"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,865 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Senior Fitness

Currently Violet seems to be in relatively good shape and should be able to initiate a fitness program that will not only allow her to improve her fitness level, but it will also allow her to approach life with a positive outlook while remaining a strong, independent individual. One recent study determined that the key to healthy aging… [read more]

Baseball Is a Sporting Game Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


In the American professional major league baseball, the National league (NL) is the oldest of them all as it was formed in 1876 and it is at times referred to as the senior circuit, its' main rival is the American league (AL) which evolved from the minor western league. The National Base Ball league was formed after the collapse of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players which was the first attempt to form a major league in America; it only lasted for four years in the period 1871 to 1875.

Both the National league and the American league are further divided into three divisions namely the central division, east division and west division. Every year, the major league championship is determined by playoffs by four different teams that represent each league at the World Series. The four teams are made up of three regular season division winners and a wild card team (Thorn et al., 1997, 43-49),

Impact to society

The thesis for this research is that baseball is the national past time of America and a great sport for the world today, this thesis statement seems to be consistent with Morris Raphael Cohen a philosopher who in 1919, described baseball as America's national religion. According to Rader (2008, 5) the game has long been "a unique paragon of America culture."

Baseball has been seen as a unity factor in the American society as people of different gender, age and race meet at their favorite sports bar or stadium as one and for the love of the game. The baseball history has transpired and overlooked the race factor ever since the abolishment of the law that prohibited black players from major leagues that was dominated by white players.

The baseball fanatics which has attracted millions of fans not only in the American leagues but also other leagues in different parts of the world, has created the culture of sportsmanship among the fans who also perceive physical fitness as baseball culture. This culture of sportsmanship has contributed to healthy and productive citizens who positively impact on the nation's economy (http://www.baseball-almanac.com/ccc).

The revenues that has been attributed to the game far surpass the estimation which the original inventors of the game could ever had; the sale of tickets, baseball merchandise and brand including players endorsement fee all sum up to high amounts which these baseball clubs generate. The economy has greatly benefited from this sport and has lead to national development mostly in the sports and health sectors.


Baseball thou originally an English game it is more adored in America than in British, the English are currently perceived to love soccer more than baseball. It is also important to note that baseball not only has a large following in America but also in Japan and Cuba among other counties. The high ticket sales, including the baseball merchandise that are been bought by fans year in year out tend to prove that baseball has a large following among the Americans.… [read more]

Exercise Is a Good Way to Socialize Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Exercise is a good way to socialize as well as to experience enjoyment. One study by Hagberg, Lindahl, Nyberg, and Hellenius (2009) showed that the more a person enjoys a certain physical activity, the harder they will work -- physically speaking -- during the exercise. Enjoyment of exercise was therefore associated with exercise level. This shows that not only will the enjoyment of a certain physical activity result in major positive physical effects, but it can also be very positive for the psychological effects as well.

Though many people have enjoyed the effects of physical exercise, there are so many who drop out of an activity after a very short time. So, the question that then becomes important is: "What motivates a person to stick to an exercise program?" Is it solely about the enjoyment from doing an activity one likes? Or might it have something to do with the people one associates with when participating in a certain exercise?

There are many different elements that may hinder or help exercise enjoyment. One of the major elements to help exercise is liking the people with whom one is engaging. Socialization is an important element for people whether they are engaging in a sport, work, or other type of activity. Enjoying the company of the people we are exercising with can have a great impact on motivation as well. This is why many physical trainers suggest working out with a buddy -- because it keeps a person motivated and it also makes them responsible to another person (i.e., they cannot just decide not to show up or else they will keep their friend waiting).

Other factors that may facilitate exercise are not only the enjoyment of what exercise we are doing, whom we are doing it with, but also why we are doing it. What is the main purpose? Is it simply to lose weight? Is it to become more sociable and…… [read more]

Physiotherapy on Sport Injury Essay

Essay  |  20 pages (5,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Physiotherapy on Sport Injury

ID# Case Management

Case Management Assignment

In this essay thought to be best evidence-based practices for tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon. Tendinopathy has been reported as one of the most common injuries encountered in sports and in the workplace (Woo, Renstrom, & Arnoczky, 2007).tendinopathy is the inability of the Achilles tendon to return to its homeostatic… [read more]

Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout Nrc Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout

NRC Foundation Degree in Sport

Psychology of Health and Exercise


Working as a psychologist on a 1-to- 1 basis with a client, you must perform a four-week goal setting intervention. The intervention strategy will be designed to motivate your client to alter one aspect of their lifestyle related to health and exercise.

Task… [read more]

Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School

The new high school which has been opened in the region is in dire need of a sports program. In the creation and implementation of the needed sports program, a multitude of elements have to be addressed. At a most primary level, logistics considerations have to be resolved, such as… [read more]

Legal Issues That Follow Sports Injuries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,120 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Sports Injuries

Legal Issues in Sports Injuries


In the context of sports injury, especially in competitive team contact sports, mere negligence is not sufficient to warrant legal liability (Sawyer 1997). Courts have recognized that in the course of enthusiastic play, inadvertent rule violations and other cases of negligence are bound to occur, and that the expectation of such negligence is a part of the assumption of risk each voluntary participant in the sport takes on (Lazaroff 1990). Instead of using a simple negligence test for liability, a reckless action or intentional action standard has been adopted by most jurisdictions as the test for liability in sports injuries that arise out of competitive play (Sawyer 1997). This has different implications for different types of injuries, and is not always applicable to the situations that might bring about injury.

Heat stress injuries, for example, are relatively common especially among amateur athletics/sports participants, but a coach/manager cannot be held liable for such injuries even if certain circumstances -- the provision of water or shade, for example -- were expected on the part of the participants. Though negligence may exist, no reckless or intentional action was taken in this example. Spinal injuries, concussions, and other injuries arising out of contact between players must meet this same test of recklessness or intentional action in order for the injured part to hold the other(s) involved in the contact legally responsible for injuries and damages. These injuries can arise out of intentional, reckless, merely negligent, or even entirely blameless accidents, and must be examined case-by-case.


The concept of negligence in sports injuries is highly related to the concept of duty. Just as mere negligence does not create legal liability, there is no real duty on the part of any sports participant to protect the other participants(s) from the inherent risks of the sport (Abramson et al. 2010). Again, the assumed risks of the other participants relieves the duty of the other participants to exercise even an ordinary duty of care in protecting the other participants, so long as all actions and behaviors are within normal parameters of the sport -- which includes many instances of rule breaking and other technical violations of the sport's generally accepted mode of play that occur due to simple negligence during the enthusiastic participation in the sport rather than the reckless or intentional actions of the potential defendant (Sawyer 1997; Abramson et al. 2010).

Again, in the case of heat exhaustion or heat stoke, there is no incumbent legal duty on any of the other players, coaches, managers, etc. To ensure that any other participant avoids such injury, as this injury can only be brought about by the injured party's own actions. Injuries as sever as spinal cord columns and concussions might in many instances be evidence of a breach of duty, depending on the sport being played and the specific circumstances of an individual incident, but it is impossible to assign duty generally in regards to these injuries. Duty… [read more]

Diagnosis of Injuries and Development of Exercise Recovery Plan Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Diagnosis of Injures and Development of Exercise Recovery Program

What has occurred?

James lifted a stretcher while forward bent and twisted to the right. James says he felt his back pull at the time, but he continued with his shift, and after work went home to bed. He woke this morning with low back pain, greater on the left than… [read more]

Defining Sports Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (389 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sports are athletic events or games with sets of rules. Competition is central to any definition of sports, even when they are played for fun and not business. Sports as business entail economic payouts as well as status. Sports differ widely from one another, but all involve an athletic competition within the rules of game play.

Athletics are integral to sports, and is the key feature distinguishing sports from games. Although some sports involve more physical exertion or require more brute strength than others, all sports must involve some kind of physiological aspect. However, mental skill is as important to sports as it is in any other game. Sports involve both a high degree of mental and physical skills.

The mental skills at play in sports pertain to competition as well. Not all sports are team sports, but all sports involve one side against another. All sports have a winner and a loser at the end. In sporting events in which more than one team or individual compete, an ultimate winner is chosen such as at the Olympic events.

Structure is an essential element of sports, distinguishing them from simple play. A group of…… [read more]

Effect of Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,728 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 35


¶ … Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise

In this paper, the effects of endurance training will be discussed with special reference to their impact on the muscle fat metabolism while prolonged exercises. The paper will talk about the overall increase and decrease in the levels of different acids in the body as well as the overall… [read more]

Athletic Facility Management Facility Liability Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,221 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Athletic Facility Management

"Facility liability is not predicated on the type of facility.

Rather, legal liability is based on the types of clientele who attend or use the facility, and the nature of the activities taking place in the facility"

Bernard P. Maloy (1993, ¶ 1).

The "Invitee"

The recreation and sport and world, according to Bernard P. Maloy (1993),… [read more]

What Factors Influence a Youth's Decision to Withdrawal From a Sport Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (6,240 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 17



To Have Fun"

The number one reason a youth relates that he/she participates in a sport "is to have fun" Seefeldt, Ewing, and Walk (1992; cited by Hedstrom and Gould, 2004, p. 21) purport. Motives which influence a youth's decision to participate in sports include a number of other reasons, often… [read more]

Planning and Start Up of a New Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,480 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Planning and Start-Up of a New Business


The present plan has been developed to offer the company an overview of the industry in which it would operate and the strategies it would have to implement in order to ensure a successful outcome.

General Company Description

Products and Services

Marketing Plan

Operational Plan

Management and… [read more]

Resources for Health PE and Fitness Activities Task and Rubric Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Physical Education


Using the Internet, a physical education teacher can work to promote a healthy, fitness-focused lifestyle with his or her school class by having the kids create blogs that documents their fitness activities. This is a unique way to incorporate writing and technology skills with forcing the students to document their fitness activities.

Promoting walking to school is an excellent method of incorporating fitness into one's daily routine. As the majority of students are unable to drive, walking is a realistic option.

Putting together regular fitness events for the school, both inside and outside of P.E. class, is a method of adding a unique twist of fun and competition to the idea of being physically active. Each event can focus on a specific activity or skill, thus teaching a well-balanced fitness routine.

Since families play an essential role in a child's overall fitness, it is equally important to educate them on fitness. One simple way to accomplish this is by organizing family fitness nights.

Students should be given a personal log and an instrument in which they can measure their total steps per day. They can the record their total activity against their total consumption.


As childhood obesity is the greatest health risk faced by elementary children, it is important that classroom time is spent addressing this topic. In so doing, the focus should be both on the harmful effects of obesity and preventative measures that can be taken.

Teaming up with a local Department of Human Services to discuss the importance of healthy and safe sexual choices is a must.

Working with the local law enforcement drug taskforce can bring in aspects of how living a drug free life correlates with living a healthy lifestyle.

When teaching these various health-related subjects to kids, because of their age, simply lecturing will not work. Further, many of these concepts will be foreign to them so background information will be needed. To ensure that the information is learned and understood, role playing, multi-media, guest speakers and small group conversations should be utilized.

Sex education at this age can be difficult. Dividing the class between boys and girls may prove to be beneficial and more effective at getting the necessary information unique to each gender across.

Physical Education

In order…… [read more]

Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (969 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Athletic Ethics and Morality

Athletics Ethics and Morality in Classical and Modern Times

Thousands of years separate Classic times from modern ones. One would think that those thousands of years would dramatically change the face of major society and the values that go with it. When looking at the field of sports, however, the status of athletes and all the rewards which accompany that status have remained strikingly similar. When comparing Ancient Greek and Roman athletes to our modern day athletic superstars, one can see how thousands of generations have solidified the athletic mythos rather than evolving it into a completely different institution. The prizes of athletic prominence have varied with the changing technology of society, but the internal moral structure centered around popular athletics and the athletes who enchant us, have remained the same, and so have the pressures of maintaining one's popularity by continuing to outperform all other opponents.

Ancient Greek and Roman societies obsessed over professional athletes, just as modern society does today. To be able to play a sport professionally meant that you were part of an elite group who had mastered an art. Great honor and fame came with athletic success, "In Greece the most illustrious of both sexes thought it honorable to exercise themselves in exhibitions of the theatre, and even to appear in athletic games," (Murphy v). In Aelianus Tacticus' Varia Historia, the Ancient Roman Philosopher told moral tales of the lives of athletes. He made clear society's view that these gods among men must have lived an honorable yet venerated life. Tacticus was also a very important military writer, therefore thought athletes an important part of a society's culture because they were also in the physical form warriors.

In our modern society, this fame continues to follow present athletes. Although some of the honor involved has been lost in translation, the athletes of today still serve as examples of the perfect human form. Today, they are they faces of countless merchandising campaigns which aim to use their popularity and athletic achievements to sell a variety of products, from athletic gear to sports drinks and video games. Their expertise of their sport is now used to promise a boost in performance in modern day amateurs and hopefuls. This in turn, only strengthens their popularity, making them household names and familiar to even those individuals who do not follow the sport they play. The athlete has continued to be a celebrity.

These celebrities have been lavished with gifts and great fortunes for their services, from Classical times to modern day paychecks.

Compensation has always played a large part in the image of the professional athlete, "According to the Roman author Plutarch, an Olympic victor who was a citizen of Athens could expect to receive in the year 600 B.C. A cash award of 500 drachmai, a literal fortune," ("The Real Story of the Olympic Games"). In Ancient times,…… [read more]

Interview: Elizabeth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (890 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Interview: Elizabeth G

Please describe briefly your past exercise and sport participation history.

I was on my high school's dance team. In college, I was a member of a sorority, so that took up most of my time instead. I did participate in many fitness-related activities, but more on a casual basis, like working out and doing charity walks with my sisters. After I graduated, I got a job in marketing. I got tired of sitting at a desk all day. I was used to being physically active and my company provided a free membership to a local gym, so I decided to start taking dance classes at the gym. I didn't like the classes, but I did enjoy working out, especially on the treadmill. I started running and I've never stopped!

Question 2: Please describe your current exercise and sport participation.

I just completed my second marathon, with a PR (personal record) of 4:03. I have also signed up for the Nike half-marathon in August.

Question 3: How long have you been participating in...

I've been competitively running for two years. For a long time, I simply ran on the treadmill, running about 5 miles a day. But I'm a very competitive person, and I missed the competition of my old dance team, so I decided to give my running a goal and train for a half marathon. I've been addicted ever since!

Question 4: Why do you currently participate in...

Mainly the feeling it gives me -- I love the runner's high! I also love the sense of accomplishment. When things aren't going so great in my life, it's nice to have the satisfaction of doing a PR (personal record) at a race, or even just running by myself. I've seen my running get better and better, from when I first started on the treadmill five years ago to now. Running in races has really helped my running in leaps and bounds. Although training in the gym or on trails is pretty solitary I love the community that comes from racing and meeting fellow runners. I am part of an Internet message board community for runners.

Question 5: What is the level of support that significant others in your life offer for your participation in...

I'm not involved with a guy right now -- maybe that is why I am so running obsessed! No one in my family is into running. My father even forgot that I was going to be running in the Marine Corps Marathon and called me to ask if he could come over and visit the next day -- the night before the marathon! He also thinks I spend…… [read more]

Bun and Thigh Roller See Website Bunthigh Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (881 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Bun and Thigh Roller (www.bunthigh.com)

The exercise device known as the Bun and Thigh Roller 'as seen on television' proclaims itself to be a five-minute way to sculpt the so-called problem areas of the thighs and buttocks. The promotional television clip on the website states that the Bun and Thigh Roller can activate the muscles of the thigh and rear areas just as much as more expensive machines. It also claims to offers a pain free, injury-free work out unlike squats or the use of heavier weights. Its celebrity endorser, Don Tornabene, "former Mr. America," says that he was inspired to create the machine when working out on a Swiss ball. "Before my workouts, I was using the Swiss ball to stretch my lower back, hips and thighs. I realized this would be a fantastic way to sculpt the lower body if it only offered the resistance necessary for fast results" ("The Bun and Thigh Roller," 2007, Official Website).

This claim is problematic for two reasons. First of all, Don Tornabene is not a doctor, personal trainer, or scientist. He is not even an athlete, as a Mr. America is evaluated upon his appearance, not upon his physical fitness. Secondly, Tornabene admits that he created the low-impact machine while warming up for his regular work-out. In other words to gain his physique, much more strenuous effort is needed. The machine comes with a diet plan, so essentially the advertisement's real claim is that the person, who buys the machine, sticks to a low calorie diet and adds at least some additional activity onto their current exercise regime will lose weight.

It could be argued that at very least, the machine does no harm, as it does encourage the person desperate for weight loss to engage in low-impact movement, without harmful supplements. However, the machine, which costs 3 installments of 16.95, is not cheap, when one considers that very likely, doing crunches and other exercises at home similar to the activities the machine is supposed to facilitate would be equally effective. The money would likely be better spent, if at all, on some inexpensive free weights to be used in conjunction with a workout found for free on the Internet, in a magazine, or in a book in the library (Noakes 2003: 777-789). Or better yet, since raising the heart rate through cardiovascular exercise is more effective for weight loss in the short-term because it burns more calories, an individual would be better advised to spend his or her money on a new pair of running or walking shoes (Kolata 2003).

What is more troubling about the product is…… [read more]

Sports Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,696 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sports Ethics

Winning isn't everything, it's the only thing" was the famous motto of the legendary football coach Vince Lombardi, which seems to have been taken to heart by the American society of late. It has put into the back-ground, the "old fashioned" advice for good sportsmanship that extolled the virtues of playing the game in the right spirit while… [read more]

Gymnast Injuries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Exercise and Gymnast Injuries

Injuries to Gymnasts & Prevention

Younger athletes are particularly vulnerable to injuries, and in the case of gymnasts, because of the great physical, stamina, and balance-related demands, extra pressure is placed upon them that is particularly challenging. According to Dr. Lyle J. Micheli (www.nyssf.org) of the Division of Sports Medicine at Children's Hospital in Boston, MA, growth tissue is localized at three particular sites on the bones. Those three places are the joint surfaces, the growth plates, and the sites of major muscle-tendon insertions. And what is also necessary to understand is that growing cartilage tissue is fairly soft in younger people, softer than in adults, and hard training along with vigorous participation in gymnastics can put undue strain on the growth plate; in particular, "high velocity trauma" - the kind of activity that a gymnast goes through when landing - may be harmful.

Indeed, according to an article in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, "the vast majority of competitive participants" in gymnastics are children, and the reason why that is true is because there is a "widely held belief that to achieve success at the highest level," competition and serious training must be started "before puberty" (Daly, 2000). That timing is appropriate in the minds of coaches and parents, Daly continues, because pre-puberty is when a "small lean physique is likely to convey a performance advantage." Some young gymnasts actually begin training at age five or six years, and they train, Daly continues, "for between 20 and 40 hours a week all year around."

Meanwhile, all gymnasts, younger athletes and more mature athletes as well, can and do sustain injuries. Daly suggests that, "inconsistent strength training may explain the decline or plateau in gymnastics performance and high incidence of injury during the preparatory phase of training in some gymnasts." Another cause of injuries, Daly continues, is a loss of "concentration and inattentiveness"; in particular a loss of concentration can be attributed to inadequate rest (sleep) and to poor nutritional habits.

There is also evidence that "insufficient warm up may leave muscles and other skeletal structures unprepared for the forthcoming performance," the article points out. Daly comes to the previous conclusion based on the fact that a three-year study of female athletes found that "most strains in young elite female gymnasts occurred during the first hour of practice." Another point to mention in addressing the reasons for injuries - and hence, the solution to avoiding injuries is to learn from others' mistakes and shortcomings in training - is when an athlete has "poor and excessive flexibility or hyper-mobility." In proper warm-up situations, an athlete is embracing "both static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques."

The attention should be placed on "non-weight-bearing upper extremities," when warming up properly to avoid injuries. And further, when doing weight training, "poor spotting or no spotting," Daly writes, "has been suggested as a risk factor for gymnastics injuries." However, a study on gymnastics injuries reported that - according to Daly's… [read more]

Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,536 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Steroids in Sports - Dangerous Practice, Bad Example for Youth, and Just Another Way to Cheat

Throughout the vast, diffuse worlds of amateur and professional athletics alike today, champions; ex-champions, and (mostly0 would-be champions of all ages, backgrounds and abilities; at competitions from local Olympic tryouts to the World Cup, compete fiercely to be top of the sport: win first… [read more]

Precor New Product Development and Collaborative Manufacturing Infrastructure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Product Development

Company Background

Precor is a subsidiary of Amer Group Plc, a leading global sports equipment company. Apart from Precor the company has other brands Wilson, Atomic and Suunto under its umbrella. Precor was founded in 1980 with it's headquarter near Seattle in Woodinville, Washington. It has expanded over the years with offices in the United Kingdom, Germany, Benelux, Austria, Japan and China. As opposed to other companies in the business Precor stands out because it has set the global standard for fluid, natural, low-impact workout experience.

Changing Market Dynamics

The market place changes with time as consumers needs and demands change. These changes occur as a result of changes in lifestyles. Over a period of time the American consumer has been exposed to the idea of health and fitness and its importance through media. As a result demands for fitness product saw a surge in recent years. Now the consumers not only demand the products they want complete solution to their fitness problems. Most of the time consumers are looking for one stop solution or a product that helps them in most convenient way possible. "In time-crunched Washington, many people are opting for working out at home. Whether it is a treadmill in the bedroom or a state-of-the-art fitness room costing upwards of $15,000, home exercise equipment can get the job done without battling weather, traffic and the singles scene at the neighborhood Bally's. In fact, home exercise equipment can get several jobs done, and that's part of its appeal" (Goff, 1998).

Positioning of a product or brand reflects the disposition that the consumers of that particular product have towards it in relationship to other products or substitute products. Many fitness brands have positioned themselves as a prestige product at a higher price showing that Americans are willing to spend a lot of money on health & fitness.

The marketplace and popular culture trends help companies like Precor in establishing their own unique, functional, yet consistent line of fitness products taking shape and reshape over time through product development process.

Product Development

Many organizations have new product development methodologies that provide a standard framework for planning and managing development efforts. Precor has a strategic plan to put into operation a collaborative manufacturing infrastructure to manage new product introductions and product changes. To keep pace with changing demands for exercise equipment, Precor has sound plans of concentrating on product development. "Tom Moran, Precor's Vice President of Engineering says, 'The fitness equipment business is extremely competitive. In order to stay in the running, manufacturers have to keep pace with the market - not only delivering new products, but delivering equipment with superior designs, ahead of the competition and at lower prices'" (Precor)

The Product Idea

The product development process starts with the big idea. Considering the changing dynamic of the target market Precor plans to make comprehensive offers. As apart of its product development Precor is offering entertainment and value-added services to fitness aficionados. The new comprehensive values added programs… [read more]

Supplements in Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sports Business and Ethics Issues

The Use Of Supplements

ethics - theoretical framework





The objective of this work is to research the issue of the use of supplements by athletes and how society views and deals with this issue… [read more]

Sports Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (7,403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the… [read more]

Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Oriard relates the "initiation" ritual almost verbatim to accounts of tribal initiation rites of passage for entrance into manhood. He parallels the ritual meals, tribal chief, high priest and ancient heros of primitive initiations to manhood with the structured diet, team captain, team doctor, and former players of a football season's "rite of kinship." (Oriard 1993, p. 199) He notes… [read more]

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … cardiovascular system in a positive way, then how exercise also positively affects aging, obesity, the muscular and respiratory systems. The cardiovascular system is a complicated and yet surprisingly delicate system of the human body. Many scientists, researchers, and physicians complete studies every year on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and consistently, these studies show exercise can play an important part in reducing the instance of cardiovascular disease.

Exercise should be an important part of everyone's life, because it is simply good for everyone. It is well-known, even among sedentary Americans, that exercise has a positive affect on the heart and lungs, and it can improve heart health. Many physicians and experts acknowledge that aerobic exercise is extremely effective in promoting heart health. These doctors note, "This would appear also to be the case in understanding the relationship between reactivity and aerobic fitness. One of the consequences of aerobic-exercise training is a reduction in resting heart rate and blood pressure" (McCabe, Schneiderman, Field, & Wellens, 2000, p. 197). Reducing the heart rate and blood pressure leads to better cardiovascular health, and can help, along with a healthy diet, maintain this cardiovascular health throughout life.

Heart health is extremely important in modern life, when a majority of Americans are overweight and out of shape. Studies show "Exercise can also be used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and can decrease mortality and morbidity rates. This aggregate body of research substantiates the importance of engaging in a habitual exercise regimen" (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42). One specific exercise study looked at 113 men and women ages of 18 and 35. Some of the participants were sedentary, and some already exercised. The study included many different aspects, including cardiovascular health. The authors of the scientific study note the results of the cardiovascular portion of the study:

Cardiovascular fitness was estimated using participants' recovery heart rate. The test chosen was the submax YMCA 3-Minute Step Test, which requires participants to step onto a 12-inch high platform for 3 minutes at a rate of 24 steps per minute. Participants are instructed to sit immediately after the three minutes. Within five seconds of the completion of the test, a skin palpitated recovery heart rate was taken at the radial artery for one minute. The 3-minute step test was administered both at the onset of the study and again at its completion, and the changes in recovery heart rate were used to estimate changes in cardiovascular fitness levels (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42).

When the study was over, after a number of weeks, all the participants enjoyed improved cardiovascular fitness (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42). Thus, this study shows that cardiovascular health can improve in young people, too.

Exercise is simply good for the body. Not only does it improve cardiovascular health, it provides health benefits in many other areas, too. Regular exercise can slow down the effects of aging on the body and on the mind. Another exercise expert notes, "In particular,… [read more]

Sport Psychology Most Forms of Games Require Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sport Psychology

Most forms of games require not only physical skills but also a very strong mental capacity and these include golf, tennis and skating. According to the view of most coaches, sports are 90% mental and 10% physical. This is very important in athletics where even a difference of a hundredth or a tenth of a second can be… [read more]

Exercise and Pregnancy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The second article examines this finding and found that only in heavily, as opposed to moderately exercising women, did there appear to be a statistically signficant lower birth weight, for good or for ill. The third article examined potentially risky pregnancies involving gestational diabetes and concluded that exercise was an important way of moderating the insulin therapy of the patients


Moderate exercise seems to be beneficial in controlling weight and aiding in an easier delivery for all pregnant patients, including some patients from high-risk groups, such as those patients with diabetes. However, heavy exercise could limit birth weight, especially in older mothers, although not to the extent that this is of major concern. Still, caution is suggested on this point. Furthermore, even pregnant women themseleves accustomed to such heavy levels of exercise, because of the increased risk of injury and limits on their own athletic performance at this time may wish to moderate their accustomed levels of activity.


Note: All articles from the peer-reviewed journal available on the EBSCO list of ejournals at http://ejournals.ebsco.com/info/EJSTitles.asp?PageNo=1

Miller, Karl E. (1 Sept 2004) "Exercise in patients with gestational diabetes."American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_5_70/ai_n6182511

Walling, Anne D. (15 May 2005) "Exercise During Pregnancy Is Associated with Thinner Babies." American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_10_65/ai_85615776

Wang, Thomas W. & Barbara S. Apagar. (15 Apr 1998)"Exercise during pregnancy." American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n8_v57/ai_20570146/pg_2… [read more]

High School Sports Recruitment the Dream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … High School Sports Recruitment

The dream of any competitive athlete, young or old, is to be recruited with the hopes of working professionally. Lure of fame and fortune is particularly poignant in adolescence, especially because of the celebrity status of professional athletes in all sports, from basketball to football to baseball to hockey. However, young athletes in high… [read more]

Gold's Gym Fitness Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gold's Gym

This report is an industry profile on Gold's Gym. The report will cover the company from four perspectives: Gold's industry's historical development, Gold's competitive structure, a general environment analysis and the global nature of the industry.

Gold's Gym International has been considered one of the global leaders in the fitness industry for nearly forty years. The company and… [read more]

Cornell Sports Marketing the Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The concentrated location of the freshman on the North Campus of the institution makes the freshman an ideal market that can be the object of a great deal of advertising, from posters to staged publicity events, with a relative minimum of cost. Entertainment and the social aspect of Ivy League sports can be stressed, given that parties and other celebrations of victory or defeat can spill over into this area of the campus, and also because traditionally, the communality rather than the athletic excellence of League athletics is the main reason for attendance at games.

Incentives such as free admission for freshman would encourage attendance, as well as specifically targeting sports of greater interest, such as basketball, where certain Cornell athletes excel. Using booster club's donations to facilitate transportation and discounted paraphernalia to freshman, and deploying select free events such as having the basketball team give away prizes at the common eating facilities or having 'shot competitions' at halftime could also be selectively deployed in a selective fashion to this young population of Cornell.… [read more]

Sports Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


6, SD = .4), high training and instruction (M= 4.4, SD = .4), high social support (M= 3.6, SD .6), moderate democratic behavior (M= 3.0, SD = .6), and low autocratic behavior (M= 2.7, SD .6). The psychological profile of this group is similar to the group of coaches in both the Home and Carron (1985) and Dwyer and Fischer (1988) studies (Bennett, 2000). These findings indicate that elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches place more emphasis on positive feedback and training and instruction while expressin g a lower preference for autocratic behavior. In summary, the current study provides preliminary data regarding the coaching leadership styles of elite youth baseball coaches of the United States and more importantly, adds to body of knowledge called for by researchers in this area (Bennett, 2000). Further research with this specific population is recommended to determine if social desirability bias entered into the sample due to the coaches viewing themselves as having positive feedback and democratic coaching styles (Bennett, 2000). "

The information researched can be used in a practical setting by setting the boundaries for the way leadership styles impact sports. The coach can take the examples and use them in his or her own dealings with the team and create a more successful environment.

Practices can be structured in a positive way that emulates Shula's style to create strong positive team morale. Goals can be set with short-term and long-term steps based on what the needs are.

Future research should begin addressing what it is about the various coaching styles that work. The research should look at how it works and why it works from a human nature and psychological perspective so that future methods of leadership can be developed using scientific data.



Planning a Preseason Team Meeting

Leadership: what does it take? (Special Feature: Leadership Training).

NZ Business; July 1, 2002; Baker, Glenn

Leadership Styles of Elite Dixie Youth Baseball Coaches.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included)

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport; March 1, 2000


Martin to lead athletics; coaches and staff 'like his style'

. Empowering students: variables impacting the effort.

Education; June 22, 1994; Short, Paula M. Greer, John T.

Football: Rogers blasts 'out of touch' Aldridge.(Sport)…… [read more]

Sports Injuries Competitive Sports Participation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Therefore, adults should take a positive approach, set reasonable expectations of their children's physical and psychosocial abilities and learn to control their emotions.

It is imperative for parents to remember and emphasize children's motives for sport participation (having fun, being with friends, learning skills, improving health and fitness, etc.) and not to substitute them with their own motives (winning, earning… [read more]

Opening a Bally's Total Fitness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This aspect should be carefully studied and the necessary facilities provided. There seems also to be good consciousness about exercises among certain types of sportsmen and they are also conscious enough to be contributing for gymnasiums. It may be worthwhile to try and collect endorsements for Bally's from them. This can be done by seeking their help at the design… [read more]

Exercise Physiology: Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


EPs can be coaches of sports teams. Research and higher degrees are choices in tenure track faculty of teaching positions. With the growing trends in personal fitness, yoga and Pilates, personal trainers are also in demands. Pain management and physical therapy careers involve the assessment, design and administration of rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and reduce or rehabilitate an injury. Sports managers are in charge of the day-to-day running of teams or organizations.

Several opportunities are available manufacturers, suppliers, retailers, as well as corporations. For example, sports companies might need managers to deal with management issues or designers to identify the ergonomics of specific equipment. Sports is big business. Someone with specialization in business and accounting practice can choose a career path from exercise physiology training. A career in EP comes from a devotion to training. There are recognized credentials like Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Opportunities exist with local clubs, high schools, colleges and pro-teams.


Adams, Gene M. Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual. Dubuque, IA: Wm.C. Brown Publishers, 1990.

Amundsen, Louis R. Cardiac Rehabilitation. Clinics in Physical Therapy; V. 1. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1981.

ASEP.com. American Sports Education Program. 2003. ASEP.com. Available:

http://www.asep.com/.October 20, 2003.

CSS.edu. Directory of Academic Programs. 2003. Css.edu. Available:

http://www.css.edu/users/tboone2/asep/graduate.htm. October 20, 2003.

Professionalization of Exercise Physiology Online. 2003. Css.edu. Available:

http://www.css.edu/users/tboone2/asep/MinimalStandards.html. October 20, 2003.

HumanKinetics.com. Job Opportunities. 2003. HumanKinetics.com. Available:

http://www.humankinetics.com/careers/.October 20, 2003.

Thomas, Vaughan. Exercise Physiology. London: Crosby Lockwood Staples, 1975.… [read more]

Career of an Athletic Trainer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The most respected and accepted educational facilities are accredited according to standards created by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Education (CAAHEP), a division of the American Medical Association (Hibberts). Many students major in exercise science with a specialty in athletic training. In most cases, they also need to obtain a state license or National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification in order to work as an athletic trainer and "to become certified, trainers must complete 1500 hours of athletic training, and pass the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification exam" (AHEC). Training includes many different factors, including nutrition, psychology, human anatomy and physiology, exercise physiology, first aid, therapy, injury prevention, administration, and many other aspects of sports psychology, medicine, and management (Hibberts).

There are many job opportunities open to athletic trainers, in both professional and athletic organizations.

Professional job opportunities related to an exercise science curriculum include athletic trainer, strength and conditioning specialist, exercise specialist, exercise physiologist, and health/fitness instructor. Athletic trainers are prepared to prevent, manage, and rehabilitate athletic injuries. They are often employed in high school, collegiate, and professional settings as well as sport medicine clinics, and industrial settings (Kornspan et al. 367).

Clearly, there are many different opportunities open to athletic trainers, depending on their own preferences and abilities. There are training jobs open in both men's and women's athletics, from the high school to professional level and beyond. When it is understood just what athletic trainers actually do, it is easier to see how they are such an integral part of modern sports, and to see just how many places their services could be vital. Trainers average around $38, 858 a year.

In conclusion, the career of an athletic trainer is not only interesting and varied; it can make or break the career of a professional athlete. While always on the sidelines, a professional athletic trainer can be involved in the exciting and ever-changing world of sports, and make a difference in many lives.

Works Cited

Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html

Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm

Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm

Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.… [read more]

Athletic Scholarships Providing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I do not know if this is envy or not, but the high-level coaches have worked hard to earn their salaries and recognition, just like any other highly paid television figure. Non-athletic professionals have made proposals stating their prejudicesses against athletes. A couple of years ago, "a 28 member commission of current and former university presidents, other university officials, and… [read more]

Facilities Management Critiques Article Critique

Article Critique  |  7 pages (2,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Job Competencies of Sport Facility Managers: Robert Case and J. David Branch

The study by Case & Branch (2003) talks about sports facilities that exist in the United States and offers different careers for students to opt from. The study states that the sports management training prepares students for professional management. However, it is also imperative that this… [read more]

Dance Injury Prevention and Overall Level Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Injury prevention and overall level of health and fitness often play a back seat role for dancers. In the effort to perfect their art, dancers focus on specific types of movements, techniques, and exercises over others. Specifically, exercises that can improve bone integrity, increase muscular strength, improve general aerobic fitness, and improve muscular endurance can help dancers avoid injuries. Injuries in dancers are common, affecting ballet dancers at least once per year (Twitchett, et al., 2010). For professional dancers, injury can upset careers; for all dancers, injuries can lead to poor health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to review literature on how to optimize the health and fitness of dancers.

The causes of injury are diverse, and depend on the type of dance, the individual's body type, the individual's psychological makeup, the quality of instruction, intensity of practice, past medical history, nutrient intake, body fat percentage, and temporary stressors. It is impossible to devise a universal approach to injury prevention, but there are some key elements of injury prevention that are specific to dancers and universal in scope. Those injury prevention keys are rooted in sports medicine, which can inform evidence-based practice in formal dance instruction.

Twitchett, et al. (2010) found that low aerobic fitness and body fat were two variables significantly correlated with injury frequency and duration. Excessive thinness and an obsessive approach to specific movements may hinder the dancer's long-range capabilities as a professional. While it is understandable that dancers will need to focus intensely on specific roles at certain times for their career, those performances should ideally be supplemented by general exercise and nutrition regimes that foster overall health and well-being. Dancers who supplement their work with other types of movement that improve cardiovascular health and aerobic fitness may help increase the longevity of their careers. Likewise, dancers who can more easily maintain a physique that is aesthetically appropriate without becoming underweight will also be better suited for long-range health as a dancer.

As Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios (2005) note, it is not only excessive thinness that is an aesthetic ideal for some dancers, but also a lack of muscularity. Yet muscularity promotes health and prevents injury. The researchers found that dancers who supplement with strength training exercises are less prone to injury, and can even lead to "better dancing" because of the improved conditioning of their bodies (Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios, 2005, p. 29). Strength training need not interfere with aesthetics. Moreover, Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios (2005) point out that muscular strength training does not adversely impact flexibility, another common concern with dancers and their trainers. If dancers and trainers understood that evidence supports the use of both aerobic exercise and strength training as effective methods of preventing injury, perhaps these types of activities can supplement dance regimens.

Modern dancers may rely…… [read more]

Exercise and Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It improves mood and has been shown to lessen depression and anxiety while also boosting confidence.

There are several forms of exercise that can be tailored to fit anyone's individual goals or lifestyles. Any level of exercise can be productive and an individual can increase their level of activity at any time. Therefore, you don't have to start training as an athlete to gain the benefits of stress relief that associated with exercise; even a brisk walk is enough to trigger many of the benefits of stress relief that exercise can provide.

What is the mind/body connection mentioned by Seaward and why is physical exercise part of holistic stress management?

The body and mind are connected through an array of biophysical process. The healthier the body, then the healthier the mind can be. Illness of the body can be responsible for additional stressors to an individual's mind that can accumulate over time. The body will actually produce some level of stress during exercise, however then the physical activity stops then the body naturally tries to return to hemostasis. The more you exercise, the better the body's ability to return to that state. Therefore, while counseling and various medications can be used to help reduce stress, exercise should always be included in a holistic stress management system because of its proven effects to promote natural stress relief.

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, July 12). Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469

Menlinck, M. (2013, May 21). How Does Exercise Reduce Stress? Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/21/exercise-reduces-stress-levels-anxiety-cortisol_n_3307325.html… [read more]

Benefits of Physical Activity Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Exercise and Health

benefits of physical activity and exercise on one'S HEALTH

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Significant evidence shows that most of the people in the current global environment spend most of their time in office work that increase their level of inactivity. Similarly, most of… [read more]

NFL Nonprofits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Sports and Social Change

Over the last several years, social change has become a phenomenon where sports organizations are reaching out to stakeholders to creative positive impacts. This is because sports are highlighting important differences in social issues and the way can be used as a platform to address them. A good example of this can be seen with observations… [read more]

Moderation in Tennis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Moderation is surely one of the most important things when considering athletes and sport in general. Being a tennis player can be especially demanding, with the respective person having to do everything in his power in order to work at his or her full potential. Sleep is an important concept in this discussion, as tennis players need to concentrate on getting enough sleep in order to recuperate their physical and mental strength. By sleeping for enough time, tennis players make sure that they have all the energy they need during a competition.

A tennis player's sleep can be negatively affected by a great deal of things. Concepts like the stress associated with a competition and the fact that they travel very often are likely to interfere with a tennis player's ability to sleep. "Many things can affect tennis players' quality of sleep, including stress, worry and frequent international travel across time zones. This disrupts the normal twenty-four hour "biological clock." (Satisfying sleep 1)

Tennis players need to be prepared to deal with an increasing amount of stress and effort that build up as a competition comes closer. The fact that these people have access to a glamorous life and that they can practically buy everything they want sometimes makes it difficult for them to live life in moderation.

The case of Richard Gasquet provides proof with regard to how having a moderate lifestyle can sometimes be too much for a tennis player. Regardless of whether he consumed cocaine or not, the case involving him being tested positive for use of cocaine shocked the tennis world. This situation practically proved that life can sometimes be stressful for a tennis player and that he or she cannot always put across exemplary behavior. "In France, they have been calling it 'The Cocaine Kiss', the story of how Richard Gasquet spent an evening with a girl in a Miami nightclub, tested positive for the stimulant the next day, and then convinced an anti-doping tribunal that it was because of those French kisses with "Pamela." (Hodgkinson)

Moderation is essential when considering tennis players and the energy they need in order to excel. Even with this, it can also have a negative influence on a player because of how he or she can feel that he or she is not living life to the fullest.

Works cited:

Hodgkinson, Mark, "U.S. Open: Richard Gasquet puts 'Cocaine Kiss' saga behind him," retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/tennis/usopen/6115999/U.S.-Open-Richard-Gasquet-puts-Cocaine-Kiss-saga-behind-him.html

"SATISFYING SLEEP," Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.itftennis.com/media/126363/126363.pdf

"Canadian qualifier faints as heat wave hits Australian Open," Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://msn.foxsports.com/tennis/story/canadian-qualifier-frank-dancevic-faints-as-heat-wave-hits-australian-open-011314… [read more]

Sports Event Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These include actual news and sports sites that are more like traditional outlets in the way they report unbiased information, but there are also fan sites, the NFL and official team sites, and random sites such as blogs that provide information. Many of the more casual and/or fan-based sites offer much more in the way of opinion, and they easily and quickly take sides. They make no secret of where their loyalty lies.

Twitter is an extension of the online sites. It is similar in nature to the overall online presence of other sites, but different mostly in the immediacy of the information presented on it. Those who are interested in sports marketing must be aware of the value of sites like Twitter, because it provides such a quick way for information to be gathered and shared with others. On Super Bowl Sunday, tweets about the game were easy to find, and they were highly varied when it came to what they discussed and who they supported. Because so much of Twitter is used-generated media as opposed to the more traditional, journalistic outlets, the mix of information and opinion a person receives there is very different from what he or she would expect from TV or print media.


Marketing sports and sporting events requires time and effort when it is being handled from a traditional standpoint, but there is also a great deal of marketing seen in an unofficial capacity. Traditional media outlets provide official marketing of sporting events like the Super Bowl, while online outlets provide a mix of both official and unofficial information. Sites like Twitter can provide some official information from team and NFL tweets, but most of the Twitter information provides about the Super Bowl came from fan opinion and thought. That is a very different type of marketing for sports events, and can change the way in which fans and potential fans look at a team, sport, or league. Media is very powerful, but the internet age has changed the way that power is used.

Works Cited

Beech, John, & Chadwick, Simon. The marketing of Sport. Prentice Hall and Financial Times. 2006. Print.

Kotler, Philip & Keller, L. Kevin. Marketing Management 14e. Pearson Education Limited. 2012. Print.

Seattle Seahawks. http://www.seahawks.com/super-bowl/48/index.html.…… [read more]

Financial Statement Analysis: Adventure Sports Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A look at the firm's operating profit also reveals an impressive trend -- the same has been on an upward trend during the period under consideration. This is an indication that Adventure Sports has enough cash for growth/expansion and other needs.

To determine whether the firm would be affected if the current profitability trends were to change, it would be prudent to analyze its ability to remain solvent both in the short-run and in the long-run. Of great utility in this case would be the company's liquidity ratios and financial leverage ratios. For purposes of this discussion, I will make use of the current ratio and the debt ratio.

Table 1: Debt Ratio and Current Ratio




Current Ratio









Debt Ratio






Looking at the table above, it is clear that the company would encounter no challenges settling its obligations. This is particularly the case given that as the current ratio indicates, Adventure Sports has more assets than debt. The company is therefore not likely to encounter liquidity problems even if the trends in profitability were to change significantly (in the short-run).

On the other hand, the debt ratio in this case indicates that Adventure Sports has more assets than debt. This indicates low financial risk level. It is however important to note that volatile cash flows could affect Adventure Sports' ability to settle its obligations -- both in the long-run and in the…… [read more]

People at the Gym Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,299 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They walk and talk with a lot of assurance. These women frequently workout with weights and perform cardiovascular exercise in the gym as well. On some occasions, they might even take aerobics classes or maybe even teach them. Oftentimes, the fit girl/athletic type has many male admirers, both openly and secretly. A number of guys like to try to talk to them both in and outside of the gym. However, because of the large degree of self-confidence that they carry about themselves, there are many guys who are intimidated to approach them. Despite their looks, however, these women are very serious about taking care of their bodies and usually have strict dietary regimens that they follow to help them maintain their good shape.

Almost no gym would be complete without the type of guy best referred to as the screamer. These are the men who walk around with permanent wet spots on their backs, and probably below their armpits on their shorts as well. They are usually seen sweating profusely, or attempting to wipe themselves down with a towel. These gym participants are almost never quiet, although there is a great deal of variety to the different types of noises they make. Some prefer to grunt -- in unison -- as they lift weights. Others prefer vociferous screams and shouts at the conclusion, and during the middle, of their workouts with different machines. Rarely one of these individuals might become so absorbed in their iPods as they work out that they will sing or rap along to the music.

Whatever the form of noise-making this type of gym participant makes, it is almost always a distraction. Whereas other people are content to simply put their head phones on and silently persevere through their work outs, these screamers inevitably have to make loud noises and disrupt the general quiet of the environment. To their credit they generally know what they are doing and have very little trouble using the equipment or performing a set of workout motions with the help of others. However, they are still very distracting and not the least bit annoying.

Finally, one of the most frequently occurring types to appear in gyms virtually anywhere is known as the lost guy. These are people who have not spent a lot of time in gyms. Furthermore, they have not spent a lot of time playing sports or even exercising. They have shown up in gyms across the country suddenly, either because they have realized that they need to do something to their bodies to help them pick up girls, or perhaps because they are married and their wives are ashamed of being with men who cannot sufficiently protect them from danger.

Whatever the case, there are a number of traits that readily identify these individuals. They are generally uncoordinated, regardless of what sort of exercise at the gym they are attempting to do. They have trouble with the weights (and with the weight of the weights), they have difficulty… [read more]

Training Programme for Female Athlete Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,508 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Training Programme for Female Athlete

Date/Time: ____ Name:

Strength/flexibility exercises test Rubric (5%)

The instructor (NOT student) will choose 5 strength/flexibility exercises from the student's Written Report that the student states his athlete will use over the 3-month hypothetical training period. The Instructor will ask the student to perform the exercises in turn and name the muscle(s) being… [read more]

Physical Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,248 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Physical Education

There are a few key features in this twelve-week program. First, the program is holistic in nature, encompassing the entire body. There is an emphasis on the lower body, which was identified as needed to improve both in terms of strength and flexibility. More emphasis is placed on improving flexibility in this program when compared with some of my previous programs. This program is less oriented towards weights and more towards a total exercise regimen than I have normally done in the past. Also, this program addresses the imbalance of strength between my right side and my left side.

All of these issues were identified during the pre-implementation testing, which is why they have become the main point of emphasis for me. I believe that the testing revealed a pathway to improving my total fitness level by revealing what were likely weaknesses in my program before.


Strength training is an important component of fitness training but one that is often overlooked. The main benefits of strength training are that it improves muscle strength and endurance. Strength training is important because it combats the loss of lean muscle tissue that occurs with aging. Lean body mass requires calories to work, whereas fat does not. So the effect on the body of losing lean body mass is that the body requires fewer calories to work. If caloric intake remains the same, then the body will gain fat over time, leading to decreased health outcomes. Strength training increases lean body mass, sometimes even reversing the natural loss of lean muscle, and therefore lowers the effect of calorie intake. The body retains a healthier composition ratio of lean body mass to fat mass (HSPH, 2013). The U.S. Center for Disease Control also notes that strength training can decrease the severity of symptoms from ailments like arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, back pain and depression (CDC, 2013).

Flexibility refers to the "total range of motion in a joint or group of joints" (Kravitz & Heyward, 2013). The goal of a flexibility program is to maximize joint mobility and to maintain joint stability. Flexibility should always focus on the systemic improvement of flexibility, so total body flexibility rather than individual joints. Flexibility training is beneficial in that it helps to preserve range of motion and it will reduce muscle soreness and decrease the risk of injury when performing physical tasks (HSPH, 2013).

Pre-Implementation Stage

There will be a number of different strength tests undertaken during the pre-implementation period. The objective of this period is to judge where my areas of strength and weakness are. This will help guide the development of the strength program. The strength tests will be single arm curls, bench press, squats and pull downs. The single arm curl tests bicep strength. The bench press tests strength of pectoralis major, biceps, triceps, latissimus dorsi and deltoids. Squats test the strength of the quadriceps group and the gluteus maximus and medius. Other tests will be used to isolate the latissimus dorsi, the… [read more]

Pregnant Athletes Identification Many Ethical Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Therefore, this policy can be helpful in protecting the unborn child and the pregnant athlete.

Non-consequential Ethical Theory

Many countries have signed the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all sorts of Discrimination against Women. The aim of this convention is to guard the fundamental rights of women and give them equal opportunities as compared to men. One of… [read more]

Pregnant Athletes Identification Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Therefore since the act does not have arete, phronesis, it is morally wrong though it leads to eudaimonia which is seen in Fantasia being able to play in the team. In the eyes of a characteristically virtuous person, the action would not be wise since she is putting herself and the fetus at risk and she is being somewhat reckless… [read more]

Physical Program for Virginia Fire Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,831 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Essentially, "for a fitness program to be effective, he must follow a schedule that should allow for periodization," where strength training and endurance are divided into distinct phases or periods, each of which has a specific outcome, which allows each specific strength to peak at the right times" (Calcagno, 2012). Regular programs of aerobic exercises show the most improvement in cardio vascular health (Sherek, 2009).

Moreover, programs across the state need to be standardized to ensure that every county is benefitting from the additional training that will increase the performance and health of fire fighters. Unfortunately, "like the written exam, the physical exam varies from department to department" (Virginia Department of Fire Programs, 2013). This leaves room for error and disarray. Developing a state standardized physical fitness program that is based on the same crucial activities of the physical entrance test would be the best route.


Clearly, something needs to change before anyone else gets hurt because a lack of physical fitness on our fire departments. The health of the fire fighters themselves, as well as the community at large is at stake. The state of Virginia needs to adopt a mandatory physical fitness program for incumbent fire fighters so that they stay as fit as the day they were accepted in the department.


Biddle, Daniel A. & Bell, Stacy L. (2011). Using work-sample physical ability tests to maintain fitness standards of incumbent fire fighters. Fire and Police Selection, Inc. Web. http://www.fpsi.com/pdfs/physical-ability-test-maintenance-standards-article-fpsi.pdf

Calcagno, Guido. (2012). Physical fitness in the fire service. Fire Engineering. Web. http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-165/issue-12/features/physical-fitness-fire-service.html

NIOSH. (2009). Death in the line of duty: Fire fighter trainee suffers sudden cardiac death during maze training in Virginia. Faculty Assessment and Control Evaluation Investigation Report F2009-02. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face200902.pdf

Sherek, Becky. (2009). The four components of firefighter fitness. Firehouse. Web. http://www.firehouse.com/article/10473909/the-four-components-of-firefighter-fitness?page=3

Virginia Department of Fire Programs. (2013). Frequently asked questions. Virginia. Web. http://vdfp.virginia.gov/faqs.htm… [read more]

Sports-Related Concussion and Statistical Study Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Tactical Responsibilities

According to De Salvo et al. (2007) statistical techniques are not only used to assess players performance but the results and conclusions of these analyses are used to design and develop position conditioning and player's individual training plans. It is a contemporary sports science practice to use manual as well as technological tools to gather quantitative data and analyze the data using mean, percentage, standard deviation, and probability components of statistical techniques (Szymanski, 2003). The increased usage of these techniques has modified the applicability of traditional game planning practices. A position coordination analysis is also performed using computerized match analysis system. Match analysis techniques are also applied to opponent teams to assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Advantages and disadvantages

There are advantages and disadvantages of using these techniques. The advantages include a coordinated game design, planning, team selection, and position assignation. Whereas the disadvantages can be denoted as providing more control of the game in usage and accuracy of statistical and match analysis techniques. This has transformed the creativity and natural game of the players. Moreover genetic capabilities and physiological athletic capacity of the players cannot be enhanced using such techniques (De Salvo, 2007).


The research studies being reviewed indicate that all the studies were conducted by using the statistical tools and analysis methods. Professional sports such as hockey, football, baseball, basketball, and boxing, all leverage upon the statistical studies to manage performance management and health care as well as medical issues of sportsmen. Soccer leagues and clubs also leverage upon the in-depth studies being conducted by the researchers to manage the on-field and off-filed performance of the players.


Belanger, H.G., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345-357.

Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., & Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Neurocognitive performance of concussed athletes when symptom free. Journal of athletic training, 42(4), 504.

Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F.J., Bachl, N., & Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(3), 222.

Sampaio, J., Janeira, M., Ibanez, S., & Lorenzo, A. (2006). Discriminant analysis of game-related statistics between basketball guards forwards and centers in three professional leagues. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(3), 173-178.

Szymanski, S. (2003). The economic design of sporting contests. Journal of Economic Literature, 41(4), 1137-1187.

Weston, M., Castagna, C., Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., & Abt, G. (2007). Analysis of physical match performance in…… [read more]

Sports Related Web Sites Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sports Related Websites

Sports Related Web Sites

The Council on Web Development

Over the last several years, the Internet has become the way many people are learning about sports related content. This is occurring through them going to different websites. In order to know more about their favorite teams and news associated with them. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that nearly two thirds of Americans will use this as way to receive their news updates. This is transforming how organizations are reaching out to these individuals. However, not all websites are as informative and some offer limited amounts of information to stakeholders. Those who are utilizing the MOSC criteria can identify organizations with tremendous amounts of strength vs. weaknesses in their communications with the public. This means comparing two different websites with each other and contrasting the differences. Together, these elements will highlight what features helps select organizations to more effectively connect with fans. (Rosenr, 2011) ("Chapter 9," 2013)

The two websites that will be examined are the Denver Broncos and the North Carolina Amateur Sports Association. The Denver Broncos is a professional, informative and up-to-date website. This is because it is embracing all of the different factors under the MSOC model. The most notable include: individual involvement, motivation, content, design, performance, usability and commerce. Individual involvement is occurring the moment someone visits the home page. This is when they have a choice of going to the fans, kids or community section. Motivation is achieved by providing everyone with exciting information about upcoming events and how this will help the Broncos in the future. The content is excellent with the site offering up-to-date news and possible draft choices they will be selecting in April. The design is utilizing interactive videos, colors and pictures to enhance the content. Performance is taking place with the website quickly loading and using headlines / pictures / videos that will catch their attention. Usability is demonstrating how it is easy to understand and navigate. Commerce allows fans to purchase…… [read more]

Sports Management Memo: Comparing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This was just a three-month-summer job and although I was very efficient and helpful none of the tasks I performed at Wal-Mart relate to what will be expected of me at CRSC, should I be accepted. In addition, I have had some impressive sports accomplishments on the field of competition, which I hope will show those making the selection that I understand the culture of sports competition.


Besides listing the football awards I received (All Conference; All Area; Defensive Lineman of the Year), I need to recount some of the skills I learned in high school (typing, public relations in the community and marketing efforts on behalf of the Associated Student Body), some of the office duties I performed at New Mexico Military Institute (writing reports on activities; keeping schedules for my platoon), as well as the ability to meet deadlines.

I need to gather some impressive letters of recommendation from the leaders I have worked with who have appreciated my reliability and ability to learn quickly. I also should create a sample newsletter to show I can write competently, and practice designing brochures using my knowledge of Microsoft technologies. Moreover, I should meet with a current or past intern for the CRSC to pick his or her brain for exact details on what is expected of an intern at CRSC, where I should place my emphasis in my application, and certainly I need to upgrade my resume so it reflects more appropriate experiences and goals.

Works Cited

Charlotte Sports Commission. (2010). Sports Management Internship Program. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from http://www.charlottesports.org.… [read more]

Cohesion and Team Success Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  8 pages (3,189 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Cohesion and Team Success

There has been a great deal of research dedicated to attempting to explain the role of team cohesion in team success or effectiveness. There are those who claim that team effectiveness can be gained from social cohesion among team members and others who claim that task cohesions is more important in the team realizing success.

The… [read more]

Football and Society A- Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


e. The observer is looking and recording behaviors, without the notice of the subjects under observation (techniques, 2004). This type of direct field observation has kept me aloof from becoming an active participant of the game itself and has helped be to record unbiased observations. Further, this form of direct observation has suggested a more detached and separate perspective of… [read more]

Use of Anabolic Steroids in the Sporting World Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Anabolic Steroids in the sporting world

Anabolic Steroids

Steroid usage has become increasingly common in today's society, as "the number of professional athletes who have come to rely on performance-enhancing drugs including anabolic steroids and human growth hormone has grown" (Becker & Scheufele 445). Not only is the use of performance enhancing substances fairly routine in the world of professional and Olympic-caliber sporting competition, but usage is also increasing in rank amateur levels, such as those involving athletes in both high schools and colleges. There are a variety of reasons why people opt to take steroids, and most of them are related to a perceived benefit that will aid them in competitive situations. However, a thorough analysis of existing literature unequivocally indicates that although steroid use may generate some positive effect, it is ultimately harmful to the human body and mind.

Although steroid usage originated in the early part of the 20th century, it did not gain its widespread, pervasive presence until the middle to the late part of this century (Haff 42). Today, there is a large body of evidence that indicates that anabolic androgenic steroids produce a plethora of negative side effects -- the most salient of which is an increased hostility and aggression that manifests itself in different ways with users. Research indicates that steroid users have "increased hostility, aggression, depression, paranoid thoughts…and personality disturbances when using AAS" (International Society of Sports Psychology 3).

It is because of this propensity towards aggression and hostility for steroid users, which is merely and indicator of a disturbance in the innate harmony between the mind and the body, that steroid use ultimately brings negative effects upon its users. This proclivity to disturb the internal balance of the mind and the body is even more dangerous to younger users, particularly adolescents in high school and college. It is a well confirmed fact that the brain processes of adolescents does not fully form and function as that of a healthy adult until people are in their mid-20's. Therefore, the disruption of the natural harmony and balance between the body and the mind that the aggressive tendencies of anabolic steroid use engenders can lead younger users into harmful consequences such as becoming addicted to other drugs.

For example, "Among males not participating in school sports, 37% of the variation in anabolic steroid use was accounted for by frequency of cocaine use, injected drug use, and engaging in strength training" (Durant et al. 150). The combination of all of these mind-altering substances within adolescents whose brains are not full developed can prove highly detrimental to the growth and maturity of such an individual. This is particularly true since "Children seem to be the most susceptible…… [read more]

Boyhood, Organized Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,089 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Another area that Messner focused on was the relationship between boys and their fathers; whether they had one or didn't have one and the impact either of those circumstances had on the decisions made to enter sports and how that has manifested in their adult life. An early commitment to organized sports and the concept of the male identity was explored within the literature as well. Another area that Messner focused on was the notion of conditional self-worth and the impact and structure of competition. What seems to have been determined in the examination of the literature on this particular subject is that although boys tend to find close bonds with other boys within the context of organized sports, oftentimes the pressure associated with performance and the pressure to win frequently undermines the relationships that are fostered there. Competition between potential friends creates comparisons and contrasts as to skills, acceptance and performance that undermine the closeness and friendships. Moreover, much of the pressure comes from the adults that are a part of the organized sports process. The adults desire to be better than and to win at all costs significantly undermines the boyhood goals of partnership and close peer cohort bonds. These kinds of notions have led to differentiation in the status of one athlete over the other and serve as a means of laying the foundation for competition through adulthood.


Messner notes that instead of sports being just an opportunity for ethnic minority boys to have a place of athletic expression, it became the place where the very essence of manhood and masculinity were ultimately defined. For many of them the pressures associated with organized sports served to frame their ideas and ideals about masculinity and if the experience was negative, significantly impacted their male perspective and view on the world thus impacting the majority of their relationships and how they developed. This is of course in comparison to the other group of mostly white males who were able because of socioeconomic strata and family dynamics to use organized sports as a place to develop their athletic prowess as opposed to seeking male role models and examples of masculinity.

Messner posits several questions or hypotheses that he determines to answer through the aforementioned study. The answers to those questions are within the body of the information provided however, the reader is required to glean some of the information rather than it being stated outright. He does not state specifically or identify specifically within the article that this is the independent and dependent variable or that this is the methodology that I used or even talk a great deal about the theoretical framework through which his study is completed. The reader is required then to have some sense of what a quantitative vs. qualitative study construct looks like and be able to identify the study related factors and variables on their own. Messner does offer some general answers to the questions he posed and attributes much of what he… [read more]

Inverted U. Hypothesis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,647 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


A study conducted comparing athletes participants competing in sports teams (basket ball) with athletes competing in track and field (individual sports) revealed that athletes competing in track and field sports report significantly increased somatic anxiety and reduced self-confidence that athletes in team sports.

In addition, some researchers suggest that genders differences also affect the relationship between self-confidence, somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety, for instance research reveals that the females had higher somatic anxiety and lower self-confidence scores than males in athletics sport. Similarly, another research revealed that adolescents, irrespective of gender, experienced higher somatic and cognitive anxiety levels and lowers self-confidence level as their opponents ability increased.

In his study Reeve (2008, p56) established that among the males, somatic and cognitive anxiety level was more strongly influenced by their perception of the ability of the opponent and the probability of winning. While female self-confidence and cognitive anxiety are determined by the significant they place on success and their readiness to perform,(


Clearly, inverted U. hypothesis exerts differs on athletic performance. Such impacts vary based on gender, level of experience and sports. Also, in order to facilitate optimal performance by athletic participants, sport psychologists should consider the principle aspects of anxiety such as somatic anxiety, self-confidence and cognitive anxiety.


Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.

Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.

Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.

Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.

Vestman, M., & Eden, D. (1992). The Inverted-U relationship between stress and performance: is it time to retire An overworked…… [read more]

Major Sports Happenings of the 1960 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (539 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Sports Happenings of the 1960's

The 1960s were particularly important when considering sports and a great deal of individuals managed to amaze the whole world as a result of their dedication and as a consequence of the fact that they broke records that the masses considered unbreakable. The name Muhammad Ali is probable to trigger intense feelings in all individuals who had anything to do with the world of sports during their lives. This person succeeded in demonstrating that the impossible was actually possible and did so by putting across a humble attitude, as he acknowledge the role that society as a whole played in his upbringing and in the moments when he experienced the greatest times of his life.

Muhammad Ali is largely considered to be one of the greatest athletes of the twentieth century and this is reflected by the fact that he was widely appreciated by a global public throughout his career and even after he retired. Ali's motto "Fly like a butterfly, sting like a bee" probably reflects his fighting style and makes it possible for individuals to acknowledge the sportsman's strategy. He is among the most important persons who demonstrated that boxing was not only a sport that involved strength and agility, as it also required a great deal of thinking.

Wilt Chamberlain is yet another sportsperson who managed to amaze the entire world as a result of his performances. In spite of the fact that he had a difficult childhood, Wilt succeeded to fight most of his problems and emerged victoriously as he started to experience more and more success playing…… [read more]

Canadian National Identity Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,555 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Until this there was no other identity Canada had, except being called as a British colony. As stated by Grant, the intention of many Canadians was to have a different identity from United States, in terms of religion, education, politics, and socialism (Grant, 1965).

As Canadians were searching for a different cultural identity, Hockey provided a platform for it. It… [read more]

Biomechanical Priciples Biomechanical Principles Biomechanics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Instead, the swimmer must find the optimal point in their pull where the most water will be moved. This results in the best and most efficient stroke.

There are currently two strokes that swimmers use to optimize their thrust. The first is a traditional pinwheel stroke. This stroke involves keeping the arm straight in the water and producing a semi-circle. The second stroke is known as the caterpillar arm and involves bending the arm slightly to keep a straight line in the water. This second move efficiently pushes more water out of the way and minimizes the strain on the shoulder (Richardson, 1986).

As can be seen, freestyle swimming is as much a science as any other athletic move. It requires precision of motion to counter the force of the water and maximize energy during a swim. Without taking all factors into consideration, an athlete will expend greater amounts of energy with less overall success.


Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.

Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles

Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.

Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.

Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Berg, C. v. d., & Vorontsov, A.…… [read more]

Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,128 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


While this claim is supported by scientific evidence on one hand, on the other hand, few people will adhere to a rigorous diet and exercise program simply on the promise that it will make them healthy, without enjoying some 'results.' Also, there is no denying that regardless of the level of activity, once the BMI of the individual surpasses a certain point, exercise and mobility can become hard on the joints, lead to injury, and make it difficult to fully enjoy the benefits of exercise. "I don't think most people would appreciate that, wow, you only burned 200 or 300 calories, which you're going to neutralize with just half that muffin" eaten after a run (Cloud 2009:3). For many patients, it is virtually impossible to separate the need to lose weight from exercise, and finding an exercise program and eating program that is calorically 'balanced' is essential.

The value of exercise and its relationship to health should not be discounted, of course, but the claims of the book, particularly its Plan A moderate walking campaign, must be viewed with caution in terms of really offering enough physical activity to ensure good health when weight loss is required. At best, it should be viewed as a transitional step to more intensive exercise. Of course, if Plan A is intense for a previously sedentary person, they may see substantial health benefits that are worth noting and praising. But unless a person continually increased the intensity his or her health regime, he or she will not see continued weight loss. The American Heart Association and the American College of Sports Medicine's joint guidelines for physical activity and health stated that "30 minutes of moderate physical activity five days a week is necessary to promote and maintain health...It is reasonable to assume that persons with relatively high daily energy expenditures would be less likely to gain weight over time, compared with those who have low energy expenditures. So far, data to support this hypothesis are not particularly compelling" (Taubes 2007:1). Ensuring that energy expenditure was in balance with caloric intake was essential, not simply adding exercise minutes to the day.

Once again, this does not discount the role exercise can play in improving a patient's state of health. But a patient must truly understand that exercise alone, particularly the extremely moderate exercise prescribed by the Cooper Institute, is not enough to sustain major weight loss. Even if thinness and fitness is not the same thing, many patients who try to exercise are, at some level, hoping for weight loss, and they must have realistic expectations regarding low levels of activity. Almost every healthcare provider has met someone who insists that he or she exercises but cannot lose weight, and usually that person is not exercising at a hard enough level to elevate his or her heart rate. A better way to evaluate exercise intensity would be to consider target heart rates, which measures intensity and caloric expenditure.


Cloud, John. (2009). Why exercise won't… [read more]

Sports Wagering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,036 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


He was an NBA referee for 13 years but with a bad gambling habit he could not resist making some side money on the game he was paid to provide honest officiating for. The federal counts against him included wire fraud, and conspiracy to transmit wagering information over state lines.

Personal Experience with Sports Wagering

In 2008 a handsome thoroughbred horse named Big Brown breezed to victories in the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness, and horseracing fans were expecting him to win the Triple Crown by taking the Belmont Stakes too. So I went online on BoDog and did a "pick 4" -- picking the winners of the three races leading up to the Belmont Stakes and of course picking Big Brown in the climatic race. Amazingly, all three of the horses I picked in the first three races won. It was just a matter of Big Brown winning, as expected. He pulled up lame and never finished the race. Had he won, my investment of $16 would have earned me $30,000. I laughed loudly at myself. Few people win these kinds of wagers, and I wasn't to be one of them.

My Opinion and the Ethical Concepts that Apply

Personally I believe people are going to wager on sports in larger and larger numbers, especially now that they can log on to wagering Web sites on their smart phones, or on their home computers. I don't know that wagering on sports is any less ethical than buying lottery tickets or joining the office pool for March Madness. But there should be good educational materials for young people starting in high school, to warn them of the dangers of wagering. Moreover, if the money a person spends on wagering it taking away from his family or his own well being, that is very unethical.

According to utilitarianism, a morally good action is an action that does the greatest degree of good for the greatest number of people. Who benefits when a father puts up $50 on a sports wager but that means he cannot help his daughter who needs about that same amount of money for her gymnastics class? The father may be hoping to make some money on the wager, but the odds are against it.

Another perspective is that if a father wishes to wager on sports events, he should find another part-time job to provide him with that extra cash to spend on gambling. He should not use his or his wife's regular income that must be used for the family, the household, and unexpected expenses that come up. Of course if the father is an obsessive gambler, he needs to seek help from gamblers anonymous or another group before he gets into deeper trouble.

Works Cited

Beck, Howard, and Schmidt, Michael S. (2007). NBA Referee Pleads Guilty to Gambling

Charges. The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com.

ESPN.com. (2007). Rose Admits to betting on Reds 'every night'. Retrieved December 5, 2011,

From http://espn.go.com.… [read more]

Becoming a Strength and Conditioning Coach Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sports and Conditioning Coach

Becoming a Strength & Conditioning Coach

Becoming a strength and conditioning coach: An overview

People who are drawn to the profession of coaching, specifically the profession of a strength and conditioning coach or personal trainer, come from many different backgrounds. Some of them may have played sports in high school and college and want to make… [read more]

Sport in Athlete Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Arts and Sports


David Best disagrees that sports cannot be art. He argues that sports can be the subject of art but art cannot be the subject of sports. David Best feels that if sports were accepted to be regarded as art forms then they would be very poor art forms. David also says that regarding sports as art would devalue it. Therefore he remained even more convinced that sports are not form of art and insisted that sports should be judged by its own including aesthetic standards because if sports is judged by artistic standards it will be devalued.

Seymour Kleinman agrees that sports can be arts .He says that sports has the possibility of becoming an art form but it depends on the intention of the athlete to act as an artisan. Kleinman also says that the prime requisite is that athlete should begin to view themselves as artists and that until this happens, sports and art merge infrequently.

Spencer Wertz accepted that purposive sports cannot be art but he believed that aesthetic sports could be art. Wertz supports his argument by saying that sports are performing arts because the rules of sports are like artistic texts .He also adds that what sets the performances off from other activities is that the action which make up a given performance must satisfy antecedent requirements. He sums up by saying that performing arts are actions governed by antecedent works or texts. Wertz assumes that when sports are successfully regarded as art, status of sports would be raised.

Is there a relationship between "form" and "aesthetic" sports?

Yes, there is a relationship between form and aesthetic sports. This is because some of the aesthetic sports such as figure skating and synchronized swimming are considered to be art forms hence proving that they are related.…… [read more]

Sport Aesthetic Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sport as Aesthetic

Edgar Degas' painting "Horses on the Course at Longchamp" applies the principle of gradation to the color temperature of the piece. Degas uses warm color tones such as orange, yellow, and brown to achieve a moderate intensity which connects the horses, the riders, and the autumnal scene in the background. The gradation of color amongst the trees, the riders' clothing, and the subtle differences in the horses' color creates overall harmony and lends the painting a subdued tone which indicates that the race referred to in the painting's title is at its conclusion. Degas captures the quiet moments after the horse race rather than the intensity and high drama of the race itself. The movement in this piece is very understated, to emphasize the slow gait of the horses, and is accomplished primarily through the use of vertical lines in the horses' legs.

John Groth uses a variety of techniques to create the 'illusion of motion' in his painting "Tilting at the Ring." He uses blotches of color and the blurring of the jousters to demonstrate that he is in the midst of a highly energetic match. This technique is also used around the waving flags and the feet of the horses, two kinds of movement which further bolster the activity of the jouster himself. Vertical lines are also utilized -- primarily in the jousting sticks, which are at various sharp angles -- to emphasize that the sportsman are fully engaged in their activity. The composition of the painting, in which the jousters are in the foreground and thus given dominance over the observers, increases the 'illusion of motion'. This is further supported by the blurring of the observers, and the jaunty, anticipatory angles of the jousting sticks held by those jousters waiting for their matches. Groth also uses a gradation of value in the jouster, whose arched back and raised forearm are painted in dark hues which gradually lighten as the eye follows his body…… [read more]

Sports Neil Leifer's Photograph Makes Basketball Superstar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Neil Leifer's photograph makes basketball superstar Michael Jordan looks larger than life, capturing the moment the player soars through the air to earn his nickname Air Jordon. The other players on the court literally and figuratively look up at him, as Jordan seems to defy gravity. Jordan actually is flying through the air, as the distance between his knees and the ground seems impossible. Yet the image does not present Jordan as a magician but as a true athlete: someone who has reached the pinnacle of his career because he works hard. The other players seem diminutive next to Jordan and they also respect him even though they are his opponents. The composition of the photo facilitates the point-of-view that Jordan is in the foreground, large, looming, and dominant in the game.

David Black's photo relies both on composition and on shadow to convey the tense moment of the hockey face-off. The shadows are ominous, and one section of a shadow looks like it will eat the other. Clearly they are the shadows of two opponents. Their shadows are in fact larger than the players themselves. This evokes the dark side; the shadow-self of players who will do everything possible to win including fight their opponents on the ice. The face-off circle looks like a drop of blood, which signals the intensity of the game and a possible brawl. The referee is noticeably garbed in neutral black and white, in contrast to the red of the face-off circle.

2. An opportunity to shoot college football in mixed weather is actually a mixed blessing. On the one hand, I must be prepared for any number of lighting conditions, including irregular light and natural shadows as well as wet weather. This demands flexibility with regards to f-stop settings. The light will change, possibly from one moment to the next.

On the other hand, the stark contrasts that stormy weather brings to a shot can add highlights that could never be…… [read more]

Sports Psychology Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sports Psychology: Annotated Bibliography

Brunette, Michelle K., Michel Lariviere, Robert J. Schinke, Xiaoyan Xing, Pat Pickard. (2011).

Fit to belong: activity and acculturation of Chinese students. Journal of Sport Behavior.

FindArticles.com. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6401/is_3_34/ai_n58009367/

This study hypothesized that physical activity could increase the potential for an easy cross-cultural transition of students into a new culture by enhancing the student's physical, mental, and social health. An interpretative (hermeneutic) phenomenological framework was used, mainly through interviewing and 'coding' the interviews to understand of how physical activity could ease student's cross-cultural transition. Fourteen Chinese students from a mid-size university in Northeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The participants were interviewed and over the course of the study participated in basketball and soccer with Chinese and Canadian teammates; other students tried 'Canadian' outdoor activities including skiing, snowboarding, skating, and hockey. Interviews in Chinese were taped, translated and then 'coded' into specific issues to allow for comparative study between the participant's reactions. Students reported enhanced communication skills and a greater sense of belonging: sports aided them in learning how to speak English, make friends, eased psychological distress and anxiety, and made them feel more at home in Canada.

Downs, Andrew & Jennifer Ashton. (2011). Vigorous physical activity, sports participation, and athletic identity: implications for mental and physical health in college students. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6401/is_3_34/ai_n58009368/

There has been a strong increase in college students with mental health issues and students who manifest unhealthy behaviors like binge drinking. Vigorous exercise is often prescribed as a possible solution to mental health issues because of the ability of exercise to increase the release of 'feel good' neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin that also mitigate the body's reaction to stress. But college students are often less physically active than when they were in high school. Continued participation in physical activity was hypothesized to lead to more healthy behaviors and also lower rates of depression in college students. The participants for this experimental study included 395 undergraduate college students (286 female and 109 male). The participants completed self-report instruments that assessed their levels of depression, sports participation history, athletic identity, and psychological and overall behavioral functioning. Students who were continuously active showed higher levels of mental health, and also manifested healthier behaviors. They had lower usage rates of electronics and ate more healthy foods, although their tendency to binge drink and eat 'junk food' remained equal to their physically inactive counterparts.

Modrono, Cristian &…… [read more]

Compare High School Sports to College Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


High school sports vs. college sports

With the possible exception of the most challenging high schools in the nation, most students experience more freedom and also more responsibility regarding their academic choices and behavior in college. However, this is not necessarily true of high school sports vs. college sports. In some areas of the country, such as the South, an entire community may become focused on the performance of a high school football team; in the Midwest, the same is true for high school basketball. In contrast, some sports in college may be extremely casual, intramural affairs such as an ultimate Frisbee team. The difficulty level of high school sports depends on the type of sport and intensity of competition at the school.

Both high school and college sports can be extremely competitive. Elite high school athletes often go to summer sports clinics over the summer and subject themselves to grueling practices with the hopes of winning a college scholarship. High-level college athletes often want to retain their sports scholarships, and are under a great deal of pressure from coaches and alumni to succeed. The pressure they feel may be greater than what high school athletes feel because the finances as well as the reputation of the school are at stake. A school with a successful college basketball or football team can command more applications, boost its selectivity, and also draw more alumni donations. High schools are not as dependent upon the performance of their teams to remain solvent.

Although more money is at stake in college sports, increasing the tension for athletes when they play, the payoff is often much greater. Star athletes can garner the attention of professional sports leagues such as the NFL and the NBA. Success in college means keeping valuable athletic scholarships for high tuition bills. And it can also mean garnering national attention for the athlete's feats, which can translate into success even off the courts, in business, provided that the athletes also get reasonable grades. For the most elite college athletes, grades are often less of a concern -- unlike high school athletes who want to play in college; they do not have to graduate to realize…… [read more]

Personal Wellness Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Wellness Philosophy

My personal wellness philosophy includes two important components- the internal and the external. It's important that I feel healthy and happy about my general well-being, with good and bad stresses. Generally, I think internal wellness is accepting and loving my body and the things that surround me and foster a generally positive attitude. This internal wellness impacts my fitness and health as it allows me to fuel my workouts, because I know that it will allow me to have more energy and will help me feel better about myself. The external wellness is that of wanting to be healthy, toned and athletic. This external component of my personal wellness philosophy definitely relates and positively impacts my fitness and health as it helps me get to the gym and work on both cardio activities as well as weights.

The philosophy that I harbor towards my body and mind has been influenced by society, family and culture, as well as the information that I have learned over the years. Society and culture has emphasized, especially with new healthcare legislation, that being healthy and leaner is the body type that is sought after and more accepted by society; therefore, it has influenced my eating habits and fitness goals. My family and the…… [read more]

Commodification of Sport and Physical Activity Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sports have been enjoyed as a form of entertainment at least since the times of the ancient Greeks. The perfection of the human body through athleticism is likewise nothing new. Team sports and leagues have been part of (at least male) communities throughout the modern era. However, the role sports play in the 21st century is qualitatively different than the role sports have played in the past. Even a hundred years ago, athletes who did earn money did not earn enough to make their sport a full-time job. Elite athletes now are not just eking out a living; they are signing multi-million dollar contracts that tie them to teams. Corporate sponsorship and celebrity endorsement advertising supplement their fat salaries further. It is the latter, the corporate infiltration of sports, that is a phenomenon unique to the late 20th and early 21st century. The relationship is fostered and nurtured by the media, creating a complex web in which athletes, the media, and capitalist enterprise are entangled.

The relationship between sports, the media, and capitalism is exploitative and symbiotic at the same time. What Real (1998) calls "the institutional alignments of sports and media in the context of late capitalism" is taken for granted so much around the world that spectators do not seem to notice or care the extent of problem (p. 15). While athletes surely benefit from the injection of financial torque into their profession, the spectator is reduced in many cases to a marketing tool. The athletes may be the ones wearing corporate logos on their jerseys as they do in Australia. As McKay & Miller (1991) note, such blatant corporate branding has transformed the character of sports in Australia. "The once hegemonic amateur ideology has become increasingly marginal and residual…most amateur and semiprofessional men's and women's sports have also become reliant on corporate support," (McKay & Miller 1991, p. 7). The same can be said for sports in nearly every region of the world, save for pick-up games played casually on the street.

Hughes & Coakley (1984) illustrate one of the ironies of the commodification of sport. In the United States, and perhaps elsewhere, spectators have become deluded as to their own athletic capacity and sometimes imagine themselves as being equally as capable of greatness as an elite athlete is. "Many of the viewers of media sporting events are not drawn to those events by their respect for and appreciation of excellence," note Hughes & Coakley (1984, p. 59). "Quite the reverse, they are drawn precisely by the belief that anyone can play and there is nothing special about those who do, at least nothing special enough to discourage active emulation," (Hughes & Coakley 1984, p. 59).

Thus, the consumer is dumbed down not only in the sense of being an easy marketing target but also in the sense of becoming actually stupid. The commodification of sport is more a mirror than it is a cause, though. Sport is not the only arena in which mass media harnesses… [read more]

Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Age and Exercise Web Page Analysis

Website used for research: http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/age.html

This website is based at the University of New Mexico's homepage and is relatively credible given the fact that it comes from an educational resource. Also, the site is written by a professor with a Ph. D. This person is familiar with citation and referencing the resources used to make specific arguments on the page. The information is very credible compared with other sites and I would be comfortable having older clients read and understand this information. As far as the usefulness of the information provided, the page is broken down into different types of training. This helps make it more useful to people looking for specific exercises or information relative to aging and exercise. The page also includes information that is useful to professionals as well as older adults, adding to the usefulness of the information it contains.

The author, also a UNM professor, seems to have…… [read more]

Personal Training Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Jack presents a number of physical challenges that will influence his training, namely his age, his weight, and his impaired eyesight. While all of these factors are important considerations in designing his training program, the key factor to remember is that despite his limitations, helping Jack lose weight and decrease his body fat percentage will aid his mobility and his ability to perform ADL (activities of daily living) well into his older years. The fact that Jack already walks several times a week demonstrates a commitment to fitness; including strength and flexibility training and varying his aerobic routine will allow him to maximize fat reduction results while increasing strength and stamina in his daily routine. At my initial consultation, I would ask him for three-month commitment, and, because experience shows me that many older clients show some reluctance to commit to that time, I would be sure to explain that this was a marathon, not a sprint, and help him set realistic expectations for his fitness goals. I would also establish my fees, and ask about his insurance if I was working at a fitness facility that accepted Humana or other Medicare plans that pay fitness benefits. I would also present him with a health history questionnaire, and, because of his special health concerns and age, explain the importance of my speaking to and receiving a release from his physician prior to beginning our program. I would set an initial appointment with Jack, and plan a comfortable, private time and location to perform some basic fitness tests.

At Jack's initial appointment, I would go over his health questionnaire, and look for any additional red flags besides his weight, age, and vision impairment. I would consult with his physician as to the degree of this impairment, and how it affects his ability to use various exercise equipment. For the purposes of this paper, we'll assume his vision impairment would not be severe enough to impede his use of exercise equipment, and that he could see well enough to maneuver in a gym environment with a trainer's guidance. During the consultation with Jack's physician, I would pay attention to any mention of a history of heart disease, diabetes, certain forms of cancer (such as colon cancer), and high blood pressure. Not only would the history of heart disease and high blood pressure necessitate more frequent heart rate monitoring than would normally be used in an older individual, but the risk of all of these diseases could be a powerful motivating force in encouraging Jack to continue his exercise program, as exercise has been shown to decrease these risks. (Agency for Healthcare Research and Strategy). Finally, after obtaining physician approval, I would measure Jack's circumference, body fat, and weight. I would also perform two basic mobility tests, the sit-to-stand test and the half-turn test, to get an idea of Jack's basic mobility. (Medscape)

My primary focus in strength training Jack would be to establish and increase basic strength and mobility. Using the circuits… [read more]

Nike's Global Women's Fitness Business Driving Strategic Integration Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Business Management Case Study -- Nike Strategy

Introduction to Organizational Strategy on Women's Fitness

The current organizational strategy of Nike with respect to women's fitness comprises a shift in seven specific aspects of its approach. In principle, it marks a shift away from the previous isolated initiative-based concept toward an integrated portfolio-based concept. That includes establishing a permanent prominence of brand loyalty instead of a series of inconsistent relationships as well as a shift toward concept-based collections instead of color-based selections. Mike also hopes to establish a consistent retail experience at the global level. Finally, the organization intends to rectify inconsistent and inadequate dedication of resources and to move away from the isolated business opportunity-based approach toward an integrated acceleration of global business opportunities.

Outline of Problems Encountered

According to the general manager of Nike's global women's fitness component, some of the problems encountered in implementing the new strategy included difficulties in connection with working across traditional boundaries within the organization's complex, matrixed structure to establish the necessary cross-business integration to be able to establish an integrated or cohesive collection of products including footwear, apparel, and sports-related equipment for the women's market. In that regard, other specific barriers included organizing and coordinating many disparate product units and business units and many different operation sites located in remote geographic regions to share a common schedule and to work collaboratively toward a common organizational goal. In the process, the organization also had to overcome leadership challenges that emerged as…… [read more]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  8 pages (2,152 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Arnold, T., & Shelbourne, K. (2000). A perioperative rehabilitation program for anterior cruciate ligament surgery. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28, 1-16

Rehabilitation is crucial for postoperative knee injury. Describing their somewhat innovative preoperative program that had been conducted at their clinic during the last 10 years, the researchers detailed the 4-phase structure that they used to restore patients to activity… [read more]

Sports Fans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sports Fans

Are you a HomeTowner or an Encyclopedia? Sport Fans Classified.

Have you ever taken a personality test, either for a job interview or even to gain entrance to a school? The results of those tests are designed to help figure out what makes you tick. An employer can figure out how you would work on a tem, or whether or not you'll be stealing pens from the supply closet. A school may be interested in how self-motivated you are. Usually these tests don't have clear cut answers -- each one of us seemed to have a little bit of this and a little bit of that all thrown in together. What if there were a similar test for sports fans? How would we classify them, and what kinds of categories would stand alone and which would overlap? Because there are so many different kinds of sports fans, this essay is devoted to just a few of the kinds. As in the mainstream personality tests, there is no clear answer when trying to classify sports fans.

The first type of sports fan is the HomeTowner. This fan loves all the local teams, and they're said to "bleed" the teams' colors. They either grew up in the city whose teams they love or had a parent who influenced them strongly in childhood. HomeTowners don't care very much about a game if their home team isn't involved or directly affected by the outcome. HomeTowners also have a hard time seeing the deficiencies in their own teams. If they're not careful, HomeTowners can easily become Entitled Fans. These fans believe that their team should always win, and that they are owed a title of championship. The good thing about Entitled Fans is that they are always optimistic. HomeTowners also give rise to the third kind of sports fan, the Romantic. This fan keeps a special place in his heart for favorite players and teams of bygone eras. Over time, the facts about these players and teams become obscured by nostalgia, and the Romantic can spend many hours lost in the past. Be prepared to hear repetitive stories from the Romantic, especially when the current team is having a bad year.

Some sports fans have shifting loyalties, and unlike the HomeTowner and the Romantic,…… [read more]

Professional Sports it Is Wise Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Professional Sports

It is wise for a major metropolis to promote professional sports as a means of promoting the city. This may not extend to providing funding for major athletic infrastructure projects, but at least on a small scale the promotion of professional sports has benefits for cities. The impact is felt most acutely on small or mid-sized metropolises that stand to gain more from the exposure a professional team brings. This paper will analyze recent examples to illustrate the benefits.

One of the best case studies comes with the Columbus Blue Jackets, a 1998 NHL expansion team that is organized as a public-private partnership. At the time, Columbus was the largest metro area in the United States without a professional sports franchise. A Rust Belt city, Columbus had top-tier college sports, but also faced competition for investment and business from other nearby cities such as Detroit and Cleveland. A study released by the team found economic benefits of $7.59 billion in payroll and revenue to local businesses as a result of the Blue Jackets and the Nationwide Arena that was constructed in order to attract the team. The area where the arena is located was a derelict area that once housed a prison, and was redesigned entirely around the concept of an arena and a professional sports franchise. Over the first ten years of operation, approximately "$850 million in spending in central Ohio can be attributed" to the arena and its tenants. The number of businesses in the area increased by 50% in that period. In addition, a survey of hockey fans at the arena found that 90% of them were proud of Columbus for having a professional team and 78% of them believed that the Blue Jackets "give the rest of the country the idea that Columbus is a big-time city." (Thompson, 2009).

Another case study is that of the NBA Memphis Grizzlies, who relocated from Vancouver over a decade ago into an arena that was funded by the city to attract a professional sports franchise. An economic impact report from the Memphis Chamber of Commerce found that nearly 1400 full-time jobs were created by the move and annual economic impact is around $223 million (Morgan, 2010). Opponents of the publicly-funded arena argue that the entire Grizzlies payroll is included in that figure, making the claims spurious, and that the actual tax benefits of the Memphis Grizzlies are insufficient to cover the interest payments on the arena (deMause, 2010).

These examples show that the advantages are clear -- public perception of…… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.