"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays

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Sports Pyschology Website Developed by Brian Haney Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sports Pyschology website developed by Brian Haney as a project for a Senior Seminar in Psychology (PSY400) class taught by Dr. Arvid J. Bloom at West Chester University in Spring 2000 provides an overview of the topic for anyone that is new to this field. Haney first gives an introduction to the topic, including a definition as well as a brief history, including the founder of the field, the rationale and the first journal that covered academic reports.

Every new subject area has its own lexicon, and Haney also covers some terminology that needs to be known to better understand the Psychology of Sports. He only includes half a dozen of these terms, which more than likely are just the main ones. From here, he goes more in depth into the types of tracks or subfields that exist under the main Psychology heading, where opportunities are available in this subfield and the education needed.

Since this is such a new field, such detail is helpful. It does not exist in many website locations.

His section, "A typical day in the life of a Sports Psychologist" is one of his weaker areas. It would be helpful to have more detail here, especially since such case studies are not often found. Interviewing others in this field would have been beneficial, especially because Haney more than likely had contact with some individuals who have a career in this new field.

The pros and cons of going into this field, however, are more informative and give readers a better indication if this is something they would like to pursue. The website lists a few links for further information, but unfortunately, only one is still viable six years later. This is one of the drawbacks of websites in general and Haney's in specific. They need to be continually updated to have ongoing informative value. All in all, then, this is a good one page summary of the field. However, the reader needs to be leery about the relevance of the information so many years later. After…… [read more]

Sport Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Sport Management

Regardless of the field or industry involved, different management styles prevail across the nation. In sports however, the management style can mean the difference between a championship team and a team that becomes a constant joke among everyone except the fans.

One study examined the management style of college sports coaches and what they do and don't do to motivate their players.

The article begins by admitting that there is not much information available about how coaches use their management techniques to motivate their players, at least the teams through the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Morrison, 1999).

The article was founded in the desire to initiate and describe the motivational factors of the group of coaches and create a measurement for different management styles.

Coaching motives fell into five distinct categories: intrinsic, extrinsic, social motives, growth and education, and professional relations. Using the intrinsic and extrinsic motives four motivational coaching styles were created. These four coaching motivation styles were then related to autonomous, control and impersonal decision making styles of coaches and used to distinguish between personality characteristics of the coaches (Morrison, 1999)."

The end result of the study was that coaching management styles are significantly related to the decision making style of each coach.

The article discusses some of the studies that have been performed in the past with regard to female coaching/management styles and their use of motivational tools with their teams, but acknowledges that there has been little done by way of studying male coaches.

The article also discusses previous examinations that concluded motivational style is important in the management of sports teams.

When motivation is discussed, it is described as the fundamental force and direction of behavior (Morrison, 1999). It underlies other thoughts, emotions and behaviors in life (Morrison, 1999). There is no reason to believe that motivation for coaching follows a different pattern than earlier…… [read more]

Stretching Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,274 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing and Contrasting the Pros and Cons

Everyone knows that athletes love debates. Who was the best hitter of all time? What is more of a test of athletic endurance -- swimming the English Channel or running an ultra-marathon? What is the best way to build up your triceps? But less physically obsessed people may be amused to hear that even stretching is an issue of controversy within the fitness community. Stretching, however, does facilitate a critical component of fitness, namely flexibility, which along with strength and endurance, are critical to performing not only feats of athletic prowess, but simply functioning in a healthy way during the normal acts of daily life. The debate about stretching usually revolves around the question of what is better -- the static or dynamic forms of stretching?

But first of all, what is flexibility, the fitness component stretching is supposed to enhance? "Flexibility is the range of motion possible around a specific joint or series of articulations. Flexibility is specific to a given joint or movement. A person may not be able to function normally if a joint lacks normal movement" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007). While "dynamic stretching incorporates movements that mimic a specific sport or exercise in an exaggerated yet controlled manner; [and is] often include during the warm-up or in preparation for a sports event," the "static technique involves passively stretching a muscle to the point of mild discomfort by holding it in a maximal stretch for an extended period" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007).

A good contrast between the two types of stretches might be seen in a runner preparing for a hard workout or a race. A runner engaged in dynamic stretching might do some chest-to-knee running, or exaggerated skipping, while a runner engaged in static stretching might lean up against a wall in a lunge, to stretch his quadriceps muscles and hamstrings. Dynamic also means motion, thus dynamic stretching may include arm swings, knee rotations, and neck circles, while static stretching is traditionally not performed with much of a range of motion, and certainly not fast motions (Campbell, 2007). Players in sports requiring pinpoint reflexes and reactions, like basketball players and soccer players, are often devout exponents of dynamic stretching.

Contrary to popular belief, stretching before a workout does not appear to decrease the occurrence of injury. The risk of injury seems to be about equal for those who stretch and those who do not stretch before exercise. The warm-up, not stretching, seems to be the important deterrent for injury, performed before an exercise bout. Stretching seems to offer more long-term benefit such as maintaining functional flexibility and correcting particular muscular imbalances" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007) in other words, some physical fitness trainers state that the best warm-up of all is likely not to be stretching per se, but, for example, for a runner to take a light jog to prepare for running, ideally at a pace much slower than the… [read more]

Newsletter Dear Parents: Why Is Physical Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Dear Parents:

Why is physical education so necessary for elementary school children? As school, even for the youngest of students, becomes increasingly competitive, why take time out of children's already over-crammed days for games, laps around the track, and organized games? The answer is that the more life grows stressful, and the less time children have to exercise their bodies and their minds outside of school, the more important physical education becomes for children of every age.

Physical education is an important weapon in our battle against childhood obesity, and it also provides an important time in the school day for kids to be kids. Physical education teaches students teamwork, cooperation, competition, and tolerance, and even helps young children understand academic concepts like near and far, strong and weak, and light and heavy (Pangrazi 2005: 17;8).

The emphasis of our school physical education program is equally on fitness and fun. It will encourage all students, regardless of body type and level of physical fitness to be the best that they can become, at this moment of their lives. At least three times a week, children grades K-3 will engage in regular, fun noncompetitive aerobic and strength-based training, like skipping, jumping rope, and running. They will also engage on the other two days in games involving short sprints, throwing balls, gymnastics and tumbling. This will encourage their sense of delight in moving their bodies. Relays like potato sack relays, motor scooter relays, and tug of war will develop speed and strength, and as well as provide enjoyment.

As children grow older, they will also engage more sports related activities to improve such fitness components as endurance, balance, agility, speed, and also cognitive and emotional skills like teamwork and awareness. The primary function of such sports-related activities will simply be to introduce sports like soccer, basketball, and baseball to the students. All students will participate, regardless of levels of previous familiarity with the skills of these sports.

Sports provide an important venue for students to learn about themselves. We all want our children, regardless of their level…… [read more]

Drugs in Sports Steroid Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,557 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Drugs in Sports

Steroid abuse has become a major problem in sports. The deaths of athletes like Eduardo Gory Guerrero have drawn attention to the real physical dangers of performance-enhancing drugs. Baseball players like Mark McGuire and Jason Giambi have made performance-enhancing drugs seem as common as Gatorade in their sport. According to CBS News, three NFL professional football players… [read more]

Volleyball Is an Olympic Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,976 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms, or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. Each team is allowed three hits to get the ball over the net to the other team. A point is scored if the ball hits… [read more]

Compare High School Sports to College Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


High school sports vs. college sports

With the possible exception of the most challenging high schools in the nation, most students experience more freedom and also more responsibility regarding their academic choices and behavior in college. However, this is not necessarily true of high school sports vs. college sports. In some areas of the country, such as the South, an entire community may become focused on the performance of a high school football team; in the Midwest, the same is true for high school basketball. In contrast, some sports in college may be extremely casual, intramural affairs such as an ultimate Frisbee team. The difficulty level of high school sports depends on the type of sport and intensity of competition at the school.

Both high school and college sports can be extremely competitive. Elite high school athletes often go to summer sports clinics over the summer and subject themselves to grueling practices with the hopes of winning a college scholarship. High-level college athletes often want to retain their sports scholarships, and are under a great deal of pressure from coaches and alumni to succeed. The pressure they feel may be greater than what high school athletes feel because the finances as well as the reputation of the school are at stake. A school with a successful college basketball or football team can command more applications, boost its selectivity, and also draw more alumni donations. High schools are not as dependent upon the performance of their teams to remain solvent.

Although more money is at stake in college sports, increasing the tension for athletes when they play, the payoff is often much greater. Star athletes can garner the attention of professional sports leagues such as the NFL and the NBA. Success in college means keeping valuable athletic scholarships for high tuition bills. And it can also mean garnering national attention for the athlete's feats, which can translate into success even off the courts, in business, provided that the athletes also get reasonable grades. For the most elite college athletes, grades are often less of a concern -- unlike high school athletes who want to play in college; they do not have to graduate to realize…… [read more]

Personal Wellness Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Wellness Philosophy

My personal wellness philosophy includes two important components- the internal and the external. It's important that I feel healthy and happy about my general well-being, with good and bad stresses. Generally, I think internal wellness is accepting and loving my body and the things that surround me and foster a generally positive attitude. This internal wellness impacts my fitness and health as it allows me to fuel my workouts, because I know that it will allow me to have more energy and will help me feel better about myself. The external wellness is that of wanting to be healthy, toned and athletic. This external component of my personal wellness philosophy definitely relates and positively impacts my fitness and health as it helps me get to the gym and work on both cardio activities as well as weights.

The philosophy that I harbor towards my body and mind has been influenced by society, family and culture, as well as the information that I have learned over the years. Society and culture has emphasized, especially with new healthcare legislation, that being healthy and leaner is the body type that is sought after and more accepted by society; therefore, it has influenced my eating habits and fitness goals. My family and the…… [read more]

Sports Psychology Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sports Psychology: Annotated Bibliography

Brunette, Michelle K., Michel Lariviere, Robert J. Schinke, Xiaoyan Xing, Pat Pickard. (2011).

Fit to belong: activity and acculturation of Chinese students. Journal of Sport Behavior.

FindArticles.com. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6401/is_3_34/ai_n58009367/

This study hypothesized that physical activity could increase the potential for an easy cross-cultural transition of students into a new culture by enhancing the student's physical, mental, and social health. An interpretative (hermeneutic) phenomenological framework was used, mainly through interviewing and 'coding' the interviews to understand of how physical activity could ease student's cross-cultural transition. Fourteen Chinese students from a mid-size university in Northeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The participants were interviewed and over the course of the study participated in basketball and soccer with Chinese and Canadian teammates; other students tried 'Canadian' outdoor activities including skiing, snowboarding, skating, and hockey. Interviews in Chinese were taped, translated and then 'coded' into specific issues to allow for comparative study between the participant's reactions. Students reported enhanced communication skills and a greater sense of belonging: sports aided them in learning how to speak English, make friends, eased psychological distress and anxiety, and made them feel more at home in Canada.

Downs, Andrew & Jennifer Ashton. (2011). Vigorous physical activity, sports participation, and athletic identity: implications for mental and physical health in college students. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6401/is_3_34/ai_n58009368/

There has been a strong increase in college students with mental health issues and students who manifest unhealthy behaviors like binge drinking. Vigorous exercise is often prescribed as a possible solution to mental health issues because of the ability of exercise to increase the release of 'feel good' neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin that also mitigate the body's reaction to stress. But college students are often less physically active than when they were in high school. Continued participation in physical activity was hypothesized to lead to more healthy behaviors and also lower rates of depression in college students. The participants for this experimental study included 395 undergraduate college students (286 female and 109 male). The participants completed self-report instruments that assessed their levels of depression, sports participation history, athletic identity, and psychological and overall behavioral functioning. Students who were continuously active showed higher levels of mental health, and also manifested healthier behaviors. They had lower usage rates of electronics and ate more healthy foods, although their tendency to binge drink and eat 'junk food' remained equal to their physically inactive counterparts.

Modrono, Cristian &…… [read more]

Sports Neil Leifer's Photograph Makes Basketball Superstar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Neil Leifer's photograph makes basketball superstar Michael Jordan looks larger than life, capturing the moment the player soars through the air to earn his nickname Air Jordon. The other players on the court literally and figuratively look up at him, as Jordan seems to defy gravity. Jordan actually is flying through the air, as the distance between his knees and the ground seems impossible. Yet the image does not present Jordan as a magician but as a true athlete: someone who has reached the pinnacle of his career because he works hard. The other players seem diminutive next to Jordan and they also respect him even though they are his opponents. The composition of the photo facilitates the point-of-view that Jordan is in the foreground, large, looming, and dominant in the game.

David Black's photo relies both on composition and on shadow to convey the tense moment of the hockey face-off. The shadows are ominous, and one section of a shadow looks like it will eat the other. Clearly they are the shadows of two opponents. Their shadows are in fact larger than the players themselves. This evokes the dark side; the shadow-self of players who will do everything possible to win including fight their opponents on the ice. The face-off circle looks like a drop of blood, which signals the intensity of the game and a possible brawl. The referee is noticeably garbed in neutral black and white, in contrast to the red of the face-off circle.

2. An opportunity to shoot college football in mixed weather is actually a mixed blessing. On the one hand, I must be prepared for any number of lighting conditions, including irregular light and natural shadows as well as wet weather. This demands flexibility with regards to f-stop settings. The light will change, possibly from one moment to the next.

On the other hand, the stark contrasts that stormy weather brings to a shot can add highlights that could never be…… [read more]

Sport Aesthetic Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sport as Aesthetic

Edgar Degas' painting "Horses on the Course at Longchamp" applies the principle of gradation to the color temperature of the piece. Degas uses warm color tones such as orange, yellow, and brown to achieve a moderate intensity which connects the horses, the riders, and the autumnal scene in the background. The gradation of color amongst the trees, the riders' clothing, and the subtle differences in the horses' color creates overall harmony and lends the painting a subdued tone which indicates that the race referred to in the painting's title is at its conclusion. Degas captures the quiet moments after the horse race rather than the intensity and high drama of the race itself. The movement in this piece is very understated, to emphasize the slow gait of the horses, and is accomplished primarily through the use of vertical lines in the horses' legs.

John Groth uses a variety of techniques to create the 'illusion of motion' in his painting "Tilting at the Ring." He uses blotches of color and the blurring of the jousters to demonstrate that he is in the midst of a highly energetic match. This technique is also used around the waving flags and the feet of the horses, two kinds of movement which further bolster the activity of the jouster himself. Vertical lines are also utilized -- primarily in the jousting sticks, which are at various sharp angles -- to emphasize that the sportsman are fully engaged in their activity. The composition of the painting, in which the jousters are in the foreground and thus given dominance over the observers, increases the 'illusion of motion'. This is further supported by the blurring of the observers, and the jaunty, anticipatory angles of the jousting sticks held by those jousters waiting for their matches. Groth also uses a gradation of value in the jouster, whose arched back and raised forearm are painted in dark hues which gradually lighten as the eye follows his body…… [read more]

Sport in Athlete Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Arts and Sports


David Best disagrees that sports cannot be art. He argues that sports can be the subject of art but art cannot be the subject of sports. David Best feels that if sports were accepted to be regarded as art forms then they would be very poor art forms. David also says that regarding sports as art would devalue it. Therefore he remained even more convinced that sports are not form of art and insisted that sports should be judged by its own including aesthetic standards because if sports is judged by artistic standards it will be devalued.

Seymour Kleinman agrees that sports can be arts .He says that sports has the possibility of becoming an art form but it depends on the intention of the athlete to act as an artisan. Kleinman also says that the prime requisite is that athlete should begin to view themselves as artists and that until this happens, sports and art merge infrequently.

Spencer Wertz accepted that purposive sports cannot be art but he believed that aesthetic sports could be art. Wertz supports his argument by saying that sports are performing arts because the rules of sports are like artistic texts .He also adds that what sets the performances off from other activities is that the action which make up a given performance must satisfy antecedent requirements. He sums up by saying that performing arts are actions governed by antecedent works or texts. Wertz assumes that when sports are successfully regarded as art, status of sports would be raised.

Is there a relationship between "form" and "aesthetic" sports?

Yes, there is a relationship between form and aesthetic sports. This is because some of the aesthetic sports such as figure skating and synchronized swimming are considered to be art forms hence proving that they are related.…… [read more]

Becoming a Strength and Conditioning Coach Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sports and Conditioning Coach

Becoming a Strength & Conditioning Coach

Becoming a strength and conditioning coach: An overview

People who are drawn to the profession of coaching, specifically the profession of a strength and conditioning coach or personal trainer, come from many different backgrounds. Some of them may have played sports in high school and college and want to make… [read more]

Sports Wagering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,036 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


He was an NBA referee for 13 years but with a bad gambling habit he could not resist making some side money on the game he was paid to provide honest officiating for. The federal counts against him included wire fraud, and conspiracy to transmit wagering information over state lines.

Personal Experience with Sports Wagering

In 2008 a handsome thoroughbred horse named Big Brown breezed to victories in the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness, and horseracing fans were expecting him to win the Triple Crown by taking the Belmont Stakes too. So I went online on BoDog and did a "pick 4" -- picking the winners of the three races leading up to the Belmont Stakes and of course picking Big Brown in the climatic race. Amazingly, all three of the horses I picked in the first three races won. It was just a matter of Big Brown winning, as expected. He pulled up lame and never finished the race. Had he won, my investment of $16 would have earned me $30,000. I laughed loudly at myself. Few people win these kinds of wagers, and I wasn't to be one of them.

My Opinion and the Ethical Concepts that Apply

Personally I believe people are going to wager on sports in larger and larger numbers, especially now that they can log on to wagering Web sites on their smart phones, or on their home computers. I don't know that wagering on sports is any less ethical than buying lottery tickets or joining the office pool for March Madness. But there should be good educational materials for young people starting in high school, to warn them of the dangers of wagering. Moreover, if the money a person spends on wagering it taking away from his family or his own well being, that is very unethical.

According to utilitarianism, a morally good action is an action that does the greatest degree of good for the greatest number of people. Who benefits when a father puts up $50 on a sports wager but that means he cannot help his daughter who needs about that same amount of money for her gymnastics class? The father may be hoping to make some money on the wager, but the odds are against it.

Another perspective is that if a father wishes to wager on sports events, he should find another part-time job to provide him with that extra cash to spend on gambling. He should not use his or his wife's regular income that must be used for the family, the household, and unexpected expenses that come up. Of course if the father is an obsessive gambler, he needs to seek help from gamblers anonymous or another group before he gets into deeper trouble.

Works Cited

Beck, Howard, and Schmidt, Michael S. (2007). NBA Referee Pleads Guilty to Gambling

Charges. The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com.

ESPN.com. (2007). Rose Admits to betting on Reds 'every night'. Retrieved December 5, 2011,

From http://espn.go.com.… [read more]

Biomechanical Priciples Biomechanical Principles Biomechanics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Instead, the swimmer must find the optimal point in their pull where the most water will be moved. This results in the best and most efficient stroke.

There are currently two strokes that swimmers use to optimize their thrust. The first is a traditional pinwheel stroke. This stroke involves keeping the arm straight in the water and producing a semi-circle. The second stroke is known as the caterpillar arm and involves bending the arm slightly to keep a straight line in the water. This second move efficiently pushes more water out of the way and minimizes the strain on the shoulder (Richardson, 1986).

As can be seen, freestyle swimming is as much a science as any other athletic move. It requires precision of motion to counter the force of the water and maximize energy during a swim. Without taking all factors into consideration, an athlete will expend greater amounts of energy with less overall success.


Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.

Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles

Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.

Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.

Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Berg, C. v. d., & Vorontsov, A.…… [read more]

Tai Chi Is a Series Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Those with arthritis have seen improvements in joint swelling, joint tenderness and hand-grip strength. It improves balance, coordination, and body posture, thus reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Tai chi also improves spinal mechanics and helps with lower back pain and other musculoskeletal problems.

As a stress reducer it improves body-mind communication, thus greatly contributing to healing and over-all well being. Stress, as westerners are now aware, is the main cause of most illnesses whether physical or emotional. When your body is under stress it cannot heal. Tai chi allows both your body and mind to relax.

Tai Chi offers only health benefits regardless whether you're eight or eighty. The simple yet effective movements improve blood pressure, oxygen levels, immune function, cardio-fitness, and response time of throughout the neuromuscular pathway. What other form of exercise can rebuild your body and your mind?… [read more]

Cornell Sports Marketing Strengths Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Customer Base: Far broader, drawing on a much larger non-Cornell base. Also more of a focus on marketable men's games and spectator sports, as opposed to less popular female and boutique sports, like crew and lacrosse.

Reputation: Depending on team and sport, reputation for giving 'better game' in professional sports, overall, Ivy League athletes, fairly or unfairly, looked upon in a dim fashion.

Financial Position: More leeway to experiment, as profit margin higher.

Business Strategy: Marketing of high profile sports, teams, and professional athletes The most important strengths we possess and the best opportunities we face are:

First: There is a heightened disillusionment with professional athletes, given recent doping scandals, and a heightened interest in amateur and less popular sports, given the recent Summer Games.

Second: As college admissions becomes more difficult and competitive, alumni are interested in returning to, and giving back to the school

Third: A renewed interest in community and belonging will contribute to greater interest in returning to college and alumni events, especially athletics.

Fourth: A possible sense of disillusionment with Harvard, given Cornell's greater emphasis on professional preparation for the 'real world,' as manifested in the presence of its hospitality, business, and agricultural schools.

Works Cited

Cornell Athletics. 15 Apr. 2004. 13 Sept. 2004.

< http://cornellbigred.collegesports.com/school-bio/corn-victorious-campaign.html>

Cornell University. (2004) Official Website. 12 Sept. 2004

Cornell Big Red. (2004) Official Big Red Website. 12 Sept. 2004

Facts About Cornell. 13 Sept. 2004 < http://www.cornell.edu/about/facts/stats.cfm>

The Ivy League. 12 Sept. 2004 < http://www.ivyleaguesports.com/admission-statement.asp>… [read more]

Major Sports Happenings of the 1960 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (539 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Sports Happenings of the 1960's

The 1960s were particularly important when considering sports and a great deal of individuals managed to amaze the whole world as a result of their dedication and as a consequence of the fact that they broke records that the masses considered unbreakable. The name Muhammad Ali is probable to trigger intense feelings in all individuals who had anything to do with the world of sports during their lives. This person succeeded in demonstrating that the impossible was actually possible and did so by putting across a humble attitude, as he acknowledge the role that society as a whole played in his upbringing and in the moments when he experienced the greatest times of his life.

Muhammad Ali is largely considered to be one of the greatest athletes of the twentieth century and this is reflected by the fact that he was widely appreciated by a global public throughout his career and even after he retired. Ali's motto "Fly like a butterfly, sting like a bee" probably reflects his fighting style and makes it possible for individuals to acknowledge the sportsman's strategy. He is among the most important persons who demonstrated that boxing was not only a sport that involved strength and agility, as it also required a great deal of thinking.

Wilt Chamberlain is yet another sportsperson who managed to amaze the entire world as a result of his performances. In spite of the fact that he had a difficult childhood, Wilt succeeded to fight most of his problems and emerged victoriously as he started to experience more and more success playing…… [read more]

Inverted U. Hypothesis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,647 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


A study conducted comparing athletes participants competing in sports teams (basket ball) with athletes competing in track and field (individual sports) revealed that athletes competing in track and field sports report significantly increased somatic anxiety and reduced self-confidence that athletes in team sports.

In addition, some researchers suggest that genders differences also affect the relationship between self-confidence, somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety, for instance research reveals that the females had higher somatic anxiety and lower self-confidence scores than males in athletics sport. Similarly, another research revealed that adolescents, irrespective of gender, experienced higher somatic and cognitive anxiety levels and lowers self-confidence level as their opponents ability increased.

In his study Reeve (2008, p56) established that among the males, somatic and cognitive anxiety level was more strongly influenced by their perception of the ability of the opponent and the probability of winning. While female self-confidence and cognitive anxiety are determined by the significant they place on success and their readiness to perform,(


Clearly, inverted U. hypothesis exerts differs on athletic performance. Such impacts vary based on gender, level of experience and sports. Also, in order to facilitate optimal performance by athletic participants, sport psychologists should consider the principle aspects of anxiety such as somatic anxiety, self-confidence and cognitive anxiety.


Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.

Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.

Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.

Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.

Vestman, M., & Eden, D. (1992). The Inverted-U relationship between stress and performance: is it time to retire An overworked…… [read more]

People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Team players enjoy the friendships and camaraderie that results from working with a cohesive group. They feel inspired and motivated by their teammates and perhaps cannot discover such passion on their own. People who play sports recreationally, on the other hand, tend to be more self-motivated. They don't need set practice times or meetings to play sports; they just phone up a couple of friends for a casual game. If a few weeks go by without playing, the person will not care. He or she could discover some other form of exercise or social activity. People who play organized sports would probably go crazy or just be plain lazy without the structure of the team.

Because people who play organized sports know their teammates are counting on them, they might actually end up performing at higher levels to consistently and constantly improve their game. Their competitive instinct is sparked by loyalty to the team and a mutual desire to win as many games as possible. Moreover, playing team sports carries with it a measure of predictability: participants know who their teammates are and develop working relationships with them. The competitive spirit carries over into other realms of their life, like school or work, in which the team player will also be more motivated to succeed at all costs. Those who play sports recreationally are able to be self-motivated, and don't require the constant support of a team to get the job done. They can easily switch sides and don't feel inspired to take a stand. With fewer responsibilities, they might occasionally slack off or not perform to their utmost abilities.

There are two kinds of people in the world: those who play organized sports and those who play sports recreationally. Even people who shy away from sports entirely fall into one of the two camps because our approach to sports can be a metaphor for how we live…… [read more]

Boyhood, Organized Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,089 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Another area that Messner focused on was the relationship between boys and their fathers; whether they had one or didn't have one and the impact either of those circumstances had on the decisions made to enter sports and how that has manifested in their adult life. An early commitment to organized sports and the concept of the male identity was explored within the literature as well. Another area that Messner focused on was the notion of conditional self-worth and the impact and structure of competition. What seems to have been determined in the examination of the literature on this particular subject is that although boys tend to find close bonds with other boys within the context of organized sports, oftentimes the pressure associated with performance and the pressure to win frequently undermines the relationships that are fostered there. Competition between potential friends creates comparisons and contrasts as to skills, acceptance and performance that undermine the closeness and friendships. Moreover, much of the pressure comes from the adults that are a part of the organized sports process. The adults desire to be better than and to win at all costs significantly undermines the boyhood goals of partnership and close peer cohort bonds. These kinds of notions have led to differentiation in the status of one athlete over the other and serve as a means of laying the foundation for competition through adulthood.


Messner notes that instead of sports being just an opportunity for ethnic minority boys to have a place of athletic expression, it became the place where the very essence of manhood and masculinity were ultimately defined. For many of them the pressures associated with organized sports served to frame their ideas and ideals about masculinity and if the experience was negative, significantly impacted their male perspective and view on the world thus impacting the majority of their relationships and how they developed. This is of course in comparison to the other group of mostly white males who were able because of socioeconomic strata and family dynamics to use organized sports as a place to develop their athletic prowess as opposed to seeking male role models and examples of masculinity.

Messner posits several questions or hypotheses that he determines to answer through the aforementioned study. The answers to those questions are within the body of the information provided however, the reader is required to glean some of the information rather than it being stated outright. He does not state specifically or identify specifically within the article that this is the independent and dependent variable or that this is the methodology that I used or even talk a great deal about the theoretical framework through which his study is completed. The reader is required then to have some sense of what a quantitative vs. qualitative study construct looks like and be able to identify the study related factors and variables on their own. Messner does offer some general answers to the questions he posed and attributes much of what he… [read more]

Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The study is limited because of the small sample size and amount of time allocated to conducting the study. The study did also show that even among students who did not report participation in sports, a high level of self-esteem exists. Thus the researcher may conclude that while sports participation may relate to an overall sense of wellness and high self-esteem, a number of factors probably contribute to this rather than one factor. Additional studies will have to be carried out to determine the exact relationship that exists between sports participation and self-esteem.


Interview Questions Athletes

1) Do you believe your involvement in sports has impacted your self-esteem in a positive manner?

2) Do you feel pressure to act a certain way or behave in a certain way due to your involvement in sports?

3) Do you feel that you have a more positive attitude than your peers who are not involved in sports?

4) Do you feel that you are attractive?

5) Do you feel that you will be able to achieve all of the goals that you establish for yourself?

Interview Questions Non-Athletes

1) Do you feel that you have a strong sense of self-esteem?

2) Do you feel that participating in sports would influence your self-esteem?

3) Do you feel pressure to participate or not participate in sports?

4) Do you feel that you have a positive attitude?

5) Do you feel that you will be able to achieve the goals you set out to?


Billups, A. (1999- Jul 26). "Study finds sports give girls confidence to tackle science."

The Washington Times: 9.

Bowker, A., Cornock, B. & Gadbois, S. (2003). "Sports participation and self-esteem:

variations as a function of gender and gender role orientation." Sex Roles: A

Journal of Research, 1:47

Dunn, J.G., Gotwals, J.K. & Wayment, H.A. (2003). "An examination of perfectionisms and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes." Journal of Sports Behavior, 26(1): 17.

Fox, K.R. (2000). "Self-esteem, self-perceptions and exercise." International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31:228-240.

Gustafson, S. (2001). "Self-Esteem/Exercise." Behavioral Consultants, P.C. Retrieved

April…… [read more]

Sports Have Graduated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sports must be recognized as the big money industry it is; it cannot hide forever behind the mask of fair play and cheap entertainment. Sport "is a commercialized amusement business." (Tygiel, 109).

The social consequences of this history of sports are rather powerful. Essentially, the lessons that were inherent to the original conceptions of sports -- fair play, competition, learning of skills -- have been replaced with the necessity to win. This trend stretches down from professional sports to grade school. Because sports are seen as a path by which to achieve the dream of economic freedom, parents and coaches continually push children to win at all costs. Steroid use is one visible consequence of this more broad social trend: "High school students easily obtain steroids, often from dealers who are friends, classmates, and sometimes varsity athletes." (Dallas Morning News, 2005). Also, high school coaches have, typically, been shown to take minimal action once such drug problems come to their attention (Dallas Morning News, 2005). This is routinely attributed to the fact that they are in a position where their jobs depend upon success, and steroids are commonly viewed as a path to that success. Accordingly, the lessons children learn about sports surround the idea that the best and fastest way to win is the best. Sports are no longer a limited hobby of the middle class, but are backed by ticket sales, endorsement deals, and are broadcast around the globe.

Howard Cosell writes, "People frequently ask me if the players of today are deserving of the astronomical salaries. Realistically, they aren't, but in our society, a person deserves what he can command. . . . And if Tom Cruise can negotiate $30 million for a movie, and if Jack Nicholson can demand $40 million for making Batman, who's to say that it's absurd for an athlete to make $3 million or $5 million a year? In reality, we know they're not worth it, but if the marketplace allows it, so be it." (Cosell, 214). The money involved in professional sports today may be ridiculous, or even outrageous, but as long as people are willing to pay to watch the best athletes go head to head it is difficult to claim that it is not in some way deserved. Nevertheless, the image of sports is likely to never return to what it was in its early years.

Works Cited:

1. Calhoun, K., & Gorman, J. (1994). The Name of the Game. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2. Cosell, H., & Whitfield, S. (1991). What's Wrong with Sports. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.

3. Dallas Morning News. "Steroids Readily Available." Dallas Morning News, Sunday, Feb. 6,…… [read more]

Sports Advertising Does the Flashing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Radio: 19.8%

Aerial Advertising: 18.3%

Television: 15.9%

Posters: 14.9%

What can be seen by this, you may ask, that aerial advertising obtained 18.3% of the target with only 6% of the budgetary costs. This type of advertisement seems to be an attractive form for many sports teams and companies to advertise either on any given day or on special days or special events.

In conclusion, many professional sport teams advertise on a variety of different ways in order to promote their team. Professional sports teams may choose to advertise on websites, banners, blimps or aerial banners, billboards, television, etc. Ultimately, if a sports team chooses to use a variety of different types of advertisement, they will likely reap of the benefits that will come from it in the long run, rather than just utilizing one type of advertisement. Just using one type of advertisement will not reach as many customers. Sports must also keep in mind, the audience. This is an important key factor in reaching sports fans and keeping their attention.

Important things to look at are advertisement or marketing budgets for professional sports teams, which are an important key factor for teams, in relation to the whole advertisement process. It is also important to keep in mind the many different options sports teams have in regards to choosing which type(s) of advertisement to use. Professional sports teams have been around for many years. Advertisement is nothing new and will continue on, in order to aid teams, as long as sports teams continue to be around.


"Aerial banners, Inc." (2005). Retrieved June 18, 2005 from Aerial Banners, Inc. Web

site: http://www.aerialbanners.com

Bast, J.L. (1998). Sports stadium madness: why it started, how to stop it. Retrieved from Heartland Institute Web site: http://www.heartland.org/article.cfm?artId=9474

'Fantasy sports stadium" (2004). Retrieved June 18, 2005 from Fantasy sports stadium

Web site: http://www.fantasysportsstadium.com/advertise.php

Shelton, S. (2005). Got sports? Today, sports marketing is a field of dreams. Retrieved…… [read more]

SWOT Analysis: Oakland Athletics SWOT

SWOT  |  8 pages (2,927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


At the same time, he was involved with Burbank Airport Hilton and the La Miranda Gateway Plaza Holiday Inn. (Crosby Agrees to Terms on Five-Year Contract)

This was in the 1980s, and he has been his interests by collecting more hotels, theatres and office buildings under his own control. It is thus clear that Mr. Wolff feels that the club… [read more]

Sports Adventure Has Always Been an Integral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Sports

Adventure has always been an integral part of the human experience, and risk helps define character. All heroic tales center on a hero who undergoes trials involving great physical and mental challenge, and most of their challenges supercede the everyday human experience. Extreme sports are the modern manifestation of adventurism and exploration, risk-taking and challenge. Now that almost every inch of the globe has been traversed, the modern adventure odysseys involve stretching the limits of human potential. Extreme sports connote any activity taken to the maximum -- the max. Extreme sports, from mountain biking to surfing to snowboarding to skydiving, test the boundaries of human mental and physical exertion. The term "extreme sports" denotes two different ideas. Extreme comes from a Latin term meaning outside of; therefore, that which is extreme is outside the realm of everyday, average human experience. Sport is a derivative of an Old French word meaning diversion. Extreme sports therefore imply recreational activities that are outside the realm of ordinary human experience. Basketball cannot be considered extreme because many people can and will play. Many people associate extreme sports with danger. Although most extreme sports carry with them a high degree of physical risk, there are many sports that are dangerous but not extreme. For example, hockey carries a high risk of physical injury but hockey is generally not considered to be an extreme sport. Therefore, just because a sport is dangerous doesn't necessarily mean it can be classified as "extreme." Thus, extreme sports can be defined as any recreational activities that carry a high degree of physical and mental risk but are also outside the realm of mainstream experience.

Extreme sports are outside of the realm of mainstream experience and as a…… [read more]

Steroid Use in Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … steroids in sports. The author works to explore the topic and brings to light several cases in which it has been a problem. Steroid use in sports is not just a problem in the professional circuit, but has crept its way into high schools and colleges across the nation. The author explores the use of steroids in that… [read more]

Use of Anabolic Steroids in the Sporting World Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Anabolic Steroids in the sporting world

Anabolic Steroids

Steroid usage has become increasingly common in today's society, as "the number of professional athletes who have come to rely on performance-enhancing drugs including anabolic steroids and human growth hormone has grown" (Becker & Scheufele 445). Not only is the use of performance enhancing substances fairly routine in the world of professional and Olympic-caliber sporting competition, but usage is also increasing in rank amateur levels, such as those involving athletes in both high schools and colleges. There are a variety of reasons why people opt to take steroids, and most of them are related to a perceived benefit that will aid them in competitive situations. However, a thorough analysis of existing literature unequivocally indicates that although steroid use may generate some positive effect, it is ultimately harmful to the human body and mind.

Although steroid usage originated in the early part of the 20th century, it did not gain its widespread, pervasive presence until the middle to the late part of this century (Haff 42). Today, there is a large body of evidence that indicates that anabolic androgenic steroids produce a plethora of negative side effects -- the most salient of which is an increased hostility and aggression that manifests itself in different ways with users. Research indicates that steroid users have "increased hostility, aggression, depression, paranoid thoughts…and personality disturbances when using AAS" (International Society of Sports Psychology 3).

It is because of this propensity towards aggression and hostility for steroid users, which is merely and indicator of a disturbance in the innate harmony between the mind and the body, that steroid use ultimately brings negative effects upon its users. This proclivity to disturb the internal balance of the mind and the body is even more dangerous to younger users, particularly adolescents in high school and college. It is a well confirmed fact that the brain processes of adolescents does not fully form and function as that of a healthy adult until people are in their mid-20's. Therefore, the disruption of the natural harmony and balance between the body and the mind that the aggressive tendencies of anabolic steroid use engenders can lead younger users into harmful consequences such as becoming addicted to other drugs.

For example, "Among males not participating in school sports, 37% of the variation in anabolic steroid use was accounted for by frequency of cocaine use, injected drug use, and engaging in strength training" (Durant et al. 150). The combination of all of these mind-altering substances within adolescents whose brains are not full developed can prove highly detrimental to the growth and maturity of such an individual. This is particularly true since "Children seem to be the most susceptible…… [read more]

Pilates and Rehabilitation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pilates Helps Rehab Work

Pilates has skyrocketed in popularity, especially in the last decade, when compared to its humble beginnings in a studio apartment.

What is the reason behind this immediate rise in the popularity of the findings of Joseph Pilates? "The Ball" plays a huge role, without a doubt. For decades, Pilates trainers have known the stability ball is… [read more]

Ankle Injury Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ankle injuries - Athletes



Lateral Inversion Sprain

Medial Eversion Sprain

Syndesmosis Sprain

Achilles Tendon Rupture

Other Ankle Injury Classifications



One of the most common types of injuries occurring during sports events is that of ankle injuries. The ankle is susceptible to injury in practically every sport that exists. "There is a broad spectrum of intra- and… [read more]

Marathon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


"Fifty-something Marathoning." Prevention. Available Online: http://msn.prevention.com/article/0,5778,s2-2-92-564-5243-1,00.html

Fordyce, B. & Renassen, M. Marathon Runner's Handbook. New York: Struick Publishers, 2002.

Glover, B. & Glover, S.L. The Competitive Runner's Handbook: The Bestselling Guide to Running 5ks through Marathons. New York: Institute Publications, 2002.

"ING New York City Marathon Coverage." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/

Lovett, Charlie. Olympic Marathon. New York: Greenwood Press, 1997.

"Marathon: Health Benefits." Copa Cabama Runners. Available Online: http://www.copacabanarunners.net/welcome.html

'Training: How Far to Run." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/training/index.cfm

Lovett, Charlie. Olympic Marathon. New York: Greenwood Press, 1997. P. 1.

Lovett, p. 2.

Glover, B. & Glover, S.L. The Competitive Runner's Handbook: The Bestselling Guide to Running 5ks through Marathons. New York: Institute Publications, 2002.

"ING New York City Marathon Coverage." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/

Beck, Kevin. "Run Your Best Marathon, Really." Running Times. July/Aug, 1999. Available Online: http://www.runningtimes.com/issues/99julaug/artmar.htm

Fordyce, B. & Renassen, M. Marathon Runner's Handbook. New York: Struick Publishers, 2002. P. 17.

"Training: How Far to Run." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/training/index.cfm

Beck, 3.


Beck, 4.

Droste, Therese. "Fifty-something Marathoning." Prevention. Available Online: http://msn.prevention.com/article/0,5778,s2-2-92-564-5243-1,00.html

"Marathon: Health Benefits." Copa Cabama Runners. Available Online: http://www.copacabanarunners.net/welcome.html


Burton, Allegra. "The Marathoner's Diet for Optimal Performance." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/training/articles/Nutrition.cfm… [read more]

Manual Therapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,862 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Manual therapy is regarded as one of the traditional methods of treatments in the field of medicine and includes all types of message, mobilization, manipulation and traction. (Geffen, 2003) Etymologically manual implies the work performed with the use of hands. Houglum applies the concept 'manual therapy' to mean the application of hands-on techniques to assess, treat and enhance the position… [read more]

Sports Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



When she was in high school, my mother played basketball. Only they didn't call it basketball; they called it netball. The rules of the game are nearly identical to basketball except that there are only seven players on each team on the court. Netball, my mom told me, was the most popular girls' sport in school and she happened to be the captain of her team. When I asked if she wished she could have played basketball instead she laughed and said no. Netball was known as "the female version of basketball." Girls didn't play basketball and boys didn't play netball; it was that simple. Gender-differentiated sports don't score in the politically correct educational environment in the 21st century United States. When I first learned of my mother's experiences with netball and with sports in general I was appalled because although girls and boys often engaged in different athletic activities, students could not be excluded from a sport simply because of their gender. However, as I reflected on my mother's experiences I came to believe that gender-differentiated sports could have a positive impact on athletics in general. When females play their own sport like netball, they have the opportunity to excel without being compared to males. Women's professional sports, with the possible exception of tennis, rarely receive as much media coverage or credit in popular culture as men's professional sports.

During the interview, my other also revealed her general appreciation for physical fitness and athletics. Not only did she excel at netball; she also ran for her college track and field team and played several sports occasionally and casually including tennis and golf. She remains interested in sports and although not at her peak physical condition continues to be fit and healthy. Because her interest in sports was piqued by netball I view gender-specific sports as being potentially beneficial for both genders. My mother received an unusual level of support from her family and peers, too. Rather than tell her that sports were for boys, or teasing her about being a tomboy, my grandparents encouraged my mother. Sports were viewed as a natural way to improve health and well-being. Similarly, my mom's friends participated in sports because they found netball and other activities fun and stimulating. Not all women in my mom's generation were encouraged to do sports and yet others were challenged to reveal their sexual orientation. Growing up in Jamaica, however, my mother's upbringing was different than mine for cultural and generational reasons. My mom described Jamaican culture as being patriarchal but at the same time promoting an image of strong women that prompted people like my mother to develop their athletic skills

As a female growing up in the United States, my experiences with physical activity were conflicted. In elementary school I excelled at sports and participated fully in track and field activities. Sports were fun for me and I never remember feeling any real differences between what boys did and what girls did until I…… [read more]

Cohesion and Team Success Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  8 pages (3,189 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Cohesion and Team Success

There has been a great deal of research dedicated to attempting to explain the role of team cohesion in team success or effectiveness. There are those who claim that team effectiveness can be gained from social cohesion among team members and others who claim that task cohesions is more important in the team realizing success.

The… [read more]

Sports Related Web Sites Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sports Related Websites

Sports Related Web Sites

The Council on Web Development

Over the last several years, the Internet has become the way many people are learning about sports related content. This is occurring through them going to different websites. In order to know more about their favorite teams and news associated with them. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that nearly two thirds of Americans will use this as way to receive their news updates. This is transforming how organizations are reaching out to these individuals. However, not all websites are as informative and some offer limited amounts of information to stakeholders. Those who are utilizing the MOSC criteria can identify organizations with tremendous amounts of strength vs. weaknesses in their communications with the public. This means comparing two different websites with each other and contrasting the differences. Together, these elements will highlight what features helps select organizations to more effectively connect with fans. (Rosenr, 2011) ("Chapter 9," 2013)

The two websites that will be examined are the Denver Broncos and the North Carolina Amateur Sports Association. The Denver Broncos is a professional, informative and up-to-date website. This is because it is embracing all of the different factors under the MSOC model. The most notable include: individual involvement, motivation, content, design, performance, usability and commerce. Individual involvement is occurring the moment someone visits the home page. This is when they have a choice of going to the fans, kids or community section. Motivation is achieved by providing everyone with exciting information about upcoming events and how this will help the Broncos in the future. The content is excellent with the site offering up-to-date news and possible draft choices they will be selecting in April. The design is utilizing interactive videos, colors and pictures to enhance the content. Performance is taking place with the website quickly loading and using headlines / pictures / videos that will catch their attention. Usability is demonstrating how it is easy to understand and navigate. Commerce allows fans to purchase…… [read more]

Sports-Related Concussion and Statistical Study Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Tactical Responsibilities

According to De Salvo et al. (2007) statistical techniques are not only used to assess players performance but the results and conclusions of these analyses are used to design and develop position conditioning and player's individual training plans. It is a contemporary sports science practice to use manual as well as technological tools to gather quantitative data and analyze the data using mean, percentage, standard deviation, and probability components of statistical techniques (Szymanski, 2003). The increased usage of these techniques has modified the applicability of traditional game planning practices. A position coordination analysis is also performed using computerized match analysis system. Match analysis techniques are also applied to opponent teams to assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Advantages and disadvantages

There are advantages and disadvantages of using these techniques. The advantages include a coordinated game design, planning, team selection, and position assignation. Whereas the disadvantages can be denoted as providing more control of the game in usage and accuracy of statistical and match analysis techniques. This has transformed the creativity and natural game of the players. Moreover genetic capabilities and physiological athletic capacity of the players cannot be enhanced using such techniques (De Salvo, 2007).


The research studies being reviewed indicate that all the studies were conducted by using the statistical tools and analysis methods. Professional sports such as hockey, football, baseball, basketball, and boxing, all leverage upon the statistical studies to manage performance management and health care as well as medical issues of sportsmen. Soccer leagues and clubs also leverage upon the in-depth studies being conducted by the researchers to manage the on-field and off-filed performance of the players.


Belanger, H.G., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345-357.

Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., & Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Neurocognitive performance of concussed athletes when symptom free. Journal of athletic training, 42(4), 504.

Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F.J., Bachl, N., & Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(3), 222.

Sampaio, J., Janeira, M., Ibanez, S., & Lorenzo, A. (2006). Discriminant analysis of game-related statistics between basketball guards forwards and centers in three professional leagues. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(3), 173-178.

Szymanski, S. (2003). The economic design of sporting contests. Journal of Economic Literature, 41(4), 1137-1187.

Weston, M., Castagna, C., Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., & Abt, G. (2007). Analysis of physical match performance in…… [read more]

Sports Management Memo: Comparing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This was just a three-month-summer job and although I was very efficient and helpful none of the tasks I performed at Wal-Mart relate to what will be expected of me at CRSC, should I be accepted. In addition, I have had some impressive sports accomplishments on the field of competition, which I hope will show those making the selection that I understand the culture of sports competition.


Besides listing the football awards I received (All Conference; All Area; Defensive Lineman of the Year), I need to recount some of the skills I learned in high school (typing, public relations in the community and marketing efforts on behalf of the Associated Student Body), some of the office duties I performed at New Mexico Military Institute (writing reports on activities; keeping schedules for my platoon), as well as the ability to meet deadlines.

I need to gather some impressive letters of recommendation from the leaders I have worked with who have appreciated my reliability and ability to learn quickly. I also should create a sample newsletter to show I can write competently, and practice designing brochures using my knowledge of Microsoft technologies. Moreover, I should meet with a current or past intern for the CRSC to pick his or her brain for exact details on what is expected of an intern at CRSC, where I should place my emphasis in my application, and certainly I need to upgrade my resume so it reflects more appropriate experiences and goals.

Works Cited

Charlotte Sports Commission. (2010). Sports Management Internship Program. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from http://www.charlottesports.org.… [read more]

Football and Society A- Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


e. The observer is looking and recording behaviors, without the notice of the subjects under observation (techniques, 2004). This type of direct field observation has kept me aloof from becoming an active participant of the game itself and has helped be to record unbiased observations. Further, this form of direct observation has suggested a more detached and separate perspective of… [read more]

Canadian National Identity Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,555 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Until this there was no other identity Canada had, except being called as a British colony. As stated by Grant, the intention of many Canadians was to have a different identity from United States, in terms of religion, education, politics, and socialism (Grant, 1965).

As Canadians were searching for a different cultural identity, Hockey provided a platform for it. It… [read more]

Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,128 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


While this claim is supported by scientific evidence on one hand, on the other hand, few people will adhere to a rigorous diet and exercise program simply on the promise that it will make them healthy, without enjoying some 'results.' Also, there is no denying that regardless of the level of activity, once the BMI of the individual surpasses a certain point, exercise and mobility can become hard on the joints, lead to injury, and make it difficult to fully enjoy the benefits of exercise. "I don't think most people would appreciate that, wow, you only burned 200 or 300 calories, which you're going to neutralize with just half that muffin" eaten after a run (Cloud 2009:3). For many patients, it is virtually impossible to separate the need to lose weight from exercise, and finding an exercise program and eating program that is calorically 'balanced' is essential.

The value of exercise and its relationship to health should not be discounted, of course, but the claims of the book, particularly its Plan A moderate walking campaign, must be viewed with caution in terms of really offering enough physical activity to ensure good health when weight loss is required. At best, it should be viewed as a transitional step to more intensive exercise. Of course, if Plan A is intense for a previously sedentary person, they may see substantial health benefits that are worth noting and praising. But unless a person continually increased the intensity his or her health regime, he or she will not see continued weight loss. The American Heart Association and the American College of Sports Medicine's joint guidelines for physical activity and health stated that "30 minutes of moderate physical activity five days a week is necessary to promote and maintain health...It is reasonable to assume that persons with relatively high daily energy expenditures would be less likely to gain weight over time, compared with those who have low energy expenditures. So far, data to support this hypothesis are not particularly compelling" (Taubes 2007:1). Ensuring that energy expenditure was in balance with caloric intake was essential, not simply adding exercise minutes to the day.

Once again, this does not discount the role exercise can play in improving a patient's state of health. But a patient must truly understand that exercise alone, particularly the extremely moderate exercise prescribed by the Cooper Institute, is not enough to sustain major weight loss. Even if thinness and fitness is not the same thing, many patients who try to exercise are, at some level, hoping for weight loss, and they must have realistic expectations regarding low levels of activity. Almost every healthcare provider has met someone who insists that he or she exercises but cannot lose weight, and usually that person is not exercising at a hard enough level to elevate his or her heart rate. A better way to evaluate exercise intensity would be to consider target heart rates, which measures intensity and caloric expenditure.


Cloud, John. (2009). Why exercise won't… [read more]

Sports, Race and Social Issues Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It is clear that football is of great significance to the community of Odessa, it brings out in them both the good and the bad. It unites them, but at the same time in a broader sense it separates them. Football appears to make time stand still for them; it allows them to live in the past while ignoring the cultural modernizations that other parts of America have undergone. It appears that through football the community members of Odessa have been able to create a form of oppressive hierarchy that mainly benefits the established powerful members of the football community. The powerful and infamous in this community are the most privileged and revered and also the most rewarded, while the poor and the unknowns are at a disadvantage. Football legends like Shawn Crow are worshiped at events like the watermelon feed. The football coach Gary Gaines holds an exceptionally powerful position. He can determine a player's future by playing him or sitting him. Although he goes through a lot of stress and anguish he benefits greatly from his position. He does not teach, he only coaches and he makes more money than teachers with Master's degrees do. The vulnerable and feeble in this hierarchy are the players, specifically the minority players and the other minority members of the community. They are used, misguided, ostracized and in the end discarded by a system that views them as expendable and only valuable for their physical abilities which can be taken away in an instant.

The minority players are robbed of a future because the institution does not emphasize education and their future, they only emphasize the football season. This blinds them, and makes them believe that they have no future outside of football. The other members of the community observe this, and it furthers the harmful and slave-era stereotype that claims that blacks have no other talents that are not of a physical nature. Football in this community allows them to live in the past while ignoring the future and the reality that people especially black can be more that just physical specimens.

Works Cited

Bissinger, H.G. Friday Night Lights: a Town, a Team, and a Dream. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Da Capo, 2000.…… [read more]

Establishment of Blood Screening Protocols Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (2,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


" (Fallon, ) However, more recent evidence is stated by Fallon to call this conclusion into question as Hinton et al. In reports a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, that investigated the effect of iron supplementation in 42 iron-depleted nonanemic women. Findings of the study state that five male athletes were identified in which "screening abnormalities were associated with illness or other… [read more]

Physical Program for Virginia Fire Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,831 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Essentially, "for a fitness program to be effective, he must follow a schedule that should allow for periodization," where strength training and endurance are divided into distinct phases or periods, each of which has a specific outcome, which allows each specific strength to peak at the right times" (Calcagno, 2012). Regular programs of aerobic exercises show the most improvement in cardio vascular health (Sherek, 2009).

Moreover, programs across the state need to be standardized to ensure that every county is benefitting from the additional training that will increase the performance and health of fire fighters. Unfortunately, "like the written exam, the physical exam varies from department to department" (Virginia Department of Fire Programs, 2013). This leaves room for error and disarray. Developing a state standardized physical fitness program that is based on the same crucial activities of the physical entrance test would be the best route.


Clearly, something needs to change before anyone else gets hurt because a lack of physical fitness on our fire departments. The health of the fire fighters themselves, as well as the community at large is at stake. The state of Virginia needs to adopt a mandatory physical fitness program for incumbent fire fighters so that they stay as fit as the day they were accepted in the department.


Biddle, Daniel A. & Bell, Stacy L. (2011). Using work-sample physical ability tests to maintain fitness standards of incumbent fire fighters. Fire and Police Selection, Inc. Web. http://www.fpsi.com/pdfs/physical-ability-test-maintenance-standards-article-fpsi.pdf

Calcagno, Guido. (2012). Physical fitness in the fire service. Fire Engineering. Web. http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-165/issue-12/features/physical-fitness-fire-service.html

NIOSH. (2009). Death in the line of duty: Fire fighter trainee suffers sudden cardiac death during maze training in Virginia. Faculty Assessment and Control Evaluation Investigation Report F2009-02. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/fire/pdfs/face200902.pdf

Sherek, Becky. (2009). The four components of firefighter fitness. Firehouse. Web. http://www.firehouse.com/article/10473909/the-four-components-of-firefighter-fitness?page=3

Virginia Department of Fire Programs. (2013). Frequently asked questions. Virginia. Web. http://vdfp.virginia.gov/faqs.htm… [read more]

Pregnant Athletes Identification Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Therefore since the act does not have arete, phronesis, it is morally wrong though it leads to eudaimonia which is seen in Fantasia being able to play in the team. In the eyes of a characteristically virtuous person, the action would not be wise since she is putting herself and the fetus at risk and she is being somewhat reckless… [read more]

Pregnant Athletes Identification Many Ethical Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Therefore, this policy can be helpful in protecting the unborn child and the pregnant athlete.

Non-consequential Ethical Theory

Many countries have signed the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all sorts of Discrimination against Women. The aim of this convention is to guard the fundamental rights of women and give them equal opportunities as compared to men. One of… [read more]

Sports Betting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"The arguments we're hearing in 2001 are exactly what moral leaders argued about in 1700" (http://www.unr.edu/alumni/profile.asp?ID=5).Manyfeel that sports gambling is a legal, moral and reasonable form of recreation that should be regulated and taxed. Furthermore many are critical of politicians from states with lotteries who advocate bans on sports betting. "The lottery is nothing more than the old illegal numbers… [read more]

In 1980, Rachael Mclish Won Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This method also does very little in weight reduction. If one lifts weights in slow motion without vigorous cardio, big muscles will develop. To reduce size or increase athletic performance, the heart rate must be challenged..

When one follows a traditional weight-training program, he or she will usually do all the sets and reps at one exercise machine.

For example,… [read more]

Upper Body Strength Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" ("Incline Dumbbell Bench Press")

Then, press upward toward the ceiling until your arms are extended fully. ("Incline Dumbbell Bench Press")

Slow down while lowering the dumbbells until they reach the height of your chest. Repeat. ("Incline Dumbbell Bench Press")

Dumbbell Flyes

Sit on the edge of a bench with the weights placed on thighs. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Lie down while keeping the dumbbells close to your chest. Make sure you are firmly seated. Also keep your shoulders and hips on the bench and your feet planted on the floor. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Then "push the weight up using a "pressing like" motion with your palms facing each other." ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Then, slowly lower the dumbbells with your elbows slightly bent, to a horizontal plane even with the bench. Stretch your pecks, but don't lower the weights all the way down to the floor, because it may cause injury. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Count by saying "one thousand one, one thousand two" to lower the weight to the fully extended position. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Inhale as you lower the dumbbells. Once you get to the bottom, hold for a quick count of "one," then slowly bring the weights back up in an arched motion. Repeat." ("Dumbbell Flyes")


Lying face-down on the floor, put your palms next to your chest slightly wider than shoulder width apart. ("Pushups") keep your body straight, and push against the floor permitting your body to rise just short of your elbows locking. "Your body should be supported by your hands and the balls of your feet." ("Pushups")

3. Lower your body back down to the starting position. Repeat. ("Pushups")

Works Cited

Because this paper contains directions to exercises that may cause injury if done improperly most of it has been directly quoted or contains paraphrases from the following web pages which may be accessed by getting on the internet and clicking on the links that follow.

Arnold Press. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_shoulder_arnold_presses.asp

Dumbbell Flyes. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_chest_dumbbell_flyes.asp

Front Dumbbell Raise. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_shoulder_front_dumbbell_raise.asp

Incline Dumbbell Bench Press. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_chest_incline_dumbbell_bench_press.asp

Pushups. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_chest_pushups.asp… [read more]

Sports Agents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


edu). Lawyers may also represent persons holding an equity interest in the ownership of a team (vill.edu). There are innumerable ways to become involved either primarily or incidentally in sports law matters (vill.edu). Sports law is a broad legal discipline (vill.edu). Lawyers and agents desiring to enter the field must know they face intense and sometimes unprincipled competition (vill.edu).

Fledgling… [read more]

Adopt' Running as My Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Running became an easy option, since it was an activity where everybody seemed to participate in, and I thought the physical exertion is not that heavy as compared to other, more complicated sports. I was wrong. On my first week of following my running regimen (which consists of running the academic oval of the university for at least two hours (maximum)), I was ready to give up running. Not only is it tiring, but running will also test your determination and perseverance. Every mile that you cover is a battle between continuing running or giving up to the weakness of your determination. After several weeks of faithfully following my regimen (except for days when it is rainy and there are special things to do), running became a routine for me. I became a common sight at the academic oval every morning, from six to eight in the morning, and I was able to achieve my goal to regain back my regular weight and clear complexion (my ultimate motive for running).

However, physical health is not only the benefit that I got from running. There is also a sense of emotional and mental calm that one can feel while running, and I value these moments so much, because it gives me time to at least be detached in a peaceful way with the outside world. Running made me think of nothing but the pounding of my feet on the pavement, and reciting a mantra to keep me going. Indeed, running is not only considered a sport that bring about physical health and fitness, but it is also an activity that promotes emotional and mental stability. Further, running also increases and develops an individual's determination and drive to succeed, and I think that these two important traits are the driving forces why I still keep on running even though I've already achieved my initial goals three…… [read more]

Sociology of Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Firstly, the overall values will be discussed.

It has been argued that what is valued in sport reflects what is valued in society, with American society valuing competition in sport because of its history as a society based on capitalism. Importantly, this model of business success is one based on achieving and succeeding, rather than achieving a greater purpose. While… [read more]

Pregnancy There Are Many Positive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The authors looked at theoretic concerns regarding various forms of exercise during pregnancy in an attempt to determine if there is greater sense of well-being, shorter labor and fewer obstetric interventions in physically well-conditioned women as compared with other women.

Methods -- The study determined the effects of exercise on pregnancy by reviewing the theoretic concerns associated with exercise during… [read more]

Heart Rate and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Ask Yahoo, Pg 1) second important heart rate to understand is the recovery heart rate. Essentially the recovery heart rate is the rate which the body will decrease to after an exercise session. In other words if a person exercises for thirty minutes at a rate of 155 beats per minute, after the person stops exercising the speed at which the heart rate slows down will be measured. Generally a rate will be taken two minutes after the individual stops exercising. If the person is somewhat fit, the rate might drop down to 95 beats per minute after a two-minute rest period. This would be a good drop. (Heart Rate, Pg 1)

The recovery heart rate, much like the maximum heart rate and the target heart rate, is going to be different for every individual. As a result the timeframe in which a person's heart rate drops back to a resting heart rate is going to be different for every person.

The resting heart rate is the number of heart beats per minute in a person at rest. The resting heart rate indicates one's basic fitness level. In other words, the more well-conditioned body requires less effort and fewer beats per minute to pump blood throughout the body. (Heart Rate, pg 1)

The heart rate reserve is important because it determines one's potential training rate. This may be determined by identifying the difference between one's maximum heart rate and one's resting heart rate. If the maximum heart rate is 169 beats per minute and the resting heart rate is 63 beats per minute, the heart rate reserve can be determined by subtracting 63 beats per minute from 196 beats per minute. The result is 133 beats per minute. (Heart Rate, Pg 3)

The person who has been inactive for years should always consult a doctor before the beginning of a new exercise regimen, especially those who are middle-aged or older. Beyond this, those people who would like to start an exercise program but finds facts and figures about the heart rate confusing should acquire the help and expertise of a professional trainer. These people are trained to understand the goals of their clients and to help them to achieve them in an appropriate fashion. (Just Move, Pg 2)

Understanding the heart rate is the primary key to understanding one's cardiovascular fitness. Without a basic understanding of what the different types of heart rates mean, one can not adequately judge whether or not their workout is doing what it is supposed to do. Cardiovascular health is important and as such understanding how one's heart rate is involved with this is imperative.


Frequently Asked Questions." Just Move. http://www.justmove.org/fitnessnews/faqbodyframe.htm

Heart Rate." Heart Rate Basics. http://www.heartmonitors.com/heart_rate_basics.htm

Ask…… [read more]

Sports Announcers Are Usually Broadcasters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The Talking Head would be an entertainer as much as an announcer as he or she would be responsible for bringing the audience closer to the game.

The commentary would also be given by a Voice of Authority who would make suggestions of why the game is flowing in the present direction. These announcers are usually retired players who have an intricate understanding of the game taking place.

Editorial announcers would present an analysis of the game that has taken place they would be the Voice of Reason. They make sense of whatever is taking place, present future direction and state the pros of cons of any game that has taken place.

The classification given above is the most basic of the categories. The Lead Anchor is oft times the most important as it is he or she that determines the manner in which the game starts or ends for the audience.

The Talking Head would be the second most important for that person would be the main determinant in making a lively game exciting and a boring game lively.

Sports Announcers each have a different audience from the people interested in the game on a day-to-day basis to the people who would have an interest in the sport and watch from the beginning to the analysis and thus become a part of the sport.… [read more]

Pulmonary Disease and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the Ortega study, the participants were involved in a 12-week exercise program where they either worked on strength training, endurance training, or a combination of the two. The study revealed that while both strength training and endurance training may be successful, increases in "submaximal exercise capacity" for the endurance group were much higher than those for the strength group (Ortega, 2002). Any type of training modality was shown to improve breathlessness scores and shortness of breath perceptions for participants (Ortega, 2002). The most useful exercise method for individuals with COPD in this study was found to be a combination of strength and endurance training (Ortega, 2002).

Relevant to Physical Therapy, each of these articles reveals that therapy targeted toward specific exercise rehabilitation including strength and endurance training as well as "breathing exercises" as mentioned in the first article is most likely to produce effective gains in pulmonary patients. Most pulmonary patients are not capable of participating in more rigorous or aerobic routines, as such exertion will only exacerbate their existing symptoms.


Weiner, Paltiel, MD; Magadle, Rasmi, MD; Beckerman, Marinalla MD., Weiner,

Margalit PhD and Berar-Yanay, Noa, MD. "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" Chest. 2003;124:1357-1364 Retrieved from, http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/1357

Ortega, Francisco. Toral, Javier. Cejudo, Pilar, Villagomez, Rafael. Sanchez, Hildegard.

Castillo, Jose and Montemayor, Teodoro. Comparison of Effects of Strength and Endurance Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineVol 166. pp. 669-674, 2002. Retrieved from, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/5/669… [read more]

Sports Psychology Sport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


We can thus conclude that there is great demand for psychological therapy and counseling for sports professionals since they regularly face tough competition and are required to perform in front of millions of people. But sports psychology is not only required by professional athletes, aspiring sportsmen also require psychological help for performance enhancement and stress management. These individuals include college athletes, ordinary people active in sports, and even school children (Hinkle, 1989b). Athletes who start young are at greater risk of burning out by the time they reach professional level. They need psychological aid to stay focused and work consistently on improvement of their performance without exhausting themselves. Sport psychologists and counselors are of tremendous value in the world of sports because coaches and regular trainers cannot offer solutions for psycho-emotional and psychosocial problems of athletes. Athletes need to stay in close contact with counselors for identification and resolution of issues that might be negatively affecting their performance on the field. These meetings also help them keep a check on their performance and progress.


Hinkle, J.S. (1989a, March). Sports counseling: The process and the product. In J.S. Hinkle (Chair), Sport psychology: Perspectives on sports counseling. Symposium conducted at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Butt, D.S. (1987), Psychology of sport. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Millslagle, D.G. (1988). Visual perception, recognition, recall and mode of visual search control in basketball involving novice and experienced basketball players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 11, 32-44.

Burke, K.L. (1989, March). Counseling for performance enhancement. In J.S. Hinkle, Sport psychology: Perspectives on sports counseling. Symposium conducted at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Smith, R.E. (1989). Applied sport psychology in an age of accountability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1, 166-180.

Bunker, L.K., & McGuire, R.T. (1985), Give sport psychology to sport. In L.K. Bunker, R.J. Roella, & A.S. Reilly (Eds.), Sport psychology (pp. 3-14). Ann Arbor: McNaughton & Gunn.… [read more]

Tennis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,093 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Junior Championship. He could hit every type of shot from every part of the court, setting a model for contemporary complete players like Sampras and Martina Hingis (Cooper, 2003). Perhaps his greatest contribution to tennis was 'topspin', being one of the first players to utilize the dynamic consistently in his game. Laver won 20 major titles, and was ranked number one in the world in 1961, 1962, 1968, and 1969. He won two Grand Slams, in 1962 and 1969 (Cooper).

In women's tennis there has been a 'glass net' of sorts that has involved lower purses for women titles than men's and has lead to some of women's tennis most famous players outraged at the huge differences in prize money between the two tours. Of these players, Martina Navratilova and Chris Evert have been the most vocal as well as being considered two of the most influential players that have developed the game of tennis.

Navratilova has won 167 singles titles and 162 doubles titles, both more than any other player, male or female since entering the circuit in 1973 (Cooper) and while she occasionally enters double-tournaments, her legacy has been unmatched. Martina owns 56 major titles, 18 of them in singles, including a record nine Wimbledon singles titles and multiple wins at each of the other three Grand Slams (Cooper). Both Navratilova and Evert are responsible for creating styles of play and strategy, as well as introducing endurance and fitness into women's tennis that has created such players as the Williams sisters, Martina Hingis, Lindsey Davenport and Monica Seles.

While the players are largely responsible for developing and giving us today's game of tennis, much of the growth in interest in tennis has been led by schools and university programs. The College Tennis Foundation was established to administer tennis programs and now serves over "1500 collegiate tennis programs (and more than 15,000 student-athletes) in all three NCAA Divisions, as well as the NAIA and Junior College" (ITA, 2003).

Recently, the "tennis industry has joined together to launch the largest national campaign ever designed to increase tennis participation through a nationwide campaign" (Tennis Industry, 2003) that is aimed at introducing people to the game of tennis and encourage facilities, equipment brands and players to join together in marketing the sport. This program is designed to not only introduce people to the sport, but also to aid college and school programs that are currently in need of funding due to the decline in the economy.

Tennis is one of the most internationally known sports and one that is played all year round - professionally and informally. It is enjoyed by all walks of life and all age groups who gain from the combination of physical and mental exercise. These days many health clubs have tennis courts or facilities since it has become a staple in health and fitness. From humble beginnings the game has developed into a much loved pastime that continues to be reshaped in today's world.


Industry… [read more]

Sports and Sexual Stereotypes L Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I believe that the feelings that caused my distaste for physical exertion in my seventh-grade P.E. class are the very same source as the anger evoked in so many by the existence of the WNBA.

The fact that women's participation in traditionally male sports evokes anger is sad. However, the knowledge that this feeling comes, not from "the way it is," but from changeable attitudes gives one hope. Gloria Steinem writes, "...if we could just be taught in school abut the politicization of beauty, it would help..."(221), so too, if I had been taught differently, perhaps I wouldn't have minded getting sweaty. Who knows, I might have played in the WNBA!


Cahn, S.K. (1993). From the 'Muscle Moll' to the 'Butch' Ballplayer: Mannishness, and homophobia in U.S. Women's Sports. Feminist Studies. 19, (343-368).

Martin, Chris. (2000). Arizona Daily Wildcat. "WNBA, what a joke!" Web site: http://www.wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/94/6/02_7_m.html.

Schlussel, Debbie. The Jewish World Reviewjewishworldreview.com taken at http://www.dadi.org/ds_wnba.htm.

Steinem, Gloria. The Revolution Within. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, (1992)

Newton, Allison. (2003)Where are the Women. Web site: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~womenstu/ws201student/professionalsports/homepage.html… [read more]

Sports and Anti-Trust Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Maurice Clarett Case

Regarding the NFL's position, they do not believe they are unreasonably restraining trade by insisting on monitoring and controlling the entry of players into the game. They are simply setting guidelines by which all players can have equal access to the game, and all teams within the league can have a fair and equal access to… [read more]

Physical Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,248 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Physical Education

There are a few key features in this twelve-week program. First, the program is holistic in nature, encompassing the entire body. There is an emphasis on the lower body, which was identified as needed to improve both in terms of strength and flexibility. More emphasis is placed on improving flexibility in this program when compared with some of my previous programs. This program is less oriented towards weights and more towards a total exercise regimen than I have normally done in the past. Also, this program addresses the imbalance of strength between my right side and my left side.

All of these issues were identified during the pre-implementation testing, which is why they have become the main point of emphasis for me. I believe that the testing revealed a pathway to improving my total fitness level by revealing what were likely weaknesses in my program before.


Strength training is an important component of fitness training but one that is often overlooked. The main benefits of strength training are that it improves muscle strength and endurance. Strength training is important because it combats the loss of lean muscle tissue that occurs with aging. Lean body mass requires calories to work, whereas fat does not. So the effect on the body of losing lean body mass is that the body requires fewer calories to work. If caloric intake remains the same, then the body will gain fat over time, leading to decreased health outcomes. Strength training increases lean body mass, sometimes even reversing the natural loss of lean muscle, and therefore lowers the effect of calorie intake. The body retains a healthier composition ratio of lean body mass to fat mass (HSPH, 2013). The U.S. Center for Disease Control also notes that strength training can decrease the severity of symptoms from ailments like arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, back pain and depression (CDC, 2013).

Flexibility refers to the "total range of motion in a joint or group of joints" (Kravitz & Heyward, 2013). The goal of a flexibility program is to maximize joint mobility and to maintain joint stability. Flexibility should always focus on the systemic improvement of flexibility, so total body flexibility rather than individual joints. Flexibility training is beneficial in that it helps to preserve range of motion and it will reduce muscle soreness and decrease the risk of injury when performing physical tasks (HSPH, 2013).

Pre-Implementation Stage

There will be a number of different strength tests undertaken during the pre-implementation period. The objective of this period is to judge where my areas of strength and weakness are. This will help guide the development of the strength program. The strength tests will be single arm curls, bench press, squats and pull downs. The single arm curl tests bicep strength. The bench press tests strength of pectoralis major, biceps, triceps, latissimus dorsi and deltoids. Squats test the strength of the quadriceps group and the gluteus maximus and medius. Other tests will be used to isolate the latissimus dorsi, the… [read more]

Training Programme for Female Athlete Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,508 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Training Programme for Female Athlete

Date/Time: ____ Name:

Strength/flexibility exercises test Rubric (5%)

The instructor (NOT student) will choose 5 strength/flexibility exercises from the student's Written Report that the student states his athlete will use over the 3-month hypothetical training period. The Instructor will ask the student to perform the exercises in turn and name the muscle(s) being… [read more]

People at the Gym Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,299 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


They walk and talk with a lot of assurance. These women frequently workout with weights and perform cardiovascular exercise in the gym as well. On some occasions, they might even take aerobics classes or maybe even teach them. Oftentimes, the fit girl/athletic type has many male admirers, both openly and secretly. A number of guys like to try to talk to them both in and outside of the gym. However, because of the large degree of self-confidence that they carry about themselves, there are many guys who are intimidated to approach them. Despite their looks, however, these women are very serious about taking care of their bodies and usually have strict dietary regimens that they follow to help them maintain their good shape.

Almost no gym would be complete without the type of guy best referred to as the screamer. These are the men who walk around with permanent wet spots on their backs, and probably below their armpits on their shorts as well. They are usually seen sweating profusely, or attempting to wipe themselves down with a towel. These gym participants are almost never quiet, although there is a great deal of variety to the different types of noises they make. Some prefer to grunt -- in unison -- as they lift weights. Others prefer vociferous screams and shouts at the conclusion, and during the middle, of their workouts with different machines. Rarely one of these individuals might become so absorbed in their iPods as they work out that they will sing or rap along to the music.

Whatever the form of noise-making this type of gym participant makes, it is almost always a distraction. Whereas other people are content to simply put their head phones on and silently persevere through their work outs, these screamers inevitably have to make loud noises and disrupt the general quiet of the environment. To their credit they generally know what they are doing and have very little trouble using the equipment or performing a set of workout motions with the help of others. However, they are still very distracting and not the least bit annoying.

Finally, one of the most frequently occurring types to appear in gyms virtually anywhere is known as the lost guy. These are people who have not spent a lot of time in gyms. Furthermore, they have not spent a lot of time playing sports or even exercising. They have shown up in gyms across the country suddenly, either because they have realized that they need to do something to their bodies to help them pick up girls, or perhaps because they are married and their wives are ashamed of being with men who cannot sufficiently protect them from danger.

Whatever the case, there are a number of traits that readily identify these individuals. They are generally uncoordinated, regardless of what sort of exercise at the gym they are attempting to do. They have trouble with the weights (and with the weight of the weights), they have difficulty… [read more]

Financial Statement Analysis: Adventure Sports Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A look at the firm's operating profit also reveals an impressive trend -- the same has been on an upward trend during the period under consideration. This is an indication that Adventure Sports has enough cash for growth/expansion and other needs.

To determine whether the firm would be affected if the current profitability trends were to change, it would be prudent to analyze its ability to remain solvent both in the short-run and in the long-run. Of great utility in this case would be the company's liquidity ratios and financial leverage ratios. For purposes of this discussion, I will make use of the current ratio and the debt ratio.

Table 1: Debt Ratio and Current Ratio




Current Ratio









Debt Ratio






Looking at the table above, it is clear that the company would encounter no challenges settling its obligations. This is particularly the case given that as the current ratio indicates, Adventure Sports has more assets than debt. The company is therefore not likely to encounter liquidity problems even if the trends in profitability were to change significantly (in the short-run).

On the other hand, the debt ratio in this case indicates that Adventure Sports has more assets than debt. This indicates low financial risk level. It is however important to note that volatile cash flows could affect Adventure Sports' ability to settle its obligations -- both in the long-run and in the…… [read more]

Sports Event Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These include actual news and sports sites that are more like traditional outlets in the way they report unbiased information, but there are also fan sites, the NFL and official team sites, and random sites such as blogs that provide information. Many of the more casual and/or fan-based sites offer much more in the way of opinion, and they easily and quickly take sides. They make no secret of where their loyalty lies.

Twitter is an extension of the online sites. It is similar in nature to the overall online presence of other sites, but different mostly in the immediacy of the information presented on it. Those who are interested in sports marketing must be aware of the value of sites like Twitter, because it provides such a quick way for information to be gathered and shared with others. On Super Bowl Sunday, tweets about the game were easy to find, and they were highly varied when it came to what they discussed and who they supported. Because so much of Twitter is used-generated media as opposed to the more traditional, journalistic outlets, the mix of information and opinion a person receives there is very different from what he or she would expect from TV or print media.


Marketing sports and sporting events requires time and effort when it is being handled from a traditional standpoint, but there is also a great deal of marketing seen in an unofficial capacity. Traditional media outlets provide official marketing of sporting events like the Super Bowl, while online outlets provide a mix of both official and unofficial information. Sites like Twitter can provide some official information from team and NFL tweets, but most of the Twitter information provides about the Super Bowl came from fan opinion and thought. That is a very different type of marketing for sports events, and can change the way in which fans and potential fans look at a team, sport, or league. Media is very powerful, but the internet age has changed the way that power is used.

Works Cited

Beech, John, & Chadwick, Simon. The marketing of Sport. Prentice Hall and Financial Times. 2006. Print.

Kotler, Philip & Keller, L. Kevin. Marketing Management 14e. Pearson Education Limited. 2012. Print.

Seattle Seahawks. http://www.seahawks.com/super-bowl/48/index.html.…… [read more]

Moderation in Tennis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Moderation is surely one of the most important things when considering athletes and sport in general. Being a tennis player can be especially demanding, with the respective person having to do everything in his power in order to work at his or her full potential. Sleep is an important concept in this discussion, as tennis players need to concentrate on getting enough sleep in order to recuperate their physical and mental strength. By sleeping for enough time, tennis players make sure that they have all the energy they need during a competition.

A tennis player's sleep can be negatively affected by a great deal of things. Concepts like the stress associated with a competition and the fact that they travel very often are likely to interfere with a tennis player's ability to sleep. "Many things can affect tennis players' quality of sleep, including stress, worry and frequent international travel across time zones. This disrupts the normal twenty-four hour "biological clock." (Satisfying sleep 1)

Tennis players need to be prepared to deal with an increasing amount of stress and effort that build up as a competition comes closer. The fact that these people have access to a glamorous life and that they can practically buy everything they want sometimes makes it difficult for them to live life in moderation.

The case of Richard Gasquet provides proof with regard to how having a moderate lifestyle can sometimes be too much for a tennis player. Regardless of whether he consumed cocaine or not, the case involving him being tested positive for use of cocaine shocked the tennis world. This situation practically proved that life can sometimes be stressful for a tennis player and that he or she cannot always put across exemplary behavior. "In France, they have been calling it 'The Cocaine Kiss', the story of how Richard Gasquet spent an evening with a girl in a Miami nightclub, tested positive for the stimulant the next day, and then convinced an anti-doping tribunal that it was because of those French kisses with "Pamela." (Hodgkinson)

Moderation is essential when considering tennis players and the energy they need in order to excel. Even with this, it can also have a negative influence on a player because of how he or she can feel that he or she is not living life to the fullest.

Works cited:

Hodgkinson, Mark, "U.S. Open: Richard Gasquet puts 'Cocaine Kiss' saga behind him," retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/tennis/usopen/6115999/U.S.-Open-Richard-Gasquet-puts-Cocaine-Kiss-saga-behind-him.html

"SATISFYING SLEEP," Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.itftennis.com/media/126363/126363.pdf

"Canadian qualifier faints as heat wave hits Australian Open," Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://msn.foxsports.com/tennis/story/canadian-qualifier-frank-dancevic-faints-as-heat-wave-hits-australian-open-011314… [read more]

NFL Nonprofits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Sports and Social Change

Over the last several years, social change has become a phenomenon where sports organizations are reaching out to stakeholders to creative positive impacts. This is because sports are highlighting important differences in social issues and the way can be used as a platform to address them. A good example of this can be seen with observations… [read more]

Benefits of Physical Activity Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Exercise and Health

benefits of physical activity and exercise on one'S HEALTH

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Significant evidence shows that most of the people in the current global environment spend most of their time in office work that increase their level of inactivity. Similarly, most of… [read more]

Exercise and Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It improves mood and has been shown to lessen depression and anxiety while also boosting confidence.

There are several forms of exercise that can be tailored to fit anyone's individual goals or lifestyles. Any level of exercise can be productive and an individual can increase their level of activity at any time. Therefore, you don't have to start training as an athlete to gain the benefits of stress relief that associated with exercise; even a brisk walk is enough to trigger many of the benefits of stress relief that exercise can provide.

What is the mind/body connection mentioned by Seaward and why is physical exercise part of holistic stress management?

The body and mind are connected through an array of biophysical process. The healthier the body, then the healthier the mind can be. Illness of the body can be responsible for additional stressors to an individual's mind that can accumulate over time. The body will actually produce some level of stress during exercise, however then the physical activity stops then the body naturally tries to return to hemostasis. The more you exercise, the better the body's ability to return to that state. Therefore, while counseling and various medications can be used to help reduce stress, exercise should always be included in a holistic stress management system because of its proven effects to promote natural stress relief.

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, July 12). Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469

Menlinck, M. (2013, May 21). How Does Exercise Reduce Stress? Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/21/exercise-reduces-stress-levels-anxiety-cortisol_n_3307325.html… [read more]

Facilities Management Critiques Article Critique

Article Critique  |  7 pages (2,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Job Competencies of Sport Facility Managers: Robert Case and J. David Branch

The study by Case & Branch (2003) talks about sports facilities that exist in the United States and offers different careers for students to opt from. The study states that the sports management training prepares students for professional management. However, it is also imperative that this… [read more]

Dance Injury Prevention and Overall Level Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Injury prevention and overall level of health and fitness often play a back seat role for dancers. In the effort to perfect their art, dancers focus on specific types of movements, techniques, and exercises over others. Specifically, exercises that can improve bone integrity, increase muscular strength, improve general aerobic fitness, and improve muscular endurance can help dancers avoid injuries. Injuries in dancers are common, affecting ballet dancers at least once per year (Twitchett, et al., 2010). For professional dancers, injury can upset careers; for all dancers, injuries can lead to poor health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to review literature on how to optimize the health and fitness of dancers.

The causes of injury are diverse, and depend on the type of dance, the individual's body type, the individual's psychological makeup, the quality of instruction, intensity of practice, past medical history, nutrient intake, body fat percentage, and temporary stressors. It is impossible to devise a universal approach to injury prevention, but there are some key elements of injury prevention that are specific to dancers and universal in scope. Those injury prevention keys are rooted in sports medicine, which can inform evidence-based practice in formal dance instruction.

Twitchett, et al. (2010) found that low aerobic fitness and body fat were two variables significantly correlated with injury frequency and duration. Excessive thinness and an obsessive approach to specific movements may hinder the dancer's long-range capabilities as a professional. While it is understandable that dancers will need to focus intensely on specific roles at certain times for their career, those performances should ideally be supplemented by general exercise and nutrition regimes that foster overall health and well-being. Dancers who supplement their work with other types of movement that improve cardiovascular health and aerobic fitness may help increase the longevity of their careers. Likewise, dancers who can more easily maintain a physique that is aesthetically appropriate without becoming underweight will also be better suited for long-range health as a dancer.

As Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios (2005) note, it is not only excessive thinness that is an aesthetic ideal for some dancers, but also a lack of muscularity. Yet muscularity promotes health and prevents injury. The researchers found that dancers who supplement with strength training exercises are less prone to injury, and can even lead to "better dancing" because of the improved conditioning of their bodies (Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios, 2005, p. 29). Strength training need not interfere with aesthetics. Moreover, Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios (2005) point out that muscular strength training does not adversely impact flexibility, another common concern with dancers and their trainers. If dancers and trainers understood that evidence supports the use of both aerobic exercise and strength training as effective methods of preventing injury, perhaps these types of activities can supplement dance regimens.

Modern dancers may rely…… [read more]

Ethical Effects of Steroids in Baseball Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … baseball policy and federal law in the United States of America have been violated by especially by players in Major League Baseball who have been for a long time involved in the wide spread of illegal anabolic steroids and other types of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). During the evaluation of players, it has always been a routine by… [read more]

Washington Park on Sunday, April 3rd Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (817 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Washington Park on Sunday, April 3rd in the afternoon from 2:00-3:00. I know this park only from driving past it, but have never spent time there. When I first arrived I wasn't sure where to sit to conduct my observations. The park is big and includes athletic fields, tennis courts, walking paths, a pond, a playground and several open fields. I decided to sit on a bench where I had a good view of several of these areas. The park is very popular and is located in the center of the city. Homes around the park are generally large and look expensive.

The majority of people who came past me on the bench were pushing a baby stroller, walking a dog, or riding a bike. There were also some people running, and most of those people had an I-pod attached to their body and earphones in their ears. Several small groups of women pushing strollers walked past, and many of them were in animated conversation. There were also a lot of kids of all ages, usually traveling in groups, sometimes laughing. I didn't see anyone I knew.

Most of the people I saw were white and appeared reasonably healthy. I didn't see anybody in a wheelchair or with any other obvious disability, except for one woman with her arm in a sling. The park was quite crowded on the day I was there. It was sunny and warm for an early spring day and since it was a weekend day, everyone seemed to be in the park.

There were three other benches within sight of where I stationed myself. Two of those benches remained empty the entire time I sat there, but one bench had a man and a woman sitting there, arguing. They arrived shortly after I did and were still there when I left. They were arguing intensely, and the woman looked like she might cry.

I could also see sports fields from where I sat. On one field, a guy was throwing a ball for his dog who ran and fetched the ball and brought it back each time. They stayed for about 30 minutes. On another field, a group of people were doing situps and pushups. They looked like they were part of an organized exercise group, although it was difficult to see from where I was sitting. On the other field was a soccer game. It looked like adult men playing…… [read more]

Gaining Weight: How to Properly Gain 25-35 Lbs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Gaining Weight (25-35lbs)

How to Properly Gain Weight (25-35 lbs)

A high school junior weighing 200 pounds and is 6'8" tall has coming looking for workout and meal plans to help him gain between 25 and 35 pounds safely and properly. He needs to gain the weight in order to be considered for a college scholarship and has been advised by the recruiter he needs to bulk up in order to be college prospect.

A weight gain program consisting of proper diet and strength training will be set to ensure the gain is done safely, that all nutritional requirements are being met, and that the young man is building muscle instead of gaining fat. Workout schedules along with a list of recommended exercises plus meal and snack schedules for weight gain and weight training will be provided.

To properly gain weight and build muscle, a strict dietary plan, in addition to a well balanced workout schedule, is essential to guarantee success without the risk of injury or ailments. Consumption of certain food groups ensures that muscle is built while eliminating weight gain through fat. Proteins and carbohydrates are essential in building muscle mass and promoting the growth and strength of the muscles. Eating three square meals a day is not enough and eating too much protein at one time will can the person to become lethargic. In the weight lifting field, it is recommended that 3 meals and 3 snacks be consumed. (Coaching Association of Canada, You Need Extra…Section) This will ensure the nutrients are being distributed properly and not building up as unwanted fat.

Training for strength and muscle gain must be done carefully and correct techniques performed to guarantee muscle is getting the optimal workout possible. Muscle weighs more than fat so the more muscle built means the more weight is gained. Adequate rest and recovery time plus getting adequate sleep helps the athlete gain muscle and promotes the best way to protect muscles from over exertion or strain. Muscle gain is slow and on average only 10 pounds of muscle can be gained in a year's time depending on the age of the athlete. (Coaching Association of Canada, How AreYou…Section) The workout to be proposed in this paper will be geared toward basketball players and exercises that promote strength and flexibility.

Meal Recommendations and Schedule:

The diet is one of the key ingredients in building muscle mass and promoting weight gain. Meals containing high energy, nutrient-dense foods are highly recommended and foods like soups and salads should be eaten last and in moderation. (Coaching Association of Canada, High Energy…Section) Calorie intakes must be increased to supplement the calories burned during the workout and to provide fuel to the muscle. One rule to "bulking up" is to increase protein intake to 1.5 grams per pound of bodyweight. (Riveria, Bulking Up Basic #1 Section) A 200 pound athlete needs about 300 grams of protein a day and should spread it out over the 3 meals and 3… [read more]

World Cup Unifying the Globe Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



World Cup: Unifying the Globe

In almost every country of the world, the way that the national pastime is played is seen as a guide to national character and identity. For nearly 100 years, soccer has united a divided world. Soccer was invented in England in the mid-19th century, and rapidly spread to Europe and South America. Soccer's world… [read more]

President Kennedy's Contribution to Physical Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


President Kennedy's Contribution To Physical Education

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, we have felt that there was a close relationship between a strong, vital mind and physiological fitness.

-John F. Kennedy (Gatterman 2007)

Through example, President John F. Kennedy led the nation in the awareness of the need for physical fitness reform and was the reason for the… [read more]

Sports Marketing History Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Sports Marketing History

There have been many important instances in the modern era in the sports world that have shaped the industry of sports marketing to a huge degree. Athletes in certain sports -- especially boxing and, centuries prior to that, jousting/sword fighting -- had long been popular, built was not until mass media and massive sports leagues formed that modern sports marketing could have evolved. Without a doubt, one of the most important events in the history of sports that created the need for modern sports marketing was the beginning of the modern Olympics at the very end of the nineteenth century. This was the first major international sporting event, combining multiple sports, athletes of both genders, and by 1912 athletes from every populated continent -- and of course the number of participating nations has only grown since (TOM 2007). These games helped to capture the world's attentions in relation to team competitive sports from all over, and solidified athleticism as a marketable trait.

Even before this, however, the invention of baseball cards in the 1860s could probably be suggested as the start of modern sentiments in sports marketing. The first commercially sold baseball cards were used to advertise other products, and of course were only really useful locally as only locals would know the players and teams depicted, and the products were generally sold at retail stores visited in-person (Ccyleback 2010). It is important to note what enabled the very production of baseball cards in the first place, too: the camera. It was the ability to take photographs that made sports figures truly memorable and suddenly collectible as a commodity, rather than simply worshipped from afar (Cycleback 2010).

This shows how important technology was in the development of sports marketing, and this trend only increased as the twentieth century got under way. Radio was actually in existence in a limited way during the first Olympics, but results from these games would have been carried by telegraph wire and even by land and sea shipping to other countries; it was not until the 1920s when radio station WWJ in Detroit broadcast first the fight between Jack Dempsey and Billy Miske and subsequently the World Series in baseball that radio truly demonstrated its power in the sports marketing world (Covil 2010). The invention of radio, and ultimately its use as a sports broadcasting tool in 1920, serve as one of the most pivotal and influential moments in the history of sports marketing, pointing its trajectory towards today's industry.

The next obvious milestone after radio is, of course, the advent of television in the broadcasting of sports. This brought together the elements of the photograph and the radio, enabling the live following of sports and the actual seeing and identification of…… [read more]

Behavioral Change Contract Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Cardio Workout Plan

Changes in heath behavior are predicated by the desire and the will to assume encompassing changes in lifestyle. It is my intention to make such a change according to the following health plan. This will center on the development of a cardiovascular workout as a way of achieving muscle growth. The commitment and follow-through necessary for such a program requires a carefully delineated plan.

Results of Wellness Assessment:

This plan is preceded a wellness assessment. Here, I would remark that I am in fair condition though I have not always been as active as I like to be. Additionally, I am prone to consuming junk food and engaging in sedentary activities. Though I feel health and am young, I intend to establish an exercise program that can help me maintain this health and vitality as I age.

Seven Steps for Successful Change:

Understand the Culture:

Before developing a cardio program that is appropriate to my needs, I would first immerse myself into the literature relating to cardio workout culture. It is appropriate to learn from the experts and perhaps even consult physical therapists, trainers and/or physicians before making all of my decisions. The preliminary effort is served by the following literature review.

Get the Facts:

Based on my research, the exercise around which I intend to center my program is the 'mountain climber.' This will be supplemented by an array of other activities. However, based on the findings produced by Waehner (2010), this seems appropriate as a focal exercise. Waehner indicates that "mountain climbers are an advanced, high intensity exercise that will get your heart rate up and add intensity to your workouts. This move will also build leg endurance and help you work on agility as well, making it a great overall exercise." (Waehner, 1)

This strikes me as an exercise that is both rigorous and enjoyable. To my perspective, being able to remain on a regimented course of exercise is not simply factored on one's discipline. As the research reinforces, this alone will not always be encouragement to remains committed to a program. According to ShapeFit (2010), one's engagement in the process has a great deal to do with one's ability to enjoy the selected activities. Therefore, ShapeFit reports that "the best cardio exercise is simply the one you will do day in and day out consistently. Choose one which you enjoy doing and don't be afraid to mix the exercises up." (p. 1)

This is an important point of consideration when designed one's regiment. In addition to being realistic, one should aspire to ultimately love those activities in which one participates. This assures a true and longterm transformation in one's lifestyle. This idea is further reinforced by the notion that one should be realistic about the way one approaches a new exercise program. As Ranieri (2001) reports, goals must be set according to an ambitious but achievable goal. Ranieri takes this from the perspective of advising a physical trainer on providing a reasonable client… [read more]

Are College Scholarship Athletes Really Amateurs? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


College Sports as Amateur Athletics: A Critical Analysis

The term amateur in college athletics seems to no longer be applicable. Without a doubt, the college sports arena has become a spectacle of its own, allowing players to become overnight celebrities and guaranteeing their positions as future professional players There have been some subtle and not-so-subtle changes to how sports are… [read more]

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