Study "Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays 56-109

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Fitness for Women Term Paper

… Fitness for Women

Dorchester is an extremely welcoming community that is saturated with many ways of staying active. There are many activities and opportunities that promote healthy exercise for everyone within in the neighborhood to engage in. With the substantial amount of evidence that indicates that the extent to which social relationships are strong and supportive is directly related to the health of the individuals who live within such social confines (Berkman, 1995).

Dorchester is a quiet, typical urban city that offers the serene life for those who dwell in and around it. There is much focus on the youth of Dorchester in much of the community observation. With a great deal of hype placed in the local youth sports, everyone is usually involved in some way or another. For women, there are several aspects that directly focus in their direction. Many communities have councils that place a specific meeting with the object of focusing on ways to elaborate the promotion of health in their communities (Kreuter, Lezin, Young, 2000). Aside from the common Curves and other fitness for women establishments, there are several MOPS groups (mothers of preschoolers) that aim to join mothers of young children. These particular groups provide some interest into the fitness for women with weekly and daily walking, jogging and hiking sessions. Communities have much to benefit from the promotion of fitness. Studies have indicated that communities with high regard for exercise and health are found be much more economically endowed (Kawachi, Glass, 1999). With that, the entire makeup of the business side of the community also strives to get involved with the promotion of health and exercise.

Outside of the realm of groups focused on mothers, there are also several coffee shops that have…… [read more]

Philosophy of Sports Term Paper

… Philosophy of Sports

But it's good for you!"

An overview of American Sports -- collective and individual anxiety about just having fun

One of the reasons that the ancient Greek ideal of sports came into being is no doubt the… [read more]

Health Benefits of Exercise Term Paper

… Today, exercise does not automatically bring to mind endless workouts, or marathon runs; today, exercise is a form of activity that one would enjoy doing, and this could be anything from dancing to jogging, to fitness walking, and to ballroom… [read more]

Sports and Society Term Paper

… Violence in American Sports Today

Participation in amateur athletic events has grown tremendously over the past few decades in terms of their scope, power, and economic status. In fact, in the United States alone, amateur athletics involve the lives and… [read more]

Health Importance Term Paper

… 105).

In conclusion, it is quite clear that exercise and health are intertwined. It is also quite clear that education is one of the keys to understanding exercise and motivating youth and adults to exercise more frequently. Studies consistently indicate that exercise can elevate mood, reduce health concerns, and allow people to live longer, more fulfilling lives. With the growing problem of obesity and its' health related problems, such as diabetes and heart disease, it is clear additional work needs to be done in educating Americans about the deadly game of inactivity. Exercise does not have to be rigorous to be helpful. The more people that know that, and begin to exercise, even moderately, the healthier the nation will become.


Akande, A., Van Wyk, C.D., & Osagie, J. (2000). Importance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention of illness and the enhancement of health. Education, 120(4), 758.

Author not Available. (1999). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from the Center for Disease Control Web site: June 2004.

Editors. (2004). Leading health indicators. Retrieved from the Web site: June 2004.

Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105.

Grove, N.C., & Spier, B.E. (1999). Motivating the well elderly to exercise. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 16(3), 179-189.

Hausenblas, Heather A. Transtheoretical model: Is termination applicable to exercise? American Journal of Health Studies; 1/1/2004.

Rauh, V.A. (2003). Health and community design: The impact of…… [read more]

Sports and Social Change Essay

… Sports and Social Change

The National Football League (NFL) is changing. It has a new face, and one that everybody -- straight, lesbian, gay bi-sexual transsexual (LGBT) and queer can both recognize and respect.

There have been a number of recent developments within the NFL that show it is taking demonstrable steps to illustrate the same sort of social justice that is increasingly being reflected across America and the world at large. This past winter, NFL hopeful Michael Sams admitted he's a homosexual to a national audience including the New York Times and ESPN. A few weeks later the quarterback of the Washington Redskins, Kirk Cousins, stated that he and his teammates would welcome an openly gay player who could "help us win" (Huffington Post). And just a couple of weeks ago, representatives from the NFL participated in the YOU Belong Initiative's second annual LGBT and Straight Allied Youth Sports and Leadership camp.

As if these occurrences were not signs of the apocalypse, representatives from the NFL (including senior executive and former player Troy Vincent and director of transition and clinical services -- and another former player -- Dwight Hollier) participated in the You Can Play High Five Initiative. You Can Play is an organization headed by former player and openly gay founder Wade Davis, which is dedicated to providing philanthropy opportunities to LGBT youth while utilizing sports (and football in particular) as a medium to reach them.

Quite obviously, the participation of NFL players in all of these events and the expressions of willingness to work with people regardless of their sexual orientations indicates that the image of the organization is subtly changing. Even a cursory interview of the experience of former players who came out as homosexuals after they left the league indicates why such a transformation is both timely and necessary. In a conversation Davis had with Vincent, the former recollected, "I policed my every move and tried to re-create the type of masculinity that I thought was acceptable in the world. I even disclosed how my fear of being rejected, on some level, impacted my ability to perform" (Davis).

In the 21st century, it is no longer appropriate to have players in the NFL -- or anywhere else, for that matter -- have to hide their tendencies because of a fear of a lack of tolerance. The NFL is one of the most eminent places to being exhibiting parity in terms of diversity for its players. As one of the more influential organizations in the U.S., it has a great degree…… [read more]

Attributions in Sports Psychology Article Review

… Interestingly, studies referenced by the authors reveal that as group size increases, individual athletes "…diffuse the responsibility for group action"; hence, individuals in large groups (such as a football team) are not apt to accept failure on their own shoulders (Zaccaro, 257).

And when it comes to group athletic behaviors, there are four characteristics that can result, according to Zaccaro's (referencing Miller and Schlenker (1985). First, a quarterback after a winning performance can attribute the success to his play ("I threw the ball well"). Even though he had 10 players around him making it all work, the quarterback can take credit, the attribution in this case to a single player. Second, the winning game can be attributed to "…factors of the group-including-the-self" (which Zaccaro calls "group-internal") (258). The quarterback might use the tired cliche, "It was a team effort…and I couldn't have done it without the team behind me"; what he really means is there was a sense of cohesiveness between the line and the backfield but he's glad to take some of the credit. The third characteristic is what Zaccaro attributes to "group-excluding-the-self" ("group other); that would be a situation in which the quarterback or captain says "This team worked hard all week for this game and we showed what we can do when every unit is alert and well prepared." And the fourth characteristic is said to be because of environmentally helpful conditions ("environment attributions"); this would be say a rainy day and the team always plays well in the mud. A key point for this article is that "…attributions which enhance the group can raise self-esteem" -- which makes sense because in team sports jealousy can occur if individuals take too much credit.

Ability and Effort in Sports vs. Intellectual Ability and Effort

An article in the Journal of Personality (1980) points to a study of 120 male college undergraduates, who were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer in a physical test. Following the manipulation of the bicycle (unknown to the riders it was made more difficult the second time) the riders experienced decreased performance (Rejeski, et al., 1980). The riders were then quizzed as to the attribution of their less impressive performance. "Successful outcomes were attributed to both ability and effort," but as to the unsuccessful outcomes, they were "…attributed to a lack of ability but not a lack of effort" (Rejeski, 233). The authors suggest that a "motivational bias appears to preclude low ability attribution in intellectual pursuits," but when it comes to sports activities, "…physiologically related ability may be viewed as relatively unstable" (Rejeski, 233).

In conclusion, it is important for sports teams and individual players to understand why and how attributions matter vis-a-vis performance. This paper outlines some of the scholarship on that subject.

Works Cited

Grove, J.R., and Prapavessis, H. (1995). The Effect of Skill Level and Sport Outcomes on Dimensional Aspects of Causal Attributions. Australian Psychologist, 30(2), 92-95.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., and Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: seeking… [read more]

Sports Agent Sports Is Big Essay

… As someone who is at the beginning stages of becoming a sports agent by gathering and learning as much about the field as possible, Ms. Tucker's comments were helpful in seeing how other aspects of the sports industry relates to sports agents and how they are viewed in general.

Second Interview

The next interview I conducted was with Mr. Josh Brown. Josh is a professional basketball player who plays for a team in Russia. Josh is an American who graduated from Towson State University. In our interview he discussed his relationship with his agent and the processes he experienced on that search.

Josh communicated to me that it was difficult to find an agent to represent him because he came from a smaller school and there was not a lot of interest for him domestically in the NBA. Josh was committed to playing basketball somewhere in the world and he knew he needed an agent that could help him reach this goal. Josh conducted much research into finding his agent but through social media he discovered some leads who were excited to take on Josh as a client. Josh's friend ultimately recommended to him, his personal agent and finalized the deal through this networking technique.

Although Josh is working with his current agent, he still fields requests from other agents seeking to represent him. Josh explained to me that difficulty in this constant sales environment, he said "It is very tricky trying to talk with different agents because if two agents try to promote you to the same team it can make you and the participating agencies look unprofessional. When I try to promote myself to elite agencies I try to avoid agents in the same country to avoid this conflict."

Josh told me about how his agent's duties mostly consisted of promoting me to better teams each year, drawing up my contracts and handling endorsements and other legal matters. Josh's agent works as an independent, but he has expressed that most work in firms that have contacted him. Josh is overall satisfied with his agent's work and believes that a smart and honest approach works best in this field. There are many shady individuals out there looking to take advantage, but they are usually found out and exposed. The importance of an agent to an athlete is best summed up by Josh: "An agent's connections are extremely important, thus at times I find myself wanting the big time agents who can help blossom my career even more. Honesty in an agent is most important, seeing as though some agents play games with clients."


After conducting this research I am more dedicated to achieving my aim of becoming a sports agent. The international aspects of the career that I discovered while talking to Josh have taught me the many and differing opportunities that are available in this career choice. I feel that I am currently on the right path towards this goal and will continue to seek out other's… [read more]

Why Does Gender Matter in Sport? Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Matter in Sports?

There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and… [read more]

Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Assessment

… ¶ … Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Sports Event: The Olympics and Wimbledon on London

Impact and Issues of a Mega and Hallmark Sporting Event

Festivals and special events are organized in destinations, places, and regions to celebrate, offer… [read more]

Feminism How Sports Reproduce Research Paper

… For instance, it is easy to realize that all sexual orientations can engage in one sporting event like playing rugby, soccer, and/or football (Brace-Govan, 2010).

Racial norms

Sporting activities have emerged and cut on racial lines. The world soccer slogan… [read more]

Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Sports Research Paper

… Those who are in the professional level and win get more lucrative contracts and are then offered highly profitable endorsement deals (Freudenrich 2). Michael Jordan was a basketball player for the Chicago Bulls but his streak on the court led to many such deals so that even some twenty years after retirement he still pulls in millions of dollars a year through Nike shoes and other endorsements. In winning, there is a great deal of money to be made which is another source of pressure for athletes.

The steroid controversy is far from over but there are becoming more stern restrictions against the use of performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sports. One of the sporting world's most famous names and indeed the most famous bicyclist in the world, Lance Armstrong, had to give back the many medals he had won for finishing first in the Tour d'France because it was alleged that he had taken steroids (Herper 1). Even though Armstrong has yet to admit his guilt, the very fact that he stopped fighting the accusations is enough in many eyes to confirm the fact that even this American legend was a steroid user. He is absolutely not the only one. Barry Bonds, Mark Maguire, and Sammy Sosa all spend the 1990s and 2000s making headlines for their feats in baseball when they took turns trying to win the homerun race, earning the most homeruns in a single season and, for Bonds, the most in a career. However, each of these men has had to deal with the consequences of steroid use which has marred their otherwise illustrious careers. Barry Bonds has had to deal with legal ramifications for lying under oath about his personal drug use. In addition to career consequences, there are now legal ones for choosing to use steroids. Even this is not the worst that could potentially happen to a steroid user. The World Wrestling Entertainment Company (WWE) has had to face allegations that their wrestlers use and abuse steroids, a controversy which came to a head following the double murder-suicide of one of the WWE's most popular athletes Chris Benoit. Benoit had exhibited many of the classic side effects of steroid abuse including a short stature and obvious protrusion of the veins. Unfortunately these were not the only effects. Benoit had several instances where violence had been reported stemming from "roid rage" which is the side effect of aggressiveness and pituitary damage converging to create an uncontrollably angry person with great strength who is unable to be calmed once agitated.

Steroid use is becoming more and more prevalent in both professional and amateur athletics. The need to be better than one's opponent encourages people to go beyond mere human ability. Those who want to be the best are taught that winning is all that matters and many are willing to abuse their bodies in the long-term if it means that they have a better chance of sports glory in the present. Performance-enhancing drugs have been used… [read more]

Sports Finance: The Professional Sports Facilities Essay

… Sports Finance:

The professional sports facilities can have attributes that are regarded as public goods by economists since they provide economic incentives to the entire society or community and not just to the athletes, franchise owners, and fans. The main goal of the development of the professional sports facilities is to enable a franchise and its owners to be practical i.e. To assist private investors in the franchise to make money. In relation to the construction of these professional sports facilities such as a facility that would house a major soccer league professional sport team, the main issue has been who should pay for the new sports facilities. This question or issue has been a major concern since the sport facility would be used by professional athletes and teams and the potential benefits it can bring to the entire society. Most of the debates surrounding the topic have focused on whether, how, and when the government should pay for the construction of a sports facility. While the issue has financial, economic, and socio-political dimensions, it has also included another concern on whether a community should institute a tax or levy on the general public to pay for bonds for a sport facility.

Financing a Sport Facility:

Since the costs of constructing new sporting facilities have increased to approximately $300 million, the process requires huge financial investments. As a result, there are various options for financing the construction of such facilities that include both private and public investments and arrangements (United States Sports Academy, 2001). Therefore, funding for the construction of a new sport facility that would house a major league professional sport team can be divided into two distinct groups i.e. private funding and public funding.

Private funding can be considered as a means of financing a new sport facility without a tax increase and minimal risk to taxpayers. In an ideal world, private funding has been commonly used to finance the construction of professional sports facilities and franchises that become profitable. The main reason attributed to the increased use of private funding investments is the fact that the main goal of developing a new sports facility is to enable the franchise and its owners to enable the private investors to generate money through the facility. However, the option of private funding is selected following an economic evaluation of the conditions that such financing would be positive and profitable.

Notably, private funding has advantages and disadvantages that make it viable and profitable to certain situations and unsuitable to others. The advantages of private funding include the fact that it does not include a tax increase, provides minimal risks to taxpayers, and enables private investors to make profits from the construction and operation of the sport facility. On the contrary, the main disadvantage of this financing option is that it may not be suitable for all communities since not every community has comparable strength in terms of private financial capacity for developing and operating a professional sports facility (Hodgson & Lefebvre,… [read more]

Sport, Which Style of Research, Qualitative Essay

… ¶ … sport, which style of research, qualitative or quantitative is best used to study sport and to report on sport?

Research style in sports research

The sports field is one of the oldest ones in human history, with a long standing tradition and a powerful meaning in the minds of the people. Throughout the past recent decades, more emphasis has come to be placed on the sports sector as a source of increased business revenues. Athletes are more and more sought after to sign and gain from endorsements; the hosting of notable sports events is also pursued in an effort to gain more reputation and advantages, and the sports clubs come to generate impressive sums of money from their games, advertisements, endorsements and so on.

The increasing financial success of the sports field is unequivocally supported by the high popularity of sports among the population. And as the populations and the business community's interest in sports increases, the academic community is also coming to place more emphasis on the field. In other words, the research in the field of sports is continually increasing.

In terms of sports research, a question that is being raised refers to the method that should be employed, referring specifically to the qualitative method vs. The quantitative method. In the case of qualitative research, this implies that the researcher observes the phenomenon and draws conclusion, which are then expressed with the usage of common language and textual presentations.

In the case of the quantitative research method, the researcher analyzes the phenomenon through more objective lenses as they employ facts and figures; the findings are supported by statistically processed data and they can be extrapolated to explain a wider phenomenon. In the case of qualitative research, the findings are only based on the observations of the researcher and they cannot be extrapolated to explain the wider phenomenon or the wider population (the Bangor University).

In such a setting then, the sports researchers often find themselves in a difficulty of choosing which research method to employ. And the difficulty is given by the fact that sports research can be viewed through both qualitative and quantitative lenses.

Through the angle of qualitative research, sports are viewed in a subjective manner, like it is always assessed by the population. The sports teams have their own fans, who are either divided by rivalry, or who are united by common support for their team. Sports is a field of teams, of passion, of values, competitiveness and fair play; it unites people from across the globe to watch an event and it holds them out of breath (Dunning and Coakley, 2000). These features of the sports field are best researched through the qualitative lenses.

Aside from the emotions…… [read more]

Recreational Sports Spectrum Represents Five Unique Opportunities for Participation Essay

… Recreation Sports

Recreational sport is termed as ones involvement in sporting activities during their leisure time. This can be an individual's involvement as an active participant or even as a spectator. This can be at any level of the leisure sport hierarchy. There are sporting activities that are designed for all, this gives everyone an active role in the sport. They do not put into consideration age, gender, race, or a persons athletic ability. These are thus termed as sports for all.

On the other hand there are those that are participant driven in that the people who program this sport put into consideration the specific interest and efforts on the specific wants and needs of the participant. Recreational sport targets all age groups i.e. children, adolescents, youth, adults and even senior citizens. These recreational sports can occur either indoors for example badminton, ice-skating, gymnasiums for basketball and many more. They can also occur outdoor for instance golf courses, soccer, tennis courts and so on. This paper will look at the recreational sports spectrum in terms of the unique opportunities that it represents for participation. There are five opportunities and they will be discussed below.

Instructional sports

This entails the teaching of a recreational sport activity. This teaching takes place in an environment that is non-academic and noncredit. During the process of teaching emphasis is put on the skills that one is required to master. There is also emphasis on the rules that are associated to the particular sport. For instance, in the game of tennis there are various skills that can be taught an example is the serving skill that if mastered enables one to serve and the serve lands in the service box on a fly. Therefore for the ball from a baseline to land into the box it needs to be hit from up and not from down. The learner can also be taken through rules such as the serving rule which is that for a good serve, it should be put in play from the correct area of the court i.e. behind the baseline (Ellyn, 2012).

Informal sports

This involves sports that participation is directed by an individual. The approach to these sports is with the main aim of having fun and keeping fit by the individual. This can be for instance a run after one has taken lunch so that the person remains fit. Another example is during a picnic that has been arranged by friends, there can be playing of games such as volleyball just to have fun.

Intramural sports

This may include organization of tournaments, leagues or contests. This are organized and take place within a particular setting. Examples of intramural sports include playing of various sports during special events such as a tournament organized and arranged to be played during a public holiday. There can also be tournaments that have been arranged between schools. Leagues can be organized between various clubs in a country.

Extramural sports

These are events or activities that… [read more]

Addiction to Violence in Sports Research Paper

… Martial artists, boxers, and American football players must be violent as a part of their sport. Lacrosse and ice hockey are also popular and competitive sports where violence is a key aspect to the game. Boxing is a sport of violence, as is wrestling (professional and Greco-Roman). Boxing is quite simply too men (or women) beating each other in a strategic manner, so as to knock them unconscious, knock them to the floor with such for that they remain there for at least ten seconds, and/or induce enough internal & external damage that the match must be stopped. It does not get much more violent than that, except for maybe mixed martial arts matches. Audience members enjoy the violence, savor the violence, and often wish they could be a part of the violence personally. This is a reason why video games that mimic boxing, MMA, football, and even soccer are so very popular, particularly in cultures where violence is prevalent in real life as well as in media representations, such as the United States of America.

Violence does not always lead to further violence. By exorcising one's violent tendencies through sports activities, one may actually be more peaceful, calm, and tranquil because of participation in sports. Often athletes who gain press attention for acts of violence outside of their respective sporting event cast a pejorative shadow upon sports and upon athletes. The violent behavior of the few does not represent the overall sentiments and personalities of the many. The general public does not often receive press about athletes who participate in some of the most violent sports imaginable performing charity work or participating in calming hobbies such as yoga or ikebana.

There is always a potential for abuse and the potential for violent people to exploit the nature of their sport to satisfy their inappropriate desires for violence. While acknowledging that danger, we cannot totally disavow and dismiss sports, especially violent ones, just because of one particular aspect. Some of the greatest moments in human history occurred during sports events. One of the most celebrated, honored, and glorious sporting events will occur (again) this summer: the 2012 Summer Olympiad in London, England. Who would advocate for the absence of violence in sports to the point where the magnificence of the Olympics was diminished? Someone who did not understand and perhaps fear violence and/or sports would do that.


Hardcastle, J. (n.d.) Sports Violence. Available from: 2012 July 17.

James, M., & McArdle, D. (2004) Player violence, or violent players?: Vicarious liability for sports participants. The Tort Law Review, 12(3), 1 -- 12.

Jewell, T., Moti, A., Coates, D. (2011) Chapter 2: A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports. Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests: Economics, History and Policy, Sports Economics, Management and Policy 4. Jewell, R.T. (ed) Springer Science+Business Media, LLC: TX.… [read more]

Sports in American History Term Paper

… However, over time, sports would become a significant arena in the battles that were against segregation and racial refinement.

The Negro National League had been discovered in 1920 by Rube Foster, and this organization was like a hub for blacks going through racism on the field. This league did survive for a while but racism in this recreation of baseball went on for a very long time. The Negro Southern League operated consecutively from 1920, usually at a lower level. Up until, until 1946 professional baseball in the United States was performed in two racially separated league organizations, both that were on each side of the so-called color line. During a lot of the time there were two high-level "Negro major leagues" that were having championship playoffs or all-star games, as among the white major leagues.

A lot of Latinos came into the United States when official segregation confronted thoughtful tasks. Jackie Robinson's entrance in 1947, obviously, stood as a marking point as the end of baseball segregation. Nonetheless it also marked the start of a long blockade of confrontation on the portion of segregationists that protracted outside the national activity. "The fact is," as Lonnie Wheeler had stated, "Jackie Robinson did not integrate professional baseball in all of the United States-just the ones in the north." (Regalado 2008) Jim Crow, up until that point, was resolutely rooted and addition only a substance of conversation. "Colored people," wrote Richard Klugar in Simple fairness, "were plainly foreigners in their own country. And segregation functioned to institutionalize that estrangement and broaden the hole that has become among races." (Regalado 2008) the events that took place on the baseball diamonds in 1947, nevertheless, challenged that custom. Addition became realism. Furthermore, if baseball's archaic doors had started to swing open for blacks, segregationists considered, would other institutions also follow their lead. The national activity, in result, had thrown down the gauntlet before Jim Crow (Regalado 2008).

Discrimination furthermore went on to plague baseball at all levels where fifty-three white teams removed themselves in protest from the South Cat league state championship contest when they found out that they had also were capable. Even though the black youths were awarded the championship by defaulting, little league bureaucrats there still striped them from being able to contest in the regional tournament. In professional baseball bigotry continued to be seeming. "Whenever there was an outfielder Hank Thompson, "some loudmouth would yell, 'black unprintable' and you could hear it all over the place (Regalado 2008). Leon Wagner, at the time was playing for Greensboro, North Carolina, a shotgun-exerting fan near the fence who screamed, "Nigger, I will fill you with bullets if you catch that ball."

In conclusion, for historians, there would probably be no better way to impart students about how recreation has played a massive role in the twentieth-century America than to draw examples from the start of recreation and their effects on early America all the way to the history of race and gender in… [read more]

Exercise Survey Three Classmates Term Paper

… Results:

Survey participant

Question 1 Intention Score (1-7)

Question 2 Attitude Score (1-7)

Question 3 Subjective norm score


Question 4 Perceived control


Question 5 Final question (yes or no)

Participant 1






Participant 2






Participant 3






Participant 4






Participant 5






The results were then combined to calculate an overall score for the survey. First the scores were separated by "Yes" or "No" answers to the final question and then the average for each score was calculated.

"YES" Scores

Survey Participant

Intention Score

Attitude Score

Subjective Norm Score

Perceived Control

Final Question

Person A

Participant 2






Participant 5






Person B

Participant 1






Participant 3






Participant 4






Participant 5






Person C

Participant 2






Participant 5






Average for "Yes"





"NO" Scores

Survey Participant

Intention Score

Attitude Score

Subjective Norm Score

Perceived Control

Final Question

Person A

Participant 1






Participant 3






Participant 4






Person B

Participant 2






Person C

Participant 1






Participant 3



1…… [read more]

Sports Tourism Assessment

… Sports Tourism: Belfast, Northern Ireland

Having a sport mega event in Belfast, Northern Ireland is something that would have to be carefully considered. It may or may not work, depending on the type of the event and other factors. The… [read more]

Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports Essay

… With that in mind, the use of performance-enhancing drugs in professional sports is not only detrimental to the health of an athlete but also poses serious ethical concerns.

3. Legal Sanctions and Damage to Reputation

It is important to note that quite a number of performance-enhancing drugs have been outlawed by most professional sport leagues. As such, those who test positive for steroids face the risk of doing jail terms for going against clear legal provisions governing professional sporting conduct. To highlight this assertion, it may be imperative to recall a few of the most recent high profile performance-enhancement charges that had a severe impact on the career of two successful athletes. As an example, Marion Jones who until 2007 had an illustrious professional sports career admitted to having used performance-enhancing drugs. Apart from being sentenced to six months in prison for the admission, Jones also had some of the prizes as well as medals she had won previously confiscated. Another high profile professional athlete who has been caught up in the performance-enhancing drugs melee is Barry Bonds who was largely popular as an outfielder in Major League Baseball. Following his involvement in what has come to be widely referred to as the BALCO scandal, Bonds suffered severe public scrutiny. The former athlete was also indicted for what was branded obstruction of justice.


Given the adverse effects of using performance-enhancing drugs as has been noted above, it is clear that the costs of using the same by far outweighs the benefits. In addition to the toll such drugs have on the health of the user; most sports organizations have banned the use of the same effectively meaning that testing positive for prohibited substances could deal a deadly blow to an otherwise illustrious athletic carrier. Hence based on these submissions, the use of performance-enhancing drugs is inherently wrong and cannot be justified in professional sports.

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Performance-enhancing Drugs: Know the Risks: Are you hoping to gain a competitive edge by taking muscle-building supplements or other performance-enhancing drugs? Learn how these drugs work and how they can affect your health. Mayo Clinic. N.p., 23rd Dec 2010. Web. 10th Dec 2011.

Robinson, Paul. Foundations of Sports Coaching. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2009. Print

Rosen, Daniel M. Dope: A History of Performance Enhancement in Sports from the Nineteenth Century…… [read more]

Youth Sports Development Center Business Plan

… Youth Sports Development Center will be organized as a Limited Liability Corporation under the existing state laws. A centralized facility has been rented to provide a full range of coaching and instructions services in the sports of baseball, basketball, football, soccer, tennis, volleyball, and lacrosse. This facility will contain the finest fitness equipment necessary to provide the young athlete with all his or her individual needs. Additionally, the Center will hire the best available coaching and instructors.

Participation in organized sports has exploded in the past several decades and parents are increasingly eager to provide their children with any available edge to enable them to be more competitive. Informal surveys indicate that within a 20-mile radius of the Youth Sports Development Center there are over 40,000 young athletes seeking the services available at the Center. This is the only facility of its kind in the area so there is no readily available competition.

The Center intends to rely heavily upon the available coaching and instructional talent in the area. This will enable the Center to keep its labor costs low and help it to develop the support of the local community. By locating its facility in an area heavily populated by school aged children accessibility will be enhanced and parents will be more motivated to use the facility for their children.

1.1 Mission

It is the goal of the Youth Sports Development Center to provide not only the finest facility and equipment possible for the local sports community but also provide the highest level coaching and instruction possible. Through the process of providing these services, the facility should prove to be popular with the community which should guarantee steady growth and a consistently increasing source of revenue.

1.2 Objectives

Youth Sports Development Center will begin operation in the Fall

The expected level of participation in the first year is 5,500 athletes

The projected growth in the first year is 30%

By the end of the third year of operation the level of participation will be over 10,000 athletes

1.3 Keys to Success

Locating in a neighborhood that is heavily populated by school aged children

Providing quality service that is not available in the area

Enhancing the facility's relationship with local sports programs, coaches, and school districts

Ensuring that the facility provides a full range of available services and anticipating the needs of its customers

Start-up Summary

The start-up costs for the Youth Sports Development Center are substantial due to the size of the facility needed to provide the services and the cost of the equipment necessary. The initial monies will be provided through the private funds of the principles and a low cost loan provided by the Small Business Administration. At the present time there are no outside investors.

Start -- up Expense Requirements















Start-up Assets



Current Assets


Long-term Assets


Total Assets


Total Start-up Requirements


Liabilities…… [read more]

Sports Sponsorships: Considerations and Configurations Thesis

… , 2004). The public relations team is unlikely to accept a pre-packaged promotional arrangement that does not allow them to optimize both the corporate spend and the media opportunity. It is incumbent on the professionals in the sports management industry to understand what the corporate entities understand, with regard to promotional opportunities, and it is also important for these professionals to keep an eye on what is ultimately best for the players and teams (Stier & Schneider, 2001).


The success of a sports marketer depends largely on their ability to gain a thorough understanding of the sponsor's objectives prior to developing a sponsorship proposal. This can be accomplished through meetings with the gatekeepers who grant or deny access to large corporations, through the company's decision-makers, and through secondary intelligence efforts. Whether a tailored or a pre-packaged sponsorship agreement is proposed, a sports marketer must understand the company, its markets, and its mission to ensure that the sponsorship meets the corporate or organizational needs. Finally, it is important to ensure that the sponsorship relationship is a continual one by providing good client service and regular follow-up to ensure that the sponsor is enjoying the relationship and its associated benefits.


Obsniuk, S. And Smith, S.J. (2007). Big league deals: A descriptive study of sponsorship levels in grassroots U.S. baseball and softball programs. The Sport Journal, 1543-9518.

Crisp, B.R., and Swerissen, H. (2003). Critical processes for creating health-promoting sporting environments in Australia. Health Promotion International, 18 (2).

McCook, K., Turco, D., & Riley, R. (n.d.). A look at the corporate decision making process. Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing. Retrieved / cjsm/v1n2/mcook.htm

Pruitt, S.W., Cornwell, T.B., and Clark, J.M. (2004). The NASCAR phenomenon: Auto racing sponsorships and shareholder wealth. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(3), 281-296.

Roy, D.P., and Cornwell, T.B. (2001). The influence of brand equity on consumer responses to sports sponsorship. American Marketing Association, 12, 342.

Steinbach, P. (2005). Signs of the times. Athletic Business, 29(5), 1-7.

Stier, W.F., Jr., and Schneider, R. (2001). Fundraising: An essential…… [read more]

Women in Sports Essay

… Women in Sports

Sports, as well as other areas of social reality like politics or labor, have been viewed as a man's world for many centuries. As it has happened in politics or human rights, women have always found not… [read more]

Gender in Sports Research Paper

… Gender in Sports

In the opinion of this author, in the sports of modern society, the status of male and female should be equal. To support this position, we well examine the history and development of male and female sports… [read more]

Senior Fitness Term Paper

… 21) Discuss flexibility programming and how it relates to your older client. What are the physiological factors that a trainer must be aware of? Discuss the importance of maintaining flexibility as we age.

Flexibility is an extremely important aspect of… [read more]

Senior Fitness Essay

… Senior Fitness

Currently Violet seems to be in relatively good shape and should be able to initiate a fitness program that will not only allow her to improve her fitness level, but it will also allow her to approach life… [read more]

Baseball Is a Sporting Game Research Paper

… In the American professional major league baseball, the National league (NL) is the oldest of them all as it was formed in 1876 and it is at times referred to as the senior circuit, its' main rival is the American league (AL) which evolved from the minor western league. The National Base Ball league was formed after the collapse of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players which was the first attempt to form a major league in America; it only lasted for four years in the period 1871 to 1875.

Both the National league and the American league are further divided into three divisions namely the central division, east division and west division. Every year, the major league championship is determined by playoffs by four different teams that represent each league at the World Series. The four teams are made up of three regular season division winners and a wild card team (Thorn et al., 1997, 43-49),

Impact to society

The thesis for this research is that baseball is the national past time of America and a great sport for the world today, this thesis statement seems to be consistent with Morris Raphael Cohen a philosopher who in 1919, described baseball as America's national religion. According to Rader (2008, 5) the game has long been "a unique paragon of America culture."

Baseball has been seen as a unity factor in the American society as people of different gender, age and race meet at their favorite sports bar or stadium as one and for the love of the game. The baseball history has transpired and overlooked the race factor ever since the abolishment of the law that prohibited black players from major leagues that was dominated by white players.

The baseball fanatics which has attracted millions of fans not only in the American leagues but also other leagues in different parts of the world, has created the culture of sportsmanship among the fans who also perceive physical fitness as baseball culture. This culture of sportsmanship has contributed to healthy and productive citizens who positively impact on the nation's economy (

The revenues that has been attributed to the game far surpass the estimation which the original inventors of the game could ever had; the sale of tickets, baseball merchandise and brand including players endorsement fee all sum up to high amounts which these baseball clubs generate. The economy has greatly benefited from this sport and has lead to national development mostly in the sports and health sectors.


Baseball thou originally an English game it is more adored in America than in British, the English are currently perceived to love soccer more than baseball. It is also important to note that baseball not only has a large following in America but also in Japan and Cuba among other counties. The high ticket sales, including the baseball merchandise that are been bought by fans year in year out tend to prove that baseball has a large following among the Americans.… [read more]

Exercise Is a Good Way to Socialize Research Paper

… Exercise is a good way to socialize as well as to experience enjoyment. One study by Hagberg, Lindahl, Nyberg, and Hellenius (2009) showed that the more a person enjoys a certain physical activity, the harder they will work -- physically speaking -- during the exercise. Enjoyment of exercise was therefore associated with exercise level. This shows that not only will the enjoyment of a certain physical activity result in major positive physical effects, but it can also be very positive for the psychological effects as well.

Though many people have enjoyed the effects of physical exercise, there are so many who drop out of an activity after a very short time. So, the question that then becomes important is: "What motivates a person to stick to an exercise program?" Is it solely about the enjoyment from doing an activity one likes? Or might it have something to do with the people one associates with when participating in a certain exercise?

There are many different elements that may hinder or help exercise enjoyment. One of the major elements to help exercise is liking the people with whom one is engaging. Socialization is an important element for people whether they are engaging in a sport, work, or other type of activity. Enjoying the company of the people we are exercising with can have a great impact on motivation as well. This is why many physical trainers suggest working out with a buddy -- because it keeps a person motivated and it also makes them responsible to another person (i.e., they cannot just decide not to show up or else they will keep their friend waiting).

Other factors that may facilitate exercise are not only the enjoyment of what exercise we are doing, whom we are doing it with, but also why we are doing it. What is the main purpose? Is it simply to lose weight? Is it to become more sociable and…… [read more]

Physiotherapy on Sport Injury Essay

… Physiotherapy on Sport Injury

ID# Case Management

Case Management Assignment

In this essay thought to be best evidence-based practices for tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon. Tendinopathy has been reported as one of the most common injuries encountered in sports and… [read more]

Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout Nrc Term Paper

… Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout

NRC Foundation Degree in Sport

Psychology of Health and Exercise


Working as a psychologist on a 1-to- 1 basis with a client, you must perform a four-week goal setting intervention. The intervention strategy… [read more]

Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School Research Paper

… Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School

The new high school which has been opened in the region is in dire need of a sports program. In the creation and implementation of the needed sports program, a… [read more]

Legal Issues That Follow Sports Injuries Research Paper

… Sports Injuries

Legal Issues in Sports Injuries


In the context of sports injury, especially in competitive team contact sports, mere negligence is not sufficient to warrant legal liability (Sawyer 1997). Courts have recognized that in the course of enthusiastic play, inadvertent rule violations and other cases of negligence are bound to occur, and that the expectation of such negligence is a part of the assumption of risk each voluntary participant in the sport takes on (Lazaroff 1990). Instead of using a simple negligence test for liability, a reckless action or intentional action standard has been adopted by most jurisdictions as the test for liability in sports injuries that arise out of competitive play (Sawyer 1997). This has different implications for different types of injuries, and is not always applicable to the situations that might bring about injury.

Heat stress injuries, for example, are relatively common especially among amateur athletics/sports participants, but a coach/manager cannot be held liable for such injuries even if certain circumstances -- the provision of water or shade, for example -- were expected on the part of the participants. Though negligence may exist, no reckless or intentional action was taken in this example. Spinal injuries, concussions, and other injuries arising out of contact between players must meet this same test of recklessness or intentional action in order for the injured part to hold the other(s) involved in the contact legally responsible for injuries and damages. These injuries can arise out of intentional, reckless, merely negligent, or even entirely blameless accidents, and must be examined case-by-case.


The concept of negligence in sports injuries is highly related to the concept of duty. Just as mere negligence does not create legal liability, there is no real duty on the part of any sports participant to protect the other participants(s) from the inherent risks of the sport (Abramson et al. 2010). Again, the assumed risks of the other participants relieves the duty of the other participants to exercise even an ordinary duty of care in protecting the other participants, so long as all actions and behaviors are within normal parameters of the sport -- which includes many instances of rule breaking and other technical violations of the sport's generally accepted mode of play that occur due to simple negligence during the enthusiastic participation in the sport rather than the reckless or intentional actions of the potential defendant (Sawyer 1997; Abramson et al. 2010).

Again, in the case of heat exhaustion or heat stoke, there is no incumbent legal duty on any of the other players, coaches, managers, etc. To ensure that any other participant avoids such injury, as this injury can only be brought about by the injured party's own actions. Injuries as sever as spinal cord columns and concussions might in many instances be evidence of a breach of duty, depending on the sport being played and the specific circumstances of an individual incident, but it is impossible to assign duty generally in regards to these injuries. Duty… [read more]

Diagnosis of Injuries and Development of Exercise Recovery Plan Case Study

… Diagnosis of Injures and Development of Exercise Recovery Program

What has occurred?

James lifted a stretcher while forward bent and twisted to the right. James says he felt his back pull at the time, but he continued with his shift,… [read more]

Defining Sports Essay

… Sports are athletic events or games with sets of rules. Competition is central to any definition of sports, even when they are played for fun and not business. Sports as business entail economic payouts as well as status. Sports differ widely from one another, but all involve an athletic competition within the rules of game play.

Athletics are integral to sports, and is the key feature distinguishing sports from games. Although some sports involve more physical exertion or require more brute strength than others, all sports must involve some kind of physiological aspect. However, mental skill is as important to sports as it is in any other game. Sports involve both a high degree of mental and physical skills.

The mental skills at play in sports pertain to competition as well. Not all sports are team sports, but all sports involve one side against another. All sports have a winner and a loser at the end. In sporting events in which more than one team or individual compete, an ultimate winner is chosen such as at the Olympic events.

Structure is an essential element of sports, distinguishing them from simple play. A group of…… [read more]

Effect of Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise Research Proposal

… ¶ … Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise

In this paper, the effects of endurance training will be discussed with special reference to their impact on the muscle fat metabolism while prolonged exercises. The paper will talk… [read more]

Athletic Facility Management Facility Liability Thesis

… Athletic Facility Management

"Facility liability is not predicated on the type of facility.

Rather, legal liability is based on the types of clientele who attend or use the facility, and the nature of the activities taking place in the facility"… [read more]

What Factors Influence a Youth's Decision to Withdrawal From a Sport Research Proposal


To Have Fun"

The number one reason a youth relates that he/she participates in a sport "is to have fun" Seefeldt, Ewing, and Walk (1992; cited by Hedstrom and Gould, 2004,… [read more]

Planning and Start Up of a New Business Term Paper

… Planning and Start-Up of a New Business


The present plan has been developed to offer the company an overview of the industry in which it would operate and the strategies it would have to… [read more]

Resources for Health PE and Fitness Activities Task and Rubric Term Paper

… Physical Education


Using the Internet, a physical education teacher can work to promote a healthy, fitness-focused lifestyle with his or her school class by having the kids create blogs that documents their fitness activities. This is a unique way to incorporate writing and technology skills with forcing the students to document their fitness activities.

Promoting walking to school is an excellent method of incorporating fitness into one's daily routine. As the majority of students are unable to drive, walking is a realistic option.

Putting together regular fitness events for the school, both inside and outside of P.E. class, is a method of adding a unique twist of fun and competition to the idea of being physically active. Each event can focus on a specific activity or skill, thus teaching a well-balanced fitness routine.

Since families play an essential role in a child's overall fitness, it is equally important to educate them on fitness. One simple way to accomplish this is by organizing family fitness nights.

Students should be given a personal log and an instrument in which they can measure their total steps per day. They can the record their total activity against their total consumption.


As childhood obesity is the greatest health risk faced by elementary children, it is important that classroom time is spent addressing this topic. In so doing, the focus should be both on the harmful effects of obesity and preventative measures that can be taken.

Teaming up with a local Department of Human Services to discuss the importance of healthy and safe sexual choices is a must.

Working with the local law enforcement drug taskforce can bring in aspects of how living a drug free life correlates with living a healthy lifestyle.

When teaching these various health-related subjects to kids, because of their age, simply lecturing will not work. Further, many of these concepts will be foreign to them so background information will be needed. To ensure that the information is learned and understood, role playing, multi-media, guest speakers and small group conversations should be utilized.

Sex education at this age can be difficult. Dividing the class between boys and girls may prove to be beneficial and more effective at getting the necessary information unique to each gender across.

Physical Education

In order…… [read more]

Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics Term Paper

… Athletic Ethics and Morality

Athletics Ethics and Morality in Classical and Modern Times

Thousands of years separate Classic times from modern ones. One would think that those thousands of years would dramatically change the face of major society and the values that go with it. When looking at the field of sports, however, the status of athletes and all the rewards which accompany that status have remained strikingly similar. When comparing Ancient Greek and Roman athletes to our modern day athletic superstars, one can see how thousands of generations have solidified the athletic mythos rather than evolving it into a completely different institution. The prizes of athletic prominence have varied with the changing technology of society, but the internal moral structure centered around popular athletics and the athletes who enchant us, have remained the same, and so have the pressures of maintaining one's popularity by continuing to outperform all other opponents.

Ancient Greek and Roman societies obsessed over professional athletes, just as modern society does today. To be able to play a sport professionally meant that you were part of an elite group who had mastered an art. Great honor and fame came with athletic success, "In Greece the most illustrious of both sexes thought it honorable to exercise themselves in exhibitions of the theatre, and even to appear in athletic games," (Murphy v). In Aelianus Tacticus' Varia Historia, the Ancient Roman Philosopher told moral tales of the lives of athletes. He made clear society's view that these gods among men must have lived an honorable yet venerated life. Tacticus was also a very important military writer, therefore thought athletes an important part of a society's culture because they were also in the physical form warriors.

In our modern society, this fame continues to follow present athletes. Although some of the honor involved has been lost in translation, the athletes of today still serve as examples of the perfect human form. Today, they are they faces of countless merchandising campaigns which aim to use their popularity and athletic achievements to sell a variety of products, from athletic gear to sports drinks and video games. Their expertise of their sport is now used to promise a boost in performance in modern day amateurs and hopefuls. This in turn, only strengthens their popularity, making them household names and familiar to even those individuals who do not follow the sport they play. The athlete has continued to be a celebrity.

These celebrities have been lavished with gifts and great fortunes for their services, from Classical times to modern day paychecks.

Compensation has always played a large part in the image of the professional athlete, "According to the Roman author Plutarch, an Olympic victor who was a citizen of Athens could expect to receive in the year 600 B.C. A cash award of 500 drachmai, a literal fortune," ("The Real Story of the Olympic Games"). In Ancient times,…… [read more]

Interview: Elizabeth Term Paper

… Interview: Elizabeth G

Please describe briefly your past exercise and sport participation history.

I was on my high school's dance team. In college, I was a member of a sorority, so that took up most of my time instead. I did participate in many fitness-related activities, but more on a casual basis, like working out and doing charity walks with my sisters. After I graduated, I got a job in marketing. I got tired of sitting at a desk all day. I was used to being physically active and my company provided a free membership to a local gym, so I decided to start taking dance classes at the gym. I didn't like the classes, but I did enjoy working out, especially on the treadmill. I started running and I've never stopped!

Question 2: Please describe your current exercise and sport participation.

I just completed my second marathon, with a PR (personal record) of 4:03. I have also signed up for the Nike half-marathon in August.

Question 3: How long have you been participating in...

I've been competitively running for two years. For a long time, I simply ran on the treadmill, running about 5 miles a day. But I'm a very competitive person, and I missed the competition of my old dance team, so I decided to give my running a goal and train for a half marathon. I've been addicted ever since!

Question 4: Why do you currently participate in...

Mainly the feeling it gives me -- I love the runner's high! I also love the sense of accomplishment. When things aren't going so great in my life, it's nice to have the satisfaction of doing a PR (personal record) at a race, or even just running by myself. I've seen my running get better and better, from when I first started on the treadmill five years ago to now. Running in races has really helped my running in leaps and bounds. Although training in the gym or on trails is pretty solitary I love the community that comes from racing and meeting fellow runners. I am part of an Internet message board community for runners.

Question 5: What is the level of support that significant others in your life offer for your participation in...

I'm not involved with a guy right now -- maybe that is why I am so running obsessed! No one in my family is into running. My father even forgot that I was going to be running in the Marine Corps Marathon and called me to ask if he could come over and visit the next day -- the night before the marathon! He also thinks I spend…… [read more]

Bun and Thigh Roller See Website Bunthigh Term Paper

… ¶ … Bun and Thigh Roller (

The exercise device known as the Bun and Thigh Roller 'as seen on television' proclaims itself to be a five-minute way to sculpt the so-called problem areas of the thighs and buttocks. The promotional television clip on the website states that the Bun and Thigh Roller can activate the muscles of the thigh and rear areas just as much as more expensive machines. It also claims to offers a pain free, injury-free work out unlike squats or the use of heavier weights. Its celebrity endorser, Don Tornabene, "former Mr. America," says that he was inspired to create the machine when working out on a Swiss ball. "Before my workouts, I was using the Swiss ball to stretch my lower back, hips and thighs. I realized this would be a fantastic way to sculpt the lower body if it only offered the resistance necessary for fast results" ("The Bun and Thigh Roller," 2007, Official Website).

This claim is problematic for two reasons. First of all, Don Tornabene is not a doctor, personal trainer, or scientist. He is not even an athlete, as a Mr. America is evaluated upon his appearance, not upon his physical fitness. Secondly, Tornabene admits that he created the low-impact machine while warming up for his regular work-out. In other words to gain his physique, much more strenuous effort is needed. The machine comes with a diet plan, so essentially the advertisement's real claim is that the person, who buys the machine, sticks to a low calorie diet and adds at least some additional activity onto their current exercise regime will lose weight.

It could be argued that at very least, the machine does no harm, as it does encourage the person desperate for weight loss to engage in low-impact movement, without harmful supplements. However, the machine, which costs 3 installments of 16.95, is not cheap, when one considers that very likely, doing crunches and other exercises at home similar to the activities the machine is supposed to facilitate would be equally effective. The money would likely be better spent, if at all, on some inexpensive free weights to be used in conjunction with a workout found for free on the Internet, in a magazine, or in a book in the library (Noakes 2003: 777-789). Or better yet, since raising the heart rate through cardiovascular exercise is more effective for weight loss in the short-term because it burns more calories, an individual would be better advised to spend his or her money on a new pair of running or walking shoes (Kolata 2003).

What is more troubling about the product is…… [read more]

Sports Ethics Term Paper

… Sports Ethics

Winning isn't everything, it's the only thing" was the famous motto of the legendary football coach Vince Lombardi, which seems to have been taken to heart by the American society of late. It has put into the back-ground,… [read more]

Gymnast Injuries Term Paper

… Exercise and Gymnast Injuries

Injuries to Gymnasts & Prevention

Younger athletes are particularly vulnerable to injuries, and in the case of gymnasts, because of the great physical, stamina, and balance-related demands, extra pressure is placed upon them that is particularly challenging. According to Dr. Lyle J. Micheli ( of the Division of Sports Medicine at Children's Hospital in Boston, MA, growth tissue is localized at three particular sites on the bones. Those three places are the joint surfaces, the growth plates, and the sites of major muscle-tendon insertions. And what is also necessary to understand is that growing cartilage tissue is fairly soft in younger people, softer than in adults, and hard training along with vigorous participation in gymnastics can put undue strain on the growth plate; in particular, "high velocity trauma" - the kind of activity that a gymnast goes through when landing - may be harmful.

Indeed, according to an article in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, "the vast majority of competitive participants" in gymnastics are children, and the reason why that is true is because there is a "widely held belief that to achieve success at the highest level," competition and serious training must be started "before puberty" (Daly, 2000). That timing is appropriate in the minds of coaches and parents, Daly continues, because pre-puberty is when a "small lean physique is likely to convey a performance advantage." Some young gymnasts actually begin training at age five or six years, and they train, Daly continues, "for between 20 and 40 hours a week all year around."

Meanwhile, all gymnasts, younger athletes and more mature athletes as well, can and do sustain injuries. Daly suggests that, "inconsistent strength training may explain the decline or plateau in gymnastics performance and high incidence of injury during the preparatory phase of training in some gymnasts." Another cause of injuries, Daly continues, is a loss of "concentration and inattentiveness"; in particular a loss of concentration can be attributed to inadequate rest (sleep) and to poor nutritional habits.

There is also evidence that "insufficient warm up may leave muscles and other skeletal structures unprepared for the forthcoming performance," the article points out. Daly comes to the previous conclusion based on the fact that a three-year study of female athletes found that "most strains in young elite female gymnasts occurred during the first hour of practice." Another point to mention in addressing the reasons for injuries - and hence, the solution to avoiding injuries is to learn from others' mistakes and shortcomings in training - is when an athlete has "poor and excessive flexibility or hyper-mobility." In proper warm-up situations, an athlete is embracing "both static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques."

The attention should be placed on "non-weight-bearing upper extremities," when warming up properly to avoid injuries. And further, when doing weight training, "poor spotting or no spotting," Daly writes, "has been suggested as a risk factor for gymnastics injuries." However, a study on gymnastics injuries reported that - according to Daly's… [read more]

Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Term Paper

… Steroids in Sports - Dangerous Practice, Bad Example for Youth, and Just Another Way to Cheat

Throughout the vast, diffuse worlds of amateur and professional athletics alike today, champions; ex-champions, and (mostly0 would-be champions of all ages, backgrounds and abilities;… [read more]

Precor New Product Development and Collaborative Manufacturing Infrastructure Term Paper

… Product Development

Company Background

Precor is a subsidiary of Amer Group Plc, a leading global sports equipment company. Apart from Precor the company has other brands Wilson, Atomic and Suunto under its umbrella. Precor was founded in 1980 with it's headquarter near Seattle in Woodinville, Washington. It has expanded over the years with offices in the United Kingdom, Germany, Benelux, Austria, Japan and China. As opposed to other companies in the business Precor stands out because it has set the global standard for fluid, natural, low-impact workout experience.

Changing Market Dynamics

The market place changes with time as consumers needs and demands change. These changes occur as a result of changes in lifestyles. Over a period of time the American consumer has been exposed to the idea of health and fitness and its importance through media. As a result demands for fitness product saw a surge in recent years. Now the consumers not only demand the products they want complete solution to their fitness problems. Most of the time consumers are looking for one stop solution or a product that helps them in most convenient way possible. "In time-crunched Washington, many people are opting for working out at home. Whether it is a treadmill in the bedroom or a state-of-the-art fitness room costing upwards of $15,000, home exercise equipment can get the job done without battling weather, traffic and the singles scene at the neighborhood Bally's. In fact, home exercise equipment can get several jobs done, and that's part of its appeal" (Goff, 1998).

Positioning of a product or brand reflects the disposition that the consumers of that particular product have towards it in relationship to other products or substitute products. Many fitness brands have positioned themselves as a prestige product at a higher price showing that Americans are willing to spend a lot of money on health & fitness.

The marketplace and popular culture trends help companies like Precor in establishing their own unique, functional, yet consistent line of fitness products taking shape and reshape over time through product development process.

Product Development

Many organizations have new product development methodologies that provide a standard framework for planning and managing development efforts. Precor has a strategic plan to put into operation a collaborative manufacturing infrastructure to manage new product introductions and product changes. To keep pace with changing demands for exercise equipment, Precor has sound plans of concentrating on product development. "Tom Moran, Precor's Vice President of Engineering says, 'The fitness equipment business is extremely competitive. In order to stay in the running, manufacturers have to keep pace with the market - not only delivering new products, but delivering equipment with superior designs, ahead of the competition and at lower prices'" (Precor)

The Product Idea

The product development process starts with the big idea. Considering the changing dynamic of the target market Precor plans to make comprehensive offers. As apart of its product development Precor is offering entertainment and value-added services to fitness aficionados. The new comprehensive values added programs… [read more]

Supplements in Sports Term Paper

… Sports Business and Ethics Issues

The Use Of Supplements

ethics - theoretical framework





The objective of this work is… [read more]

Sports Management Term Paper

… This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on… [read more]

Sport Term Paper

… Oriard relates the "initiation" ritual almost verbatim to accounts of tribal initiation rites of passage for entrance into manhood. He parallels the ritual meals, tribal chief, high priest and ancient heros of primitive initiations to manhood with the structured diet,… [read more]

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Term Paper

… ¶ … cardiovascular system in a positive way, then how exercise also positively affects aging, obesity, the muscular and respiratory systems. The cardiovascular system is a complicated and yet surprisingly delicate system of the human body. Many scientists, researchers, and physicians complete studies every year on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and consistently, these studies show exercise can play an important part in reducing the instance of cardiovascular disease.

Exercise should be an important part of everyone's life, because it is simply good for everyone. It is well-known, even among sedentary Americans, that exercise has a positive affect on the heart and lungs, and it can improve heart health. Many physicians and experts acknowledge that aerobic exercise is extremely effective in promoting heart health. These doctors note, "This would appear also to be the case in understanding the relationship between reactivity and aerobic fitness. One of the consequences of aerobic-exercise training is a reduction in resting heart rate and blood pressure" (McCabe, Schneiderman, Field, & Wellens, 2000, p. 197). Reducing the heart rate and blood pressure leads to better cardiovascular health, and can help, along with a healthy diet, maintain this cardiovascular health throughout life.

Heart health is extremely important in modern life, when a majority of Americans are overweight and out of shape. Studies show "Exercise can also be used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and can decrease mortality and morbidity rates. This aggregate body of research substantiates the importance of engaging in a habitual exercise regimen" (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42). One specific exercise study looked at 113 men and women ages of 18 and 35. Some of the participants were sedentary, and some already exercised. The study included many different aspects, including cardiovascular health. The authors of the scientific study note the results of the cardiovascular portion of the study:

Cardiovascular fitness was estimated using participants' recovery heart rate. The test chosen was the submax YMCA 3-Minute Step Test, which requires participants to step onto a 12-inch high platform for 3 minutes at a rate of 24 steps per minute. Participants are instructed to sit immediately after the three minutes. Within five seconds of the completion of the test, a skin palpitated recovery heart rate was taken at the radial artery for one minute. The 3-minute step test was administered both at the onset of the study and again at its completion, and the changes in recovery heart rate were used to estimate changes in cardiovascular fitness levels (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42).

When the study was over, after a number of weeks, all the participants enjoyed improved cardiovascular fitness (Glaros & Janelle, 2001, p. 42). Thus, this study shows that cardiovascular health can improve in young people, too.

Exercise is simply good for the body. Not only does it improve cardiovascular health, it provides health benefits in many other areas, too. Regular exercise can slow down the effects of aging on the body and on the mind. Another exercise expert notes, "In particular,… [read more]

Sport Psychology Most Forms of Games Require Term Paper

… Sport Psychology

Most forms of games require not only physical skills but also a very strong mental capacity and these include golf, tennis and skating. According to the view of most coaches, sports are 90% mental and 10% physical. This… [read more]

Exercise and Pregnancy Term Paper

… The second article examines this finding and found that only in heavily, as opposed to moderately exercising women, did there appear to be a statistically signficant lower birth weight, for good or for ill. The third article examined potentially risky pregnancies involving gestational diabetes and concluded that exercise was an important way of moderating the insulin therapy of the patients


Moderate exercise seems to be beneficial in controlling weight and aiding in an easier delivery for all pregnant patients, including some patients from high-risk groups, such as those patients with diabetes. However, heavy exercise could limit birth weight, especially in older mothers, although not to the extent that this is of major concern. Still, caution is suggested on this point. Furthermore, even pregnant women themseleves accustomed to such heavy levels of exercise, because of the increased risk of injury and limits on their own athletic performance at this time may wish to moderate their accustomed levels of activity.


Note: All articles from the peer-reviewed journal available on the EBSCO list of ejournals at

Miller, Karl E. (1 Sept 2004) "Exercise in patients with gestational diabetes."American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at

Walling, Anne D. (15 May 2005) "Exercise During Pregnancy Is Associated with Thinner Babies." American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at

Wang, Thomas W. & Barbara S. Apagar. (15 Apr 1998)"Exercise during pregnancy." American Family Physician. Retrived 1 Jul 2005 at… [read more]

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