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Essays on "Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization"  |  Term Papers 1-40

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How Could a Terrorist Be Radicalized?

Radical How could a terrorist be de-radicalised? terrorism strategies How Could a Terrorist be Deradicalised? In the last two decades there has been a rapid increase in the threat of both international and domestic terrorism in the world. This increase has been dramatically emphasized by a number of major terrorist attacks, such as the Oklahoma bombing in 1995, the attack…

Pages: 17  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 30


Terrorism & National Policy Terrorism

S. went on to attack Iraq amidst the reservations of its allies. This policy gave priority on American freedom and dismissed the views of other nations where the views were deemed secondary or irrelevant. This approach led to the U.S. To have more enemies than it did before Thirdly, Bush policy saw his administration engage in costly decisions. The Bush…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Muslim Suicide Terrorists

Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Muslim Suicide Terrorists Proposed Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Suicide as a Terrorism Tactic Today, suicide bombing takes place on a daily basis throughout the Middle East, and it is clear that the tactic has assumed a new level of importance for many terrorist organizations.…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 10


Domestic Terrorism America Is Home

They once destroyed a laboratory in Michigan University because the laboratory was used to create genetically modified organisms funded by Monsanto (Grubbs, 2010). In reality, Monsanto only donated a paltry 2000 USD to send 5 African students to a conference on biotechnology. In their wisdom they have maintained that whatever they did was justified. The Army of God revels on…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Terrorism: One of the Many Facets of Religious Extremism

Religious Extremism: Radical Islam Radical Islam is a multifaceted phenomenon, comprising numerous groups and movements that, while related (especially with regard to faith and anti-western mind-set), may embrace very different thoughts on means and objectives. Radical Islam is a politico-religious quest to establish - by violent means if necessary - a society that, as much as possible, tries to adhere…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


American Terrorism for Many People, Terrorism Was

American Terrorism For many people, terrorism was first brought to their attention after the events surrounding September 11th. As they were quickly made aware of the underlying threats that these groups can be. However, the last several years have seen a shift in tactics. As many organizations are focused on conducting domestic terrorism. This has caused the number of incidents…

Pages: 50  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 12


Islam Radicalization the Radicalization of Islam the

Islam Radicalization The Radicalization of Islam The forces of economic, political and religious distinction which have driven a wedge between the Western World and the Arab world are steeped in a long history of divergent interests. The conflict as we know it today, largely waged between the United States and such long-standing allies as the United Kingdom and Australia, is the fallout of centuries of subjugation, exploitation and occupation. The colonial forces of Europe and the United States exist on a continuum within which Arab states and cultures, once themselves a dominant and imperial global entity, have developed both historical and modern motives for violent and militant resistance. These motives relate as much to a sense of political resentment as they do to a belief in religious martyrdom, with the realities of western exploitation, a permeation of objectionable living conditions and the presence of deceptive governmental or media forces have collectively created a divide between East and West that implicates the Arab culture as a militant defender of a waning tribalism. Today, the greatest visible identifiers of this militant disposition are those 'terrorist' groups which perpetrated the attacks of September 11th and who continue to obstruct American interests in places like Afghanistan and Iraq. The degree to which this identity has come to be seen as the primary face of Islam in the world is both a testament to the distortions imposed by Western society and the degree to which these extreme sects of Islam have come to dominate impressions. So is this evidenced in the text by Husain (2007), which details the experience of one Briton who would move from a life of normal devotion to one of extremist engagement with little warning. A consideration of Husain's experience reveals that in such contexts as Europe, the U.K. And the U.S., the experience of humiliation and disenfranchisement which has been foisted upon Muslims living as second class citizens has helped to stimulate a virulent form of political and ideological resentment. This is a reality which can be correlated to a modern history of exploitation connected both the colonialism and to the Cold War. For Europe, this is especially the case, as the Muslim population continues to proliferate. As Leiken (2005) indicates "the mass immigration of Muslims to Europe was an unintended consequence of post-World War II guest-worker programs. Backed by friendly politicians and unsympathetic judges, foreign workers, who were supposed…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 3


Psychology of Terrorism

Psychology of Terrorism Terrorism Defined: What is Terrorism? Terrorism has been explained variedly both as a strategic effort as well as a tactic; a criminal act as well as a sacred obligation, a reaction which is justified against oppression as well as abomination which is unpardonable. To be obvious, a lot is based on whose perspective is represented. Acts of…

Pages: 7  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 7


International Terrorism on Domestic Terrorism-

Since U.S. has been in the fore front in the war against Terror, this has formed the ground used by the jihad front in campaigning against American hegemony among the Muslims who are in America. Al Awlaki and bin Laden videos in addition to their several number of escapes from the U.S. forces has greatly bestowed them a cult status and greater number of their fan following. This mass appeal will always be a challenge to the United State in trying to curb this following. The agencies in U.S. who have the duty of countering terrorism have concentrated in dealing with radical Islamists who are closer to home, though the steps that they are using in countering this threat tend to be vague and far from being defined well. From the evidence we can tell that the real threat does not exist on the amateur homemade explosives and random shootings, it originates from the ideology that gives birth to this radicalization, (Jerrold M. Post, 2005). Therefore, the U.S. government is supposed to deal with the ideological prejudices within as well as against Muslims. The aim of the government is supposed to be bringing itself closer to the Muslims communities but not just concentrating on fighting their civil liberties, for example, in the airline security checks that usually rises discord among the communities to make them gang up against the United State. It has been clear enough that pouring tax money into Afghanistan was not enough to end the terror threat that America is still facing. A strategy that can be considered to be very effective is a multi-pronged counterterrorism strategy that focuses on the terrorist abroad and Muslim community that stay within the United States territory, joining hands in working with the antiterrorism agencies forms the key to the problem. The United State do not have any option of remaining safe from radical Islamist terrorism who influence the domestic terrorism but to implement a strategy that is based on intelligence as well as a coordinated law enforcement be carried out in a pro-active and sustainable partnership with the American Muslim community. Conclusion A nationwide, coordinated, community partnership framework tends to be the best solution to the problem of domestic terrorism. Muslims community local leaders are supposed to be brought around the table to have a dialogue with the law enforcement, more so to the counter terrorism officials and the government.…

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Is Terrorism Effective?

¶ … Terrorism Effective? The term "terrorism" is basically politically and fervently charged which compounds the struggle of providing a precise description of terrorism. Some examination studies by intellectuals have shown the fact that there are over 100 various terms of terrorism. A less diplomatically and emotionally charged denotation of terrorism is a better well-defined word that is often utilized for referring to fear. The word "fear" derives from a Latin word with a connotation that means "to be frightened." (American Heritage Online Dictionary, 2010) Many people share the definition of terrorism in that it means a violent activity which is envisioned to generate fear, to endorse an ideological/political objective, and purposely aim at civilians and non- civilian targets (American Heritage Online Dictionary, 2010). With that said, terrorism appears to be more effective when used against a democracy vs. A more repressive regime for many reasons. Terrorism is more effective against a democracy because it poses distinctive challenge to the liberal democratic state. The transnational nature of terrorism requires collaboration among and between states to speak to this common threat. Comparative studies disclose that societies that are of liberal states must offer consensus for those anti and counter terrorist guidelines which are adopted by the state (Dantzker, 2010). If democracies that are liberal began to take police state-like action in reply to terrorism, then questionably the terrorists have accomplished what they set out to do. Terrorism goal is to make sure that they affect every root of democracy. However, their main goal is to get the citizens to even question that fact, Is democracy worth it? Is this form of government really bringing the protection that we need? Terrorist use this strategy to attack western democracy because it plants seeds in the back of the minds of every citizen. It is very effective because it brings panic to a group of people that have put all of their trust in a form of government that is popular all over the globe (Dantzker, 2010). The terrorist tactic is effective because it gets the people in debate on whether or not a democratic nation is even worth it. In short, terrorists target state lawfulness, and political culture is at the root of this investigation because it reflects a society's legality for its policies and its leaders. It is also the element that is missing of a lot of unrestricted social equalities. It…

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Domestic Terrorism on Policing Since

Within the terrorism arena, the key strength of local agencies clings to their experience in criminal investigation of both individuals and enterprises. Their techniques in investigation create a robust understanding of the extent in which the broad networks of individuals and enterprises link. As a result, the agencies developed a crime-fighting model that is useful in investigations of organized crimes,…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Homegrown Terrorism and International Terrorism

The message behind such actions is basically sending terrorist repercussions rather than following a logical path. These political acts usually points fingers at a general underprivileged society. The aim is to acquire some political power and rights to demand their rights. Conventional terrorism is domestic by default. Many extremists' groups and terrorists organizations have agents and supporters all across the…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Global Terrorism Policy Memo

Terrorism Memo Re: Possible rise of terrorism in Japan Assessment of risk over the next six months and steps needed to mitigate terrorism recruitment (3/11-9/11) Much of the world has watched in sympathy and respect over the last week as the Japanese people and their government have responded with grace to the triple catastrophe of a 9.0 earthquake, the following tsunami, and the still-ongoing struggle to contain problems at nuclear power plants. However, while there is much to praise in this effort to begin to come to terms with and then recover such a terrible blow from nature, there is also room for concern that the chaos that has naturally resulted will provide a breeding ground for terrorism. The world's focus on terrorism over the last ten years has been almost entirely on Muslim extremists. There have been ongoing warnings about the perils of such a narrow focus, but these have been in general ignored for at least two reasons. The first of these is that there is a clear Western bias that tends to assume both that a greater percentage of Muslims are radicalized than are and that other communities are less likely to have radicalized members than is in fact the case. Japan has not been the site of a serious terrorist attack since 1995, when five members of the cult/religion Aum Shinrikyo initiated a chemical terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway during rush hour. The chemical agent that they used was sarin, which is classified as a weapon as mass destruction and is a nerve agent that acts very quickly and in very small doses can prove fatal to humans. Members of the cult had intended to aerosolize the sarin, but failed to do so. Had they been able to do so, the attack would no doubt have been far more deadly. As it was, the attack killed thirteen people, severely injured fifty and resulted in temporary albeit vision problems for almost a thousand other victims. The religious group that organized and staged the attack has lost its official status with the Japanese government as a religion but still has over 200 members. They themselves are unlikely to be a significant threat in the future; however, the social forces that prompted them to become violent still exist in Japanese society. Key Actors As is the case with many manifestations of terrorism, the terrorists in were linked to…

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International Terrorism State Department Defines Modern Terrorism

International Terrorism State Department defines modern terrorism as "premeditated and politically motivated violence by sub-national groups or clandestine agents against non-combatant targets" often to influence a particular audience. The Federal Bureau of Investigation describes it as: …"the use of serious violence against persons or property, or the threat to use such violence, to intimidate or coerce a government, the public,…

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Terrorism Asia the Political Complexity of the

Terrorism Asia The Political Complexity of the Asian Position on Terrorism: As Seen in Pakistan The forces of economic, political and religious distinction which have driven a wedge between the Western World and the Arab world are steeped in a long history of divergent interests. The conflict as we know it today, largely waged between the United States and the…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 10


Argentina's Definition of Terrorism

Argentina's Definition Of Terrorism Terrorism is nowadays one of the most important aspects of international security which states and international organizations are trying to address at all levels, both internal and global. This is largely due to the fact that the terrorist flabellum does not represent a regular threat to the national and international security, but rather an unconventional one,…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 20


Roots of Domestic Terrorism

Terrorism has been defined as the sub-state application of violence or threatened violence intended to sow panic in a society to weaken or even overthrow the incumbents, and to bring about political change'. The society has observed several practices which are aimed at spreading 'intimidation, panic, and destruction in a population'. In real practice it has been observed that such…

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Explosive Terrorism

Terrorism Ever since the year 2001, The United States Homeland Security has been specifically focused upon not only defending the country against terrorist attacks and providing care in the aftermath of such an attack, but also on preventing similar future attacks. The best way towards prevention is an understanding of the precise threats facing the country and cultivating ways in…

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Domestic vs International Terrorism: Which

91). In fact, Mantri (2011) suggests that notwithstanding the numerous examples of domestic terrorism cited above, the potential for even more such attacks in the future may be far greater because of the ideological attraction that these acts hold for some people. In this regard, Mantri notes that, "Even more disturbing has been the concept that this is driven by…

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International Terrorism Has Brought With it Destruction,

International terrorism has brought with it destruction, bloodshed, the killing of untold thousands of innocent people, political reprisals and fear. But along with these unconscionable terror-related strategies and tactics, many innocent people of Islamic faith have been erroneously linked to fanatical Muslims merely because of their dress or their place of origin. This paper highlights the ethno-national identity problem that…

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Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan Narco-Terrorism Refers to the

Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan Narco-terrorism refers to the role that the narcotics trade plays in promoting and contributing to terrorism. Afghanistan is not only one of the largest sources of international terrorist, but also the world's leading supplier of opium. It is virtually impossible to ignore the relationship between the narcotics trade and terrorism. Furthermore, it is virtually impossible to ignore the fact that U.S. military intervention in Afghanistan may actually have increased the ability of narcotics growers to funnel money into terrorist activities by weakening the Taliban in Afghanistan. Prior to 9-11, the Taliban had cracked down on opium poppy production because of concerns that it would lead to UN-Sanctions, but U.S. intervention in the area removed that threat and actually encouraged poppy-production. Furthermore, there have been recent improvements in local manufacturing techniques, which has made it possible for Afghanis to process the heroin within the country's borders, reducing the bulk it needs to export in the narcotics trade. In order to understand the extent of the impact of the narcotics trade on terrorism in Afghanistan, one must understand what a tremendous role narcotics production plays in the Afghan economy. Up to one-third of Afghanistan's economy is attributable to the narcotics trade. These narcotics impact other countries in two manners. First, it is believed that opiates originating in Afghanistan actually kill more people than any other illegal narcotic in the world, so the narcotics are their own form of terrorism. Second, the narcotics trade in Afghanistan exacerbates existing problems there, which makes the population more vulnerable to becoming terrorists. Third, it is believed that the lingering Taliban insurgents profit tremendously from this drug production, so that this narcotics industry funnels hundreds of millions of dollars each year to terrorists. Significance of the Death of Osama Bin Laden There is a tremendous amount of disagreement about the significance of the death of Osama Bin Laden. Bin Laden was certainly the face of Al Qaeda for many Americans, and, as the mastermind of 9-11, did plan the most serious and significant terrorist attack on American soil. He provided a tangible face for the literally thousands of terrorists worldwide who wished to target the United States. As such, Bin Laden served as a catalyst for American action, much as Hitler did decades earlier during World War II. Therefore, Bin Laden's death served as a symbolic victory for Americans, because it was a tangible…

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Terrorism Assess the Likelihood of a Terrorist

Terrorism Assess the likelihood of a terrorist group use of CBRN weapons There is a high and rising probability of the usage of the chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear -CBRN weapons by majority of terrorists even though certain established terrorist groups are expected to remain restricted by such aspects like being alien to the weapon and its dubious political usefulness.…

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Shifting Seas of Global Social

" Strategically, the Wells Fargo, or "Aguilla Blanca" as they called it, incident created two extreme problems for both the American officials and the Machetero base. Previously, the Macheteros were responsible or struggles against the armed forces of the U.S., whom they deemed an occupying force; after the incident, they were responsible for the death of two American civilians (the…

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Terrorism What Is Involved in Terrorism Investigation?

Terrorism What is involved in terrorism investigation? Unlike many criminal investigations, investigating terrorism and terrorism issues are dependent on far more issues. First, the investigation may be national, international, or a combination -- it may involve a number of agencies, jurisdictions, and political formats. The terrorism investigation is also dependent on whether it is proactive or reactive. Proactive investigations are used to prevent acts of terrorism and include coordinated or long-term planning, intelligence gathering, and ways for different agencies to cooperate. Reactive methods are used to investigate terrorism after the incident occurs. These include crime scene processing and analysis, detective work (following leads and tips), using informants, data mining, surveillance, and other standard law enforcement tactics. Proactive methods are designed, particularly after 9/11, by the theory of preventive policing -- to anticipate and diffuse the next terror attack. These techniques do not focus on crime, but on the idea that a crime might be committed on a future date. It is primarily intelligence gathering, data mining and analysis, sharing of information with pertinent agencies, and gathering of intelligence by different means so that there are few surprises to law enforcement. One real challenge in proactive investigation is balancing civil liberties against terrorist threats. Reactive methods follow similar techniques to basic modern criminal investigations, but on a larger, more complex manner. Because of the nature of the incident, local officials might not have enough equipment or personnel to adequately handle the investigation, and it is highly likely that because of the nature of terrorism, that other cities or countries are also involved. Of course, the incident must have a responder, usually local law enforcement and then other agencies being called in. Once the incident is under control, crime scene processes sing and analysis occurs and is as extensive as possible. Information is gathered, leads checked, background issues are uncovered, and an agency, usually Homeland Security in the United States, coordinates efforts to build a profile and apprehend the suspects, with the help of coordinating agencies. Part 2 -- What are crimes against humanity? Crimes against humanity are serious offenses against a nation, an ethic group, a part of society and a serious attack on humanity or degradation against one or more individuals. They are not isolated events, but part of a formal policy or a wide practice of atrocities, torture, or offenses that are somehow condoned by a de facto authority.…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Terrorism the Objective of This Study Is

¶ … Terrorism The objective of this study is to choose from three definitions of terrorism and relate which one best represents the beliefs, values, experiences, and education of this writer. Section 802 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (Pub. L. No. 107-52) is reported to have expanded the definition of terrorism to cover 'domestic' terrorism. Domestic terrorism is committed by…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Terrorism Represents the Organized Use of Terror

Terrorism represents the organized use of terror with the purpose of intimidating particular groups. Its complex nature makes it difficult for the act to be defined by the international community and a series of actions can thus be catalogued as being terrorist in character. The masses are typically accustomed to perceiving terrorism as being related to religious extremists wanting to…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Terrorism Is a Weapon of the Weak Global Jihad a Myth or Reality

Terrorism is a "Weapon of the Weak -- / Global Jihad, a Myth or Reality Terrorism is a weapon of the weak Terrorism has become one of the most discussed subjects in terms of international security and in the foreign affairs offices throughout the world. Especially after the 9/11 events in the United States, terrorism has received the label of the most important threat to national security (Townshend, 2007). Both domestic and international terrorism are phenomena that can hardly be tackled with instruments that have been used traditionally during the Cold War in particular when security was established as a special area of expertise. This is largely due to the fact that this threat is an unconventional one and requires unconventional means to counter. Terrorism is by no means a weapon of the weak. Although there is no generally accepted definition of terrorism, one that would encompass the complexity of the phenomenon, it is rather clear that terrorism represents a sum of causes and effects that can hardly be labeled in one way or another. Yet, terrorism is a means of applying pressure on the decision making bodies and to create a certain image and reaction at the level of the public opinion or the targeted audience. It is rather difficult to asses weather terrorism is used only by the weak groups, largely because, as previous history has pointed out, terrorist groups have become more and more elaborated in their techniques of operation and act now at the global level (Kaplan, 2006). Of course, one of the most well-known terrorist groups is the Al Qaeda that is known to have ties and connections throughout the world. The 9/11 events proved precisely the magnitude of their influence at that time. Although at this point the organization is no longer as powerful as it was a decade ago largely due to the fact that its head, Osama bin Laden was killed by the American led interventions in the Middle East, the group still represents, at least in the mentality of the public opinion, the most representative terrorist group. This notoriety is extremely benefic for terrorist groups and may make the difference between a weak or powerful terrorist movement. This is due to the fact that, as mentioned above, one of the main targets of the terrorist attacks is the creation of an impression over the public opinion, especially one of fear (Wilkinson,…

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How Is Terrorism Different From Violent Crime and Insurgency Ethno National Terrorism?

¶ … terrorism different from violent crime and Insurgency / Ethno-National Terrorism How is terrorism different from violent crime and insurgency Terrorism has become one of the most discussed subjects in terms of international threat, national security, and domestic preventive action. In recent decades there have been numerous attempts to try to define the notion of terrorism and to tackle…

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Terrorism Is at This Point

This represents a real challenge for the law enforcement agencies such as the CBP as well as for the legislative body at the level of the country to ensure that, while maintaining and preserving the right of people to seek better life conditions, they do not do that at the expense of the law or do not jeopardize the security…

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How Homeland Security Combats the Financing of Terrorism

Financing Terrorism: America's Unique Position In Blocking Such Efforts Aside from issues in foreign policy and tense international relations, arguments about oil, and other factors which contributed to 9/11, the destruction of the World Trade Center would not have occurred if there hadn't been entities to back such an attack. While most civilians don't consider the practical and financial issues…

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Latin America American Terrorism Issues

United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) This group of terrorist is relatively weak and less active. Very few activities have been reported by this group. It has more than 32000 members dismissed. Thus, it remains inactive as a formal group. Despite of its less activities, many old members of AUC are engaged in criminal activities mostly drug trafficking, in newly…

Pages: 25  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 25


What Is the Connection Between Terrorism and Criminal Organizations in Terms of Illicit Finance?

¶ … Terrorism and Illicit Finance As a growing majority of middle class families fall victim to the economic devastation of the Great Recession, suffering from prolonged unemployment, depleted job markets and a rising cost of living, the threat of potential terrorist attacks striking America and its interests seems to have faded into the proverbial background of our collective consciousness.…

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Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism Sovereign

The subsequent ground invasions launched in Afghanistan and Iraq, predicted to achieve rousing strategic victories in a relatively short duration, offer demonstrable proof that "predicting discrete events in the future is impossible in an open and complex system" (Quiggin, 2006), while also illustrating the deficiencies of this approach to conducting counterterrorism and intelligence operations. By forming optimistic predictions about future events and tailoring national security strategy to these predictions, rather than adopting an anticipatory strategy founded on adaptability, the U.S. government unwittingly stumbled into a military quagmire, diverting invaluable resources to combat a seemingly infinite insurgency and squandering global support in the process. While the calamitous conflicts still simmering throughout the Middle East provide conclusive proof that predicting future events is an untenable approach to counterterrorism intelligence, there are many circumstances which dictate the adoption of preventative strategy. The advent of the internet has enabled likeminded individuals across the planet to connect and exchange ideas on an instantaneous basis, allowing the once isolated realm of jihadist ideology to flourish under the cover of online anonymity. By monitoring suspicious activity through the use of wiretapping technology and other clandestine means, the intelligence community has gathered a voluminous amount of data concerning potential threats to national security, identifying key leadership figures and their proxies, and foiling several dozen attacks during the planning phase. Indeed, according to the Heritage Foundation "in 2009 alone, U.S. authorities foiled at least six terrorist plots against the United States (and) since September 11, 2001, at least 30 planned terrorist attacks have been foiled, all but two of them prevented by law enforcement" (McNeill, Carafano & Zuckerman, 2010). When a potential terrorist attack is prevented, however, it is essential that the reasons for this success be accurately identified before a false sense of security becomes firmly established. A consensus has emerged among intelligence experts that "with distributed terrorism threats such as homegrown jihadism, there is no key leadership cell and no key lines of command and communication" (Quiggin, 2006), and it is the ambiguous structure of terrorist networks which necessitates an anticipatory approach to combating threats. Even after dozens of planned attacks were prevented, Al-Qaeda and its affiliates continued to innovate, formulating plots involving "shoe-bombs," inciting Muslim military members to commit atrocities against their own army bases, and fomenting regional strife in an effort to destabilize American interests abroad. By adhering to a strictly predictive counterterrorism strategy, the…

Pages: 3  |  A-Level Coursework  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Terrorism How Have Worries Over

Salafi networks are organized specifically to target the United States, even more so than its allies. The great majority -- 84% -- of all Salafi organization members joined the movement in the diaspora, revealing the potential for sleeper cells throughout Europe and North America. Demographics for the Salafi network are also vastly different from those of religiously fundamental jihadist groups. For example, 87% of Salafi network members have had a secular education and come from a secular background; and most are professional or at least semiprofessional with families and no history of psychological illness ("Global Salafi Terrorist Networks").[footnoteRef:7] Current trends toward politically motivated anti-Americanism that is not rooted in Islamism are worrisome because they challenge preconceived notions of the underlying ideology of terrorism; thus, secular terrorism is harder to identify and harder to stop. [7: "Global Salafi Terrorist Networks"] Intelligence does reveal some patterns in Salafi network membership patterns. For instance, about two-thirds of the secular jihadists join because of pre-existing friendships with existing members. Reasons for bonding together with fellow Muslims are parallel to those of other immigrant groups. For instance, immigrant students have the need to room with other Muslims for dietary (Halal) reasons and bond with persons from their social group -- not based on religion but on worldview, lifestyle, and ethnicity ("Global Salafi Terrorist Networks").[footnoteRef:8] Second generation immigrants tend to be raised in a secular society, but when ostracized or isolated seek social bonding. Therefore, the psychosocial development of individuals becomes the cornerstone of jihadist group membership and recruitment. [8: "Global Salafi Terrorist Networks"] The trend away from al Qaeda toward even more nebulous networks presents particular threats for the United States. Although the Al Qaeda central administration has been weakened with the death of bin Laden, the prevailing ideology of jihad remains strong. "While al Qaeda Central is still very much in hiding, the al Qaeda social movement has flourished, fueled by worldwide Muslim resentment against the Western invasion and occupation of Iraq," (Sageman,, p. 133). Pillar confirms that anti-Western sentiment, in specific directed against the United States, has not subsided as the prevailing terrorist ideology. Thus, the current trends are in many ways extensions of the past, just in a slightly different format. Although some trends are shifting away from al Qaeda, the organization is still alive and has even enjoyed a "resurgence" in Afghanistan via a strategic alliance with Afghan Taliban (Sageman, p.…

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Terrorism Influences Terrorism Has No

New mission of Homeland security After the 9/11 homeland security mission has been revolutionized and distance between law enforcement and intelligence has been eliminated. These changes are more prominent on state level. Most of the countries have retaliated by combining existing public security, emergency response capabilities and law enforcement. Moreover, before most of the countries have no effective intelligence agencies but now most countries have reacted by creating multiple intelligence cells in existing setup. (Steiner) Modern terrorism and new level of relationship between federal, state, local government agencies and private corporations Modern terrorism has made federal governments more skeptical. For example before 9/11 everyone was allowed to get training of flying the plane in the U.S.A. But now these laws have been made stricter. Moreover, more local security agencies have been given contract like Black water in USA by the government. Tourist organizations are more answerable to state and its agencies. Private corporations are more under scrutiny. Bibliography Fine, J. (2008). contrastin secular and religious terrorism. Retrieved from Middle east forun: http://www.meforum.org/1826/contrasting-secular-and-religious-terrorism Kahn, P.F. (2004). Protection against weapons of mass destruction. Kreamer, T.A. (n.d.). Archiving early America. Retrieved from Sons of Liberty:Patriots or Terrorist: http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/fall96/sons.html Kurgel, L. (2011, August). e-International Relations. Retrieved from Terrorism and Global economy: http://www.e-ir.info/2011/08/31/what-is-the-impact-of-terrorism-on-the-ipe/ Steiner, D.J. (n.d.). central intelligence agency. Retrieved from Improving Homeland Security at the State level: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Terrorism Intelligence, Counterterrorism and Protection,

This definition will most likely fall short of total comprehension upon further analysis. The intentional or unintentional habit of associating terrorism with foreign freedom fighters committing acts of war on American soil seems to have attracted the majority of Western consciousness in today's discussions. The aforementioned phrase may indeed be the new, applicable and suitable phrasing for a consensual definition, however this consensus must be collaborated with qualitative research.This qualitative research project may reach out to different segments of society to gather of differing opinions about the word terrorism and how it should be used with today's lexicon. Terrorism and counterintelligence and other terms may also be offered up for redefining in this type of research. The words that are used in associating value to social issues such as personal safety should be selected with extreme care and precision. Confusion and doubt are usually results of miscommunication resulting from such unwillingness to re-examine phrases whose old definitions may seem obsolete. TOPIC 2: INVESTIGATING THE METHODS OF SAFE LIVING How much safety is a good thing? This question can be answered by many different approaches. Examining the economic expenditures and creating correlating qualitative values with this spending may be attempted in such a research project. For instance, violence statistics, such as random homicides, which may be classified as a terrorist attack, can be statistically investigated along with individual, state, and federal budgets. What is a safe living approach and is there an economic benefit to securing utility within the greater good? Contrasting safe living with risky behavior, may also be an alternate approach for investigating this topic as well. What are the benefits of risking one's life? How can dangerous behaviors be used for the good of society? The answers to these questions, if found, may help alleviate certain pressures within society that have been continually misunderstood over the course of history. TOPIC 3: QUALITY VS QUANTITY OF INTELLIGENCE Information flows freely and abundantly today in the 21st century. It may be time to look at the environment and see if there may be a possible overload of scientific information. Usually this information is classified as intelligence, but intelligence, with fragmented facts, may be more dangerous than its attainment may reveal. There is so much information and intelligence floating in the human consciousness today that it is a task in and of itself to organize the ever-changing, and ever rapidly changing…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Terrorism Linked to Religion These

The earlier terrorism caused by the military wing of HAMAS was used as a tool to gain political power to achieve their objectives of saving Muslims from oppression and devastation at the hands on Non-Muslims. The constant evolution of the purposes and actions of such organizations must lead to the question that if Radical Islam and religious domination is not…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 12


Terrorism the Term Terrorism Is

] m. Federal Bureau of Investigation -- 28 C.F.R. §0.85 "[Terrorism is] [t]he unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives."[footnoteRef:17] [17: (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2005).] 3. Two Approaches to the Complexity of Terrorism Definitions As…

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Combating Future Terrorism the Continuing

, 168). Moreover, Americans should not be startled that so many foreign nations despise that the U.S. created a coup in Iraq, and has assassinated elected leaders in Chile and elsewhere. The point of this article is that terrorism will likely continue to be launched at the U.S. because the U.S. is seen as "the destroyer of indigenous cultural traditions, a unilateral bully in international economic affairs…an ominous threat to the environment, human rights, and worker protection" (Shlapentokh, 168). How can the U.S. Use Socio-Economic Strategies Against Terrorists Waszak, J.D.G. (2004). The Obstacles to Suppressing Radical Islamic Terrorist Financing. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 36(2/3), 673-710. The author Waszak points to the difficulty that U.S. government interests face when trying to cut off funding for terrorists. Laundering money for terrorists is easier than money laundering for drug traffickers, Waszak explains, because terrorists move smaller amounts of money and it is difficult for other countries to detect illegal transactions. Moreover, Waszak goes into the informal networks of money and why, because they don't leave a "paper trail," it is tough for U.S. security and intelligence agencies to close those money pipelines to terrorists. Protecting the Country from Terrorist Attacks -- Creating a Secure Environment Yusoff, M.A., and Soltani, F. (2012). Negative-Positive Security and the United States. Asian Social Science, 8(15), 244-248. This scholarly paper relates to how the U.S. can attempt to secure its people and resources now that the terrorist attacks of 911 have proved that is it "…not possible by conventional approaches" to identify and destroy individuals in "weak states" that act independently of any official state authority. Al Qaeda is a classic example of the difficulty America has in keeping a secure environment. On page 247 the authors quote president Barack Obama saying that the U.S. "…must reserve the right to act unilaterally if necessary to defend our nation and our interests" (Yusoff, et al., 2012, 247). The authors conclude that the "dominate approach" to fighting terrorism should not just be through military actions but rather through the "…spreading of democratic values" (Yusoff, 248). Why Will There Be More Terrorism? Zakaria, F. (2002). Why They Hate Us. In Inside Islam: The Faith, the People, and the Conflicts Of the World's Fastest-Growing Religion, J. Miller and A. Kenedi, Eds. Jackson, TN: De Capo Press. Zakaria explains in this book that terrorist don't hate Americans simply because we…

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Terrorism Organizations What Is Terrorism?

Prevention and mitigation methods are complex and often somewhat controversial in that some see Civil Rights being eroded, while others feel that the protection of the many, utilitarianism, is worth losing some personal liberty. In any case, diligence, scholarship and preparation are necessary as never before. REFERENCES ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov ____. (2007, October). National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_homelandsecurity_2007.pdf Masters, J. (2011). Militant Extremists in the United States. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/militant-extremists-united-states/p9236 Olson, S. (2001, October 24). Patriot Act Draws Privacy Concerns. Retrieved from CNET Networks: http://news.com.com/2100-1023-275026.html Rand Corporation. (2012). Aryan Nations. Terrorist Organization Profiles. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29 Smith, D. (2001). Terrorism: Some Mundane Targets and Methods. CDI Terrorism Project. Retrieved from: http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/targets-methods.html Southern Poverty Law Center. (2013). Ku Klux Klan. SPLC. Retrieved from: http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/ideology/ku-klux-klan Steiger, B. & S. (2006). Conspiracies and Secret Societies: The Complete Dossier. Canton, MI: Visible…

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