Study "Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays 716-770

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Sahaja Yoga in the Management Term Paper

… Randomized controlled trials are better designs than non-randomized, non-controlled studies because bias is reduced. The intervention frequency (once per week) was likely inadequate and may be the primary reason why greater benefits were not observed. Although subjects were encouraged to engage in the treatment twice a day, these sessions were not supervised and compliance was not reported. Many of the outcomes in this study were subjective measures, which are less reliable than objective measures.

Twenty-five subjects per group were deemed necessary from the power analysis to detect between-group differences. However, subject attrition in the test group resulted in only 21 subjects returning for follow-up visits. Thus, this study did not achieve sufficient power to detect differences if, in fact, differences existed. Furthermore, because subject attrition in the test group was 30% and greater than the 10% observed in the control group, doubts are raised regarding the real-world compliance to this intervention. Although reasons were given by subjects for attrition and were largely unrelated to the intervention, the reports may be biased. Finally, 20 of 21 test subjects were included in data analysis with >50% compliance, which is extremely low. From a practical standpoint, these subjects were included in the final outcome analysis if only eight sessions were attended in a 4-month period.

The study could have been stronger if more subjects were recruited to account for attrition. In addition, increased frequency of the intervention may have improved outcomes in the test group. Finally, due to the dearth of research in this field, more studies should be conducted to better understand the benefits of… [read more]

Bmx Racers Research Term Paper

… In the event that some participants would not return the questionnaire an additional 50 randomly selected members were sent the questionnaire within three weeks of the initial mailing in order to garner the needed 100 responses. Once all questionnaires were… [read more]

Media Portrayal of Sexes Babies Term Paper

… Only one or the other could be emphasized.

Other researchers refer to something called "the image" problem -- that female athletes tend to be Lesbians. Apparently on the idea the Lesbianism doesn't sell in the media, the media tends to… [read more]

Friday Night Lights IT's Just Term Paper

… The town's lack of a future vision is the book's true antagonist. The town is its own best motivating force and worst enemy, and the most clearly defined character in the book, as it goes through an internal conflict of values.

The book tells the story of one year in the lives of the boys on the Panthers team. Some athletes go on to glory, some fall by the wayside. Some act arrogantly, smirking and showing little effort in class and terrorizing the pep squad Pepettes when they only get candy rather than home baked goods for pre-game treats. Some of the boys stand slightly outside the institutions of the town, such as an African-American student who is an aspiring preacher as well as a football player. But the narrative and nexus of the book is the focus of this otherwise dispirited, undereducated town upon the championship game that the boys ultimately lose.

There is no solution, really, other than to move on from defeat. Tragically, some of the boys of the book are unable to do so, and become hangers on, ghosts of their former athletic selves as they drift through life, drop out of college, or mourn what they could have been, had they not been injured for a crucial part of the season. The author recaps the personal history of the boys in a conclusion, but the book comes to no fitting solution, because it is ultimately about life, not football. In life there are no final winners or losers. Even if the Panthers had won the final game, they still would have lost a great deal of their adolescent education and a perspective on high school athletics that would have stood them better in the future. The author leaves the reader hanging, as the boys are still alive, if not playing football, however -- hinting that there is always the potential for them to begin their lives anew, and start again, constructing their own values outside of the town where they grew up.

Works Cited

Bissinger, J.S. (2000) Friday Night Lights. New York: De Capo Press. [read more]

Marketing Chinese Businesses Implications Term Paper

… " According to the report the bid committee states in its bid material that "an Olympics held in China would costs $1.625 billion to stage and reap $1,606 billion in revenues, yielding a modest $19 million profit." Further the report… [read more]

Baseball Facilities Term Paper

… ¶ … Baseball Teams and Facilities on Neighborhood Economies new ball park represents an investment in the future. It becomes a matter of good business practice. A state-of-the-art facility reflects a community's confidence in its potential. Cities want to be… [read more]

Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica Term Paper

… The teams would often be made up of seven players, though the number did vary, usually between two and eleven players. In some cases, the game would be played in large massive groups without team formations, where the goal would be for each individual playing to win, rather than to play as part of a team. The goal of the combatants was to get a rubber ball through the stone rings attached to the walls. Almost every description that has been found detailing the playing rules of the game specify that neither the hands nor feet can touch the ball. Especially the no-hands rule seems to be consistent throughout all versions of the game, yet some historical items contradict this information. "Two 8th century Maya sculptures and several Peten Maya vases show players with their hands on the ball." (Finney) the ball was certainly meant to stay in the air and in fast movement at all times. Because the hands and feet were off limits, the elbows, knees, and hips were the common body parts used to make contact with the ball. A point would be scored if the opposing team was prevented from returning the ball and having it fall to the ground. The ball would be driven from one end of the court to the other, across the center line, and into the area that is similar to today's end zones. The game could be automatically won by getting the ball through one of the stone rings attached to the walls, but those rings were guarded carefully. If a player failed at an attempt to throw the ball through the stone ring, then they would be given fault points, but a successful attempt meant immediate victory. "Great skill was required to keep the ball in play, with players often hitting the ball off the side wall. Requiring even greater skill was the feat of… [read more]

1980 Term Paper

… The volcano blew on May 18. She was a kind mountain; she gave warning. As early as March 20 there had been tremblings, the first being an earthquake that measured 4 on the Richter scale. Steam was pouring out of fissures in her surface by March 27th, and in April the entire mountain began to be malshaped, obviously under pressure. Then, on May 18th, a massive earthquake destroyed the entire northern side of the mountain, and lava poured out, covering more than 200 miles! Additionally, huge ash plumes exploded into the sky, blackening out the sun. The power of the eruption is said to be equal to thousands of atomic bombs. Such a volcano might not have seemed been so notable in history, except that it happened in America, where every event is swallowed whole by the media. About 200 homes were flattened or burned to a crisp, and a little under 5 dozen people were killed. The effect on the landscape was far more catastrophic. (Lauber)

Just as Mt. St. Helens was considering blowing, Jimmy Carter declared that American athletes would not be allowed to compete in the Summer Olympics. Apparently, this was because the Olympics were being held in the U.S.S.R., which had recently "invaded" Afghanistan (they would have said "liberated"). However, on March 14th the Olympic boxing team had been killed in a plane crash in Europe. (Mondout) The Olympics committee protested this combination of politics with pure sport, as did the American athletes, many of whom were serious contenders for the gold and risked missing their peak by waiting another four years to compete. Carter would be punished for this choice both by seeing Russia winning about one third [read more]

Raptors Had Tied the Game With Less Essay

… ¶ … Raptors had tied the game with less than a minute to go. Stymied, we tried to run the ball in but there simply wasn't enough time to score a touchdown. Coach Malcom called a time out.

It's all up to you Anzor," he said, looking me straight in the eye. "I know you can do this."

The captain of the team and one of my closest friends grinned and slapped me on the back.

Yeah! We're gonna win this baby!" Pedro's enthusiasm, contagious as always, rubbed off on the entire team, which would otherwise have felt entirely frustrated from blowing our lead so late in the game.

The pressure was on. Last year's all county kicker, I knew I could pull off a 35-yard field goal. However, I'd never done it under this much pressure. This game would determine who went on to the county championships.

Without wasting time I sauntered onto the field, closed my eyes, and took a deep breath. A smile crept over my face, easing the intensity and relaxing every muscle in my body. I was ready. The kick made it, easy. We won the game, made it to county, and I was carried off the field by four of my teammates.

Victory often arrives under pressure. Even at a young age I am aware that success doesn't come easy. I worked hard throughout high school to be the best at my favorite sport. Now that I need to focus more on a career, I need to apply the same energy and enthusiasm to my academics as I do on the field.

I am drawn to the computer industry because of the same reasons I am drawn to football: challenge, competition, collaboration, and cooperation. The football field and the field of computer science create challenging situations that must be faced with grace and integrity. Just as I rose to the occasion to help my football team under many difficult circumstances, so too will be able… [read more]

Gambling Among College Students Term Paper

… Male college students who gambled were found to be more secure, dominant, masculine and happy, however they were less socially responsible than male non-gamblers (Brown Pp). Studies indicate that students arrive at college with pre-existing tendencies to gamble and that these tendencies may be modified by college environment (Brown Pp). In other words, students were likely to find friends who engage in similar activities and if these activities include gambling, then there may be an increase in gambling behavior (Brown Pp). Although gaming peers may promote tendencies to gamble, other influences such as time pressures, money, and knowledge, may constrain those tendencies (Brown Pp).

A study released in 2004 that surveyed 1,350 undergraduates at the four campuses of Connecticut State University during fall 2000 found that 18% of the men and 4% of the women reported that gambling had led to at least three negative life consequences commonly defined as problem gambling (Steinberg Pp). Students identified as problem gamblers were significantly more likely to be heavy drinkers, report negative consequences of alcohol consumption and be regular tobacco and marijuana users (Steinberg Pp). Problem gambling was also related to binge eating and greater sue of weight-control efforts, and moreover, university athletes were also found to have significantly greater problem gambling rates than non-athletes (Steinberg Pp).

According to the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, problem gambling should be a concern for all students, not just student athletes (Steinberg Pp). NASPA urges college officials to increase their awareness of the potential health risks associated with gambling and recommends that materials related to problem gambling be integrated into student prevention and treatment programs (Steinberg Pp).

The NCAA is taking a leadership role at the national level to address the growing problem before it reaches crisis proportions (Dooley Pp). Brand appointed Rev. Edward A. Malloy, President of University of Notre Dame, to head a national task force to study the problem and propose potential ways to curb gambling and sport wagering among student athletes (Dooley Pp).

Work Cited

Dooley, Jason. "Gambling on the Rise among College Student-Athletes, Study

Reports." The Daily News:Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service. 5/16/2004; Pp.

Breaux, Kia Shante. "Gambling seen on the rise among college students."

Associated Press. Online. 4/17/1998; Pp.

Brown, Daniel J. "Predictors of lottery gambling among American college students." The Journal of Social Psychology. 6/1/1994; Pp.… [read more]

Training Term Paper

… Results can be used as a measure to evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of a trainee's skills. If the result was based from a training exercise that was done within a measured time, both the efficiency and accuracy of the trainee can be measured. Otherwise, it is only the trainee's efficiency that can be assessed.

Two Key Questions

The two key questions that can be answered affirmatively by pre and post-testing and control groups are:

Did the trainees understand the subject of the training? (Control groups can help in determining who among the trainees understood, and who did not understand, the contents of the training. This can be answered by the element of Reaction.)

Did the trainees acquire knowledge and skills from the training? (Pre and post-testing can measure the difference of the trainees' knowledge before and after the training. This can be answered by the trainees' level… [read more]

Negro League Baseball Term Paper

… ¶ … Black Baseball in Virginia

Introduction to Sunday Coming - by Darrell J. Howard

One thing that always helps a book - in particular a book with historical and social importance - is when the author uses, as often… [read more]

Identification Weeks, Matthew Term Paper

… We felt that minutes per game was important in our analysis because we felt the more minutes the athlete played, the more he should earn. Points per game were included as a variable because we thought it to be a measure of the worth of that player to the team. Rebounds and assists are also important in judging the athlete's worth to the team. Our final analysis was that points per game would be the most significant variable." Yet, "through the use of hypothesis testing, we discovered that the model was significant at an alpha of.05. By performing individual tests, we found that the only variable that has a significant positive affect on salary is points per game. From here, one might want to examine the player's popularity, the impact of their agent, the perceived added income they bring to the team, as well as other, qualitative, variables." (Weeks, 1998)

How does this hypothesis affect daily life? Quite simply it shows that salary is not always contingent upon quantitatively established job performance variables, even in a highly numbers related sport. Other, more subjective factors come into play, no pun… [read more]

True Experiment Term Paper

… Weight was measured on a ratio scale. Weight is a ratio variable because it is meaningful to say that eight pounds is twice as much as four pounds and numbers can be averaged.

The hypothesis that exercise activity impacts weight loss was supported. On average, women who exercised vigorously for 60 minutes lost the most weight, 20 pounds. Those who exercised moderately for 60 minutes lost slightly more than 18 pounds. Those who exercised moderately for 30 minutes lost nearly 14 pounds, while women who exercised vigorously for 30 minutes lost slightly more than 15 pounds.

The groups were equal prior to treatment. As mentioned, like participants were selected based on sedentary lifestyle, an average age of 37 and an average body mass index of just below 33. And, members were randomly assigned to one of the four daily exercise regimens.

Overall this experiment represents a solid piece of professionally performed research. However, the study could have been even better. One flaw in the study is that it fails to establish how much of the weight was attributable to exercise activity vs. The controlled diet consisting of a daily caloric intake of 1,500 to 2,200 calories with 20% to 30% from fat. It would have been useful to include another level of the IV with a controlled diet and no exercise activity in order to appreciate the impact attributable to exercise. And, the… [read more]

Christine Brennan Is a Famous Term Paper

… I doubt Brennan is even aware that the last triple axel landed in any ladies' competition was by Midori Ito at the World Professional Figure Skating Championships.... Christine Brennan has stepped over the line. Based on her experience and ability as a writer supposedly in support of figure skating, she should take a hard look at her unwarranted cynicism and narrow-mindedness. Otherwise, her opinion has no place in either the sport or this newspaper."

Brennan has also made some blunders in her predictions and analysis of events, which only led to more problems for her in the sports world. For example in one of her columns in 1997, she predicted that Tara Lipinski couldn't possibly win unless Nancy Kwan did something disastrously wrong. However Lipinski proved her wrong the following year and Brennan had to take her words back. In the world of sports, where Brennan has carved a name for herself, it is also important not to view situations with colored spectacles because it can only lead to lack of credibility. However Brennan has more than her fair share of claims to fame, which is one reason, she has survived in the ruthless world of sports journalism.

Brennan has done a lot for women in the sports world especially by diverting the attention of sports agencies to issues of gender discrimination in this arena. We know that sex discrimination is a serious issue but it has hitherto been ignored in the world of sports. However Brennan and some other journalists have made a commendable effort in addressing the issue. Brennan was the one to raise the issue of sex discrimination in golfing events. During an interview, she said: "I certainly never sought an active role, but as an opinionated journalist -- a columnist -- I'm thrilled that sex discrimination in golf has finally become an issue. It's a very good dialogue for the sport to be having."

Apart from that Brennan has also been quite vocal about some non-issues. For example, she was the one to criticize the use of word Lady with women names in basketballs matches. However this is done due to respect and not discrimination. But Brennan turned it into a major issue for which she did attract some mild criticism from those who believe we have more serious discrimination issue to address.

For example Chuck Padgett wrote in USA Today: "Brennan implied that women's basketball teams are in some way demeaned by having the word "Lady" attached to their nicknames. With so much true discrimination in the world, why try to make a big deal out of the fact that colleges make a distinction between men and women? They are, after all, different...Brennan asks whether that one word signals to female athletes that their role is less important because they can't dunk or run as fast as men, play as powerful a game or sell as many tickets. This is not completely true; Tennessee's Lady Vols have a higher average attendance than many, if not… [read more]

Gender and Society Sexism Term Paper

… Additionally, men's sports are traditionally considered in a "more superior manner" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999).

Tuggle (1996, 1997) reports that ESPN's "SportCenter" and even CNN devote much less than "five percent of their coverage to women's sports" (Armstrong & Hallmark,… [read more]

Ritual Magic Rituals Term Paper

… Gmelch credits the psychologist Skinner's early research with pigeons as evidence of how personal rituals evolve as opposed to cultural religious rites: "Skinner taught them [the pigeons] such elaborate games as table tennis, miniature bowling, and how to play simple tunes on a toy piano. On one occasion he decided to see what would happen if pigeons were rewarded with food pellets every fifteen seconds, regardless of what they did. He found that the birds tended to associate the arrival of the food with a particular action, tucking the head under a wing, hopping from side to side, or turning in a clockwise direction. About ten seconds after the arrival of the last pellet, a bird would begin doing whatever it had associated with getting the food and keep at it until the next pellet arrived." (Gmelch, "Baseball Magic")

However, unlike Skinner's pigeons, human beings are only imperfectly rewarded in the real world, in both games such as baseball and betting on cock fighting and in life. Rituals are shaped in dialogue with culture and the difficulties humans experience, not simple rewards -- witness baseball players whom as individuals who may create particular rituals who have not played their environed best game, perhaps. No ritualized betting in Bali on cocks is always successful. The social aspects of the 'deep play' around the baseball diamond or the bird ring, and the accessing of the spiritual world delineate a connection with a far historical world, both of baseball and an Andean culture that cannot ultimately be constructed in a lab environment. Ritual creation thus may arise out of uncertainty, but it is a social and spiritual uncertainty as well as an uncertainty of what actions will transpire. Rituals evolve creatively and culturally rather than linearly or responsively. It is this what anthropological as opposed to experimental psychology has to teach us.

Works Cited

Allen, Catherine. The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community (Smithsonian Series in Ethnographic Inquiry, No 12. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press: 1988. New Afterward 2002.

Gmelch, George. "Baseball Magic." Retrieved on March 24, 2004 on

Geertz, Clifford. "Deep Play: Note on the Balinese Cockfight." Accessed on March 24, 2004 on [read more]

Swimming: Breaststroke Swimming Instruction Term Paper

… This is why strength training exercises for the anterior deltoids are helpful for competitive swimmers who tend to drop their hands on the forward portion of recovery to streamline.(Salo)

David Salo breaks down the pulling (or propulsive) phase of the breaststroke into three parts: the outsweep, insweep and recovery. According to Salo, the main function of the outsweep portion of the stroke is primarily to set-up the main thrusting motion of the insweep without unnecessary drag. The most important element of the initial outsweep motion is for the arms to remain close to the surface six to ten inches deep) in one horizontal plane as they transition into the main propulsive insweep, which takes place directly under the chest, in deeper water.(Salo)

The other training point emphasized by Salo during the insweep is the position of the elbows, relative to the hands and the shallowest plane of water under the surface. Efficient insweep technique requires that the elbows remain in the original shallow) horizontal plane while the hands and forearms begin the transition into their main thrust under the chest, thereby minimizing drag as well as wasted motion necessary to bring the hands and arms back up through the water if they move excessively downward. In this regard, swimmers are coached to thrust backwards rather than downward, for the exact same reason they are encouraged to move their mouths forward rather than upward during the breathing stroke, always to maximize horizontal forward motion and eliminate wasted energy directed vertically downward in every respect.(Salo)

As far as the kick is concerned, Salo teaches that the heels always lead the motion, beginning from a position outside the knee, and progressing in an elliptical track, until the heels converge on follow-through. Salo particularly stresses the importance of full foot extension on follow-through, but he maintains that the most overlooked aspect of the kicking motion is maintaining heel speed in the recovery phase. The idea is always to allow the heels to lead, because on extension this properly cocks the foot to maintain the propulsive force of the soles against the water; on kick recovery, leading with the heels is the most efficient anatomical orientation to cut through the water and set up the next kick as quickly as possible.(Salo)

The final element of proper breaststroke technique is the timing that integrates all the individual components (insweep, outsweep, recovery and kick) together efficiently. Salo instructs swimmers to allow the hand pull and kick to complement each other by exerting maximal hand propulsion while the kick is in recovery phase, and vice-versa, producing propulsive energy from the kick while the hands transition back to streamline starting position.(Salo)

According to Salo, breaststroke training must emphasize drills and exercises that focus on each component part of the stroke individually. In his observation, allowing swimmers to simply swim laps is counterproductive because it reinforces improper technique in all phases of the breaststroke, and overall timing, in particular.

Therefore, at the University of California at Irvine, swimmers perform exercises… [read more]

Joseph Reaves's Book Term Paper

… Reaves comments, "Baseball was a helpful part of the 'Japanization' formula in Taiwan, but... The game was a double-edged sword...It provided an avenue for young Taiwanese both to appease and challenge their colonizers." However Taiwan soon learned and mastered the rules of the game and went on to beat Japanese team in 1968. Baseball made great headway in Taiwan when its national baseball team won the Little League World Series in 1969.

For this reason, we can conclude that Baseball worked as the great equalizer in Asia. This is one of the most important things about the game's history to emerge out of Reaves' book. The book must be read by all those studying sport psychology because it offers an insight into the cultural, social and psychological aspects and effects of sports in Asia. In this region, baseball and society had profoundly affected each other, which shows that one game can have several interpretations and can mean different things to different nations depending on their culture and belief system.

Review Analysis

George Grella in his detailed and very informative review of the book gives us some interesting facts about the sources and background of the book. Grella explains that the book is based on the work of Robert Whiting's books The Chrysanthemum and the Bat (1977) and You Gotta Have Wa (1990), both of which dealt with the history of baseball. Whiting's books were acknowledged as a vital source of information by Joseph Reaves himself however Grella is surprised that Reaves never mentioned another pioneer work i.e. Robert Obojski's The Rise of Japanese Baseball Power (1975) which gave the most well researched account of the development of baseball in Japan. Grella does accept that the book is an 'essential text' for those interested in knowing more about the game but he also highlights some limitations of Reaves' work. The reviewer concurs that book is sometimes dull because of its journalistic style and also maintains that the titles and subtitles within the book do not go well with the overall style of the text. Grella also feels that the book tends to get repetitive at times. I agree with the reviewer that the book suffers where readability is concerned. It is often dull with heavy emphasis on facts and statistics. I feel that author could have done better if he focused more interesting merging of facts then their mere presentation.


Joseph A. Reaves's Taking in a Game: A History of Baseball in Asia, Univ. Of Nebraska, 2002

Taking in a Game: A History of Baseball in Asia: Review by George Grella, Retrieved online March 5th 2004:… [read more]

Constructive Criticism Term Paper

… However, the coach also adhered to some methods that are consistent with the principles of constructive criticism. The coach gave the criticism soon after the event, and stuck to a single issue. Further, the coach's strategy reached the desired goal of getting me to pass the ball (Arothe-Vaughn).

A may have handled the conflict much better if I had tried to educate the coach on how to give truly constructive criticism. I could have taken the coach aside privately at the end of the game, and made a request that the coach speak to me privately about further coaching issues. In this way, I could have modeled constructive criticism, and hopefully helped change the coach's future behavior.

Further, I also violated many of the rules of receiving constructive criticism. For example, 1) I did not maintain eye contact or open body language, 2) I dismissed the criticism rather than listening, I viewed the criticism as a personal attack, 3) I did not focus on possible solutions, and 4) I did not restate the criticism to make sure I understood it. Perhaps the most importantly, I did not welcome the feedback, a shortcoming that may have further agitated my coach, and thus made the coach more threatening, loud and aggressive than the coach normal would have been (Arothe-Vaughn).

In conclusion, reflecting on this incident reveals many ways that we often violate the rules of constructive criticism in our everyday lives. While the coach violated many of the roles of constructive criticism by creating a personal and public confrontation, I could have modified my behavior significantly as well. As such, an analysis of this conflict tells me that successful constructive criticism is as much the responsibility of the recipient as it is the responsibility of the person giving the criticism.

Works Cited

Arothe-Vaugh, Jerusha. Giving and Receiving Constructive Criticism. 04 March 2004.… [read more]

Technical Writing Describing Dribbling Term Paper

… However, lighting a gas furnace need not be a dangerous or intimidating. The procedure simply involves education, concentration, awareness, and common sense.

First, it is important to know the various types of gas furnaces as well as their various components. Older furnaces have a standing pilot light which is constantly lit. Newer furnaces have an electronic ignition system for the pilot light. Keep in mind that all gas furnaces contain four basic components: a gas valve, burner assembly, heat exchanger, blower, and cabinet. Traditional and electric-ignition furnaces involve different lighting procedures but both work on the same principle: the pilot light controls the furnace.

With a traditional gas furnace, you will want to have a lighter or matches handy before you begin. The best kind of lighter to use is the long-handled one, because they afford the easiest access for the pilot light without fear of getting burned by the flame; likewise, the longer the matchstick, the better.

Find the location of the pilot light. Often there will be a sign printed on the furnace which will indicate the location of the pilot light. Sometimes this is on the bottom of the furnace, but it varies from model to model. Usually the pilot light is located in a separate, enclosed compartment.

Once you find the location of the pilot light, there should be a knob, dial, or buttons. Often there are three settings for these buttons: Light, Off, and Run. The names may vary according to model, but these three buttons entail the same settings. The Off position is where you will want to keep the furnace when you will be away on vacation or during the summertime when the furnace will be out of use. When the furnace is in the "Off" position, the pilot light will not be lit and will not be wasting gas nor contributing to a potential leak.

The "Run" position, which may also be called "On," refers to the furnace being on and operating, using the natural gas from city resources to heat the home or office. In this case, the pilot is properly lit and the furnace in functioning. All you will need to do is adjust a thermostat and relax. However, if you need to light the pilot on the furnace, the following basic instructions should be followed.

Turn the knob to the "Light" position. This is the setting at which the pilot can be lit. On many furnace models, you may have to hold down the knob while it is in this position. This is a safety feature to prevent accidents. Therefore, if you are using matches, it may be helpful to find another person to help with the lighting procedure.

When you hold down the knob in the "Light" position, the valve should emit natural gas. You may hear the sound of the gas escaping. While holding down the knob or dial in this setting, place an open flame from the lighter or match at the opening of the valve.… [read more]

Inspiration of Mike Ditka Term Paper

… For me, this prompts an individual to work harder and always consider his/her success or failure in life as dynamic and ever-changing. This means that a person may experience success for some time, but this success has the possibility to turn into failure if an individual becomes too lenient and sure about his/her success, and does not do anything to prevent this shift from success to failure. Similarly, failure is not the end-all and be-all of an individual's life and further chances for development. Instead of viewing failure as detrimental and a mark of incompetence of an individual, it is imperative that the opposite of these perceptions be developed within. That is, to ensure success, happiness, and contentment in life, failures should be viewed constructively, as a means to work harder, persevere, and aspire for better, towards a better and successful end (achievement) in life. [read more]

Football Besides the Age, Height Term Paper

… Likewise, coaches can be lively; however, many high school football players and coaches lack passion and enthusiasm, especially in schools that are poorly funded. Moreover, many high school football players don't plan on making the sport into a career and are therefore not completely dedicated to the game.

Because high school football does not carry the high stakes that college football does, the games are not as intense; nor are the players or the coaches. Furthermore, college football is more glamorous than high school football. College football attracts huge crowds at stadiums, especially top teams. Televised games are often as exciting to watch as NFL games, sometimes more so. The players on a college team hope to meet scouts each time they play. Therefore, the level of competition in college football is stiff. Just as high school students hope to receive college scholarships based on athletic ability, so too do college students hope to receive multi-million dollar contracts from an NFL team. The stakes are higher in college than they are in high school but the impetus to perform is identical. Furthermore, coaching styles change in college. College football coaches will generally be more experienced and highly trained than high school coaches. Football players in college will spend more time with their teammates at practices, as football becomes a greater part of their life. Usually, the students will not have their parents to egg them on at games like they did in high school: the coach and their peers act as their main sources of social guidance and support. Therefore, coaching in college is far more demanding and requires a greater degree of psychological care.

Regardless, coaches of high school and college football are professionals dedicated to improving the skill levels of their athletes. They will encourage regular practice, teach the players how to work together as a team, and incorporate sophisticated game strategies as best they can. Although the stakes rise significantly once a student enters college, the level of commitment to the game can be equally as strong in high school as in college. However, in spite of the high level of emotional involvement with the game at both levels of play, college football is a far more intense affair. College football teams are far more selective than those in high school. Many of the students are on a full scholarship for sports: their financial well-being and their pride depend on how well they play the game. Moreover, a win or a loss for the team could impact the future career of a player or of a coach. College games attract millions of viewers nationwide. Naturally, the skill levels of high school and college players differ because of the many more years of experience, training, and physical development. College football is like the mature cousin of its high school counterpart: the game is fundamentally the same but the stakes are different. [read more]

Professional Wrestling in America Today Term Paper

… The debate over whether televised professional wrestling causes violence may never end. Both sides have compelling arguments for and against wrestling causing violence in children, and both sides will probably never come together in their beliefs. With professional wrestlers such as Jesse Ventura making it into the mainstream of American politics, those who suggest wrestling's influence is a positive one have even more evidence to support their beliefs. In addition, "Two WWF wrestlers -- 'Mankind' and 'The Rock' -- currently have best-selling autobiographies" (Reuter), which places them in the mainstream of American publishing, and even assures their placement in hundreds of American libraries. Wrestling has reached the mainstream, and because of this, it is far less of a menace than many believe, and eventually, it may even become too "tame" for many viewers.

In conclusion, the evidence, though certainly debatable, seems to conclusively point to televised wrestling creating more violence in children who watch it. The Lionel Tate case is simply the tip of the iceberg, and there are suits pending in court that allege, "professional wrestling has become a showy display of graphic violence, sexual themes, and dangerous stunts'" (Reuter). Young children are particularly impressionable, and because of this, professional wrestling is particularly dangerous. Many experts believe children are unable to distinguish between the fantasy violence on the screen, and the reality of violence that kills or maims a friend, or even an enemy. Violence is all too prevalent in our society, and one of the reasons, as studies have clearly shown, is the violence that surrounds us every day. Children are particularly susceptible to this because it has no real meaning to them, and so, professional wrestling is a deadly mixture when blended with the child watching who does not understand the implication of the violence he or she sees.

Clearly, the rise in violence in children who watch televised wrestling needs to be addressed. Parents need to be much more aware of what their children are watching on television, and they must take steps to make sure their children do not watch overly violent programs. The television is not a convenient babysitter, as many parents seem to think, the programs can have serious effects on the children who watch, and the entire family must closely monitor it. Professional wrestling has become far too sexual and violent, and the shows need to be tamed down, or banned from television altogether. This might mean massive losses of revenue for a time, but the people of America deserve a break from the violent and suggestive programming that is so prevalent today. If enough people complain, or boycott the products sold during wrestling shows, it will make a difference, and the television networks will act accordingly. People can make a difference, and people need to take a stand against professional wrestling, before it incites entire generations to escalating and appalling violence.

Works Cited

Billups, Andrea. "Analysts Grapple With the Popularity of Pro-wrestling." The Washington Times 22 Dec. 1999: 2.

Butters, Patrick.… [read more]

History of Olympic Posters Term Paper

… Attendance was low because many other countries did not even have the money to participate in the Games. The American Team dominated the competition ("

Olympic Games posters since 1896


Mexico City, Mexico

By the time the 60's came around the world had recovered financially from the depression decades earlier and there were many nations enjoying a free love atmosphere. The rigid past was discarded, and in its place was an attitude of easy going freedom. The young adults were often seen abandoning old values and habits and finding new ways of expression. The poster for the Olympics in 1968 illustrated everything that the era stood for. The standards, values nand interests of America often colored the way other nations reacted, and the host nation of Mexico was no different. The poster that year was a simple psychedelic pattern of black and white. It was designed in a manner that it creates visual distortions. While the era was also known for its drug uses the poster in no way supports drugs. It does however display the social mindset of the time.

The artist interweaves the five Olympic rings with the year, "68" and almost hides it within the psychedelic pattern of the poster.

Olympic Games posters since 1896


Barcelona, Spain

By the time the 1990's rolled around the hippie generation had grown up and the world had returned to a more exact place. The poster for the Olympics in 1992 was all about strong and clear lines, which were indicative of the yuppie generation that had been riding the economical success train for a few years. The poster produced clear and colorful Olympic rings and it place them above what looks like a successful and industrialized city. All of the elements of the poster are clearly set up to portray success and strength including the color swatches that are in an abstract type design. The colors used against the stark white backdrop also strengthened the feeling of success and sureness that the world was feeling for the most part.


The Olympics and the posters advertising the Olympics were largely influenced by America. This was more evident as years went forward. The various posters were heavily influenced not only by American value systems of their era but also of the culture and tradition of the host nations along the way. Whether it was 1932 or 1992 the posters depict the general mood of civilized society while also adding touches from the current era. The use of artistic style and color for Olympic poster not only provides history regarding the Olympics but provides history for future reference… [read more]

Football Being Physiological and Physical Essay

… Another way that football is both physical and physiological is in the body type of the players. Players who must run long distances would be naturally better off being lithe, agile, and slimmer than players whose main job is to ward off the opposing team with their physical presence, strength, and size. Receivers must show extreme dexterity in catching balls soaring through the air, and when they catch the ball they must be aware at all times of the action going on around them. These traits are shared by both the physical and the physiological nature of football. Moreover, endurance is a physiological and physical measure: endurance has to do with the optimal functioning of the cardio-vascular, nervous, and skeletal-muscular systems.

However, football's physical and physiological nature can be distinguished easily from one another. When a receiver, for instance, runs and catches the ball, many physiological functions are involved including agility, dexterity, speed, and good reaction times. These are not purely physical traits; technically an athlete of any shape or size can develop the skills necessary to be a good receiver. The game of football is immediately a physical sport, as the men on the field compete with one another, tackle one another, and try to out run and out smart one another. The physiology of football has more to do with the individual players: their strengths and weaknesses. The reaction time of one player affects the outcome of the game and thus reflects on the team as a whole Physiology also affects the team as a whole as coordination reflects the ability of players to communicate with one another on the field in a matter of milliseconds. However, the functioning of the team as a unit creates a decidedly physical force. When organized on the line, teams become tangible, physical machines that depend on the optimal physical functioning of each individual player.

Physiology and physicality are closely related in the realm of sports. Football is both a physical and a physiological game because the players are of different body sizes and because many of the skills involved in football are dependent both on physical and physiological traits. Endurance is dependant on an athlete's physical make-up but is a physiological function; a running back must exhibit physiological and physical talents toward high levels of endurance, for example. Strength is also both physical and physiological; in fact, most physiological traits have their physical counterparts on the football field. However, there are some key differences between football as a physical sport and football as a physiological sport. Mainly, football physiology has to do more with individual players, their levels of endurance, agility, speed and strength; the physicality of football relates more to the team's efforts and presence on the field. [read more]

Junior High School Athletes Term Paper


ATHLETICS MS. Athletic Director: C. Anderson)."

The insistence by schools on the maintenance of previous GPA's can actually have a negative impact on the student's efforts to perform academically (Nuhn, 1991). The students who wish to make the team and remain on the team work to create a carefully constructed GPA that will let them eligible for the team while not creating a situation where they would have to work hard while playing ball.

Comparison Of The Educational Performances Of Athletes (

The average GPA of junior high school athletes can be extrapolated by taking research from the study conducted in North Carolina and multiplying it out (Sports, 2003).

The average GPA of the students who played sports in this study hovered at an approximate 3.0. This can be credited to the overall efforts of the students year round with a dip during eligibility season for the purpose of qualification safety (Sports, 2003).


Junior high school athletes wish to play sports. The national school system habits are to use the eligibility season GPA as a marker for remaining on the team during the season. This is causing students to lower their GPA during certain grading periods so that they will not be under pressure during the season. The education field recognizes this and now needs to develop a system that will not encourage students to lower their GPA just so they can play for the school team.



Middle School Athletics

ATHLETICS MS. Athletic Director: C. Anderson

MS Athletic Department

Comparison Of The Educational Performances Of Athletes

And Nonathletes In 133 North Carolina High Schools

Nuhn, G.C. (1991). An analysis of academic achievement comparing athletes and non-athletes in selected small, rural schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(07), 2400. [read more]

Physical Therapy That Can Enable Term Paper

… Equipment required are a special treadmill, and weights.

This form of exercise or therapy can be shown during a session, by having the patient secured in a mountain-climbing harness suspended over a treadmill. The treadmill is to start at a speed of 4 miles per hour, and the physical therapist is to hold on to the patient's weaker foot to guide the first steps. This exercise if done in a routine session everyday can enable a disabled person to walk again.

The basic technique of "weight-suspended ambulation system" has been employed for many years to basically help rehabilitate stroke patients. However, it's also being used with the treadmill training for patients with spinal-cord injuries.

This is a good therapy for patients with neurological deficits, like spinal-cord injury or multiple sclerosis, especially for those with poor muscle strength and poor balance. The treadmill training routine is to assist locomotion in the spinal cord, which controls the walking motion during walking. "Body-weight-supported ambulation" is a program that uses graded weight support, so that the patient only takes the amount of weight that can be tolerated during treadmill walking.


Innovative Physical Therapy Helps Disabled to Walk, available at, accessed on: September 25, 2003 [read more]

Golf Technical Problems Problem Analysis Term Paper

… As long as the plain archaic construction of the bunkering does not become an obstacle in the way of the golf player, who would mind? But in actuality, looking from the technical view point, this construction has left many weak areas in the bunker positioning thereby rendering it flimsy at some essential points.

Problem# 5: Problematic Tee Complexes

The tee complexes in the golf course run diagonal "to the line of play" because of the way they are structured, conventional and not so classic. With this structure, the player remains unable to aim for a suitable target thereby making the game rather dragging and unnecessarily challenging.

Consequences of the Problems:

Due to problem number one, players are agitated not to find the right quality or good condition of the golf course. Thus, because of poor drainage or no drainage, poor playing conditions prevail thereby compelling many players to now look for better alternatives.

Poor irrigation system has worsened the situation resulting in poor turf and trees thereby further hindering the joy and the smoothness of the game.

The radical pitch in the greens leaves almost all players, missing their targets, panting while chasing the ball from one end of the course to the other thereby wasting time as well as energy that is precious to every human.

The strength of the bunker plays a vital role in determining the game. If the bunker is weak from several or any place, it will not be able to firmly trap the golf ball thereby creating further problems for the players. Thus, bunker positioning need to be strengthened as soon as possible.

Helpful Suggestions:

Relocating several greens, rebuilding the lakes, reshaping tee complexes in order to make them more compatible with the player's target and strengthening the weaker areas of the bunker are some of the pragmatic, easy to follow recommendations to solve the above cited technical problems.


Thus, following are the main technical problems that need attention:

Poor drainage and irrigation system

Poor turf and trees

The radical pitch in the green

Weak bunker positioning

Conventional tee complexes

All the above problems must be handled with due care and as soon as possible in order to maintain and increase the number of players visiting gold course, Cross Creek. Therefore, further and immediate planning is required. It is better that funds are collected and utilized for the maintenance of the golf course as well as for the improvement of the same. Thus, management must look into the above listed problems at… [read more]

NBA Draft Term Paper

… Works Cited

Drinkwater, Brian. "Summer League Review."

NJHoopsnet. June 21, 2002.

Kahn, Mike. "Fundamental Truth: Foreign Influx Changes Face of NBA." CBS Sept. 2, 2002.,1328,5669795,00.html.

Kyler, Steve. "The Rumor of the Day." Feb. 2, 2003.

Osborne, Ben. "Tim Duncan: Amazing Grace."

Stewart, Shannon Dale. "NBA Should Welcome Young Players."

Trenkle, Andy. "Go Pro, Young Man." Apr. 17, 2001.

Osborne, Ben. "Tim Duncan: Amazing Grace."

Drinkwater, Brian. "Summer League Review."

NJHoopsnet. June 21, 2002.

Stewart, Shannon Dale. "NBA Should Welcome Young Players."

Kahn, Mike. "Fundamental Truth: Foreign Influx Changes Face of NBA." CBS Sept. 2, 2002.,1328,5669795,00.html

Kyler, Steve. "The Rumor of the Day." Feb. 2, 2003. [read more]

Super Bowl Term Paper

… Nevertheless, despite the sickening amounts of money spent on the sport, back in 1967, the first Super Bowl was an event innocent of the future. It was football for the sake of the game, inspired by providing the people what they wanted and not relying on an monopoly of the sport and its star players.

The game has progressed through the years, and created its own traditions. It is these traditions that are replayed in almost every household in America - in every sports bar, and around every television set. And it was from defying the traditions of the NFL, was Lamar Hunt able to form the AFL and subsequently spark the beginning of the Super Bowl and all the traditions we celebrate before and after kick-off.

Television and the Super Bowl have gone hand in their development in creating a niche in Americana and American history. From the delayed Super Bowl XXXVI to record Nielsen Ratings, the Super Bowl continues to play a traditional role in the sporting world and living the American Dream.


Super Bowl History

NFL Online, 2003.

NFL History Chronology 1961-1970"

NFL History Chronology 1951-1960"

NFL History Chronology 1931-1940"

NFL History

NFL Online, 2003.

Super Bowl 1: McGee Leads the Pack

The Sporting News, January 15, 1967… [read more]

Shorin Ryu Karate and Tae Term Paper

… "

Tae kwon do indeed uses many kicks, the most familiar of which, to observers, is probably the spinning crescent kick. The purpose of such exciting kicks, the Black Belt authors say, is not so much for self-defense per se. Instead, the flamboyant techniques are developed on the theory that any practitioner of the art who can do those well in competition or for demonstration can most certainly execute the less showy versions to vanquish a real opponent.

Shorin-ryu practitioners, they say, generally employ more hand techniques, and the kicks they do use are aimed lower than tae kwon do kicks. Instead of aiming for the upper torso or head, shorin-ryu kicks are aimed at the groin, legs and lower abdomen. Basic punches and kicks are also used in combination with joint locks and throwing techniques, and pressure-point attacks are also part of the shorin-ryu roster of tactics.

These two authors refrain from saying which of the two martial arts is better. Both have strengths and weaknesses, they point out. If one were perfect, or even superior to the other, they add, everyone would study that. And clearly, people who study martial arts choose the one that is most appealing to them.

Of the two, tae kwon do is the recognized Olympic sports. Carol Miller, writing in the Louisville (KY) Courier-Journal, says, "Tae kwon do is the most recognized Korean martial art." Still, that allows for the possibility that shorin-ryu karate is the most recognized Okinawan one.


Miller, Carol. Popularity of martial arts grows, is no longer movie-inspired. Louisville Courier-Journal. 26 Feb. 2003. 2003

Nixdorf, Jimmie and Phil Lusignan. Black Belt magazine. Tae Kwon Do vs. Shorin-ryu Karate; Is One Style Better Than The Other? 1992.

International Tae Kwon Do Association Web site.

Shorin-Ryu Karate U.S.A. Web site. [read more]

Fictionalized View of Soccer Great Term Paper

… S. player pool ("

The crowd is going wild as I read the accomplishments of Mia. I wonder what is happening and suddenly the uncle is slapping me on the back so hard I feel like I am going to pitch forward. "She just did it!! She broke the world record!!! That goal means that she has scored more goals than any female soccer player in the history of the sport!!"

The hotdog smells are suddenly gone, and I am screaming clapping and stomping for the little girl from Chapel Hill North Carolina who is a long way from home but has a hundred thousand "family" members in the stands. Make that 100,001. I am going to follow the career of this woman. She has accomplished a world feat, and in the age of gender differences, and glass ceilings I am suddenly glad to be a part of mankind.


Date: 05-22-1999; Publication: Reuters News Pictures Service; Author: TODD ANDERSON

SPORT SOCCER HAMM:ORLANDO, FLORIDA,22MAY99 - Mia Hamm (L), of the United States Women's National Team, gets past Tania, of the Brazil Women's National Team, to score her record 108th goal in international competition during their friendly match May 22. Hamm passed Italy's Elisabetta Vignotto for most international goals. The U.S. won 3-0. jls/Photo by Todd Anderson REUTERS



Mia Hamm

U.S. player pool [read more]

Rheumatoid Arthritis Is a Serious Term Paper

… This in turn adds to the pain already experienced because of the inflammation. The pain is often times too intense to do "conventional" exercise, where jarring or thrusting motions are the norm.

By incorporating the fluid movements associated with the Hatha discipline into their daily routine, a Rheumatoid Arthritis patient might be able to add additional flexibility to joints with out doing further damage to the areas and/or inflicting undo pain.

Hatha Yoga therapy is also of assistance to stem the deterioration of the muscles surrounding the joints that are affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis. The exercises are designed to build lean, flexible muscles and burn fat, (which in some cases may contribute to excess pressure being placed upon the joints.)

Hatha Yoga is a good approach to managing Rheumatoid Arthritis because one does not have to wait for the symptoms to exhibit themselves to take action.

When a flare up does occur, perhaps the episode would not be as severe because the joints and muscles of the afflicted would be in better shape to withstand the inflammation. Hatha also promotes relaxation and soundness of mind; something many find difficult to achieve when confronted with extreme pain or illness.

Hatha Yoga should be viewed as a proactive method to increase positivity, mobility, and strength for those with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Works Cited

Horstman, Judith. The Arthritis Foundation's Guide to Alternative Therapies. Atlanta GA: The Arthritis Foundation, 1999

Lee, Thomas F. Ph.D. Conquering Rheumatoid Arthritis the Latest Breakthroughs and Treatments. New York: Prometheus Books, 2001

Payne, Larry Ph.D. And Richard Usatine… [read more]

New York Yankees-Boston Red SOX Term Paper

… Unfortunately during this brawl, Bill Lee of Red Sox suffered a serious shoulder injury, which proved detrimental to his career

Sept. 7-10, 1978 Yankees outshine Red Sox with a superb score of 42-9 and go on to win four consecutive games at Fenway Park

Oct. 2, 1978: The most disastrous blunder by Red Sox takes place this season when it fails to capitalize its 14 games lead. And lost to Yankees 5-4 due to Bucky Dent glorious home run.

July 4, 1983: Yankees beat Red Sox 4-0 at Yankee Stadium.

Sept. 22, 1991 The Yankees beat the Red Sox again at Fenway Park with a score of 7-5

Facts and Figures taken from Mel Antonen's article)

Red Sox needs to get over this curse jinx if they truly want to beat Yankees and reduce the impact of this long and fierce rivalry. But it will have to overcome many things including the fact that Yankees have 24 championships behind them while Red Sox has none since 1918. They will also have to forget that they failed to capitalize their 14 game lead in 1978 and above all they will need to shun the curse story. Only then will they be able to face Yankees successfully to win a major championship.

Works Cited

TIM SULLIVAN, For Red Sox, facing Yankees is facing history, The Cincinnati Enquirer, October 13, 1999

Mel Antonen, Curses! Red Sox foiled again and again by Yankees,… [read more]

Life Has Been My Work Admission Essay

… She works hard as a parent, and a friend to guide me through these vital adult decision years. She is proud of my accomplishments and she has always been there to nudge me to reach just a little further each time, so that I continue to grow and achieve my goals. Watching her, as she raised me, gave me the foundation for having high morals and standards for myself. These traits have served me well as a contributor to mankind and my mother is the person I credit with instilling them in me. One of the things she taught me is to be proud of who I am and to use that pride to help others be proud of who they are.

My mother taught me to be proud of My African-American heritage. Being an African-American today creates a sense of self. Racism is out there. There is no denying it. I was taught at a young age I can give in to its ugliness or I can prove it wrong by my actions. Because I am African-American I experienced a wide variety of experiences growing up. Not only did I hear racial slurs from people I never met, I also experienced the wonder of being able to open a world to my non-AA friends that they otherwise may never have experienced. I was able to share African-American traditions with them as well as teach them true tolerance by refusing to react to negativity when it was thrown my way. My sense of self and sense of my heritage and culture meant more to me than the now and again ignorance I encountered. Sharing the African-American traditions and holidays with my family, while growing up, gave me a deep respect of those who came before me and paved the way so that I could be whatever I wanted to be. Because of my African-American ancestors and their ability to survive, our family has passed down the confidence to overcome obstacles and keep moving toward the goal. We have been taught by adversity and by encouragement that we can be anything we want… [read more]

Sportsmanship' in Employees Business Term Paper

… In other words, a company needs to look for 'sportsmanship.'

In any case, job performance models in 'Organizational' behavior talk about an individual's beliefs and values, alongwith ability and knowledge as essential inputs for motivational behavior: "The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals.... The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation" (Big Dog's Leadership Page Online). Implicit in this is that there has to be 'sportsmanship' and a sense of shared values in an organization, if it is to stay competitive.

True, personality traits and an individual's ethical standard are difficult to judge during the recruitment process, even with the most rigorous of screening procedures. Which is probably why Corporates look for prospective candidates from other companies or industries which are known for their team spirit and sportsmanlike culture: "More companies like Photocircuit are enlisting the services of veterans to fill jobs...the military, with its leading-edge technology and spit-and-polish management style, may be the best boot camp around...while learning the art of war, they also learn discipline, teamwork, managing people and delegating tasks" (The Atlanta Journal- Constitution).

There is one other possible solution and that is to seek referrals about a prospective employee's sportsmanship from not just his bosses but also his peer group and other co-workers. Good references from a candidate's former management is important for a mature appraisal of job knowledge and skills, but only the ground people would be able to give a more realistic appraisal of her or his team spirit and sportsmanlike behavior.

If Organizational Behavior is defined as interpreting "...people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization and whole social system" and its purpose is to " better relationships by achieving human objectives, objectives," I would suggest that the key trait in every employee should be 'sportsmanship.'


Bennis, Warren. "On Becoming a Leader." Big Dog's Leadership Page - Organizational Behaviour. URL:

Gough, Russell W. "Ethics, sportsmanship: Sides of the same coin." The NCCA News Comment. The National College Athletic Association Web site. URL:

Military veterans heed hiring call: Corporate America realizes that they have the right stuff." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. NDMS Web site. URL:

Sportsmanship. URL:

Vallerand, R.J. Deshaies, P. Cuerrier, J.P. Briere, N.M. Pelletier, L.G. "Towards a multidimensional definition of sportsmanship." Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 1996, 8[1]; 89-101. [read more]

James "Jesse" Cleveland Owens Term Paper

… The two men lived very different lives. Jesse Owens never gained financially in any significant way from his Olympic achievements, partly because television hadn't become part of American life. Companies didn't pay for athletes to promote their products. In addition, for most of Owens' life, the United States was an overtly racist society. Owens was not welcome in many restaurants and hotels because of the color of his skin in spite of his achievements.

While both men went to high school and college, this was more of an achievement for Jesse Owens for several reasons. When Owens was in high school, many Blacks in the United States either didn't attend high school, or their segregated high school lacked accreditation, making it hard for them to go on to college. Owens not only graduated from high school but also went on to Ohio State University as well as the Olympics.

It could be said that Owens was the more natural athlete. His athletic abilities were obvious by junior high school, and he had set many school records by the time he graduated from high school. By comparison, Carl Lewis had track coaches as both parents. He had extensive and intensive training to become the star athlete he was.

Lewis was lucky enough to be an athlete during a time when winning gold medals meant winning endorsements, so his athletic talents paid off financially as well as personally. Lewis was also lucky to grow up in a period of United States history when the country had finally realized that racism was fundamentally wrong. While racism still existed when he was in school, many racial barriers had been dropped. Equal education for all was the standard and not the exception, and Lewis did not have to worry about such things as not being allowed to eat in restaurants while traveling.

Both athletes have demonstrated not only to youth of their race but to all young people that hard work and discipline will pay off in achievements to be proud of. While one could look at this simply as a race issue, the United States has children of all colors who live in poverty and who struggle to get a good education. While both men demonstrate that sports is one way to succeed, they also both put high value on getting an education, and demonstrated this by graduating from high school and going on to college.

Of the two men, however, it seems obvious that Jesse Owens had more obstacles to overcome, born into a large, loving but poor family during a time when opportunities for people of his race were severely limited, and attending high school and college during the Great Depression while supporting himself and his wife. Both men are true American heroes and should be an inspiration to young people everywhere.

The paper must be a compare and contrast paper on Jesse Owens and Carl Lewis. If you don't know they are two track legends. I am a freshman in a… [read more]

Legacy of the Negro Leagues Term Paper

… He hit with precision the way Satchel Paige threw with precision, and it was said he could hit balls into holes in the fence. (Kram, 1994). Once Bell stopped playing baseball, he slipped into obscurity and was found some years… [read more]

Sportsmanship Term Paper

… They then adopt that persona while at their children's sporting events, thus creating a chaotic scene.

Poor parental sportsmanship has more ramifications than just the immediate effects on the games the parents attend. Children who are involved in youth sports have begun to show the signs of the violence many parents show in the stands. Just this past year a teenager in a high school basketball game faced criminal charges for assaulting a referee and a pre-teen soccer goalie suffered a broken jaw during a game when he was kicked in the face.

In the past few years, parents have assaulted coaches, umpires, other parents, and have verbally abused children in reported criminal cases. Poor sportsmanship, when exhibited by parents at youth sporting events, trickles down to the children who are involved in the game. This trickle-down effect can be attributed to the ego of the parents and a general win-at-all-costs attitude. The recent case of youth sports rage in which Thomas Junta beat Michael Costin to death has brought this problem to the forefront of society. It has taken a tragic event such as this to make sportsmanship in youth sports a newsworthy topic. Hopefully, organizations and leagues will stress fan behavior and it will be reflected in their children both on the field and in their life.

Works Cited

With Cues From Adults, Are Kid Athletes Getting More Aggressive? Michael James and Tracy Ziemer. August 8, 2001

Coach Breaks Ump's Jaw: Aggravated Assault Charges After Coach Ejected from Game. Amanda Riddle. July 13, 2001.

Dad Dies After Fight Over Youth Hockey Game. The Associated Press. July 8, 2000. [read more]

Persistent Disability Associated With Ankle Term Paper

… syndesmosis) and by severity (using the West Point ankle Grading System). They explained in detail how they did post-injury evaluations at both six weeks and six months (pp. 656 -- 657). The "Discussion" section was detailed, detailing where their findings supported previous studies and where they generated new information. They noted how the use of a specialized population may have changed their findings somewhat ("The 23% incidence of ankle sprains reported in this study is slightly higher than most reports in the literature; however, this is not surprising because the subjects in our sample participated in sports that have shown higher incidences of ankle injuries (soccer, basketball and football)." (p. 657)

The conceptual framework for this study is sound. Systematic study of the progression of the injury over time using rigorous and consistent evaluation procedures provided new information about long-term outcomes for ankle sprains. They used consistent methods both for the initial evaluation at the time of the injury and for extended follow-up evaluations. They gathered detailed information from the participants regarding both how this injury occurred and about any previous injuries to the joint involved ("Evaluation" section, p. 654). The physical exam was detailed and included stability and range of motion testing, strength testing, evaluation of amount of swelling, palpation, evaluation of ligaments and rotation stress test. Injuries were rated using the chosen rating scale systematically.

The methodology was clearly explained and included detailed initial evaluation, three-phase rehabilitation, and follow-up examinations at both six weeks and six months. This study could easily be replicated In other populations.

The findings, for example that syndesmosis sprains are more likely to lead to long-term residual problems, has treatment implications. The finding that even mild sprains can result in long-term difficulties was also important. This was a clinical epidemiology study. The researchers selected participants based on incidence of injury, not randomly from the entire academy population. It then applied rigorous research methods to the cadets who experienced ankle sprains. Broken ankles were excluded to keep the focus on the injury targeted for this study.

Finally, the abstract reflects the study accurately. It identifies the selected population, the time frame during which participants would be included, the incidence for each type of injury, details about the… [read more]

Looking Into Minority Groups and Court System Essay

… ¶ … implicit stereotyping and biases, as well as explicit attitudes and biases, and their impact on the American court system.

Bias and Stereotypes

The term "colorblindness" has been utilized to denote the action of separating a defendant's personal characteristics from case-related facts. Claiming colorblindness at court implies asserting the fact that the jury/judge is not concerned with the defendant's socioeconomic standing, race, or gender but, instead, is only concerned with impartially judging case-related facts (Chapter 8 ). However, the question social psychologists and scholars of law continue to pose is whether claimed colorblindness indeed shields judges from their individual biases or not. A number of experimental studies have been carried out to investigate the colorblindness phenomenon. These researches prove that people almost definitely have certain biases towards other people, but might be unaware of it. Such unconscious prejudices are called implicit stereotypes and biases.

The phenomenon of implicit stereotyping represents a perceptual fact of individuals unknowingly holding biases toward certain individuals or groups on the basis of their past experiences. By contrast, explicit attitudes and stereotyping denotes a phenomenon wherein the individual is well aware of the attitudes and prejudices he/she holds against any individual or group. It is not surprising that in case of explicit bias, an individual acts on his/her biases. Furthermore, socio-cognitive studies have proven that even in case of implicit biases, individuals continue to act towards the individual or group supporting that bias/stereotyping (Chapter 8 ). For instance, the crime justice field carried out "shooter experiments" wherein law enforcement officials were put through video simulations. The "shooter situations" forced participating officials to make instantaneous decisions with regard to whether or not to shoot with their weapon when they sense an approaching threat.

How Bias/Racial Disparity Affect Courtroom and Judicial System

History teems with examples wherein minority groups are denied basic justice when it comes to judicial cases, one of which is a historical Southern U.S. account, in the period after the Civil War. In this age, in spite of the declaration that each and every citizen (including minority group members) now enjoys fundamental individual rights, states amended their constitutions, basically disenfranchising African-Americans and the poor White-American community. This political atmosphere denied minority group members fair trial by jury as well as posts as jury members. Vigilante justice for the minorities took the shape of lynching (which was, shockingly, encouraged and not just tolerated). Justice, perhaps, only started being doled out to minorities after the late-60s Civil Rights campaign (Chapter 9 ). According to Amendment VI of the U.S. Constitution, the defendant in criminal trials has a right to seek counsel to defend his stance. The founding Fathers incorporated this right of seeking counsel in Amendment VI for preventing the occurrence of unfair practices such as those witnessed in Britain, wherein individuals charged with felony could not defend themselves. However, unfortunately, in spite of the inclusion of this right, several impoverished suspects couldn't afford a lawyer and Amendment… [read more]

Courts and Juvenile Justice System Essay

… ¶ … oral arguments in Roper v. Simmons demonstrate exactly how the chief justices reached their decision in the case. The justices debate all the different aspects of the issue, using various forms of reasoning and rhetorical strategies to come to a consensus on the matter. In this case, the chief justices are deciding whether it is constitutional to sentence a person under the age of 18 years to death. The justices begin by talking about culpability and the assumption that juveniles are not equally as culpable as their adult counterparts. Interestingly, some of the justices compare juveniles with mentally disabled persons to show how the courts determine culpability. Justice Layton points out that the comparison does not always make sense because some older juveniles are "equally culpable" as those who are young adults (p. 5, line 7). Following the line of reasoning related to culpability, the justices debate the age limit of 18 as being the standard definition of age of majority. As Justice Scalia points out, the age of 18 is arbitrary. Yet Ginsburg notes that its arbitrariness is less important than the consistency of conferring adult responsibility in the law. Thus, a person cannot vote, serve in the military, or serve on a jury until they are 18 years of age and there is no reason why a person who is not deemed a fully functioning member of the adult community should be considered eligible for the death penalty. These early arguments form the groundwork of the decision.

Also key to the oral arguments in this case is which issues are decided by the states and which issues require federal mandate. The Eighth Amendment to the Constitution includes a provision against "cruel and unusual punishment," which is the pivotal issue at stake: does the death penalty for a minor constitute cruel and unusual punishment? If so, the practice would be unconstitutional and therefore not permitted by any state. If not, then the states would be permitted to sentence minors to death. The justices organize and simplify their arguments by separating the terms "cruel" and "unusual." First, Kennedy analyzes what "unusual" means. To be unusual, something needs to be deemed rare. Kennedy compares the… [read more]

Crimes That Women Commit Essay

… ¶ … crimes women commit and are victims of There are significant differences in the levels of given crimes that are committed by women as opposed to the male counter parts, and in the same trend, there are some crimes… [read more]

How Not to Prosecute a Home Invasion Essay

… ¶ … Pattern

What follows in this fairly lengthy report is the legal analysis of a prosecution that is taking place in light of a home invasion. While the overall details of the case seem to lead to an airtight… [read more]

Prosecutors and Media Intervention Essay

… Triumph of Technology: Anzo Graph Query Engine

The potential of semantic graph databases, scalable analytics, and Smart Data Lakes is fully realized with Anzo Graph Query Engine.

Provides unprecedented analytics/querying capability in terms of breadth of data, scale, and speed -- especially when compared to conventional relational database methods.

Breadth of Analytics

Relational databases are limited by schema and rigid data modeling concerns, which circumscribes types of data loaded in them.

Semantic graph databases shatter this paradigm by storing all types of data in their native formats, and linking them with an evolving semantic model that encompasses new data sources.

Single graph of entire Enterprise Data

Anzo Graph Query Engine exploits this breadth by enabling users to issue much more broad queries than they could with relational options, drawing parallels and relationships between data and sources they didn't know existed.

Scale of Analytics

A. Inordinate amounts of data are readily loaded into Anzo Graph Query Engine, which can encompass billions of triples.

1. Simultaneous querying… [read more]

Psychological Effect of Being a Crimes Victim Essay

… Psychological Impact of Being a Crime's Victim

The objective of this project is to investigate whether Richard Dume, the president of Dume Real Estate Investment Corporation has defrauded Mr. James Smith in a real estate investment transaction between the two… [read more]

Analyzing Mcnabb vs United States Essay

… McNabb vs. United States

This essay takes a look and discuses in depth landmark cases that have shaped history and made impact on law enforcement. These are the McNabb vs. United States case and Miranda v. Arizona case.

Interview and Interrogation Background

The main purpose of an interrogation is to obtain information from an unwilling, reticent, non-cooperative individual. The result of an interrogation (that is considered 'successful') is getting a confession from the suspect. However, in most cases interrogators fail to acquire information that is critical enough to resolve a case successfully (Vessel, 1998). Often, the guilty do not make any admission during interrogation. They manage to outwit the experienced officers interrogating them. Such maneuvering helps criminals leave unpunished, free to continue committing crime, and cause suffering to the community. As far as interviews and interrogations are concerned, particularly as an aspect of law enforcement, Criminal Investigation (Swanson,, 2012) has been said to be the most practical, all-inclusive and accurate book in its field.

Significance to Interview and Interrogation/Landmarks

In the Miranda v. Arizona case, four cases that involved custodial interrogation were addressed in the Supreme Court's decision. Detectives, a prosecuting attorney, and police officers questioned the defendant in each case in a room cut-off from the external world. None of the defendants was warned of his rights at the beginning of the interrogation. The questioning managed to elicit oral admissions in the four cases. In three of those cases, the questioning resulted in signed statements and the suspects brought to trial (Facts and Case Summary - Miranda v. Arizona -- United States Courts). The Court decided that the Fifth Amendment privilege is applicable even outside the court proceedings. Its purpose is to protect freedom of action of people from infringement in any way, so that they do not incriminate themselves unwittingly, or even coerced to do so perforce. The prosecution should therefore not use statements that stem from interrogations where the suspect is held in custody, unless there are effective procedures that protect the defendant from self-incrimination.

The McNabb-Mallory rule is not applicable in prosecutions other than those of a federal nature. It derives from the McNabb v. United States, and the Mallory v. United States cases of the Supreme Court. The rule is not constitutional. It is based on the authority of the federal judiciary with the purpose of overseeing the process of criminal justice administration in federal courts. Its aim is to protect a suspect from secret interrogation that the arresting officer might… [read more]

America Has the Largest Incarceration Rate Term Paper

… Crime & Inequality

There is no doubt that the United States has a crime problem. Indeed, the United States has a prison population of about two million people. While many to most people would argue that people should pay for… [read more]

Analyzing Legality of a Search Warrant Case Study

… ¶ … vitality and requirement of a search warrant through a case in the United States.

A confidential informant reported to the local narcotics police that the business of marijuana was flourishing in a hydroponic supply shop in the area. The narcotics detectives reacted to it by implanting surveillance cameras outside the shop. They also followed one of the patron to his residence by stealth two weeks in a row to find marijuana plants growing inside the house. After that, on the order of the sergeant in charge, the video from the security camera (which showed proof of the detectives climbing the patron's fence sneakily) was destroyed. The same narcotics police also entered the residence disguised as power house employees to conduct investigation that a grow-house operation existed in the residence. They reckoned to have smelt marijuana while walking down the sidewalk near that residence. They also broke into the office of the Power Company, dressed as their employees to gain official records. Surveillance cameras that were placed outside the supply shop were used to obtain the addresses of the customers who went into the shop. The detectives searched the houses of these people. Out of eighty-four houses, they found marijuana in thirty-four of them. This investigation was carried out without a search warrant. The fact that the narcotics police had climbed the fence of that patron's house without a search warrant while carrying agency-issued weaponry, both times, was pointed out by a defence attorney and now this case will continue next year.

The Requirement of a Search Warrant:

Whether a search warrant is required or not depends on the kind of circumstance. The following are some of the scenarios that allow the detectives to act without the warrant: (Schwartzbach 2015)

To search someone immediately after their arrest

When someone who has control over a place or item agrees to a search

A police who is legally entitled to investigate if… [read more]

Discipline Firing Police Officer for Wrong Conduct Case Study

… Discipline

interoffice memorandum [Recipient Name]

[Click to Select Date]

In this profession, telling the truth is something that is valued very high. It is looked at as being an essential character basis when it comes to being a successful law enforcement agent. However, police officers are worried though there has been a rising anger on what has appeared to be a breach in integrity in addition to a void of backing for any disciplinary actions by selected panels in addition to politically chosen associates. The primary origin of all evil is as a consequence of the lack of honesty either from dull working performance more than the excessive force. Honesty and ethics will always need to be the vital target and primary concerns to be looked at throughout assessment of any internal study. When the officers are honest on misbehavior, it is critical to give them positive reinforcement for mentioning the case as being a justifying reason. It is necessary to make it clear that lying among law enforcement agency members is a key termination offense (Freeman, 2015). This essay will, therefore, analyze a case brought to my attention as Chief of Police that an officer who got a hold to one of the computers in the patrol division and did some inappropriate things on it.

A couple of days ago, my Deputy Chief of Police informed me that one of the police officers who were inspected was wrongly using one of the computers in the patrol department. It was therefore established that the police utilized the computer to quest for pornographic network sites. The police officer was confronted but denied everything. According to his report, he repudiated any knowledge of this occurrence. When investigated, the computer crime specialist decided on the detail that the officer log in PIN had been used to go into the illegal websites. The officer, therefore, acknowledged to the crime and admitted that it would never occur any other time. This law enforcement officer has been with my establishment for 15 years. Out of that 15, the only other disciplinary action that was taken against him had been for being implicated in a traffic accident that happened a decade ago.

The police officers' unacceptable use of the computer to look at some sexually graphic material and information which had nothing to do with the official's job function is entirely dishonorable. This act can cause people's lives to be enormously affected and therefore the severe action as a cautionary reminder to the rest of the police officers. The division policy unmistakably states that the computers which are owned by the city are by no means to be handled in such inappropriate ways. This kind of behavior is not accepted in the law enforcement and the only way to look after the integrity of the whole department is by dismissing the… [read more]

Supporting a Diversity Program Essay

… Diversity in the Workplace

An African-Americans Experience in Detroit, MI

Case Issues

This case deals with the personal story of an African-American professional man who is a native of Detroit, Michigan. One of the most interesting aspects of this case,… [read more]

What Fiduciaries Owe to Their Clients Book Report

… ¶ … Faith and Fiduciary: Why it Is Important to Define These Terms

The term "fiduciary" comes from the Latin word "fiducia" -- "which means confidence" (Radan, Stewart, 2009, p. 180). Thus, a fiduciary relationship is one based on confidence. The fiduciary is the person in whom confidence is placed. The beneficiary of this confidence is the other person in the relationship, sometimes called the principal. A fiduciary owes specific obligations to the principal that are rooted in this idea of confidence. However, exactly what that means is somewhat unclear even today. The case of the Bell Group Ltd. v Westpac Banking Corporation (No 9) (2009) is one such example of when the issue of fiduciary duties came up as a problem. The way that fiduciary was defined here by His Honor Owen J is:

In my view the state of the law is this. Where a person has undertaken to act in the interests of another and where the nature of that relationship, its surrounding circumstances and the obligations attaching to it so require, it will be held to be fiduciary. But the fact that it is categorised as fiduciary does not mean that all of the obligations arising from it are themselves fiduciary. Unless there are some special circumstances in the relationship, the duties that equity demands from the fiduciary will be limited to what I have described as the core obligations: not to obtain any unauthorised benefit from the relationship and not to be in a position of conflict. They stem from the fundamental obligation of loyalty (Radan, Stewart, 2009, p. 180-1).

In the case of Bell Group Ltd. v Westpac Banking Corporation (No 9) (2009) the meaning of "good faith" is very important, as discussed in this week's class. Fiduciary duties that are owed to clients are rooted in the "good faith" embodiment of the relationship. When that "good faith" is limited or restricted for some reason, it becomes problematic for both parties. Is the fiduciary putting his own… [read more]

Brady V Maryland and Other Due Process Cases Research Paper

… ¶ … Supreme Court cases have clarified that prosecutors must reveal evidence to the defense that could be favorable to the defendant. These cases have established legal precedent that governs such disclosure, and provided the underlying logical basis for it.… [read more]

Analyzing the Pre Trial Stages Essay

… ¶ … pre-Trial stages in a criminal case.

Arrest (Clarke, n.d)

A person can only be arrested and detained by the police. Upon arrest, there is a need for police authority over the individual, if not he or she can be physically restrained using handcuffs.

The arrest can be made in two cases if the police have probable cause to believe the individual was about to commit a crime or has committed a crime or if the law enforcement officer has seen the individual committing the crime.

Booking (Clarke, n.d)

Upon arresting an individual, the next step is to take them to a police station have them booked (record their details in the system). The individual's personal property might be taken, plus his or her fingerprints. After this the individual is taken to a holding cell.


Bail is the money paid in exchange for freedom from custody. When paying bail, the person agrees to appear in court within the stipulated dates. The court may order the suspect to deposit their passport if he or she is a possible flight risk.

Arraignment (Clarke, n.d):

Arraignment is often the first appearance in court for criminal suspects. At this stage, the judge reads the charges filed against the suspect and asks them if they will be represented by an attorney. He then asks them how they respond / plea to the charges (there are only three official pleads: guilty, not guilty, or no contest). At this point, future proceedings might also be slated. Also, at this point, the prosecutor / district attorney gives the defendant and his attorney all the relevant documents that they will use in the case. If the individual happens to have no lawyer, the judge will appoint one for him.

Plea Bargain (Clarke, n.d):

The majority of criminal cases end at this point. The cases can only end at this stage if the suspect agrees to a smaller offence than that for which they were arrested or to a lesser punishment than… [read more]

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