Study "Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays 551-605

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Race and Ethnicity in Baseball Research Paper

… This is evident from the nickname "chief" which was used for the Indian ballplayers that how pigeonholed white Media was (Kirsch, Harris & Nolte, 2000).

African-American Players

In the United States of America, the contemporary form of baseball was first… [read more]


Oakmont Country Club Research Paper

… Oakmont Country Club

The background to our case study is Olympia Fields Country Club is located in a suburb of Chicago, Illinois. It is a golf club with two eighteen-hold courses, with the North Course considered one of the top… [read more]


Establishing ASEAN Defence Interaction Programmes Research Paper

… Visits to defence and military facilities;

3. Visits to interesting places of cultural and social significance; and,

4. Cultural exchange performance by participants.

Arrangement

The ADIP will be arranged into three levels as follows:

1. ASEAN Senior Interaction Programme (ASEAN SIP);

2. ASEAN Junior Interaction Programme (ASEAN JIP); and,

3. ASEAN SNCO Interaction Programme (ASEAN SNCOs IP).

These interaction programmes are described further below.

1. ASEAN Senior Interaction Programme (ASEAN SIP). ASEAN SIP is designed for senior officers, preferrably with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and above. ASEAN Member States shall nominate three (3) officers as participants to this programme.

2. ASEAN Junior Interaction Programme (ASEAN JIP). ASEAN JIP is designed for junior officers preferrably from the rank of Lieutenant to Major. ASEAN Member States shall nominate five (5) officers as participants to this programme.

3. ASEAN NCOs Interaction Programme (ASEAN NCOs IP). ASEAN JIP is designed for SNCOs preferrably from the rank of Corporal to Warrant Officer. ASEAN Member States shall nominate seven (7) officers as participants to this programme.

Other arrangements include the following:

1. In order to ensure relevance in view of changing conditions, the interaction programmes should be reviewed periodically. Therefore, the ADIP initiatives will be held annually with a duration of 5 days.

2. Participation to this interaction programmes shall be voluntary.

3. A secretariat is tasked to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor and report (see below) the agreed interaction programmes under ADIP to ADMM, ADSOM and the ADSOM Working Group.

The arrangement for hosting can assume several alternatives, including the following:

1. Rotation based on the current ADMM Chair;

2. Hosting based on consensus; or,

3. Follow the same protocols established by the ADDM-Plus initiative wherein the Chair is rotated among the five ASEAN Member States which are currently regarded as being in a steady state for security purposes.

The first approach has the advantage of following protocols for Chair rotation based on mutually agreed upon criteria among the Member States. The penultimate approach has the advantage of the providing more timely responses to changes in the security environment. The final alternative has the distinct advantage of maximizing opportunities for collaboration concerning issues of mutual interest and keeping Member State delegates abreast of changes in the security environment and opportunities for new initiatives in current and additional Member States in the future.

Review and Report

All the outcomes of the interaction programmes of ADIP shall be duly reported to ADMM through the ADSOM and the ADSOM Working Group for information and to provide opportunities for feedback. In addition, participants and audiences in the interaction programmes will be periodically surveyed and these results will likewise be evaluated to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives.

Conclusion

The Concept Paper on the Establishment of ASEAN Defence Interaction Programmes (ADIP) refers to the ways and means by which ASEAN could help promote regional cooperation as to maintain peace and stability. It will further serve as mechanism for ASEAN Member States in continuing…… [read more]


Administrative Offices 23331 Water Circle Term Paper

… 5. Professional Players from Coal Camp Teams (4,000): The professional teams of the time did not make very much money, so they supplemented their pay by working in the mines in the off season. There were many players, especially those… [read more]


George Bellows Identification of Painting Research Paper

… Part of the reason for Bellows' emphasis of the brutality and ugliness in the painting was to contrast a private club like Sharkey's with the safer, more middle class YMCA, which was considered by the mainstream of New York society… [read more]


Fifa Wanted to Increase Compliance Essay

… In the case of a second offence, six points will be deducted, and after a further offence, the team will be relegated. In the case of matches played without points being awarded, the team in question will be disqualified. (ibid)

FIFA was emphatic on following up on their rules immediately.

In their 2011 code, FIFA elaborated describing a hierarchy of punishment.

Both natural and legal persons are punishable by the following sanctions:

a) warning;

b) reprimand;

c) fine;

d) Return of awards. (Section 10)

The severity of the punishment apparently ranges according to the severity of insult, the time when committed, and whether the insult was perpetrated by one individual or was of group origin. Punishment varies accordingly.

As described in the FIFA Disciplinary Code (2011), punishment for contemptuous behavior (in this specific case, one player insulting another) ranges from the least severe consequences of warning (as first instance) to reprimand, caution (yellow card), suspension (for two cautions) (Section 17) and expulsion from field (Section 18) and competition (Section 20), penalization, fine (CHF 30,000), and lastly return of reward.

Assuming that FIFA wanted to increase compliance with its regulations and pursue investigations where players insult each other under FIFA Disciplinary Code Article 54, it should simply follow through with its statues as outlined in the FIFA Disciplinary Code (2011) and described above.

Sources

Babson: Zidaine's last red card. (pdf)

.FIFA.com. Social Responsibitly

http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/socialresponsibility/news/newsid=103566/index.html

FIFA Disciplianry Code. 2011. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/administration/50/02/75/discoinhalte.pdf… [read more]


Risk Assessments for Falls Essay

… Risk Assessments for Falls Risk

One of the biggest threats to frail and infirm elderly individuals aged 65 years and older is falls. Whether at home or in a healthcare facility, a fall can easily result in a broken hip… [read more]


Brother Essay

… Jordan is a true citizen of the world. He realizes that he comes from a relatively privledged life, one in which hunger and privation never really existed; one in which there was adequate love and respect between family members; and one in which there was never any worries about staying warm, sleeping in a safe environment, and knowing he was loved. Simply put, Jordan gives back to the community in any way he can. He volunteers at the Ronald McDonald house, and when no other work is available, is ready and willing to offer his services as a janitor.

Jordan also rarely slows down. When he is not studying, volunteering, or participating in sporting events, he works part-time at McDonalds. He is so motivated to help with his expenses, that he often plays football until late on Friday nights, and yet regularly gets up early on Saturday mornings to work. He simply would not think of it any other way, as he often says, "Why waste my time while I can work and help out."

I am very proud of Jordan, and I feel very lucky to call him my brother. Our difference in age has made it difficult sometimes to participate in similar activities, but I believe we are not only siblings, but friends. I trust him and he trusts me -- and we are there for each other when times are difficult as well as joyous. I know in my heart that whatever Jordan decides to do, he will not only do it well, but he will leave a positive mark on the world. How often can we say that we are amazed at how someone touches the lives of others? And how fortunate that I am saying this about my sibling,…… [read more]


Baseball and the American Term Paper

… He needs to have physical courage because a baseball thrown at 94 miles per hour can cause serious damage to a batter. And a line drive off the bat that goes directly back at the pitcher's face can do serious harm in that way too. Also, a third baseman in baseball gets balls hit at him that are very hit very hard and travel fast, and the ball can hit a pebble or a little bump in the ground and bounce up suddenly and hit the third baseman in the face.

The other kind of courage that Mandelbaum is speaking of is "moral courage"; that kind of courage is needed in order to "…perform knowing that the frequent and inevitable failures will be personal ones," and taking responsibility for those failures is necessary because there is nowhere to hide out there on the field. Mandelbaum says that errors are "recorded forever" and they are "universally known" because, as this paper reported before, those errors are seen by everyone.

Mandelbaum vs. Guttman and Ross: Mandelbaum is the only writer of the three who seems to be a true romantic about baseball. He carefully explains that baseball is more like the society that Americans knew a few years ago, pastoral and relaxing, but he doesn't say that is a bad thing. He likes the pastoral side of baseball, and he compares baseball's season with the "three phases of the growing season"; the beginning of the season in the Spring (when crops are planted), and there are the long "hot days of summer" (when plants grow to their maturity, as baseball teams reach the peaks), and then the season ends, like the harvest of crops, in the fall.

Guttman doesn't identify baseball with an American "character" trait, but Mandelbaum does that. Mandelbaum says baseball characters are like "sturdy yeoman farmers" in the Thomas Jefferson era. Guttman uses a lot of his essay trying to understand why baseball is still popular at all, given the faster-paced society that exists today. Guttman says in so many words that he thinks baseball is going to die soon. Guttman uses fancy words to say that basically baseball's time has come and gone. He writes that baseball is "…a ludic symbol of our ambivalence about our abandoned past and about the unknown future that we are all, willy nilly, bound for."

Guttman makes fun of baseball in a way when he compares Babe Ruth with Jim Brown, a burly hall of fame star who was "muscular" while Ruth had "spindly legs" and a "Santa-sized torso." Ross writes some very nice things and he makes one of the best comparisons between baseball and football that any one of the three made. Ross believes that baseball "…dissolves time and urgency in a green expanse…creating a luxurious and peaceful sense of leisure." Football "reverses this procedure and converts space into time." Ross also explains that in football the spectator is asked to concentrate and pay attention to time; but in baseball,… [read more]


Gender and Sexuality Studies: "Dance Term Paper

… ¶ … GENDER & SEXUALITY STUDIES: "Dance, Gender & Sexuality"

Gender and expression in Tango and Hip Hop

Even with the fact that most people associate hip-hop and break-dance with stereotypes regarding thugs and outcasts in general, these two dance… [read more]


Unc-Ch as an Organization Term Paper

… UNC and Duke, while not always equally strong in the same years as basketball teams, are relatively equal programs in terms of their caliber although Duke might (in my incredibly biased opinion, quite unjustly) may be slightly more famous because of the legacy of its coach, Coach K.

To some degree, there is 'openness' in sports fandom in the sense that anyone can 'root' for the Tar Heels. Collectively rooting as an alumni or a member of the student body is still 'policed,' though, by access to tickets and also access to specific rituals, chants, and other aspects of the performance of fandom to which mere, casual fans are not privy. There is also a deep, emotional quality to the act of rooting for a college team that is difficult to replicate by an outsider. Outsiders wonder 'why do the students care so much,' even if they may be fans of the sport, and to them the act of being a fan of a university team seems like a strange, tribal practice rather than something they wish to emulate.

Other boundaries exist on campus in terms of excellence -- for example, being a member of a competitive major or makes a student a part of a closed 'system' within the university's walls that does not admit membership to outsiders. However, unlike being a sports fan, this status is not demonstrated in such a collective, public and emotional fashion, nor is it something that is performed throughout the duration of one's life, even after graduation. Also, the sense of heated rivalry between majors is not nearly as accepted, palpable and expected as the rivalry between UNC and Duke fans in North Carolina as a whole. Yet UNC can 'thank' Duke for intensifying the feelings of its students and further creating a sense of inclusiveness that other colleges, without such a historic rivalry might lack.… [read more]


Effect of Unionization on the National Basketball Association NBA Term Paper

… ¶ … Unionization on the NBA

NBA unionization

Last year, the National Basketball Association (NBA), its players and the owners of the 30 teams that employ those players engaged in the second-longest labor dispute in NBA history, resulting in a… [read more]


Gym Policy Program and Protein Term Paper

… Gym Center Setup

Stretch Mats, Programs, Jump Ropes, Grocery Store, Food Court, Supplements, and Towel Policy

The facility will maintain a sufficient number of stretch mats and jump ropes to accommodate multiple classes (aerobics, yoga, etc.) ongoing simultaneously. They will be stored in the appropriate areas to facilitate easy member access and use. Signs will be posted requiring all members using the gym areas to carry a clean towel and wipe down any equipment immediately after use. A protein and juice bar will be situated in an appropriate area for maximum exposure and access; it will provide standard pre-workout and post-workout beverages as well as a variety of fruit and protein-based shakes prepared on request. A menu and price list will be prominently displayed. Members will be prohibited from consuming foods in the juice bar area if they were not purchased at the bar.

Gym Policies and Programs

Programs

The facility will feature a variety of exercise classes led by certified instructors and the class schedule will continually be adjusted to reflect demand. Personal training packages will be sold by sales consultants or managers in the personal training department. If there is sufficient need and demand, the facility will also provide classes designed for older adults.

Weight Room Etiquette

Signs will be clearly posted requiring members using the gym areas to:

Replace their weights and all other equipment;…… [read more]


Fractures of Tibia and Fibula Case Study

… " A fracture of the tibia or fibula will show up on an x-ray as a dark line or crack in the bone. In the case of a more serious fracture, the bone itself will be demonstrably cracked and separated into two or more distinct pieces. (Von Laer, 2004, p. 371) However, if the x-ray indicates that the fracture may extend into the knee or ankle area, a computed tomography (CT) scan is often recommended. A CT scan can also provide valuable information about how serious of a fracture the patient has suffered.

The goal of treatment is to obtain a healed bone and healthy soft tissue. To achieve this, firstly, antibiotics should be given to prevent infection; especially if the bone has pierced the skin. Depending on the severity of the fracture, there are two types of treatments that a doctor can recommend: non-surgical and surgical. In the case of a minor, or moderate fracture, the most common treatment is to apply a splint for the first week or two, until the swelling subsides, and then encase the leg in a cast to for the initial healing of the fracture. ("Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures") However, in the case of more serious fractures, especially when bones pierce the skin or break into many pieces, the surgical option is best. This involves cutting open the leg and inserting metal pins, plates, nails, or screws to physically hold the pieces of bone in place. Occasionally, the screws in the bone will also be attached to metal bars placed outside the leg as a means of stabilization. With proper treatment and rehabilitation, and depending upon the seriousness of the fracture, a person may be able to resume full activity within 6 to 8 weeks.

References

Semer, Nadine. (2001). Practical Plastic Surgeries for Nonsurgeons. Philadelphia:

Hanley & Belfus. Retrieved from:

http://www.practicalplasticsurgery.org/docs/PPS_complete.pdf

"Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures." American Academy of Orthopaedic

Surgeons: Orthoinfo. Retrieved from:

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00522

Von Laer, Lutz. (2004). Pediatric Fractures and Dislocations. New York: Thieme. Print.… [read more]


Cardiovascular Program Term Paper

… Cardiovascular Program: 60-year-old Walk-A-Thon Training

Exercise

Frequency and Intensity

Cool Down

Monday

Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your arms out to the sides and rotate your center slowly from side to side. Finally, stand up and face the wall. Slow begin walking your feet away from the wall until you feel a stretch in your calves.

Walking: Walk at a regular pace for 5 minutes.

Increase your pace for 5 minutes.

Frequency: Once per day

Intensity: Your heart rate should be at 80 bpm during the fast-paced walking.

Walking: Slow down your walking to a regular pace for 5 minutes.

If needed utilize heat or ice therapy to knees after walk.

Tuesday

Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your arms out to the sides and rotate your center slowly from side to side. Finally, stand up and face the wall. Slow begin walking your feet away from the wall until you feel a stretch in your calves.

Walking: Walk at a regular pace for 5 minutes.

Increase your pace for 5 minutes.

Frequency: Once per day

Intensity: Your heart rate should be at 80 bpm during the fast-paced walking.

Walking: Slow down your walking to a regular pace for 5 minutes.

If needed utilize heat or ice therapy to knees after walk.

Wednesday

Cross train by participating in a beginner's Pilates class. Pilates uses the body's resistance without placing pressure on your knees. It will also increase your overall flexibility and strength.

Frequency: Once

Intensity: Your heart rate should remain steady throughout the workout. Concentrate primarily on your breathing, especially on learning how to breath through any pain you are experiencing.

N/a

Thursday

Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your arms out to the sides and rotate your center slowly from side to side. Finally, stand up and face the wall. Slow begin walking your feet away from the wall until you feel a stretch in your calves.

Walking: Walk at a regular pace for 5 minutes.

Increase your pace for 8 minutes.

Frequency: Once per day

Intensity: Your heart rate should be at 80 bpm during the fast-paced walking. If you find that it is becoming hard to breath, then slow down to a normal pace until…… [read more]


NASCAR From an OD Consultant Research Paper

… Many people make Chase for the Sprint Cup as responsible for gradual weakness of NASCAR. Older fans have left because of the introduction of the new points system due to its prospect of producing two champions. The other weakness is also due to 'Car of Tomorrow' with its single-file racing and the cookie-cutter tracks of the bygone decade. During the 1990s although NASCAR proliferated at a faster pace, but some business sense was absent. (Surette, 2010)

It is a fact that a speeding economy will suffer a slowdown. After adding its 35th and 36th races in Chicago and Kansas during 2001, the economy went into a recession during the early years of 2000 eroding any proliferation of the Cup Series. Although the economy did recover after the initial years, NASCAR had overworked itself with 36 events at venues across the country with teams and drivers experiencing a burnout. (Surette, 2010)

References

Blakerizner. (2008) "Nascar Marketing Plan-New York" Retrieved 14 April 2012 from http://www.slideshare.net/Blakerizner/nascar-marketing-plan

Harris, William. (2012) "How NASCAR Works" Retrieved 14 April 2012 from http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-racing/nascar/nascar-basics/nascar-racing1.htm

NASCAR.com. (2012) "Official NASCAR website" Retrieved 14 April 2012 from http://www.nascar.com

Surette, Chaz. (2010) "NASCAR's problems started long before The Chase or the Car of Tomorrow" Retrieved 14 April 2012 from http://bleacherreport.com/articles/443867-nascars-problems-started-long-before-the-chase-or-the-car-of-tomorrow

Wired.com. (2011) "Found Contest: Imagine the Future of NASCAR" Wired Magazine,

Retrieved 14 April 2012…… [read more]


Sharon Kemp's "The Hidden Workforce: Volunteers' Learning Research Paper

… Sharon Kemp's "The hidden workforce:

volunteers' learning in the Olympics"

Critical Analysis

Author Sharon Kemp, in her work "The hidden workforce: volunteer's learning in the Olympics" sets out to understand the motives behind those called to volunteer in what she… [read more]


Rule of the NBA Essay

… The 2005 collective bargaining agreement clearly states: "(i) The player (A) is or will be at least 19 years of age during the calendar year in which the Draft is held, and (B) ... At least one (1) NBA Season has elapsed since the player's graduation from high school" (Zeger, 2012, "NBA age limit").One option, for a player uninterested in college basketball, would be to play elsewhere, until he attained the age of 19, after which a player may be drafted, regardless of status. That was the option taken by Brandon Jennings, who chose to play in Europe rather than to play for a college team (Zeger, 2012, "NBA age limit").

The case of an extended lock-out might be legally problematic, given that for a player who did not want to play in college, a full NBA season would not necessarily have passed before the next draft, even though he was 19 years old. However, that problem would only arise if an entire season was forgone because of labor issues. In that instance, the NBA might have to grant a waiver to players who wished to forgo college and had been playing in Europe. However, in the event of such an extended strike, it is likely that the incoming class of players would look more favorably upon playing an extra year of college basketball, or accept a longer contract playing for a European professional team while the Association settled its legal issues.

In short, circumventing the one-and-done rule seems counterproductive for a player, from a legal standpoint, unless he found a more viable opening to play abroad, like Brandon Jennings. There is no longer a direct route from high school to the NBA of which a player can avail himself.

Works Cited

Zeger, Charlie. "What is a 'one and done?'" About.com. [11…… [read more]


Collective Bargaining Essay

… Collective Bargaining

In relation to the article in the Los Angeles Times entitled NBA players, owners ratify collective bargaining agreement, the collective bargaining dispute was as a result of the National Basket Association (NBA) players and owners failing to reach a consensus after the collective bargaining agreement that was ratified in 2005 had come to an end. The previous agreement was said to have flaws and needed some amendments since it made the team suffer great financial loses. This meant that the season 2011-12 was put in jeopardy leaving NBA with no option but to lock out its players.

Basically what caused the main division between the owners and the players who are represented by National Basketball Player Association was the differences in the labor laws in which there was a demand for an opt out after six years of a 10 years contract plan, revenue, salary cap structure and luxury tax. About $250 million was meant to be saved in one season.

Underlying causes of the dispute

Teams were not allowed to open their various training camps due to some divide decisions on how the Basketball Related Income was split in the previous labor contract. The owners felt that the 57% split that the players got was too much. Moreover, the issue about teams exceeding the salary cap having to be taxed the same as other teams arose. Ethical issues like players conducts on drug related issues and disciplinary measures from the owners also had to be addressed. The lock out made it possible for teams to be signed in or trade or even access the NBA premises; therefore, most of the players signed contracts in other countries like Europe to go and play there.

Overcoming the dispute

In order to triumph in the dispute, the players and owners agreed on a 50-50 split of basketball related income meaning that the players' salaries had to be cut by 12%. The players' contract was also reduced to 5 years after which teams that wanted to re-sign their own players are to give a maximum salary raise of 7.5% annually while those teams that preferred to sign other teams free agents were to make a 4.5% annual increase. Teams that exceeded the salary cap were also to pay higher luxury tax.

The teams also agreed upon a prolonged revenue- sharing arrangement. The labor bill had to include the drug program which also had to be changed so as to make a provision for testing even during off seasons; the blood was to be tested for human growth hormones and be confirmed by a panel of scientific experts who are neutral and those found be violating performance enhancing drugs were to…… [read more]


Statistics to Mislead Essay

… There would need to be direct comparisons according to the type of job and the workplace setting where the fatalities take place. In general, many more men than women are in potentially dangerous jobs: coal miner, lumberjack, deep sea fisherman, power company lineman, infantry soldier, and others. Fatality rates in these jobs are higher than other jobs. The fatality rates are a factor of the job, not the gender of the person engaged in the work. Although women are increasingly seen in jobs that were once considered the exclusive domain of males, there are still a disproportionate number of women in jobs such as teacher, nurse and administrative assistant. There is nothing inherently dangerous in these jobs.

In 2011, Forbes Magazine reported the national rate of occupational fatalities is 3.3 deaths per 100,000 workers. As pointed out, many deaths were unrelated to the work itself. Four in ten workplace deaths in 2009 took place while driving. In addition, 18% involved assaults and homicide (Whelan, 2011). Forbes also reported other leading causes of death in the workplace were attributed to explosions (3%), falls (14%), exposure to harmful substances (9%) and being struck by objects (10%). Again, industries that see these kinds of accidents include construction, transportation and warehousing, fields that typically have a disproportionately high number of male workers. Forbes also noted that government statisticians only track safety for large job categories, where there are at least fifteen fatalities out of 20,000 full-time employees (Whelan). Statistics therefore do not provide a complete picture of the American workforce.

Not everyone understands how statistics are used and misused. For example, one cancer drug claims to reduce one's risk of cancer by 50%, while another eliminates cancer in one out of 100 people. Surprisingly, these numbers refer to the same drug, the first statistic using relative risk, the second using absolute risk. In a trial involving one hundred people, two would normally get cancer during the duration of the trial, but when all one hundred are on the drug, only one person gets cancer, meaning the reduction of cancer is one person out of one hundred. The pharmaceutical industry can claim the relative risk reduction is 50% because one if 50% (or half) of two; the risk is thus cut in half from a relative point-of-view (Adams, 2006).

Statistics are a valid and useful tool that allow us to describe and find out about the way we live. They can also be used to "manipulate, obfuscate, sensationalize, and confuse" (Bogner, 2011). In the two examples, the data is attention-grabbing. Most people do not take the time to reflect on statistics and the claims they support. With some thought, however, one can see there is more behind the statistics than seemed to be the case at first look. The purpose of Bluman's exploration of misleading statistics is to make the reader aware of these occurences and encourage the reader to question statistics before accepting them at face value.

References

Adams, M. (2006). Lying with statistics:… [read more]


History of Wrestling Term Paper

… History Of Wrestling: An Overview

Wrestling has its origins back to the dawn of time. As early as the classical era it was pursued as a popular sport amongst the Greeks and Romans as part of their civic culture. "Recognized as one of the world's oldest sports, wrestling was first held at the ancient Olympics in 708 BC, and was included at the Athens 1896 Games, the first of the modern era" ("Wrestling," Olympic Sports: London 2012). During ancient times, wrestling consisted of "naked competitors coated in olive oil grappling until one succeeded in throwing or knocking the other down" (Dicker 2010). However, there is evidence that wrestling is even older than the classical era: "Sumerian cave drawings found in Mesopotamia indicate that wrestling has been around more than 7,000 years" (Dicker 2010). There are also Egyptian hieroglyphics that look like 'how to' manuals of how to wrestle.

The earliest 'proof' of wrestling's existence a legitimate sport is a document from ancient Greece outlining its rules, "an 18-inch wide fragment of papyrus and dated to between 100 and 200 a.D., it is a list of instructions on how to wrestle" (Mihoces 2011). The word pleckson, or to 'fight it out' is the most common word in the text (Mihoces 2011). Many of the moves described in the fragment are similar to those still used in modern wrestling: "Stand to the side of your opponent and with your right arm take a headlock and fight it out...You underhook with your right arm. You wrap your arm around his, where he has taken the underhook, and attack the side with your left foot. You push away with your left hand. You force the hold and fight it out" (Mihoces 2011). As well as upper-body combat, there also seems to be indications that lower-body moves were used as well, as evidenced in directions like: "you stand up to his side, attack with your foot and fight it out" (Mihoces 2011).

Even after fall of the Roman Empire, wrestling continued to be popular amongst the elite. "During the Middle Ages, the sport gained knightly appeal that extended to royalty. Henry VIII of England, an avid fan, challenged King Francis I of France to a legendary throwdown in 1520. Francis scored a takedown, as well as cross-channel bragging rights" (Dicker 2010). There is also a tradition of wrestling as a sport in Japan in the form of sumo wrestling and most indigenous tribes of Native Americans participated in wrestling as a sport.

Two types of wrestling exist in the modern Olympics. Greco-Roman wrestling was featured in the first Olympic Games in Athens in 1896. "In Greco-Roman wrestling, athletes are only allowed to use their arms and upper bodies to attack their opponents' upper bodies" ("Wrestling," Olympic Sports: London 2012). Faster-paced freestyle wrestling was introduced St. Louis 1904 Games. In freestyle wrestling, "competitors may use all parts of their body to attempt moves and holds on all parts of their opponents' bodies. Wrestlers aim to pin… [read more]


Cheating at Nascar Case Study

… Overall, it is agreed that these measures have reduced cheating within the organization. However, these measures are simply insufficient to eliminate cheating because it is so prevalent and it is literally part of the nature of NASCAR.

It seems clear… [read more]


Karate Social Story Some Days Creative Writing

… Together me and my friends learn Karate.

Karate is fun.

I like to have fun.

When I practice Karate I use both my feet and my hands.

This means that I get to kick and punch.

In Karate we kick with the balls of our feet, not our toes.

What this means is I do not kick with my toes, I curl my toes back to kick.

I always attempt my Karate kick with the balls of my feet.

I like to kick and punch for exercise.

Exercise is fun.

Karate is fun.

I like to have fun.

In Karate our Team all wear the same uniform.

In Karate our team uniform is a white GI.

During Karate we all wear our uniform.

In Karate we all try to keep our uniform clean. When we practice Karate we take off our shoes and socks.

Our Karate team has our practice with our shoes and socks off.

I like to practice in bare feet.

Everyone in my Karate Team has a different color belt.

In Karate different color belts show how much we have learned.

My Karate Team belt color is

In Karate practice we must always wear our belts.

In Karate practice if we forget our belts it is ten pushups.

Everyone on my Karate Team wears their belts.

When I practice Karate I only practice with others that are willing

Sensei is the leader of my Karate Dojo.

When we practice Karate we listen to Sensei.

Sensei tells us all how do better at Karate.

We all like to be better.

We like to do Karate.

We like to listen to Sensei to learn how to get better.

I should always pay attention to my Sensei.

Sensei is very much like a teacher.

Sensei's name is

When I am in Karate I must always try to listen to Sensei.

In Karate it is important to pay attention to Sensei.

When we pay attention to Sensei in Karate we learn how to have fun.

We like to have fun in Karate.

We like to listen to Sensei.

I will always try to pay attention and listen to my Sensei.

When we get to practice Karate it is very exciting.

When there are lots of friends in the dojo it might be very loud.

When it is loud in the Karate dojo, it is important to pay attention.

In Karate it is always important to watch Sensei.

Sensei helps us to learn and do the right thing.

Karate is very exciting.

All of my friends get excited when we practice Karate.

When one of my friends calls my name I should stop and look at them.

I like to listen to my friends.

When we practoce Karate in the Dojo I always listen to my friends.

I like to practice Karate.

I like to listen to my friends.

In Karate I always take care not hurt myself or others.

When we do Karate I watch out and follow the rules.

I… [read more]


Hip Fracture Article Review

… Marks (2010) conducted a through literature review on all academic studies published between 1980 and November, 1, 2010 in order to determine the causes of hip fractures. The objective of the research was to identify risk factors that may lead to hip fractures and, accordingly, to devise ways to prevent them from occurring. The author conducted his thorough literature research by using primary terms that included disability, epidiemiology, hip fracture, risk factors, and prevention. Data from the author's research base that was associated with specific hip fracture cases was included in search. Pertinent retrieved articles were closely examined for key topics and the relevant data was analyzed and reviewed.

The results showed that hip fractures are a frequent cause of accident and can lead to adverse effects but that they are easily preventable too. One of the easiest ways to prevent hip fractures from occurring is by an increase and, or by adoption, of physical exercise. Whilst physical exercise should be a part of one's curriculum, it is particularly important that the activity levels not be too intense or severe but that rather they should be relevant of one's capacity. Furthermore, the earlier that one engages in physical activity the better, since later on it is harder to adopt the habit. Secondly, determinants of sub-optimal neuromuscular function also significantly contribute to hip fracture disability. This sub-optimal muscles function may be attributed to excess alcohol consumption, visual problems, or medical comorbidities and therefore, when existent, these aspects should be targeted too in order to prevent hip fractures from occurring.

Physical activity not only helps prevent hip fractures but also reduces risk of osteoporosis and depression, as well as many other chronic diseases that aggravate hip fracture risk such as diabetes and cancer. A curriculum of high-intensity strengthening and balance related exercises are recommended. This should be synthesized with weight-bearing activities and prolonged follow-up strategies. Finally, people with a history of fracturing and falls should be targeted as well…… [read more]


Fences August Wilson Breaking Out Thesis

… The irony, of course, is that he is merely repeating moves that Troy himself made to separate himself from his own father, which of course makes Cory even more similar to Troy.

Another point of contention between Troy and Cory for nearly the duration of Fences is the obstinacy with which Cory chooses to pursue his dream of playing football. His desire to do so, unwittingly or not, mirrors Troy's ambition to play baseball professionally in the Negro leagues. However, Troy is convinced that Cory's attempts to pursue sports will only make him disappointed with the outcome, similar to Troy's own disappointment with the end of his baseball career -- which concluded before national integration of professional baseball. However, a major part of Cory's characterization is the fierce independence of his will, which he asserts by defying his father's wishes for him to get a job after school and continuing to practice with his football team. The following quotation demonstrates this facet of Cory's character.

Cory: The Braves got Hank Aaron and Wes Covington. Hank Aaron hit two home runs today. That makes forty-three.

Troy: Hank Aaron ain't nobody (Wilson 1986).

This quotation underscores how important it is for Cory to defy his father in the former's attempts at being independent of him. He is trying to prove to his father that African-Americans can play sports profitably and professionally in the United States now, which is why he should continue with his propensity towards football. By striving to defy his father, however, Cory is merely acting just like him. He is engaging himself in a sport like Troy did, and he is also at odds with his father and trying to assert his independence from him, just like Troy did with Cory's grandfather. Virtually all of Cory's attempts to become autonomous and do what he wants to do -- and not what his father wants -- inevitably lead him to become more and more like Troy.

The assertion of autonomy and an independence of action and spirit is one of the central themes in August Wilson's Fences. Cory personifies many of these attributes, which can be demonstrated in his decision to defy his father and to continue pursuing a career in sports, and in his leaving home (and his father's influence) to ultimately join the armed forces. However, this assertion of manhood by removing oneself from the influence of one's father was acted out by Troy year's prior, all of which means that Cory's attempts at independence are only linking him closer and closer to who he wants independence from -- Troy. It is up to Cory to break the cycle of mediocrity and become better than his father, but he is acting just like him.

References

Gilmour, Nathan. "Troy Maxson Goes To Heaven." The Christian Humanist. 2010. Web. http://www.christianhumanist.org/chb/2010/11/troy-maxson-goes-to-heaven/

Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Plume. 1986. Print.… [read more]


10 Wisdom's Found in Wooden on Leadership Book Report

… Wooden on Leadership -- 10 Most Significant Wisdoms

Five Intuitive Wisdoms

Industriousness -- Wooden explains that there is simply no substitute for hard work. Whether in the realm of sports or business management, Wooden suggests that it is impossible to… [read more]


Emergency Readiness Annotated Bibliography Biochemical Annotated Bibliography

… DOI: www.asph.org/userfiles/Competencies-

Resources/06_POD.doc.

The report was done on behalf of the Yale Center for Public Health Preparedness in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Health. In April of 2006, Connecticut conducted a readiness and emergency preparedness exercise that tested its ability to receive and dispense antibiotic supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile. Additionally, a competency-based assessement was done to determine the training needs of Point of Dispensing (POD) workers. POD core competencies were produced by adapting the existing preparedness materials. They were used to assess the training needs of over 250 people who staffed a POD during the exercise. The assessment exercise measured their ability to perform 17 competency-based tasks (Durante, Melchrei, Sullivan, Degutis &, 2010, 3).

Most of the POD workers required training on 5 or fewer tasks. This suggests that they were trained sufficiently. Pharmacists were less well trained, requiring training on at least 5 tasks. This would suggest that they should have further training. Just less than a third of the exercisers needed remedial training on at least one of 3 basic POD Incident Command System requirements. Remedial training was also needed on tasks concerning POD security and safety, liability protections and family preparedness. POD workers who were concerned about such matters might have been less willing or able to staff a POD. People that participated in training both before and on the day of the exercise were the best prepared to staff the POD. This indicated that both types of training have sufficient value. When compared against the core competencies, POD workers already had many of the necessary skills to staff a POD well. However, training with an emphasis on the areas of weakness could improve the crew's willingness to report for duty as well as job performance (ibid., 3-6).

Conclusion

This author did not have particularly difficult to find, as they have members in the National Guard that have taken place in such exercises as TOPOFF. Qualitative methods and case study analysis are the best methods to study exercises like this. With this knowledge and Google Scholar, the author found…… [read more]


Tennis Ball Bomb Term Paper

… Tennis Ball Bombs

One of the concerns of contemporary law enforcement agencies in relation to counterterrorism in the realm of domestic or "home-grown" terrorism are explosive devices improvised from easily-obtainable materials. Tennis balls, racquetballs, and other similar common sports items, for example, have been used increasingly by domestic terrorists. Typically, the balls are cut open, filled with explosive materials such as match heads or explosive powders (i.e. black powder or gun powder) and then resealed. In one such configuration, the ball is equipped with a standard firecracker or an improvised type of fuse. These types of devices have been known to law enforcement for more than a decade and the increasing use of the Internet in the public has increased public awareness of these types of devices. In that regard, "How To" videos and written instructions are readily available on the Internet (1)(2).

Prior Incidents

In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a police patrol vehicle ran over and detonated a tennis ball bomb in Milwaukee (4). In Portland, Oregon, a dog was killed when it played with a tennis ball its owner had found on the street (7). Two-15-year-old boys were arrested in South Africa after throwing a tennis ball bomb at a school (3). In Fairfield, Connecticut, a tennis ball bomb exploded after it was thrown by a man who found it in the street who started playing catch with it (5). Two Washington State men were sentenced to state prison for possession of a large number of tennis ball bombs, one of which had seriously injured one of the younger brothers of one of the men (6).

Indicators of Potential Tennis Ball Bombs for Law Enforcement

The possession or presence of large numbers of "strike anywhere" matches or (especially) of severed match heads should…… [read more]


Brain Function Article Critique

… Brain Function

Numerous studies have been conducted and articles written to analyze the physiological benefits of sleep. The recent article, "Daytime Naps Improve Performance" by Dr. David Jockers, focuses on the benefit of daytime sleep and how it affects physical and mental performance (2011). Published by NaturalNews.com, Jockers briefly summarizes the findings of sleep studies performed by three researchers from various institutions. Jockers first mentions a study performed by Dr. Milner at Brock University, and mentions how participants following naps "were shown to be significantly more physiologically alert" (2011). The article then focuses on Dr. Czeisler of the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Czeisler advises nap sleep is particularly beneficial for athletes, and conducted sleep studies on mice to support his notion that nap sleep helps to consolidate memory (Jockers, 2011). Jockers then refers to a series of studies directed by Mah at Standard University, in which athletes with differing sleep behaviors were examined for physical, mental, and emotional performance. Jockers concludes his article with reinforcing the positive aspects of sleep, advises naps help one recover from "sleep debt," and recommends an optimal napping period of 10 to 30 minutes (2011).

Jockers provides a serviceable article for readers with very little previous knowledge of napping benefits and physiological outcomes. The article seems to be intended for a large, general audience, and its oversimplification weakens its intention to educate readers on physiological advantages of napping. Although Jockers refers to three major sleep studies, he offers surface commentary and little in-depth analysis. For example, the entirety of Dr. Milner's study is distilled into three sentences, with the argument being highlighted as Jockers stated the "subjects had improvements in subjective sleepiness, fatigue and accuracy on tests of mental sharpness" (Jockers, 2011). There is no indication of how many subjects were tested, how they were tested, the duration of the study, or how results were obtained. Jockers gave the most attention in his article to the studies conducted by Mah. Mah studied the sleep patterns of athletes (swimmers, tennis and basketball players) who had up to 10 hours of sleep a day, and Jockers reported all of…… [read more]


Career Job (Assistant Soccer Coach) Research Paper

… For an assistant coach, one of the most significantly important skills set to have complete authority on is the comprehensive knowledge of the physical and physiological training structures. This will help them in identifying the deficits or weaknesses of each player on an individual as well as the team level. It will further help him do his job better as he will always be fully aware of what has gone right or wrong with his players and thus never be played for a fool or left in the dark about any shortcomings (Herbst, 1999).

Contrary to popular belief, all head and assistant coaches are also required to be great managers and have excellent time management skills, problem solving abilities, coping capabilities, task delegation skills as well as balanced and approachable interpersonal skills. These skills will need to be coupled with enhanced strategizing, assertive, assisting and planning skills in the domain that they choose, which in this case in soccer (NSCAA, 2004).

As an individual, the coaches are required to be personable, engaging, exciting and free-spirited individuals who are not afraid to take risks and think outside the box. They are required to those individuals who are friendly to the players, yet can authoritative control and provide inspiration whenever needed (NSCAA, 2004).

Benefits and Drawbacks

The benefits of being a soccer assistant coach is that those who choose to endeavour in this field have a great chance of finding opportunities to do exactly what they love within the domain that they love. This way most individuals can two distinct fulfilling aspects of their career: 1) teaching and interacting with young kids, shaping them as disciplined individuals for their coming lives; and 2) investing time and effort into a sport that they love (NSCAA, 2006).

The downsides however with this are also very similar to the benefits: 1) the children or young adults might be difficult to deal with; 2) the pressures of the job might make it less pleasurable for them to engage in; 3) parents might want preferential treatment for their children due to whatever connections they might have; 4) the pain of a loss even when the team is working well together is always hard to deal with; 5) the process of cutting players from the team is also a major drawback for the assistant coaches due to how close they are with the players; and 6) they have to face and answer a majority of the scrutiny from the media for a loss or a scandal etc. (NSCAA, 2006).

Conclusion

This paper focused on the numerous aspects of the life a soccer assistant coach highlight their responsibilities, their diverse skills sets as well as the various benefits and drawbacks that they might experience as part of the role they play in the team.

References

Herbst, D. 1999. Soccer: How to Play the Game: The Official Playing and Coaching Manual of the United States Soccer Federation. Universe.

Jones, R. 1999. Soccer Strategies: Defensive and Attacking Tactics. Reedswain.

National Soccer… [read more]


Personal Statement -- Oct Essay

… There is a feeling in the hospital that something can and very likely will go on at any moment. It was a very challenging time. I was in a Purgatory and I had no clue when my deliverance would occur. Fortunately, I was not alone. I had an amazing medical team as well as a loving family.

I never gave up hope. There are many quotes out in the world about faith and belief and how if you have this in your life, you can always keep going. There is nothing so hard in this world as being very sick for a very long time. You are faced daily with the choice to either make the best of your sorry situation or to give up and dwell in self-pity. My mother taught me that each of us is the author of our own story and we choose whether we will be a hero or a victim. Although there were days that were very hard, I refused to be the victim of my life story.

I have, since I can remember, been interested in the sport of golf. I have always found it to be a thrilling sport and a wonderful past time. I golfed when my father died and it helped me get through it. I golfed when I was being treated for cancer and I golfed when I was getting better. I challenged all the negatives in my life into the focus of getting better and my favorite sport. Now, as I approach adulthood I want the chance to play golf at the college level and perhaps further on in my life. Golf has helped me get through the most depressing and dark times of my life. Now that I am finally out of those shadows and basking in the sunlight, I wish to take my favorite game with me.

I have proved myself to be a person who never gives up. No matter how dire the situation, no matter how little it looks like things will work out, I will always hold on to the hope that things can get better. Having dreams and doing everything you can to fulfill them should be the goal of every individual, no matter what their past…… [read more]


Management the People of the Globe Essay

… ¶ … Management

The people of the globe have always fancied events. While some of these events were created with specific purposes of decision making, political support or for economic resolution, others have had a more entertaining feature. But in… [read more]


Human Factors to Football Helmets Head Neck Injury Different Changes From Begin Research Proposal

… Human Factor - Football Helmets and Neck Injury

The Human Factor: Football Helmets and Neck Injuries

While football is generally a relative safe sport to play with the proper protection, there have still been injuries - and some of them… [read more]


Business Plan Hockey Business Plan

… Pro Local Business Plan Oct. 2011

This business plan describes start-up, operations and expansion for ProLocal, a specialty sports apparel retail chain focused on professional and amateur hockey and whatever sports and events complement hockey consumption. The firm will start… [read more]


Athletes as Role Models Research Proposal

… '

What the media tells us and presents to us

Of course, no athlete really stands for and symbolizes anything other than a combination of genetic gifts, skill, and hard work. The idea that the athlete symbolizes higher moral values is a projection of the media. It is not enough to generate interest in an athletic story, beyond a narrow fan base, to merely focus on wins and losses. Instead the media must tell a striking parable about an athlete, such as the tale of Tiger Woods' purity and dedication -- a story which took an unexpected turn when Woods' marital infidelity was revealed.

What the media doesn't tell us and present to us

Inevitably, a one-sided portrait emerges of athletes. And perhaps with even greater negative consequences is the fact that the media does not show the many aspiring athletes who do not 'make it' and instead sacrifice long hours to excelling in a sport that does not provide them with a profession.

Why the media have an interest in presenting athletes as role models

Stories about athletic glory are more marketable than stories about scientists discovering great inventions or writers writing great novels because it is easy to televise an athletic drama from start to finish. There are great rivalries in sports -- and also a great deal of money to be made in terms of marketing and selling jerseys and tickets.

What needs to change?

Ultimately, the media at least partially reflects our habits as information consumers. Sports must be accorded their proper place in the culture: yes, it is fine to watch sports, but athletic excellence must not be confused with moral greatness. The public must stop 'consuming' stories about both great and fallen athletes and appreciate the fact that ultimately sports -- whether played on television or in a public park -- are just games and should not be confused with real life.

References

Everstine, Eric W. (1998). 1919 Black Sox Scandal. MD.U.S.. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.mc.cc.md.us/Departments/hpolscrv/blacksox.htm

Ma, Kai. (2007). Cheaters sometimes win. Nerve. . Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.nerve.com/regulars/lifeswork/stevenortiz… [read more]


Enhance Understanding Thesis

… Central to the design of both studies is an overview of clinical outcomes assessment and discussion of the way outcomes measure is used to make decisions in healthcare, particularly in the injury-prone athlete. The former paradigm forms the major portion of the qualitative portion, while the later becomes quantitative measurement.

In both studies, the qualitative portion served as a broad literature review; asking the various research questions that would be buttressed by later inclusions of data. Numerous "what if" scenarios are posed within disablement model as a framework for clinical practice, noting that "the questions can never be fully answered with just theory and hypothetical situations. A complete answer requires a combination of good theory and the systematic and intentional application of disablement models to the practice and education of athletic training"(Parsons). Qualitatively then, both studies wait on the analysis of patient charts and instead first focus on an explanation of legislative and political issues presented in a qualitative model. Interviews and dialog are used to buttress these arguments and show that there is both validity in the population chosen and transferability based on multidimensional and subject related models. For instance, much of the qualitative data focuses not just on the relationships between athletes and coaches, but also on the nature of sports and players within the entire genre of modern leisure theory. In fact, more than anything else, the use of qualitative materials in these articles is designed to serve as a way to explain, expand, and implement the authors' preference for certain outcome models as a clinical basis for diagnosis and treatment.

REFERENCES

Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.

Parsons, J., et.al. (2008, July-August). Change is Hard: Adopting a Disablement Model for Athletic Training. Journal of Athletic Training. 43 (4): 446-448. Retrieved from:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474825/

Valovich-McLeod, et.al. (2008, July-August). Using disablement models and clinical outcomes assessment to enable evidence-based athletic training practice, Part II: Clinical outcomes assessment, Journal of Athletic Training, 43(4), 437-445.Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474824/… [read more]


Injuries That Consequent From Playing Thesis

… Conducting a meta-analysis of football-related accidents, I will single out the accidents that seem to be most prevalent in the field. I will also target and participate in specific online groups that are dedicated to discussion on football and chat groups where football players are likely to converge. I will send surveys to coaches of various football teams, and via focus groups and open-ended interviews with football players of the above mentioned 5 schools will attempt to find out the most prevalent accidents that occur during football playing and why they occur. The information will be collected and assessed in a similar manner to that of the descriptive design.

Predictive research design

The predicative research design predicts that x causes y. In this case, I may seek to predict that (tongue-in cheek) red shoelaces, coffee in the morning, or a skiff with one's girlfriend causes rate of accidents to leverage during a particular period, or causes specific accidents to occur.

I would design this particular study by randomly selecting a cross-sectional variety of football players with as large a sample as possible. I would have the participants fill out a survey of accidents that occurred to them and their team during the last 10 years. This would tell me the most common accidents. I would then supplement this with open-ended interviews where I would seek to investigate whether and if so the characteristics of psychological events that caused these accidents to occur. Collection of data would proceed by data being decoded. A multiple regression (Pearson's) would be used in order to arrive at prediction.

Source

Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2007). Research methods…… [read more]


Importance of Objective Perspective Essay

… For example, if a person said he or she wanted to become a great athlete, you would probably expect them to decide what sport that wanted to excel at. If the person responded that he did not really care so much about what sport it was but just wanted to work at becoming more athletic, you might question his ability to achieve a high level of accomplishment in any sport. I do think it is admirable that you want to develop leadership skills, but (again) strictly in my opinion, that should be a secondary focus for how to achieve a specific goal rather than the goal in and of itself.

Response to Post # 3

In my opinion, your post perfectly exemplifies the point of my response to the previous post. You have decided on a very specific goal that represents something you would like to achieve on behalf of beneficiaries who are clearly identified. While you acknowledge that many different comparable goals might have been equally appropriate areas to devote your attention, you have not allowed that general perspective to prevent you from identifying one specific goal for your current efforts.

I am confident that your involvement in the project that you describe will also provide invaluable experience and opportunities for your own future professional development and without necessarily making that end result the dominant focus of your project. I believe that this first project will enable you to contribute in a way that does accomplish something very worthwhile even at this early stage of your professional career and that you will benefit as much from the experience as the populations you hope to help. Regardless of the future direction of your professional interests, your first project should enable you to further your professional skills simply through the…… [read more]


How to Plan a Tennis Tournament Business Proposal

… ¶ … Management

The Volvo International (also known as the Pilot Pen International) is a professional tennis tournament played at the Mount Washington Resort in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire MT Washington Resort is now a part of Omni Hotels and… [read more]


Dr. Y's Lab and Integrate Thesis

… My objective would be to assess whether introducing the conditions that may provoke injury does indeed lead to injury occurring under these specific conditions.

My distinguishing between the one as qualitative and the other as quantitative is that the latter -- the quantitative method - uses strict scientific methodology to achieve its results. The researcher's intent is to formulate hypotheses, to collect the data, and test these hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. Most significantly, the experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.

Randomization, essentially, means that every subject is accorded an equal change of being allocated to each of the experimental conditions. Studies are usually matched (namely participants are matched in terms of similar characteristics etc.) in order to reduce bias and to increase experimental sensitivity (i.e. ability to detect any possible effect). The quantitative method, following strict scientific conditions, accords a greater possibility of validity and reliability.

Examples of qualitative research, on the other hand, are those studies that are conducted in a format outside the laboratory, such as field studies, or observation, discourse analysis, or focus groups. They observe and describe the behavior but do not provide reliable explanation for why the behavior occurs. My former method employs the qualitative and is seen primarily in its use of observation, interviewing, focus groups, and analysis of…… [read more]


Business Plan for Oakland's Women Business Plan

… Other WNBA teams which have also secured sponsorship deals so far include the Washington Mystics with Inova Health System, Seattle Storm with Bing, New York Liberty with Foxwoods Casino and Los Angeles Sparks with Farmers insurance.

Another business strategy adopted… [read more]


Manny Pacquiao Trinidad's Pacific Storm Term Paper

… 37). This is a kind of scenario that is difficult to imagine in today's America, but it also explains certain aspects of Pacquiao's ability: his first experience of boxing at age 13 was attempting to do nothing more than win against boys of much larger size, and as a result that sheer physical determination seems to be the thing that exhilarates him, and gives him the sense of courage overall. It was probably more difficult for Pacquiao to fight those first street-fights when he was barely in his teens than it was for him to fight his much-publicized bouts against Erik Morales. (He got to wear shoes and gloves when he fought Morales, for a start.) I can only imagine my way into that sort of physical courage, because I do not even know whether such a scenario exists anywhere in America: one would probably have to travel into Mexico to find a similarly organic culture of street-fighting practiced by children.

Overall I feel like I was able to learn so much from Pacquiao's remarkable story. But I can only imagine my way into what it must feel like to be Pacquiao -- for me, there is a kind of liberated energy when I can actually physically follow through and put my whole energy into throwing and landing a punch. So I can only imagine what the energy would feel like if I had the kind of punching power that the Pacman has. But I can understand what it means to have the kind of focus and determination he's got, and can certainly understand what kind of physical training must be necessary to do what he does, and to make it look so graceful, like an act of nature. But I think Pacquiao can also not only be a model for athletes, but a lesson for Americans. We need to look at how much Pacquiao was able to achieve under such adverse conditions…… [read more]


Scientific Method Annotated Bibliography

… Exercise programs that lasted six months were the norm as far as length, but the type of exercise completed was a major difference between the four studies. It has long been debated among exercise experts what the best type of exercise is for increased flexibility and mobility. Studies have been conducted which looked at the benefits of cardiovascular exercises (Fisher, Atler, & Potts, 2007; Stathi & Simey, 2007; Wallmann, et al., 2009) versus the benefits of a weight-bearing regimen (Littbrand, et al., 2009). The reason for this divergence of thought is that one type of exercise offers stretching and improvement of lung and heart function, while the other focuses more on strengthening the muscle so that it adds the above benefits plus. It is necessary for researchers to look into how all types of exercise might work with a given population because there may be a benefit from one type of exercise that is not inherent in the other. It might be that weight-bearing exercises will work better for this population because they have allowed muscles to atrophy over time (Littbrand, et al., 2009). However, other researchers work with the hypothesis that strengthening exercises will not be as effective for a group of participants who have lost a significant amount of muscle mass. The outcomes will hopefully determine which hypothesis is correct.

Outcomes are generally vague because all variables cannot be controlled for in a given experiment. This is the case with this group of four studies. The sample size issue was a problem for three of the studies, so they had what was considered inconclusive data. It is interesting to note that people in the population studied have other issues facing them which tend to skew results. The study with the largest number of cases (199) had a 54% incidence of dementia among its participants (Littbrand, et al., 2009). This variable effectively worked to skew the final data, but it is necessary to determine if participants who have dementia are less able to effect positive results. In the end, all of the studies had mixed results. Some (Littbrand, et al., 2009; Wallmann, et al., 2009) had very good initial results, but these decreased as the participants used the program. In the other two studies, Fisher, Atler and Potts (2007) found that their intervention had no effect on the eventual health of the individuals, while Stahi and Simey (2007) had very good results. The study done by Stahi and Simey (2007) also produced a variable that the researchers were not… [read more]


Fences Playwright August Wilson Won Research Paper

… "This visceral and violent image, where black women act as human balms for black men's pain, dovetails with Wilson's critique of hypersexuality and sports to underscore the psychological and familial price black men pay for adopting such imprisoning definitions of masculinity" (Clark 211). For this man, the only purpose of women is to stroke his ego and reaffirm his masculinity. It is fitting that the woman with whom Troy has an affair dies giving birth to their child because she has no function as a character. Her only purpose in life is to fulfill Troy's desires and when her use in this capacity is drained, the only end she can possible have is a sticky one.

Rose shows herself to be a woman deserving of a man better than her husband. Instead of becoming angry or rejecting his need to reclaim his masculinity, Rose accepts the girl into her own home and agrees to raise her as a daughter. There are then no challenges to his need to prove his masculinity which makes Troy believe that he can continue to abuse and betray his family. Troy's failings as a loyal husband and a baseball player are exemplified by his current employment; working as a garbage man. Instead of glorious fame he is now hauling garbage from the back of a truck. Troy gets a promotion which allows him to then drive the garbage truck. Instead of becoming a great ball player or a model husband and father, he has become the most important member of his garbage team, alienating himself from the other members of the refuse disposal team.

Works Cited:

Bryer, Jackson R., and Mary C. Hartig. Conversations with August Wilson. Jackson: University

of Mississippi, 2006. Print.

Clark, Keith. "Reflections on Baseball, Gunshots, and War Wounds in August Wilson's Fences."

Contemporary Black Men's Fiction and Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2001.

Print.

Elkins, Marilyn Roberson. August Wilson: a Casebook. New York: Garland, 1994. Print.

Nadel, Alan. May All Your Fences Have Gates: Essays on the Drama of August Wilson. Iowa City: University of Iowa, 1994. Print.…… [read more]


Winning Is the Only Thing Book Review

… With this change came the realization of many GIs that segregation had no place in a modern nation and sports became one of the few places in which White and Black athletes could freely mix. Sports not only became a national obsession, then, as the decades unfurled, it became big business in advertising, clothing, franchises; and as the fervor for more and more teams became rampant, the kings of capitalism came forward to "manipulate" how, when, and why Americans could enjoy their favorite pastime.

Both authors show their classical trained historical expertise when presenting both insightful and extremely well-researched arguments that, rather than a journalistic polemic, present facts that explore the manner in which big-business, especially in the personification of people like Roone Arledge, both expanded the idea of sports as a pastime and controlled the purse strings to the point that even teams seemed manipulated. Thematically, they show that the emphasis on money and national status may have turned such iconic games as the Olympics into "commercial extravaganzas financed by television and dominated by a show-business ethos" (pp. 209-10). Indeed, the authors' expertise in social history is shown by their analysis of the particular Catholic viewpoint from the early owners of the big football franchises who, until the late 1970s, limited their own franchise movements based on a particular moral and ethical template.

The book was received quite well in the fields of sporting history, social history, and American popular culture studies. One reviewer noted that the only serious limitation in the book was an almost complete lack of the significant changes the sporting world saw from 1960 on in the field of women's sports, feminist thought, and equal participation in the team sports (Adelman, Journal of Sport History, 17, Winter 1990, 390).

For the reader interested in more of an intellectual history of modern sports, the book is a perfect overall introduction. For the reader fascinated by the manner in which the intricacies of popular culture mimic larger cultural trends, the book is a fascinating insight into the way technology, business, and leisure studies…… [read more]


Styles of Coaching Movie Review

… Styles of Coaching

Remember the Titans:

The Assessment of Coach Boone's Style of Leading

Remember the Titans, a film based on real events, is set against the historical backdrop of the integration of African-Americans into Caucasian only public schools. The film explores the tensions between Whites and Blacks from a recently desegregated high school football team, with a newly appointed black coach and a white assistant coach. The tensions reach a climax when the team goes to a summer football camp where players frequently clashed because of race, including conflicts between the black team captain and the white team captain occur. Coach Boone, the head coach, forces them into rigorous athletic training where they are forced to work with each other in order to be successful. At the start of football camp, Coach Boone, in an effort to bring the team closer together and to confront the racial barrier that separated them- forced the team members out of their comfort zone by assigning camp roommates cross-race. This required the teammates to get to know one another and overcome whatever stereotypes and prejudices that they had against one another. A pivotal moment is reached at football camp when Gerry Bertier, the white football captain confronts another white player on his team for not blocking a black player following a conversation with Julius Campbell, the black captain. By confronting a player of his "own kind," Bertier sets an example that everyone is equal on the field and that because a player is of a different race, it does not mean that they are worth not protecting on the field- setting an example and precedence to the rest of this teammates. Finally, there was also a scene in which the two captains call a meeting of the entire team and demand that they overcome their barriers with each other and work as one team as they did during football camp, and challenge the external influences that being back in their divided school and town had on them.

Therapeutic Implications

The therapeutic implications of Coach Boone's coaching style are observed throughout the movie and prove to have a positive impact on the team overall. The specific scenes as mentioned above including forcing roommates across racial barriers during camp and also allowing the captain to yell at fellow players was allowed by the Coach because he realized the value that it would have to the team dynamic overall. Coach Boone utilized the isolation of the team during football camp in an effort to make them build connections with each other. By forcing the team members out of their comfort zone, it breaks down the initial barriers that are separating these…… [read more]


Argument for Bbcor Baseball Bats Essay

… However, it is a switch to an entirely new system and will create some negative fallout in the case that will need to be addressed. Still, the switch has its merits in science.

One of the reasons that the switch is necessary is because the old standards, called the BESR criteria were falling short of maintaining safety in the sport as it relates to ball exit speed (NFSHSA, 2011). The NCAA has also already banned all composite bats based on their research so the baseball world fully expects that the NFSHSA will follow their lead (NFSHSA). It is particularly important that players in high school and college are regulated to ensure that the best safety practices are implemented and followed and that the integrity of the sport of baseball is also be maintained. It will not be until 1/1/12 that all metal bats will be out of commission in high school, but the movement towards such eradication is there (NFSHSA). Metal bats do not come close to qualifying under the harsh BBCOR standards.

Most importantly to baseball players is the fact that with the new standards and the movement away from metal bats, the baseball "sweet spot" will not be limited (NFSHSA; NCAA, 2011). However, some fear that it won't be as sweet. What is important to keep in mind is that no one will be using the metal bats so the expectations for what is sweet may simply have to change. Bats that meet the BBCOR standards will also be essentially indestructible and light enough for a solid swing (NFSHSA; NCAA). In fact, the new bats will be highly comparable to the old wood bats with a great swing.

References

NFSHSA (National Federation of State High School Associations). (2011).…… [read more]


Globalization Jonathan Zaun in Their Thesis

… For a wide cross section of American society, the physical rigors of football, and indeed the sport's culture of "acceptable violence," serve as a valuable parenting tool with which to mature a child and toughen them for the rigors to come with adulthood. Baseball's unique ability to isolate one player and pit him or her against a single adversary, the battle between pitcher and batter, embodies the American ideal of individual merit, fairly rewarding the victor while relegating the vanquished to obscurity. In each case, the choice by the upper class to distance themselves from these once collective ideals, through the overt adoption of soccer, represents a significant breach in the supposed unity shared by Americans.

Kwame Anthony Appiah focuses his examination of globalization on the concept of values, and challenges his readers to view their own set of values through the prism of cross cultural exchanges. It is Appiah's contention that, while values or morals are said to be universal, an individual's unique cultural identity is the key factor in determining their overall value system. By illustrating the intricate differences in concepts like family, which many perceive to be similar in scope the world over, that have been pulled into sharper focus by globalization's cultural exchange, Appiah instructs his audience to approach the idea of values with intellectual flexibility. It is his view that each culture's varying use of linguistics to delineate morality, the "vocabulary of evaluation" (380), isolates it somewhat from the views held by other cultures. Appiah's discussion of his own cultural identity, intertwined as it is with influences from both his father's Akan heritage and his mother's American upbringing, reinforces the role that difference plays in defining identity by showcasing the incredible diversity of terminology used to discuss matters of moral value. When Appiah follows his statement that "people everywhere have ideas about your responsibility to your children" by questioning readers "but who are your children" (381), he is providing a definitive example of the role played by differences in determining moral value.

In each of their essays, both Foer and Appiah essayists strive to impart lessons to their audience which can be used to navigate the cross-cultural conundrum that has been created by the advance of globalization. Appiah reminds readers that there are "universal values" but also that "their expression is highly particular, thickly enmeshed with local customs and expectations and the facts of social arrangements" (382). This admonition is a reminder that, in order to successfully evaluate morality in today's seemingly borderless world, it is crucial to remember the vestiges of the social borders which once played a significant role in shaping a society's structure. I believe that this urging on the part of Appiah represents a vital step in the next generation's ability to comprehend the variance of moral values. If globalization continues to highlight the differences between members of a society, or indeed betweens societies at large, it is integral that individual members of these societies learn to recognize and appreciate difference… [read more]


Osteoporosis and Resultant Factors Due to Related Essay

… Osteoporosis and resultant factors due to related fragility and falls are important public health concerns that necessitate effective prevention and interventions (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). There are many effective pharmacological interventions used in the treatment of osteoporosis, but lifestyle changes demonstrate effective means for improvement and prevention. One of the most effective and researched non-pharmacological interventions for osteoporosis is exercise. Research has determined that weight-bearing impact exercises may enhance the strength, mass, and structure of bones (Nikander, et al., 2010). It has been demonstrated through numerous studies that regular exercise is associated with a decrease in fragility fractures in women and men (Nikander, et al., 2010). How effective is exercise, strength training in particular, for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis?

Past research has effectively demonstrated that exercise programs of various sorts may increase spine and hip bone mineral density and decrease the likelihood of falls among individuals with osteoporosis (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). Strength training has been demonstrated to promote osteogenesis and maintain and even increase bone mineral density (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). Common actions in strength training such as compression, torsion, and tension act to create electrical signals that stimulate cellular activity within bones and the deposit of minerals on points of stress that are caused by muscle contraction (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). Muscle contraction used in strength training stimulates bone formation, which increases bone mineral density and inhibits bone reabsorption (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). Studies have shown that strength training programs and a more active lifestyle in general promote the maintenance of bone mineral density in post-menopausal women, and improve bone mineral density in the spine and hips for women with osteoporosis (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010).

Fractures are a common result of post-menopausal osteoporosis, and interventions that may reduce the…… [read more]


E-Commerce the Game Known as Football Term Paper

… E-Commerce

The game known as football in some parts of the world and soccer in other countries, Bernard Frei created the WorldSoccerShop.com in 2001 despite to his eponymous years as an unsuccessful player. Regardless of Frei's inadequate talents as a soccer athlete, he is victoriously collecting limited edition jerseys from around the world. The founder is an active member of the aforementioned sport by traveling and attending related events, and forming business affiliations with eminent teams. Frei's international correspondence goes beyond associations with teams such as Manchester United and AC Milan, but also with his staff. Although his employees are situated in a variety of places like England, Australia, and Cuba, the site's headquarters is in Birmingham, Alabama. Frei operates with the mission to bring his passion for soccer and share it with a worldwide network. The site's revenues come from the selling of various equipments and apparel. The former in the form of soccer balls, nets and goals, and watches while the latter is represented by jerseys, footwear, and shorts. The site allows consumers to shop by different avenues, for example, by team, country, league or player.

In this age of modern technology, competition online is quite fierce, especially with major sport companies like Adidas, Modells, and Nike. The aforementioned corporations are able to offer a lower price range but unlike WorldSoccerShop.com, their range in jerseys are limited. Rei's brainchild is the second most popular website to come up when one googles soccer jerseys.

Equally as important as merchandise is customer service, which the founder offers and is explained thoroughly. In addition, Rei provides customization on jerseys…… [read more]


Baseball Research Bristow, Schneider Research Paper

… The questions on the test asked about the personal knowledge about the sport of baseball, their levels of information, experience and expertise. Respondents were to answer using a number 1 through 6, where 1 =strongly disagree and 6 = strongly agree. Other questions asked about their competitiveness and how many times they attended games. Using various statistical analysis the writers devised a means to compare these numbers and determine whose fans are more loyal and dedicated.

This article is very informative because of the way it simply breaks down two teams to determine a relationship. The focus of the article was to improve the way a team may market its players and franchise. Understanding that research and statistical data may be used in something as enjoyable as baseball brings new light and respect to the subject for me.

Bibliography

Birstow, D., Schneider, K., Sebastian, R. (2010). Thirty games and sold out for months! An empirical examination of fan loyalty to two Major…… [read more]


Cooling Strategies Price, M.J., Boyd Article Review

… The background gave a good introduction to gaps in the current state of knowledge about cooling strategies during exercise, particularly in women.

However, there are flaws in the overall protocols used and methodology, which may serve to question the conclusions of article. First, the article states that the female soccer players only moved on a treadmill, excluding lateral and sideways movement. On the soccer field, these latter moves are common and whether the ice vest would be effective with a more diverse set of movements is unknown. However, the running speeds do simulate soccer activity well.

Furthermore, the authors note that the soccer players drank fluid during the experiment. Whether the cooling was due to the ice vest, the fluids, or both is indeterminate. The fluid intake varied during CON, PRE and PRE+MID as illustrated in Table 1. Also, the sweat rate was measured. It is not addressed in the paper that sweating contributes to cooling.

The discussion aided in understanding the significance of the study in summarizing the results, however there are areas where there is lack of clarity. The authors tend to conflate reduced heat production with external cooling, without adequately distinguishing between the two. The authors seem to be promulgating the convenience of ice vests as cooling strategies during exercise in heat. Why they initially chose ice vests over other methods of cooling is unclear. The significance of mass lost in the soccer players is not addressed.

Future studies should focus on adjusting fluid intake and ice vests with reference to no ice vests. Soccer activity should be better simulated beyond the use of just treadmills. Possibly the conflation of reduction of heat production with external cooling could be further clarified by…… [read more]


Should the Companies Who Dropped Tiger Woods Take Him Back? Case Study

… ¶ … companies who dropped Tiger Woods take him back

There is an unwritten expectation which humanity has for all persons in all situations wherein what is right and wrong is clearly perceived. This can be called 'normative ethics' and companies are bound to have ethics as much as individuals do. In most cases, human beings value ethics in all realms and like to see it in the media, sport and any field that is the foundation of human excellence. That there ought to be some norms and code of conduct for the performers and participants based on morality is indisputable. (Sosa; Villanueva, 2007) the ethical considerations in sports and life in general are for ensuring the level playing field, which provides for all people to achieve according to their ability is the sin qua non. In that context we have to see if Tiger Woods were not the victim of racism himself, and though he has proved the racists wrong, there is an institutional racism, which is not conductive to creating the level playing field. (Dale; Smith; Norlin; Chess, 2006)

The argument in favor of Tiger Woods then is that he retains an unblemished record as far as golf is concerned. Woods had not cheated on the golf course. There is the opinion that the public would perhaps have forgotten that and he may make a comeback. Many athletes who cheated with steroids are now back in the game. The public seems to forgive such misdemeanors. However if he was not blame worthy so far as the game was concerned, will it be right to exclude him from the support of the sponsors, merely because a shortcoming was noticed in a private affair? The affairs alleged to have occurred have no bearing on the game and his style or efficiency. As a sport person then he is still untainted and the scandal is a part of his personal life. Therefore, the question of the ethics of the sponsors being in the way of a sponsorship is not maintainable because the sponsor is for the game, and is far removed from the private lives of the individual. He was seen as the ideal African-American athlete who broke through the race and class dominated sport and projected an ideal for his fellows to follow. (PGA Sports Daily, 2009)

Companies like Accenture Consulting have dropped Woods. It is a question if at&T will sponsor him in the 2012 U.S. Olympic effort. The media is to blame more than the man himself. The question is whether the public has a right, more so the media to make wrongful propaganda into a celebrity's family life. Gossip and statistics seem to be the only tool of the media now. Since the media is protected by the freedom of the press and the right to malign anybody without bothering to verify the fallout, media publicity is not the criteria with which the person must be assessed. (Ethics news line, 2009)

There is a souring of relationship… [read more]


Chicago Cubs the History Term Paper

… The picture shows several fans, not just Bartman equally eager in their grasping for a souvenir from the NLCS game. The larger man to the right of Bartman also has his hands over the edge of the railing, which would mean that he could have been a source of interference as easily as Bartman, had the ball gone slightly to the right. The position of the ball and Bartman's arm show him clearly touching the glove of Alou. However, it also shows that Moises Alou's arm is fully extended and the trajectory of the ball would not have put it in the middle of his glove. In short, there was no way that Alou was going to catch that foul according to the captured moment on the film.

The other two pictures in the article deal with the haunted chair and the view of the field from that self-same green chair. When you look at Chair 113 it looks inauspicious. It is one of thousands and yet it is infamous. Of the chair itself, many die-hard Cubs fans refuse to sit in it. "I didn't want to sit in the exact same seat that he was in. I didn't want to jinx the Cubs." Even though the chair sits in the front row and is right along the field, allowing for a perfect and unobstructed view of the events on the ball field, no one who loves the Chicago Cubs will sit there. This information not only tells the story about how the people who believe in this alleged curse perceive an inanimate object with no real innate negative qualities, but also shows again the slant of the author. No one is quoted with a scientific response that would potentially negate the superstition. Indeed no other perspective aside from a belief in the curse is presented in the text.

The perspective of the writer is apparent if you compare the writing of the article with the actual images that go along with it. On a larger scale, this information reminds the reader that no article, even if it is supposedly an unbiased journalistic piece is without some bias. These biases may be subconscious even to the writer of the work, but they are still present. Readers of the news and viewers of any media which presents itself of unbiased viewpoints should be mindful that no one is free of bias and any time information is released, it cannot help but be colored through the perspective of the teller.

Works Cited:

Lindner, Matt. "Infamous Fan's Seat Considered Unlucky."…… [read more]


Movie When Were Kings Research Paper

… ¶ … Kings: Ali as artist

Normative theories of art have been formulated to try and explain the value of art. In the Principles of Art by R.G. Collingwood, it is argued that the value of art lies in its ability to entertain the public (Graham, 95). It can be argued that the perception of art can be extended beyond galleries, museums, and concert halls into the sports arena. In the film When We Were Kings, Muhammad Ali transcends preconceived notions of art, raising the bar through his skill and showmanship.

When We Were Kings is the 1996 documentary directed by Leon Gast that chronicles the events leading up to the Heavyweight Champion of the World bout between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman. This event, more famously known as "Rumble in the Jungle," was held on October 30, 1974 in Zaire in Africa. The film also documents performances by James Brown and B.B. King in what would later be referred to as the "black Woodstock" (Gast). The film provides commentary regarding the ethical background of the fight as it was primarily funded by the dictator Mobutu Sese Seko (Gast).

In the documentary, Ali not only provides insight into his rigorous training regimen, but is also able to capture the audience's imagination through his artful showmanship. Art can be defined as either a skill that is acquired by experience, study, or observation or the quality, production, expression, or realm of what is beautiful or more than of ordinary significance. Because Ali has mastered the art of boxing, so to speak, he can go beyond what has been expected of the sport and entertain the audience. It has been argued that in order for a sport to be considered an elevated art form, it must communicate something to the audience (Price). Ali's mastery of boxing technique allows him to build upon the skill he has acquired and manipulate his knowledge so that he can defeat Foreman, as well as, provide entertainment for the audience. It is through his status as a celebrity that Ali is able to move beyond the realm of sport, into the realm of entertainer, giving the audience the opportunity to see and experience his faults and achievements.

Boxing is considered the oldest contact sport dating back to 3000 B.C. Archeological evidence has been found that boxing was a popular sport among Egyptians, Berbers, Sumerians, Greek, and other Mediterranean civilizations. Due to boxing's popularity, it was officially accepted as an Olympic sport in 688 B.C. Boxing was also considered a sport of sheer brutality and entertainment in which gladiators, criminals, and slaves would fight to the death in order to prove their innocence or to win their freedom (D'Silva). Because of it's sheer brutality, boxing was banned three times by Julius Caesar, Theodosius and Theodoric the Great. The sport of boxing virtually disappeared from the…… [read more]

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