"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays

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Sports, Race and Social Issues Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is clear that football is of great significance to the community of Odessa, it brings out in them both the good and the bad. It unites them, but at the same time in a broader sense it separates them. Football appears to make time stand still for them; it allows them to live in the past while ignoring the cultural modernizations that other parts of America have undergone. It appears that through football the community members of Odessa have been able to create a form of oppressive hierarchy that mainly benefits the established powerful members of the football community. The powerful and infamous in this community are the most privileged and revered and also the most rewarded, while the poor and the unknowns are at a disadvantage. Football legends like Shawn Crow are worshiped at events like the watermelon feed. The football coach Gary Gaines holds an exceptionally powerful position. He can determine a player's future by playing him or sitting him. Although he goes through a lot of stress and anguish he benefits greatly from his position. He does not teach, he only coaches and he makes more money than teachers with Master's degrees do. The vulnerable and feeble in this hierarchy are the players, specifically the minority players and the other minority members of the community. They are used, misguided, ostracized and in the end discarded by a system that views them as expendable and only valuable for their physical abilities which can be taken away in an instant.

The minority players are robbed of a future because the institution does not emphasize education and their future, they only emphasize the football season. This blinds them, and makes them believe that they have no future outside of football. The other members of the community observe this, and it furthers the harmful and slave-era stereotype that claims that blacks have no other talents that are not of a physical nature. Football in this community allows them to live in the past while ignoring the future and the reality that people especially black can be more that just physical specimens.

Works Cited

Bissinger, H.G. Friday Night Lights: a Town, a Team, and a Dream. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Da Capo, 2000.…… [read more]


Establishment of Blood Screening Protocols Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (2,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

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" (Fallon, ) However, more recent evidence is stated by Fallon to call this conclusion into question as Hinton et al. In reports a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, that investigated the effect of iron supplementation in 42 iron-depleted nonanemic women. Findings of the study state that five male athletes were identified in which "screening abnormalities were associated with illness or other… [read more]


Sport Event Audit Assessment

Assessment  |  8 pages (2,062 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Sports Audit

Sports Event Audit: A Baseball Game at Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, PA

Attendance of a sporting event carries with it certain expectations. The attendees recognize that they cannot be guaranteed the victory for the team which they support, but a host of compensatory guarantees are expected with regard to the experience. As the discussion here proceeds, it… [read more]


Sports Marketing Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Sports Marketing

Evaluating the Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers

For Sport and Non-Sport Brands

In the peer-reviewed article "To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go: The Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands" the authors cite and through empirically-derived research, clarify analysis of the fit between products and celebrity vs. non-celebrity endorsers. The first study is based on the hypothesis that a sport celebrity will be more effective promoting a sport brand, with the majority of benefit being to the celebrities image and name awareness. The second study matched an anonymous model that is identified as an athlete with a sport and non-sport brand. In this second test, the anonymous model that is positioned as an athlete is more effective promoting sports over non-sport brands (Koernig, Boyd, 25, 26).

Assessing the Effectiveness of Sports Celebrity Endorsements

From the $90 million in contracts LeBron James signed with Nike and Upper Deck before even entering the NBA to the $105 million Tiger Woods received from Buick alone, celebrity endorsements have been shown to gain and hold consumer attention, enhance message recall and increase the credibility of ad and product messages (Koernig, Boyd, 27). With the current economic conditions forcing many companies to re-evaluate these large endorsement deals with athletes, there has been new focus on the "match-up hypothesis" of pairing athletes from a given sport with brands from theirs and related sports vs. brands unrelated to sports at all. The authors contend that balance theory (Koernig, Boyd, 27) between the endorser, the brand and the target audience all must be in alignment for the endorsement strategy to be effective.…… [read more]


Project Proposal Exercise Pros and Cons Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … represented by the psychological mechanisms which lead some people to exercise on a regular basis as well as by the reasons which keep others away from sports and physical activity.

The purpose of the paper is to understand who are the people who get engaged in physical activities and sports. The goal is to comprehend why the same activity (or better said life style) is loved by some and hated by others. In addition, I would like to understand what are the psychological effects of sports upon people and the psychological factors which can actually impact sport performances. As far as the poeple who hate sports are concerned, the research wishes to see if there are such elements which could motivate them to do more physical activity. As far as athletes are concerned, the paper is focused on understanding what are the stimuli which lead them to surpass their physical limits and reach outstanding performances.

Background: The already existing research in the area claims that physical exercise has a positive impact upon people -from both a physical and psychological point-of-view. It is also known that performing sports in outdoor contexts, especially in the middle of natural environments supports the state of well being. As far as the intensity of the physical activity required reaching this state, this is moderate. At this point it becomes clear why some people choose to practice sports.

Scope: The argument is wide, but the main part of the research will focus exclusively upon the pros and cons that people have in mind when they have to take up a life style which includes physical exercise.

Theoretical framework: the paper will use the theories according to which physical exercise is good for the mind and the body and those which argue that taking up and practicing sports are actions based on education and expectations. The creation of expectations in people through communication campaigns (which fundamentally try to sell one thing or another) is one of the elements that the research will…… [read more]


Race and Gender in Sports Influence of Family Dynamics and Getting a College Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Sports, Race, And Gender

Sports

Sports, race, gender and sociology

Sports, race, gender and sociology

"The 10,000-hour rule has become a cliche. This is the idea, first espoused by K. Anders Ericsson, a psychologist at Florida State University, that it takes about 10,000 hours of practice before any individual can become an expert. The corollary of this rule is that…differences… [read more]


Gym-Based Exercise Session Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Exercise Session Review

Record of Potential Risks or Hazards Encountered Prior to Session

Prior to the start of the exercise session, I conducted a survey of the facility areas that we would be using to identify any potential dangers and eliminate them. In that regard, I removed various pieces of debris including tissues from the floor, empty cups on the rowing machine, and a burst exercise ball. There was also a poster on the floor and a set of jump ropes on the rowing machine; I put the poster back up on the wall and hung the jump rope in an appropriate place out of our way. Finally, I collected several loose weights that had been left on the exercise floor and replaced them because they were an obvious safety hazard.

Corrections Made with Regard to Correct and Safe Use of Equipment

Before beginning lat pull-downs, I conducted a routine safety inspection of the apparatus and noticed that the straight bar attached to it had worn dangerously thin at the point where the bar clips to the cable via a hole for the clip. Instead of the usual uniform thickness, the upper part had worn down to only a few millimeters in thickness from wear and tear. Knowing that it would only be a matter of time before the remaining metal failed under stress, I replace that bar with another one and brought the worn bar to the gym manager's office and pointed out the problem.

During the pull-down exercise, my client needed correction in several respects. First, she was sitting too far backwards so I explained that she needed to sit all the way forward on the pad. That also solved the problem of her hunching her upper back on the downward pull and allowed her to maintain the proper position with her chest directly underneath the bottom position of the…… [read more]


Gym Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Physical Fitness -- One-Hour Gym Workout

Overview of Session Plan and General Resistance Training Principles

The client has expressed the desire to focus on developing her leg strength, stamina, and on increasing her general muscle tone. She will be working on her upper body and core but emphasizing lower body exercises in connection with her desire to develop her leg strength; she will be running and supplementing her running with lower-impact aerobic workouts on elliptical machines and recumbent bikes to reduce the anatomical stresses caused by running, particularly with regard to her anterior tibial compartment syndrome (ATCS). She will supplement those elements of her fitness routine with some upper body resistance training as well.

Generally, she will be performing multiple series of resistance exercises in a logical anatomical and physiological order. Her target repetition range for most of her resistance training will vary between 10 and 20 repetitions. Her target repetition range for specific movements in which strength increase is desired will (eventually) include sets of 6, and sometimes 4 repetitions; at this stage, she will not use weights heavier than those that permit at least 8 repetitions. All resistance training sets will increase in resistance until the maximum level that still permits the lowest targeted number of repetitions.

Thereafter, the resistance will gradually decrease until the first weight that permits 15 repetitions. This "pyramid" approach to resistance training will apply throughout the program although movements requiring strength development will eliminate the down side of the pyramid, leaving off after the heaviest set (or performing only 1 or 2 sets at moderate resistance in lieu of a full pyramid). She has been counseled with regard to the importance of dietary changes to improve body composition through a combined effort to…… [read more]


Evolution of Extreme Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Evolution of Extreme Sports

Extreme sports have been around for hundreds of years, though the definition of such activities has changed as people's ideas, goals, and the technology surrounding sports have evolved. For some, these sports were personal challenges meant to test their own strength and perseverance. In more modern times, the commercialization and glorification of these sports… [read more]


Community Sports Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Community Sports Development

What did you understand by the term Community Sports Development? And how does it differ from traditional sports development?

Generally, community sports development conceives of sports as a means to a much larger end or set of ends within the community beyond the realm of sport. Those ends may pertain to community development or to the betterment of individuals who participate in or otherwise benefit from their association with sports activities. Community sports development can be directed to assist specific groups (such as single mothers or the unemployed or underprivileged) and to further community goals (such as positive community relations in particular geographic areas or among and between various groups of people). In the largest sense, community sports development can be directed toward promotion of governmental policies and objectives, as well, such as the generation of revenue or positive public relations and publicity.

Traditional sport development represents the polar opposite of community sports development. In principle, traditional sport development is designed with a much narrower focus, such as either on (1) specifically promoting the development of the individual as a competitor in a sport, or (2) promoting the elevation of a particular sports organization or interest. The primary difference in that regard is that community sports development approaches sports as a means to a larger end whereas traditional sport development is virtually unconcerned with any objectives beyond performance of individuals and organizations in specific sports endeavours.

Provide an example of a Community Sports project of Initiative in Northern…… [read more]


Sport as a Medium Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (509 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Sport as a Medium

Underprivileged individuals have always had difficulties integrating and poverty is among the main reasons for which some were not able to have access to sport. Poverty has a series of damaging effects in the individual, as he or she is neglected in several instances, ranging from the political assistance they receive to their social status.

Some of the factors responsible for excluding people from sport are: access, gender, location, facilities, and age. While numerous individuals prefer to compare themselves to some of the most privileged when considering their social statue, they should focus on comparing themselves to people who live reasonably and who do not excel in any particular way. Poverty becomes aggravating when the next-door individuals are wealthier and can manage to pay for more.

It is difficult for the masses to understand the concept of poverty because they concentrate on the extremes. Poverty is also the cause for which a large number of people have little to no access to leisure activities.

Sport development programs have turned their attention towards making it easier for poor individuals to have access to sports. People leading these programs have gone at gaining a better understanding of exclusion, so as to be able to devise ways of encouraging inclusion. By denying certain individuals the right to get involved in sports, England indirectly lessened the chances it had to produce sports elite.

The presentation of the "Sports for All" program in the 1970s contributed to promoting the belief that everyone was equally entitled…… [read more]


Evolution of Sports Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Evolution of Sports

Sport does not only serve as an instrument meant to provide individuals with leisure, entertainment, and a healthy physical shape. At certain moments in time, people saw the opportunity to use sport with the purpose of drawing supporters, given the fact that the masses are well aware of the benefits brought by sport in general. England appeared to be directing its attention towards matters other than sports in the 1970s, especially with the election of Margret Thatcher as British Prime Minister in 1975. In spite of the fact that the British Empire is mainly interested in promoting elite sports, sport has come to be a central activity for the people in it.

England has kept a tradition in displaying reluctance in investing funds in sport oriented programs that do not involve elite sports. The second half of the twentieth century appeared to bring little changes in its first decades, considering that the Conservatives dominated the political scene.

English leaders virtually preferred to invest into programs that would generate finances faster and considered that sport was not among them. However, the public's influence grew and people started to show unwillingness to accept that sport was not a priority for their government. Despite being continuously under attack by government programs, sport development experienced a constant growth in the 80s and 90s.

All across the first two decades of the second half of the twentieth century English citizens believed that it was their government's job to provide them with improved living standards. Even with the fact that the public was particularly…… [read more]


Sport Medicine Clinic Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  6 pages (1,892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy

Sports Medicine Clinic

This is a plan to develop, open, and operate a sports medicine clinic in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the Scranton Sports Medicine Clinic, serving the Scranton region with "urgent care" for sports medicine injuries, outpatient surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

Market Opportunity

The population of Scranton is estimated at about 72,485 (Scranton, Pennsylvania, n.d.).… [read more]


Sports Management. I Learned About Sports Purely Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … sports management.

I learned about sports purely from a spectator's perspective. Although I also love to play a variety of sports, I found myself increasingly drawn towards the business aspects of games whether that be NHL hockey or MLB baseball. Sports management also appeals to me because it allows me to combine by business acumen with my greatest passion in life.

The importance of sports marketing to the overall success of a professional sports organization as well as to athletic excellence.

Key Points

Merchandising

Although the economic recession has adversely impacted the willingness of some sports organizations to take risks and invest in new merchandising opportunities, merchandising remains an important aspect of the marketing mix. Sports merchandising can be viewed within the overall context of advertising and promotions, given that team and league products create brand awareness and encourage team spirit. Merchandising is a major part of an organization's marketing portfolio, as it allows sports organizations to renew their image and have control over branding. Moreover, this aspect of sports management blends with careers in the retail sector.

Reference: Schlossberg, Howard. Sports Marketing. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. This book provides a good reference point for understanding how merchandising fits into a sports organization's overall business model.

2. Sponsorships (of athletes, teams, and venues)

Sports sponsorships grew sizably during the 1980s. Corporate sponsorships of teams, special sports events, and individual athletes has been a great boon to the business of professional sports. With corporate sponsorship, many athletes and teams have the opportunity to expand and improve the caliber of game play. Wooing companies for sponsorship contracts has therefore become one of the most important jobs for any…… [read more]


Everyday Statistics in Sports Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Statistics in Sports

"Statistics never lie"

Sports enthusiasts (as cited in Camillo, 2008, ¶1).

Statistical Studies of Sports

Each day, a number of Americans, seemingly mesmerized with sports data collections, read newspaper accounts relating raw and summary data about a variety of sports., Donald Guthrie explains in "Introduction to the miscellaneous sports articles" that: "Statistical studies of sports seem to fall into three categories" (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267). These categories include:

Analysis of rules and strategies;

Analysis of extent participation. (Guthrie as cited in Albert, Bennett, & Cochran, 2005, p. 267)

In the book Anthology of statistics in sports, Jim Albert, professor of mathematics and statistics at Bowling Green State University, Jay Bennett, Principal Scientist with Telcordia Technologies; active in the ASA Section of Statistics in Sports, and James J. Cochran (2005), Assistant Professor Department of Marketing and Analysis at Louisiana State University, investigate the use of statistics to analyze sports. The authors stress that researchers who collect and interpret data do not always limit their studies to only include the major sports such as baseball, basketball, football (soccer to Americans), and hockey. Some have even studied statistics for the game of darts, for instance. During this paper, the researcher examines three studies relating to everyday statistics in sports; noting the method of each study and identifying the independent variables and the dependent variables for the study. The researcher also reflects on the quality of the research processes each study utilized and proffers suggestions for research improvements. For the current paper, the researcher focuses on statistics relating to rugby (one study) and basketball (two studies)

Study I

In the study, "Differences in game statistics between winning and losing rugby teams in the six nations tournament," Enrique Orgega, Diego Villarego, and Jose M. Palao (2009) report results of the study they conducted using observational methods. During the study, Orgega, Villarego and Palao used "univariate (t-test) and multivariate (discriminant) analysis of data… [to analyze] the differences in rugby game statistics between winning and losing teams…[; to evaluate] the data from 58 games of round robin play from the Six Nations tournament from the 2003-2006 seasons…" (Abstract Section). The groups of variables included the and number of points the teams scored, how the teams scored the points, the way the teams acquired the ball, and how the teams implemented tactical and technical aspects of the game. Statistical analysis for Study I included:

First, a descriptive analysis of the data was done. Second, a Mann-Whitney U (non-parametric) was carried out with the goal of analyzing the differences between winning and losing teams. Finally, a discriminant analysis… was done to find those statistical variables that best differentiate winning and losing teams. Structural Coefficients (SC) greater than or equal to |.30| & #8230; were considered relevant for the interpretation of the linear vectors. All of the statistical analyses were done with a level of significance of p < 0.05. (Orgega, Villarego & Palao, 2009, Statistical analysis Section,… [read more]


Legal Issues and Legal Structure of Starting My Own Gym Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Legal Issues and Legal Structure of Starting and Operating Anyname Fitness Center, LP

There are some interesting dynamics at work in determining the feasibility of creating any new enterprise in the current economic climate, but these issues are particularly pronounced as they relate to the establishment of a public gymnasium or other fitness-related business. On the one hand, fitness awareness… [read more]


Sports Charity Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (555 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Public Motives for Participation in Charity Sporting Events

The article by Bennett et al. (2007) provides a report on the motives driving Britons to participation in mass charity sporting events. The article claims this to be a leading method of charity fund-raising, identifies the motives which encourage public engagement of such charities and distinguishes the motives of 'serious-minded' individuals which also engage these charities.

A study conducted in 2007 by Bennett et al. seeks to examine the motives which encourage public participation in mass charity sporting events. Proceeding from the observation that there are hundreds of annual opportunities for participation in such events, the article is designed to provide those who sponsor such events with some insight into how best to court potential participants. Entitled "Motivations for Participating in Charity-Affiliated Sporting Events," this would be published in the Journal of Customer Behaviour and offers charity sporting event planners both endorsement and insight for improvement.

A Summary:

The article provides an exhaustive discussion on various motives driving members of the general public to engage in such events as the 10k, the 5k, the fun run or the walkathon. A first point which the article makes as a rationale for the study undertaken is that these events have proven to be generally effective in raising money and awareness for such causes as public health issues. Indeed, the article indicates that this has become a favored method of including the public in efforts to address conditions such as breast cancer, autism and multiple sclerosis and in broader efforts to eliminate obesity and encourage physical activeness.

The article follows this point with an examination of the major motives driving members of…… [read more]


Sports Administration Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,144 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Sports Administration -- Sports Teams: Private or Public Administration?

The general perception is that sports is a field for the highly athletic elites, the people who then move on to representing the countries in international sports events, to keep the audience in awe and tension, and to bring them from agony to ecstasy. Yet, what is often overlooked is that, just like any other formation, the sports teams function in accordance to pre-established goals and plans; gather money and spend money. From this standpoint then, they ought to be run as private institutions, in charge of their funds and able to administer their resources as they see fit. On the other hand however, the sports teams are part of the national heritage and they represent the country. From this angle then, they ought to fall under the patrimony of the state.

The matter of how should states and private players go about in best administering the sports teams is a long standing question, which has captured the attention of various writers. Two noteworthy editors are Mark Rosentraub and David Swindell, who, in 2009, wrote the comprehensive article Of Devil and Details: Bargaining for Successful Public / Private Partnership between Cities and Sports Teams. The article featured in the 33rd volume of the Public Administration Quarterly; it can also be found online at two websites, namely the Southern Public Administration Education Foundation (http://www.spaef.com) and the Questia virtual library (http://www.questia.com), both of which require subscriptions.

2. Article Summary

The article commences by revealing several instances in which the states have poured a lot of money into the building of facilities to be used by sports teams, the most relevant example in this sense being the construction of sports fields and stadiums. Rosentraub and Swindell find that sports teams are often a product of entertainment, but explain that states gain from investing in them both financially, as well as non-financially. While the financial gains can easily be put down, fact remains that the non-financial benefits are tremendous and the state is worth investing in sports even only for the non-financial gains.

The benefits can be even further enhanced if a respective city becomes the home of a professional sports team. In order to capitalize on the advantages of such a situation, the state officials are presented with the single opportunity of closing an agreement with the team to share costs of administration. In signing such a contract however, state representatives must pay attention to the safeguarding of the interests of the citizens; that there are no hidden costs and that all information is clearly stipulated.

Throughout the years, the partnerships between private and public institutions in the administration of spots teams has evolved, and evidence in this sense stands the more extensive contracts. Today, whenever the city hall wishes to invest in a sports team, they can close an agreement by signing a standard contract, to which they may add the very clauses of the respective understanding. Since the agreements of the contract… [read more]


Equine Sports Medicine Polo Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,807 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Equine Sports Medicine

Polo is one of the sports that rely heavily upon horses. The sport has developed from ancient times, and is growing in popularity in the United States, as well as other Western countries. According to Paul Wollenman, 40% of polo ponies in the United States are Argentine Thoroughbreds, while 60% are American. Polo players require more than… [read more]


Community Sports Center Director Has Asked Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (704 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … community sports center director has asked the committee to develop a research design for considering the possibility of adding two new sports to the programming agenda: archery and fencing. This paper presents the results of that effort.

Both of the considered sports have characteristics which place them outside of the mainstream of general community sports programming. They are considered to be elite sports, requiring years of skill formulation and practice. They imply some danger and incur some costs, both of which can serve as initial barriers to participation. However, due to their skill development, confidence-building, and conditioning benefits, both sports have positive impacts on self-esteem, which studies have shown is linked to more committed ongoing sports participation (Bowker, 2006).

Archery. Archery is considered to be a sport of high skill requirement. This is the key factor which the committee believes is necessary for study to determine the program offering's viability. The research question proposed is as follows:

Q1: How is the perception of a sport's difficulty related to the willingness of participants to engage in the sport?

The Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis are, as follows:

H21:

Holding a higher perception of a sport's difficulty level is more likely to lead to a participant being less willingness to engage in that sport.

H20:

There is no significant relationship between having a higher perception of a sport's difficulty level and having a lower willingness to participate.

The key consideration here will be the level of physical difficulty in terms of precision, strength, hand-eye coordination, and the like. These will be the variables utilized to study this question.

Fencing. Due to its long history as a cultured, elite sport, fencing can be been seen to have high entry costs in the form of equipment requirements and, especially, psychological barriers to participation among potential enthusiasts. In order to determine whether the sport is a viable option, therefore, the committee has determined that the social-psychological barrier to participation as a concern is the primary issue which must be resolved in order for support for the sport to be solidified. The research question which the committee…… [read more]


Sports as Common Sense Ethics Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Boswell points out, sports are about the "commonsense ethics of everyday life." Both within and between teams, ethical issues are raised on the field. Individual athletes confront ethical questions as well. Although everyday life is not a sporting event, sporting events do illustrate ethical conundrums and their solutions.

The simple act of winning or losing raises questions about right and wrong. Ethical behaviors are played out on the field, in the locker room, and in the media. The extent to which athletes go to win is one of the most obvious ethical problems in sports, as well as in everyday life. Cheating occurs in everyday life as well as in sports. For example, how far a person will go to achieve a promotion or to make more money off a sale is the same ethical issue as how far an athlete will go to win a game. A player on a team might choose to withhold information about a health problem in order not to be benched, which could cost the team a win. This is clearly an ethical choice that would be played out equally in…… [read more]


Most Significant Social Impact in Sports Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … twentieth century, sports remained a predominantly localized activity. Even the ancient Greek Olympics did not draw players or fans from around the globe, only within the Aegean region. Globalization, urbanization, and new forms of communication and transportation have changed everything about sports.

Globalization has transformed the nature of team spirit itself, helping to erase cultural and national boundaries in sports. Especially evident in American baseball and in international soccer, globalization has created teams and fan bases that are comprised of diverse people. Those teams and their fans buy into a manufactured identity, one that can be traced to the same basic marketing principles used in branding. Teams are branded products. In this way, teams have become commodified entities not unlike the sporting gear and alcoholic beverages peddled at sporting events.

Marketing has also expanded the target market for sports. Once a primarily male pastime, spectator sports are now enjoyed by scores of female viewers. Females, like males, watch sports with primarily male participants, too. Globalization and its aftereffects are directly responsible for reaching out to new and untapped fan bases. Marketing tactics such as…… [read more]


Sports Marketing on November 24, 2009 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,451 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Sports Marketing

On November 24, 2009, the Vancouver Whitecaps announced the hiring of Tottenham Hotspur executive Paul Barber to run their new franchise in Major League Soccer (MLS) (Walker, 2009). The move from the world's 11th most valuable football club to a club that is set to make a move to what is only the fifth-largest pro-sports league in America… [read more]


Exercise Philosophy When Rio Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,367 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

If one was to apply the principles of Adams, Keele and Schmidt, a new training and physical education program would incorporate the short-term benefits of practicing, visualization and build in more long-term benefits like specific practice strategies. For example, if new soccer players desiring to reach the skill set of a Pele wanted to learn three new soccer skills such… [read more]


Relationship Between Success in Major Sports and Alumni Donations Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,459 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … Sports and Alumni Donations

Increasing Student Applicants and Alumni Donations Through Facilitation of Successful Sports Programs

Alumni donations are a huge piece of the puzzle when it comes to funding college life. When exploring this concept, there is a natural question which arises within the minds of college administrators: how are alumni donations increased? There are several methodologies… [read more]


Coaches Referee and Sports Commentator Then Digital vs. Film Camera Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Coaches, Referees & Sports Commentator & Digital vs. Film Cameras

Coaches, Referees & Sports Commentators & Digital vs. Film Cameras

Coaches, Referees, & Sports Commentators:

It's a common dream for children to want to grow up to be an athlete. They spend hours thinking about what it would be like to have their face on a baseball card, or get a Super Bowl ring, or sign a multi-million dollar shoe deal with Nike. The reality is most kids will never realize that dream. It takes years of practice and an innate talent to get to the level of professional athlete, which simply isn't realistic for most kids. Even though the chances of employment as a professional athlete are slim, there are other opportunities in the sports industry, such as: coach, referee or a sports commentator.

Athletic coaches are the key to any successful team. They fulfill a variety of tasks that often determine whether or not their team will have a winning or losing season. One of these tasks is the evaluation of players for their team. Not only do coaches need to decide if a player is talented enough to play, but also that their particularly skill set and personality are going to be a good fit with the existing team members. Once they have their roster of players decided upon, coaches must then organize their teams and assign positions. Of course, in addition to these organizational aspects, coaches are also responsible for ensuring their team members are receiving instruction and practice in order to improve both their skills and their overall physical condition. These responsibilities differ greatly from that of referees.

Although much of a coach's job happens before the game, referees' primary responsibilities lie during actual game play. Referees are charged with observing every play in the game. They work hard to detect infractions in the rules. When an infraction is noticed, it is also the referee's responsibility to impose any penalties on the player or team. Where coaches and referees are directly involved in interaction with the team, sports commentators are on the outside looking in, but still offer another opportunity to be involved in sports as a profession.

The primary skill needed for a sports commentator is good articulation. A sports commentator's primary duty is the description of the events during the game, as they are happening. This verbal description not only informs the audience about what is going on, but also provides analysis of the events -- not only what has happened but the why and the how as well. In addition to commentating on current events as they are happening during the game, sports commentators also give background information to the audience on: the sport, players, coaches, history, teams, and any other factors related to the game.

Competition for professional athletes continues to be extremely intense; however, opportunities to make a living as a professional in coaching, refereeing, and sports commentator may provide more opportunities for those who want to be in sports… [read more]


Athletic Facilities Management Thesis

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Sports-High School

Athletic Facilities Management

The management of a football facility should always recognize that safety standards need to reflect a very safety oriented culture at the sports facility. A positive attitude should be demonstrated by the management while ensuring that safety policies are carried out effectively and willingly. Management also has a responsibility to take all necessary precautions to safeguard spectators against the effects of accidents in, or originating from, the activity during the game. Initially, the Management will have to make an assessment of how many spectators can be safely accommodated within the ground itself. This assessment is the most important step towards the achievement of reasonable safety (Health & Safety in Football Stadiums, 2009). Management also has the responsibility to ensure that all coaches carry out the legal duties that are expected of them as well.

There are certain legal duties that all athletic personnel are required to carry out in the carrying out of their daily activities. The first of these is a duty to plan. Athletic personnel must plan all activities and create a paper trail of all proper documentation (Kentucky Country Day School Coaches Handbook, n.d.). All things that are required to successfully run a football stadium must be planned out in advance and documented well.

Another legal duty that must be carried out is that of a duty to supervise. Coaches must directly supervise all activities that are associated with their team. This includes all activities in locker areas, practice sessions and waiting areas. The general rule is that they younger the child the greater the duty is to supervise (Kentucky Country Day School Coaches Handbook, n.d.). Generally students are considered invitees on school premises during school hours or at school-sponsored events. The legal precedent was set in the case of Curtis v. State of Ohio (1986). In this case it was determined by the court that due to the status of the students being invitees the safety obligations that are owed them are greater than normal (Maloy, 1993). These obligations extend to the idea of supervision in order to maintain safety.

The next legal duty that must be considered is that of the duty to provide safe playing facilities. All facilities must be inspected on a regular basis for hazards and all findings must be documented (Kentucky Country Day School Coaches Handbook, n.d.). A facility has an obligation to take reasonable precautions to keep spectators and users safe. The management of a facility has a safety obligation to inspect the premises on a regular basis for hazards. This includes the areas that the users will be in as well as the spectators. The inspection of the facility inspection should cover more than just structural or construction defects. It should consist of management inspection and reviewing its maintenance operations as well. The potential risk of injury from improper maintenance is greater than that from structural defects (Maloy, 1993).

Coaches have a legal duty to ensure that appropriate protective…… [read more]


Title IX: Negative Effect on Men's College Athletics Essay

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¶ … Boost for Women's Athletics but a Bane for Men's Athletics?

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." -- Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Although there… [read more]


Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications Thesis

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Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications

Because of the metatarsals' location, they are exposed to high stresses during many types of athletics, particularly those involving frequent jumping, pivoting, and repeated changes of direction. The metatarsals are susceptible to chronic stress-induced fractures from a combination of factors including foot anatomy, footwear, playing surface, specific maneuvers, previous injury to surrounding tissue, and more… [read more]


Sports Surfing and Other Underrated Sports Professional Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (574 words)
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Sports

SURFING and OTHER UNDERRATED SPORTS

Professional sports evolved tremendously in the United States during the 20th century. At the turn of the century, only Major League Baseball (MLB) existed even remotely in the same format into which it has developed a century later. Since then, American football, basketball, and ice hockey leagues assumed national prominence, together with other national sports like NASCAR, which actually originated during the Great Depression when illegal "rum runners" in the Southern states began modifying their cars to outrun the law enforcement authorities. Nevertheless, many other sports do not enjoy the same level of appreciation in the U.S. despite the fact that they are no less difficult and require comparable talent and dedication to pursue at a high level.

Discussion:

Surfing is typical of bona fide sports that are underappreciated in the U.S., along with soccer, wrestling, gymnastics, and lacrosse. Surfing requires swimming proficiency just to participate before even considering the tremendous skill and kinesthetic balance required just to successfully get up onto a surfboard, let alone to compete at a high level.

Soccer is the most popular team sport in the world but has not succeeded as a spectator sport in the U.S. despite several attempts at creating professional leagues. Wrestling and gymnastics are both commonly part of American high school curricula, but within the last two decades, dozens of colleges and universities, including some of the NCAA Division I schools that had previously featured national championship-level teams have cancelled their programs for budgetary reasons. Similarly, lacrosse is typically offered only at the high school and college level, but there is absolutely no opportunity for a professional career in the sport, even for the sport's top players, beyond the collegiate level.…… [read more]


Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,057 words)
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Personalized Health Plan

One health behavior change that I would want to make in my life is the incorporation of an exercise regime. While I realize that my time is limited, I also realize that I need to maintain an active healthy lifestyle in order to keep a balance in my life. From the class readings and my own experience I know that I think more clearly and have much more energy when I have a balanced program of exercise as well as diet. But for the most part I wish to concentrate on creating a moderate exercise routine and establish it. Currently I have no set program or routine that I follow or perform. My exercise is usually limited to some walking around campus or other areas. I currently do little or no aerobic exercise and no weight routine at all. This lack of physical exercise, while perhaps not critical now, will follow me through my life. I need to create the pattern of behavior now at this stage of my life in order to establish it in my life for the future. Furthermore, I am not alone, "...a recent survey indicated that 29% of college women and 21% of college men participate in no moderate or vigorous physical activities." (Donatelle, 2005, p.320)

The lack of proper exercise is associated with many health risks, these are both physical as well as mental in many cases. "More than 108 million Americans are overweight or obese, 65 million have high blood pressure, 7.2 million suffer a heart attack in any given year, 21 million have diabetes, and approximately 41 million have 'prediabetes." (Donatelle, 2005, p.321) a good established exercise regime has also been found to reduce overall stress and improve mood, decrease the risk of depression and anxiety, improve concentration, as well as increasing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. The lack of exercise has also been found to lead to a decrease in bone density and comorbid increase the likelihood of developing osteoporosis. Lack of exercise also makes for a lazy heart muscle and low metabolism and circulation. This can lead to the buildup of plaque on the arterial walls as well as the heart valves and increase the risk of heart attack as well as stroke.

The primary obstacle to this change is time. I certainly have the desire, the problem will be to create a routine that is healthy but not overly time consuming or strenuous so that I may not feel like doing it or fell that I have the time to do it. This can lead to a great start but make the routine difficult to establish. Balance is the key, I believe, balance with the right amount of exercise in the time that I can budget to it. By creating a schedule that lists my classes as well as work responsibilities, I can find the time to exercise as well as time off to simply enjoy myself. As I said balance is… [read more]


Sports Illustrated -- Lance Is Back Thesis

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Sports Illustrated -- Lance is Back

The word is out -- Lance Armstrong is coming out of retirement to ride once again in the Tour de France, the world's premier cycling challenge. The man who rose to the very peak of the cycling world, and retired at the top, is giving it another go. Armstrong announced his decision at the… [read more]


Sports in Our Lives: Outline and Draft Essay

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¶ … Sports in Our Lives: Outline and Draft

The reward of placing so high in the AA provincial soccer tournament was an experience I will never forget. Such an experience helped me gain more faith in myself and the world around; therefore representing the concept that sports such as soccer hold a valuable role in the creation of a self-sufficient and responsible character within individuals.

Experience of Placing 6th on AA provincial Soccer Tournament a. Although it was not first, the experience still made me proud of myself and my team.

Together as a team, we worked collaboratively to use the lessons and skills we trained so hard for, effectively creating a successful synergy within the team.

Therefore I left the tournament not with disappointment for not reaching first, but with the satisfaction that both myself and my team worked hard to perform the best we could perform.

Affect that experience had on me a. This experience helped me realize that success is not always a resulting of winning first place.

b. Success comes from hard work, persistence, and a satisfaction with one's performance.

c. This then taught me to have more faith in myself, and to use this new found confidence in my abilities in other walks of life.

IV. Reaching the conclusion of how extra curricular activities such as soccer can install a sense of values and a strong work ethic within the individual.

a. As proven by my own personal experience, the hard work involved with the necessary training and execution seen in sports, builds a sense of pride and understanding of good work ethic in individuals.

b. With this knowledge gained from organized sports, individuals can then bring those characteristics into other avenues of daily life.

c. If one approaches life with the strong demeanor demanded by many sports, one can enjoy that life based on the fact they have tried…… [read more]


Women in Sports Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,022 words)
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¶ … women in sports, how it is changing, and how women in sports have impacted our lives and society. Women have participated in sports for centuries, and yet, sports have historically featured men, especially in more modern professional sports settings. While women have made great strides into many professional and exhibition sports, they are still largely absent from the… [read more]


Sports Documentary Murderball Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,484 words)
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Sports Documentary "Murderball"

Murderball - More than a Sports Documentary About Disabilities

There are documentaries about war, about politics, about healthcare, history, crime and more. And then there are sports documentaries that rarely get much attention because they are usually about one particular team's winning season. "How the Yankees won the World Series" or something of that sort. But the… [read more]


Use of Steroids in Athletes Term Paper

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Steroids Among Athletes

Steroids are a class of prescribed drugs, used to treat abnormally low amounts of testosterone, body wasting in the case of AIDS and other disease conditions involving loss of body mass (National Institute of Drug Abuse 2006). Anabolic steroids contain hormones or hormone-like substances, used to boost strength and muscle growth (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence 1998).… [read more]


Effects of Music on Heart Rate Term Paper

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Music and Exercise

Today's busy life styles become hectic for many people. Tensions and anxieties haunt each one of us in our daily lives. This busy life style and its various problems put a lot of physical, psychological and even spiritual stress on all of us. Exercise is an activity considered good for human health while listening to music has its own positive effect on human mind and psyche but if both of these things are combined together then it can be considered a lethal combination. Different researches have been conducted to find the effect of music and exercises together.

Exercise & Music

Different training sessions involving cardio and resistance work, including a cool down and stretch sessions increasingly involve music in the whole process. Different exercises work all the body's muscles because of which the heart has to work harder to deliver oxygen to the muscles. Exercises involve a number of activities like jacks, squats, lunges, jumps and press-ups etc. And people have to do them regularly to maintain their desired physical activity. Aerobic exercises such as walking or running are also done along with other regular exercises or weight training. Some only prefer aerobic exercises while some make a combination. Doing exercises in isolation or maintaining them regularly is a difficult task as people get bored and loose their interest but involvement of music makes the whole process a fun-filled experience. It becomes frustrating having a workout without music for those who like to work out to a beat.

A variety of upbeat and popular music including disco and house music is generally used to perk up the exercises. Some people are using R&B and even hip hop depending on the likes and dislikes. Some use electronic keyboard music, some use soft music while some go for harps and flutes to create a relaxed and soulful ambience. The music is usually contagious and the moves become fantastic making the exercise a pleasurable and enjoyable experience.

Physiological Aspect

Normal exercise routines with music involve fast and energy requiring or calories burning movements. Flexibility, better movements, better posture are some of the benefits that a person can gain in short period of time. Experts suggest that a disciple inculcated by regular practices can help control and even lose body weight.

Effects on Heart Rate: Average heart rate is between 72-80 beats per minute and exercise activities together with music change this heart beat. Different researches have been conducted to find the effect of music on heart beats while exercising. The study of its effect becomes very important when it comes to the treatment of various heart conditions. Earlier researches were inconclusive with respect to the relation of music & exercise to cardiac activity. Some of the studies used Jazz music and found that respiration increases considerably while there is only a moderate effect on the heart beat and that to end as the music ends. Music tempos may range from 70 to 170 beats per minute and fast to slow… [read more]


Sports Management Women in Sports Management: Trends Term Paper

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Sports Management

Women in Sports Management: Trends and Implications

While some observers might suggest that there is still a "glass ceiling" in place in many industries that continues to restrict American women's ability to achieve upper management positions, the fact remains that there are more females in management positions in the United States today than ever before, and some of these women have achieved significant success in previously male-dominate fields (Watt, 2003). One field of particular interest today is sports management, where females are now making significant inroads on this once-primarily male occupation. According to one authority, these trends are fairly recent: "With the exception of a few athletes, women making a living in sports was never considered a career option a generation ago" (Feehan, 2006, p. 1). Furthermore, the trend is snowballing, at least in the professional sporting venues. As more and more women prove themselves in this challenging field, it is clear that the way will be cleared for still more female sports managers. For example, according to Feehan (2006), "The opportunities for women in sports management and marketing continue to grow as more women enter the field and find success" (p. 1). In fact, the theme of 10th annual Women in Sports Business symposium last year was "Fueling Opportunity: Women, Sports and the Bottom Line," suggesting that female sport managers represent an untapped resource that can help sports organizations improve their profitability (Feehan, 2006).

According to Watt (2003), though, despite the increased presence of women as sports managers in recent years, females still have a long way to go to achieve even a modest balance compared to their male counterparts, particularly in the upper echelons of the sports management hierarchy. "The role of women in sport, as in so many other societal situations, has been very mixed," he advises. "There has been a marked increase in the number of participants in recent years, but the importance of the role of women as top-level coaches and administrators has not always effectively increased to the same degree. Much of sport's hierarchy is still a male domain" (Watt, 2003, p. 31). In reality, there does appear to be a "glass ceiling" in place in some professional sporting venues, particularly those that have been traditionally considered "male" sports such as football. For example, Cunningham and Sagas (2004) point out that, "Sport was invented for men by men and is dominated by men" (p. 411).

Like so many other fields of endeavor, women occupying management positions in sports continues to lag far behind their male counterparts, even in the lower echelons of the management hierarchy. For instance, according to Watt, "There is no doubt that women have not been fully represented in sport in a variety of ways -- as participants, coaches or officials. Even in sports such as gymnastics, in which around 80 per cent of the participants are female, the top official positions have often been held by men" (Watt, 2003, p. 32). Females have also…… [read more]


Sports Pyschology Website Developed by Brian Haney Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Sports Pyschology website developed by Brian Haney as a project for a Senior Seminar in Psychology (PSY400) class taught by Dr. Arvid J. Bloom at West Chester University in Spring 2000 provides an overview of the topic for anyone that is new to this field. Haney first gives an introduction to the topic, including a definition as well as a brief history, including the founder of the field, the rationale and the first journal that covered academic reports.

Every new subject area has its own lexicon, and Haney also covers some terminology that needs to be known to better understand the Psychology of Sports. He only includes half a dozen of these terms, which more than likely are just the main ones. From here, he goes more in depth into the types of tracks or subfields that exist under the main Psychology heading, where opportunities are available in this subfield and the education needed.

Since this is such a new field, such detail is helpful. It does not exist in many website locations.

His section, "A typical day in the life of a Sports Psychologist" is one of his weaker areas. It would be helpful to have more detail here, especially since such case studies are not often found. Interviewing others in this field would have been beneficial, especially because Haney more than likely had contact with some individuals who have a career in this new field.

The pros and cons of going into this field, however, are more informative and give readers a better indication if this is something they would like to pursue. The website lists a few links for further information, but unfortunately, only one is still viable six years later. This is one of the drawbacks of websites in general and Haney's in specific. They need to be continually updated to have ongoing informative value. All in all, then, this is a good one page summary of the field. However, the reader needs to be leery about the relevance of the information so many years later. After…… [read more]


Sport Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
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Sport Management

Regardless of the field or industry involved, different management styles prevail across the nation. In sports however, the management style can mean the difference between a championship team and a team that becomes a constant joke among everyone except the fans.

One study examined the management style of college sports coaches and what they do and don't do to motivate their players.

The article begins by admitting that there is not much information available about how coaches use their management techniques to motivate their players, at least the teams through the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Morrison, 1999).

The article was founded in the desire to initiate and describe the motivational factors of the group of coaches and create a measurement for different management styles.

Coaching motives fell into five distinct categories: intrinsic, extrinsic, social motives, growth and education, and professional relations. Using the intrinsic and extrinsic motives four motivational coaching styles were created. These four coaching motivation styles were then related to autonomous, control and impersonal decision making styles of coaches and used to distinguish between personality characteristics of the coaches (Morrison, 1999)."

The end result of the study was that coaching management styles are significantly related to the decision making style of each coach.

The article discusses some of the studies that have been performed in the past with regard to female coaching/management styles and their use of motivational tools with their teams, but acknowledges that there has been little done by way of studying male coaches.

The article also discusses previous examinations that concluded motivational style is important in the management of sports teams.

When motivation is discussed, it is described as the fundamental force and direction of behavior (Morrison, 1999). It underlies other thoughts, emotions and behaviors in life (Morrison, 1999). There is no reason to believe that motivation for coaching follows a different pattern than earlier…… [read more]


Stretching Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing Term Paper

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Stretching

Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing and Contrasting the Pros and Cons

Everyone knows that athletes love debates. Who was the best hitter of all time? What is more of a test of athletic endurance -- swimming the English Channel or running an ultra-marathon? What is the best way to build up your triceps? But less physically obsessed people may be amused to hear that even stretching is an issue of controversy within the fitness community. Stretching, however, does facilitate a critical component of fitness, namely flexibility, which along with strength and endurance, are critical to performing not only feats of athletic prowess, but simply functioning in a healthy way during the normal acts of daily life. The debate about stretching usually revolves around the question of what is better -- the static or dynamic forms of stretching?

But first of all, what is flexibility, the fitness component stretching is supposed to enhance? "Flexibility is the range of motion possible around a specific joint or series of articulations. Flexibility is specific to a given joint or movement. A person may not be able to function normally if a joint lacks normal movement" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007). While "dynamic stretching incorporates movements that mimic a specific sport or exercise in an exaggerated yet controlled manner; [and is] often include during the warm-up or in preparation for a sports event," the "static technique involves passively stretching a muscle to the point of mild discomfort by holding it in a maximal stretch for an extended period" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007).

A good contrast between the two types of stretches might be seen in a runner preparing for a hard workout or a race. A runner engaged in dynamic stretching might do some chest-to-knee running, or exaggerated skipping, while a runner engaged in static stretching might lean up against a wall in a lunge, to stretch his quadriceps muscles and hamstrings. Dynamic also means motion, thus dynamic stretching may include arm swings, knee rotations, and neck circles, while static stretching is traditionally not performed with much of a range of motion, and certainly not fast motions (Campbell, 2007). Players in sports requiring pinpoint reflexes and reactions, like basketball players and soccer players, are often devout exponents of dynamic stretching.

Contrary to popular belief, stretching before a workout does not appear to decrease the occurrence of injury. The risk of injury seems to be about equal for those who stretch and those who do not stretch before exercise. The warm-up, not stretching, seems to be the important deterrent for injury, performed before an exercise bout. Stretching seems to offer more long-term benefit such as maintaining functional flexibility and correcting particular muscular imbalances" ("Stretching and Flexibility," ExRx, 2007) in other words, some physical fitness trainers state that the best warm-up of all is likely not to be stretching per se, but, for example, for a runner to take a light jog to prepare for running, ideally at a pace much slower than the… [read more]


Newsletter Dear Parents: Why Is Physical Education Term Paper

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Newsletter

Dear Parents:

Why is physical education so necessary for elementary school children? As school, even for the youngest of students, becomes increasingly competitive, why take time out of children's already over-crammed days for games, laps around the track, and organized games? The answer is that the more life grows stressful, and the less time children have to exercise their bodies and their minds outside of school, the more important physical education becomes for children of every age.

Physical education is an important weapon in our battle against childhood obesity, and it also provides an important time in the school day for kids to be kids. Physical education teaches students teamwork, cooperation, competition, and tolerance, and even helps young children understand academic concepts like near and far, strong and weak, and light and heavy (Pangrazi 2005: 17;8).

The emphasis of our school physical education program is equally on fitness and fun. It will encourage all students, regardless of body type and level of physical fitness to be the best that they can become, at this moment of their lives. At least three times a week, children grades K-3 will engage in regular, fun noncompetitive aerobic and strength-based training, like skipping, jumping rope, and running. They will also engage on the other two days in games involving short sprints, throwing balls, gymnastics and tumbling. This will encourage their sense of delight in moving their bodies. Relays like potato sack relays, motor scooter relays, and tug of war will develop speed and strength, and as well as provide enjoyment.

As children grow older, they will also engage more sports related activities to improve such fitness components as endurance, balance, agility, speed, and also cognitive and emotional skills like teamwork and awareness. The primary function of such sports-related activities will simply be to introduce sports like soccer, basketball, and baseball to the students. All students will participate, regardless of levels of previous familiarity with the skills of these sports.

Sports provide an important venue for students to learn about themselves. We all want our children, regardless of their level…… [read more]


Drugs in Sports Steroid Abuse Term Paper

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Drugs in Sports

Steroid abuse has become a major problem in sports. The deaths of athletes like Eduardo Gory Guerrero have drawn attention to the real physical dangers of performance-enhancing drugs. Baseball players like Mark McGuire and Jason Giambi have made performance-enhancing drugs seem as common as Gatorade in their sport. According to CBS News, three NFL professional football players… [read more]


Volleyball Is an Olympic Sport Term Paper

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Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms, or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. Each team is allowed three hits to get the ball over the net to the other team. A point is scored if the ball hits… [read more]


Sports Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
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Sports

When she was in high school, my mother played basketball. Only they didn't call it basketball; they called it netball. The rules of the game are nearly identical to basketball except that there are only seven players on each team on the court. Netball, my mom told me, was the most popular girls' sport in school and she happened to be the captain of her team. When I asked if she wished she could have played basketball instead she laughed and said no. Netball was known as "the female version of basketball." Girls didn't play basketball and boys didn't play netball; it was that simple. Gender-differentiated sports don't score in the politically correct educational environment in the 21st century United States. When I first learned of my mother's experiences with netball and with sports in general I was appalled because although girls and boys often engaged in different athletic activities, students could not be excluded from a sport simply because of their gender. However, as I reflected on my mother's experiences I came to believe that gender-differentiated sports could have a positive impact on athletics in general. When females play their own sport like netball, they have the opportunity to excel without being compared to males. Women's professional sports, with the possible exception of tennis, rarely receive as much media coverage or credit in popular culture as men's professional sports.

During the interview, my other also revealed her general appreciation for physical fitness and athletics. Not only did she excel at netball; she also ran for her college track and field team and played several sports occasionally and casually including tennis and golf. She remains interested in sports and although not at her peak physical condition continues to be fit and healthy. Because her interest in sports was piqued by netball I view gender-specific sports as being potentially beneficial for both genders. My mother received an unusual level of support from her family and peers, too. Rather than tell her that sports were for boys, or teasing her about being a tomboy, my grandparents encouraged my mother. Sports were viewed as a natural way to improve health and well-being. Similarly, my mom's friends participated in sports because they found netball and other activities fun and stimulating. Not all women in my mom's generation were encouraged to do sports and yet others were challenged to reveal their sexual orientation. Growing up in Jamaica, however, my mother's upbringing was different than mine for cultural and generational reasons. My mom described Jamaican culture as being patriarchal but at the same time promoting an image of strong women that prompted people like my mother to develop their athletic skills

As a female growing up in the United States, my experiences with physical activity were conflicted. In elementary school I excelled at sports and participated fully in track and field activities. Sports were fun for me and I never remember feeling any real differences between what boys did and what girls did until I…… [read more]


Ankle Injury Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Ankle injuries - Athletes

Sports-Medicine

Ankle-Injury

Lateral Inversion Sprain

Medial Eversion Sprain

Syndesmosis Sprain

Achilles Tendon Rupture

Other Ankle Injury Classifications

Sports-Medicine

Ankle-Injury

One of the most common types of injuries occurring during sports events is that of ankle injuries. The ankle is susceptible to injury in practically every sport that exists. "There is a broad spectrum of intra- and… [read more]


Marathon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,765 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

"Fifty-something Marathoning." Prevention. Available Online: http://msn.prevention.com/article/0,5778,s2-2-92-564-5243-1,00.html

Fordyce, B. & Renassen, M. Marathon Runner's Handbook. New York: Struick Publishers, 2002.

Glover, B. & Glover, S.L. The Competitive Runner's Handbook: The Bestselling Guide to Running 5ks through Marathons. New York: Institute Publications, 2002.

"ING New York City Marathon Coverage." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/

Lovett, Charlie. Olympic Marathon. New York: Greenwood Press, 1997.

"Marathon: Health Benefits." Copa Cabama Runners. Available Online: http://www.copacabanarunners.net/welcome.html

'Training: How Far to Run." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/training/index.cfm

Lovett, Charlie. Olympic Marathon. New York: Greenwood Press, 1997. P. 1.

Lovett, p. 2.

Glover, B. & Glover, S.L. The Competitive Runner's Handbook: The Bestselling Guide to Running 5ks through Marathons. New York: Institute Publications, 2002.

"ING New York City Marathon Coverage." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/

Beck, Kevin. "Run Your Best Marathon, Really." Running Times. July/Aug, 1999. Available Online: http://www.runningtimes.com/issues/99julaug/artmar.htm

Fordyce, B. & Renassen, M. Marathon Runner's Handbook. New York: Struick Publishers, 2002. P. 17.

"Training: How Far to Run." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/training/index.cfm

Beck, 3.

Ibid.

Beck, 4.

Droste, Therese. "Fifty-something Marathoning." Prevention. Available Online: http://msn.prevention.com/article/0,5778,s2-2-92-564-5243-1,00.html

"Marathon: Health Benefits." Copa Cabama Runners. Available Online: http://www.copacabanarunners.net/welcome.html

Ibid.

Burton, Allegra. "The Marathoner's Diet for Optimal Performance." MarathonGuide.Com Available Online: http://www.marathonguide.com/training/articles/Nutrition.cfm… [read more]


Pilates and Rehabilitation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,450 words)
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Pilates Helps Rehab Work

Pilates has skyrocketed in popularity, especially in the last decade, when compared to its humble beginnings in a studio apartment.

What is the reason behind this immediate rise in the popularity of the findings of Joseph Pilates? "The Ball" plays a huge role, without a doubt. For decades, Pilates trainers have known the stability ball is… [read more]


Manual Therapy Term Paper

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Manual therapy is regarded as one of the traditional methods of treatments in the field of medicine and includes all types of message, mobilization, manipulation and traction. (Geffen, 2003) Etymologically manual implies the work performed with the use of hands. Houglum applies the concept 'manual therapy' to mean the application of hands-on techniques to assess, treat and enhance the position… [read more]


Sports Adventure Has Always Been an Integral Term Paper

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¶ … Sports

Adventure has always been an integral part of the human experience, and risk helps define character. All heroic tales center on a hero who undergoes trials involving great physical and mental challenge, and most of their challenges supercede the everyday human experience. Extreme sports are the modern manifestation of adventurism and exploration, risk-taking and challenge. Now that almost every inch of the globe has been traversed, the modern adventure odysseys involve stretching the limits of human potential. Extreme sports connote any activity taken to the maximum -- the max. Extreme sports, from mountain biking to surfing to snowboarding to skydiving, test the boundaries of human mental and physical exertion. The term "extreme sports" denotes two different ideas. Extreme comes from a Latin term meaning outside of; therefore, that which is extreme is outside the realm of everyday, average human experience. Sport is a derivative of an Old French word meaning diversion. Extreme sports therefore imply recreational activities that are outside the realm of ordinary human experience. Basketball cannot be considered extreme because many people can and will play. Many people associate extreme sports with danger. Although most extreme sports carry with them a high degree of physical risk, there are many sports that are dangerous but not extreme. For example, hockey carries a high risk of physical injury but hockey is generally not considered to be an extreme sport. Therefore, just because a sport is dangerous doesn't necessarily mean it can be classified as "extreme." Thus, extreme sports can be defined as any recreational activities that carry a high degree of physical and mental risk but are also outside the realm of mainstream experience.

Extreme sports are outside of the realm of mainstream experience and as a…… [read more]


Sports Advertising Does the Flashing Term Paper

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6%

Radio: 19.8%

Aerial Advertising: 18.3%

Television: 15.9%

Posters: 14.9%

What can be seen by this, you may ask, that aerial advertising obtained 18.3% of the target with only 6% of the budgetary costs. This type of advertisement seems to be an attractive form for many sports teams and companies to advertise either on any given day or on special days or special events.

In conclusion, many professional sport teams advertise on a variety of different ways in order to promote their team. Professional sports teams may choose to advertise on websites, banners, blimps or aerial banners, billboards, television, etc. Ultimately, if a sports team chooses to use a variety of different types of advertisement, they will likely reap of the benefits that will come from it in the long run, rather than just utilizing one type of advertisement. Just using one type of advertisement will not reach as many customers. Sports must also keep in mind, the audience. This is an important key factor in reaching sports fans and keeping their attention.

Important things to look at are advertisement or marketing budgets for professional sports teams, which are an important key factor for teams, in relation to the whole advertisement process. It is also important to keep in mind the many different options sports teams have in regards to choosing which type(s) of advertisement to use. Professional sports teams have been around for many years. Advertisement is nothing new and will continue on, in order to aid teams, as long as sports teams continue to be around.

References

"Aerial banners, Inc." (2005). Retrieved June 18, 2005 from Aerial Banners, Inc. Web

site: http://www.aerialbanners.com

Bast, J.L. (1998). Sports stadium madness: why it started, how to stop it. Retrieved from Heartland Institute Web site: http://www.heartland.org/article.cfm?artId=9474

'Fantasy sports stadium" (2004). Retrieved June 18, 2005 from Fantasy sports stadium

Web site: http://www.fantasysportsstadium.com/advertise.php

Shelton, S. (2005). Got sports? Today, sports marketing is a field of dreams. Retrieved…… [read more]


SWOT Analysis: Oakland Athletics SWOT

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At the same time, he was involved with Burbank Airport Hilton and the La Miranda Gateway Plaza Holiday Inn. (Crosby Agrees to Terms on Five-Year Contract)

This was in the 1980s, and he has been his interests by collecting more hotels, theatres and office buildings under his own control. It is thus clear that Mr. Wolff feels that the club… [read more]


Sports Have Graduated Term Paper

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Sports must be recognized as the big money industry it is; it cannot hide forever behind the mask of fair play and cheap entertainment. Sport "is a commercialized amusement business." (Tygiel, 109).

The social consequences of this history of sports are rather powerful. Essentially, the lessons that were inherent to the original conceptions of sports -- fair play, competition, learning of skills -- have been replaced with the necessity to win. This trend stretches down from professional sports to grade school. Because sports are seen as a path by which to achieve the dream of economic freedom, parents and coaches continually push children to win at all costs. Steroid use is one visible consequence of this more broad social trend: "High school students easily obtain steroids, often from dealers who are friends, classmates, and sometimes varsity athletes." (Dallas Morning News, 2005). Also, high school coaches have, typically, been shown to take minimal action once such drug problems come to their attention (Dallas Morning News, 2005). This is routinely attributed to the fact that they are in a position where their jobs depend upon success, and steroids are commonly viewed as a path to that success. Accordingly, the lessons children learn about sports surround the idea that the best and fastest way to win is the best. Sports are no longer a limited hobby of the middle class, but are backed by ticket sales, endorsement deals, and are broadcast around the globe.

Howard Cosell writes, "People frequently ask me if the players of today are deserving of the astronomical salaries. Realistically, they aren't, but in our society, a person deserves what he can command. . . . And if Tom Cruise can negotiate $30 million for a movie, and if Jack Nicholson can demand $40 million for making Batman, who's to say that it's absurd for an athlete to make $3 million or $5 million a year? In reality, we know they're not worth it, but if the marketplace allows it, so be it." (Cosell, 214). The money involved in professional sports today may be ridiculous, or even outrageous, but as long as people are willing to pay to watch the best athletes go head to head it is difficult to claim that it is not in some way deserved. Nevertheless, the image of sports is likely to never return to what it was in its early years.

Works Cited:

1. Calhoun, K., & Gorman, J. (1994). The Name of the Game. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2. Cosell, H., & Whitfield, S. (1991). What's Wrong with Sports. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.

3. Dallas Morning News. "Steroids Readily Available." Dallas Morning News, Sunday, Feb. 6,…… [read more]


Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational Term Paper

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The study is limited because of the small sample size and amount of time allocated to conducting the study. The study did also show that even among students who did not report participation in sports, a high level of self-esteem exists. Thus the researcher may conclude that while sports participation may relate to an overall sense of wellness and high self-esteem, a number of factors probably contribute to this rather than one factor. Additional studies will have to be carried out to determine the exact relationship that exists between sports participation and self-esteem.

Appendix

Interview Questions Athletes

1) Do you believe your involvement in sports has impacted your self-esteem in a positive manner?

2) Do you feel pressure to act a certain way or behave in a certain way due to your involvement in sports?

3) Do you feel that you have a more positive attitude than your peers who are not involved in sports?

4) Do you feel that you are attractive?

5) Do you feel that you will be able to achieve all of the goals that you establish for yourself?

Interview Questions Non-Athletes

1) Do you feel that you have a strong sense of self-esteem?

2) Do you feel that participating in sports would influence your self-esteem?

3) Do you feel pressure to participate or not participate in sports?

4) Do you feel that you have a positive attitude?

5) Do you feel that you will be able to achieve the goals you set out to?

References:

Billups, A. (1999- Jul 26). "Study finds sports give girls confidence to tackle science."

The Washington Times: 9.

Bowker, A., Cornock, B. & Gadbois, S. (2003). "Sports participation and self-esteem:

variations as a function of gender and gender role orientation." Sex Roles: A

Journal of Research, 1:47

Dunn, J.G., Gotwals, J.K. & Wayment, H.A. (2003). "An examination of perfectionisms and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes." Journal of Sports Behavior, 26(1): 17.

Fox, K.R. (2000). "Self-esteem, self-perceptions and exercise." International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31:228-240.

Gustafson, S. (2001). "Self-Esteem/Exercise." Behavioral Consultants, P.C. Retrieved

April…… [read more]


Steroid Use in Sports Term Paper

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¶ … steroids in sports. The author works to explore the topic and brings to light several cases in which it has been a problem. Steroid use in sports is not just a problem in the professional circuit, but has crept its way into high schools and colleges across the nation. The author explores the use of steroids in that… [read more]


People Term Paper

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Team players enjoy the friendships and camaraderie that results from working with a cohesive group. They feel inspired and motivated by their teammates and perhaps cannot discover such passion on their own. People who play sports recreationally, on the other hand, tend to be more self-motivated. They don't need set practice times or meetings to play sports; they just phone up a couple of friends for a casual game. If a few weeks go by without playing, the person will not care. He or she could discover some other form of exercise or social activity. People who play organized sports would probably go crazy or just be plain lazy without the structure of the team.

Because people who play organized sports know their teammates are counting on them, they might actually end up performing at higher levels to consistently and constantly improve their game. Their competitive instinct is sparked by loyalty to the team and a mutual desire to win as many games as possible. Moreover, playing team sports carries with it a measure of predictability: participants know who their teammates are and develop working relationships with them. The competitive spirit carries over into other realms of their life, like school or work, in which the team player will also be more motivated to succeed at all costs. Those who play sports recreationally are able to be self-motivated, and don't require the constant support of a team to get the job done. They can easily switch sides and don't feel inspired to take a stand. With fewer responsibilities, they might occasionally slack off or not perform to their utmost abilities.

There are two kinds of people in the world: those who play organized sports and those who play sports recreationally. Even people who shy away from sports entirely fall into one of the two camps because our approach to sports can be a metaphor for how we live…… [read more]


Cornell Sports Marketing Strengths Term Paper

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Customer Base: Far broader, drawing on a much larger non-Cornell base. Also more of a focus on marketable men's games and spectator sports, as opposed to less popular female and boutique sports, like crew and lacrosse.

Reputation: Depending on team and sport, reputation for giving 'better game' in professional sports, overall, Ivy League athletes, fairly or unfairly, looked upon in a dim fashion.

Financial Position: More leeway to experiment, as profit margin higher.

Business Strategy: Marketing of high profile sports, teams, and professional athletes The most important strengths we possess and the best opportunities we face are:

First: There is a heightened disillusionment with professional athletes, given recent doping scandals, and a heightened interest in amateur and less popular sports, given the recent Summer Games.

Second: As college admissions becomes more difficult and competitive, alumni are interested in returning to, and giving back to the school

Third: A renewed interest in community and belonging will contribute to greater interest in returning to college and alumni events, especially athletics.

Fourth: A possible sense of disillusionment with Harvard, given Cornell's greater emphasis on professional preparation for the 'real world,' as manifested in the presence of its hospitality, business, and agricultural schools.

Works Cited

Cornell Athletics. 15 Apr. 2004. 13 Sept. 2004.

< http://cornellbigred.collegesports.com/school-bio/corn-victorious-campaign.html>

Cornell University. (2004) Official Website. 12 Sept. 2004

Cornell Big Red. (2004) Official Big Red Website. 12 Sept. 2004



Facts About Cornell. 13 Sept. 2004 < http://www.cornell.edu/about/facts/stats.cfm>

The Ivy League. 12 Sept. 2004 < http://www.ivyleaguesports.com/admission-statement.asp>… [read more]


Sports and Anti-Trust Term Paper

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The Maurice Clarett Case

Regarding the NFL's position, they do not believe they are unreasonably restraining trade by insisting on monitoring and controlling the entry of players into the game. They are simply setting guidelines by which all players can have equal access to the game, and all teams within the league can have a fair and equal access to… [read more]


Sports and Sexual Stereotypes L Term Paper

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I believe that the feelings that caused my distaste for physical exertion in my seventh-grade P.E. class are the very same source as the anger evoked in so many by the existence of the WNBA.

The fact that women's participation in traditionally male sports evokes anger is sad. However, the knowledge that this feeling comes, not from "the way it is," but from changeable attitudes gives one hope. Gloria Steinem writes, "...if we could just be taught in school abut the politicization of beauty, it would help..."(221), so too, if I had been taught differently, perhaps I wouldn't have minded getting sweaty. Who knows, I might have played in the WNBA!

Bibliography

Cahn, S.K. (1993). From the 'Muscle Moll' to the 'Butch' Ballplayer: Mannishness, and homophobia in U.S. Women's Sports. Feminist Studies. 19, (343-368).

Martin, Chris. (2000). Arizona Daily Wildcat. "WNBA, what a joke!" Web site: http://www.wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/94/6/02_7_m.html.

Schlussel, Debbie. The Jewish World Reviewjewishworldreview.com taken at http://www.dadi.org/ds_wnba.htm.

Steinem, Gloria. The Revolution Within. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, (1992)

Newton, Allison. (2003)Where are the Women. Web site: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~womenstu/ws201student/professionalsports/homepage.html… [read more]


Sports Psychology Sport Term Paper

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We can thus conclude that there is great demand for psychological therapy and counseling for sports professionals since they regularly face tough competition and are required to perform in front of millions of people. But sports psychology is not only required by professional athletes, aspiring sportsmen also require psychological help for performance enhancement and stress management. These individuals include college athletes, ordinary people active in sports, and even school children (Hinkle, 1989b). Athletes who start young are at greater risk of burning out by the time they reach professional level. They need psychological aid to stay focused and work consistently on improvement of their performance without exhausting themselves. Sport psychologists and counselors are of tremendous value in the world of sports because coaches and regular trainers cannot offer solutions for psycho-emotional and psychosocial problems of athletes. Athletes need to stay in close contact with counselors for identification and resolution of issues that might be negatively affecting their performance on the field. These meetings also help them keep a check on their performance and progress.

References

Hinkle, J.S. (1989a, March). Sports counseling: The process and the product. In J.S. Hinkle (Chair), Sport psychology: Perspectives on sports counseling. Symposium conducted at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Butt, D.S. (1987), Psychology of sport. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Millslagle, D.G. (1988). Visual perception, recognition, recall and mode of visual search control in basketball involving novice and experienced basketball players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 11, 32-44.

Burke, K.L. (1989, March). Counseling for performance enhancement. In J.S. Hinkle, Sport psychology: Perspectives on sports counseling. Symposium conducted at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Smith, R.E. (1989). Applied sport psychology in an age of accountability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1, 166-180.

Bunker, L.K., & McGuire, R.T. (1985), Give sport psychology to sport. In L.K. Bunker, R.J. Roella, & A.S. Reilly (Eds.), Sport psychology (pp. 3-14). Ann Arbor: McNaughton & Gunn.… [read more]


Tennis Term Paper

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S. Junior Championship. He could hit every type of shot from every part of the court, setting a model for contemporary complete players like Sampras and Martina Hingis (Cooper, 2003). Perhaps his greatest contribution to tennis was 'topspin', being one of the first players to utilize the dynamic consistently in his game. Laver won 20 major titles, and was ranked number one in the world in 1961, 1962, 1968, and 1969. He won two Grand Slams, in 1962 and 1969 (Cooper).

In women's tennis there has been a 'glass net' of sorts that has involved lower purses for women titles than men's and has lead to some of women's tennis most famous players outraged at the huge differences in prize money between the two tours. Of these players, Martina Navratilova and Chris Evert have been the most vocal as well as being considered two of the most influential players that have developed the game of tennis.

Navratilova has won 167 singles titles and 162 doubles titles, both more than any other player, male or female since entering the circuit in 1973 (Cooper) and while she occasionally enters double-tournaments, her legacy has been unmatched. Martina owns 56 major titles, 18 of them in singles, including a record nine Wimbledon singles titles and multiple wins at each of the other three Grand Slams (Cooper). Both Navratilova and Evert are responsible for creating styles of play and strategy, as well as introducing endurance and fitness into women's tennis that has created such players as the Williams sisters, Martina Hingis, Lindsey Davenport and Monica Seles.

While the players are largely responsible for developing and giving us today's game of tennis, much of the growth in interest in tennis has been led by schools and university programs. The College Tennis Foundation was established to administer tennis programs and now serves over "1500 collegiate tennis programs (and more than 15,000 student-athletes) in all three NCAA Divisions, as well as the NAIA and Junior College" (ITA, 2003).

Recently, the "tennis industry has joined together to launch the largest national campaign ever designed to increase tennis participation through a nationwide campaign" (Tennis Industry, 2003) that is aimed at introducing people to the game of tennis and encourage facilities, equipment brands and players to join together in marketing the sport. This program is designed to not only introduce people to the sport, but also to aid college and school programs that are currently in need of funding due to the decline in the economy.

Tennis is one of the most internationally known sports and one that is played all year round - professionally and informally. It is enjoyed by all walks of life and all age groups who gain from the combination of physical and mental exercise. These days many health clubs have tennis courts or facilities since it has become a staple in health and fitness. From humble beginnings the game has developed into a much loved pastime that continues to be reshaped in today's world.

Bibliography

Industry… [read more]


Pulmonary Disease and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (562 words)
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In the Ortega study, the participants were involved in a 12-week exercise program where they either worked on strength training, endurance training, or a combination of the two. The study revealed that while both strength training and endurance training may be successful, increases in "submaximal exercise capacity" for the endurance group were much higher than those for the strength group (Ortega, 2002). Any type of training modality was shown to improve breathlessness scores and shortness of breath perceptions for participants (Ortega, 2002). The most useful exercise method for individuals with COPD in this study was found to be a combination of strength and endurance training (Ortega, 2002).

Relevant to Physical Therapy, each of these articles reveals that therapy targeted toward specific exercise rehabilitation including strength and endurance training as well as "breathing exercises" as mentioned in the first article is most likely to produce effective gains in pulmonary patients. Most pulmonary patients are not capable of participating in more rigorous or aerobic routines, as such exertion will only exacerbate their existing symptoms.

Bibliography

Weiner, Paltiel, MD; Magadle, Rasmi, MD; Beckerman, Marinalla MD., Weiner,

Margalit PhD and Berar-Yanay, Noa, MD. "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" Chest. 2003;124:1357-1364 Retrieved from, http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/1357

Ortega, Francisco. Toral, Javier. Cejudo, Pilar, Villagomez, Rafael. Sanchez, Hildegard.

Castillo, Jose and Montemayor, Teodoro. Comparison of Effects of Strength and Endurance Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineVol 166. pp. 669-674, 2002. Retrieved from, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/5/669… [read more]


Sports Announcers Are Usually Broadcasters Term Paper

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The Talking Head would be an entertainer as much as an announcer as he or she would be responsible for bringing the audience closer to the game.

The commentary would also be given by a Voice of Authority who would make suggestions of why the game is flowing in the present direction. These announcers are usually retired players who have an intricate understanding of the game taking place.

Editorial announcers would present an analysis of the game that has taken place they would be the Voice of Reason. They make sense of whatever is taking place, present future direction and state the pros of cons of any game that has taken place.

The classification given above is the most basic of the categories. The Lead Anchor is oft times the most important as it is he or she that determines the manner in which the game starts or ends for the audience.

The Talking Head would be the second most important for that person would be the main determinant in making a lively game exciting and a boring game lively.

Sports Announcers each have a different audience from the people interested in the game on a day-to-day basis to the people who would have an interest in the sport and watch from the beginning to the analysis and thus become a part of the sport.… [read more]


Heart Rate and Exercise Term Paper

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(Ask Yahoo, Pg 1) second important heart rate to understand is the recovery heart rate. Essentially the recovery heart rate is the rate which the body will decrease to after an exercise session. In other words if a person exercises for thirty minutes at a rate of 155 beats per minute, after the person stops exercising the speed at which the heart rate slows down will be measured. Generally a rate will be taken two minutes after the individual stops exercising. If the person is somewhat fit, the rate might drop down to 95 beats per minute after a two-minute rest period. This would be a good drop. (Heart Rate, Pg 1)

The recovery heart rate, much like the maximum heart rate and the target heart rate, is going to be different for every individual. As a result the timeframe in which a person's heart rate drops back to a resting heart rate is going to be different for every person.

The resting heart rate is the number of heart beats per minute in a person at rest. The resting heart rate indicates one's basic fitness level. In other words, the more well-conditioned body requires less effort and fewer beats per minute to pump blood throughout the body. (Heart Rate, pg 1)

The heart rate reserve is important because it determines one's potential training rate. This may be determined by identifying the difference between one's maximum heart rate and one's resting heart rate. If the maximum heart rate is 169 beats per minute and the resting heart rate is 63 beats per minute, the heart rate reserve can be determined by subtracting 63 beats per minute from 196 beats per minute. The result is 133 beats per minute. (Heart Rate, Pg 3)

The person who has been inactive for years should always consult a doctor before the beginning of a new exercise regimen, especially those who are middle-aged or older. Beyond this, those people who would like to start an exercise program but finds facts and figures about the heart rate confusing should acquire the help and expertise of a professional trainer. These people are trained to understand the goals of their clients and to help them to achieve them in an appropriate fashion. (Just Move, Pg 2)

Understanding the heart rate is the primary key to understanding one's cardiovascular fitness. Without a basic understanding of what the different types of heart rates mean, one can not adequately judge whether or not their workout is doing what it is supposed to do. Cardiovascular health is important and as such understanding how one's heart rate is involved with this is imperative.

Bibliography

Frequently Asked Questions." Just Move. http://www.justmove.org/fitnessnews/faqbodyframe.htm

Heart Rate." Heart Rate Basics. http://www.heartmonitors.com/heart_rate_basics.htm

Ask…… [read more]


Pregnancy There Are Many Positive Term Paper

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The authors looked at theoretic concerns regarding various forms of exercise during pregnancy in an attempt to determine if there is greater sense of well-being, shorter labor and fewer obstetric interventions in physically well-conditioned women as compared with other women.

Methods -- The study determined the effects of exercise on pregnancy by reviewing the theoretic concerns associated with exercise during… [read more]


Sociology of Sport Term Paper

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Firstly, the overall values will be discussed.

It has been argued that what is valued in sport reflects what is valued in society, with American society valuing competition in sport because of its history as a society based on capitalism. Importantly, this model of business success is one based on achieving and succeeding, rather than achieving a greater purpose. While… [read more]


Adopt' Running as My Sport Term Paper

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Running became an easy option, since it was an activity where everybody seemed to participate in, and I thought the physical exertion is not that heavy as compared to other, more complicated sports. I was wrong. On my first week of following my running regimen (which consists of running the academic oval of the university for at least two hours (maximum)), I was ready to give up running. Not only is it tiring, but running will also test your determination and perseverance. Every mile that you cover is a battle between continuing running or giving up to the weakness of your determination. After several weeks of faithfully following my regimen (except for days when it is rainy and there are special things to do), running became a routine for me. I became a common sight at the academic oval every morning, from six to eight in the morning, and I was able to achieve my goal to regain back my regular weight and clear complexion (my ultimate motive for running).

However, physical health is not only the benefit that I got from running. There is also a sense of emotional and mental calm that one can feel while running, and I value these moments so much, because it gives me time to at least be detached in a peaceful way with the outside world. Running made me think of nothing but the pounding of my feet on the pavement, and reciting a mantra to keep me going. Indeed, running is not only considered a sport that bring about physical health and fitness, but it is also an activity that promotes emotional and mental stability. Further, running also increases and develops an individual's determination and drive to succeed, and I think that these two important traits are the driving forces why I still keep on running even though I've already achieved my initial goals three…… [read more]


Sports Agents Term Paper

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edu). Lawyers may also represent persons holding an equity interest in the ownership of a team (vill.edu). There are innumerable ways to become involved either primarily or incidentally in sports law matters (vill.edu). Sports law is a broad legal discipline (vill.edu). Lawyers and agents desiring to enter the field must know they face intense and sometimes unprincipled competition (vill.edu).

Fledgling… [read more]


Upper Body Strength Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (805 words)
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" ("Incline Dumbbell Bench Press")

Then, press upward toward the ceiling until your arms are extended fully. ("Incline Dumbbell Bench Press")

Slow down while lowering the dumbbells until they reach the height of your chest. Repeat. ("Incline Dumbbell Bench Press")

Dumbbell Flyes

Sit on the edge of a bench with the weights placed on thighs. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Lie down while keeping the dumbbells close to your chest. Make sure you are firmly seated. Also keep your shoulders and hips on the bench and your feet planted on the floor. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Then "push the weight up using a "pressing like" motion with your palms facing each other." ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Then, slowly lower the dumbbells with your elbows slightly bent, to a horizontal plane even with the bench. Stretch your pecks, but don't lower the weights all the way down to the floor, because it may cause injury. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Count by saying "one thousand one, one thousand two" to lower the weight to the fully extended position. ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Inhale as you lower the dumbbells. Once you get to the bottom, hold for a quick count of "one," then slowly bring the weights back up in an arched motion. Repeat." ("Dumbbell Flyes")

Pushups

Lying face-down on the floor, put your palms next to your chest slightly wider than shoulder width apart. ("Pushups") keep your body straight, and push against the floor permitting your body to rise just short of your elbows locking. "Your body should be supported by your hands and the balls of your feet." ("Pushups")

3. Lower your body back down to the starting position. Repeat. ("Pushups")

Works Cited

Because this paper contains directions to exercises that may cause injury if done improperly most of it has been directly quoted or contains paraphrases from the following web pages which may be accessed by getting on the internet and clicking on the links that follow.

Arnold Press. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_shoulder_arnold_presses.asp

Dumbbell Flyes. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_chest_dumbbell_flyes.asp

Front Dumbbell Raise. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_shoulder_front_dumbbell_raise.asp

Incline Dumbbell Bench Press. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_chest_incline_dumbbell_bench_press.asp

Pushups. http://www.dietquest.com/exercise_descriptions_chest_pushups.asp… [read more]


In 1980, Rachael Mclish Won Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This method also does very little in weight reduction. If one lifts weights in slow motion without vigorous cardio, big muscles will develop. To reduce size or increase athletic performance, the heart rate must be challenged..

When one follows a traditional weight-training program, he or she will usually do all the sets and reps at one exercise machine.

For example,… [read more]


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Bibliography Sources: 1+

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"The arguments we're hearing in 2001 are exactly what moral leaders argued about in 1700" (http://www.unr.edu/alumni/profile.asp?ID=5).Manyfeel that sports gambling is a legal, moral and reasonable form of recreation that should be regulated and taxed. Furthermore many are critical of politicians from states with lotteries who advocate bans on sports betting. "The lottery is nothing more than the old illegal numbers… [read more]


Tai Chi Is a Series Term Paper

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Those with arthritis have seen improvements in joint swelling, joint tenderness and hand-grip strength. It improves balance, coordination, and body posture, thus reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Tai chi also improves spinal mechanics and helps with lower back pain and other musculoskeletal problems.

As a stress reducer it improves body-mind communication, thus greatly contributing to healing and over-all well being. Stress, as westerners are now aware, is the main cause of most illnesses whether physical or emotional. When your body is under stress it cannot heal. Tai chi allows both your body and mind to relax.

Tai Chi offers only health benefits regardless whether you're eight or eighty. The simple yet effective movements improve blood pressure, oxygen levels, immune function, cardio-fitness, and response time of throughout the neuromuscular pathway. What other form of exercise can rebuild your body and your mind?… [read more]


Why Sports Matter by William Sheed Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (433 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Sports Matter, Wilfred Sheed argues that sports is an important element in modern society. At the outset of his essay, he outlines that sport embodies values that were prevalent in Victorian English society, where arguably the modern conceptualization of sport arose. Elements of teamwork, the quest for victory and self-sacrifice for the greater good (the good of the team) are all elements embodied in sport that mirrored the ethic of the era. Sport arose as an analogy to war, he notes, and war works in much the same way. England was a warring power at the time, and sport became quickly dispersed via its influence. Where war is about teamwork, self-sacrifice and the greater good, sport served to reinforce those values in society. Thus, sport was about discipline and spirit, two things that serve combat well, in addition to serving the interests of the rising nation states.

It was not only in the way that sport mirrored society that it became popular. It also became popular as a pastime, as the middle class grew in the industrial age. Where sport initially was for students and clubs, and had no real audience otherwise, it was quickly adopted as a pastime, in part for its expression of the same values as widely held in society. Sheed…… [read more]


Memory Enhancement and Exercise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (970 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Memory Enhancement and Exercise:

A comparison of a press release and a scientific article

According to a recent press release issued by the Georgia Institute of Technology, resistance exercises (i.e. lifting weight) can boost memory. The article summarizes a study which indicated that as little as 20 minutes additional exercise can enhance long-term memory, at least in healthy young adults. The press release describes the study as involving an experimental and control group gazing at a series of photos. The experimental group was asked to then work out on an exercise machine involving extension and contraction of their legs; the control group had their legs passively removed. The experimental group showed better recollection of the photographs.

The 'take home' message of the press release is less a scientific discussion of the study or a critique but rather a useful summary of the information for a casual reader looking for information to enhance his or her health. The study is presented in brief form to convince the reader of its accuracy and to suggest that the reader might find this to be a beneficial aspect of exercise for him or herself. It is also noted that this specific type of weight lifting is not needed to enhance memory: squats or even less intense forms of exercise would likely have a similar enhancing function for memory. Broad generalizations about exercise and the types of memories helped by the experiment are made but the reader is likely looking for information that will help him or herself in his or her own life, rather than applying strict scientific scrutiny to the process.

It may be somewhat questionable if such a broad generalization about all types of exercise can be derived from this memory exercise: for example, will all types of exercises be intense enough to generate such benefits? Does the exercise have to be after or can it occur before committing something to memory? Will it vary depending on how well-adapted the person is to exercise? All of these questions go unanswered. In contrast, the scientific study on which the press release is based provides more of a past context, beginning with a literature review. Greater support is provided for the generalization about memory and exercise from previous research. "Single bouts of aerobic exercise after learning can also produce episodic memory improvements in young adults. For example, performance on recall tests (Labban & Etnier, 2011; Salas, Minakata, & Kelemen, 2011), face -- name matching (Griffin et al., 2011), and paired associates learning (Nanda, Balde, & Manjunatha, 2013; Schmidt-Kassow et al., 2013; Winter et al., 2007) improve following a single bout of moderate aerobic exercise" (Weinberg et al. 2014: 13). However (which is not noted in the press release) it is also added that extremely intense exercise can impair memory, according to some studies (Weinberg et al. 2014: 13). This is an important caveat even for the lay reader wishing…… [read more]


Career Transition: Role of Practice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Gaining Mastery

Changing careers midstream can be daunting; however with determination I am sure I can make it happen. How is this so? Because I am confident that the mindful repetition of practice can be a gift and can install new skill sets and attitudes within me. Practice is not something which ends with a final goal. It is a constant life journey as the aspiring master adds to his or her learned abilities (Leonard 1992: 75). That is why an attorney is said to practice law or a doctor is said to practice medicine -- not because his education ends with getting a degree after law or medical school. The same is true of financial planning. A good financial planner is always educating him or herself about the marketplace and the needs of client. Similarly, with my mentee Tamara, as she is an athlete, she will be practicing her whole life to get better. Although she might practice with a specific game in mind, the practice sessions do not end with the game, no matter how successful the competition might be.

Real, sustained practice can be very emotionally difficult for a young person. In Mastery, Leonard notes how even as a sustained martial arts practitioner, sometimes it was challenging to practice the same skill over and over, from a mental as well as a physical perspective. Particularly for a young person like Tamara constantly desiring change and novelty, this can be difficult (Leonard 1992: 76). However, eventually one practices and enters a kind of pure 'flow' state, letting the task take over, rather than consciously thinking about every separate motion. The practitioner effectively becomes the task. This is one of the advantages of patience and sustained repetition: tasks come to seem very natural.

In my own work, I believe that is how I have eventually attained mastery at certain tasks, even after experiencing some challenges learning them at a much older age than Tamara. Through repetition, they have become second nature. Only then can one achieve perfection without…… [read more]


Setting Life Goals Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (525 words)
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family goals have more of an emphasis on her focus sheet. Particularly for young people, it is essential that goals are actionable and can be set in concrete terms. Because Tamara is an athlete, many of these goals have a physical as well as a psychological dimension. They involve teaching her good strategies to encourage her to follow through with goals, even though some of her peers may not share them.

In the original focus sheet, the predominant focus was on budgeting time. For most adults, even when intensely motivated, the greatest challenge in meeting goals is balancing time needs of different tasks and priorities because they must juggle a variety of competing schedules along with their own (such as work and school). For teens, quite often the issue is making themselves accountable and not getting diverted by friends. Still, having a written schedule, including scheduled downtime is useful to ensure that people such as Tamara can visualize the tasks ahead of them needed to complete their stated objectives.

Managing stress and having downtime is important for individuals regardless of their life stage. There are stress reduction strategies for both Tamara and the original focus sheet. But for Tamara, the specific stress-related issue she has is not getting up in time to get everything done. This is very common in college students who do not have a good morning routine and who go to bed too late. Focus sheet goals should address issues specific to the time of life of the individual as well as to their…… [read more]


Brand Loyalty Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

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Kunkel, Funk, and King (2009) investigate sport team brands, and specifically as these are associated with league brands. Brisbane and Sydney (developed locations) were the specific investigation locations.

The study found that brand association literature could be usefully applied to promote an understanding of sport league associations. Attributes, benefits, and attitudes were factors that linked strongly to professional football leagues.… [read more]


Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Style Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

This means that according to this hypothesis male athletes need to be conceptualized as less focused and more given to impulses and can be characterized by more erratic behavior. These concepts of male athletes have to be rejected namely because there just isn't evidence to reflect that they are in fact accurate or true. The notion that male athletes thrive on a more controlling coaching style would have to be founded on the fact that there are traits inherent in athletes of this gender which would be more receptive and reactive to a particular coaching style of this nature. "Research guided by SDT in the sport and physical education literature has demonstrated that autonomy-supportive coach behaviors (e.g., offering a rationale and acknowledging feelings) are related to more self-determined forms of motivation in athletes" (Bartholomew, 2010). This demonstrates that controlling coaching is likely to be unideal for either gender, be the athletes male or female. The research demonstrates again and again that once an athlete is engaged in behaviors that he or she considers interesting or personally important, that person is more likely to engage in more self-sufficient and positive outcomes, such as bolstered persistence, performance and self-esteem (Bartholomew et al., 2010). Thus, controlling leadership is no more effective for men over women: it is largely ineffective for either gender. Both men and women share the tendency to reject leadership which attempts to get them to do something or care about something which is largely out of their control or sphere of desire.

DV: Effectiveness of controlling coaching style (ordinal)

The research abounds for the ineffectiveness of the controlling coaching style. Findings demonstrate over and over again, that elite athletes are largely driven by reasons which are self-determined and that athletes "…actively seek autonomy, even in controlling environments; athletes develop positive coping strategies in an autonomy supportive climate. It is argued that coaches should consider the adoption of an autonomy supportive coach -- athlete environment to enhance the quality of sport performance. This approach to coaching is applicable at all levels of coaching" (Mallett, 2000). This excerpt displays the inherent fallibility of a controlling coaching style: even when coaches attempt at the strictest and tightest method of coaching, athletes are still going to actively search for autonomy within this style.

Controlling coaching methods are generally characterized by an interpersonal style which contains coercive, pressuring, and authoritarian traits which impose specific and preconceived modes of thought and behavior on athletes (Bartholomew et al., 2011).This is quite so problematic because it inherently goes against the athletes' inherent tendencies of independent thinking and development. This means that all external pressures such as controlling behavior can move the athlete's perceived locus of causality from internal to external: "the resultant loss of control undermines athletes' psychological needs and sense of self-determination, and contributes to controlled motivation" (Bartholomew et al., 2011). Thus, the evidence and measured scaling for this form of coaching is consistent in its flawed and ineffective approach with either gender. The research has reflected… [read more]


Conceptualization and Operationalization of Variables Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

93 (range = .79 to .98)" (Apache 2006). Behaviors include positive reinforcement; mistake reinforcement (encouraging mistake avoidance through encouraging words and encouraging players to not be concerned about errors); positive technical instruction; mistake technical instruction; punishment; control; general encouragements; negative comments to players; negative comments to other coaches and/or referees (Apache 2006).

The study will hypothesize that positive reinforcement behaviors identified as facilitating communication such as positive reinforcement; mistake reinforcement; positive technical instruction; mistake technical instruction; and general encouragement will be associated with improved communication and lesser risk of injury vs. punishment; control; negative comments to players; and negative comments to others which inhibit free and open communication.

II. Dependent Variables: Rates of injury and measures of athlete frustration.

Conceptualization: Although injuries are endemic to all sports, this study will suggest that poor communication between coaches and athletes yields relatively longer recovery periods, due to the fact that severe injuries remain untreated for so long and/or overtraining is not appropriately flagged. As a result, players experience greater frustration and negative emotions about their prospects for recovery.

Operationalization: Recovery time of study participants from the injuries reported will be compared with average recovery times from the injury nation-wide, based upon the player's age and gender. Also, player's levels of frustration with their injury will be measured using the Emotional Response of Athletes to Injury Questionnaire (ERAIQ). The scale asks athletes to rate emotions that result from an injury such as anger, fear, and depression from 1-10. "ERAIQ was initially developed from clinical interviews and is a psychosocial assessment for injured athletes. Although the ERAIQ does not have established psychometric properties, it has been published in various formats and frequently used to conduct assessments of injured athletes," including the Mayo Clinic (Klenk 2006: 10-11).

References

Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:

Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.

Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.

Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:

Reasons for concern? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40:749-760.

Klenk, C. (2006). Psychological response to injury, recovery, and social support. URI. Retrieved:

http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=srhonorsprog

Kristiansen, E. (et al. 2012). Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two

Norwegian case studies. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(6):e156-67.

doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01521.x

Lopate, L. (2013). Concussions in the NFL. NPR. Retrieved:

http://www.wnyc.org/story/concussions-and-nfl/

Merkel, D. & Molony, J. (2013). Medical sports injuries in the youth athlete: Emergency management. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 7(2): 242 -- 251. Retrieved: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3325640/… [read more]


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Capstone Project  |  15 pages (4,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

" It mainly includes various practices that may be deadly in some situations. It includes various different techniques. There are many factors that are focused upon in jujutsu such as; rolls, grappling, locks and throws. As compared to the other kinds of martial arts which have a lot of different rules, this is the kind in which anything and everything… [read more]

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