to be resolved, such as… [read more]

Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout Nrc Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout

NRC Foundation Degree in Sport

Psychology of Health and Exercise


Working as a psychologist on a 1-to- 1 basis with a client, you must perform a four-week goal setting intervention. The intervention strategy will be designed to motivate your client to alter one aspect of their lifestyle related to health and exercise.

Task… [read more]

Defining Sports Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (389 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sports are athletic events or games with sets of rules. Competition is central to any definition of sports, even when they are played for fun and not business. Sports as business entail economic payouts as well as status. Sports differ widely from one another, but all involve an athletic competition within the rules of game play.

Athletics are integral to sports, and is the key feature distinguishing sports from games. Although some sports involve more physical exertion or require more brute strength than others, all sports must involve some kind of physiological aspect. However, mental skill is as important to sports as it is in any other game. Sports involve both a high degree of mental and physical skills.

The mental skills at play in sports pertain to competition as well. Not all sports are team sports, but all sports involve one side against another. All sports have a winner and a loser at the end. In sporting events in which more than one team or individual compete, an ultimate winner is chosen such as at the Olympic events.

Structure is an essential element of sports, distinguishing them from simple play. A group of…… [read more]

Effect of Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,728 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 35


¶ … Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise

In this paper, the effects of endurance training will be discussed with special reference to their impact on the muscle fat metabolism while prolonged exercises. The paper will talk about the overall increase and decrease in the levels of different acids in the body as well as the overall… [read more]

Athletic Facility Management Facility Liability Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,221 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Athletic Facility Management

"Facility liability is not predicated on the type of facility.

Rather, legal liability is based on the types of clientele who attend or use the facility, and the nature of the activities taking place in the facility"

Bernard P. Maloy (1993, ¶ 1).

The "Invitee"

The recreation and sport and world, according to Bernard P. Maloy (1993),… [read more]

What Factors Influence a Youth's Decision to Withdrawal From a Sport Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (6,240 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 17



To Have Fun"

The number one reason a youth relates that he/she participates in a sport "is to have fun" Seefeldt, Ewing, and Walk (1992; cited by Hedstrom and Gould, 2004, p. 21) purport. Motives which influence a youth's decision to participate in sports include a number of other reasons, often… [read more]

Planning and Start Up of a New Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,480 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Planning and Start-Up of a New Business


The present plan has been developed to offer the company an overview of the industry in which it would operate and the strategies it would have to implement in order to ensure a successful outcome.

General Company Description

Products and Services

Marketing Plan

Operational Plan

Management and… [read more]

Resources for Health PE and Fitness Activities Task and Rubric Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Physical Education


Using the Internet, a physical education teacher can work to promote a healthy, fitness-focused lifestyle with his or her school class by having the kids create blogs that documents their fitness activities. This is a unique way to incorporate writing and technology skills with forcing the students to document their fitness activities.

Promoting walking to school is an excellent method of incorporating fitness into one's daily routine. As the majority of students are unable to drive, walking is a realistic option.

Putting together regular fitness events for the school, both inside and outside of P.E. class, is a method of adding a unique twist of fun and competition to the idea of being physically active. Each event can focus on a specific activity or skill, thus teaching a well-balanced fitness routine.

Since families play an essential role in a child's overall fitness, it is equally important to educate them on fitness. One simple way to accomplish this is by organizing family fitness nights.

Students should be given a personal log and an instrument in which they can measure their total steps per day. They can the record their total activity against their total consumption.


As childhood obesity is the greatest health risk faced by elementary children, it is important that classroom time is spent addressing this topic. In so doing, the focus should be both on the harmful effects of obesity and preventative measures that can be taken.

Teaming up with a local Department of Human Services to discuss the importance of healthy and safe sexual choices is a must.

Working with the local law enforcement drug taskforce can bring in aspects of how living a drug free life correlates with living a healthy lifestyle.

When teaching these various health-related subjects to kids, because of their age, simply lecturing will not work. Further, many of these concepts will be foreign to them so background information will be needed. To ensure that the information is learned and understood, role playing, multi-media, guest speakers and small group conversations should be utilized.

Sex education at this age can be difficult. Dividing the class between boys and girls may prove to be beneficial and more effective at getting the necessary information unique to each gender across.

Physical Education

In order…… [read more]

Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (969 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Athletic Ethics and Morality

Athletics Ethics and Morality in Classical and Modern Times

Thousands of years separate Classic times from modern ones. One would think that those thousands of years would dramatically change the face of major society and the values that go with it. When looking at the field of sports, however, the status of athletes and all the rewards which accompany that status have remained strikingly similar. When comparing Ancient Greek and Roman athletes to our modern day athletic superstars, one can see how thousands of generations have solidified the athletic mythos rather than evolving it into a completely different institution. The prizes of athletic prominence have varied with the changing technology of society, but the internal moral structure centered around popular athletics and the athletes who enchant us, have remained the same, and so have the pressures of maintaining one's popularity by continuing to outperform all other opponents.

Ancient Greek and Roman societies obsessed over professional athletes, just as modern society does today. To be able to play a sport professionally meant that you were part of an elite group who had mastered an art. Great honor and fame came with athletic success, "In Greece the most illustrious of both sexes thought it honorable to exercise themselves in exhibitions of the theatre, and even to appear in athletic games," (Murphy v). In Aelianus Tacticus' Varia Historia, the Ancient Roman Philosopher told moral tales of the lives of athletes. He made clear society's view that these gods among men must have lived an honorable yet venerated life. Tacticus was also a very important military writer, therefore thought athletes an important part of a society's culture because they were also in the physical form warriors.

In our modern society, this fame continues to follow present athletes. Although some of the honor involved has been lost in translation, the athletes of today still serve as examples of the perfect human form. Today, they are they faces of countless merchandising campaigns which aim to use their popularity and athletic achievements to sell a variety of products, from athletic gear to sports drinks and video games. Their expertise of their sport is now used to promise a boost in performance in modern day amateurs and hopefuls. This in turn, only strengthens their popularity, making them household names and familiar to even those individuals who do not follow the sport they play. The athlete has continued to be a celebrity.

These celebrities have been lavished with gifts and great fortunes for their services, from Classical times to modern day paychecks.

Compensation has always played a large part in the image of the professional athlete, "According to the Roman author Plutarch, an Olympic victor who was a citizen of Athens could expect to receive in the year 600 B.C. A cash award of 500 drachmai, a literal fortune," ("The Real Story of the Olympic Games"). In Ancient times,…… [read more]

Interview: Elizabeth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (890 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Interview: Elizabeth G

Please describe briefly your past exercise and sport participation history.

I was on my high school's dance team. In college, I was a member of a sorority, so that took up most of my time instead. I did participate in many fitness-related activities, but more on a casual basis, like working out and doing charity walks with my sisters. After I graduated, I got a job in marketing. I got tired of sitting at a desk all day. I was used to being physically active and my company provided a free membership to a local gym, so I decided to start taking dance classes at the gym. I didn't like the classes, but I did enjoy working out, especially on the treadmill. I started running and I've never stopped!

Question 2: Please describe your current exercise and sport participation.

I just completed my second marathon, with a PR (personal record) of 4:03. I have also signed up for the Nike half-marathon in August.

Question 3: How long have you been participating in...

I've been competitively running for two years. For a long time, I simply ran on the treadmill, running about 5 miles a day. But I'm a very competitive person, and I missed the competition of my old dance team, so I decided to give my running a goal and train for a half marathon. I've been addicted ever since!

Question 4: Why do you currently participate in...

Mainly the feeling it gives me -- I love the runner's high! I also love the sense of accomplishment. When things aren't going so great in my life, it's nice to have the satisfaction of doing a PR (personal record) at a race, or even just running by myself. I've seen my running get better and better, from when I first started on the treadmill five years ago to now. Running in races has really helped my running in leaps and bounds. Although training in the gym or on trails is pretty solitary I love the community that comes from racing and meeting fellow runners. I am part of an Internet message board community for runners.

Question 5: What is the level of support that significant others in your life offer for your participation in...

I'm not involved with a guy right now -- maybe that is why I am so running obsessed! No one in my family is into running. My father even forgot that I was going to be running in the Marine Corps Marathon and called me to ask if he could come over and visit the next day -- the night before the marathon! He also thinks I spend…… [read more]

Bun and Thigh Roller See Website Bunthigh Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (881 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Bun and Thigh Roller (www.bunthigh.com)

The exercise device known as the Bun and Thigh Roller 'as seen on television' proclaims itself to be a five-minute way to sculpt the so-called problem areas of the thighs and buttocks. The promotional television clip on the website states that the Bun and Thigh Roller can activate the muscles of the thigh and rear areas just as much as more expensive machines. It also claims to offers a pain free, injury-free work out unlike squats or the use of heavier weights. Its celebrity endorser, Don Tornabene, "former Mr. America," says that he was inspired to create the machine when working out on a Swiss ball. "Before my workouts, I was using the Swiss ball to stretch my lower back, hips and thighs. I realized this would be a fantastic way to sculpt the lower body if it only offered the resistance necessary for fast results" ("The Bun and Thigh Roller," 2007, Official Website).

This claim is problematic for two reasons. First of all, Don Tornabene is not a doctor, personal trainer, or scientist. He is not even an athlete, as a Mr. America is evaluated upon his appearance, not upon his physical fitness. Secondly, Tornabene admits that he created the low-impact machine while warming up for his regular work-out. In other words to gain his physique, much more strenuous effort is needed. The machine comes with a diet plan, so essentially the advertisement's real claim is that the person, who buys the machine, sticks to a low calorie diet and adds at least some additional activity onto their current exercise regime will lose weight.

It could be argued that at very least, the machine does no harm, as it does encourage the person desperate for weight loss to engage in low-impact movement, without harmful supplements. However, the machine, which costs 3 installments of 16.95, is not cheap, when one considers that very likely, doing crunches and other exercises at home similar to the activities the machine is supposed to facilitate would be equally effective. The money would likely be better spent, if at all, on some inexpensive free weights to be used in conjunction with a workout found for free on the Internet, in a magazine, or in a book in the library (Noakes 2003: 777-789). Or better yet, since raising the heart rate through cardiovascular exercise is more effective for weight loss in the short-term because it burns more calories, an individual would be better advised to spend his or her money on a new pair of running or walking shoes (Kolata 2003).

What is more troubling about the product is…… [read more]

Sports Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,696 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sports Ethics

Winning isn't everything, it's the only thing" was the famous motto of the legendary football coach Vince Lombardi, which seems to have been taken to heart by the American society of late. It has put into the back-ground, the "old fashioned" advice for good sportsmanship that extolled the virtues of playing the game in the right spirit while… [read more]

Gymnast Injuries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Exercise and Gymnast Injuries

Injuries to Gymnasts & Prevention

Younger athletes are particularly vulnerable to injuries, and in the case of gymnasts, because of the great physical, stamina, and balance-related demands, extra pressure is placed upon them that is particularly challenging. According to Dr. Lyle J. Micheli (www.nyssf.org) of the Division of Sports Medicine at Children's Hospital in Boston, MA, growth tissue is localized at three particular sites on the bones. Those three places are the joint surfaces, the growth plates, and the sites of major muscle-tendon insertions. And what is also necessary to understand is that growing cartilage tissue is fairly soft in younger people, softer than in adults, and hard training along with vigorous participation in gymnastics can put undue strain on the growth plate; in particular, "high velocity trauma" - the kind of activity that a gymnast goes through when landing - may be harmful.

Indeed, according to an article in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, "the vast majority of competitive participants" in gymnastics are children, and the reason why that is true is because there is a "widely held belief that to achieve success at the highest level," competition and serious training must be started "before puberty" (Daly, 2000). That timing is appropriate in the minds of coaches and parents, Daly continues, because pre-puberty is when a "small lean physique is likely to convey a performance advantage." Some young gymnasts actually begin training at age five or six years, and they train, Daly continues, "for between 20 and 40 hours a week all year around."

Meanwhile, all gymnasts, younger athletes and more mature athletes as well, can and do sustain injuries. Daly suggests that, "inconsistent strength training may explain the decline or plateau in gymnastics performance and high incidence of injury during the preparatory phase of training in some gymnasts." Another cause of injuries, Daly continues, is a loss of "concentration and inattentiveness"; in particular a loss of concentration can be attributed to inadequate rest (sleep) and to poor nutritional habits.

There is also evidence that "insufficient warm up may leave muscles and other skeletal structures unprepared for the forthcoming performance," the article points out. Daly comes to the previous conclusion based on the fact that a three-year study of female athletes found that "most strains in young elite female gymnasts occurred during the first hour of practice." Another point to mention in addressing the reasons for injuries - and hence, the solution to avoiding injuries is to learn from others' mistakes and shortcomings in training - is when an athlete has "poor and excessive flexibility or hyper-mobility." In proper warm-up situations, an athlete is embracing "both static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques."

The attention should be placed on "non-weight-bearing upper extremities," when warming up properly to avoid injuries. And further, when doing weight training, "poor spotting or no spotting," Daly writes, "has been suggested as a risk factor for gymnastics injuries." However, a study on gymnastics injuries reported that - according to Daly's… [read more]

Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,536 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Steroids in Sports - Dangerous Practice, Bad Example for Youth, and Just Another Way to Cheat

Throughout the vast, diffuse worlds of amateur and professional athletics alike today, champions; ex-champions, and (mostly0 would-be champions of all ages, backgrounds and abilities; at competitions from local Olympic tryouts to the World Cup, compete fiercely to be top of the sport: win first… [read more]

Gender in Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Gender in Sports

In the opinion of this author, in the sports of modern society, the status of male and female should be equal. To support this position, we well examine the history and development of male and female sports and then contrast it with the status of males and females in sports in modern society. The reasons for this… [read more]

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