Study "Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays 111-163

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Cornell Sports Marketing the Business Term Paper

… The concentrated location of the freshman on the North Campus of the institution makes the freshman an ideal market that can be the object of a great deal of advertising, from posters to staged publicity events, with a relative minimum of cost. Entertainment and the social aspect of Ivy League sports can be stressed, given that parties and other celebrations of victory or defeat can spill over into this area of the campus, and also because traditionally, the communality rather than the athletic excellence of League athletics is the main reason for attendance at games.

Incentives such as free admission for freshman would encourage attendance, as well as specifically targeting sports of greater interest, such as basketball, where certain Cornell athletes excel. Using booster club's donations to facilitate transportation and discounted paraphernalia to freshman, and deploying select free events such as having the basketball team give away prizes at the common eating facilities or having 'shot competitions' at halftime could also be selectively deployed in a selective fashion to this young population of Cornell. [read more]

Sports Leadership Term Paper

… 6, SD = .4), high training and instruction (M= 4.4, SD = .4), high social support (M= 3.6, SD .6), moderate democratic behavior (M= 3.0, SD = .6), and low autocratic behavior (M= 2.7, SD .6). The psychological profile of this group is similar to the group of coaches in both the Home and Carron (1985) and Dwyer and Fischer (1988) studies (Bennett, 2000). These findings indicate that elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches place more emphasis on positive feedback and training and instruction while expressin g a lower preference for autocratic behavior. In summary, the current study provides preliminary data regarding the coaching leadership styles of elite youth baseball coaches of the United States and more importantly, adds to body of knowledge called for by researchers in this area (Bennett, 2000). Further research with this specific population is recommended to determine if social desirability bias entered into the sample due to the coaches viewing themselves as having positive feedback and democratic coaching styles (Bennett, 2000). "

The information researched can be used in a practical setting by setting the boundaries for the way leadership styles impact sports. The coach can take the examples and use them in his or her own dealings with the team and create a more successful environment.

Practices can be structured in a positive way that emulates Shula's style to create strong positive team morale. Goals can be set with short-term and long-term steps based on what the needs are.

Future research should begin addressing what it is about the various coaching styles that work. The research should look at how it works and why it works from a human nature and psychological perspective so that future methods of leadership can be developed using scientific data.


Planning a Preseason Team Meeting

Leadership: what does it take? (Special Feature: Leadership Training).

NZ Business; July 1, 2002; Baker, Glenn

Leadership Styles of Elite Dixie Youth Baseball Coaches.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included)

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport; March 1, 2000

Martin to lead athletics; coaches and staff 'like his style'

. Empowering students: variables impacting the effort.

Education; June 22, 1994; Short, Paula M. Greer, John T.

Football: Rogers blasts 'out of touch' Aldridge.(Sport)… [read more]

Sports Injuries Competitive Sports Participation Term Paper

… Therefore, adults should take a positive approach, set reasonable expectations of their children's physical and psychosocial abilities and learn to control their emotions.

It is imperative for parents to remember and emphasize children's motives for sport participation (having fun, being… [read more]

Opening a Bally's Total Fitness Term Paper

… This aspect should be carefully studied and the necessary facilities provided. There seems also to be good consciousness about exercises among certain types of sportsmen and they are also conscious enough to be contributing for gymnasiums. It may be worthwhile… [read more]

Exercise Physiology: Learning Term Paper

… EPs can be coaches of sports teams. Research and higher degrees are choices in tenure track faculty of teaching positions. With the growing trends in personal fitness, yoga and Pilates, personal trainers are also in demands. Pain management and physical therapy careers involve the assessment, design and administration of rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and reduce or rehabilitate an injury. Sports managers are in charge of the day-to-day running of teams or organizations.

Several opportunities are available manufacturers, suppliers, retailers, as well as corporations. For example, sports companies might need managers to deal with management issues or designers to identify the ergonomics of specific equipment. Sports is big business. Someone with specialization in business and accounting practice can choose a career path from exercise physiology training. A career in EP comes from a devotion to training. There are recognized credentials like Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Opportunities exist with local clubs, high schools, colleges and pro-teams.


Adams, Gene M. Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual. Dubuque, IA: Wm.C. Brown Publishers, 1990.

Amundsen, Louis R. Cardiac Rehabilitation. Clinics in Physical Therapy; V. 1. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1981. American Sports Education Program. 2003. Available: 20, 2003. Directory of Academic Programs. 2003. Available: October 20, 2003.

Professionalization of Exercise Physiology Online. 2003. Available: October 20, 2003. Job Opportunities. 2003. Available: 20, 2003.

Thomas, Vaughan. Exercise Physiology. London: Crosby Lockwood Staples, 1975. [read more]

Career of an Athletic Trainer Term Paper

… The most respected and accepted educational facilities are accredited according to standards created by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Education (CAAHEP), a division of the American Medical Association (Hibberts). Many students major in exercise science with a specialty in athletic training. In most cases, they also need to obtain a state license or National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification in order to work as an athletic trainer and "to become certified, trainers must complete 1500 hours of athletic training, and pass the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification exam" (AHEC). Training includes many different factors, including nutrition, psychology, human anatomy and physiology, exercise physiology, first aid, therapy, injury prevention, administration, and many other aspects of sports psychology, medicine, and management (Hibberts).

There are many job opportunities open to athletic trainers, in both professional and athletic organizations.

Professional job opportunities related to an exercise science curriculum include athletic trainer, strength and conditioning specialist, exercise specialist, exercise physiologist, and health/fitness instructor. Athletic trainers are prepared to prevent, manage, and rehabilitate athletic injuries. They are often employed in high school, collegiate, and professional settings as well as sport medicine clinics, and industrial settings (Kornspan et al. 367).

Clearly, there are many different opportunities open to athletic trainers, depending on their own preferences and abilities. There are training jobs open in both men's and women's athletics, from the high school to professional level and beyond. When it is understood just what athletic trainers actually do, it is easier to see how they are such an integral part of modern sports, and to see just how many places their services could be vital. Trainers average around $38, 858 a year.

In conclusion, the career of an athletic trainer is not only interesting and varied; it can make or break the career of a professional athlete. While always on the sidelines, a professional athletic trainer can be involved in the exciting and ever-changing world of sports, and make a difference in many lives.

Works Cited

Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." 2003. 25 Sept. 2003.

Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" 2003. 25 Sept. 2003.

Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003.

Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+. [read more]

Athletic Scholarships Providing Term Paper

… I do not know if this is envy or not, but the high-level coaches have worked hard to earn their salaries and recognition, just like any other highly paid television figure. Non-athletic professionals have made proposals stating their prejudicesses against… [read more]

Facilities Management Critiques Article Critique

… ¶ … Job Competencies of Sport Facility Managers: Robert Case and J. David Branch

The study by Case & Branch (2003) talks about sports facilities that exist in the United States and offers different careers for students to opt from.… [read more]

Dance Injury Prevention and Overall Level Term Paper

… Dance

Injury prevention and overall level of health and fitness often play a back seat role for dancers. In the effort to perfect their art, dancers focus on specific types of movements, techniques, and exercises over others. Specifically, exercises that can improve bone integrity, increase muscular strength, improve general aerobic fitness, and improve muscular endurance can help dancers avoid injuries. Injuries in dancers are common, affecting ballet dancers at least once per year (Twitchett, et al., 2010). For professional dancers, injury can upset careers; for all dancers, injuries can lead to poor health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to review literature on how to optimize the health and fitness of dancers.

The causes of injury are diverse, and depend on the type of dance, the individual's body type, the individual's psychological makeup, the quality of instruction, intensity of practice, past medical history, nutrient intake, body fat percentage, and temporary stressors. It is impossible to devise a universal approach to injury prevention, but there are some key elements of injury prevention that are specific to dancers and universal in scope. Those injury prevention keys are rooted in sports medicine, which can inform evidence-based practice in formal dance instruction.

Twitchett, et al. (2010) found that low aerobic fitness and body fat were two variables significantly correlated with injury frequency and duration. Excessive thinness and an obsessive approach to specific movements may hinder the dancer's long-range capabilities as a professional. While it is understandable that dancers will need to focus intensely on specific roles at certain times for their career, those performances should ideally be supplemented by general exercise and nutrition regimes that foster overall health and well-being. Dancers who supplement their work with other types of movement that improve cardiovascular health and aerobic fitness may help increase the longevity of their careers. Likewise, dancers who can more easily maintain a physique that is aesthetically appropriate without becoming underweight will also be better suited for long-range health as a dancer.

As Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios (2005) note, it is not only excessive thinness that is an aesthetic ideal for some dancers, but also a lack of muscularity. Yet muscularity promotes health and prevents injury. The researchers found that dancers who supplement with strength training exercises are less prone to injury, and can even lead to "better dancing" because of the improved conditioning of their bodies (Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios, 2005, p. 29). Strength training need not interfere with aesthetics. Moreover, Koutedakis, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou & Metsios (2005) point out that muscular strength training does not adversely impact flexibility, another common concern with dancers and their trainers. If dancers and trainers understood that evidence supports the use of both aerobic exercise and strength training as effective methods of preventing injury, perhaps these types of activities can supplement dance regimens.

Modern dancers may rely… [read more]

Exercise and Stress Term Paper

… It improves mood and has been shown to lessen depression and anxiety while also boosting confidence.

There are several forms of exercise that can be tailored to fit anyone's individual goals or lifestyles. Any level of exercise can be productive and an individual can increase their level of activity at any time. Therefore, you don't have to start training as an athlete to gain the benefits of stress relief that associated with exercise; even a brisk walk is enough to trigger many of the benefits of stress relief that exercise can provide.

What is the mind/body connection mentioned by Seaward and why is physical exercise part of holistic stress management?

The body and mind are connected through an array of biophysical process. The healthier the body, then the healthier the mind can be. Illness of the body can be responsible for additional stressors to an individual's mind that can accumulate over time. The body will actually produce some level of stress during exercise, however then the physical activity stops then the body naturally tries to return to hemostasis. The more you exercise, the better the body's ability to return to that state. Therefore, while counseling and various medications can be used to help reduce stress, exercise should always be included in a holistic stress management system because of its proven effects to promote natural stress relief.

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, July 12). Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:

Menlinck, M. (2013, May 21). How Does Exercise Reduce Stress? Retrieved from The Huffington Post: [read more]

Benefits of Physical Activity Essay

… Exercise and Health

benefits of physical activity and exercise on one'S HEALTH

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Significant evidence shows that most of the people in the… [read more]

NFL Nonprofits Term Paper

… Sports and Social Change

Over the last several years, social change has become a phenomenon where sports organizations are reaching out to stakeholders to creative positive impacts. This is because sports are highlighting important differences in social issues and the… [read more]

Moderation in Tennis Research Proposal

… Moderation is surely one of the most important things when considering athletes and sport in general. Being a tennis player can be especially demanding, with the respective person having to do everything in his power in order to work at his or her full potential. Sleep is an important concept in this discussion, as tennis players need to concentrate on getting enough sleep in order to recuperate their physical and mental strength. By sleeping for enough time, tennis players make sure that they have all the energy they need during a competition.

A tennis player's sleep can be negatively affected by a great deal of things. Concepts like the stress associated with a competition and the fact that they travel very often are likely to interfere with a tennis player's ability to sleep. "Many things can affect tennis players' quality of sleep, including stress, worry and frequent international travel across time zones. This disrupts the normal twenty-four hour "biological clock." (Satisfying sleep 1)

Tennis players need to be prepared to deal with an increasing amount of stress and effort that build up as a competition comes closer. The fact that these people have access to a glamorous life and that they can practically buy everything they want sometimes makes it difficult for them to live life in moderation.

The case of Richard Gasquet provides proof with regard to how having a moderate lifestyle can sometimes be too much for a tennis player. Regardless of whether he consumed cocaine or not, the case involving him being tested positive for use of cocaine shocked the tennis world. This situation practically proved that life can sometimes be stressful for a tennis player and that he or she cannot always put across exemplary behavior. "In France, they have been calling it 'The Cocaine Kiss', the story of how Richard Gasquet spent an evening with a girl in a Miami nightclub, tested positive for the stimulant the next day, and then convinced an anti-doping tribunal that it was because of those French kisses with "Pamela." (Hodgkinson)

Moderation is essential when considering tennis players and the energy they need in order to excel. Even with this, it can also have a negative influence on a player because of how he or she can feel that he or she is not living life to the fullest.

Works cited:

Hodgkinson, Mark, "U.S. Open: Richard Gasquet puts 'Cocaine Kiss' saga behind him," retrieved March 30, 2014, from

"SATISFYING SLEEP," Retrieved March 30, 2014, from

"Canadian qualifier faints as heat wave hits Australian Open," Retrieved March 30, 2014, from [read more]

Sports Event Term Paper

… These include actual news and sports sites that are more like traditional outlets in the way they report unbiased information, but there are also fan sites, the NFL and official team sites, and random sites such as blogs that provide information. Many of the more casual and/or fan-based sites offer much more in the way of opinion, and they easily and quickly take sides. They make no secret of where their loyalty lies.

Twitter is an extension of the online sites. It is similar in nature to the overall online presence of other sites, but different mostly in the immediacy of the information presented on it. Those who are interested in sports marketing must be aware of the value of sites like Twitter, because it provides such a quick way for information to be gathered and shared with others. On Super Bowl Sunday, tweets about the game were easy to find, and they were highly varied when it came to what they discussed and who they supported. Because so much of Twitter is used-generated media as opposed to the more traditional, journalistic outlets, the mix of information and opinion a person receives there is very different from what he or she would expect from TV or print media.


Marketing sports and sporting events requires time and effort when it is being handled from a traditional standpoint, but there is also a great deal of marketing seen in an unofficial capacity. Traditional media outlets provide official marketing of sporting events like the Super Bowl, while online outlets provide a mix of both official and unofficial information. Sites like Twitter can provide some official information from team and NFL tweets, but most of the Twitter information provides about the Super Bowl came from fan opinion and thought. That is a very different type of marketing for sports events, and can change the way in which fans and potential fans look at a team, sport, or league. Media is very powerful, but the internet age has changed the way that power is used.

Works Cited

Beech, John, & Chadwick, Simon. The marketing of Sport. Prentice Hall and Financial Times. 2006. Print.

Kotler, Philip & Keller, L. Kevin. Marketing Management 14e. Pearson Education Limited. 2012. Print.

Seattle Seahawks.… [read more]

Financial Statement Analysis: Adventure Sports Essay

… A look at the firm's operating profit also reveals an impressive trend -- the same has been on an upward trend during the period under consideration. This is an indication that Adventure Sports has enough cash for growth/expansion and other needs.

To determine whether the firm would be affected if the current profitability trends were to change, it would be prudent to analyze its ability to remain solvent both in the short-run and in the long-run. Of great utility in this case would be the company's liquidity ratios and financial leverage ratios. For purposes of this discussion, I will make use of the current ratio and the debt ratio.

Table 1: Debt Ratio and Current Ratio




Current Ratio









Debt Ratio






Looking at the table above, it is clear that the company would encounter no challenges settling its obligations. This is particularly the case given that as the current ratio indicates, Adventure Sports has more assets than debt. The company is therefore not likely to encounter liquidity problems even if the trends in profitability were to change significantly (in the short-run).

On the other hand, the debt ratio in this case indicates that Adventure Sports has more assets than debt. This indicates low financial risk level. It is however important to note that volatile cash flows could affect Adventure Sports' ability to settle its obligations -- both in the long-run and in the… [read more]

People at the Gym Essay

… They walk and talk with a lot of assurance. These women frequently workout with weights and perform cardiovascular exercise in the gym as well. On some occasions, they might even take aerobics classes or maybe even teach them. Oftentimes, the fit girl/athletic type has many male admirers, both openly and secretly. A number of guys like to try to talk to them both in and outside of the gym. However, because of the large degree of self-confidence that they carry about themselves, there are many guys who are intimidated to approach them. Despite their looks, however, these women are very serious about taking care of their bodies and usually have strict dietary regimens that they follow to help them maintain their good shape.

Almost no gym would be complete without the type of guy best referred to as the screamer. These are the men who walk around with permanent wet spots on their backs, and probably below their armpits on their shorts as well. They are usually seen sweating profusely, or attempting to wipe themselves down with a towel. These gym participants are almost never quiet, although there is a great deal of variety to the different types of noises they make. Some prefer to grunt -- in unison -- as they lift weights. Others prefer vociferous screams and shouts at the conclusion, and during the middle, of their workouts with different machines. Rarely one of these individuals might become so absorbed in their iPods as they work out that they will sing or rap along to the music.

Whatever the form of noise-making this type of gym participant makes, it is almost always a distraction. Whereas other people are content to simply put their head phones on and silently persevere through their work outs, these screamers inevitably have to make loud noises and disrupt the general quiet of the environment. To their credit they generally know what they are doing and have very little trouble using the equipment or performing a set of workout motions with the help of others. However, they are still very distracting and not the least bit annoying.

Finally, one of the most frequently occurring types to appear in gyms virtually anywhere is known as the lost guy. These are people who have not spent a lot of time in gyms. Furthermore, they have not spent a lot of time playing sports or even exercising. They have shown up in gyms across the country suddenly, either because they have realized that they need to do something to their bodies to help them pick up girls, or perhaps because they are married and their wives are ashamed of being with men who cannot sufficiently protect them from danger.

Whatever the case, there are a number of traits that readily identify these individuals. They are generally uncoordinated, regardless of what sort of exercise at the gym they are attempting to do. They have trouble with the weights (and with the weight of the weights), they have difficulty… [read more]

Training Programme for Female Athlete Research Paper

… ¶ … Training Programme for Female Athlete

Date/Time: ____ Name:

Strength/flexibility exercises test Rubric (5%)

The instructor (NOT student) will choose 5 strength/flexibility exercises from the student's Written Report that the student states his athlete will use over the 3-month… [read more]

Physical Education Term Paper

… Physical Education

There are a few key features in this twelve-week program. First, the program is holistic in nature, encompassing the entire body. There is an emphasis on the lower body, which was identified as needed to improve both in… [read more]

Pregnant Athletes Identification Many Ethical Research Paper

… Therefore, this policy can be helpful in protecting the unborn child and the pregnant athlete.

Non-consequential Ethical Theory

Many countries have signed the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all sorts of Discrimination against Women. The aim of this… [read more]

Pregnant Athletes Identification Case Study

… Therefore since the act does not have arete, phronesis, it is morally wrong though it leads to eudaimonia which is seen in Fantasia being able to play in the team. In the eyes of a characteristically virtuous person, the action… [read more]

Physical Program for Virginia Fire Research Paper

… Essentially, "for a fitness program to be effective, he must follow a schedule that should allow for periodization," where strength training and endurance are divided into distinct phases or periods, each of which has a specific outcome, which allows each specific strength to peak at the right times" (Calcagno, 2012). Regular programs of aerobic exercises show the most improvement in cardio vascular health (Sherek, 2009).

Moreover, programs across the state need to be standardized to ensure that every county is benefitting from the additional training that will increase the performance and health of fire fighters. Unfortunately, "like the written exam, the physical exam varies from department to department" (Virginia Department of Fire Programs, 2013). This leaves room for error and disarray. Developing a state standardized physical fitness program that is based on the same crucial activities of the physical entrance test would be the best route.


Clearly, something needs to change before anyone else gets hurt because a lack of physical fitness on our fire departments. The health of the fire fighters themselves, as well as the community at large is at stake. The state of Virginia needs to adopt a mandatory physical fitness program for incumbent fire fighters so that they stay as fit as the day they were accepted in the department.


Biddle, Daniel A. & Bell, Stacy L. (2011). Using work-sample physical ability tests to maintain fitness standards of incumbent fire fighters. Fire and Police Selection, Inc. Web.

Calcagno, Guido. (2012). Physical fitness in the fire service. Fire Engineering. Web.

NIOSH. (2009). Death in the line of duty: Fire fighter trainee suffers sudden cardiac death during maze training in Virginia. Faculty Assessment and Control Evaluation Investigation Report F2009-02. Web.

Sherek, Becky. (2009). The four components of firefighter fitness. Firehouse. Web.

Virginia Department of Fire Programs. (2013). Frequently asked questions. Virginia. Web. [read more]

Sports-Related Concussion and Statistical Study Essay

… Tactical Responsibilities

According to De Salvo et al. (2007) statistical techniques are not only used to assess players performance but the results and conclusions of these analyses are used to design and develop position conditioning and player's individual training plans. It is a contemporary sports science practice to use manual as well as technological tools to gather quantitative data and analyze the data using mean, percentage, standard deviation, and probability components of statistical techniques (Szymanski, 2003). The increased usage of these techniques has modified the applicability of traditional game planning practices. A position coordination analysis is also performed using computerized match analysis system. Match analysis techniques are also applied to opponent teams to assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Advantages and disadvantages

There are advantages and disadvantages of using these techniques. The advantages include a coordinated game design, planning, team selection, and position assignation. Whereas the disadvantages can be denoted as providing more control of the game in usage and accuracy of statistical and match analysis techniques. This has transformed the creativity and natural game of the players. Moreover genetic capabilities and physiological athletic capacity of the players cannot be enhanced using such techniques (De Salvo, 2007).


The research studies being reviewed indicate that all the studies were conducted by using the statistical tools and analysis methods. Professional sports such as hockey, football, baseball, basketball, and boxing, all leverage upon the statistical studies to manage performance management and health care as well as medical issues of sportsmen. Soccer leagues and clubs also leverage upon the in-depth studies being conducted by the researchers to manage the on-field and off-filed performance of the players.


Belanger, H.G., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345-357.

Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., & Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Neurocognitive performance of concussed athletes when symptom free. Journal of athletic training, 42(4), 504.

Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F.J., Bachl, N., & Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(3), 222.

Sampaio, J., Janeira, M., Ibanez, S., & Lorenzo, A. (2006). Discriminant analysis of game-related statistics between basketball guards forwards and centers in three professional leagues. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(3), 173-178.

Szymanski, S. (2003). The economic design of sporting contests. Journal of Economic Literature, 41(4), 1137-1187.

Weston, M., Castagna, C., Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., & Abt, G. (2007). Analysis of physical match performance in… [read more]

Sports Related Web Sites Assessment

… Sports Related Websites

Sports Related Web Sites

The Council on Web Development

Over the last several years, the Internet has become the way many people are learning about sports related content. This is occurring through them going to different websites. In order to know more about their favorite teams and news associated with them. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that nearly two thirds of Americans will use this as way to receive their news updates. This is transforming how organizations are reaching out to these individuals. However, not all websites are as informative and some offer limited amounts of information to stakeholders. Those who are utilizing the MOSC criteria can identify organizations with tremendous amounts of strength vs. weaknesses in their communications with the public. This means comparing two different websites with each other and contrasting the differences. Together, these elements will highlight what features helps select organizations to more effectively connect with fans. (Rosenr, 2011) ("Chapter 9," 2013)

The two websites that will be examined are the Denver Broncos and the North Carolina Amateur Sports Association. The Denver Broncos is a professional, informative and up-to-date website. This is because it is embracing all of the different factors under the MSOC model. The most notable include: individual involvement, motivation, content, design, performance, usability and commerce. Individual involvement is occurring the moment someone visits the home page. This is when they have a choice of going to the fans, kids or community section. Motivation is achieved by providing everyone with exciting information about upcoming events and how this will help the Broncos in the future. The content is excellent with the site offering up-to-date news and possible draft choices they will be selecting in April. The design is utilizing interactive videos, colors and pictures to enhance the content. Performance is taking place with the website quickly loading and using headlines / pictures / videos that will catch their attention. Usability is demonstrating how it is easy to understand and navigate. Commerce allows fans to purchase… [read more]

Sports Management Memo: Comparing Essay

… This was just a three-month-summer job and although I was very efficient and helpful none of the tasks I performed at Wal-Mart relate to what will be expected of me at CRSC, should I be accepted. In addition, I have had some impressive sports accomplishments on the field of competition, which I hope will show those making the selection that I understand the culture of sports competition.


Besides listing the football awards I received (All Conference; All Area; Defensive Lineman of the Year), I need to recount some of the skills I learned in high school (typing, public relations in the community and marketing efforts on behalf of the Associated Student Body), some of the office duties I performed at New Mexico Military Institute (writing reports on activities; keeping schedules for my platoon), as well as the ability to meet deadlines.

I need to gather some impressive letters of recommendation from the leaders I have worked with who have appreciated my reliability and ability to learn quickly. I also should create a sample newsletter to show I can write competently, and practice designing brochures using my knowledge of Microsoft technologies. Moreover, I should meet with a current or past intern for the CRSC to pick his or her brain for exact details on what is expected of an intern at CRSC, where I should place my emphasis in my application, and certainly I need to upgrade my resume so it reflects more appropriate experiences and goals.

Works Cited

Charlotte Sports Commission. (2010). Sports Management Internship Program. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from [read more]

Cohesion and Team Success Literature Review

… Cohesion and Team Success

There has been a great deal of research dedicated to attempting to explain the role of team cohesion in team success or effectiveness. There are those who claim that team effectiveness can be gained from social… [read more]

Football and Society A- Sports Term Paper

… e. The observer is looking and recording behaviors, without the notice of the subjects under observation (techniques, 2004). This type of direct field observation has kept me aloof from becoming an active participant of the game itself and has helped… [read more]

Use of Anabolic Steroids in the Sporting World Essay

… ¶ … Anabolic Steroids in the sporting world

Anabolic Steroids

Steroid usage has become increasingly common in today's society, as "the number of professional athletes who have come to rely on performance-enhancing drugs including anabolic steroids and human growth hormone has grown" (Becker & Scheufele 445). Not only is the use of performance enhancing substances fairly routine in the world of professional and Olympic-caliber sporting competition, but usage is also increasing in rank amateur levels, such as those involving athletes in both high schools and colleges. There are a variety of reasons why people opt to take steroids, and most of them are related to a perceived benefit that will aid them in competitive situations. However, a thorough analysis of existing literature unequivocally indicates that although steroid use may generate some positive effect, it is ultimately harmful to the human body and mind.

Although steroid usage originated in the early part of the 20th century, it did not gain its widespread, pervasive presence until the middle to the late part of this century (Haff 42). Today, there is a large body of evidence that indicates that anabolic androgenic steroids produce a plethora of negative side effects -- the most salient of which is an increased hostility and aggression that manifests itself in different ways with users. Research indicates that steroid users have "increased hostility, aggression, depression, paranoid thoughts…and personality disturbances when using AAS" (International Society of Sports Psychology 3).

It is because of this propensity towards aggression and hostility for steroid users, which is merely and indicator of a disturbance in the innate harmony between the mind and the body, that steroid use ultimately brings negative effects upon its users. This proclivity to disturb the internal balance of the mind and the body is even more dangerous to younger users, particularly adolescents in high school and college. It is a well confirmed fact that the brain processes of adolescents does not fully form and function as that of a healthy adult until people are in their mid-20's. Therefore, the disruption of the natural harmony and balance between the body and the mind that the aggressive tendencies of anabolic steroid use engenders can lead younger users into harmful consequences such as becoming addicted to other drugs.

For example, "Among males not participating in school sports, 37% of the variation in anabolic steroid use was accounted for by frequency of cocaine use, injected drug use, and engaging in strength training" (Durant et al. 150). The combination of all of these mind-altering substances within adolescents whose brains are not full developed can prove highly detrimental to the growth and maturity of such an individual. This is particularly true since "Children seem to be the most susceptible… [read more]

Boyhood, Organized Sports Term Paper

… Another area that Messner focused on was the relationship between boys and their fathers; whether they had one or didn't have one and the impact either of those circumstances had on the decisions made to enter sports and how that… [read more]

Inverted U. Hypothesis Essay

… A study conducted comparing athletes participants competing in sports teams (basket ball) with athletes competing in track and field (individual sports) revealed that athletes competing in track and field sports report significantly increased somatic anxiety and reduced self-confidence that athletes in team sports.

In addition, some researchers suggest that genders differences also affect the relationship between self-confidence, somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety, for instance research reveals that the females had higher somatic anxiety and lower self-confidence scores than males in athletics sport. Similarly, another research revealed that adolescents, irrespective of gender, experienced higher somatic and cognitive anxiety levels and lowers self-confidence level as their opponents ability increased.

In his study Reeve (2008, p56) established that among the males, somatic and cognitive anxiety level was more strongly influenced by their perception of the ability of the opponent and the probability of winning. While female self-confidence and cognitive anxiety are determined by the significant they place on success and their readiness to perform,(


Clearly, inverted U. hypothesis exerts differs on athletic performance. Such impacts vary based on gender, level of experience and sports. Also, in order to facilitate optimal performance by athletic participants, sport psychologists should consider the principle aspects of anxiety such as somatic anxiety, self-confidence and cognitive anxiety.


Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.

Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.

Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.

Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.

Vestman, M., & Eden, D. (1992). The Inverted-U relationship between stress and performance: is it time to retire An overworked… [read more]

Major Sports Happenings of the 1960 Essay

… ¶ … Sports Happenings of the 1960's

The 1960s were particularly important when considering sports and a great deal of individuals managed to amaze the whole world as a result of their dedication and as a consequence of the fact that they broke records that the masses considered unbreakable. The name Muhammad Ali is probable to trigger intense feelings in all individuals who had anything to do with the world of sports during their lives. This person succeeded in demonstrating that the impossible was actually possible and did so by putting across a humble attitude, as he acknowledge the role that society as a whole played in his upbringing and in the moments when he experienced the greatest times of his life.

Muhammad Ali is largely considered to be one of the greatest athletes of the twentieth century and this is reflected by the fact that he was widely appreciated by a global public throughout his career and even after he retired. Ali's motto "Fly like a butterfly, sting like a bee" probably reflects his fighting style and makes it possible for individuals to acknowledge the sportsman's strategy. He is among the most important persons who demonstrated that boxing was not only a sport that involved strength and agility, as it also required a great deal of thinking.

Wilt Chamberlain is yet another sportsperson who managed to amaze the entire world as a result of his performances. In spite of the fact that he had a difficult childhood, Wilt succeeded to fight most of his problems and emerged victoriously as he started to experience more and more success playing… [read more]

Canadian National Identity Essay

… Until this there was no other identity Canada had, except being called as a British colony. As stated by Grant, the intention of many Canadians was to have a different identity from United States, in terms of religion, education, politics,… [read more]

Biomechanical Priciples Biomechanical Principles Biomechanics Term Paper

… Instead, the swimmer must find the optimal point in their pull where the most water will be moved. This results in the best and most efficient stroke.

There are currently two strokes that swimmers use to optimize their thrust. The first is a traditional pinwheel stroke. This stroke involves keeping the arm straight in the water and producing a semi-circle. The second stroke is known as the caterpillar arm and involves bending the arm slightly to keep a straight line in the water. This second move efficiently pushes more water out of the way and minimizes the strain on the shoulder (Richardson, 1986).

As can be seen, freestyle swimming is as much a science as any other athletic move. It requires precision of motion to counter the force of the water and maximize energy during a swim. Without taking all factors into consideration, an athlete will expend greater amounts of energy with less overall success.


Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.

Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from

Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.

Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.

Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Berg, C. v. d., & Vorontsov, A.… [read more]

Mitchell, Ted, Tim Church Book Review

… While this claim is supported by scientific evidence on one hand, on the other hand, few people will adhere to a rigorous diet and exercise program simply on the promise that it will make them healthy, without enjoying some 'results.' Also, there is no denying that regardless of the level of activity, once the BMI of the individual surpasses a certain point, exercise and mobility can become hard on the joints, lead to injury, and make it difficult to fully enjoy the benefits of exercise. "I don't think most people would appreciate that, wow, you only burned 200 or 300 calories, which you're going to neutralize with just half that muffin" eaten after a run (Cloud 2009:3). For many patients, it is virtually impossible to separate the need to lose weight from exercise, and finding an exercise program and eating program that is calorically 'balanced' is essential.

The value of exercise and its relationship to health should not be discounted, of course, but the claims of the book, particularly its Plan A moderate walking campaign, must be viewed with caution in terms of really offering enough physical activity to ensure good health when weight loss is required. At best, it should be viewed as a transitional step to more intensive exercise. Of course, if Plan A is intense for a previously sedentary person, they may see substantial health benefits that are worth noting and praising. But unless a person continually increased the intensity his or her health regime, he or she will not see continued weight loss. The American Heart Association and the American College of Sports Medicine's joint guidelines for physical activity and health stated that "30 minutes of moderate physical activity five days a week is necessary to promote and maintain health...It is reasonable to assume that persons with relatively high daily energy expenditures would be less likely to gain weight over time, compared with those who have low energy expenditures. So far, data to support this hypothesis are not particularly compelling" (Taubes 2007:1). Ensuring that energy expenditure was in balance with caloric intake was essential, not simply adding exercise minutes to the day.

Once again, this does not discount the role exercise can play in improving a patient's state of health. But a patient must truly understand that exercise alone, particularly the extremely moderate exercise prescribed by the Cooper Institute, is not enough to sustain major weight loss. Even if thinness and fitness is not the same thing, many patients who try to exercise are, at some level, hoping for weight loss, and they must have realistic expectations regarding low levels of activity. Almost every healthcare provider has met someone who insists that he or she exercises but cannot lose weight, and usually that person is not exercising at a hard enough level to elevate his or her heart rate. A better way to evaluate exercise intensity would be to consider target heart rates, which measures intensity and caloric expenditure.


Cloud, John. (2009). Why exercise won't… [read more]

Sports Wagering Research Paper

… He was an NBA referee for 13 years but with a bad gambling habit he could not resist making some side money on the game he was paid to provide honest officiating for. The federal counts against him included wire fraud, and conspiracy to transmit wagering information over state lines.

Personal Experience with Sports Wagering

In 2008 a handsome thoroughbred horse named Big Brown breezed to victories in the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness, and horseracing fans were expecting him to win the Triple Crown by taking the Belmont Stakes too. So I went online on BoDog and did a "pick 4" -- picking the winners of the three races leading up to the Belmont Stakes and of course picking Big Brown in the climatic race. Amazingly, all three of the horses I picked in the first three races won. It was just a matter of Big Brown winning, as expected. He pulled up lame and never finished the race. Had he won, my investment of $16 would have earned me $30,000. I laughed loudly at myself. Few people win these kinds of wagers, and I wasn't to be one of them.

My Opinion and the Ethical Concepts that Apply

Personally I believe people are going to wager on sports in larger and larger numbers, especially now that they can log on to wagering Web sites on their smart phones, or on their home computers. I don't know that wagering on sports is any less ethical than buying lottery tickets or joining the office pool for March Madness. But there should be good educational materials for young people starting in high school, to warn them of the dangers of wagering. Moreover, if the money a person spends on wagering it taking away from his family or his own well being, that is very unethical.

According to utilitarianism, a morally good action is an action that does the greatest degree of good for the greatest number of people. Who benefits when a father puts up $50 on a sports wager but that means he cannot help his daughter who needs about that same amount of money for her gymnastics class? The father may be hoping to make some money on the wager, but the odds are against it.

Another perspective is that if a father wishes to wager on sports events, he should find another part-time job to provide him with that extra cash to spend on gambling. He should not use his or his wife's regular income that must be used for the family, the household, and unexpected expenses that come up. Of course if the father is an obsessive gambler, he needs to seek help from gamblers anonymous or another group before he gets into deeper trouble.

Works Cited

Beck, Howard, and Schmidt, Michael S. (2007). NBA Referee Pleads Guilty to Gambling

Charges. The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from (2007). Rose Admits to betting on Reds 'every night'. Retrieved December 5, 2011,

From… [read more]

Becoming a Strength and Conditioning Coach Research Paper

… Sports and Conditioning Coach

Becoming a Strength & Conditioning Coach

Becoming a strength and conditioning coach: An overview

People who are drawn to the profession of coaching, specifically the profession of a strength and conditioning coach or personal trainer, come… [read more]

Sport in Athlete Essay

… Arts and Sports


David Best disagrees that sports cannot be art. He argues that sports can be the subject of art but art cannot be the subject of sports. David Best feels that if sports were accepted to be regarded as art forms then they would be very poor art forms. David also says that regarding sports as art would devalue it. Therefore he remained even more convinced that sports are not form of art and insisted that sports should be judged by its own including aesthetic standards because if sports is judged by artistic standards it will be devalued.

Seymour Kleinman agrees that sports can be arts .He says that sports has the possibility of becoming an art form but it depends on the intention of the athlete to act as an artisan. Kleinman also says that the prime requisite is that athlete should begin to view themselves as artists and that until this happens, sports and art merge infrequently.

Spencer Wertz accepted that purposive sports cannot be art but he believed that aesthetic sports could be art. Wertz supports his argument by saying that sports are performing arts because the rules of sports are like artistic texts .He also adds that what sets the performances off from other activities is that the action which make up a given performance must satisfy antecedent requirements. He sums up by saying that performing arts are actions governed by antecedent works or texts. Wertz assumes that when sports are successfully regarded as art, status of sports would be raised.

Is there a relationship between "form" and "aesthetic" sports?

Yes, there is a relationship between form and aesthetic sports. This is because some of the aesthetic sports such as figure skating and synchronized swimming are considered to be art forms hence proving that they are related.… [read more]

Sport Aesthetic Essay

… Sport as Aesthetic

Edgar Degas' painting "Horses on the Course at Longchamp" applies the principle of gradation to the color temperature of the piece. Degas uses warm color tones such as orange, yellow, and brown to achieve a moderate intensity which connects the horses, the riders, and the autumnal scene in the background. The gradation of color amongst the trees, the riders' clothing, and the subtle differences in the horses' color creates overall harmony and lends the painting a subdued tone which indicates that the race referred to in the painting's title is at its conclusion. Degas captures the quiet moments after the horse race rather than the intensity and high drama of the race itself. The movement in this piece is very understated, to emphasize the slow gait of the horses, and is accomplished primarily through the use of vertical lines in the horses' legs.

John Groth uses a variety of techniques to create the 'illusion of motion' in his painting "Tilting at the Ring." He uses blotches of color and the blurring of the jousters to demonstrate that he is in the midst of a highly energetic match. This technique is also used around the waving flags and the feet of the horses, two kinds of movement which further bolster the activity of the jouster himself. Vertical lines are also utilized -- primarily in the jousting sticks, which are at various sharp angles -- to emphasize that the sportsman are fully engaged in their activity. The composition of the painting, in which the jousters are in the foreground and thus given dominance over the observers, increases the 'illusion of motion'. This is further supported by the blurring of the observers, and the jaunty, anticipatory angles of the jousting sticks held by those jousters waiting for their matches. Groth also uses a gradation of value in the jouster, whose arched back and raised forearm are painted in dark hues which gradually lighten as the eye follows his body… [read more]

Sports Neil Leifer's Photograph Makes Basketball Superstar Term Paper

… Sports

Neil Leifer's photograph makes basketball superstar Michael Jordan looks larger than life, capturing the moment the player soars through the air to earn his nickname Air Jordon. The other players on the court literally and figuratively look up at him, as Jordan seems to defy gravity. Jordan actually is flying through the air, as the distance between his knees and the ground seems impossible. Yet the image does not present Jordan as a magician but as a true athlete: someone who has reached the pinnacle of his career because he works hard. The other players seem diminutive next to Jordan and they also respect him even though they are his opponents. The composition of the photo facilitates the point-of-view that Jordan is in the foreground, large, looming, and dominant in the game.

David Black's photo relies both on composition and on shadow to convey the tense moment of the hockey face-off. The shadows are ominous, and one section of a shadow looks like it will eat the other. Clearly they are the shadows of two opponents. Their shadows are in fact larger than the players themselves. This evokes the dark side; the shadow-self of players who will do everything possible to win including fight their opponents on the ice. The face-off circle looks like a drop of blood, which signals the intensity of the game and a possible brawl. The referee is noticeably garbed in neutral black and white, in contrast to the red of the face-off circle.

2. An opportunity to shoot college football in mixed weather is actually a mixed blessing. On the one hand, I must be prepared for any number of lighting conditions, including irregular light and natural shadows as well as wet weather. This demands flexibility with regards to f-stop settings. The light will change, possibly from one moment to the next.

On the other hand, the stark contrasts that stormy weather brings to a shot can add highlights that could never be… [read more]

Sports Psychology Annotated Bibliography

… Sports Psychology: Annotated Bibliography

Brunette, Michelle K., Michel Lariviere, Robert J. Schinke, Xiaoyan Xing, Pat Pickard. (2011).

Fit to belong: activity and acculturation of Chinese students. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at

This study hypothesized that physical activity could increase the potential for an easy cross-cultural transition of students into a new culture by enhancing the student's physical, mental, and social health. An interpretative (hermeneutic) phenomenological framework was used, mainly through interviewing and 'coding' the interviews to understand of how physical activity could ease student's cross-cultural transition. Fourteen Chinese students from a mid-size university in Northeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The participants were interviewed and over the course of the study participated in basketball and soccer with Chinese and Canadian teammates; other students tried 'Canadian' outdoor activities including skiing, snowboarding, skating, and hockey. Interviews in Chinese were taped, translated and then 'coded' into specific issues to allow for comparative study between the participant's reactions. Students reported enhanced communication skills and a greater sense of belonging: sports aided them in learning how to speak English, make friends, eased psychological distress and anxiety, and made them feel more at home in Canada.

Downs, Andrew & Jennifer Ashton. (2011). Vigorous physical activity, sports participation, and athletic identity: implications for mental and physical health in college students. Journal of Sport Behavior. Retrieved September 4, 2011 at

There has been a strong increase in college students with mental health issues and students who manifest unhealthy behaviors like binge drinking. Vigorous exercise is often prescribed as a possible solution to mental health issues because of the ability of exercise to increase the release of 'feel good' neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin that also mitigate the body's reaction to stress. But college students are often less physically active than when they were in high school. Continued participation in physical activity was hypothesized to lead to more healthy behaviors and also lower rates of depression in college students. The participants for this experimental study included 395 undergraduate college students (286 female and 109 male). The participants completed self-report instruments that assessed their levels of depression, sports participation history, athletic identity, and psychological and overall behavioral functioning. Students who were continuously active showed higher levels of mental health, and also manifested healthier behaviors. They had lower usage rates of electronics and ate more healthy foods, although their tendency to binge drink and eat 'junk food' remained equal to their physically inactive counterparts.

Modrono, Cristian &… [read more]

Compare High School Sports to College Essay

… High school sports vs. college sports

With the possible exception of the most challenging high schools in the nation, most students experience more freedom and also more responsibility regarding their academic choices and behavior in college. However, this is not necessarily true of high school sports vs. college sports. In some areas of the country, such as the South, an entire community may become focused on the performance of a high school football team; in the Midwest, the same is true for high school basketball. In contrast, some sports in college may be extremely casual, intramural affairs such as an ultimate Frisbee team. The difficulty level of high school sports depends on the type of sport and intensity of competition at the school.

Both high school and college sports can be extremely competitive. Elite high school athletes often go to summer sports clinics over the summer and subject themselves to grueling practices with the hopes of winning a college scholarship. High-level college athletes often want to retain their sports scholarships, and are under a great deal of pressure from coaches and alumni to succeed. The pressure they feel may be greater than what high school athletes feel because the finances as well as the reputation of the school are at stake. A school with a successful college basketball or football team can command more applications, boost its selectivity, and also draw more alumni donations. High schools are not as dependent upon the performance of their teams to remain solvent.

Although more money is at stake in college sports, increasing the tension for athletes when they play, the payoff is often much greater. Star athletes can garner the attention of professional sports leagues such as the NFL and the NBA. Success in college means keeping valuable athletic scholarships for high tuition bills. And it can also mean garnering national attention for the athlete's feats, which can translate into success even off the courts, in business, provided that the athletes also get reasonable grades. For the most elite college athletes, grades are often less of a concern -- unlike high school athletes who want to play in college; they do not have to graduate to realize… [read more]

Personal Wellness Philosophy Term Paper

… Personal Wellness Philosophy

My personal wellness philosophy includes two important components- the internal and the external. It's important that I feel healthy and happy about my general well-being, with good and bad stresses. Generally, I think internal wellness is accepting and loving my body and the things that surround me and foster a generally positive attitude. This internal wellness impacts my fitness and health as it allows me to fuel my workouts, because I know that it will allow me to have more energy and will help me feel better about myself. The external wellness is that of wanting to be healthy, toned and athletic. This external component of my personal wellness philosophy definitely relates and positively impacts my fitness and health as it helps me get to the gym and work on both cardio activities as well as weights.

The philosophy that I harbor towards my body and mind has been influenced by society, family and culture, as well as the information that I have learned over the years. Society and culture has emphasized, especially with new healthcare legislation, that being healthy and leaner is the body type that is sought after and more accepted by society; therefore, it has influenced my eating habits and fitness goals. My family and the… [read more]

Commodification of Sport and Physical Activity Essay

… Sports have been enjoyed as a form of entertainment at least since the times of the ancient Greeks. The perfection of the human body through athleticism is likewise nothing new. Team sports and leagues have been part of (at least… [read more]

Senior Fitness Essay

… Age and Exercise Web Page Analysis

Website used for research:

This website is based at the University of New Mexico's homepage and is relatively credible given the fact that it comes from an educational resource. Also, the site is written by a professor with a Ph. D. This person is familiar with citation and referencing the resources used to make specific arguments on the page. The information is very credible compared with other sites and I would be comfortable having older clients read and understand this information. As far as the usefulness of the information provided, the page is broken down into different types of training. This helps make it more useful to people looking for specific exercises or information relative to aging and exercise. The page also includes information that is useful to professionals as well as older adults, adding to the usefulness of the information it contains.

The author, also a UNM professor, seems to have… [read more]

Personal Training Senior Fitness Essay

… Jack presents a number of physical challenges that will influence his training, namely his age, his weight, and his impaired eyesight. While all of these factors are important considerations in designing his training program, the key factor to remember is… [read more]

Nike's Global Women's Fitness Business Driving Strategic Integration Case Study

… Business Management Case Study -- Nike Strategy

Introduction to Organizational Strategy on Women's Fitness

The current organizational strategy of Nike with respect to women's fitness comprises a shift in seven specific aspects of its approach. In principle, it marks a shift away from the previous isolated initiative-based concept toward an integrated portfolio-based concept. That includes establishing a permanent prominence of brand loyalty instead of a series of inconsistent relationships as well as a shift toward concept-based collections instead of color-based selections. Mike also hopes to establish a consistent retail experience at the global level. Finally, the organization intends to rectify inconsistent and inadequate dedication of resources and to move away from the isolated business opportunity-based approach toward an integrated acceleration of global business opportunities.

Outline of Problems Encountered

According to the general manager of Nike's global women's fitness component, some of the problems encountered in implementing the new strategy included difficulties in connection with working across traditional boundaries within the organization's complex, matrixed structure to establish the necessary cross-business integration to be able to establish an integrated or cohesive collection of products including footwear, apparel, and sports-related equipment for the women's market. In that regard, other specific barriers included organizing and coordinating many disparate product units and business units and many different operation sites located in remote geographic regions to share a common schedule and to work collaboratively toward a common organizational goal. In the process, the organization also had to overcome leadership challenges that emerged as… [read more]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Annotated Bibliography

… Arnold, T., & Shelbourne, K. (2000). A perioperative rehabilitation program for anterior cruciate ligament surgery. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28, 1-16

Rehabilitation is crucial for postoperative knee injury. Describing their somewhat innovative preoperative program that had been conducted at their… [read more]

Sports Fans Essay

… Sports Fans

Are you a HomeTowner or an Encyclopedia? Sport Fans Classified.

Have you ever taken a personality test, either for a job interview or even to gain entrance to a school? The results of those tests are designed to help figure out what makes you tick. An employer can figure out how you would work on a tem, or whether or not you'll be stealing pens from the supply closet. A school may be interested in how self-motivated you are. Usually these tests don't have clear cut answers -- each one of us seemed to have a little bit of this and a little bit of that all thrown in together. What if there were a similar test for sports fans? How would we classify them, and what kinds of categories would stand alone and which would overlap? Because there are so many different kinds of sports fans, this essay is devoted to just a few of the kinds. As in the mainstream personality tests, there is no clear answer when trying to classify sports fans.

The first type of sports fan is the HomeTowner. This fan loves all the local teams, and they're said to "bleed" the teams' colors. They either grew up in the city whose teams they love or had a parent who influenced them strongly in childhood. HomeTowners don't care very much about a game if their home team isn't involved or directly affected by the outcome. HomeTowners also have a hard time seeing the deficiencies in their own teams. If they're not careful, HomeTowners can easily become Entitled Fans. These fans believe that their team should always win, and that they are owed a title of championship. The good thing about Entitled Fans is that they are always optimistic. HomeTowners also give rise to the third kind of sports fan, the Romantic. This fan keeps a special place in his heart for favorite players and teams of bygone eras. Over time, the facts about these players and teams become obscured by nostalgia, and the Romantic can spend many hours lost in the past. Be prepared to hear repetitive stories from the Romantic, especially when the current team is having a bad year.

Some sports fans have shifting loyalties, and unlike the HomeTowner and the Romantic,… [read more]

Professional Sports it Is Wise Discussion Chapter

… Professional Sports

It is wise for a major metropolis to promote professional sports as a means of promoting the city. This may not extend to providing funding for major athletic infrastructure projects, but at least on a small scale the promotion of professional sports has benefits for cities. The impact is felt most acutely on small or mid-sized metropolises that stand to gain more from the exposure a professional team brings. This paper will analyze recent examples to illustrate the benefits.

One of the best case studies comes with the Columbus Blue Jackets, a 1998 NHL expansion team that is organized as a public-private partnership. At the time, Columbus was the largest metro area in the United States without a professional sports franchise. A Rust Belt city, Columbus had top-tier college sports, but also faced competition for investment and business from other nearby cities such as Detroit and Cleveland. A study released by the team found economic benefits of $7.59 billion in payroll and revenue to local businesses as a result of the Blue Jackets and the Nationwide Arena that was constructed in order to attract the team. The area where the arena is located was a derelict area that once housed a prison, and was redesigned entirely around the concept of an arena and a professional sports franchise. Over the first ten years of operation, approximately "$850 million in spending in central Ohio can be attributed" to the arena and its tenants. The number of businesses in the area increased by 50% in that period. In addition, a survey of hockey fans at the arena found that 90% of them were proud of Columbus for having a professional team and 78% of them believed that the Blue Jackets "give the rest of the country the idea that Columbus is a big-time city." (Thompson, 2009).

Another case study is that of the NBA Memphis Grizzlies, who relocated from Vancouver over a decade ago into an arena that was funded by the city to attract a professional sports franchise. An economic impact report from the Memphis Chamber of Commerce found that nearly 1400 full-time jobs were created by the move and annual economic impact is around $223 million (Morgan, 2010). Opponents of the publicly-funded arena argue that the entire Grizzlies payroll is included in that figure, making the claims spurious, and that the actual tax benefits of the Memphis Grizzlies are insufficient to cover the interest payments on the arena (deMause, 2010).

These examples show that the advantages are clear -- public perception of… [read more]

Sports, Race and Social Issues Book Report

… It is clear that football is of great significance to the community of Odessa, it brings out in them both the good and the bad. It unites them, but at the same time in a broader sense it separates them. Football appears to make time stand still for them; it allows them to live in the past while ignoring the cultural modernizations that other parts of America have undergone. It appears that through football the community members of Odessa have been able to create a form of oppressive hierarchy that mainly benefits the established powerful members of the football community. The powerful and infamous in this community are the most privileged and revered and also the most rewarded, while the poor and the unknowns are at a disadvantage. Football legends like Shawn Crow are worshiped at events like the watermelon feed. The football coach Gary Gaines holds an exceptionally powerful position. He can determine a player's future by playing him or sitting him. Although he goes through a lot of stress and anguish he benefits greatly from his position. He does not teach, he only coaches and he makes more money than teachers with Master's degrees do. The vulnerable and feeble in this hierarchy are the players, specifically the minority players and the other minority members of the community. They are used, misguided, ostracized and in the end discarded by a system that views them as expendable and only valuable for their physical abilities which can be taken away in an instant.

The minority players are robbed of a future because the institution does not emphasize education and their future, they only emphasize the football season. This blinds them, and makes them believe that they have no future outside of football. The other members of the community observe this, and it furthers the harmful and slave-era stereotype that claims that blacks have no other talents that are not of a physical nature. Football in this community allows them to live in the past while ignoring the future and the reality that people especially black can be more that just physical specimens.

Works Cited

Bissinger, H.G. Friday Night Lights: a Town, a Team, and a Dream. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Da Capo, 2000.… [read more]

Establishment of Blood Screening Protocols Literature Review

… " (Fallon, ) However, more recent evidence is stated by Fallon to call this conclusion into question as Hinton et al. In reports a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, that investigated the effect of iron supplementation in 42 iron-depleted nonanemic women. Findings… [read more]

Sport Event Audit Assessment

… Sports Audit

Sports Event Audit: A Baseball Game at Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, PA

Attendance of a sporting event carries with it certain expectations. The attendees recognize that they cannot be guaranteed the victory for the team which they… [read more]

Sports Marketing Peer-Reviewed Journal

… Sports Marketing

Evaluating the Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers

For Sport and Non-Sport Brands

In the peer-reviewed article "To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go: The Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands" the authors cite and through empirically-derived research, clarify analysis of the fit between products and celebrity vs. non-celebrity endorsers. The first study is based on the hypothesis that a sport celebrity will be more effective promoting a sport brand, with the majority of benefit being to the celebrities image and name awareness. The second study matched an anonymous model that is identified as an athlete with a sport and non-sport brand. In this second test, the anonymous model that is positioned as an athlete is more effective promoting sports over non-sport brands (Koernig, Boyd, 25, 26).

Assessing the Effectiveness of Sports Celebrity Endorsements

From the $90 million in contracts LeBron James signed with Nike and Upper Deck before even entering the NBA to the $105 million Tiger Woods received from Buick alone, celebrity endorsements have been shown to gain and hold consumer attention, enhance message recall and increase the credibility of ad and product messages (Koernig, Boyd, 27). With the current economic conditions forcing many companies to re-evaluate these large endorsement deals with athletes, there has been new focus on the "match-up hypothesis" of pairing athletes from a given sport with brands from theirs and related sports vs. brands unrelated to sports at all. The authors contend that balance theory (Koernig, Boyd, 27) between the endorser, the brand and the target audience all must be in alignment for the endorsement strategy to be effective.… [read more]

Project Proposal Exercise Pros and Cons Research Proposal

… ¶ … represented by the psychological mechanisms which lead some people to exercise on a regular basis as well as by the reasons which keep others away from sports and physical activity.

The purpose of the paper is to understand who are the people who get engaged in physical activities and sports. The goal is to comprehend why the same activity (or better said life style) is loved by some and hated by others. In addition, I would like to understand what are the psychological effects of sports upon people and the psychological factors which can actually impact sport performances. As far as the poeple who hate sports are concerned, the research wishes to see if there are such elements which could motivate them to do more physical activity. As far as athletes are concerned, the paper is focused on understanding what are the stimuli which lead them to surpass their physical limits and reach outstanding performances.

Background: The already existing research in the area claims that physical exercise has a positive impact upon people -from both a physical and psychological point-of-view. It is also known that performing sports in outdoor contexts, especially in the middle of natural environments supports the state of well being. As far as the intensity of the physical activity required reaching this state, this is moderate. At this point it becomes clear why some people choose to practice sports.

Scope: The argument is wide, but the main part of the research will focus exclusively upon the pros and cons that people have in mind when they have to take up a life style which includes physical exercise.

Theoretical framework: the paper will use the theories according to which physical exercise is good for the mind and the body and those which argue that taking up and practicing sports are actions based on education and expectations. The creation of expectations in people through communication campaigns (which fundamentally try to sell one thing or another) is one of the elements that the research will… [read more]

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