"Sports / Exercise / Fitness" Essays

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Move Yourself the Book Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Move Yourself

The Book I Chose and Why I Chose It

I chose the book "Move yourself" (Mitchell, Church, & Zucker, 2008), since I myself have repeatedly attempted to start different exercise regimens, and because I am somewhat confused by the hemorrhaging of books on the subject. Exercise seems to me a field that is split into multifarious sub-fields, and I have, at times wondered whether all of these -- such as weight lifting and calisthenetics are necessary. The five different types of exercises -- isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, anaerobic, and aerobic -- have confused me. I wondered about the differentiations between each, and how I could fit all in to my very oppressed schedule. Finally, many books that I have read have amplified the importance of regular gym attendance. Not having time or money to afford a gym, I wondered what Cooper's advice was, and was wildly relieved although skeptical to discover that not only did he deem membership at a gym unnecessary but that the thought merely minimal activity would be sufficient (at least initially). Following Kenneth Cooper's advice, Mitchell et al. (2008) firstly recommend a medical examination before beginning a program of aerobic exercise; secondly suggest a 'stress test' (an exercise electrocardiogram) in order to detect any abnormal cardiac activity during exercise; and thirdly suggest less strenuous activity than is popularly accepted. Even a bit of activity Mitchell et al. (2008) maintained increases your blood flow, makes your nervous system work better and improves your metabolism. You do not need a lot of exercise to live a healthy life.

Part II; Two Topics of Interest

The two points that most intrigued me were the authors' observations that: 1. "A little activity goes a long way" and, 2. That focusing on fitness eliminates the part of the belly fat that is the most detrimental to one's health.

1. "A little activity goes a long way" -- Mitchell et al. (2008) point out that exercise need not be intimidating and, on the contrary, a sedentary life "beyond a shadow of doubt... directly causes chronic disease and a shorter life span" (p.5). Approximately 75% of U.S. adults are sedentary, and this high percentage can be avoided by a small amount of exercise per day. "A little physical activity goes a long way" (7). Using a stepcounter (or "pedometer") that counts the number of steps you take per day will tell you how sedentary you are. 8,500 steps and above per day are recommended. And this can be achieved by walking, by cycling, or by using a stationary bike. Strenuous activity -- breaking into a sweat -- is unnecessary.

2. Focus on fitness not thinness -- Body types depend on the individual. There is no one 'normal' body type. Focus instead on fitness, and when…… [read more]


Athletes Review Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Athletes Review: Ankle Tape or Ankle Brace

The human foot has an extremely complex structure of bones, joints and muscles. Meadows (2006) points out, "The human foot has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. With such a complex structure, a lot can go wrong. While some foot problems are inherited, many occur because of… [read more]


Boyhood Organized Sports and the Construction of Masculinities Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Boyhood Messner

Messner's Examination of Non-Intimacy and Youth Sports

For young boys making their first forays into the world social interaction, sports can be a central vehicle to finding common ground with others. For boys who will feel increasing pressure as they more toward adolescence to reflect certain idealized qualities of masculinity, spectatorship and participation in organized sports can become a central forum for proving one's self, for aspiring to greater achievements and for fulfilling the expectations of those around one's self. However, the article by Messner (1990) argues that the emphasis on sports is also used to insulate boys for establishing more intimate and meaningful connections with others, reinforcing the socialized gender role by which men are ultimately expected to be competitive, strong and self-sufficient. The central thesis of Messner's article is that organized sports are used to reinforce expectations of what it means to be male both in terms of physical prowess and psychological isolation.

Main Points:

Messner makes the primary argument that organized sports are seen as something of a universal mode for personal growth among young men and that this perspective inherently projects certain views of what it means to be male. Indeed, popularity and early romantic entanglement may often be a function of one's prominence and physical capability on the field of sporting competition. For those who are excluded, either electively or by lack of ability, from such competition, the social consequences are palpable, Messner argues. The Messner text indicates that "there are millions of males who at an early age are rejected by, become alienated from, or lose interest in organized sports. Yet all boys are, to a greater or lesser extent, judged according to their ability, or lack of ability, in competitive sports." (Messner, p. 88)

This means that there is a certain sociological view which is taken toward those young boys who opt out of participation in sports or who find themselves incapable of competing at a…… [read more]


Financing a Professional Sports Arena Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Football Stadium

Financing a Football Stadium: The Debate Over Public Subsidies

Bringing a professional sports team to a city, or keeping a popular franchise in its current locale, is inextricably linked to the facilities which the site in question is willing to provide. Based on the premise that a professional sports team brings civic pride, greater tourism, opportunities for merchandising… [read more]


Sports Are an Enormous Part of Pop Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Sports are an enormous part of pop culture in America and the most popular sport in the country is football -- dominated by men, as players and viewers. So, why do TV networks put attractive women on the sidelines? Are the women there to truly report? Or to satisfy the male gaze? And how do attractive female athletes stack up in TV viewers' eyes? Are they perceived as better athletes -- or less talented athletes -- when they are particularly pretty? These two issues are presented in this paper as research into the feminine side of society's sporting experiences, a side of sports that perhaps has not been investigated fully.

Millions of men sit on couches at home watching an early season National Football League (NFL) game on a warm September afternoon in New England. They are glued to the set, watching the Patriots march down the field. Suddenly a player is injured, there is a time out, and the broadcast announcers switch to the sidelines where reporter Erin Andrews is standing with a microphone. Andrews is wearing easy-on-the-eyes form-fitting clothes that give emphasis to her stunningly gorgeous figure. Her long flowing blond hair is immaculate and her striking face is right off the cover of Vogue Magazine. Using her most melodious voice she explains the football injury in a 45-second sound bite and smiles as she sends it back up to the all-male booth. So why do networks hire lovely women to give sideline reports? In a New York Times column (Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner) the bloggers suggest several possible reasons including: networks don't want to appear sexist by having all men; female reporters are there to appeal to a mainly male audience; or women are better at explaining players' emotions and personalities.

The bloggers solicited responses from readers, and responses reflected diverse attitudes about why female sideline reporters are there. "Mark" said they are simply "eye candy." "Adam" believed they are there to add "some semblance of balance to the gender equation." "Linda" suggested it is "a blonde's way to payback for male ob/gynecologists?" "Mike" asked, "Is there anything sexier than a…… [read more]


Violence in Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … social history, one of the most often neglected activities that has helped shape the American Experience has been the way in which sports and sporting events have evolved in American popular culture. Thinking about sports, one often focuses on simply the activity and entertainment value. Of course, that is quite important, but there are numerous other factors that… [read more]


Baseball in Japan What Does the American National Sports Mean to the Japanese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … baseball in Japan. While baseball is the national sport in the United States of America it has also undergone an amazing development in Japan as well. In the paragraphs to come we will examine the history of this sport in Japan, trying to explain the process through which it became a relevant activity.

In addition we will try… [read more]


Heat Pill Body Temperature Monitoring Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,115 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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Heat Pill: Body Temperature Monitoring

The 'Heat Pill' has made possible calculating core body temperature in a non-laboratory environment on a realtime basis. For assessing hyperthermia on the field, the 'heat pill' offers the best technological means and thus the most useful life saving screening method for the Trainers. The 'Heat Pill' could possibly eliminate heat stroke, which is currently… [read more]


Sports as Fun Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (306 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … dawn of the Olympics in ancient Greece, sports have moved away from being games people play for fun to serious competitive events. The modern sports media has taken that formula one step further by commodifying every possible aspect of a sporting event. Thus, sports have become less and less about fun and more and more about serious business.

Berlage (1982) bemoans the fact that sports no longer offer children the lighthearted opportunities for play that they once did. Because athletes add considerable value to college teams, students are geared toward intense competition when they begin showing signs of athletic prowess. Eager parents and coaches encourage adolescent athletes -- and even younger children -- to put in long hours at practice. In some cases, the game that was once fun for the student becomes an arduous chore. Especially at the varsity levels, school athletic programs gear up talented students toward the sporting…… [read more]


Sporting Boycott a Result of Political Pressure Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (336 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Sports have become so well-integrated with the media that boycotts are a legitimate political tool. Boycotts of sports have been used in many high-profile cases such as the 1980 boycott of the Moscow Olympics by the United States. Other high-profile sports boycotts include the highly effective ones used in South Africa to protest apartheid. Sports boycotts can be powerful political tools because as Spector (nd) points out, they are a form of nonviolent dissent or civil disobedience. Using peaceful means, the participants in the boycott work "beyond the usual international legal order" to achieve tangible changes in policy or regime (Spector nd, p. 2).

Sports boycotts are effective because of the connection between sports, the media, and business. If no one cared to watch sports on television, then a boycott of sporting events would be meaningless. One of the goals of a sports boycott is to raise awareness, to garner as much publicity for the political cause as for the sporting event itself. Athletes make a huge sacrifice…… [read more]


Sports Marketing an Interview With Tom Hoff Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (510 words)
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Sports Marketing

An interview with Tom Hoff, Senior Associate Athletic Director, External Relations with Ohio State University (Cobbs, 2007) is upbeat in tone and provides a glimpse into how one of the nations' leading Athletic Departments operates. The primary focus is on how critical it is to create strong relationships with peers, followed by genuine concern for the student-athlete's experience, academic and athletic accomplishment.

In the article, Interview with Tom Hof, Senior Associate Athletic Director, External Relations (Cobbs, 2007) Mr. Hof explains how he is successfully managing a $100M budget that is to a large extent funded by donor donations. Published in the Sport Marketing Quarterly from West Virginia University, the interview also illustrates how important it is to have a mission statement anchored in innovation and a culture focused on collaboration.

Throughout the interview, Tom Hof refers to the concepts of being committed to the mission statement and core values of the Ohio State Athletic Department which are "innovation in approach and spirit" and "a tradition of leadership" (Cobbs, 2007). Balancing between these two core values while managing a $100M operating budget requires a continual focus on how to achieve strategic goals through daily tasks. The concepts of best-selling book Built to Last (Boyle, Collins, 2007) are mentioned in the interview, including the popular concept of the big hairy audacious goals (BHAG) that Jim Collins discovered where critical for organizational cultures to stay the course of transformation. Mr. Hof credits Andy Geiger for introducing the concepts from the best-selling Jim Collins book Good to…… [read more]


Fundraising an Essential Competency for the Sport Manager in the 21st Century Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (489 words)
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Sports Fundraising

Sports and fundraising are no longer separate endeavors. Today, the modern trend is for amateur sports programs at every level to be self-supportive. Scholastic, community, and recreational sports programs must be able to generate funding to support their needs apart from any funds available from organizational budgets. Successful fundraising is a means to an end that resembles an art in some respects and a science in other respects. Some of the fundamental defining elements of sports fundraising events include different types of sponsorships, profit centers, promotional avenues, applicable time frames, permissions, compliance issues, matching of themes and prospective sponsors, and the talents and capabilities of the available staff responsible for organization and implementation.

The Article

The reviewed article, "Fundraising: an essential competency for the sports manager in the 21st century" by William F. Stier and published in the Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business on June 1, 1999.

Article Summary

The author explains the three reasons for the modern shift from sports programs funded by organizational budgets to self-supportive sports programs: inflation, the increasing popularity of sports, and the large numbers of people interested in sports. According to Stier, the contemporary sports manager must therefore be adept at conceiving, planning, and implementing fundraising activities in addition to their skills that are directly related to sports management.

The author suggests that the most effective approach to sports fundraising is to conceive of it as an opportunity rather than an obligation and also to maintain the…… [read more]


High School Sports Head and Spinal Cord Injury Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (585 words)
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¶ … High School Sports Head and spinal cord injury

Dompier, T., Powell, J., Barron, M., & Moore, M. (2007). Time-loss and non-time-loss injuries in youth football players. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(3), 395-402.

Retrieved November 6, 2009, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 1364035361).

High school football is one of the most popular secondary school sports for athletes and spectators alike. Homecoming games are enthusiastically attended by alumni, and draw attention to the school population as a whole. Football is also a sport with a great deal of attraction for students wishing to obtain an athletic scholarship and to improve their chances of getting into a competitive college. Unfortunately, football is also one of the most deadly sports, and one of the sports most prone to cause long-lasting damage in student athletes. Even on the level of youth participation, high school football has its risks: 8% of youth football players (age range = 5 to 14 years) are severely injured each year, resulting in more than 187-000 emergency room visits. Thus, in attempting to address the needs of ninth graders on the football field, it is important to understand that many will enter a sports program already having sustained a potentially serious injury. Trying to prevent further, more severe injuries is critical.

In the article, "Time-loss and non-time-loss injuries in youth football flayers" from the Journal of Athletic Training (Dompier et all 2007) the authors studied 779 players, including 296 in grades four and five; 203 in grade six; 188 in grade seven; and 92 in grade eight. Regarding time-loss (TL) and non-time-loss (NTL) injury patterns across age groups in youth football players, a total of 474 injuries and 26, 565 exposures to injuries were identified. Injuries were reported by 36.5% of…… [read more]


Gym Guys Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … GYM GUYS

Introduction to the Creature:

Since the 1980s, fitness has developed into one of the most popular recreational pastimes in the United States. Whereas gyms used to be relatively few and far between outside of school campuses, commercial gyms now exist virtually everywhere with major health club chains maintaining facilities in many different states. Among American males, working out has become tremendously popular although there are distinctly different reasons they participate in the same general activity.

Muscle heads workout mainly because they have selected building an imposing or intimidating physique as a primary psychological identity rather than because they have any specific purpose for building muscle. Narcissists workout exclusively for cosmetic purposes, also without any actual purpose for developing an impressive physique beyond a need for social attention and the admiration of strangers. Athletes have always worked out in connection with improving their sports performance. In many respects, these three classes of individuals workout in gyms for different reasons; however, in other respects, they may also share certain motivations on one level or another.

Subspecies Number 1 -- Muscle Heads:

Muscle heads seek to build muscle the same way that other tremendously psychologically insecure individuals may obsessively pursue financial wealth or positions of power or public notoriety. Instead of using the gym to improve their health or to maintain a level of physical fitness, many muscle heads workout obsessively because being recognized for a muscular build is their primary psychological orientation and manner of relating to others. They workout for the purpose of getting bigger and may devote as much time and attention to picking out clothes that are just slightly too small so that their physiques are apparent…… [read more]


Yoga Benefits Health Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Mythology- Eastern

Health Benefits of Yoga

Often when people hear the word yoga they picture people coiled up painfully like pretzels or sitting with their legs crossed and chanting. Twisting and meditation are all part of the 5,000-year-old practice of yoga, but are really only small pieces of the yoga pie. The term yoga originates from the ancient Sanskrit word… [read more]


Athletic Facility Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (408 words)
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Risk Management

Through effective risk management potential and existing risks may be identified"

(Cotton & Wolohan, 2003, p. 78).

Sport constitutes one of the top ten industries in the United States (U.S.), Doyice Cotton and John T. Wolohan (2003) asserts. As a result of the prominent status of sport, the need exists for effective risk management by managers of athletic facilities. The organization needs to create an environment with minimal inherent risks within activities and services without generating any change in the activity itself.

Risk management does not attempt to eliminate each and every risk, Cotton and Wolohan (2003) stress, but instead serves as "a management strategy to maintain greater control over the legal uncertainty that may 'wreak havoc on a sport business'" (p. 268). In Chapter 5 of the book, Law for Recreation and Sport Managers, Cotton and Wolohan (2003) introduce the recreation or sport manager to the basics components of the risk management process. According to Cotton and Wolohan risk management may be defined as "controlling the financial and personal injury losses from sudden, unforeseen, unusual accidents and intentional torts" (Ibid.). Risk management has also been noted to include the way to manage financial and human resources wisely, while making sound decisions.…… [read more]


Physical Education and Academic Achievement Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,925 words)
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Academics and Physical Education

Blakemore, Connie L. "Movement is essential to learning.(physical education and academic achievement)." The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). 2003. Retrieved July 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-111166343.html

The article summarizes the results of several empirical research studies in the area of education and the… [read more]


Bicarbonate Loading Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,887 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Bicarbonate loading is a well-known and much practiced ergogenic aid among the sports fraternity around the world. By neutralizing the H+ ions, bicarbonate loading helps sustain the natural glycolytic energy mechanism a little further. Bicarbonate loading increases the buffer capacity of the athlete enabling him to have sustained high performance for short high intensive workouts. However, the potential side effects… [read more]


Stadium Construction Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Stadium Construction

New sports facilities do not stimulate local economies.

The purpose of this study is to examine: (1) the lack of benefits to the local community as a result of new stadium construction, (2) the lack of economic improvement in areas where new stadiums have been constructed, and (3) how the costs of building a new stadium outweigh the… [read more]


Curves for Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,171 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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The is particularly true in this day and age when people have access to so many different types of food and large portion sizes. The curves programs teaches members how to eat in a way that will maximize their ability to lose weight in conjunction with the exercise program. According to WebMD many people who struggle with weight have that problem because they overeat or because they are not consuming the right foods ("Health & Fitness"). As part of curves complete subscriber are taught portion control and how to eat in a manner that is healthful. They are also taught what to eat when they are at a restaurant or a fast food place. In other words they are given practical tools to assist them in daily life where they may be tempted to eat too much or not eat the right food.

The success of the program can also be seen in actual members of Curves for women. These women were not only able to lose weight, but they have also been able to maintain their weight loss. There are many current and former members of curves for women who seem to agree that the system works. According to the curves website members of curves such as Krista Smart have experience weight loss and an overall improvement in health as a result of the Curves program. Krista Smart has been a member since 2003 she is 34 years old and was 179 pounds when she joined curves. She was also to lose about 40 pounds on Curves program. She has been able to maintain a weight of 140 fro several years. According to Krista not only has she been able to lose weight but curves assisted her in gaining a whole new life. Krista explains "I'm back -- a new body, a new style, a new woman. Curves helped me find my way ("Success Stories")." This is a first hand account of the success that women have seen while adhering to the Curves for women program. This first hand account from Krista is just one of many women who have found Curves to women to be essential to their weight loss program.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to confirm that curves workout may look easy, but it provides a challenging and effective exercise program for women of all ages.

The research confirmed that Curves utilizes circuit training to assist members in loosing weight. The research confirmed that circuit traiing is beneficial as it pertains to weight loss because it proves both cardio and weight training which assist in the burning of calories and the building of muscle. The research also found that curves offers a diet plan to ensure that clients nutritional needs are met. In addition member of curves have provided confirmation that the program has assist them in not only losing weight but also keeping the weight off. All of these examples offer concrete proof that although curves workout may look easy, but it provides… [read more]


Sports and Society Danielle Green Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Danielle Green-Byrd

In the face of tragedy, the human being survives. This is a generalized truth - that our species is nothing if not a survivor. How else could we have prevailed in the ultimate predator contest over the vast millennia of our existence? With no natural weapons, no protections against the elements or nature, the human being is a… [read more]


Community Prevention Drug Use Among High School Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,195 words)
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Community Prevention

Drug use among high school athletes is often a problem in relation to the pressure to perform while also coping with other factors such as peer group, home life, and school work. The temptation to use steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs therefore increases concomitantly with pressures from the social and private lives of the athletes. In order to help curb this problem, I would therefore propose a community prevention program that focuses on preventing drug use in high school athletes in Boise High School, Idaho.

Risks

Risk factors include: a difficult home life, where there is for example constant discord between parents, or between the parents and children; parents and family members who use drugs; friends who use drugs; and the availability of drugs.

Other risk factors could include individual emotional problems such as depression and a feeling of unworthiness, as well as less than average school performance. These factors are mitigated by perceived talents in sports, and hence the drive to perform better. This drive further strengthens the propensity towards using drugs.

Protective factors

Protective factors could relate to the individual, as well as his or her relationships with peers, family, and the community. An individual may for example have a particularly strong character, which could offset risk factors such as peer pressure and home life. Concomitantly, a good home and community basis will support the individual in choosing not to choose drugs. Community programs for example have proven to significantly reduce the occurrence of drug use among young people in general, and among athletes in particular. After-school programs for example reduce the opportunity to become involved in less desirable activities, and drug use as a result is reduced.

Community activities can also cultivate healthy peer-group and family relationships that will reduce the risk of drug use among athletes. Young athletes can then be encouraged to view themselves as worthy on the basis of more than only their athletic performance, and cultivate a more balanced lifestyle in this way.

In cases where rehabilitation is necessary, the community can also serve as an important protective factor in cultivating healthy family and peer relationships. These relationships will then be a strong basis upon which to build a maintenance plan for the future health of the athlete and the athletic team of which he or she is part.

Strategy would mainly base my strategy upon prevention by means of information dissemination and community training programs. I would handle the former via pamphlets, talks at the school concerned, visual materials such as DVDs, and other materials to provide information on the risk factors involved in drug use. For this, I would particularly focus upon the long-term dangers of steroid use. I would also emphasize the importance of cultivating healthy relationships concomitantly with a healthy lifestyle.

In terms of community training programs, I would provide young athletes with the opportunity to learn more about the specific risk factors for their particular peer group. For these, I would also focus on building relationships… [read more]


Conditioning, Training and Participating in the Triathlon Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,801 words)
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Conditioning, Training and Participating in the Triathlon
Athletic activity is a cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle for
individuals of all ages permitting. Physical activeness benefits the body
and mind, and is crucial in preventing obesity, hypertension, heart disease
and other potentially fatal long-term conditions. The body of research on
health, physical activity and habitual orientations is at a consensus
regarding… [read more]


Has the Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs of Professional Athletes Negatively Impacted Athletes and Sports? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,132 words)
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Sports - Steroids in Sports

PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS in SPORTS

Pharmaceutical performance enhancement in sports and military combat has existed about as long as recorded history. In many cases, ancient athletes and warriors used some of the same stimulants and medicinal herbs commonly at issue today in connection with professional sports. In principle, it is immediately obvious why drugs taken… [read more]


Deliberate Play Deliberate Practice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,222 words)
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Deliberate Play

Being a coach who employs deliberate play and deliberate practice concepts in my practice sessions, as well as during games, allows me to incorporate the athlete's feelings and thoughts into situations involving the game. It also allows me to use qualitative and quantitative questionnaires to determine the mindset of my players as well as the goals and objectives we should be setting as a coaching staff for individual player.

Both concepts consider the athlete's desires as well as the supportive role of the parents and coaches in assisting the athletes in obtaining those desires. The coaches are called upon to provide the athletes with the resources including training such as skill training, conditioning, team concepts, and positioning theories. The parents offer a supportive role as well, oftentimes becoming the sounding box for the athletes that can be both negative and positive in feedback.

Deliberate play begins when the athletes are young and requires training at a rate of 2-5 hours per week. The training time increases through the years until approximately a decade later the athletes are practicing at a rate of 25-30 hours per week. Each stage incorporated into deliberate play is defined in a certain manner.

These distinct stages of development include different types of activities through the early years, middle years, later years and maintenance years. The activities are mainly focused on deliberate activities used to ensure the athlete is progressing. This concept also states that the hours of practice should have direct results and a corresponding improvement in the performance level of the athlete.

A presentation at a recent university symposium on deliberate practice showed that deliberate play over a ten-year time frame would "confirm the 10 yr-10.000 hrs rule predicted by Ericsson," and it would "confirm engagement in deliberate play prior to organized sport participation, but expand both theories in regard to the amount of practice, the role of coaching and the role of families on experts' careers" (Da Matta, French, 2002).

The support and resources provided by the coaches and the families seemed to allow the athletes more opportunities to succeed and influenced the athlete's perception of the practices and training they received.

Jean Cote, one of the proponents of deliberate play, states, "athletes rated practices that are high in concentration and effort as also being high in enjoyment" (Cote 1993). It is important therefore to maintain a concentrated level and effort during practice in order for the athlete to benefit at the highest level from the training. Cote also found that deliberate play during the athlete's formative years was an important factor in the progress of the athlete, but that competition in both practice and play also played a significant role in that progression as well.

According to Ericsson and Cote there are four measurable periods of time during an athlete's progression. There is the sampling time frame when an athlete tries a number of different sports to ascertain which one would be the best for him or her and the… [read more]


Financially Feasible? One Common Community Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (864 words)
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¶ … financially feasible?

One common community project that is frequently cited as a valuable endeavor is that of a recreational center for teens. While this is a noble project, it also entails considerable expense because of the overhead required to maintain and run as well as build the facility. For example, coaches must be hired to supervise the games, equipment must be stored and maintained, and the teens must be supervised within the facility. Insurance during potentially hazardous sporting events is another consideration. However, an open space park requires less maintenance costs. Thus improving the existing community park and adding sports facilities for teens, like basketball courts and tennis courts might be a better option than a luxurious indoor facility with a snack bar, organized leagues, and so forth.

What populations are historically underserved?

Is it the elderly? The young? People living within certain districts that are poorer and lack open spaces for people to go to play and enjoy the outdoors? Is there a need for people who exercise to have sidewalks in some areas, or are certain teams and leagues in the community suffering because of the limits of the current park system? Given that resources are finite (and $50,000 is not very much in today's dollars) it must be asked if some of the needs addressed by the projects are already being met by other institutions. Schools may offer sporting facilities after-hours that are already available for recreational players, while seniors might be able to have a 'Bingo' night already at the local church and organize their community around private institutions.

How much community spirit is there?

For projects such as a sports or country fair, a clean-up day, a senior citizens dinner, etcetera, more than money is needed -- time and volunteers are also required. Does the community have people with enough time 'on their hands' to staff such projects? If much of the community is made up of adults with small children and busy careers, most of them may not have time to engage in the necessary planning and coordination efforts to run these projects. However, a community with a large population of retirees might contain people who are willing to jump at the chance to give back something meaningful, in organizing such efforts. Additionally, there might be long-standing community organizations, like a runner's club, that would be willing to help organize a 5K run.

How long do residents usually live in the area?

If there is a large population of people that tend to leave at times, like during the summer, or a large population…… [read more]


Depression All in the Mind? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,041 words)
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Depression

ALL in the MIND?

Depression and Physical Activity

Depression has been described as a lingering feeling of sadness and hopelessness, characterized by low mood, and directly or indirectly linked to an external cause (Gianoulis and Rose 2002). It can be casual or serious. Either way, this "common cold of psychiatric illness" lasts for weeks or months. Despite the awareness… [read more]


Program Career Interest Statement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (601 words)
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M.Ed. In Intercollegiate Athletics Administration

Although today's college students lead increasingly busy lives, they still seek a sense of community with their fellow students during the college experience. Creating a strong and vibrant college community is one of the core objectives of any intercollegiate athletic program. The vital role of college athletics in fostering a positive atmosphere on campus has received a great deal of media attention in recent years. The reputations of athletic teams are inexorably tied to the reputation of the university. Consider how the George Mason University basketball team's unexpected success in the 2006 NCAA championships expanded the applicant pool of this once largely regional university.

The effective administration of an intercollegiate athletic program demands a new breed of manager. He or she must be able to navigate the rocky terrain of increased media scrutiny, the legal requirements of NCAA academic compliance and Title IV regulations, as well as serve current and former students' demands for entertainment and college pageantry during game time. I believe I have the ideal set of intellectual and interpersonal skills to provide such expertise.

Athletics have long been a passion in my life, and I think that physical activity is an ideal arena to learn about sacrifice, teamwork, and to feel a positive sense of connection with others. Whether playing competitively in organized football and baseball leagues when I was young, or in friendly pick-up games with friends today, my life is incomplete without the physical and spiritual challenges of athletics. To be a part of a team is to be a part of a community, and to be part of a school with strong athletic teams creates a lasting sense of a common university culture, that is felt even after a student graduates. Alumni still return to their school to see…… [read more]


Ethics Honesty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,185 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Honesty in Athletics and the Classroom

Definition of the Quality

Honesty is the bedrock of my value system. Honesty is the first and most important value of any moral system. But what is honesty? There are many cliches attached to the ideal of honesty, like 'honest as the day is long' and 'Honest Abe,' but what does the word mean?… [read more]


Sociology in Basketball Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Sociology in Basketball

This informative and analytical of sociology is presenting various facts on sociology of basketball. Therefore, a descriptive history of basketball along with historical ups and downs and role of basketball in society is being discussed in this article. Furthermore, it's also shedding light on different prescriptive of basketball such as economical and political. In addition a brief… [read more]


Pilates for Lower Back Pain Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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BASI Pilates Lower Back Pain

BASI Pilates for Lower Back Pain"

San Francisco

The lower back is often a source of continual pain, and is in fact an area of the body that people seek pain treatment for more frequently than almost any other, as well as being the most common cause of absenteeism at work in the U.S., as… [read more]


Importance of Physical Education in Schools and Colleges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Physical Education in schools and colleges

The importance of Physical Education at schools and colleges

Physical education has become an important issue that is seen by many educators as an essential aspect of the overall educational program at schools and colleges in the country. This concern is based on a number of contemporary issues. The first is that there has been a decline in the perceived importance of physical education at schools and colleges. (Drane et al. 2004) This decline has raised concern in the light of the recent reports of an increase in obesity among the youth in the United States. While physical exercise and physical exercise programs are seen as important in terms of general health and well-being, the evidence of the relationship between obesity and the lack of physical exercise has raised this concern to another level and increased the importance of physical education at our schools and colleges.

The importance of physical education in schools and colleges in the United States was first realized in the 1950s'. Studies at that time indicated that students in American colleges were less physically fit compared to their counterparts in Europe. (Pivarnik and Pfeiffer) These studies resulted in the establishment of President's Council on Youth Fitness, which was established in 1956. There were subsequent studies and efforts to improve the state of physical fitness and education in our schools and colleges.

However, the decline of physical fitness among children in the country has been a continual topic of debate in recent years. The strong evidence of obesity among the youth has served to exacerbate this concern and highlight the need for a greater emphasis on physical education. Many experts claim that improvements to physical education program at schools in particular are essential to combat these growing rates of obesity as well as improve general student health. There is therefore a consensus that children should be more involved in physical exercise in a formal sense and on a regular basis. Secondly, there is increasing agreement among educationists and healthcare experts that there is a close and important link between a lack of physical exercise and obesity among children.

These views are borne out by numerous studies. For example, in 1989 the Michigan Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (MAHPERD) issued a statement which, "...emphasized the importance of quality physical education programs in Michigan schools

" (Pivarnik and Pfeiffer) There have also been various national initiatives aimed at improving the state of student fitness by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other organizations and bodies. These programs and studies also emphasize the importance of social environment and its relationship to physical fitness programs.

Despite these initiatives and programs over the years, the present situation indicates that there has been an increase rather than a decline in the rate of obesity among America's youth. This situation has been positively linked to present situation regarding the relatively poor implementation of physical exercise programs in schools. In this… [read more]


Advertising in America's Fastest Growing Sport of NASCAR Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Advertising and NASCAR

NASCAR and Advertising

In the book NASCAR for Dummies, Martin and Ruschak admit "races are on TV, racetracks are in nearly every part of the country, and drivers have their pictures on cereal boxes and billboards." They also talk about the corporate involvement in the sport and why "NASCAR is one big, uninterrupted commercial for motor oil,… [read more]


Social Psychology Social Influence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (839 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Social Psychology

EXERCISE & CONFORMITY: When I first came on the job, residents were either in their own rooms watching television or napping; or, they were lazily plopped in front of the large-screen TV in the main leisure room. The social influence that worked well initially was conformity. I located the two people (a man and a woman) I believed were most likely to enjoy physical activity, and took them on a slow walk around the garden area. Each day we invited the others to go with us, and each day one or more additional seniors willingly joined along with us. The walks increased to two-a-day (morning and evening), and they also increased in speed.

EXERCISE, COMPLIANCE & OBEDIENCE: By the end of three weeks, nearly every resident (even those in wheelchairs) was participating. I never played "cheerleader" or hyped the wonders of exercise. There were two "deviants" who stubbornly refused to walk with us, but nobody among the conformists paid any attention. In time, we also had a treadmill and stationary bike set up, and while we carefully monitored the use of those tools, we smiled because when first one, then two, then three residents began using the exercise equipment (watching their favorite soap opera while they walked and rode), it caught on as a cool and healthy thing to do. The seniors who had learned to enjoy swift walking and the two exercise machines became more than "compliant": indeed, when they saw me walk in to work in the mornings, they began peppering me with questions as to when we were going outside for our walk. I tried to do it at the same time every day, an hour after breakfast and an hour before dinner. Once trust had been established between the residents and me I could ask them to walk further, or faster, and they would obey me as though I was a Marine Corps training officer, though of course I was far gentler than that.

COMMUNITY VOLUNTEERISM: The trust that was built around the exercise activities easily spilled over into my desire to involve the residents in volunteer work at a nearby special school for mentally handicapped children. There is a natural link between older people and children, and I exploited this dynamic over a period of several weeks. As residents returned each afternoon from two hours of helping handicapped children (who had Down syndrome), they excitedly shared their stories with other residents, and soon I had 80% of Sunshine Assisted Living residents involved.…… [read more]


Beauty Is No Longer in the Eye Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … beauty is no longer in the eye of the beholder, but rather in the pages of fashion magazines and life style glossy prints. Most of us have become publicly aware of the need to constantly compare ourselves to stars and TV images to such an extent that we tend to fail to see the actual line that separates a manufactured impression from the reality of the day. This distorted image is the result of the daily informational bombardments transmitted via media channels such as magazines, television shows or even video fitness programs. These are all representative for the way in which the society works on the collective conscience and educates it towards a certain path. In order to illustrate this point, any article from a lifestyle magazine is relevant. While pointing out the benefits of a certain technique, practice or revolutionary aspect of a certain sport, the authors fail to take into consideration the negative aspects of promoting such a perfect like image, especially taking into account the fact that in most cases, there is little information on the side effects of achieving the respective indications.

Alwyn Cosgrove is a writer to one of the best known men magazines in the world, "Men's Health," a media trademark by now. Therefore, considering the wide spectrum of public the magazine has, any article written represents a small, yet sound statement in terms of male health and attitude. Throughout the magazine there are various sections that deal in particular with each segment of interest for a modern man. Therefore, there are articles on sex and relationships, health, guy wisdom, weight loss, nutrition, style, but most importantly a special area dedicated to the discussion on fitness strategies and applications. In this segment Cosgrove wrote about the perfect exercise that would build up our muscles in a matter of hours, "Your Best Body in One Hour."

The targeted public is rather clear: sport fans and especially those interested in fitness and working out. Indeed, the catchy title attracts the attention of most readers because it focuses exactly on the theme of the entire magazine: making the best out of your time in terms of exercising. However, there are a few aspects that can be pointed out. In the first place, the article presents, more or less, an attempt to attract those willing to follow a certain fitness routine.…… [read more]


Educational Standards Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Educational Standards

Physical Education Standard: Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Lesson: To fulfill this standard, we will perform a series of fun drills. First, to teach diagonal or zigzag movements we will use traffic cones. Students will run, weaving their way around the cones. Next, we will perform the same zigzag running exercise only this time we will introduce the element of coordination to show students how to avoid bumping into each other. One student will start at one end of the course, and another at the other end. They will both run the course but will not be able to bump into each other. Finally, we will have the students divide into two teams to teach the difference between slow and fast speeds. Each team will stand in a row facing the other. One team will be instructed to move around in their place slowly, however they want. The other team will be instructed to move as fast as they can, while staying in place. Then the teams will switch so everyone has a chance to move slow and fast. Because they are watching each other, the students will have…… [read more]


Winning Is the Only Thing Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Randy Roberts is Professor of History at Purdue University and author of a number of sports related biographical pieces, among them Jack Dempsey and Jack Johnson. His research interests focus not only on sports, but on the impact of particularly iconic cultural figures on American popular culture (e.g. John Wayne, Mike Tyson, the My Lai Massacre, etc.) (Purdue University, Department of History, Cited in: http://www.cla.purdue.edu/history/directory/Faculty/Roberts,_Randy.html). James Olson, a colleague of Roberts' and frequent co-author of academic papers, is Professor of History at Sam Houston State University, whose previous books include Saving Capitalism, Catholic Immigrants in America, and The Ethnic Dimension in American History. Olson is a prolific writer, having written, edited, or co-authored over thirty books. He teaches courses on the Vietnam War, World War II, America Since 1945, and ethnicity and immigration in U.S. History ( Sam Houston State University, Cited in: http://www.shsu.edu/~his_www/olson.html).

It was no accident that the authors chose 1945 as the beginning of a new era for American popular sporting culture. So many events began after World War II that changed American culture; especially the way the United States became the undisputed world economic power and helped rebuilt both Europe and Asia from the devastation of the War. This rebuilding had a number of domino effects, though, particularly in the idea of exporting sports and an American attitude towards them. What follows is an well-written, historically focused, look at the way sports in America evolved from a pastime to an obsession; and from an obsession to a business enterprise that surmounted all to become global in transcendence and so megalithic that in some ways it became an extension of actual foreign policy (e.g. The Olympics, etc.). Aside from a lack of adequate focus on the role of women's sports and perhaps an over-emphasis on male minority integration, the book is balanced and well-documented. Its value is more of a cultural introduction to the popularization of leisure time post-World War II, and also in the effects that American big-business can have upon society in general. In fact, one review, in The Nation noted, "the sports world may be seamier than ever, but scandals are nothing new" (Halpert, 1990). The true value of the book, though, is as a treatise in popular culture, and the emergence of an amalgamation of business and leisure disguised as entertainment.

Additional References:

Halpert, F.E. (1990). Business as Usual. The Nation. Cited in:

http://www.thenation.com/authors/fe-halpert… [read more]


Violence in Sports Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

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Violence in College and Professional Sports

The pressure to win is so strong in college and professional sports than many players will do whatever it takes to succeed. Often, these methods are simply out and out malice. In addition, athletes are not always protected by the law, due to state and federal statutes. Cases from college and professional sports will… [read more]


Basketball, More Than Any Sport Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,292 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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"

One of the other arguments made by Greenfield is the remarkable difference in the style of game played by Blacks and Whites. From Greenfield's perspective, the white players play the game in a methodical, thoughtful manner while the Black players rely upon their superior athletic talents such as speed, agility, and strength. These superior athletic skills afford the Black basketball player the opportunity to play the game in a free easy manner that white players can only dream of.

The cultural argument that Greenfield offers is analogized to the earlier success of Blacks in jazz and blues music in the years following the Second World War. For Blacks in those years, music offered them the same opportunity that basketball now offers today's generation. Black musicians gradually transformed the jazz and blues genre and began to dominate a sector of the music industry that had been formerly dominated by whites. Correspondingly, Black athletes took a sport that was designed and intended for whites and transformed it into a game that they now dominate. Instead of the game played by whites with beach baskets for nets it has become a game played on poorly maintained inner city playgrounds with rusting rims (George). In the process basketball has become to be a reflection of the Black ghetto culture like jazz and blues music was to the last generation of Black Americans. Blacks have re-invented the game and, in the process, basketball has become a ritual of expression for them.

It is easy to take issue with the comments made by Greenfield because he makes statements that make many whites uncomfortable. Whites do not want to address the possibility that what Greenfield argues is correct. Whites want to avoid facing the reality that the NBA is dominated by Blacks. They refuse to admit that the college basketball game is dominated by Blacks and they refuse to acknowledge that the best players in the game are Black. It has been over thirty-five years since Greenfield wrote his article and in these thirty-five years his arguments have actually been strengthened. In 1975, Greenfield's arguments may have some measure of speculation to them and may have suffered from some sense of generalization. Today, that is no longer the case. The game of basketball has been transformed from the slow, methodical game that it once was into the more graceful, speed-oriented, physical, more athletic game that characterized the game once only played on inner city playgrounds. Greenfield's prophesies and observations have come to fruition.

Greenfield's article was not written in the comfort of modern society where many of the social barriers between Blacks and whites have been broken down. The article was written less than a decade after the race riots of the late 60s. In his article he made points that were socially sensitive. The sensitivity of these points was intensified because of the time when they were made. If the article were to appear today there would be far less opposition and criticism less severe.… [read more]


Breathing Exercise and CISM Applications Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Mindful meditation has been the subject of a great deal of empirical research in recent decades, and there is a strong and growing pool of evidence that the practice can have a surprisingly wide range of medical benefits (Newman & Miller 2006). In addition to stress management, which is a major benefit that can be achieved through the use of mindful meditation, the practice can have a direct impact on blood pressure, heart rate, and heart health (all of which are related to stress management as well, of course); mental functioning and even feelings of physical health and hormonal balances can also be affected by mindful meditation (Newman & Miller 2006). When it comes to Critical Incident Stress Management, mindful meditation is not generally considered an appropriate immediate tool for those that do not have any background experience, but can be utilized as part of an ongoing healing/therapeutic process to handle ongoing stress and can certainly be utilized by those familiar with its practice during critical incidents as a way to enhance thinking and calmness, leading to better overall outcomes and lower experienced stress (Everly et al. 2000).

Mindful meditation as a whole and even some of the individual exercises and practices that make up this larger methodology can have tremendous effects on the body and mind. When it comes to managing stress, whether it be of the everyday variety or from more critical and isolated incidents, a simple breating exercise can help restore a sense of balance and calm, allowing one to act with greater clarity and effectiveness -- attributes certainly called for in such critical situations.

References

Everly, G.; Flannery, R. & Mitchell, J. (2000). Critical incident stress management (CISM): A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior 5(1):23-40.

Newman, R. & Miller, R. (2006). Clam…… [read more]


High School Marketing in American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,465 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

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The competition for such academic assistance is stiff and schools that position themselves to promote their students are providing their students with a distinctive advantage

The reality is that there are very few superstars that automatically gather all the attention of college recruiters. The majority of student-athletes that participate on the collegiate level were good athletes in high school but… [read more]


Health Benefits of Yoga Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Exercise

Health Benefits of Yoga

Yoga has been in practice for more than five thousand years, and presently, close to eleven million Americans enjoy its health benefits. Yoga can scarcely be called a trend. Most Westernized yoga classes center on learning physical poses, which are called asanas. They also typically comprise some form of breathing method and perhaps a meditation system as well. Some yoga classes are intended solely for leisure. But there are styles of yoga that teach one how to move their body in new ways. Choosing one of these styles offers the maximum health benefits by facilitating one to develop ones flexibility, power, and equilibrium (The Health Benefits of Yoga).

When a number of people think of yoga, they envision having to stretch like a gymnast. That makes them concerned that they're too old, unfit, or tight to do yoga. The reality is one is never too old to advance flexibility. The sequence of yoga poses called asanas work by securely stretching ones muscles. This lets go the lactic acid that forms with muscle use and causes stiffness, tension, pain, and fatigue. Additionally yoga augments the range of motion in joints. It may in addition increase lubrication in the joints. The result is a sense of ease and fluidity all through one's body. Yoga stretches not only ones muscles but all of the soft tissues of the body. That comprises ligaments, tendons, and the fascia sheath that surrounds ones muscles. And no matter what ones level of yoga, they most likely will see benefits in a very short period of time. In one study, participants had up to thirty five percent enhancement in flexibility after only eight weeks of yoga. The maximum gains were in shoulder and trunk flexibility (The Health Benefits of Yoga).

A number of styles of yoga, such as ashtanga and power yoga are more energetic than others. Practicing one of these styles will aid one to improve muscle tone. But even less energetic styles of yoga, such as iyengar or hatha, which focus less on movement and more precise alignment in poses, can supply strength and staying power benefits. A lot of the poses, such as downward dog, upward dog, and the plank pose, build upper-body power. This becomes crucial as people get older. The standing poses, particularly if one holds them for several long breaths, build power in ones hamstrings, quadriceps, and abdominal muscles. Poses that make stronger the lower back include upward dog and the chair pose. When done the right way, almost all poses construct core strength in the deep abdominal muscles (The Health Benefits of Yoga).

A lot of yoga poses necessitate one to hold up the weight of their own body in new manners, together with balancing on one leg or supporting oneself with their arms. Some exercises necessitate one to move gradually in and out of poses, which also augments strength. As a consequence of getting stronger, one can expect to see improved muscle tone. Yoga helps… [read more]


Aesthetic in Sport Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … croquet, roller derby, tubing, World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), rodeo, team handball and sky diving (parachuting) as to whether or not they can justifiably be called sports or not from an aesthetic standpoint. This judgment will be based upon the circumstantial conditions of the activity and how people view it from their aesthetic viewpoint, especially if there exist competitive associations that service the sport, or whether or not it has evolved into simply sports entertainment.

In the opinion of Suits, sports has three distinguishable goals with regard to game playing. These include participation, the will to win and the purpose to finish ahead (Suits, 10). If an activity veers from this standard, we can say that it is or is not a sport. Certain sports where commercialization are becoming as much a motivation as traditional competition blur distinctions considerably.

Essentially, croquet is a lawn game. It is played as a recreational pastime and as a competitive sport as well. The players hit plastic or wooden balls with a mallet through several hoops stuck into the grass playing court. While it is not dealt with in the course text, it is serviced by croquet associations in its various forms ("Edinburgh Croquet Club") .

Roller Derby can probably go either way. While most of us have seen roller skating women slogging it out after we have flipped the TV channel from the WWF, the sport also has an association in the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA). This would mean that it has not just an entertainment side to it, but also an aesthetic following of sorts ("Women's Flat Track Derby Association"). On the other hand, the WWE in that the "sport" is mainly entertainment, although it is on the surface an association. Frankly, the word entertainment gives it away. WWE is an American publicly traded and privately controlled entertainment company whose primary forte is professional wrestling. In addition, it has major revenue sources also coming from music, film, product licensing and direct sales of those WWE products ("WWE") .

Tubing has no professional association and it is not a spectator sport. However, it has great recreational value for the public, which would in this author's opinion classify it as a sport. It is run primarily by local outfitters such as Delaware River Tubing (Delaware River Tubing).

Rodeo is a competitive sport that rose out of herding in Mexico, the United States, Canada, South America and Australia. It was based on the working skills required of vaqueros and cowboys. It is now a sporting event that consists of events involving horses and other livestock. Given the spectator, competitive and…… [read more]


Snowboarding and Having Patience Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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In some cases, mastering how to safely use new sporting gear may turn out to be quite tricky. Hence in one way or the other, snowboarding is a continuous learning process. You can never learn enough. Success in the sport thus calls for patience.

In taking note of dissenting arguments, it should be noted that most of those who trash the relevance of patience in snowboarding do so out of ignorance or are out to make a quick profit as snowboarding instructors. Indeed, it makes great sense for a fraudulent instructor to lure his would-be students with half-baked truths on skateboarding so as to push up enrollment rates. The reasoning here is that were such an instructor to disclose that the sport needs a great deal of input from the learner in terms of patience and desire to learn, less people would be willing to learn. Further, some individuals may be motivated to brand skateboarding an easy undertaking which can be learnt with a two-to-three hour session of practice after watching more experienced skateboarders in action. The truth however remains that just like any other sport, success in skateboarding calls for patience and determination.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it should be noted that patience as a virtue comes across as a minimum requirement for one to succeed in many undertakings in life. This remains the case when it comes to snowboarding. As I have already pointed out in the text above, injuries amongst beginners are common in snowboarding. Further, one must be willing to learn and master all the snowboarding styles including but of course not limited to free-riding and jibbing. Hence for an individual who has no patience to succeed in snowboarding, success in the same may not come along in the long run.… [read more]


Yogurt Positively Effecting Mood Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,366 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Yogurt Positively Effecting Mood

Actually the statement about yogurt positively effecting mood (Orenstein & Swencionis, 1990) was found, upon closer review, to be based upon less solid evidence. Originally extracted from a Daily Mail news article that derived it an article found on NHS Choices that deals with health, the NHS, in turn, had found their source from a study detailing research of yogurt on mice.

Researchers in both Canada and Ireland (Bravo et al., 2011) used 36 adult male mice divided into a study and control group where mice in the control group were fed a broth without bacteria whilst mice in the experimental groups were fed the broth containing L. rhamnosus, a bacteria inherent in yogurt. The experiment was carried out for 28 days for one hour every morning.

At the end of the study, the researchers measured the corticosterone stress levels in the mice and evaluated their behavior under various conditions, for instance behavior of the mice contrasted in a maze, in water or in open space was assessed. In case these conditions would still carry confounding effects, researchers furthermore evaluated possibility of the vagus nerve leading to possible effect of the bacteria. They therefore severed the vagus nerve in the mice and concluded that if the mice no longer appeared stressed when served the bacteria-filled yogurt, then yogurt may actually prove conducive for reducing stress. Finally, the researchers examined the actual brain tissue of the mice in order to investigate levels of GABA receptor functioning.

Results were that mice fed with L. rhamnosus behaved in less stressful ways compared to mice who were fed the placebo. In both instances of being submerged in water and wandering in the maze, treated mice acted less anxious than the control group. Levels of stress-related corticosterone were also found to be significantly lower in the treated mice as were levels of GABA receptor expression in certain parts of the brain, and, finally, the behavioral and neurochemical effects also differed in mice who were fed the broth and had their vagus nerve removed.

Bravo et al. (2011) concluded that their findings demonstrated the importance of the role that bacteria plays in communications between gut and brain and suggested that probiotic bacteria may be helpful for reducing anxiety, stress, and depression.

Their findings are, however, inconclusive and should be treated with caution particularly since the study was essentially conducted on mice under laboratory conditions and, therefore, whilst interesting does not show that probiotic bacteria in yogurt can ease stress in humans. The physiology of mice is different to humans and they may react differentially to the effects of the bacteria. Secondly, amount of bacteria fed to mice may differ form the amount of bacteria inherent in yogurt. Thirdly, despite efforts taken to screen confounding variables, neurochemical changes discovered in mice may have resulted from other conditions rather than that of the bacteria. In conclusions, we may say that whilst there its potential for future study, evidence of yogurt on reducing stress in… [read more]


Individual Advertisement Poster and Marketing Strategy Assessment

Assessment  |  5 pages (1,874 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … marketing is a critical component to success of a company regardless of its size. Cricket Sport Museum offers its clients exceptional service and value at an affordable price point for most companies or individuals. Our consultants, staff, owners and stakeholders are focused on delivering unique and creative experiences that exceeds the expectations of our customers while optimizing their… [read more]


Exercising This Study Looked Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (890 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

It seems reasonable that women with spouses would have more support and encouragement present in their lives, someone to remind them to do the exercises and to stick with the program. It also seems possible that women with better education might be more aware that exercise might have positive benefits for them even done while sitting down.

Another problem with the study was that the women who participated did not always record the exercise data reliably. This could also be the result of fatigue, or of their perception that their quality of life was declining.

The researchers did feel that the exercise tape might have been part of the problem, as it showed older participants, some in wheelchairs. Some of the participants in this study said the exercises weren't challenging enough. This raises interesting questions. For instance, if a woman of 45 is being treated for advanced-stage cancer in an aggressive way, she may well feel fatigued, and that her quality of life has been impaired. However, in all likelihood, such a woman would believe that she had a chance of surviving the cancer and would want to do things to make the treatment phase more comfortable. One wonders what unintended messages might be sent by asking such an individual to watch a video of people who are clearly in declining health when she is attempting to keep her mindset more positive.

The report is interesting, intriguing research, and the women who completed the exercise program did feel less fatigue. Although they perceived their quality of life as decreasing, they saw smaller changes than those who did not do the exercises. Perhaps when this research is replicated, the researchers should get funds to make a new videotape. If the videotape showed women in a range of ages, seated in chairs and not wheelchairs, identified as those being treated for breast cancer or cancer survivors, participants might have a more positive response to the tape.

It also might be worth it to include short interviews of the women on the tape, stating how the exercises helped them. Perhaps a spokesperson could specify some of the findings on such research that even these relatively low levels of exercise can have cardiovascular benefits. Otherwise, the use of the original tape might be unintentionally sending the message that the woman's life is nearing its end, and because of this, the only exercise they should be doing are those designed for people nearing the ends of their lives. This would be the wrong message…… [read more]


Physical Activity for Seniors Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  8 pages (2,404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Physical Activity

Physical Activities and the Elderly: A Grant Proposal

At every age, it is imperative to remain physically active. Individuals who maintain a lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and exercise can significantly reduce their vulnerability to obesity, heart disease and a host of other conditions associated with a sedentary lifestyle. As important as physical activity is across one's… [read more]


Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Term Paper

Term Paper  |  40 pages (11,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

My player's ages range from 14 -- 18 years of age. I have emphasized over and over again to them the importance of being physically conditioned for the upcoming season in order to compete with the better teams in the league. I have explained to the players that over my past 25 years involvement with the game of soccer that… [read more]


Women's Sports Women's Participation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

"The controversy is whether the end justifies the means, and that's the battleground where this is being fought."

Miami State University's sports program is large, with 22 varsity teams; however, its revenue sources are limited (Suggs, 1999). Even though it has 11 women's teams, the university has not even come close to meeting proportionality standards. Women make up 55% of Miami's undergraduate student body but only 45% of campus athletes. To meet "substantial proportionality" mandates, at least 50% of athletes must be women. Thus, the school is faced with dropping certain men's sports teams to make room for new women's teams.

However, a representative from the Office for Civil Rights insists that institutions like Miami have options besides proportionality. "The beauty of Title IX is that it recognizes the fact ... that there might not be proportionally as many people in one group who are interested in athletics as in another group," says Ms. O'Shea (Suggs, 1999). Universities can comply with the law in other ways, by demonstrating a continuing history of expanding opportunities for women to play sports and by meeting the identified needs, abilities, and interests of women on the campus.

According to Suggs (1999): "Everyone seems to agree that it is wrong for universities to cut men's teams. The question remains, however, whether providing equitable opportunities for women is right enough to supersede that wrong."

References

Cahn, Susan. (1999). Reader's Companion to U.S. Women's History. Houghton Mifflin.

Funk, Lynne. (December 9, 2002). Commission debates future of Title IX. The Digital Collegian. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archive/2002/12/12-09-02tdc/12-09-02dnews-03.asp.

Miller, J. L, & Levy, G.D. (1996). Gender role conflict, gender-typed characteristics, self-concepts, and sport socialization in female athletes and non-athletes. Sex Roles, 35, 111-122.

Royce, W. Gebelt, J. Duff, R. (2001). Female Athletes: Being both Athletic and Feminine. University of…… [read more]


Sports Performance-Enhancing Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

They see their idols hitting home runs and making more baskets, and so, they get the underlying message that these drugs help athletes play better. They may be influenced enough to take the drugs themselves. They may also get the idea that it is OK to take these drugs, because the major leagues are not reprimanding or punishing the athletes who use these drugs. It sends a message to kids that this behavior is not only OK, it is rewarded with million dollar contracts, and that is the totally wrong message to send to children.

Finally, use of these drugs can be damaging to the health. The athletes who have taken these drugs do not know what affects they may have on their future health, and some athletes may pay later on with a variety of illnesses. These performance-enhancing drugs can be dangerous, and they could kill athletes later on. They are gambling with their future health, and it is not…… [read more]


Legal Structure and Management Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (2,976 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

The club's office bearers are elected through democratic means where the members vote using secret balloting method to all the respective positions available in the Football Club. Majority of the Australian sporting organizations have given their members the mandate of electing their respective leaders who spearhead the club's activities (Bools & LLC, 2010). However, the governance system and electing process… [read more]


Goals of an 18-Year-Old With Aspirations of Being in Sports Management Entertainment Law Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … achievements in the history of mankind have been made by those following their true calling in life and doing that which they loved to do. Artists of the mind, theater, and performance have gone against the grain of mundane society to be complete in their vision. Socrates did not give in to public pressure and died to stay true to his philosophy. Oscar Wilde, even in the face of overwhelming public pressure, insisted on making his life beautiful and artistic. Boy George spearheaded an innovative new style of music and fashion by refusing to compromise his work. Among these great artists one also finds those in the sports industry, such as Dennis Rodman who has proved that a sports hero can make an impact in other fields as well. I have been intrigued by the sports industry as a form of entertainment and expression my entire life, and my experience as an all-league defensive football player has given me the opportunity to be a part of this great subculture. It is through sports that I have found my inspiration to achieve in other areas as well, including academics. With graduation only one touchdown away, my focus is on the bright green turf of the future. I envision for myself in that moment of end zone glory a career in sports management or sports/entertainment law, so that I can combine my intellectual ability with my passion and natural affinity for sports in order to make a lasting impression on the industry and society as a whole.

I have been fortunate in my career as a varsity football player. My appreciation for the strategy and artistic design of the game was paired marvelously with physical ability and mental determination, giving me a unique opportunity to actively pursue this sport. Throughout my childhood, I was able to form bonds of friendship with both caring adults and stimulating peers through my involvement with football. I learned important lessons of sportsmanship, "pack" bonding, and teamwork that would stick with me through all of my years. During the consecutive two years that I have had the honor to be a part of our champion varsity football team,…… [read more]


Boxing Was Banned Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,004 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The sport fuels the pay-per-view industry as well, and banning the sport would injure the livelihoods of many who work within related industries. Furthermore, if boxing were banned, public interest in the sport would dwindle, which would mean far less financing for training programs. Because "boxing is one of the few ways for poor kids to work their way out of the ghetto," a ban on boxing should never be instated ("Should Boxing Be Banned?").

Boxing is also far less violent or brutal than the ultimate fighting competitions. In ultimate fighting, competitors can do almost anything except bite. Boxing, on the other hand, has a long list of rules. Fighters are not allowed to hit below the belt and they must also wear some protective gear. Not so with ultimate fighting, a sport that actually prohibits wearing headgear (Marks). If anything should be banned because of violence it would be ultimate fighting, or even auto racing, which results in more deaths than boxing does ("Should Boxing Be Banned?"). Young people play video games that are way bloodier than boxing, games like Mortal Kombat. Censorship of boxing is not the answer to a society that already condones violence.

Like kick boxing in Thailand, boxing is integral to North American and British cultures and its cultural relevance is spreading throughout the world. Boxing is a natural competitive sport no riskier than any other, and it would be silly to ban it from television. Every athletic competition involves some risk of injury, even death. Boxing is violent, yes, but boxing is controlled violence. There are rules, there is a ring with clear-cut boundaries, there is a referee, and there limitations on the type and level of violence in the sport. Mike Tyson is not representative of the sport of boxing, in which many upright individuals compete. The graphic intensity of modern video games, movies, and television shows completely outdoes the violence in the sport of boxing, which is at least a genuine athletic competition. Furthermore, the sport of boxing offers a healthy outlet for natural human aggression and energy. In a society that is collectively overweight and sedentary, boxing can be one of the ways that young and old people alike can rekindle their love of exercise and get back into shape. Instead of considering an all-out broadcasting ban on the sport of boxing, measures can be taken to minimize risk. For example, children can be taught the rules of fighting in school so that they know how respect their opponent and the boundaries of the sport. Boxing should continue to be televised so that people of all ages become inspired to get into shape as well as learn discipline and self-control.

Works Cited

'BMA Renews Call for Boxing Ban." BBC News. 3 May 1998. < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/87267.stm>.

Brown, Gerry. "Boxing." FactMonster.com. .

"Should boxing be banned?" Scholastic Action. New York: Jan 25, 1999.Vol.22, Iss. 7.

Marks, John. "Whatever it Takes to Win." U.S. News & World Report. Washington: Feb 24, 1997.Vol.122, Iss.…… [read more]


High School Sports: Is the Character Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,506 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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High School Sports: is the Character they Build Bad?

Imagine if you will, dear reader, that a strappingly built British fellow were to appear before your school board. He has a brilliant, if rather odd, proposal to make. He suggests that your school should institute a modern derivation of several ancient past times. These rituals, he explains, have been used… [read more]


Performance Enhancing Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Greater awareness of the horrendous side effects of such drugs also needs to be spread. This, however, should be done in an honest manner without exaggeration or without hiding the undoubted performance enhancing qualities of drugs such as anabolic steroids. Rewarding athletes for drug-free performance and a decreased stress on winning at all costs would also send the appropriate signals to the young sportspersons.

Conclusion

Use of performance enhancing drugs has a long history. The invention of more effective drugs in recent years and a lopsided stress on winning at all costs has ensured the continuing use of such drugs among professional as well as school level athletes. At the same time, the need to arrest "cheating" and increased awareness about the serious side effects of drugs such as steroids has also led to stricter crack down on drug use in sports. Sports organizations around the world have enacted stringent anti-doping and drug testing rules. More, however, needs to be done before use of drugs in sports is eliminated or even controlled to a manageable level.

References

"The 2005 Prohibited List" (2004). World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved on August 13, 2005 from http://www.wada-ama.org/rtecontent/document/list_2005.pdf

'Anabolic Steroids." Drugs and Sports: Special section ESPN. Retrieved on August 13, 2005 from http://espn.go.com/special/s/drugsandsports/steroids.html

"Drugs in Sports: Amphetamines." (n.d.) Choices in Sports. Retrieved on August 13, 2005 from http://www.drugfreesport.com/choices/drugs/amphetamine.html

'History of Drugs in Sport." (2005). Australian Sports Drug Agency. Retrieved on August 13, 2005 from http://www.asda.org.au/media/history.htm

'McCain introduces Clean Sports Act of 2005." (2005). The Sports Network. May 24, 2005. Retrieved on August 13, 2005 from http://www.sportsnetwork.com/default.asp?c=sportsnetwork& page=other/news/AON3911749.htm

The fabulous amounts of money to be made in professional sports is another strong motivation for enhancing performance by "hook or by crook."

The cyclist was found to have used Amphetamines

Body hair growth, breast reduction and enlargement of the clitoris

A complete list of banned stimulants and the conditions under which they are banned are listed by WADA ("The 2005 Prohibited List" 2004).… [read more]


Benefits of Exercise for the Elderly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Elder Exercise

Everyone knows that exercise is important for most adults. However, it's really easy to think about exercise and senior citizens differently. Older people may not be able to jog five miles as they did when they were younger. Walking a mile or working out at a gym may be impossible or they may feel they wouldn't be able to do enough to benefit their health. In addition, exercise can help decrease both the pain and the need for some medications (1).

Actually, just the opposite is true: exercise helps the health of senior citizens in several ways. Research summarized in 2001 (JOPERD) shows that exercise can strengthen the immune systems of older people. More importantly, the level of exercise required was within the ability of most seniors. They did warm-up, mobility and stretching for only 45 minutes, and only twice a week, to see the benefits (3). In spite of this, one study showed that physicians only talk to their older patients about the value of exercise one-third of the time (1).

Exercise for older is an important issue because loss of former physical abilities correlates with reduced exercise (4). The researchers suspected that other factors common to older age, such as other health concerns, might also contribute to the decline in exercise. However, the pace of exercise can be set to fit the needs of the individual exerciser, and exercise can be chosen that fits their particular needs and abilities (4).

However, some family practice doctors have found that talking to their older patients often results in a person more willing to add exercise to his or her lifestyle (1). A wide range of exercise approaches are available, such as water exercise (1) and…… [read more]


Plato and the Value of Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
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Plato and the Value of Education

Ancient Greek culture valued athletic and musical pursuits, in spite of the Greeks having no centralized media such as television or radio. However, cultural pursuits including the visual arts, literature, philosophy, and music were highly valuable to the Greek tradition. The birthplace of the Olympics, Greece also treasured athleticism. Greek vase paintings and sculptures display the ancient culture's fascination with athletics. While modern American society also values music and sports, music and sports have been undervalued in the public school system and increasingly, in schools of higher education. Part of the reason for the low priority of athletics and music is the economic structure of American society and the political and cultural values of the United States. Because the United States is a capitalist society, any endeavor that does not make large profits is valued less than pursuits that do reap financial rewards.

Modern schools have cut athletic and music programs in large part because they do not reflect the philosophy of education held by most Americans. The current focus remains on the "three R's," reading, writing, and arithmetic. According to this viewpoint, music and sports are considered to be luxuries and hobbies that have no real place in the public school system. Only the most talented students are believed to have what it takes to become successful musicians or athletes.

One of the reasons why American culture does not value music or athletics as much as the ancient Greeks is that the school system reflects the ideology of industrialization. Since the Industrial Revolution, the American economy has been driven by material production and consumerism. The drive toward prosperity meant that only those activities that reaped monetary reward would be considered valid. Because only a small number of musicians and athletes reap financial rewards from their efforts, these two subjects are considered…… [read more]


Flexibility Training Has to Offer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is important to keep changing the type and rythum of the music being played otherwise it is possible that our system might become immune to it, a process psychologists call 'sensory adaptation'.( Niki Dobbyn)

Precautionary measures must be taken while exercising and any jerking or bouncing movements should be avoided, as they can be dangerous. A fire extinguisher should be placed nearby in case of emergency and everyone in the class should be given a brief idea of emergency exits so that they may be able to use them efficiently in case such a situation emerges.

CONCLUSION:

In today's world our passion for avoiding physical activities has spiraled out of control and combined with our insatiable hunger for junk food and the like, chronic diseases due to obesity such as diabetes and high cholesterol level have increased not in just adults but youngsters alike. Thus flexibility exercises are no longer believed to be just for the elderly, youngsters who want to perform better in the physical realm and stay healthy are also advised to improve on their flexibility through specific stretching techniques.

References:

1) Bach, B.K., Green, D.S., & Jensen, G. M- Article Title: A comparison of muscular tightness in runners and non-runners and the relation of muscular tightness to low back pain in runners. Publication Year: 1985.Journal Title: Journal of Orthopedic Sports Physical Therapy. Volume: 6.Page Number: 315+.

2) Corbin, C.B., & Noble, L-Article Title: Flexibility: A major component of physical fitness. Publication Year: 1980.Journal Title: The Journal of Physical Education and Recreation. Volume: 51.Page Numbers: 23-24, 57-60.

3) Anonymous-Flexibility training. Posted on: 15/11/2005.Available from: http://www.mamashealth.com/exercise/flextrain.asp [Accessed on: 16/11/2005]

4) Lee Crust-Ergogenic aids. Posted on: 2005. Available from: http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/0951.htm [Accessed on: 16/11/2005]

5) Niki Dobbyn -- Posted on: 2005. Available from:

http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/sportspsychology/a/061305.htm

[Accessed on: 16/11/2005]

6) Anonymous-Tips for Flexibility training. Posted on: 2005. Available from:

http://www.phonefitnesscoach.com/ref-area/training-tips.htm

[Accessed on: 16/11/2005]

7) Patrick J. Bird-Importance of warm-up and cool-down. Poosted on:1988. Available from:

http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/keepingfit/ARTICLE/updown.htm

[Accessed on: 16/11/2005]… [read more]


Steroid Use Controversies of the Sports World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,176 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Steroid Use

Controversies of the Sports World

Tough Choices: A Book about Substance Abuse

Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in Adolescence: Winning, Looking

Good or Being Bad?

Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game

Anabolic Steroid Abuse

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed

Romanowski: I broke RB's finger, took steroids, damaged brain

The Demonization of Anabolic Steroids I: What Makes These… [read more]


Training Program Principles, Steps and Guidelines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Training Program

Principles, Steps and Guidelines for Developing a Systematic Progressive Resistance Training Program

Introduction systematic and progressive resistance-training program can serve to improve muscle strength and endurance, improve ones overall health and fitness levels and even help individuals lose weight or recover from injuries. To e effective however a resistance-training program must be developed according to a well evaluated and tested set of principles, steps and guidelines as outlined below.

Principles, Steps and Guidelines

To develop a systematic and progressive resistance-training program whether for personal fitness, leading exercise or revitalization of an existing routine, a person must first "individualize his or her exercise" (Browder & Darby, 35). This is only possible by identifying the needs unique to a specific exerciser, which may include examination of one's overall fitness level, any existing muscle weaknesses, injuries or strengths and past exercise history (Browder & Darby, 1998; Wathen, 1994). 1 systematic program must include "the appropriate type, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of strength training" according to the American College of Sports Medicine (Browder & Darby, 35; ACSM, 1995). Guidelines for such a program must include evaluation of the frequency of exercise needed to sustain results and health, evaluation of intensity necessary for strength training, progressive overload calculations and periodization requirements for exercise (Browder & Darby, 35).

Before beginning the systematic program an individual must first establish objectives and goals, which may include improving overall fitness, losing weight, training for a specific sport or skill or improving muscle strength and endurance (Wathen, 1994; Browder & Darby, 1998). In addition specifity of training must be evaluated which means determining what exercises are best…… [read more]


Canada's Role in Olympics 2012 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The print ads, videos everything is meant to encourage the people to work together and help each other.

Next is a video from Hudson's Bay Company featuring the newly designed apparel for the Olympians. It starts with a very catchy song and captures attention in the first frame with the Canadian Maple leaf and the Company's logo shown together. It shows three female athletes wearing a variety of jackets in different material, colors and styles. This can be seen as a way to show that women are as important as men in Canada (Hudson Bay Co, 2011).

A member of the design team tells the audience that the uniforms reflect the various styles worn in Canada. It shows all kinds of clothes jersey track suits, lightweight jackets in Canada's colors: red and white, and jeans jackets. All of them have the maple leaf, name of the country and other official symbols clearly and prominently featured. It also tells how the design team made a mix of Canadian tradition and the weather conditions of London, like a hood for the light weight jacket that would provide some protection from rain. Other clothes like the ladies track suit makes the wearer appear smart and stylish at the same time. The jeans jacket is to capture the younger audience and the designer claims that it is and will remain a 'collecter's item' for many years. The jacket really does say youth and to model it they have used a young swimmer.

The video does reflect Canadian culture, as it shows that sweatshirt is a very popular clothing item in Canada. It also refers to the history as it mentions that in Olympics 2010, Canadian uniforms were very trendy and most sought out uniforms.

There are several implicit messages as well. For example, the video once again exhibits the Canadians' love for sport. It reflects their excellent fashion sense and their intelligence as each clothing piece is a depiction of the lengthy and reflective thought process behind it. It clearly shows that they are people who don't do anything by halves. A lot of detailing has gone into the video as one of the ladies is shown wearing a maple leaf locket, which is meant to exhibit as well as renew patriotism. The diverse ethnic backgrounds tell the world that Canada is a place of equal opportunity and does not support or practice gender or racial bias. The video also shows their wonderful sporting facilities, their pride in their homeland and solidarity with its people. The fencing related books seem to hint at a strong affability with books and education.

Conclusion

Both videos make use of players from genders, all sports and a variety of ethnic backgrounds. This is meant to show that all people are equal in the country. And the country is proud of all its athletes. They both exhibit how complex the world of sports is in Canada, due to its cultural diversity and enthusiasm for sports. They very excellently portray… [read more]


Strategic Planning Mission Vision Statement and Budget Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Budgeting is an important element of every school activity (Poston,2010;Sorenson & Goldsmith,2006).The formulation of any budget must be in line with the strategic objectives every organization (Kaplan & Norton,2005).In my work as the Director of Athletics in the Mid-American Conference, I am mandated to oversee the budget process across a wide range of sporting activities and spanning several schools and colleges. The school whose budget, I am developing is Oldwestbury College. The team is called Oldwestbury Maverics.The school team's mascot is called the Aztec Warrior. My budget is $12,500,000.00 and I have 16 sporting activities (Football, Rugby, Soccer, Volley Ball, Tennis, Badminton, Javelin, Pole Vault, Discus, Shot put, Swimming, Gymnastics, Martial arts, archery, wrestling, boxing). The allocation will be done with the implications of Title IX principles of inclusion and diversity in mind.

The need for linking budget and strategy

Traditional budgeting is a source of interesting and at times complicated discussion in the context of management accounting. Several studies have indicated the inabilities of budgeting in regard to some of the theoretical roles that are attributed to it (Neely et al.,2001).

Strategy is an important for any given organization. This is because it is the main element that guides the organization into a bright future by guiding the plans, actions as well as results. Strategies at the same time need to reflect objectively on the changes that are taking place within the business environment. The failure of budgeting process to incorporate strategy leads to serious threats to the future of any given organizations. As Bunce et al. (1995,p.253) noted, strategies are changing in response to many competitive and structural pressures, it seems evident that new management systems are needed to reflect these new realities."

In order for budgets to work, budgetary control must be adapted in order to work in the rapidly evolving and highly unpredictable organizational environment.

The work of if Bunce et al. (1995) went ahead to indicate the various positive aspects of the budgeting process. He noted that it brings together the plans, goals as well as responsibilities of a given organization.It is worth noting that at least 40% of the Maverick team members must be females and no single team should have more than 50% of the team members being from the same ethnic background and…… [read more]


Improvement Memo Mr. J. Carver Business Plan

Business Plan  |  1 pages (392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Many are obliged to search for other ways to improve their fitness. Not all students enjoy all sports, and providing the option of swimming throughout the year will also result in more choices for them.

The staff will benefit, since the pool will not require an excess of maintenance when it is kept in good repair throughout the year. Not being used for six months per year makes it difficult to keep the pool in good condition. There is always a significant amount of labor involved in cleaning and supervision at the start of each summer season.

Finally, the financial situation of the school will benefit by avoiding unnecessary clean-up and hiring costs once summer season starts. As mentioned, the non-use of the pool during the winter months tends to create a situation of disrepair. Simply repairing the heating system will have more long-term financial benefits than having to hire clean-up services once per year.

In conclusion, if the swimming pool's heating system is repaired, students, the staff, and the financial system of the school will benefit. I therefore recommend that the matter receive urgent attention.… [read more]


Wooden a Lifetime of Observations and Reflections on and Off the Court Book Report

Book Report  |  9 pages (2,795 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Wooden

The legacy of John Wooden extends well beyond any of his games, because the philosophy that guided his actions as both player and coach includes insights into success above and beyond the game of basketball. In his 1997 book Wooden: A Lifetime of Observations and Reflections on and Off the Court, written with Steve Jamison, Wooden offers insights from… [read more]


Need and Feasibility in the Facility Design Process Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … facility design process.

Needs and feasibility in the facility design process

In the modern day society, more emphasis is coming to be placed on sports as a means to a healthier life. For the society and the economic agents, this trend materializes in an increased opportunity to create more sports centers and provide sports services to the population.

The ultimate success of a sports facility is directly dependent on a wide array of elements, such as its location, the staffs it employs, the motivation it transmits to the customers and so on. Another important criterion in the success of the sports center is represented by the design of the facility.

The construction of a sports facility is a complex and intricate effort, which can last up to several years. It is formed from several gradual stages, the Aquatic Sport Council having identified the following steps of the process: (1) the construction of the departmental master plan; (2) the approval from the council and the completion of the feasibility study; (3) the selection of the consultants; (4) the analysis of the process needs; (5) the development of the space program; (6) the master planning of the site; (7) the completion of the schematic design; (8) the completion of design development; (9) the construction of the documents; (10) the approval from the committee and the council; (11) the completion of the bidding and negotiation processes; (12) the second approval of the committee and the council; (13) the construction of the facility, and last (14) the evaluation in the post occupancy phase (Aquatic Sport Council, 2011).

The feasibility study -- the second phase in the process -- represents the assessment of the elements in a project in order to conclude whether they are feasible or not; on occasions, the feasibility study will also indicate the best course of action to be implemented in the design process. Some issues addressed throughout the feasibility study include the scope and budget of the project, the analysis of the site, the best strategy to develop the facility, the optimal size of the facility, the structural soundness of the building, the existence of additional costs and constraints and the preparation of the final reports (Spaces for Children, 2007).

The needs assessment -- the fourth phase in the design process -- is represented by the identification and analysis of the facility needs, such as space, resources and so on. The intriguing element at this stage is represented by the fact that the needs analysis does not focus on the immediate needs of the facility, required to open and initially operate the facility, but integrates the totality…… [read more]


College Athlete Pay Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Furthermore, while there may be some ancillary social benefits of sports education, such as a dedication to fitness and a deference to authority, the benefits provided by arts education seems more crucial to making a better society.

As just mentioned, there are some benefits to sports programs independent of the money they bring in, with the foremost among them being… [read more]


Non-Verbal Communication in Athletic Competition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Nonverbal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication in Athletic Competition

Non-verbal communication (or NVC) is carried on through presentational codes such as gestures, eye movements, or qualities of voice. These codes can give messages only about the here and now. My tone of voice can indicate my present attitude to my subject and listener: it cannot send a message about my feelings last… [read more]


Fences August Wilson the Influence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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He actually thinks in terms of sports (and in terms of baseball in particular), which is why the diction of this quotation is particularly important. Similar to the quotation in the preceding passage Troy dismisses death as "nothing" -- a fact which means the life that death will end "ain't nothing" as well. Troy is of course talking about his own life, which has been jaded by racial barriers and conflicts between him and those he should value most, his family. Therefore, this passage indicates that the growing sense of disillusionment which characterizes Troy's life largely hinges upon the motif of sports -- much like all other important themes in this play. Significantly, Troy's courtship of death is resolved in the final act of the play, in a scene in which many of the other acts all crescendo towards (Dobie 40).

Another integral aspect of the plot of Fences is Troy's infidelity to Rose that results in the birth of a child who he sires with another woman. This act of infidelity further alienates Troy from his family -- in particular it alienates him from Rose -- and does not endear him to Cory and to his other son. What is one of the most significant aspects of this fact, however, is that sports and baseball is the primary way that Troy views this act of indiscretion on his part, which is suggested by the following quotation in which he attempts to tell Rose that he is fathering someone else's child. "Then when I saw that gal. . . she firmed up my backbone. And I got to thinking that if I tried. . . I just might be able to steal second. Do you understand after eighteen years I wanted to steal second" (Wilson 70). This quotation underscores how central a motif baseball is to the most important events in the plot of Fences. Once again, Troy invokes a metaphor with baseball to describe a central theme in this story -- his alienation from his family which spurs his own growing discontent with himself. The fact that the woman he is unfaithful with "firmed" up his stature and his character, alludes to the fact that for a long time before cheating on Rose "eighteen years," Troy was unhappy with his life and the relative quiescence he endured that is attributed to his inability to play in the major leagues and his relative lowly status as a city employee. Troy implicitly admits to the wrong he committed by cheating on Rose by likening it to "stealing," yet the connotations of this choice of diction also imply an excitement and recrudescence on his part that such an illicit act (in view of its consequences with his union to Rose) engendered within him. Once again, sports and baseball prove to be the central motif that elucidates the other themes of Fences and explains the nature of the protagonist, Troy.

A comprehensive review of the various important facets of the plot of Fences… [read more]


Ticket Prices and Athlete Salaries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,141 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

167). Although there remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies in this area, these findings are consistent with the studies to date that have shown that the increase in athlete salaries has affected professional sports negatively because they contribute to the growing perception of these players receiving inordinately excessive and even exorbitant sums in return for their efforts, placing… [read more]


Wrestling Is No Longer an Olympic Sport Article

Article  |  3 pages (932 words)
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Wrestling Is No Longer an Olympic Sport

Wrestling is one of the oldest sports and, apparently, one of the most popular from public comments that followed news of its excision from the 2020 Olympics games. The decision for its expulsion is unclear. Advocates of the game plan to take action and to ensure that the International Olympic Committee reverses its decision so that spectators can enjoy the game as they used to.

Wrestling appeared in the Olympic Games in 708 B.C. And attracts spectators to the sport by means of its primal simplicity. Competitors do not employ technical aids in embattling the other. Rather, primitive means of upper arms, legs, and brain are used in tackling the opponent. The game, primitive as it seems, demands long hours of training, tenacity, and endurance and has been popularized in movies such as 'Rocky'. Even the official Olympic website states that wrestling is not only the oldest sport of the games but that "with the possible exception of athletics, wrestling is recognized as the world's oldest competitive sport." (Lancaster Gazzette, 2013). Wrestling, therefore, rather than being the obsolete sport that the International Olympic Committee deemed it to be, is one that is more intelligent and attractive than it appears to be on the surface.

Why did the Olympics committee vote to expel it?

It seems as though the Olympics is fed up with its classical appearance and wants to add more telegenic luster to its name. To that end, it aims to introduce modernity, youth, and relevance to its winter and summer games and whilst freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling will feature in the Rio de Janeiro Olympia in 2016, they will be absent from the Olympics in 20120.

Decision to repudiate wrestling was conducted by secret ballot by the Olympic committee's 15-member executive board at its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. Given reasons were only partial. These include desire to make the Games more attractive and telegenic and to make them worth their expense. The IOC wishes to attract younger members to the Games and it also aims to reduce the number of athletes to about 10,500.

The Board also wished to make room for another sport. To that end, it reviewed each of its current 26 events using 39 different criteria with conditions falling into one of eight categories. The categories include governance, universality, history and tradition, popularity, athletes, development of the sport, finance and general, with no one category receiving preference over another. The Board finally decided to remove wrestling.

Alternative sports being considered for 2020 are the following: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, wakeboarding, the combination of baseball and softball, and wushu (a form of exhibition martial arts). The IOC will vote on the replacement in St. Petersburg, Russia, in May. Each and every one of…… [read more]


Hypertension in This Text Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

ACSM recommends that aerobic type exercises be performed for 30-60 minutes every day of the week and resistance exercises be performed 2-3 days a week. The intensity when it comes to aerobic exercises should be moderate. Regarding the exact type of aerobic exercise to be performed, ACSM recommends that persons with hypertension engage in swimming, cycling, jogging, or even walking.

Special Considerations

It is important to note that in some instances, the relevance of close medical supervision cannot be overstated when it comes to the incorporation of exercise training to the treatment plan. Those who should consult their physicians or engage in exercises under medical supervision include persons with documented CVD and uncontrolled BP (ACSM, 2010). Persons likely to be affected negatively by B-blockers and various antihypertensive medications should be monitored closely and given the appropriate advice (ACSM, 2010). For obese individuals, ACSM recommends that exercise prescriptions be focused on the reduction of caloric intake while at the same time increasing the expenditure of calories.

Treatment

Several classes of drugs could be administered in the treatment and control of hypertension. Some of the drugs utilized in this endeavor include but they are not limited to rennin inhibitors, ace inhibitors, diuretics, etc. (Harvey and Champe, 2009). According to Harvey and Champe (2009), the reduction of both renal and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity remains the key goal of antihypertensive therapy.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is important to note that the proper management of hypertension is largely dependent on not only making the necessary lifestyle and dietary adjustments but also on sticking to the appropriate exercise regime. This is more so the case given that failure to properly manage the condition could further occasion damage to an individual's body organs and blood vessels. It would also be prudent to note that although the relevance of exercises in the control and proper management of hypertension cannot be overstated, there still exists a need to adhere to the guidelines proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in regard to exercise testing and prescription.

References

American College of Sports Medicine. (2010). ACSM'S Guidelines for Exercises Testing and Prescription (8th ed.). New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Dunford, (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: A Practice for Professionals (4th ed.). New York: American Dietetic Association.

Harvey, R.A. & Champe, P.C. (2009). Pharmacology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Toth, P.P. & Cannon, C.P. (Eds.) (2010). Comprehensive Cardiovascular Medicine in the Primary Care Setting. New York: Springer.

Waldstein, S.R., Wendell, C.R. & Katzel, L.I (2010, January 1). Hypertension and Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults: Blood Pressure and Beyond. Annual Review of Gerontology & Geriatrics, 30, 115-139

World Health Organization - WHO (2012). World Health Statistics: A Snapshot of…… [read more]


Baseball and the Ethnic/Racial Issues Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  4 pages (1,324 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is basically an international baseball tournament organized with the purpose of promoting baseball all over the planet. The first event took place in the year 2005 and is held every 4 years since then. The most distinctive feature of this tournament is that professional players are granted the permission to participate freely and represent their native countries. Due to this event, lots of interest has been generated and love for the game has increased as the people all around the world get the opportunity to watch the bests of the best and their favorites. It is also important to mention here that the World Baseball Classic has not done much to encourage African-Americans play the game. However, there are hopes that it will get the attention of the future generations.

As far as the number/percentage of front office and management is concerned, the recent report card demonstrates the fact that "there was an increase in the percentage of people of color as coaches, team vice presidents, and team senior professional staff while there was a decrease in the percentage of people of color in the League Office and as managers and general managers" (Lapchick, 2012).

As far as my opinion about stereotyping in baseball in today's world is concerned, I feel that the stereotyping and biasness about the ball players has not entirely eliminated. It is still a fact that African-American players are considered as fleshy, rude and aggressive as compared to the other players belonging to different races and ethnicities. It is also an idea generated by society that white are better in academics when compared to African-Americans and for that reason are given more baseball scholarships. However, there has been a change in this idea recently. In the present times, there has been a transformation in people's opinions about ball players of different races and they are considered as more athletic than the white players. If the pages of the history are turned, it is rather obvious that blacks were made slaves because of their physical power and strength. This is the reason why blacks are still considered as the race that is better in sports than academics.

People have other stereotypes about the other ethnicities in the ball game. For instance, a number of races are stereotypes as more disciplined when it comes to game. Some players are considered as better but less belligerent shooters than others. It is also commonly acknowledges that African-Americans are entertainers and make the crowds cheer due to their magical tricks with the ball, still they are not regarded as better ball players when compared with other players of different ethnicities. However, it is unfortunate that such stereotypes affect the individuality of the ball players to a great extent as they are judged by seeing their race and not their talent. Judging them as monolithic entity is rather unjustified and treating them with racial prejudice is also against the rules and standards of the game. To cut a long story short,… [read more]


Martial Arts Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  15 pages (4,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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" It mainly includes various practices that may be deadly in some situations. It includes various different techniques. There are many factors that are focused upon in jujutsu such as; rolls, grappling, locks and throws. As compared to the other kinds of martial arts which have a lot of different rules, this is the kind in which anything and everything… [read more]


Bob Hayes -- Sports Hero Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,071 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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8 yards per catch were the highest in the NFL that year. His second year with the Cowboys he gathered in 64 passes for 1,232 yards and he scored 13 touchdowns (Scribner). He was given the nickname "Bullet Bob Hayes" because no one could catch up to him. In fact, Scribner explains that defensive coordinators had to devise a special "zone defense" for Hayes because no defensive back could keep up with Hayes step for step.

He led the Cowboys to a Super Bowl win in 1972 and made the Pro-Bowl three times, according to the Gale biography. He ended his career with 7,414 receiving yards and 71 touchdowns. But following his retirement from pro-football Hayes got heavily involved with drugs and alcohol and was arrested and sent to prison for "…selling narcotics" (Gale). He got out of prison after serving 10 months of a 5-year sentence, but "…he continued to struggle with drug and alcohol problems…moving in and out of rehab centers" (Gale). His involvement with drugs prevented him from not only getting into the Pro-Football Hall of Fame, but from getting into the Cowboys' "Ring of Honor" (Gale). Eventually, in 2001, he got into the Ring of Honor and in 2009 those who make decisions about the Pro-Football Hall of Fame inducted him posthumously in 2009 (www.profootballhof.com).

Why is Bob Hayes Inspirational To Me?

First of all, for Hayes to emerge from a Jacksonville ghetto and a poor family to become a great high school and college athlete -- and later an Olympic and pro-football standout -- is a huge accomplishment. I have enormous respect for how he did that.

Secondly, there are very few athletes (male or female) who can have two great careers in two different sports. Before Bob Hayes, other track and field athletes put on the pads and tried to make it in pro-football due to their speed; but few if any ever made it. Hayes showed his ability to adapt to the football game; he caught difficult passes and took a pounding from hard tackles as well as anyone.

Third, Hayes' blinding speed made it impossible for defensive backs to catch him. So, because of this unique athlete with eye-popping skills, NFL defenses had to innovate in order to try and stop him. Hence, the "zone defense" was born -- all because of Bob Hayes.

Fourth, after Hayes was imprisoned for violating drug laws, he got out of prison and talked to kids about the dangers of getting involved with drugs. That is impressive.

Fifth, in his 2nd year with the Cowboys Malcolm X was murdered; in his 4th year Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated; media people kept asking him, "What do you people want?" But Hayes let his talent do the talking for him and I respect that a lot; he was not a civil rights leader or a public speaker and so he was smart to ignore the questions and just play.

Works Cited

Gale Biography in Context. "Bob Hayes."… [read more]


Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  10 pages (3,144 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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, 2007).

High school athletes already realize the health risks that they are taking and now teachers and students are being made aware of the issues (Liberatore, 2009). However, mandatory drug testing has still not been instituted by most states (only now being done in New Jersey (Sysol, 2008) and is not a consideration as yet on the federal level.… [read more]


National Group Technique the Nominal Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

They will as a team reach out to females on campus and see if there is interest in adding an intramural sport." The facilitator reads this over and scans the room to see if all faces reflect clarity with this point.

Step FIVE: With the list of ideas for solutions clearly visible to all, the facilitator asks each group member to write down what they consider the top five or six ideas they saw on the board. They are to write them down and rank them in order of their value to the group and hand in the written suggestions. This, according to the book Interviews in Qualitative Research (King, et al., 2010, p. 65) helps to avoid "the influence of group opinion." Strong personalities with lengthy experience might dominate the discussion if this writing down of suggestions was abandoned and an open forum was launched. King explains that if there is some conflict that already exists within the group, this makes it a level playing field and moreover, the facilitator has now achieved independent responses from a myriad of personalities and every one of those responses has equal value. (This might be a good time to give the group a break.)

Step SIX: After the facilitator has counted up the lists of votes for the best ideas, he or she invites the group back to the room. The top five suggestions for how to make the intramural program more balanced in terms of gender are written on the board for all to see. A discussion for clarity is conducted and every member of the group is allowed to ask a question or make a comment about any of the top five on the board.

Then the facilitator asks the group to once again pick a favorite suggestion for a solution (from the top five on the board), write down their top three from the top five, and hand it in.

Step SEVEN: From the new list (based on the top five from earlier voting), the facilitator goes around the room and asks each member to respond to either what someone else said about one of the solution ideas, or do further remark on how the intramural program can be more gender balanced. As King explains, this technique "…ensures that all participants are able to give their individual responses" and moreover, there should be no dynamics allowed by the facilitator that in any way inhibits the open responses from even the most reserved and shy member of the group, King asserts (King, p. 65).

In conclusion, when it is conducted with skill and professionalism, the Nominal Group Technique is an ideal way to reach consensus or solve a problem related to a sports program in a university. Giving all group members equal weight in terms of their participation not only embraces true democratic strategies, it empowers those who otherwise might not speak up and might have their thoughts and suggestions pushed aside by stronger personalities.

Works Cited

King, Nigel, and… [read more]


Football American Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Football is a very competitive sport that seems to drive more competition, not only between teams and players, but between fans as well. Fans have their favorite teams that they support from game to game and from season to season. Because football is a professional sport, it is widely covered in media, TV, and radio, etc. When fans cannot go to games, the TV is the media they usually use to watch the game and keep up with the scores of their chosen teams. The more media coverage, the more that competition seems to drive the fans to support their favorite team.

The competition is not just about the teams, it is also driven between players. NFL has a Hall of Fame for the best football players who produce the most winning points in the games (Ormeland, 2012). Players can compete to be accepted in the NFL Hall of Fame by competing for the most points in the games for a given season. The teams also compete to be able to play in the Super Bowl, the last big game of a season.

Football as a social institution has a lot of drive for competition and determination for success. Everyone wants to be successful, both in personal life and business. The determination creates the competition. And, at the same time, the competition drives the determination for success. Football is very exciting when the favorite team is winning. It can be very frustrating when the favorite team is losing. As fans and cheerleaders cheer on the teams, it gives more encouragement to the players to drive harder for determination in winning.

Bibliography

Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm

Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central: http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php… [read more]


Martial Arts Three Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Each of these five animal forms includes sets of exercises to strengthen different parts of the body and aspects of the mind. When fused, the five forms offer a complete hard/soft approach to the fighting arts (Tsui-Po). Like other Chinese martial arts, Kung Fu combines mental discipline with physical practice. Kung fu practices have changed considerably over the centuries, in spite of its retaining the core forms. After the Cultural Revolution, Chinese martial arts traditions were brought to the new world, where they changed even more dramatically with Western practitioners. Bruce Lee popularized a specific format of kung fu martial arts.

Wushu translates to "military art," or "art of fighting." It is therefore the standard term for all Chinese martial arts, even as it does refer to a specific fighting style. According to one source, wushu was the Communist Party of China's response to the desire to distance kung fu and other martial arts from their spiritual sources ("History of Kung Fu"). As martial arts became practiced more as pure sport and less as spiritual discipline, wushu became the sort of standardized, nationalized sport that was conducive to modern Chinese culture. The Communist Party controlled the practice of wushu, so that its forms were uniform across different schools. High schools and universities began to teach wushu, which draws more heavily from kung fu than from any other martial arts tradition. Wushu also embraces tai chi (Taijiquan) as a central component of practice. Although wushu can be viewed simply as the formalized martial arts system that the Communist Party codified during the 20th century, the martial art can be traced back deep in Chinese history, though, as far as 2500 years ago (Zhuo). It shares much in common with its counterparts Chuan Fa and Kung Fu in terms of historical background, connections with the Shaolin temple, and its philosophical origins in Buddhist and Taoist traditions.

Wushu is particularly attractive to modern practitioners because of the incorporation of softer forms like Tai chi. A large number of wushu practitioners may only practice tai chi, instead of the more rigorous fighting arts that characterize Chinese martial arts. Whereas kung fu and Chuan fa have more romantic connotations due to their never having distanced themselves from their religious origins, wushu might be appealing to athletes and others needing a more straightforward brand of fighting similar to kickboxing.

Works Cited

Allen Academy. "Shaolin Ch'uan-Fa Kung Fu." Retrieved online: http://www.allenmaacademy.com/arts-kung-fu.html

"The History of Kung Fu." Retrieved online: http://www.talkkungfu.co.uk/guides/history_of_kung_fu.html

"Kempo History." Retrieved online: http://www.kempoacademy.com/hist_history.htm

Tracy, Will. The origin of Kenpo karate. 1997. Retrieved online: http://kenpokarate.com/origin_of_kenpo_karate.html

Tsui-Po, Richard. "History of King Fu and the Origin of Chinese Martial Arts." Retrieved online: http://www.kung-fu-fitness-and-defence.com/kung-fu-history.html

Zhuo, Hao. "History of Chinese Wushu." About.com. Retrieved online: http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa050701a.htm… [read more]


Title IX and Its Impact Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,147 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

One ever present point of contention which is raised relentlessly by detractors of Title IX is the highly controversial three-pronged test which is used to measure a university's compliance. Originally formulated by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), a now-defunct sector of the federal government which published its Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Interpretation in 1979 to amend Title IX, the three-pronged test relies requires collegiate athletic programs to meet one of three conditions. When a university can "provide opportunities that are proportionate to the student enrollment, demonstrate continual expansion of sports opportunities for the under-represented gender" or achieve "full and effective accommodation of the interests and abilities of the under-represented gender" (Roberson, 2011) they are found to be in compliance with the major directives of Title IX. The ability and apparent willingness of major universities to utilize loopholes in the three-pronged test and manipulate the so-called proportionality rule has led to ongoing litigation. An example of this manipulation by college athletic programs is evident when schools seek to allot the equal opportunities assured to women by Title IX purely in mathematical terms. In some cases, scholarships have been awarded to an equal number of male and female athletes but only men have been given access to the preferred, high-profile programs like basketball. This preferential treatment does not violate the letter of the three-pronged test compliance law, but it most assuredly violates Title IX's inherent spirit of gender equality and legal precedent has been consistent in this regard.

The most vocal critics of Title IX's increasingly strict implementation standards openly concede the necessity of enforcing gender fairness but decry the obtuse nature of this enforcement. Many of the requirements mandated by Title IX are intended to provide women interested in pursuing a collegiate athletic career with opportunities to excel, but the government's formulaic system of assessing compliance has caused a bevy unintended consequences. Despite the clear fact that male students engage in athletic competition at a higher rate than their female peers, the prevailing judgment of Title IX is that athletic programs must be equally represented. This mismanagement of a well-intentioned statute has assured that a "gender breakdown of the school's athletes has to match the gender breakdown of the entire student body," and because "women now account for six in ten undergrads & #8230; at many colleges, this is an increasingly difficult standard to meet" (Lukas, 2011). Amidst constant calls for review of its major provisions, Title IX continues evolving to effectively meet the needs of today's women athletes. Like other seminal components of the American legal framework, Title IX has been successfully helmed by responsible legislators and conscientious citizens to ensure that its original mandates have been sufficiently met while also addressing a shifting array of social concerns.

References

Lukas, C. (2011, October 9). High schools don't need athletic quotas. Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2011/oct/09/high-schools-dont-need-athletic-quotas-20111009/

Parker-Pope, T. (2010, February 15). As girls become women, sports pay dividends. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/15/as-girls-become-women-sports-pay-dividends/

Roberson, D. (2011,… [read more]