"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays

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Women in Sports Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women in Sports

Sports, as well as other areas of social reality like politics or labor, have been viewed as a man's world for many centuries. As it has happened in politics or human rights, women have always found not only the strength but also the leadership to take things to the next level and create positive change in the… [read more]


Youth Sports Development Center Business Plan

Business Plan  |  4 pages (992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Youth Sports Development Center will be organized as a Limited Liability Corporation under the existing state laws. A centralized facility has been rented to provide a full range of coaching and instructions services in the sports of baseball, basketball, football, soccer, tennis, volleyball, and lacrosse. This facility will contain the finest fitness equipment necessary to provide the young athlete with all his or her individual needs. Additionally, the Center will hire the best available coaching and instructors.

Participation in organized sports has exploded in the past several decades and parents are increasingly eager to provide their children with any available edge to enable them to be more competitive. Informal surveys indicate that within a 20-mile radius of the Youth Sports Development Center there are over 40,000 young athletes seeking the services available at the Center. This is the only facility of its kind in the area so there is no readily available competition.

The Center intends to rely heavily upon the available coaching and instructional talent in the area. This will enable the Center to keep its labor costs low and help it to develop the support of the local community. By locating its facility in an area heavily populated by school aged children accessibility will be enhanced and parents will be more motivated to use the facility for their children.

1.1 Mission

It is the goal of the Youth Sports Development Center to provide not only the finest facility and equipment possible for the local sports community but also provide the highest level coaching and instruction possible. Through the process of providing these services, the facility should prove to be popular with the community which should guarantee steady growth and a consistently increasing source of revenue.

1.2 Objectives

Youth Sports Development Center will begin operation in the Fall

The expected level of participation in the first year is 5,500 athletes

The projected growth in the first year is 30%

By the end of the third year of operation the level of participation will be over 10,000 athletes

1.3 Keys to Success

Locating in a neighborhood that is heavily populated by school aged children

Providing quality service that is not available in the area

Enhancing the facility's relationship with local sports programs, coaches, and school districts

Ensuring that the facility provides a full range of available services and anticipating the needs of its customers

Start-up Summary

The start-up costs for the Youth Sports Development Center are substantial due to the size of the facility needed to provide the services and the cost of the equipment necessary. The initial monies will be provided through the private funds of the principles and a low cost loan provided by the Small Business Administration. At the present time there are no outside investors.

Start -- up Expense Requirements

Legal

$500.00

Advertising

$3,000.00

Utilities

$3,600.00

Insurance

$5,000.00

Rent

$14,000.00

Contractors

$4,500.00

Total

$30,000.00

Start-up Assets

Cash

$5,000.00

Current Assets

$25,000.00

Long-term Assets

$30,000.00

Total Assets

$60,000.00

Total Start-up Requirements

$90,000.00

Liabilities…… [read more]


Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

With that in mind, the use of performance-enhancing drugs in professional sports is not only detrimental to the health of an athlete but also poses serious ethical concerns.

3. Legal Sanctions and Damage to Reputation

It is important to note that quite a number of performance-enhancing drugs have been outlawed by most professional sport leagues. As such, those who test positive for steroids face the risk of doing jail terms for going against clear legal provisions governing professional sporting conduct. To highlight this assertion, it may be imperative to recall a few of the most recent high profile performance-enhancement charges that had a severe impact on the career of two successful athletes. As an example, Marion Jones who until 2007 had an illustrious professional sports career admitted to having used performance-enhancing drugs. Apart from being sentenced to six months in prison for the admission, Jones also had some of the prizes as well as medals she had won previously confiscated. Another high profile professional athlete who has been caught up in the performance-enhancing drugs melee is Barry Bonds who was largely popular as an outfielder in Major League Baseball. Following his involvement in what has come to be widely referred to as the BALCO scandal, Bonds suffered severe public scrutiny. The former athlete was also indicted for what was branded obstruction of justice.

Conclusion

Given the adverse effects of using performance-enhancing drugs as has been noted above, it is clear that the costs of using the same by far outweighs the benefits. In addition to the toll such drugs have on the health of the user; most sports organizations have banned the use of the same effectively meaning that testing positive for prohibited substances could deal a deadly blow to an otherwise illustrious athletic carrier. Hence based on these submissions, the use of performance-enhancing drugs is inherently wrong and cannot be justified in professional sports.

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Performance-enhancing Drugs: Know the Risks: Are you hoping to gain a competitive edge by taking muscle-building supplements or other performance-enhancing drugs? Learn how these drugs work and how they can affect your health. Mayo Clinic. N.p., 23rd Dec 2010. Web. 10th Dec 2011.

Robinson, Paul. Foundations of Sports Coaching. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2009. Print

Rosen, Daniel M. Dope: A History of Performance Enhancement in Sports from the Nineteenth Century…… [read more]


Sports Tourism Assessment

Assessment  |  13 pages (4,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sports Tourism: Belfast, Northern Ireland

Having a sport mega event in Belfast, Northern Ireland is something that would have to be carefully considered. It may or may not work, depending on the type of the event and other factors. The best way to determine whether an event of this type would work in Belfast would be through two avenues: a… [read more]


Cornell Sports Marketing the Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The concentrated location of the freshman on the North Campus of the institution makes the freshman an ideal market that can be the object of a great deal of advertising, from posters to staged publicity events, with a relative minimum of cost. Entertainment and the social aspect of Ivy League sports can be stressed, given that parties and other celebrations of victory or defeat can spill over into this area of the campus, and also because traditionally, the communality rather than the athletic excellence of League athletics is the main reason for attendance at games.

Incentives such as free admission for freshman would encourage attendance, as well as specifically targeting sports of greater interest, such as basketball, where certain Cornell athletes excel. Using booster club's donations to facilitate transportation and discounted paraphernalia to freshman, and deploying select free events such as having the basketball team give away prizes at the common eating facilities or having 'shot competitions' at halftime could also be selectively deployed in a selective fashion to this young population of Cornell.… [read more]


Gold's Gym Fitness Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Gold's Gym

This report is an industry profile on Gold's Gym. The report will cover the company from four perspectives: Gold's industry's historical development, Gold's competitive structure, a general environment analysis and the global nature of the industry.

Gold's Gym International has been considered one of the global leaders in the fitness industry for nearly forty years. The company and… [read more]


High School Sports Recruitment the Dream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … High School Sports Recruitment

The dream of any competitive athlete, young or old, is to be recruited with the hopes of working professionally. Lure of fame and fortune is particularly poignant in adolescence, especially because of the celebrity status of professional athletes in all sports, from basketball to football to baseball to hockey. However, young athletes in high… [read more]


Sports in American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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However, over time, sports would become a significant arena in the battles that were against segregation and racial refinement.

The Negro National League had been discovered in 1920 by Rube Foster, and this organization was like a hub for blacks going through racism on the field. This league did survive for a while but racism in this recreation of baseball went on for a very long time. The Negro Southern League operated consecutively from 1920, usually at a lower level. Up until, until 1946 professional baseball in the United States was performed in two racially separated league organizations, both that were on each side of the so-called color line. During a lot of the time there were two high-level "Negro major leagues" that were having championship playoffs or all-star games, as among the white major leagues.

A lot of Latinos came into the United States when official segregation confronted thoughtful tasks. Jackie Robinson's entrance in 1947, obviously, stood as a marking point as the end of baseball segregation. Nonetheless it also marked the start of a long blockade of confrontation on the portion of segregationists that protracted outside the national activity. "The fact is," as Lonnie Wheeler had stated, "Jackie Robinson did not integrate professional baseball in all of the United States-just the ones in the north." (Regalado 2008) Jim Crow, up until that point, was resolutely rooted and addition only a substance of conversation. "Colored people," wrote Richard Klugar in Simple fairness, "were plainly foreigners in their own country. And segregation functioned to institutionalize that estrangement and broaden the hole that has become among races." (Regalado 2008) the events that took place on the baseball diamonds in 1947, nevertheless, challenged that custom. Addition became realism. Furthermore, if baseball's archaic doors had started to swing open for blacks, segregationists considered, would other institutions also follow their lead. The national activity, in result, had thrown down the gauntlet before Jim Crow (Regalado 2008).

Discrimination furthermore went on to plague baseball at all levels where fifty-three white teams removed themselves in protest from the South Cat league state championship contest when they found out that they had also were capable. Even though the black youths were awarded the championship by defaulting, little league bureaucrats there still striped them from being able to contest in the regional tournament. In professional baseball bigotry continued to be seeming. "Whenever there was an outfielder Hank Thompson, "some loudmouth would yell, 'black unprintable' and you could hear it all over the place (Regalado 2008). Leon Wagner, at the time was playing for Greensboro, North Carolina, a shotgun-exerting fan near the fence who screamed, "Nigger, I will fill you with bullets if you catch that ball."

In conclusion, for historians, there would probably be no better way to impart students about how recreation has played a massive role in the twentieth-century America than to draw examples from the start of recreation and their effects on early America all the way to the history of race and gender in… [read more]


Exercise and Pregnancy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The second article examines this finding and found that only in heavily, as opposed to moderately exercising women, did there appear to be a statistically signficant lower birth weight, for good or for ill. The third article examined potentially risky pregnancies involving gestational diabetes and concluded that exercise was an important way of moderating the insulin therapy of the patients

Conclusions

Moderate exercise seems to be beneficial in controlling weight and aiding in an easier delivery for all pregnant patients, including some patients from high-risk groups, such as those patients with diabetes. However, heavy exercise could limit birth weight, especially in older mothers, although not to the extent that this is of major concern. Still, caution is suggested on this point. Furthermore, even pregnant women themseleves accustomed to such heavy levels of exercise, because of the increased risk of injury and limits on their own athletic performance at this time may wish to moderate their accustomed levels of activity.

Bibliography

Note: All articles from the peer-reviewed journal available on the EBSCO list of ejournals at http://ejournals.ebsco.com/info/EJSTitles.asp?PageNo=1

Miller, Karl E. (1 Sept 2004) "Exercise in patients with gestational diabetes."American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_5_70/ai_n6182511

Walling, Anne D. (15 May 2005) "Exercise During Pregnancy Is Associated with Thinner Babies." American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_10_65/ai_85615776

Wang, Thomas W. & Barbara S. Apagar. (15 Apr 1998)"Exercise during pregnancy." American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n8_v57/ai_20570146/pg_2… [read more]


Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oriard relates the "initiation" ritual almost verbatim to accounts of tribal initiation rites of passage for entrance into manhood. He parallels the ritual meals, tribal chief, high priest and ancient heros of primitive initiations to manhood with the structured diet, team captain, team doctor, and former players of a football season's "rite of kinship." (Oriard 1993, p. 199) He notes… [read more]


Sports Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (7,403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the… [read more]


Sport Psychology Most Forms of Games Require Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sport Psychology

Most forms of games require not only physical skills but also a very strong mental capacity and these include golf, tennis and skating. According to the view of most coaches, sports are 90% mental and 10% physical. This is very important in athletics where even a difference of a hundredth or a tenth of a second can be… [read more]


Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … cardiovascular system in a positive way, then how exercise also positively affects aging, obesity, the muscular and respiratory systems. The cardiovascular system is a complicated and yet surprisingly delicate system of the human body. Many scientists, researchers, and physicians complete studies every year on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and consistently, these studies show exercise can play an important part in reducing the instance of cardiovascular disease.

Exercise should be an important part of everyone's life, because it is simply good for everyone. It is well-known, even among sedentary Americans, that exercise has a positive affect on the heart and lungs, and it can improve heart health. Many physicians and experts acknowledge that aerobic exercise is extremely effective in promoting heart health. These doctors note, "This would appear also to be the case in understanding the relationship between reactivity and aerobic fitness. One of the consequences of aerobic-exercise training is a reduction in resting heart rate and blood pressure" (McCabe, Schneiderman, Field, & Wellens, 2000, p. 197). Reducing the heart rate and blood pressure leads to better cardiovascular health, and can help, along with a healthy diet, maintain this cardiovascular health throughout life.

Heart health is extremely important in modern life, when a majority of Americans are overweight and out of shape. Studies show "Exercise can also be used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and can decrease mortality and morbidity rates. This aggregate body of research substantiates the importance of engaging in a habitual exercise regimen" (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42). One specific exercise study looked at 113 men and women ages of 18 and 35. Some of the participants were sedentary, and some already exercised. The study included many different aspects, including cardiovascular health. The authors of the scientific study note the results of the cardiovascular portion of the study:

Cardiovascular fitness was estimated using participants' recovery heart rate. The test chosen was the submax YMCA 3-Minute Step Test, which requires participants to step onto a 12-inch high platform for 3 minutes at a rate of 24 steps per minute. Participants are instructed to sit immediately after the three minutes. Within five seconds of the completion of the test, a skin palpitated recovery heart rate was taken at the radial artery for one minute. The 3-minute step test was administered both at the onset of the study and again at its completion, and the changes in recovery heart rate were used to estimate changes in cardiovascular fitness levels (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42).

When the study was over, after a number of weeks, all the participants enjoyed improved cardiovascular fitness (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42). Thus, this study shows that cardiovascular health can improve in young people, too.

Exercise is simply good for the body. Not only does it improve cardiovascular health, it provides health benefits in many other areas, too. Regular exercise can slow down the effects of aging on the body and on the mind. Another exercise expert notes, "In particular,… [read more]


Supplements in Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sports Business and Ethics Issues

The Use Of Supplements

ethics - theoretical framework

ETHICS - DIFFERENTIATION AMONG THEORISTS

RESPONSBILITY OF EDUCATORS AND COACHES OF ATHLETES

SPORTS Business AND ETHICS ISSUES

THE USE OF SUPPLEMENTS

The objective of this work is to research the issue of the use of supplements by athletes and how society views and deals with this issue… [read more]


Precor New Product Development and Collaborative Manufacturing Infrastructure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Product Development

Company Background

Precor is a subsidiary of Amer Group Plc, a leading global sports equipment company. Apart from Precor the company has other brands Wilson, Atomic and Suunto under its umbrella. Precor was founded in 1980 with it's headquarter near Seattle in Woodinville, Washington. It has expanded over the years with offices in the United Kingdom, Germany, Benelux, Austria, Japan and China. As opposed to other companies in the business Precor stands out because it has set the global standard for fluid, natural, low-impact workout experience.

Changing Market Dynamics

The market place changes with time as consumers needs and demands change. These changes occur as a result of changes in lifestyles. Over a period of time the American consumer has been exposed to the idea of health and fitness and its importance through media. As a result demands for fitness product saw a surge in recent years. Now the consumers not only demand the products they want complete solution to their fitness problems. Most of the time consumers are looking for one stop solution or a product that helps them in most convenient way possible. "In time-crunched Washington, many people are opting for working out at home. Whether it is a treadmill in the bedroom or a state-of-the-art fitness room costing upwards of $15,000, home exercise equipment can get the job done without battling weather, traffic and the singles scene at the neighborhood Bally's. In fact, home exercise equipment can get several jobs done, and that's part of its appeal" (Goff, 1998).

Positioning of a product or brand reflects the disposition that the consumers of that particular product have towards it in relationship to other products or substitute products. Many fitness brands have positioned themselves as a prestige product at a higher price showing that Americans are willing to spend a lot of money on health & fitness.

The marketplace and popular culture trends help companies like Precor in establishing their own unique, functional, yet consistent line of fitness products taking shape and reshape over time through product development process.

Product Development

Many organizations have new product development methodologies that provide a standard framework for planning and managing development efforts. Precor has a strategic plan to put into operation a collaborative manufacturing infrastructure to manage new product introductions and product changes. To keep pace with changing demands for exercise equipment, Precor has sound plans of concentrating on product development. "Tom Moran, Precor's Vice President of Engineering says, 'The fitness equipment business is extremely competitive. In order to stay in the running, manufacturers have to keep pace with the market - not only delivering new products, but delivering equipment with superior designs, ahead of the competition and at lower prices'" (Precor)

The Product Idea

The product development process starts with the big idea. Considering the changing dynamic of the target market Precor plans to make comprehensive offers. As apart of its product development Precor is offering entertainment and value-added services to fitness aficionados. The new comprehensive values added programs… [read more]


Recreational Sports Spectrum Represents Five Unique Opportunities for Participation Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Recreation Sports

Recreational sport is termed as ones involvement in sporting activities during their leisure time. This can be an individual's involvement as an active participant or even as a spectator. This can be at any level of the leisure sport hierarchy. There are sporting activities that are designed for all, this gives everyone an active role in the sport. They do not put into consideration age, gender, race, or a persons athletic ability. These are thus termed as sports for all.

On the other hand there are those that are participant driven in that the people who program this sport put into consideration the specific interest and efforts on the specific wants and needs of the participant. Recreational sport targets all age groups i.e. children, adolescents, youth, adults and even senior citizens. These recreational sports can occur either indoors for example badminton, ice-skating, gymnasiums for basketball and many more. They can also occur outdoor for instance golf courses, soccer, tennis courts and so on. This paper will look at the recreational sports spectrum in terms of the unique opportunities that it represents for participation. There are five opportunities and they will be discussed below.

Instructional sports

This entails the teaching of a recreational sport activity. This teaching takes place in an environment that is non-academic and noncredit. During the process of teaching emphasis is put on the skills that one is required to master. There is also emphasis on the rules that are associated to the particular sport. For instance, in the game of tennis there are various skills that can be taught an example is the serving skill that if mastered enables one to serve and the serve lands in the service box on a fly. Therefore for the ball from a baseline to land into the box it needs to be hit from up and not from down. The learner can also be taken through rules such as the serving rule which is that for a good serve, it should be put in play from the correct area of the court i.e. behind the baseline (Ellyn, 2012).

Informal sports

This involves sports that participation is directed by an individual. The approach to these sports is with the main aim of having fun and keeping fit by the individual. This can be for instance a run after one has taken lunch so that the person remains fit. Another example is during a picnic that has been arranged by friends, there can be playing of games such as volleyball just to have fun.

Intramural sports

This may include organization of tournaments, leagues or contests. This are organized and take place within a particular setting. Examples of intramural sports include playing of various sports during special events such as a tournament organized and arranged to be played during a public holiday. There can also be tournaments that have been arranged between schools. Leagues can be organized between various clubs in a country.

Extramural sports

These are events or activities that… [read more]


Sport, Which Style of Research, Qualitative Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … sport, which style of research, qualitative or quantitative is best used to study sport and to report on sport?

Research style in sports research

The sports field is one of the oldest ones in human history, with a long standing tradition and a powerful meaning in the minds of the people. Throughout the past recent decades, more emphasis has come to be placed on the sports sector as a source of increased business revenues. Athletes are more and more sought after to sign and gain from endorsements; the hosting of notable sports events is also pursued in an effort to gain more reputation and advantages, and the sports clubs come to generate impressive sums of money from their games, advertisements, endorsements and so on.

The increasing financial success of the sports field is unequivocally supported by the high popularity of sports among the population. And as the populations and the business community's interest in sports increases, the academic community is also coming to place more emphasis on the field. In other words, the research in the field of sports is continually increasing.

In terms of sports research, a question that is being raised refers to the method that should be employed, referring specifically to the qualitative method vs. The quantitative method. In the case of qualitative research, this implies that the researcher observes the phenomenon and draws conclusion, which are then expressed with the usage of common language and textual presentations.

In the case of the quantitative research method, the researcher analyzes the phenomenon through more objective lenses as they employ facts and figures; the findings are supported by statistically processed data and they can be extrapolated to explain a wider phenomenon. In the case of qualitative research, the findings are only based on the observations of the researcher and they cannot be extrapolated to explain the wider phenomenon or the wider population (the Bangor University).

In such a setting then, the sports researchers often find themselves in a difficulty of choosing which research method to employ. And the difficulty is given by the fact that sports research can be viewed through both qualitative and quantitative lenses.

Through the angle of qualitative research, sports are viewed in a subjective manner, like it is always assessed by the population. The sports teams have their own fans, who are either divided by rivalry, or who are united by common support for their team. Sports is a field of teams, of passion, of values, competitiveness and fair play; it unites people from across the globe to watch an event and it holds them out of breath (Dunning and Coakley, 2000). These features of the sports field are best researched through the qualitative lenses.

Aside from the emotions…… [read more]


Sports Finance: The Professional Sports Facilities Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sports Finance:

The professional sports facilities can have attributes that are regarded as public goods by economists since they provide economic incentives to the entire society or community and not just to the athletes, franchise owners, and fans. The main goal of the development of the professional sports facilities is to enable a franchise and its owners to be practical i.e. To assist private investors in the franchise to make money. In relation to the construction of these professional sports facilities such as a facility that would house a major soccer league professional sport team, the main issue has been who should pay for the new sports facilities. This question or issue has been a major concern since the sport facility would be used by professional athletes and teams and the potential benefits it can bring to the entire society. Most of the debates surrounding the topic have focused on whether, how, and when the government should pay for the construction of a sports facility. While the issue has financial, economic, and socio-political dimensions, it has also included another concern on whether a community should institute a tax or levy on the general public to pay for bonds for a sport facility.

Financing a Sport Facility:

Since the costs of constructing new sporting facilities have increased to approximately $300 million, the process requires huge financial investments. As a result, there are various options for financing the construction of such facilities that include both private and public investments and arrangements (United States Sports Academy, 2001). Therefore, funding for the construction of a new sport facility that would house a major league professional sport team can be divided into two distinct groups i.e. private funding and public funding.

Private funding can be considered as a means of financing a new sport facility without a tax increase and minimal risk to taxpayers. In an ideal world, private funding has been commonly used to finance the construction of professional sports facilities and franchises that become profitable. The main reason attributed to the increased use of private funding investments is the fact that the main goal of developing a new sports facility is to enable the franchise and its owners to enable the private investors to generate money through the facility. However, the option of private funding is selected following an economic evaluation of the conditions that such financing would be positive and profitable.

Notably, private funding has advantages and disadvantages that make it viable and profitable to certain situations and unsuitable to others. The advantages of private funding include the fact that it does not include a tax increase, provides minimal risks to taxpayers, and enables private investors to make profits from the construction and operation of the sport facility. On the contrary, the main disadvantage of this financing option is that it may not be suitable for all communities since not every community has comparable strength in terms of private financial capacity for developing and operating a professional sports facility (Hodgson & Lefebvre,… [read more]


Feminism How Sports Reproduce Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,265 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

For instance, it is easy to realize that all sexual orientations can engage in one sporting event like playing rugby, soccer, and/or football (Brace-Govan, 2010).

Racial norms

Sporting activities have emerged and cut on racial lines. The world soccer slogan is directed at eradicating cases of racial differences and negative perceptions that have been generated because of such differences. For… [read more]


Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Assessment

Assessment  |  12 pages (3,831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Sports Event: The Olympics and Wimbledon on London

Impact and Issues of a Mega and Hallmark Sporting Event

Festivals and special events are organized in destinations, places, and regions to celebrate, offer a feast, boost economy and regional cooperation. Hallmark events are large special events with limited time, lower risks of congestion,… [read more]


Attributions in Sports Psychology Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Interestingly, studies referenced by the authors reveal that as group size increases, individual athletes "…diffuse the responsibility for group action"; hence, individuals in large groups (such as a football team) are not apt to accept failure on their own shoulders (Zaccaro, 257).

And when it comes to group athletic behaviors, there are four characteristics that can result, according to Zaccaro's (referencing Miller and Schlenker (1985). First, a quarterback after a winning performance can attribute the success to his play ("I threw the ball well"). Even though he had 10 players around him making it all work, the quarterback can take credit, the attribution in this case to a single player. Second, the winning game can be attributed to "…factors of the group-including-the-self" (which Zaccaro calls "group-internal") (258). The quarterback might use the tired cliche, "It was a team effort…and I couldn't have done it without the team behind me"; what he really means is there was a sense of cohesiveness between the line and the backfield but he's glad to take some of the credit. The third characteristic is what Zaccaro attributes to "group-excluding-the-self" ("group other); that would be a situation in which the quarterback or captain says "This team worked hard all week for this game and we showed what we can do when every unit is alert and well prepared." And the fourth characteristic is said to be because of environmentally helpful conditions ("environment attributions"); this would be say a rainy day and the team always plays well in the mud. A key point for this article is that "…attributions which enhance the group can raise self-esteem" -- which makes sense because in team sports jealousy can occur if individuals take too much credit.

Ability and Effort in Sports vs. Intellectual Ability and Effort

An article in the Journal of Personality (1980) points to a study of 120 male college undergraduates, who were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer in a physical test. Following the manipulation of the bicycle (unknown to the riders it was made more difficult the second time) the riders experienced decreased performance (Rejeski, et al., 1980). The riders were then quizzed as to the attribution of their less impressive performance. "Successful outcomes were attributed to both ability and effort," but as to the unsuccessful outcomes, they were "…attributed to a lack of ability but not a lack of effort" (Rejeski, 233). The authors suggest that a "motivational bias appears to preclude low ability attribution in intellectual pursuits," but when it comes to sports activities, "…physiologically related ability may be viewed as relatively unstable" (Rejeski, 233).

In conclusion, it is important for sports teams and individual players to understand why and how attributions matter vis-a-vis performance. This paper outlines some of the scholarship on that subject.

Works Cited

Grove, J.R., and Prapavessis, H. (1995). The Effect of Skill Level and Sport Outcomes on Dimensional Aspects of Causal Attributions. Australian Psychologist, 30(2), 92-95.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., and Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: seeking… [read more]


Sports Agent Sports Is Big Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,084 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

As someone who is at the beginning stages of becoming a sports agent by gathering and learning as much about the field as possible, Ms. Tucker's comments were helpful in seeing how other aspects of the sports industry relates to sports agents and how they are viewed in general.

Second Interview

The next interview I conducted was with Mr. Josh Brown. Josh is a professional basketball player who plays for a team in Russia. Josh is an American who graduated from Towson State University. In our interview he discussed his relationship with his agent and the processes he experienced on that search.

Josh communicated to me that it was difficult to find an agent to represent him because he came from a smaller school and there was not a lot of interest for him domestically in the NBA. Josh was committed to playing basketball somewhere in the world and he knew he needed an agent that could help him reach this goal. Josh conducted much research into finding his agent but through social media he discovered some leads who were excited to take on Josh as a client. Josh's friend ultimately recommended to him, his personal agent and finalized the deal through this networking technique.

Although Josh is working with his current agent, he still fields requests from other agents seeking to represent him. Josh explained to me that difficulty in this constant sales environment, he said "It is very tricky trying to talk with different agents because if two agents try to promote you to the same team it can make you and the participating agencies look unprofessional. When I try to promote myself to elite agencies I try to avoid agents in the same country to avoid this conflict."

Josh told me about how his agent's duties mostly consisted of promoting me to better teams each year, drawing up my contracts and handling endorsements and other legal matters. Josh's agent works as an independent, but he has expressed that most work in firms that have contacted him. Josh is overall satisfied with his agent's work and believes that a smart and honest approach works best in this field. There are many shady individuals out there looking to take advantage, but they are usually found out and exposed. The importance of an agent to an athlete is best summed up by Josh: "An agent's connections are extremely important, thus at times I find myself wanting the big time agents who can help blossom my career even more. Honesty in an agent is most important, seeing as though some agents play games with clients."

Conclusion

After conducting this research I am more dedicated to achieving my aim of becoming a sports agent. The international aspects of the career that I discovered while talking to Josh have taught me the many and differing opportunities that are available in this career choice. I feel that I am currently on the right path towards this goal and will continue to seek out other's… [read more]


Why Does Gender Matter in Sport? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Gender Matter in Sports?

There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and perpetuated differences that make gender matter in sports, though these gender definitions are being challenged. In addition, studies have found… [read more]


Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Those who are in the professional level and win get more lucrative contracts and are then offered highly profitable endorsement deals (Freudenrich 2). Michael Jordan was a basketball player for the Chicago Bulls but his streak on the court led to many such deals so that even some twenty years after retirement he still pulls in millions of dollars a year through Nike shoes and other endorsements. In winning, there is a great deal of money to be made which is another source of pressure for athletes.

The steroid controversy is far from over but there are becoming more stern restrictions against the use of performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sports. One of the sporting world's most famous names and indeed the most famous bicyclist in the world, Lance Armstrong, had to give back the many medals he had won for finishing first in the Tour d'France because it was alleged that he had taken steroids (Herper 1). Even though Armstrong has yet to admit his guilt, the very fact that he stopped fighting the accusations is enough in many eyes to confirm the fact that even this American legend was a steroid user. He is absolutely not the only one. Barry Bonds, Mark Maguire, and Sammy Sosa all spend the 1990s and 2000s making headlines for their feats in baseball when they took turns trying to win the homerun race, earning the most homeruns in a single season and, for Bonds, the most in a career. However, each of these men has had to deal with the consequences of steroid use which has marred their otherwise illustrious careers. Barry Bonds has had to deal with legal ramifications for lying under oath about his personal drug use. In addition to career consequences, there are now legal ones for choosing to use steroids. Even this is not the worst that could potentially happen to a steroid user. The World Wrestling Entertainment Company (WWE) has had to face allegations that their wrestlers use and abuse steroids, a controversy which came to a head following the double murder-suicide of one of the WWE's most popular athletes Chris Benoit. Benoit had exhibited many of the classic side effects of steroid abuse including a short stature and obvious protrusion of the veins. Unfortunately these were not the only effects. Benoit had several instances where violence had been reported stemming from "roid rage" which is the side effect of aggressiveness and pituitary damage converging to create an uncontrollably angry person with great strength who is unable to be calmed once agitated.

Steroid use is becoming more and more prevalent in both professional and amateur athletics. The need to be better than one's opponent encourages people to go beyond mere human ability. Those who want to be the best are taught that winning is all that matters and many are willing to abuse their bodies in the long-term if it means that they have a better chance of sports glory in the present. Performance-enhancing drugs have been used… [read more]


Addiction to Violence in Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Martial artists, boxers, and American football players must be violent as a part of their sport. Lacrosse and ice hockey are also popular and competitive sports where violence is a key aspect to the game. Boxing is a sport of violence, as is wrestling (professional and Greco-Roman). Boxing is quite simply too men (or women) beating each other in a strategic manner, so as to knock them unconscious, knock them to the floor with such for that they remain there for at least ten seconds, and/or induce enough internal & external damage that the match must be stopped. It does not get much more violent than that, except for maybe mixed martial arts matches. Audience members enjoy the violence, savor the violence, and often wish they could be a part of the violence personally. This is a reason why video games that mimic boxing, MMA, football, and even soccer are so very popular, particularly in cultures where violence is prevalent in real life as well as in media representations, such as the United States of America.

Violence does not always lead to further violence. By exorcising one's violent tendencies through sports activities, one may actually be more peaceful, calm, and tranquil because of participation in sports. Often athletes who gain press attention for acts of violence outside of their respective sporting event cast a pejorative shadow upon sports and upon athletes. The violent behavior of the few does not represent the overall sentiments and personalities of the many. The general public does not often receive press about athletes who participate in some of the most violent sports imaginable performing charity work or participating in calming hobbies such as yoga or ikebana.

There is always a potential for abuse and the potential for violent people to exploit the nature of their sport to satisfy their inappropriate desires for violence. While acknowledging that danger, we cannot totally disavow and dismiss sports, especially violent ones, just because of one particular aspect. Some of the greatest moments in human history occurred during sports events. One of the most celebrated, honored, and glorious sporting events will occur (again) this summer: the 2012 Summer Olympiad in London, England. Who would advocate for the absence of violence in sports to the point where the magnificence of the Olympics was diminished? Someone who did not understand and perhaps fear violence and/or sports would do that.

References:

Hardcastle, J. (n.d.) Sports Violence. Available from: www.cyber-spy.com/ebooks/ebooks/Sports-Violence-(ebook).pdf. 2012 July 17.

James, M., & McArdle, D. (2004) Player violence, or violent players?: Vicarious liability for sports participants. The Tort Law Review, 12(3), 1 -- 12.

Jewell, T., Moti, A., Coates, D. (2011) Chapter 2: A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports. Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests: Economics, History and Policy, Sports Economics, Management and Policy 4. Jewell, R.T. (ed) Springer Science+Business Media, LLC: TX.… [read more]


Exercise Survey Three Classmates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Results:

Survey participant

Question 1 Intention Score (1-7)

Question 2 Attitude Score (1-7)

Question 3 Subjective norm score

(1-7)

Question 4 Perceived control

(1-7)

Question 5 Final question (yes or no)

Participant 1

3

2

6

1

no

Participant 2

1

7

3

7

yes

Participant 3

5

3

1

6

no

Participant 4

6

4

5

4

no

Participant 5

6

3

2

5

yes

The results were then combined to calculate an overall score for the survey. First the scores were separated by "Yes" or "No" answers to the final question and then the average for each score was calculated.

"YES" Scores

Survey Participant

Intention Score

Attitude Score

Subjective Norm Score

Perceived Control

Final Question

Person A

Participant 2

3

2

4

1

Yes

Participant 5

4

3

2

2

Yes

Person B

Participant 1

1

1

1

1

Yes

Participant 3

1

1

4

7

Yes

Participant 4

1

2

1

1

Yes

Participant 5

6

2

2

2

Yes

Person C

Participant 2

1

7

3

7

Yes

Participant 5

6

3

2

5

yes

Average for "Yes"

2.875

2.625

2.375

3.25

"NO" Scores

Survey Participant

Intention Score

Attitude Score

Subjective Norm Score

Perceived Control

Final Question

Person A

Participant 1

5

4

2

2

No

Participant 3

5

5

5

3

No

Participant 4

5

5

5

2

No

Person B

Participant 2

6

6

7

1

No

Person C

Participant 1

3

2

6

1

No

Participant 3

5

3

1…… [read more]


Sports Sponsorships: Considerations and Configurations Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

, 2004). The public relations team is unlikely to accept a pre-packaged promotional arrangement that does not allow them to optimize both the corporate spend and the media opportunity. It is incumbent on the professionals in the sports management industry to understand what the corporate entities understand, with regard to promotional opportunities, and it is also important for these professionals to keep an eye on what is ultimately best for the players and teams (Stier & Schneider, 2001).

Summary

The success of a sports marketer depends largely on their ability to gain a thorough understanding of the sponsor's objectives prior to developing a sponsorship proposal. This can be accomplished through meetings with the gatekeepers who grant or deny access to large corporations, through the company's decision-makers, and through secondary intelligence efforts. Whether a tailored or a pre-packaged sponsorship agreement is proposed, a sports marketer must understand the company, its markets, and its mission to ensure that the sponsorship meets the corporate or organizational needs. Finally, it is important to ensure that the sponsorship relationship is a continual one by providing good client service and regular follow-up to ensure that the sponsor is enjoying the relationship and its associated benefits.

References

Obsniuk, S. And Smith, S.J. (2007). Big league deals: A descriptive study of sponsorship levels in grassroots U.S. baseball and softball programs. The Sport Journal, 1543-9518.

Crisp, B.R., and Swerissen, H. (2003). Critical processes for creating health-promoting sporting environments in Australia. Health Promotion International, 18 (2).

McCook, K., Turco, D., & Riley, R. (n.d.). A look at the corporate decision making process. Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing. Retrieved http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext / cjsm/v1n2/mcook.htm

Pruitt, S.W., Cornwell, T.B., and Clark, J.M. (2004). The NASCAR phenomenon: Auto racing sponsorships and shareholder wealth. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(3), 281-296.

Roy, D.P., and Cornwell, T.B. (2001). The influence of brand equity on consumer responses to sports sponsorship. American Marketing Association, 12, 342.

Steinbach, P. (2005). Signs of the times. Athletic Business, 29(5), 1-7.

Stier, W.F., Jr., and Schneider, R. (2001). Fundraising: An essential…… [read more]


Senior Fitness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

21) Discuss flexibility programming and how it relates to your older client. What are the physiological factors that a trainer must be aware of? Discuss the importance of maintaining flexibility as we age.

Flexibility is an extremely important aspect of healthy aging. Greater levels of flexibility directly correlate into greater ease in performing one's daily responsibilities around the house and… [read more]


Baseball Is a Sporting Game Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

In the American professional major league baseball, the National league (NL) is the oldest of them all as it was formed in 1876 and it is at times referred to as the senior circuit, its' main rival is the American league (AL) which evolved from the minor western league. The National Base Ball league was formed after the collapse of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players which was the first attempt to form a major league in America; it only lasted for four years in the period 1871 to 1875.

Both the National league and the American league are further divided into three divisions namely the central division, east division and west division. Every year, the major league championship is determined by playoffs by four different teams that represent each league at the World Series. The four teams are made up of three regular season division winners and a wild card team (Thorn et al., 1997, 43-49),

Impact to society

The thesis for this research is that baseball is the national past time of America and a great sport for the world today, this thesis statement seems to be consistent with Morris Raphael Cohen a philosopher who in 1919, described baseball as America's national religion. According to Rader (2008, 5) the game has long been "a unique paragon of America culture."

Baseball has been seen as a unity factor in the American society as people of different gender, age and race meet at their favorite sports bar or stadium as one and for the love of the game. The baseball history has transpired and overlooked the race factor ever since the abolishment of the law that prohibited black players from major leagues that was dominated by white players.

The baseball fanatics which has attracted millions of fans not only in the American leagues but also other leagues in different parts of the world, has created the culture of sportsmanship among the fans who also perceive physical fitness as baseball culture. This culture of sportsmanship has contributed to healthy and productive citizens who positively impact on the nation's economy (http://www.baseball-almanac.com/ccc).

The revenues that has been attributed to the game far surpass the estimation which the original inventors of the game could ever had; the sale of tickets, baseball merchandise and brand including players endorsement fee all sum up to high amounts which these baseball clubs generate. The economy has greatly benefited from this sport and has lead to national development mostly in the sports and health sectors.

Conclusion

Baseball thou originally an English game it is more adored in America than in British, the English are currently perceived to love soccer more than baseball. It is also important to note that baseball not only has a large following in America but also in Japan and Cuba among other counties. The high ticket sales, including the baseball merchandise that are been bought by fans year in year out tend to prove that baseball has a large following among the Americans.… [read more]


Athletic Scholarships Providing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

I do not know if this is envy or not, but the high-level coaches have worked hard to earn their salaries and recognition, just like any other highly paid television figure. Non-athletic professionals have made proposals stating their prejudicesses against athletes. A couple of years ago, "a 28 member commission of current and former university presidents, other university officials, and… [read more]


Career of an Athletic Trainer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The most respected and accepted educational facilities are accredited according to standards created by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Education (CAAHEP), a division of the American Medical Association (Hibberts). Many students major in exercise science with a specialty in athletic training. In most cases, they also need to obtain a state license or National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification in order to work as an athletic trainer and "to become certified, trainers must complete 1500 hours of athletic training, and pass the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification exam" (AHEC). Training includes many different factors, including nutrition, psychology, human anatomy and physiology, exercise physiology, first aid, therapy, injury prevention, administration, and many other aspects of sports psychology, medicine, and management (Hibberts).

There are many job opportunities open to athletic trainers, in both professional and athletic organizations.

Professional job opportunities related to an exercise science curriculum include athletic trainer, strength and conditioning specialist, exercise specialist, exercise physiologist, and health/fitness instructor. Athletic trainers are prepared to prevent, manage, and rehabilitate athletic injuries. They are often employed in high school, collegiate, and professional settings as well as sport medicine clinics, and industrial settings (Kornspan et al. 367).

Clearly, there are many different opportunities open to athletic trainers, depending on their own preferences and abilities. There are training jobs open in both men's and women's athletics, from the high school to professional level and beyond. When it is understood just what athletic trainers actually do, it is easier to see how they are such an integral part of modern sports, and to see just how many places their services could be vital. Trainers average around $38, 858 a year.

In conclusion, the career of an athletic trainer is not only interesting and varied; it can make or break the career of a professional athlete. While always on the sidelines, a professional athletic trainer can be involved in the exciting and ever-changing world of sports, and make a difference in many lives.

Works Cited

Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html

Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm

Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm

Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.… [read more]


Exercise Physiology: Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

EPs can be coaches of sports teams. Research and higher degrees are choices in tenure track faculty of teaching positions. With the growing trends in personal fitness, yoga and Pilates, personal trainers are also in demands. Pain management and physical therapy careers involve the assessment, design and administration of rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and reduce or rehabilitate an injury. Sports managers are in charge of the day-to-day running of teams or organizations.

Several opportunities are available manufacturers, suppliers, retailers, as well as corporations. For example, sports companies might need managers to deal with management issues or designers to identify the ergonomics of specific equipment. Sports is big business. Someone with specialization in business and accounting practice can choose a career path from exercise physiology training. A career in EP comes from a devotion to training. There are recognized credentials like Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Opportunities exist with local clubs, high schools, colleges and pro-teams.

Bibliography

Adams, Gene M. Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual. Dubuque, IA: Wm.C. Brown Publishers, 1990.

Amundsen, Louis R. Cardiac Rehabilitation. Clinics in Physical Therapy; V. 1. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1981.

ASEP.com. American Sports Education Program. 2003. ASEP.com. Available:

http://www.asep.com/.October 20, 2003.

CSS.edu. Directory of Academic Programs. 2003. Css.edu. Available:

http://www.css.edu/users/tboone2/asep/graduate.htm. October 20, 2003.

Professionalization of Exercise Physiology Online. 2003. Css.edu. Available:

http://www.css.edu/users/tboone2/asep/MinimalStandards.html. October 20, 2003.

HumanKinetics.com. Job Opportunities. 2003. HumanKinetics.com. Available:

http://www.humankinetics.com/careers/.October 20, 2003.

Thomas, Vaughan. Exercise Physiology. London: Crosby Lockwood Staples, 1975.… [read more]


Opening a Bally's Total Fitness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This aspect should be carefully studied and the necessary facilities provided. There seems also to be good consciousness about exercises among certain types of sportsmen and they are also conscious enough to be contributing for gymnasiums. It may be worthwhile to try and collect endorsements for Bally's from them. This can be done by seeking their help at the design… [read more]


Sports Injuries Competitive Sports Participation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Therefore, adults should take a positive approach, set reasonable expectations of their children's physical and psychosocial abilities and learn to control their emotions.

It is imperative for parents to remember and emphasize children's motives for sport participation (having fun, being with friends, learning skills, improving health and fitness, etc.) and not to substitute them with their own motives (winning, earning… [read more]


Sports Leadership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

6, SD = .4), high training and instruction (M= 4.4, SD = .4), high social support (M= 3.6, SD .6), moderate democratic behavior (M= 3.0, SD = .6), and low autocratic behavior (M= 2.7, SD .6). The psychological profile of this group is similar to the group of coaches in both the Home and Carron (1985) and Dwyer and Fischer (1988) studies (Bennett, 2000). These findings indicate that elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches place more emphasis on positive feedback and training and instruction while expressin g a lower preference for autocratic behavior. In summary, the current study provides preliminary data regarding the coaching leadership styles of elite youth baseball coaches of the United States and more importantly, adds to body of knowledge called for by researchers in this area (Bennett, 2000). Further research with this specific population is recommended to determine if social desirability bias entered into the sample due to the coaches viewing themselves as having positive feedback and democratic coaching styles (Bennett, 2000). "

The information researched can be used in a practical setting by setting the boundaries for the way leadership styles impact sports. The coach can take the examples and use them in his or her own dealings with the team and create a more successful environment.

Practices can be structured in a positive way that emulates Shula's style to create strong positive team morale. Goals can be set with short-term and long-term steps based on what the needs are.

Future research should begin addressing what it is about the various coaching styles that work. The research should look at how it works and why it works from a human nature and psychological perspective so that future methods of leadership can be developed using scientific data.

REFERENCES

http://www.syhi.org/coaches%20corner%20folder/article%20coaching_youth_sports.htm

Planning a Preseason Team Meeting

Leadership: what does it take? (Special Feature: Leadership Training).

NZ Business; July 1, 2002; Baker, Glenn

Leadership Styles of Elite Dixie Youth Baseball Coaches.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included)

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport; March 1, 2000

http://www.umich.edu/~urecord/9900/Aug14_00/2.htm

Martin to lead athletics; coaches and staff 'like his style'

. Empowering students: variables impacting the effort.

Education; June 22, 1994; Short, Paula M. Greer, John T.

Football: Rogers blasts 'out of touch' Aldridge.(Sport)…… [read more]


Sports and Social Change Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sports and Social Change

The National Football League (NFL) is changing. It has a new face, and one that everybody -- straight, lesbian, gay bi-sexual transsexual (LGBT) and queer can both recognize and respect.

There have been a number of recent developments within the NFL that show it is taking demonstrable steps to illustrate the same sort of social justice that is increasingly being reflected across America and the world at large. This past winter, NFL hopeful Michael Sams admitted he's a homosexual to a national audience including the New York Times and ESPN. A few weeks later the quarterback of the Washington Redskins, Kirk Cousins, stated that he and his teammates would welcome an openly gay player who could "help us win" (Huffington Post). And just a couple of weeks ago, representatives from the NFL participated in the YOU Belong Initiative's second annual LGBT and Straight Allied Youth Sports and Leadership camp.

As if these occurrences were not signs of the apocalypse, representatives from the NFL (including senior executive and former player Troy Vincent and director of transition and clinical services -- and another former player -- Dwight Hollier) participated in the You Can Play High Five Initiative. You Can Play is an organization headed by former player and openly gay founder Wade Davis, which is dedicated to providing philanthropy opportunities to LGBT youth while utilizing sports (and football in particular) as a medium to reach them.

Quite obviously, the participation of NFL players in all of these events and the expressions of willingness to work with people regardless of their sexual orientations indicates that the image of the organization is subtly changing. Even a cursory interview of the experience of former players who came out as homosexuals after they left the league indicates why such a transformation is both timely and necessary. In a conversation Davis had with Vincent, the former recollected, "I policed my every move and tried to re-create the type of masculinity that I thought was acceptable in the world. I even disclosed how my fear of being rejected, on some level, impacted my ability to perform" (Davis).

In the 21st century, it is no longer appropriate to have players in the NFL -- or anywhere else, for that matter -- have to hide their tendencies because of a fear of a lack of tolerance. The NFL is one of the most eminent places to being exhibiting parity in terms of diversity for its players. As one of the more influential organizations in the U.S., it has a great degree…… [read more]


Sport Medicine Clinic Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  6 pages (1,892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy

Sports Medicine Clinic

This is a plan to develop, open, and operate a sports medicine clinic in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the Scranton Sports Medicine Clinic, serving the Scranton region with "urgent care" for sports medicine injuries, outpatient surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

Market Opportunity

The population of Scranton is estimated at about 72,485 (Scranton, Pennsylvania, n.d.).… [read more]


Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Age and Exercise Web Page Analysis

Website used for research: http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/age.html

This website is based at the University of New Mexico's homepage and is relatively credible given the fact that it comes from an educational resource. Also, the site is written by a professor with a Ph. D. This person is familiar with citation and referencing the resources used to make specific arguments on the page. The information is very credible compared with other sites and I would be comfortable having older clients read and understand this information. As far as the usefulness of the information provided, the page is broken down into different types of training. This helps make it more useful to people looking for specific exercises or information relative to aging and exercise. The page also includes information that is useful to professionals as well as older adults, adding to the usefulness of the information it contains.

The author, also a UNM professor, seems to have…… [read more]


Personal Training Senior Fitness Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Jack presents a number of physical challenges that will influence his training, namely his age, his weight, and his impaired eyesight. While all of these factors are important considerations in designing his training program, the key factor to remember is that despite his limitations, helping Jack lose weight and decrease his body fat percentage will aid his mobility and his ability to perform ADL (activities of daily living) well into his older years. The fact that Jack already walks several times a week demonstrates a commitment to fitness; including strength and flexibility training and varying his aerobic routine will allow him to maximize fat reduction results while increasing strength and stamina in his daily routine. At my initial consultation, I would ask him for three-month commitment, and, because experience shows me that many older clients show some reluctance to commit to that time, I would be sure to explain that this was a marathon, not a sprint, and help him set realistic expectations for his fitness goals. I would also establish my fees, and ask about his insurance if I was working at a fitness facility that accepted Humana or other Medicare plans that pay fitness benefits. I would also present him with a health history questionnaire, and, because of his special health concerns and age, explain the importance of my speaking to and receiving a release from his physician prior to beginning our program. I would set an initial appointment with Jack, and plan a comfortable, private time and location to perform some basic fitness tests.

At Jack's initial appointment, I would go over his health questionnaire, and look for any additional red flags besides his weight, age, and vision impairment. I would consult with his physician as to the degree of this impairment, and how it affects his ability to use various exercise equipment. For the purposes of this paper, we'll assume his vision impairment would not be severe enough to impede his use of exercise equipment, and that he could see well enough to maneuver in a gym environment with a trainer's guidance. During the consultation with Jack's physician, I would pay attention to any mention of a history of heart disease, diabetes, certain forms of cancer (such as colon cancer), and high blood pressure. Not only would the history of heart disease and high blood pressure necessitate more frequent heart rate monitoring than would normally be used in an older individual, but the risk of all of these diseases could be a powerful motivating force in encouraging Jack to continue his exercise program, as exercise has been shown to decrease these risks. (Agency for Healthcare Research and Strategy). Finally, after obtaining physician approval, I would measure Jack's circumference, body fat, and weight. I would also perform two basic mobility tests, the sit-to-stand test and the half-turn test, to get an idea of Jack's basic mobility. (Medscape)

My primary focus in strength training Jack would be to establish and increase basic strength and mobility. Using the circuits… [read more]


Sports Fans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sports Fans

Are you a HomeTowner or an Encyclopedia? Sport Fans Classified.

Have you ever taken a personality test, either for a job interview or even to gain entrance to a school? The results of those tests are designed to help figure out what makes you tick. An employer can figure out how you would work on a tem, or whether or not you'll be stealing pens from the supply closet. A school may be interested in how self-motivated you are. Usually these tests don't have clear cut answers -- each one of us seemed to have a little bit of this and a little bit of that all thrown in together. What if there were a similar test for sports fans? How would we classify them, and what kinds of categories would stand alone and which would overlap? Because there are so many different kinds of sports fans, this essay is devoted to just a few of the kinds. As in the mainstream personality tests, there is no clear answer when trying to classify sports fans.

The first type of sports fan is the HomeTowner. This fan loves all the local teams, and they're said to "bleed" the teams' colors. They either grew up in the city whose teams they love or had a parent who influenced them strongly in childhood. HomeTowners don't care very much about a game if their home team isn't involved or directly affected by the outcome. HomeTowners also have a hard time seeing the deficiencies in their own teams. If they're not careful, HomeTowners can easily become Entitled Fans. These fans believe that their team should always win, and that they are owed a title of championship. The good thing about Entitled Fans is that they are always optimistic. HomeTowners also give rise to the third kind of sports fan, the Romantic. This fan keeps a special place in his heart for favorite players and teams of bygone eras. Over time, the facts about these players and teams become obscured by nostalgia, and the Romantic can spend many hours lost in the past. Be prepared to hear repetitive stories from the Romantic, especially when the current team is having a bad year.

Some sports fans have shifting loyalties, and unlike the HomeTowner and the Romantic,…… [read more]


Professional Sports it Is Wise Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (847 words)
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Professional Sports

It is wise for a major metropolis to promote professional sports as a means of promoting the city. This may not extend to providing funding for major athletic infrastructure projects, but at least on a small scale the promotion of professional sports has benefits for cities. The impact is felt most acutely on small or mid-sized metropolises that stand to gain more from the exposure a professional team brings. This paper will analyze recent examples to illustrate the benefits.

One of the best case studies comes with the Columbus Blue Jackets, a 1998 NHL expansion team that is organized as a public-private partnership. At the time, Columbus was the largest metro area in the United States without a professional sports franchise. A Rust Belt city, Columbus had top-tier college sports, but also faced competition for investment and business from other nearby cities such as Detroit and Cleveland. A study released by the team found economic benefits of $7.59 billion in payroll and revenue to local businesses as a result of the Blue Jackets and the Nationwide Arena that was constructed in order to attract the team. The area where the arena is located was a derelict area that once housed a prison, and was redesigned entirely around the concept of an arena and a professional sports franchise. Over the first ten years of operation, approximately "$850 million in spending in central Ohio can be attributed" to the arena and its tenants. The number of businesses in the area increased by 50% in that period. In addition, a survey of hockey fans at the arena found that 90% of them were proud of Columbus for having a professional team and 78% of them believed that the Blue Jackets "give the rest of the country the idea that Columbus is a big-time city." (Thompson, 2009).

Another case study is that of the NBA Memphis Grizzlies, who relocated from Vancouver over a decade ago into an arena that was funded by the city to attract a professional sports franchise. An economic impact report from the Memphis Chamber of Commerce found that nearly 1400 full-time jobs were created by the move and annual economic impact is around $223 million (Morgan, 2010). Opponents of the publicly-funded arena argue that the entire Grizzlies payroll is included in that figure, making the claims spurious, and that the actual tax benefits of the Memphis Grizzlies are insufficient to cover the interest payments on the arena (deMause, 2010).

These examples show that the advantages are clear -- public perception of…… [read more]


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  8 pages (2,152 words)
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Arnold, T., & Shelbourne, K. (2000). A perioperative rehabilitation program for anterior cruciate ligament surgery. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28, 1-16

Rehabilitation is crucial for postoperative knee injury. Describing their somewhat innovative preoperative program that had been conducted at their clinic during the last 10 years, the researchers detailed the 4-phase structure that they used to restore patients to activity… [read more]


Sport Event Audit Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (2,062 words)
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Sports Audit

Sports Event Audit: A Baseball Game at Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, PA

Attendance of a sporting event carries with it certain expectations. The attendees recognize that they cannot be guaranteed the victory for the team which they support, but a host of compensatory guarantees are expected with regard to the experience. As the discussion here proceeds, it… [read more]


Sports Marketing Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (543 words)
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Sports Marketing

Evaluating the Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers

For Sport and Non-Sport Brands

In the peer-reviewed article "To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go: The Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands" the authors cite and through empirically-derived research, clarify analysis of the fit between products and celebrity vs. non-celebrity endorsers. The first study is based on the hypothesis that a sport celebrity will be more effective promoting a sport brand, with the majority of benefit being to the celebrities image and name awareness. The second study matched an anonymous model that is identified as an athlete with a sport and non-sport brand. In this second test, the anonymous model that is positioned as an athlete is more effective promoting sports over non-sport brands (Koernig, Boyd, 25, 26).

Assessing the Effectiveness of Sports Celebrity Endorsements

From the $90 million in contracts LeBron James signed with Nike and Upper Deck before even entering the NBA to the $105 million Tiger Woods received from Buick alone, celebrity endorsements have been shown to gain and hold consumer attention, enhance message recall and increase the credibility of ad and product messages (Koernig, Boyd, 27). With the current economic conditions forcing many companies to re-evaluate these large endorsement deals with athletes, there has been new focus on the "match-up hypothesis" of pairing athletes from a given sport with brands from theirs and related sports vs. brands unrelated to sports at all. The authors contend that balance theory (Koernig, Boyd, 27) between the endorser, the brand and the target audience all must be in alignment for the endorsement strategy to be effective.…… [read more]


Project Proposal Exercise Pros and Cons Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (675 words)
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¶ … represented by the psychological mechanisms which lead some people to exercise on a regular basis as well as by the reasons which keep others away from sports and physical activity.

The purpose of the paper is to understand who are the people who get engaged in physical activities and sports. The goal is to comprehend why the same activity (or better said life style) is loved by some and hated by others. In addition, I would like to understand what are the psychological effects of sports upon people and the psychological factors which can actually impact sport performances. As far as the poeple who hate sports are concerned, the research wishes to see if there are such elements which could motivate them to do more physical activity. As far as athletes are concerned, the paper is focused on understanding what are the stimuli which lead them to surpass their physical limits and reach outstanding performances.

Background: The already existing research in the area claims that physical exercise has a positive impact upon people -from both a physical and psychological point-of-view. It is also known that performing sports in outdoor contexts, especially in the middle of natural environments supports the state of well being. As far as the intensity of the physical activity required reaching this state, this is moderate. At this point it becomes clear why some people choose to practice sports.

Scope: The argument is wide, but the main part of the research will focus exclusively upon the pros and cons that people have in mind when they have to take up a life style which includes physical exercise.

Theoretical framework: the paper will use the theories according to which physical exercise is good for the mind and the body and those which argue that taking up and practicing sports are actions based on education and expectations. The creation of expectations in people through communication campaigns (which fundamentally try to sell one thing or another) is one of the elements that the research will…… [read more]


Evolution of Extreme Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,674 words)
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¶ … Evolution of Extreme Sports

Extreme sports have been around for hundreds of years, though the definition of such activities has changed as people's ideas, goals, and the technology surrounding sports have evolved. For some, these sports were personal challenges meant to test their own strength and perseverance. In more modern times, the commercialization and glorification of these sports… [read more]


Sport as a Medium Term Paper

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Sport as a Medium

Underprivileged individuals have always had difficulties integrating and poverty is among the main reasons for which some were not able to have access to sport. Poverty has a series of damaging effects in the individual, as he or she is neglected in several instances, ranging from the political assistance they receive to their social status.

Some of the factors responsible for excluding people from sport are: access, gender, location, facilities, and age. While numerous individuals prefer to compare themselves to some of the most privileged when considering their social statue, they should focus on comparing themselves to people who live reasonably and who do not excel in any particular way. Poverty becomes aggravating when the next-door individuals are wealthier and can manage to pay for more.

It is difficult for the masses to understand the concept of poverty because they concentrate on the extremes. Poverty is also the cause for which a large number of people have little to no access to leisure activities.

Sport development programs have turned their attention towards making it easier for poor individuals to have access to sports. People leading these programs have gone at gaining a better understanding of exclusion, so as to be able to devise ways of encouraging inclusion. By denying certain individuals the right to get involved in sports, England indirectly lessened the chances it had to produce sports elite.

The presentation of the "Sports for All" program in the 1970s contributed to promoting the belief that everyone was equally entitled…… [read more]


Evolution of Sports Term Paper

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Evolution of Sports

Sport does not only serve as an instrument meant to provide individuals with leisure, entertainment, and a healthy physical shape. At certain moments in time, people saw the opportunity to use sport with the purpose of drawing supporters, given the fact that the masses are well aware of the benefits brought by sport in general. England appeared to be directing its attention towards matters other than sports in the 1970s, especially with the election of Margret Thatcher as British Prime Minister in 1975. In spite of the fact that the British Empire is mainly interested in promoting elite sports, sport has come to be a central activity for the people in it.

England has kept a tradition in displaying reluctance in investing funds in sport oriented programs that do not involve elite sports. The second half of the twentieth century appeared to bring little changes in its first decades, considering that the Conservatives dominated the political scene.

English leaders virtually preferred to invest into programs that would generate finances faster and considered that sport was not among them. However, the public's influence grew and people started to show unwillingness to accept that sport was not a priority for their government. Despite being continuously under attack by government programs, sport development experienced a constant growth in the 80s and 90s.

All across the first two decades of the second half of the twentieth century English citizens believed that it was their government's job to provide them with improved living standards. Even with the fact that the public was particularly…… [read more]


Nike's Global Women's Fitness Business Driving Strategic Integration Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (495 words)
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Business Management Case Study -- Nike Strategy

Introduction to Organizational Strategy on Women's Fitness

The current organizational strategy of Nike with respect to women's fitness comprises a shift in seven specific aspects of its approach. In principle, it marks a shift away from the previous isolated initiative-based concept toward an integrated portfolio-based concept. That includes establishing a permanent prominence of brand loyalty instead of a series of inconsistent relationships as well as a shift toward concept-based collections instead of color-based selections. Mike also hopes to establish a consistent retail experience at the global level. Finally, the organization intends to rectify inconsistent and inadequate dedication of resources and to move away from the isolated business opportunity-based approach toward an integrated acceleration of global business opportunities.

Outline of Problems Encountered

According to the general manager of Nike's global women's fitness component, some of the problems encountered in implementing the new strategy included difficulties in connection with working across traditional boundaries within the organization's complex, matrixed structure to establish the necessary cross-business integration to be able to establish an integrated or cohesive collection of products including footwear, apparel, and sports-related equipment for the women's market. In that regard, other specific barriers included organizing and coordinating many disparate product units and business units and many different operation sites located in remote geographic regions to share a common schedule and to work collaboratively toward a common organizational goal. In the process, the organization also had to overcome leadership challenges that emerged as…… [read more]


Commodification of Sport and Physical Activity Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
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Sports have been enjoyed as a form of entertainment at least since the times of the ancient Greeks. The perfection of the human body through athleticism is likewise nothing new. Team sports and leagues have been part of (at least male) communities throughout the modern era. However, the role sports play in the 21st century is qualitatively different than the role sports have played in the past. Even a hundred years ago, athletes who did earn money did not earn enough to make their sport a full-time job. Elite athletes now are not just eking out a living; they are signing multi-million dollar contracts that tie them to teams. Corporate sponsorship and celebrity endorsement advertising supplement their fat salaries further. It is the latter, the corporate infiltration of sports, that is a phenomenon unique to the late 20th and early 21st century. The relationship is fostered and nurtured by the media, creating a complex web in which athletes, the media, and capitalist enterprise are entangled.

The relationship between sports, the media, and capitalism is exploitative and symbiotic at the same time. What Real (1998) calls "the institutional alignments of sports and media in the context of late capitalism" is taken for granted so much around the world that spectators do not seem to notice or care the extent of problem (p. 15). While athletes surely benefit from the injection of financial torque into their profession, the spectator is reduced in many cases to a marketing tool. The athletes may be the ones wearing corporate logos on their jerseys as they do in Australia. As McKay & Miller (1991) note, such blatant corporate branding has transformed the character of sports in Australia. "The once hegemonic amateur ideology has become increasingly marginal and residual…most amateur and semiprofessional men's and women's sports have also become reliant on corporate support," (McKay & Miller 1991, p. 7). The same can be said for sports in nearly every region of the world, save for pick-up games played casually on the street.

Hughes & Coakley (1984) illustrate one of the ironies of the commodification of sport. In the United States, and perhaps elsewhere, spectators have become deluded as to their own athletic capacity and sometimes imagine themselves as being equally as capable of greatness as an elite athlete is. "Many of the viewers of media sporting events are not drawn to those events by their respect for and appreciation of excellence," note Hughes & Coakley (1984, p. 59). "Quite the reverse, they are drawn precisely by the belief that anyone can play and there is nothing special about those who do, at least nothing special enough to discourage active emulation," (Hughes & Coakley 1984, p. 59).

Thus, the consumer is dumbed down not only in the sense of being an easy marketing target but also in the sense of becoming actually stupid. The commodification of sport is more a mirror than it is a cause, though. Sport is not the only arena in which mass media harnesses… [read more]


Race and Gender in Sports Influence of Family Dynamics and Getting a College Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Sports, Race, And Gender

Sports

Sports, race, gender and sociology

Sports, race, gender and sociology

"The 10,000-hour rule has become a cliche. This is the idea, first espoused by K. Anders Ericsson, a psychologist at Florida State University, that it takes about 10,000 hours of practice before any individual can become an expert. The corollary of this rule is that…differences… [read more]


Gym-Based Exercise Session Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
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Exercise Session Review

Record of Potential Risks or Hazards Encountered Prior to Session

Prior to the start of the exercise session, I conducted a survey of the facility areas that we would be using to identify any potential dangers and eliminate them. In that regard, I removed various pieces of debris including tissues from the floor, empty cups on the rowing machine, and a burst exercise ball. There was also a poster on the floor and a set of jump ropes on the rowing machine; I put the poster back up on the wall and hung the jump rope in an appropriate place out of our way. Finally, I collected several loose weights that had been left on the exercise floor and replaced them because they were an obvious safety hazard.

Corrections Made with Regard to Correct and Safe Use of Equipment

Before beginning lat pull-downs, I conducted a routine safety inspection of the apparatus and noticed that the straight bar attached to it had worn dangerously thin at the point where the bar clips to the cable via a hole for the clip. Instead of the usual uniform thickness, the upper part had worn down to only a few millimeters in thickness from wear and tear. Knowing that it would only be a matter of time before the remaining metal failed under stress, I replace that bar with another one and brought the worn bar to the gym manager's office and pointed out the problem.

During the pull-down exercise, my client needed correction in several respects. First, she was sitting too far backwards so I explained that she needed to sit all the way forward on the pad. That also solved the problem of her hunching her upper back on the downward pull and allowed her to maintain the proper position with her chest directly underneath the bottom position of the…… [read more]


Gym Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout

Overview of Session Plan and General Resistance Training Principles

The client has expressed the desire to focus on developing her leg strength, stamina, and on increasing her general muscle tone. She will be working on her upper body and core but emphasizing lower body exercises in connection with her desire to develop her leg strength; she will be running and supplementing her running with lower-impact aerobic workouts on elliptical machines and recumbent bikes to reduce the anatomical stresses caused by running, particularly with regard to her anterior tibial compartment syndrome (ATCS). She will supplement those elements of her fitness routine with some upper body resistance training as well.

Generally, she will be performing multiple series of resistance exercises in a logical anatomical and physiological order. Her target repetition range for most of her resistance training will vary between 10 and 20 repetitions. Her target repetition range for specific movements in which strength increase is desired will (eventually) include sets of 6, and sometimes 4 repetitions; at this stage, she will not use weights heavier than those that permit at least 8 repetitions. All resistance training sets will increase in resistance until the maximum level that still permits the lowest targeted number of repetitions.

Thereafter, the resistance will gradually decrease until the first weight that permits 15 repetitions. This "pyramid" approach to resistance training will apply throughout the program although movements requiring strength development will eliminate the down side of the pyramid, leaving off after the heaviest set (or performing only 1 or 2 sets at moderate resistance in lieu of a full pyramid). She has been counseled with regard to the importance of dietary changes to improve body composition through a combined effort to…… [read more]


Community Sports Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (502 words)
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Community Sports Development

What did you understand by the term Community Sports Development? And how does it differ from traditional sports development?

Generally, community sports development conceives of sports as a means to a much larger end or set of ends within the community beyond the realm of sport. Those ends may pertain to community development or to the betterment of individuals who participate in or otherwise benefit from their association with sports activities. Community sports development can be directed to assist specific groups (such as single mothers or the unemployed or underprivileged) and to further community goals (such as positive community relations in particular geographic areas or among and between various groups of people). In the largest sense, community sports development can be directed toward promotion of governmental policies and objectives, as well, such as the generation of revenue or positive public relations and publicity.

Traditional sport development represents the polar opposite of community sports development. In principle, traditional sport development is designed with a much narrower focus, such as either on (1) specifically promoting the development of the individual as a competitor in a sport, or (2) promoting the elevation of a particular sports organization or interest. The primary difference in that regard is that community sports development approaches sports as a means to a larger end whereas traditional sport development is virtually unconcerned with any objectives beyond performance of individuals and organizations in specific sports endeavours.

Provide an example of a Community Sports project of Initiative in Northern…… [read more]


Legal Issues and Legal Structure of Starting My Own Gym Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,046 words)
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Legal Issues and Legal Structure of Starting and Operating Anyname Fitness Center, LP

There are some interesting dynamics at work in determining the feasibility of creating any new enterprise in the current economic climate, but these issues are particularly pronounced as they relate to the establishment of a public gymnasium or other fitness-related business. On the one hand, fitness awareness… [read more]


Sports Management. I Learned About Sports Purely Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (552 words)
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¶ … sports management.

I learned about sports purely from a spectator's perspective. Although I also love to play a variety of sports, I found myself increasingly drawn towards the business aspects of games whether that be NHL hockey or MLB baseball. Sports management also appeals to me because it allows me to combine by business acumen with my greatest passion in life.

The importance of sports marketing to the overall success of a professional sports organization as well as to athletic excellence.

Key Points

Merchandising

Although the economic recession has adversely impacted the willingness of some sports organizations to take risks and invest in new merchandising opportunities, merchandising remains an important aspect of the marketing mix. Sports merchandising can be viewed within the overall context of advertising and promotions, given that team and league products create brand awareness and encourage team spirit. Merchandising is a major part of an organization's marketing portfolio, as it allows sports organizations to renew their image and have control over branding. Moreover, this aspect of sports management blends with careers in the retail sector.

Reference: Schlossberg, Howard. Sports Marketing. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. This book provides a good reference point for understanding how merchandising fits into a sports organization's overall business model.

2. Sponsorships (of athletes, teams, and venues)

Sports sponsorships grew sizably during the 1980s. Corporate sponsorships of teams, special sports events, and individual athletes has been a great boon to the business of professional sports. With corporate sponsorship, many athletes and teams have the opportunity to expand and improve the caliber of game play. Wooing companies for sponsorship contracts has therefore become one of the most important jobs for any…… [read more]


Everyday Statistics in Sports Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
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¶ … Statistics in Sports

"Statistics never lie"

Sports enthusiasts (as cited in Camillo, 2008, ¶1).

Statistical Studies of Sports

Each day, a number of Americans, seemingly mesmerized with sports data collections, read newspaper accounts relating raw and summary data about a variety of sports., Donald Guthrie explains in "Introduction to the miscellaneous sports articles" that: "Statistical studies of sports seem to fall into three categories" (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267). These categories include:

Analysis of rules and strategies;

Analysis of extent participation. (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267)

In the book Anthology of statistics in sports, Jim Albert, professor of mathematics and statistics at Bowling Green State University, Jay Bennett, Principal Scientist with Telcordia Technologies; active in the ASA Section of Statistics in Sports, and James J. Cochran (2005), Assistant Professor Department of Marketing and Analysis at Louisiana State University, investigate the use of statistics to analyze sports. The authors stress that researchers who collect and interpret data do not always limit their studies to only include the major sports such as baseball, basketball, football (soccer to Americans), and hockey. Some have even studied statistics for the game of darts, for instance. During this paper, the researcher examines three studies relating to everyday statistics in sports; noting the method of each study and identifying the independent variables and the dependent variables for the study. The researcher also reflects on the quality of the research processes each study utilized and proffers suggestions for research improvements. For the current paper, the researcher focuses on statistics relating to rugby (one study) and basketball (two studies)

Study I

In the study, "Differences in game statistics between winning and losing rugby teams in the six nations tournament," Enrique Orgega, Diego Villarego, and Jose M. Palao (2009) report results of the study they conducted using observational methods. During the study, Orgega, Villarego and Palao used "univariate (t-test) and multivariate (discriminant) analysis of data… [to analyze] the differences in rugby game statistics between winning and losing teams…[; to evaluate] the data from 58 games of round robin play from the Six Nations tournament from the 2003-2006 seasons…" (Abstract Section). The groups of variables included the and number of points the teams scored, how the teams scored the points, the way the teams acquired the ball, and how the teams implemented tactical and technical aspects of the game. Statistical analysis for Study I included:

First, a descriptive analysis of the data was done. Second, a Mann-Whitney U (non-parametric) was carried out with the goal of analyzing the differences between winning and losing teams. Finally, a discriminant analysis… was done to find those statistical variables that best differentiate winning and losing teams. Structural Coefficients (SC) greater than or equal to |.30| & #8230; were considered relevant for the interpretation of the linear vectors. All of the statistical analyses were done with a level of significance of p < 0.05. (Orgega, Villarego & Palao, 2009, Statistical analysis Section,… [read more]


Sports Charity Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (555 words)
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Public Motives for Participation in Charity Sporting Events

The article by Bennett et al. (2007) provides a report on the motives driving Britons to participation in mass charity sporting events. The article claims this to be a leading method of charity fund-raising, identifies the motives which encourage public engagement of such charities and distinguishes the motives of 'serious-minded' individuals which also engage these charities.

A study conducted in 2007 by Bennett et al. seeks to examine the motives which encourage public participation in mass charity sporting events. Proceeding from the observation that there are hundreds of annual opportunities for participation in such events, the article is designed to provide those who sponsor such events with some insight into how best to court potential participants. Entitled "Motivations for Participating in Charity-Affiliated Sporting Events," this would be published in the Journal of Customer Behaviour and offers charity sporting event planners both endorsement and insight for improvement.

A Summary:

The article provides an exhaustive discussion on various motives driving members of the general public to engage in such events as the 10k, the 5k, the fun run or the walkathon. A first point which the article makes as a rationale for the study undertaken is that these events have proven to be generally effective in raising money and awareness for such causes as public health issues. Indeed, the article indicates that this has become a favored method of including the public in efforts to address conditions such as breast cancer, autism and multiple sclerosis and in broader efforts to eliminate obesity and encourage physical activeness.

The article follows this point with an examination of the major motives driving members of…… [read more]


Sports Administration Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,144 words)
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Sports Administration -- Sports Teams: Private or Public Administration?

The general perception is that sports is a field for the highly athletic elites, the people who then move on to representing the countries in international sports events, to keep the audience in awe and tension, and to bring them from agony to ecstasy. Yet, what is often overlooked is that, just like any other formation, the sports teams function in accordance to pre-established goals and plans; gather money and spend money. From this standpoint then, they ought to be run as private institutions, in charge of their funds and able to administer their resources as they see fit. On the other hand however, the sports teams are part of the national heritage and they represent the country. From this angle then, they ought to fall under the patrimony of the state.

The matter of how should states and private players go about in best administering the sports teams is a long standing question, which has captured the attention of various writers. Two noteworthy editors are Mark Rosentraub and David Swindell, who, in 2009, wrote the comprehensive article Of Devil and Details: Bargaining for Successful Public / Private Partnership between Cities and Sports Teams. The article featured in the 33rd volume of the Public Administration Quarterly; it can also be found online at two websites, namely the Southern Public Administration Education Foundation (http://www.spaef.com) and the Questia virtual library (http://www.questia.com), both of which require subscriptions.

2. Article Summary

The article commences by revealing several instances in which the states have poured a lot of money into the building of facilities to be used by sports teams, the most relevant example in this sense being the construction of sports fields and stadiums. Rosentraub and Swindell find that sports teams are often a product of entertainment, but explain that states gain from investing in them both financially, as well as non-financially. While the financial gains can easily be put down, fact remains that the non-financial benefits are tremendous and the state is worth investing in sports even only for the non-financial gains.

The benefits can be even further enhanced if a respective city becomes the home of a professional sports team. In order to capitalize on the advantages of such a situation, the state officials are presented with the single opportunity of closing an agreement with the team to share costs of administration. In signing such a contract however, state representatives must pay attention to the safeguarding of the interests of the citizens; that there are no hidden costs and that all information is clearly stipulated.

Throughout the years, the partnerships between private and public institutions in the administration of spots teams has evolved, and evidence in this sense stands the more extensive contracts. Today, whenever the city hall wishes to invest in a sports team, they can close an agreement by signing a standard contract, to which they may add the very clauses of the respective understanding. Since the agreements of the contract… [read more]


Equine Sports Medicine Polo Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,807 words)
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Equine Sports Medicine

Polo is one of the sports that rely heavily upon horses. The sport has developed from ancient times, and is growing in popularity in the United States, as well as other Western countries. According to Paul Wollenman, 40% of polo ponies in the United States are Argentine Thoroughbreds, while 60% are American. Polo players require more than… [read more]


Community Sports Center Director Has Asked Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (704 words)
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¶ … community sports center director has asked the committee to develop a research design for considering the possibility of adding two new sports to the programming agenda: archery and fencing. This paper presents the results of that effort.

Both of the considered sports have characteristics which place them outside of the mainstream of general community sports programming. They are considered to be elite sports, requiring years of skill formulation and practice. They imply some danger and incur some costs, both of which can serve as initial barriers to participation. However, due to their skill development, confidence-building, and conditioning benefits, both sports have positive impacts on self-esteem, which studies have shown is linked to more committed ongoing sports participation (Bowker, 2006).

Archery. Archery is considered to be a sport of high skill requirement. This is the key factor which the committee believes is necessary for study to determine the program offering's viability. The research question proposed is as follows:

Q1: How is the perception of a sport's difficulty related to the willingness of participants to engage in the sport?

The Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis are, as follows:

H21:

Holding a higher perception of a sport's difficulty level is more likely to lead to a participant being less willingness to engage in that sport.

H20:

There is no significant relationship between having a higher perception of a sport's difficulty level and having a lower willingness to participate.

The key consideration here will be the level of physical difficulty in terms of precision, strength, hand-eye coordination, and the like. These will be the variables utilized to study this question.

Fencing. Due to its long history as a cultured, elite sport, fencing can be been seen to have high entry costs in the form of equipment requirements and, especially, psychological barriers to participation among potential enthusiasts. In order to determine whether the sport is a viable option, therefore, the committee has determined that the social-psychological barrier to participation as a concern is the primary issue which must be resolved in order for support for the sport to be solidified. The research question which the committee…… [read more]


Sports as Common Sense Ethics Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (378 words)
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¶ … Boswell points out, sports are about the "commonsense ethics of everyday life." Both within and between teams, ethical issues are raised on the field. Individual athletes confront ethical questions as well. Although everyday life is not a sporting event, sporting events do illustrate ethical conundrums and their solutions.

The simple act of winning or losing raises questions about right and wrong. Ethical behaviors are played out on the field, in the locker room, and in the media. The extent to which athletes go to win is one of the most obvious ethical problems in sports, as well as in everyday life. Cheating occurs in everyday life as well as in sports. For example, how far a person will go to achieve a promotion or to make more money off a sale is the same ethical issue as how far an athlete will go to win a game. A player on a team might choose to withhold information about a health problem in order not to be benched, which could cost the team a win. This is clearly an ethical choice that would be played out equally in…… [read more]


Most Significant Social Impact in Sports Essay

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¶ … twentieth century, sports remained a predominantly localized activity. Even the ancient Greek Olympics did not draw players or fans from around the globe, only within the Aegean region. Globalization, urbanization, and new forms of communication and transportation have changed everything about sports.

Globalization has transformed the nature of team spirit itself, helping to erase cultural and national boundaries in sports. Especially evident in American baseball and in international soccer, globalization has created teams and fan bases that are comprised of diverse people. Those teams and their fans buy into a manufactured identity, one that can be traced to the same basic marketing principles used in branding. Teams are branded products. In this way, teams have become commodified entities not unlike the sporting gear and alcoholic beverages peddled at sporting events.

Marketing has also expanded the target market for sports. Once a primarily male pastime, spectator sports are now enjoyed by scores of female viewers. Females, like males, watch sports with primarily male participants, too. Globalization and its aftereffects are directly responsible for reaching out to new and untapped fan bases. Marketing tactics such as…… [read more]


Sports Marketing on November 24, 2009 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,451 words)
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Sports Marketing

On November 24, 2009, the Vancouver Whitecaps announced the hiring of Tottenham Hotspur executive Paul Barber to run their new franchise in Major League Soccer (MLS) (Walker, 2009). The move from the world's 11th most valuable football club to a club that is set to make a move to what is only the fifth-largest pro-sports league in America… [read more]


Exercise Philosophy When Rio Term Paper

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If one was to apply the principles of Adams, Keele and Schmidt, a new training and physical education program would incorporate the short-term benefits of practicing, visualization and build in more long-term benefits like specific practice strategies. For example, if new soccer players desiring to reach the skill set of a Pele wanted to learn three new soccer skills such… [read more]


Relationship Between Success in Major Sports and Alumni Donations Thesis

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¶ … Sports and Alumni Donations

Increasing Student Applicants and Alumni Donations Through Facilitation of Successful Sports Programs

Alumni donations are a huge piece of the puzzle when it comes to funding college life. When exploring this concept, there is a natural question which arises within the minds of college administrators: how are alumni donations increased? There are several methodologies… [read more]


Coaches Referee and Sports Commentator Then Digital vs. Film Camera Essay

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Coaches, Referees & Sports Commentator & Digital vs. Film Cameras

Coaches, Referees & Sports Commentators & Digital vs. Film Cameras

Coaches, Referees, & Sports Commentators:

It's a common dream for children to want to grow up to be an athlete. They spend hours thinking about what it would be like to have their face on a baseball card, or get a Super Bowl ring, or sign a multi-million dollar shoe deal with Nike. The reality is most kids will never realize that dream. It takes years of practice and an innate talent to get to the level of professional athlete, which simply isn't realistic for most kids. Even though the chances of employment as a professional athlete are slim, there are other opportunities in the sports industry, such as: coach, referee or a sports commentator.

Athletic coaches are the key to any successful team. They fulfill a variety of tasks that often determine whether or not their team will have a winning or losing season. One of these tasks is the evaluation of players for their team. Not only do coaches need to decide if a player is talented enough to play, but also that their particularly skill set and personality are going to be a good fit with the existing team members. Once they have their roster of players decided upon, coaches must then organize their teams and assign positions. Of course, in addition to these organizational aspects, coaches are also responsible for ensuring their team members are receiving instruction and practice in order to improve both their skills and their overall physical condition. These responsibilities differ greatly from that of referees.

Although much of a coach's job happens before the game, referees' primary responsibilities lie during actual game play. Referees are charged with observing every play in the game. They work hard to detect infractions in the rules. When an infraction is noticed, it is also the referee's responsibility to impose any penalties on the player or team. Where coaches and referees are directly involved in interaction with the team, sports commentators are on the outside looking in, but still offer another opportunity to be involved in sports as a profession.

The primary skill needed for a sports commentator is good articulation. A sports commentator's primary duty is the description of the events during the game, as they are happening. This verbal description not only informs the audience about what is going on, but also provides analysis of the events -- not only what has happened but the why and the how as well. In addition to commentating on current events as they are happening during the game, sports commentators also give background information to the audience on: the sport, players, coaches, history, teams, and any other factors related to the game.

Competition for professional athletes continues to be extremely intense; however, opportunities to make a living as a professional in coaching, refereeing, and sports commentator may provide more opportunities for those who want to be in sports… [read more]


Athletic Facilities Management Thesis

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Sports-High School

Athletic Facilities Management

The management of a football facility should always recognize that safety standards need to reflect a very safety oriented culture at the sports facility. A positive attitude should be demonstrated by the management while ensuring that safety policies are carried out effectively and willingly. Management also has a responsibility to take all necessary precautions to safeguard spectators against the effects of accidents in, or originating from, the activity during the game. Initially, the Management will have to make an assessment of how many spectators can be safely accommodated within the ground itself. This assessment is the most important step towards the achievement of reasonable safety (Health & Safety in Football Stadiums, 2009). Management also has the responsibility to ensure that all coaches carry out the legal duties that are expected of them as well.

There are certain legal duties that all athletic personnel are required to carry out in the carrying out of their daily activities. The first of these is a duty to plan. Athletic personnel must plan all activities and create a paper trail of all proper documentation (Kentucky Country Day School Coaches Handbook, n.d.). All things that are required to successfully run a football stadium must be planned out in advance and documented well.

Another legal duty that must be carried out is that of a duty to supervise. Coaches must directly supervise all activities that are associated with their team. This includes all activities in locker areas, practice sessions and waiting areas. The general rule is that they younger the child the greater the duty is to supervise (Kentucky Country Day School Coaches Handbook, n.d.). Generally students are considered invitees on school premises during school hours or at school-sponsored events. The legal precedent was set in the case of Curtis v. State of Ohio (1986). In this case it was determined by the court that due to the status of the students being invitees the safety obligations that are owed them are greater than normal (Maloy, 1993). These obligations extend to the idea of supervision in order to maintain safety.

The next legal duty that must be considered is that of the duty to provide safe playing facilities. All facilities must be inspected on a regular basis for hazards and all findings must be documented (Kentucky Country Day School Coaches Handbook, n.d.). A facility has an obligation to take reasonable precautions to keep spectators and users safe. The management of a facility has a safety obligation to inspect the premises on a regular basis for hazards. This includes the areas that the users will be in as well as the spectators. The inspection of the facility inspection should cover more than just structural or construction defects. It should consist of management inspection and reviewing its maintenance operations as well. The potential risk of injury from improper maintenance is greater than that from structural defects (Maloy, 1993).

Coaches have a legal duty to ensure that appropriate protective…… [read more]


Title IX: Negative Effect on Men's College Athletics Essay

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¶ … Boost for Women's Athletics but a Bane for Men's Athletics?

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." -- Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Although there… [read more]


Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications Thesis

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Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications

Because of the metatarsals' location, they are exposed to high stresses during many types of athletics, particularly those involving frequent jumping, pivoting, and repeated changes of direction. The metatarsals are susceptible to chronic stress-induced fractures from a combination of factors including foot anatomy, footwear, playing surface, specific maneuvers, previous injury to surrounding tissue, and more… [read more]


Sports Surfing and Other Underrated Sports Professional Essay

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Sports

SURFING and OTHER UNDERRATED SPORTS

Professional sports evolved tremendously in the United States during the 20th century. At the turn of the century, only Major League Baseball (MLB) existed even remotely in the same format into which it has developed a century later. Since then, American football, basketball, and ice hockey leagues assumed national prominence, together with other national sports like NASCAR, which actually originated during the Great Depression when illegal "rum runners" in the Southern states began modifying their cars to outrun the law enforcement authorities. Nevertheless, many other sports do not enjoy the same level of appreciation in the U.S. despite the fact that they are no less difficult and require comparable talent and dedication to pursue at a high level.

Discussion:

Surfing is typical of bona fide sports that are underappreciated in the U.S., along with soccer, wrestling, gymnastics, and lacrosse. Surfing requires swimming proficiency just to participate before even considering the tremendous skill and kinesthetic balance required just to successfully get up onto a surfboard, let alone to compete at a high level.

Soccer is the most popular team sport in the world but has not succeeded as a spectator sport in the U.S. despite several attempts at creating professional leagues. Wrestling and gymnastics are both commonly part of American high school curricula, but within the last two decades, dozens of colleges and universities, including some of the NCAA Division I schools that had previously featured national championship-level teams have cancelled their programs for budgetary reasons. Similarly, lacrosse is typically offered only at the high school and college level, but there is absolutely no opportunity for a professional career in the sport, even for the sport's top players, beyond the collegiate level.…… [read more]


Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,057 words)
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Personalized Health Plan

One health behavior change that I would want to make in my life is the incorporation of an exercise regime. While I realize that my time is limited, I also realize that I need to maintain an active healthy lifestyle in order to keep a balance in my life. From the class readings and my own experience I know that I think more clearly and have much more energy when I have a balanced program of exercise as well as diet. But for the most part I wish to concentrate on creating a moderate exercise routine and establish it. Currently I have no set program or routine that I follow or perform. My exercise is usually limited to some walking around campus or other areas. I currently do little or no aerobic exercise and no weight routine at all. This lack of physical exercise, while perhaps not critical now, will follow me through my life. I need to create the pattern of behavior now at this stage of my life in order to establish it in my life for the future. Furthermore, I am not alone, "...a recent survey indicated that 29% of college women and 21% of college men participate in no moderate or vigorous physical activities." (Donatelle, 2005, p.320)

The lack of proper exercise is associated with many health risks, these are both physical as well as mental in many cases. "More than 108 million Americans are overweight or obese, 65 million have high blood pressure, 7.2 million suffer a heart attack in any given year, 21 million have diabetes, and approximately 41 million have 'prediabetes." (Donatelle, 2005, p.321) a good established exercise regime has also been found to reduce overall stress and improve mood, decrease the risk of depression and anxiety, improve concentration, as well as increasing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. The lack of exercise has also been found to lead to a decrease in bone density and comorbid increase the likelihood of developing osteoporosis. Lack of exercise also makes for a lazy heart muscle and low metabolism and circulation. This can lead to the buildup of plaque on the arterial walls as well as the heart valves and increase the risk of heart attack as well as stroke.

The primary obstacle to this change is time. I certainly have the desire, the problem will be to create a routine that is healthy but not overly time consuming or strenuous so that I may not feel like doing it or fell that I have the time to do it. This can lead to a great start but make the routine difficult to establish. Balance is the key, I believe, balance with the right amount of exercise in the time that I can budget to it. By creating a schedule that lists my classes as well as work responsibilities, I can find the time to exercise as well as time off to simply enjoy myself. As I said balance is… [read more]


Sports Illustrated -- Lance Is Back Thesis

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Sports Illustrated -- Lance is Back

The word is out -- Lance Armstrong is coming out of retirement to ride once again in the Tour de France, the world's premier cycling challenge. The man who rose to the very peak of the cycling world, and retired at the top, is giving it another go. Armstrong announced his decision at the… [read more]


Sports in Our Lives: Outline and Draft Essay

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¶ … Sports in Our Lives: Outline and Draft

The reward of placing so high in the AA provincial soccer tournament was an experience I will never forget. Such an experience helped me gain more faith in myself and the world around; therefore representing the concept that sports such as soccer hold a valuable role in the creation of a self-sufficient and responsible character within individuals.

Experience of Placing 6th on AA provincial Soccer Tournament a. Although it was not first, the experience still made me proud of myself and my team.

Together as a team, we worked collaboratively to use the lessons and skills we trained so hard for, effectively creating a successful synergy within the team.

Therefore I left the tournament not with disappointment for not reaching first, but with the satisfaction that both myself and my team worked hard to perform the best we could perform.

Affect that experience had on me a. This experience helped me realize that success is not always a resulting of winning first place.

b. Success comes from hard work, persistence, and a satisfaction with one's performance.

c. This then taught me to have more faith in myself, and to use this new found confidence in my abilities in other walks of life.

IV. Reaching the conclusion of how extra curricular activities such as soccer can install a sense of values and a strong work ethic within the individual.

a. As proven by my own personal experience, the hard work involved with the necessary training and execution seen in sports, builds a sense of pride and understanding of good work ethic in individuals.

b. With this knowledge gained from organized sports, individuals can then bring those characteristics into other avenues of daily life.

c. If one approaches life with the strong demeanor demanded by many sports, one can enjoy that life based on the fact they have tried…… [read more]


Women in Sports Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,022 words)
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¶ … women in sports, how it is changing, and how women in sports have impacted our lives and society. Women have participated in sports for centuries, and yet, sports have historically featured men, especially in more modern professional sports settings. While women have made great strides into many professional and exhibition sports, they are still largely absent from the… [read more]


Sports Documentary Murderball Term Paper

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Sports Documentary "Murderball"

Murderball - More than a Sports Documentary About Disabilities

There are documentaries about war, about politics, about healthcare, history, crime and more. And then there are sports documentaries that rarely get much attention because they are usually about one particular team's winning season. "How the Yankees won the World Series" or something of that sort. But the… [read more]


Use of Steroids in Athletes Term Paper

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Steroids Among Athletes

Steroids are a class of prescribed drugs, used to treat abnormally low amounts of testosterone, body wasting in the case of AIDS and other disease conditions involving loss of body mass (National Institute of Drug Abuse 2006). Anabolic steroids contain hormones or hormone-like substances, used to boost strength and muscle growth (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence 1998).… [read more]


Effects of Music on Heart Rate Term Paper

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Music and Exercise

Today's busy life styles become hectic for many people. Tensions and anxieties haunt each one of us in our daily lives. This busy life style and its various problems put a lot of physical, psychological and even spiritual stress on all of us. Exercise is an activity considered good for human health while listening to music has its own positive effect on human mind and psyche but if both of these things are combined together then it can be considered a lethal combination. Different researches have been conducted to find the effect of music and exercises together.

Exercise & Music

Different training sessions involving cardio and resistance work, including a cool down and stretch sessions increasingly involve music in the whole process. Different exercises work all the body's muscles because of which the heart has to work harder to deliver oxygen to the muscles. Exercises involve a number of activities like jacks, squats, lunges, jumps and press-ups etc. And people have to do them regularly to maintain their desired physical activity. Aerobic exercises such as walking or running are also done along with other regular exercises or weight training. Some only prefer aerobic exercises while some make a combination. Doing exercises in isolation or maintaining them regularly is a difficult task as people get bored and loose their interest but involvement of music makes the whole process a fun-filled experience. It becomes frustrating having a workout without music for those who like to work out to a beat.

A variety of upbeat and popular music including disco and house music is generally used to perk up the exercises. Some people are using R&B and even hip hop depending on the likes and dislikes. Some use electronic keyboard music, some use soft music while some go for harps and flutes to create a relaxed and soulful ambience. The music is usually contagious and the moves become fantastic making the exercise a pleasurable and enjoyable experience.

Physiological Aspect

Normal exercise routines with music involve fast and energy requiring or calories burning movements. Flexibility, better movements, better posture are some of the benefits that a person can gain in short period of time. Experts suggest that a disciple inculcated by regular practices can help control and even lose body weight.

Effects on Heart Rate: Average heart rate is between 72-80 beats per minute and exercise activities together with music change this heart beat. Different researches have been conducted to find the effect of music on heart beats while exercising. The study of its effect becomes very important when it comes to the treatment of various heart conditions. Earlier researches were inconclusive with respect to the relation of music & exercise to cardiac activity. Some of the studies used Jazz music and found that respiration increases considerably while there is only a moderate effect on the heart beat and that to end as the music ends. Music tempos may range from 70 to 170 beats per minute and fast to slow… [read more]


Sports Management Women in Sports Management: Trends Term Paper

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Sports Management

Women in Sports Management: Trends and Implications

While some observers might suggest that there is still a "glass ceiling" in place in many industries that continues to restrict American women's ability to achieve upper management positions, the fact remains that there are more females in management positions in the United States today than ever before, and some of these women have achieved significant success in previously male-dominate fields (Watt, 2003). One field of particular interest today is sports management, where females are now making significant inroads on this once-primarily male occupation. According to one authority, these trends are fairly recent: "With the exception of a few athletes, women making a living in sports was never considered a career option a generation ago" (Feehan, 2006, p. 1). Furthermore, the trend is snowballing, at least in the professional sporting venues. As more and more women prove themselves in this challenging field, it is clear that the way will be cleared for still more female sports managers. For example, according to Feehan (2006), "The opportunities for women in sports management and marketing continue to grow as more women enter the field and find success" (p. 1). In fact, the theme of 10th annual Women in Sports Business symposium last year was "Fueling Opportunity: Women, Sports and the Bottom Line," suggesting that female sport managers represent an untapped resource that can help sports organizations improve their profitability (Feehan, 2006).

According to Watt (2003), though, despite the increased presence of women as sports managers in recent years, females still have a long way to go to achieve even a modest balance compared to their male counterparts, particularly in the upper echelons of the sports management hierarchy. "The role of women in sport, as in so many other societal situations, has been very mixed," he advises. "There has been a marked increase in the number of participants in recent years, but the importance of the role of women as top-level coaches and administrators has not always effectively increased to the same degree. Much of sport's hierarchy is still a male domain" (Watt, 2003, p. 31). In reality, there does appear to be a "glass ceiling" in place in some professional sporting venues, particularly those that have been traditionally considered "male" sports such as football. For example, Cunningham and Sagas (2004) point out that, "Sport was invented for men by men and is dominated by men" (p. 411).

Like so many other fields of endeavor, women occupying management positions in sports continues to lag far behind their male counterparts, even in the lower echelons of the management hierarchy. For instance, according to Watt, "There is no doubt that women have not been fully represented in sport in a variety of ways -- as participants, coaches or officials. Even in sports such as gymnastics, in which around 80 per cent of the participants are female, the top official positions have often been held by men" (Watt, 2003, p. 32). Females have also…… [read more]

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