"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays 1-70

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How Could a Terrorist Be Radicalized? Essay

… Radical

How could a terrorist be de-radicalised?

terrorism strategies

How Could a Terrorist be Deradicalised?

In the last two decades there has been a rapid increase in the threat of both international and domestic terrorism in the world. This increase… [read more]


Terrorism and National Policy Essay

… S. went on to attack Iraq amidst the reservations of its allies. This policy gave priority on American freedom and dismissed the views of other nations where the views were deemed secondary or irrelevant. This approach led to the U.S.… [read more]


Research Paper

… Religious Extremism: Radical Islam

Radical Islam is a multifaceted phenomenon, comprising numerous groups and movements that, while related (especially with regard to faith and anti-western mind-set), may embrace very different thoughts on means and objectives. Radical Islam is a politico-religious… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism America Is Home Essay

… They once destroyed a laboratory in Michigan University because the laboratory was used to create genetically modified organisms funded by Monsanto (Grubbs, 2010). In reality, Monsanto only donated a paltry 2000 USD to send 5 African students to a conference… [read more]


Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Muslim Suicide Terrorists Term Paper

… Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Muslim Suicide Terrorists

Proposed Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Suicide as a Terrorism Tactic

Today, suicide bombing takes place on a daily basis throughout the… [read more]


Homegrown Terrorism and International Research Paper

… The message behind such actions is basically sending terrorist repercussions rather than following a logical path. These political acts usually points fingers at a general underprivileged society. The aim is to acquire some political power and rights to demand their… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism on Policing Essay

… Within the terrorism arena, the key strength of local agencies clings to their experience in criminal investigation of both individuals and enterprises. Their techniques in investigation create a robust understanding of the extent in which the broad networks of individuals… [read more]


Is Terrorism Effective? Essay

… ¶ … Terrorism Effective?

The term "terrorism" is basically politically and fervently charged which compounds the struggle of providing a precise description of terrorism. Some examination studies by intellectuals have shown the fact that there are over 100 various terms of terrorism. A less diplomatically and emotionally charged denotation of terrorism is a better well-defined word that is often utilized for referring to fear. The word "fear" derives from a Latin word with a connotation that means "to be frightened." (American Heritage Online Dictionary, 2010) Many people share the definition of terrorism in that it means a violent activity which is envisioned to generate fear, to endorse an ideological/political objective, and purposely aim at civilians and non- civilian targets (American Heritage Online Dictionary, 2010). With that said, terrorism appears to be more effective when used against a democracy vs. A more repressive regime for many reasons.

Terrorism is more effective against a democracy because it poses distinctive challenge to the liberal democratic state. The transnational nature of terrorism requires collaboration among and between states to speak to this common threat. Comparative studies disclose that societies that are of liberal states must offer consensus for those anti and counter terrorist guidelines which are adopted by the state (Dantzker, 2010). If democracies that are liberal began to take police state-like action in reply to terrorism, then questionably the terrorists have accomplished what they set out to do. Terrorism goal is to make sure that they affect every root of democracy. However, their main goal is to get the citizens to even question that fact, Is democracy worth it? Is this form of government really bringing the protection that we need? Terrorist use this strategy to attack western democracy because it plants seeds in the back of the minds of every citizen. It is very effective because it brings panic to a group of people that have put all of their trust in a form of government that is popular all over the globe (Dantzker, 2010). The terrorist tactic is effective because it gets the people in debate on whether or not a democratic nation is even worth it. In short, terrorists target state lawfulness, and political culture is at the root of this investigation because it reflects a society's legality for its policies and its leaders. It is also the element that is missing of a lot of unrestricted social equalities.

It can be noted that one effect that terrorism has had on democracy is the impact of 9/11. Everyone knows that the terrorist attacks that went down on September 11, 2001 ("9/11"), really brought change to many things, as well as the consideration of scholars (Leahy, 2005). In the wake of those proceedings, investigation on how terrorism disturbs mass publics, and public view in specific, propelled from a modest originality to an industry that was booming. People getting an understanding of the roots and significances of terrorism, on democracy really turned out to be a matter of increased scholarly interest and… [read more]


International Terrorism on Domestic Research Paper

… Since U.S. has been in the fore front in the war against Terror, this has formed the ground used by the jihad front in campaigning against American hegemony among the Muslims who are in America. Al Awlaki and bin Laden videos in addition to their several number of escapes from the U.S. forces has greatly bestowed them a cult status and greater number of their fan following. This mass appeal will always be a challenge to the United State in trying to curb this following. The agencies in U.S. who have the duty of countering terrorism have concentrated in dealing with radical Islamists who are closer to home, though the steps that they are using in countering this threat tend to be vague and far from being defined well.

From the evidence we can tell that the real threat does not exist on the amateur homemade explosives and random shootings, it originates from the ideology that gives birth to this radicalization, (Jerrold M. Post, 2005). Therefore, the U.S. government is supposed to deal with the ideological prejudices within as well as against Muslims. The aim of the government is supposed to be bringing itself closer to the Muslims communities but not just concentrating on fighting their civil liberties, for example, in the airline security checks that usually rises discord among the communities to make them gang up against the United State.

It has been clear enough that pouring tax money into Afghanistan was not enough to end the terror threat that America is still facing. A strategy that can be considered to be very effective is a multi-pronged counterterrorism strategy that focuses on the terrorist abroad and Muslim community that stay within the United States territory, joining hands in working with the antiterrorism agencies forms the key to the problem. The United State do not have any option of remaining safe from radical Islamist terrorism who influence the domestic terrorism but to implement a strategy that is based on intelligence as well as a coordinated law enforcement be carried out in a pro-active and sustainable partnership with the American Muslim community.

Conclusion

A nationwide, coordinated, community partnership framework tends to be the best solution to the problem of domestic terrorism. Muslims community local leaders are supposed to be brought around the table to have a dialogue with the law enforcement, more so to the counter terrorism officials and the government. Through this partnership intelligence can be gathered on the possible future terror plots. Such will make the law enforcement to have no need of being present within the areas that would hurt Muslim religious sentiments. The communities forms the reliable sources that reports unusual occurrences and radical propaganda, therefore they should be educated more on ways of reporting such matters. On the other hand, the law enforcement officials are supposed to be educated on the customs of the Muslim, that will enable them deal with any intelligence that they will receive and the best way to deal with any rising… [read more]


American Terrorism for Many People Research Paper

… American Terrorism

For many people, terrorism was first brought to their attention after the events surrounding September 11th. As they were quickly made aware of the underlying threats that these groups can be. However, the last several years have seen… [read more]


Islam Radicalization Essay

… Islam Radicalization

The Radicalization of Islam

The forces of economic, political and religious distinction which have driven a wedge between the Western World and the Arab world are steeped in a long history of divergent interests. The conflict as we know it today, largely waged between the United States and such long-standing allies as the United Kingdom and Australia, is the fallout of centuries of subjugation, exploitation and occupation. The colonial forces of Europe and the United States exist on a continuum within which Arab states and cultures, once themselves a dominant and imperial global entity, have developed both historical and modern motives for violent and militant resistance. These motives relate as much to a sense of political resentment as they do to a belief in religious martyrdom, with the realities of western exploitation, a permeation of objectionable living conditions and the presence of deceptive governmental or media forces have collectively created a divide between East and West that implicates the Arab culture as a militant defender of a waning tribalism. Today, the greatest visible identifiers of this militant disposition are those 'terrorist' groups which perpetrated the attacks of September 11th and who continue to obstruct American interests in places like Afghanistan and Iraq. The degree to which this identity has come to be seen as the primary face of Islam in the world is both a testament to the distortions imposed by Western society and the degree to which these extreme sects of Islam have come to dominate impressions. So is this evidenced in the text by Husain (2007), which details the experience of one Briton who would move from a life of normal devotion to one of extremist engagement with little warning.

A consideration of Husain's experience reveals that in such contexts as Europe, the U.K. And the U.S., the experience of humiliation and disenfranchisement which has been foisted upon Muslims living as second class citizens has helped to stimulate a virulent form of political and ideological resentment. This is a reality which can be correlated to a modern history of exploitation connected both the colonialism and to the Cold War. For Europe, this is especially the case, as the Muslim population continues to proliferate. As Leiken (2005) indicates "the mass immigration of Muslims to Europe was an unintended consequence of post-World War II guest-worker programs. Backed by friendly politicians and unsympathetic judges, foreign workers, who were supposed to stay temporarily, benefited from family reunification programs and became permanent. Successive waves of immigrants formed a sea of descendents. Today, Muslims constitute the majority of immigrants in most western European countries." (Leiken, 1)

Not only is this so, but Muslims also constitute a particularly disaffected part of the population, often deeply isolated into ethnic neighborhoods and schools as was the case for Husain. He would report that "I was sixteen years old and I had no white friends. My world was entirely Asian, fully Muslim. This was my Britain. Against this backdrop, the writings of Sarwar's guru, Mawdudi, took… [read more]


Psychology of Terrorism Thesis

… Psychology of Terrorism

Terrorism Defined: What is Terrorism?

Terrorism has been explained variedly both as a strategic effort as well as a tactic; a criminal act as well as a sacred obligation, a reaction which is justified against oppression as… [read more]


Terrorism in the 21St Century Research Paper

… ¶ … social issue of terrorism, which has exacerbated the overall safety and security of the citizens across the world. Over time, where people have modernized their lifestyle, terrorist activities, at the same time, have only escalated to paramount heights.… [read more]


Combatting Future Terrorism Term Paper

… He therefore notes that the prison departments have a noble duty of promoting positive influence with a lot of zeal as well as facilitating the transition of prisoners back to the mainstream society with great innovation. These correctional facilities within… [read more]


Terrorism Annotated Bibliography Gardner, K.L Term Paper

… Although fundamentalist Muslims have been of concern for some decades, it was not until this event that they became the primary concern for the safety of the United States and its interests. According to the article by Brigette Narcos, the attack was, from the perspective of the terrorists, an unmitigated success because it both broad universal attentions to their cause and in proving they could conduct such an attack solidified those who were opposed to the United States.

In addition to their legacy of bloodshed, the attacks shaped international relations between the U.S. And the rest of the world, particularly the Middle East ever since and will continue to shape how the government reacts to potential terrorist threats. The way in which the attacks were carried out also served as a blueprint for other acts of terrorism. Those committed since both in the U.S. And elsewhere have had certain commonalities with 9/11 including the network of terrorists involved and how they were financially supported. Thus, the government has learned ways to predict and prevent potential threats by continuing to study how 9/11 was conducted.

Ranstorp, M. (2007). Introduction: mapping terrorism research -- challenges and priorities.

Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps, and Future Direction. Ed. Magnus Ranstorp. Routledge: New York, NY. 1-29. This text is a collection of various research into the issue of terrorism, but this particular piece discusses specific issues which impede this research. First and foremost according to Ranstorp is that people tend to think that focusing on past incidences of terrorism will allow people to predict future attacks. While past trends might indicate potential threats or groups which are threatening, there is no way to use trending data to suggest where and when another attack might occur. This can only be done by examining current information and collecting data by currently acting groups. Instead of focusing on outmoded methods, Ranstorp believes more attention should be given to the social and communication aspects of terrorist organizations.

In order to find ways to combat terrorism in the future, there should be increased focus on research into currently functioning organizations, how they communicate, and how they can access dangerous technologies. In this day and age, the world is changing rapidly and while we can learn about our own country's mistakes from past terrorist attacks, there is little else that can be gained in terms of combating terrorism or in predicting future attacks. By taking Ranstorp's suggestions seriously, emphasis can be placed on identification and proper research methodologies, thereby performing efficient work into prevention.

Sinclair, S.J. & LoCicero, A. (2007). Fearing future terrorism: development, validation, and psychometric testing of the terrorism catastrophizing scale (TCS). Traumatology. Sage. (13: 4). 75-90. Samuel Sinclair and Alice LoCicero, in this study, have devised a scale by which potential psychological damage to terrorism can be measured. This is an important aspect of terror management theory (TMT). Terrorism, by the very definition of the word, are acts which are designed to inflict terror and… [read more]


Terrorism in the Book Dying Term Paper

… Ultimately, it would be helpful to prevent terrorism before it erupts by listening and responding to politically disenfranchised groups before the conflict becomes too long and drawn out.

Some types of terrorism occur not by nebulous non-state actors such as Al Qaeda but by officially recognized state powers. When governments commit acts of terror, the word terrorism is sometimes not even used because legitimacy is inferred. However, in the case with Syria, the government can easily be referred to as a terrorist organization even if it operates officially. Because terrorism is always political, it does not matter whether or not the state or a non-state organization perpetrates the terrorist acts. The responses to terrorism will always be similarly structured, targeting the root causes and preventing violent outbreaks in the future.

A comprehensive anti-terrorist strategy must also address the concern that terrorism may spread, via the contagion of a political ideology. Al Qaeda is a perfect example of how the ideology of Muslim liberation from Western state actors appeals to a wide geographic and cultural base from the Middle East to Southeast Asia (Pape, 2006). Responses to political terrorism need to be tailored to the situation. Thus, some types of terrorism may be met with an evaluation of the living conditions and political grievances of the people (as with Palestinians or Tamils, for example) with according diplomatic and strategic political responses that may never need to resort to military action. Other types of terrorism have an irrational foundation, such as that promoted by Al Qaeda and the Taliban. In those cases, military tactics are unfortunately necessary in the ongoing vigilance against global violence. Impediments to a military course of action range from human rights concerns, concerns over global hegemony via the large democratic states terrorists act against, and rising death tolls (Pape, 2006). Likewise, there are impediments to using diplomacy, including the relatively weak leadership of many terrorist organizations and the cacophony of voices on the international arena, leading to differential counterterrorism objectives.

Because each terrorist group has a different agenda, and comes from a unique cultural milieu, there will be a correspondingly large range of causes as well as manifestations of terrorism. Nationalism might be at the root of suicide terrorism, as Pape (2006) suggests, but other factors such as the desire to wrest control and power away from a perceived hegemon, seems to be the most unifying and blanket explanation for the use of terrorism. Political motivators for terrorism are likely to remain the primary causes for the use of violence, trumping other issues like culture and religion. Culture and religion might be tacitly linked to terrorist ideologies but politics will remain the primary cause -- and solution.

References

Crenshaw, M. (1981). The causes of terrorism. Comparitive Politics 13(4): 379-399.

Pape, R. (2006). Dying to Win. New York:…… [read more]


Terrorism Organizations What Is Terrorism? Research Paper

… Prevention and mitigation methods are complex and often somewhat controversial in that some see Civil Rights being eroded, while others feel that the protection of the many, utilitarianism, is worth losing some personal liberty. In any case, diligence, scholarship and preparation are necessary as never before.

REFERENCES

ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html

Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk

Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf

Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov

____. (2007, October). National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_homelandsecurity_2007.pdf

Masters, J. (2011). Militant Extremists in the United States. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/militant-extremists-united-states/p9236

Olson, S. (2001, October 24). Patriot Act Draws Privacy Concerns. Retrieved from CNET Networks: http://news.com.com/2100-1023-275026.html

Rand Corporation. (2012). Aryan Nations. Terrorist Organization Profiles. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29

Smith, D. (2001). Terrorism: Some Mundane Targets and Methods. CDI Terrorism

Project. Retrieved from: http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/targets-methods.html

Southern Poverty Law Center. (2013). Ku Klux Klan. SPLC. Retrieved from: http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/ideology/ku-klux-klan

Steiger, B. & S. (2006). Conspiracies and Secret Societies: The Complete Dossier. Canton, MI: Visible… [read more]


Combating Future Terrorism the Continuing Research Paper

… , 168). Moreover, Americans should not be startled that so many foreign nations despise that the U.S. created a coup in Iraq, and has assassinated elected leaders in Chile and elsewhere. The point of this article is that terrorism will likely continue to be launched at the U.S. because the U.S. is seen as "the destroyer of indigenous cultural traditions, a unilateral bully in international economic affairs…an ominous threat to the environment, human rights, and worker protection" (Shlapentokh, 168).

How can the U.S. Use Socio-Economic Strategies Against Terrorists

Waszak, J.D.G. (2004). The Obstacles to Suppressing Radical Islamic Terrorist Financing.

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 36(2/3), 673-710.

The author Waszak points to the difficulty that U.S. government interests face when trying to cut off funding for terrorists. Laundering money for terrorists is easier than money laundering for drug traffickers, Waszak explains, because terrorists move smaller amounts of money and it is difficult for other countries to detect illegal transactions. Moreover, Waszak goes into the informal networks of money and why, because they don't leave a "paper trail," it is tough for U.S. security and intelligence agencies to close those money pipelines to terrorists.

Protecting the Country from Terrorist Attacks -- Creating a Secure Environment

Yusoff, M.A., and Soltani, F. (2012). Negative-Positive Security and the United States. Asian Social Science, 8(15), 244-248.

This scholarly paper relates to how the U.S. can attempt to secure its people and resources now that the terrorist attacks of 911 have proved that is it "…not possible by conventional approaches" to identify and destroy individuals in "weak states" that act independently of any official state authority. Al Qaeda is a classic example of the difficulty America has in keeping a secure environment. On page 247 the authors quote president Barack Obama saying that the U.S. "…must reserve the right to act unilaterally if necessary to defend our nation and our interests" (Yusoff, et al., 2012, 247). The authors conclude that the "dominate approach" to fighting terrorism should not just be through military actions but rather through the "…spreading of democratic values" (Yusoff, 248).

Why Will There Be More Terrorism?

Zakaria, F. (2002). Why They Hate Us. In Inside Islam: The Faith, the People, and the Conflicts

Of the World's Fastest-Growing Religion, J. Miller and A. Kenedi, Eds. Jackson, TN: De

Capo Press.

Zakaria explains in this book that terrorist don't hate Americans simply because we are strong and rich and they envy us, or because we stand for democracy and they hate it, although those are reasons that are legitimate. Terrorists hate Americans because of "religion," Zakaria writes on page 236. "September 11 was not mindless terrorism for terrorism's sake," Zakaria quotes from the scholarly publication The Nation. "It was a reaction and revenge, even retribution," Zakaria continues, against the U.S. because of the wrongs American interests and military power has perpetrated against Muslim countries over many years in the past. This essay is valuable in terms of understanding the background as to…… [read more]


How Homeland Security Combats the Financing of Terrorism Research Paper

… Financing Terrorism: America's Unique Position In Blocking Such Efforts

Aside from issues in foreign policy and tense international relations, arguments about oil, and other factors which contributed to 9/11, the destruction of the World Trade Center would not have occurred… [read more]


Terrorism Is at This Point Term Paper

… This represents a real challenge for the law enforcement agencies such as the CBP as well as for the legislative body at the level of the country to ensure that, while maintaining and preserving the right of people to seek… [read more]


Terrorism Is a Weapon of the Weak Global Jihad a Myth or Reality Essay

… Terrorism is a "Weapon of the Weak -- / Global Jihad, a Myth or Reality

Terrorism is a weapon of the weak

Terrorism has become one of the most discussed subjects in terms of international security and in the foreign affairs offices throughout the world. Especially after the 9/11 events in the United States, terrorism has received the label of the most important threat to national security (Townshend, 2007). Both domestic and international terrorism are phenomena that can hardly be tackled with instruments that have been used traditionally during the Cold War in particular when security was established as a special area of expertise. This is largely due to the fact that this threat is an unconventional one and requires unconventional means to counter.

Terrorism is by no means a weapon of the weak. Although there is no generally accepted definition of terrorism, one that would encompass the complexity of the phenomenon, it is rather clear that terrorism represents a sum of causes and effects that can hardly be labeled in one way or another. Yet, terrorism is a means of applying pressure on the decision making bodies and to create a certain image and reaction at the level of the public opinion or the targeted audience.

It is rather difficult to asses weather terrorism is used only by the weak groups, largely because, as previous history has pointed out, terrorist groups have become more and more elaborated in their techniques of operation and act now at the global level (Kaplan, 2006). Of course, one of the most well-known terrorist groups is the Al Qaeda that is known to have ties and connections throughout the world. The 9/11 events proved precisely the magnitude of their influence at that time. Although at this point the organization is no longer as powerful as it was a decade ago largely due to the fact that its head, Osama bin Laden was killed by the American led interventions in the Middle East, the group still represents, at least in the mentality of the public opinion, the most representative terrorist group.

This notoriety is extremely benefic for terrorist groups and may make the difference between a weak or powerful terrorist movement. This is due to the fact that, as mentioned above, one of the main targets of the terrorist attacks is the creation of an impression over the public opinion, especially one of fear (Wilkinson, 2000). This connection is made considering in particular the effect the public opinion has on the elected decision making bodies. Public opinion can provide legitimacy to state actions or can condemn state actions. To point out an example, the American public for various reasons did not support the war in Vietnam; however, one of it was the belief that the threats in Indochina were not direct threats to the security of the American public. By comparison, when the 9/11 attacks were directly pointed at the safety of the American people, there was a massive domestic support for the American led… [read more]


Latin American Terrorism Issues Research Paper

… United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

This group of terrorist is relatively weak and less active. Very few activities have been reported by this group. It has more than 32000 members dismissed. Thus, it remains inactive as a formal group.… [read more]


How Is Terrorism Different From Violent Crime and Insurgency Ethno National Terrorism? Essay

… ¶ … terrorism different from violent crime and Insurgency / Ethno-National Terrorism

How is terrorism different from violent crime and insurgency

Terrorism has become one of the most discussed subjects in terms of international threat, national security, and domestic preventive… [read more]


What Is the Connection Between Terrorism and Criminal Organizations in Terms of Illicit Finance? Essay

… ¶ … Terrorism and Illicit Finance

As a growing majority of middle class families fall victim to the economic devastation of the Great Recession, suffering from prolonged unemployment, depleted job markets and a rising cost of living, the threat of… [read more]


Terrorism Represents the Organized Use Essay

… Terrorism represents the organized use of terror with the purpose of intimidating particular groups. Its complex nature makes it difficult for the act to be defined by the international community and a series of actions can thus be catalogued as… [read more]


Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism Sovereign A-Level Coursework

… The subsequent ground invasions launched in Afghanistan and Iraq, predicted to achieve rousing strategic victories in a relatively short duration, offer demonstrable proof that "predicting discrete events in the future is impossible in an open and complex system" (Quiggin, 2006), while also illustrating the deficiencies of this approach to conducting counterterrorism and intelligence operations. By forming optimistic predictions about future events and tailoring national security strategy to these predictions, rather than adopting an anticipatory strategy founded on adaptability, the U.S. government unwittingly stumbled into a military quagmire, diverting invaluable resources to combat a seemingly infinite insurgency and squandering global support in the process.

While the calamitous conflicts still simmering throughout the Middle East provide conclusive proof that predicting future events is an untenable approach to counterterrorism intelligence, there are many circumstances which dictate the adoption of preventative strategy. The advent of the internet has enabled likeminded individuals across the planet to connect and exchange ideas on an instantaneous basis, allowing the once isolated realm of jihadist ideology to flourish under the cover of online anonymity. By monitoring suspicious activity through the use of wiretapping technology and other clandestine means, the intelligence community has gathered a voluminous amount of data concerning potential threats to national security, identifying key leadership figures and their proxies, and foiling several dozen attacks during the planning phase. Indeed, according to the Heritage Foundation "in 2009 alone, U.S. authorities foiled at least six terrorist plots against the United States (and) since September 11, 2001, at least 30 planned terrorist attacks have been foiled, all but two of them prevented by law enforcement" (McNeill, Carafano & Zuckerman, 2010). When a potential terrorist attack is prevented, however, it is essential that the reasons for this success be accurately identified before a false sense of security becomes firmly established. A consensus has emerged among intelligence experts that "with distributed terrorism threats such as homegrown jihadism, there is no key leadership cell and no key lines of command and communication" (Quiggin, 2006), and it is the ambiguous structure of terrorist networks which necessitates an anticipatory approach to combating threats. Even after dozens of planned attacks were prevented, Al-Qaeda and its affiliates continued to innovate, formulating plots involving "shoe-bombs," inciting Muslim military members to commit atrocities against their own army bases, and fomenting regional strife in an effort to destabilize American interests abroad. By adhering to a strictly predictive counterterrorism strategy, the intelligence community would effectively blind itself to the threats posed by these ancillary strategies, which is why the anticipatory approach is best suited for the demands of modern national security.

References

Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things

We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/080923risk.pdf (accessed February 16, 2013).

McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How

the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/04/30-terrorist-plots-foiled-how-the-system-worked (accessed February 15, 2013).

Quiggin, Thomas. Seeing the Invisible: National Security Intelligence in…… [read more]


Terrorism Essay

… ¶ … Terrorism

The objective of this study is to choose from three definitions of terrorism and relate which one best represents the beliefs, values, experiences, and education of this writer. Section 802 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (Pub. L.… [read more]


Terrorism How Have Worries Essay

… Salafi networks are organized specifically to target the United States, even more so than its allies. The great majority -- 84% -- of all Salafi organization members joined the movement in the diaspora, revealing the potential for sleeper cells throughout Europe and North America. Demographics for the Salafi network are also vastly different from those of religiously fundamental jihadist groups. For example, 87% of Salafi network members have had a secular education and come from a secular background; and most are professional or at least semiprofessional with families and no history of psychological illness ("Global Salafi Terrorist Networks").[footnoteRef:7] Current trends toward politically motivated anti-Americanism that is not rooted in Islamism are worrisome because they challenge preconceived notions of the underlying ideology of terrorism; thus, secular terrorism is harder to identify and harder to stop. [7: "Global Salafi Terrorist Networks"]

Intelligence does reveal some patterns in Salafi network membership patterns. For instance, about two-thirds of the secular jihadists join because of pre-existing friendships with existing members. Reasons for bonding together with fellow Muslims are parallel to those of other immigrant groups. For instance, immigrant students have the need to room with other Muslims for dietary (Halal) reasons and bond with persons from their social group -- not based on religion but on worldview, lifestyle, and ethnicity ("Global Salafi Terrorist Networks").[footnoteRef:8] Second generation immigrants tend to be raised in a secular society, but when ostracized or isolated seek social bonding. Therefore, the psychosocial development of individuals becomes the cornerstone of jihadist group membership and recruitment. [8: "Global Salafi Terrorist Networks"]

The trend away from al Qaeda toward even more nebulous networks presents particular threats for the United States. Although the Al Qaeda central administration has been weakened with the death of bin Laden, the prevailing ideology of jihad remains strong. "While al Qaeda Central is still very much in hiding, the al Qaeda social movement has flourished, fueled by worldwide Muslim resentment against the Western invasion and occupation of Iraq," (Sageman,, p. 133). Pillar confirms that anti-Western sentiment, in specific directed against the United States, has not subsided as the prevailing terrorist ideology. Thus, the current trends are in many ways extensions of the past, just in a slightly different format.

Although some trends are shifting away from al Qaeda, the organization is still alive and has even enjoyed a "resurgence" in Afghanistan via a strategic alliance with Afghan Taliban (Sageman, p. 132).[footnoteRef:9] The numbers of al Qaeda are indeed dwindling, though. There are new types of terrorism, and new leaders, emerging on the horizon. Al Qaeda is more than a singular terrorist network; it is a mentality, a philosophy, and a worldview that permeates similar and sympathetic organizations. Sageman points to the financial aspects of terrorist organizations, too, noting that market forces are becoming a prevailing trend in determining the shape and methodology of terrorism[footnoteRef:10]. These are issues that American counter-terrorism experts are contending with in the post-September 11, universe. [9: Sageman, M., 2008, p. 132] [10: Sageman, M., 2008]

Current… [read more]


Terrorism What Is Involved in Terrorism Investigation? Essay

… Terrorism

What is involved in terrorism investigation? Unlike many criminal investigations, investigating terrorism and terrorism issues are dependent on far more issues. First, the investigation may be national, international, or a combination -- it may involve a number of agencies, jurisdictions, and political formats. The terrorism investigation is also dependent on whether it is proactive or reactive. Proactive investigations are used to prevent acts of terrorism and include coordinated or long-term planning, intelligence gathering, and ways for different agencies to cooperate. Reactive methods are used to investigate terrorism after the incident occurs. These include crime scene processing and analysis, detective work (following leads and tips), using informants, data mining, surveillance, and other standard law enforcement tactics.

Proactive methods are designed, particularly after 9/11, by the theory of preventive policing -- to anticipate and diffuse the next terror attack. These techniques do not focus on crime, but on the idea that a crime might be committed on a future date. It is primarily intelligence gathering, data mining and analysis, sharing of information with pertinent agencies, and gathering of intelligence by different means so that there are few surprises to law enforcement. One real challenge in proactive investigation is balancing civil liberties against terrorist threats.

Reactive methods follow similar techniques to basic modern criminal investigations, but on a larger, more complex manner. Because of the nature of the incident, local officials might not have enough equipment or personnel to adequately handle the investigation, and it is highly likely that because of the nature of terrorism, that other cities or countries are also involved. Of course, the incident must have a responder, usually local law enforcement and then other agencies being called in. Once the incident is under control, crime scene processes sing and analysis occurs and is as extensive as possible. Information is gathered, leads checked, background issues are uncovered, and an agency, usually Homeland Security in the United States, coordinates efforts to build a profile and apprehend the suspects, with the help of coordinating agencies.

Part 2 -- What are crimes against humanity? Crimes against humanity are serious offenses against a nation, an ethic group, a part of society and a serious attack on humanity or degradation against one or more individuals. They are not isolated events, but part of a formal policy or a wide practice of atrocities, torture, or offenses that are somehow condoned by a de facto authority. Some examples of crimes against humanity are mass extermination, torture, rape, persecution for political, racial or religious reasons, and the systematic process of widespread criminal activities. While the term has been around for at least a century, it was the aftermath of World War II and the resulting Nuremberg Trials that brought the issue to the forefront. The jurisdictional element of these types of crimes is not limited to war but as a "part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population on national, political, ethnic, or religious grounds" (745).

Since 1948, the legal responsibility for prosecuting crimes… [read more]


Terrorism Influences Research Paper

… New mission of Homeland security

After the 9/11 homeland security mission has been revolutionized and distance between law enforcement and intelligence has been eliminated. These changes are more prominent on state level. Most of the countries have retaliated by combining existing public security, emergency response capabilities and law enforcement. Moreover, before most of the countries have no effective intelligence agencies but now most countries have reacted by creating multiple intelligence cells in existing setup. (Steiner)

Modern terrorism and new level of relationship between federal, state, local government agencies and private corporations

Modern terrorism has made federal governments more skeptical. For example before 9/11 everyone was allowed to get training of flying the plane in the U.S.A. But now these laws have been made stricter. Moreover, more local security agencies have been given contract like Black water in USA by the government. Tourist organizations are more answerable to state and its agencies. Private corporations are more under scrutiny.

Bibliography

Fine, J. (2008). contrastin secular and religious terrorism. Retrieved from Middle east forun: http://www.meforum.org/1826/contrasting-secular-and-religious-terrorism

Kahn, P.F. (2004). Protection against weapons of mass destruction.

Kreamer, T.A. (n.d.). Archiving early America. Retrieved from Sons of Liberty:Patriots or Terrorist: http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/fall96/sons.html

Kurgel, L. (2011, August). e-International Relations. Retrieved from Terrorism and Global economy: http://www.e-ir.info/2011/08/31/what-is-the-impact-of-terrorism-on-the-ipe/

Steiner, D.J. (n.d.). central intelligence agency. Retrieved from Improving Homeland Security at the State level: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html… [read more]


Terrorism Intelligence, Counterterrorism and Protection Term Paper

… This definition will most likely fall short of total comprehension upon further analysis. The intentional or unintentional habit of associating terrorism with foreign freedom fighters committing acts of war on American soil seems to have attracted the majority of Western consciousness in today's discussions. The aforementioned phrase may indeed be the new, applicable and suitable phrasing for a consensual definition, however this consensus must be collaborated with qualitative research.This qualitative research project may reach out to different segments of society to gather of differing opinions about the word terrorism and how it should be used with today's lexicon. Terrorism and counterintelligence and other terms may also be offered up for redefining in this type of research. The words that are used in associating value to social issues such as personal safety should be selected with extreme care and precision. Confusion and doubt are usually results of miscommunication resulting from such unwillingness to re-examine phrases whose old definitions may seem obsolete.

TOPIC 2: INVESTIGATING THE METHODS OF SAFE LIVING

How much safety is a good thing? This question can be answered by many different approaches. Examining the economic expenditures and creating correlating qualitative values with this spending may be attempted in such a research project. For instance, violence statistics, such as random homicides, which may be classified as a terrorist attack, can be statistically investigated along with individual, state, and federal budgets. What is a safe living approach and is there an economic benefit to securing utility within the greater good?

Contrasting safe living with risky behavior, may also be an alternate approach for investigating this topic as well. What are the benefits of risking one's life? How can dangerous behaviors be used for the good of society? The answers to these questions, if found, may help alleviate certain pressures within society that have been continually misunderstood over the course of history.

TOPIC 3: QUALITY VS QUANTITY OF INTELLIGENCE

Information flows freely and abundantly today in the 21st century. It may be time to look at the environment and see if there may be a possible overload of scientific information. Usually this information is classified as intelligence, but intelligence, with fragmented facts, may be more dangerous than its attainment may reveal. There is so much information and intelligence floating in the human consciousness today that it is a task in and of itself to organize the ever-changing, and ever rapidly changing systems of classification. This may be the challenge of all future research, the ability to flow and adapt with quick reacting systems as they evolve towards complexity and chaos. Finding a happy medium where information's quality is more appreciated may be a first step in new approaches of understanding intelligence, terrorism, and living a safe and well…… [read more]


Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan Essay

… Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan

Narco-terrorism refers to the role that the narcotics trade plays in promoting and contributing to terrorism. Afghanistan is not only one of the largest sources of international terrorist, but also the world's leading supplier of opium. It is virtually impossible to ignore the relationship between the narcotics trade and terrorism. Furthermore, it is virtually impossible to ignore the fact that U.S. military intervention in Afghanistan may actually have increased the ability of narcotics growers to funnel money into terrorist activities by weakening the Taliban in Afghanistan. Prior to 9-11, the Taliban had cracked down on opium poppy production because of concerns that it would lead to UN-Sanctions, but U.S. intervention in the area removed that threat and actually encouraged poppy-production. Furthermore, there have been recent improvements in local manufacturing techniques, which has made it possible for Afghanis to process the heroin within the country's borders, reducing the bulk it needs to export in the narcotics trade.

In order to understand the extent of the impact of the narcotics trade on terrorism in Afghanistan, one must understand what a tremendous role narcotics production plays in the Afghan economy. Up to one-third of Afghanistan's economy is attributable to the narcotics trade. These narcotics impact other countries in two manners. First, it is believed that opiates originating in Afghanistan actually kill more people than any other illegal narcotic in the world, so the narcotics are their own form of terrorism. Second, the narcotics trade in Afghanistan exacerbates existing problems there, which makes the population more vulnerable to becoming terrorists. Third, it is believed that the lingering Taliban insurgents profit tremendously from this drug production, so that this narcotics industry funnels hundreds of millions of dollars each year to terrorists.

Significance of the Death of Osama Bin Laden

There is a tremendous amount of disagreement about the significance of the death of Osama Bin Laden. Bin Laden was certainly the face of Al Qaeda for many Americans, and, as the mastermind of 9-11, did plan the most serious and significant terrorist attack on American soil. He provided a tangible face for the literally thousands of terrorists worldwide who wished to target the United States. As such, Bin Laden served as a catalyst for American action, much as Hitler did decades earlier during World War II. Therefore, Bin Laden's death served as a symbolic victory for Americans, because it was a tangible success in the war on terror. Moreover, the circumstances of his death, where he had been forced into hiding and apparently had not had any real leadership role in Al Qaeda for some substantial period of time, reinforced the idea that one might be able to strike out successfully against the U.S. A single time, but that doing so would force a person into hiding and hamper the ability to plan and effectuate attacks against the United…… [read more]


International Terrorism Has Brought With it Destruction Essay

… International terrorism has brought with it destruction, bloodshed, the killing of untold thousands of innocent people, political reprisals and fear. But along with these unconscionable terror-related strategies and tactics, many innocent people of Islamic faith have been erroneously linked to… [read more]


Terrorism Linked to Religion Essay

… The earlier terrorism caused by the military wing of HAMAS was used as a tool to gain political power to achieve their objectives of saving Muslims from oppression and devastation at the hands on Non-Muslims.

The constant evolution of the… [read more]


Terrorism Research Paper

… ]

m. Federal Bureau of Investigation -- 28 C.F.R. §0.85

"[Terrorism is] [t]he unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political… [read more]


Domestic vs International Terrorism Research Paper

… 91). In fact, Mantri (2011) suggests that notwithstanding the numerous examples of domestic terrorism cited above, the potential for even more such attacks in the future may be far greater because of the ideological attraction that these acts hold for… [read more]


Explosive Terrorism Research Paper

… Terrorism

Ever since the year 2001, The United States Homeland Security has been specifically focused upon not only defending the country against terrorist attacks and providing care in the aftermath of such an attack, but also on preventing similar future… [read more]


Global Terrorism Policy Memo Essay

… Terrorism Memo

Re: Possible rise of terrorism in Japan

Assessment of risk over the next six months and steps needed to mitigate terrorism recruitment (3/11-9/11)

Much of the world has watched in sympathy and respect over the last week as the Japanese people and their government have responded with grace to the triple catastrophe of a 9.0 earthquake, the following tsunami, and the still-ongoing struggle to contain problems at nuclear power plants. However, while there is much to praise in this effort to begin to come to terms with and then recover such a terrible blow from nature, there is also room for concern that the chaos that has naturally resulted will provide a breeding ground for terrorism.

The world's focus on terrorism over the last ten years has been almost entirely on Muslim extremists. There have been ongoing warnings about the perils of such a narrow focus, but these have been in general ignored for at least two reasons. The first of these is that there is a clear Western bias that tends to assume both that a greater percentage of Muslims are radicalized than are and that other communities are less likely to have radicalized members than is in fact the case.

Japan has not been the site of a serious terrorist attack since 1995, when five members of the cult/religion Aum Shinrikyo initiated a chemical terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway during rush hour. The chemical agent that they used was sarin, which is classified as a weapon as mass destruction and is a nerve agent that acts very quickly and in very small doses can prove fatal to humans.

Members of the cult had intended to aerosolize the sarin, but failed to do so. Had they been able to do so, the attack would no doubt have been far more deadly. As it was, the attack killed thirteen people, severely injured fifty and resulted in temporary albeit vision problems for almost a thousand other victims.

The religious group that organized and staged the attack has lost its official status with the Japanese government as a religion but still has over 200 members. They themselves are unlikely to be a significant threat in the future; however, the social forces that prompted them to become violent still exist in Japanese society.

Key Actors

As is the case with many manifestations of terrorism, the terrorists in were linked to religion. In that case, it was not Islam or Christianity but Shintoism. Shintoism is not an inherently violent religion. It has ancient, pantheistic roots and so should be allied with the most gentle and non-violent of human impulses. However, it is also the case that Shintoism has over the past century become a mechanism for radical nationalism in Japan.

Nationalism is at least as powerful a supporter and initiator of terrorism as is religion. When the two join hands so that a religion is seen to embody the nation and its leaders, then those who become linked to the national… [read more]


International Terrorism State Department Defines Modern Thesis

… International Terrorism

State Department defines modern terrorism as "premeditated and politically motivated violence by sub-national groups or clandestine agents against non-combatant targets" often to influence a particular audience.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation describes it as:

…"the use of serious… [read more]


Terrorism Asia the Political Complexity Essay

… Terrorism Asia

The Political Complexity of the Asian Position on Terrorism:

As Seen in Pakistan

The forces of economic, political and religious distinction which have driven a wedge between the Western World and the Arab world are steeped in a… [read more]


Argentina's Definition of Terrorism Term Paper

… Argentina's Definition Of Terrorism

Terrorism is nowadays one of the most important aspects of international security which states and international organizations are trying to address at all levels, both internal and global. This is largely due to the fact that… [read more]


Roots of Domestic Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism has been defined as the sub-state application of violence or threatened violence intended to sow panic in a society to weaken or even overthrow the incumbents, and to bring about political change'. The society has observed several practices which… [read more]


Shifting Seas of Global Social Term Paper

… "

Strategically, the Wells Fargo, or "Aguilla Blanca" as they called it, incident created two extreme problems for both the American officials and the Machetero base. Previously, the Macheteros were responsible or struggles against the armed forces of the U.S.,… [read more]


Terrorism Assess the Likelihood of a Terrorist Term Paper

… Terrorism

Assess the likelihood of a terrorist group use of CBRN weapons

There is a high and rising probability of the usage of the chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear -CBRN weapons by majority of terrorists even though certain established terrorist… [read more]


Terrorism Preparedness Since September 11 Research Paper

… The perceived problem is that the NRP does not full address the problem associated with the hurricane problems. Moreover, there is a lack of effective operation plan with response to the NRP.

Essentially, the CIA (Catastrophic Incident Annex) is the overarching strategy to accelerate and coordinate proactive response to catastrophic incident. Essentially, the CIA-NRP is intended to address short-notice or no-notice incidents with respect to catastrophes. However, integrating non-federal stakeholders in the NRP is other issues that make policy maker think that NRP is not appropriate for the Katrina emergence. For example, the state government, local government, non-profits organizations and private sectors have been poorly integrated to address the national emergency policy that NRP could have implemented.

One of weakness of CIA-NRF is that many states lack effective strategies to address the catastrophes associated with hurricane. For example, the Louisiana was affected by the hurricane in 2008, killing 26 people and leaving million of homes without power. In the same years, the hurricane hit Texas leading to the deaths of 30 people and millions of homes lost power.

One of the strategies that could be employed to address the weakness is for the federal government to disburse funds to implement a comprehensive training for staff at the state level to support CIA-NRF to address the problem of hurricane at the state level. Moreover, the government should also conduct a specific -- task oriented training for the non-state stakeholders that want to participate in the CIA-NRF.

III: NIMS "(National Incident Management System)"

NIMS "(National Incident Management System)" was formed in 2004 as a framework to organize response to emergency at a national scale. The NIMS uses the principle, doctrine, and organizational process to provide efficient, collaborative and effective incident management. The primary objective of NIMS is to use a framework policy to organize an incident response at national scale. Essentially, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) is one the key players in coordinating with NIMS to organize the incident management in effective and efficient manner. The primary portfolio of DHS is to coordinate the proper execution for the incident response. (Department of Homeland Security, 2012).

Despite effective method the NIMS used in preparing for the emergence, however, the organization possesses an evident bias toward terrorism. Moreover, the key players of the organization do not give much attention to prevention activities. (Stenner, Kirk, Stanton, 2006). Essentially, terrorism is one of the major incidents facing the United States presently because of the global terrorism. Failure of the key players to include terrorism in the incident planning serves as the weakness of the organization.

Reference

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). 9-11 Commission Report. USA.

Stenner, R.D. Kirk, J.L. Stanton, J.R. (2006).National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report. U.S. Department of Energy.

Department…… [read more]


Terrorism and Civil Liberties Essay

… In some cases, many citizens have shown the readiness to surrender some of the freedoms in order to obtain improved security in light of increase in terrorism.

This trend towards considerable diminution of freedoms for Americans in the name of the fight against terrorism cannot be justified. This is mainly because civil liberties are the constitutional principles through which the country was founded. Civil liberties act as the necessary foundation for the creation of responsible, independent citizens in the country (Mitrano, 2003). Therefore, there is no justification for lessening these freedoms in attempts to improve homeland security. In addition, the government can develop effective ways for dealing with terrorism without necessarily resulting in lessening of civil liberties for Americans.

References

Mitrano, T. (2003, January 1). Civil Privacy and National Security Legislation: A Three-

Dimensional View. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(6). Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/civil-privacy-and-national-security-legislation-three-dimensional-view

Whitehead, J.W. & Aden, S.H. (2002). Forfeiting 'Enduring Freedom' for 'Homeland Security':

A Constitutional Analysis of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and the Justice Department's Anti-Terrorism Initiatives. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/CAofUSAPA.html… [read more]


Local Police and Terrorism Response Research Paper

… This is so because of the political class and public exert a rather clear cut directive in these matters. When, however the scope of work expands into concerns of national threat (terrorism and other intrusive activities) beyond local issues, the… [read more]


Al Qaeda and Terrorism Research Paper

… While that, technically, is an assumption, it is based on the proper level of knowledge of the organization and its movements, instead of being based only on some ideas of what could be the case (White, 2014).

When homeland security takes strong knowledge and uses it to draw conclusions, they are more likely to have success as opposed to what may happen when they simply make a guess. When Jihadist attacks happen, it is important for homeland security to take the time to mitigate the immediate damage, but after that it must also focus on making sure that another attack does not happen. That means the focus needs to address how the current attack was able to take place, and what went wrong that allowed Al Qaeda or any other Jihadist network to get through the country's defenses and cause terror and damage (White, 2014). Until that weak point is determined and adjusted to avoid future risk of attacks, the country will remain vulnerable. That can be a serious concern, since it can take time to discover what went wrong and put plans into place that will protect the country's people and stop future attacks from occurring. That is not the end of the issue, though, because a Jihadist network that no longer has a particular avenue will simply look for another one.

Often, these networks are able to find other avenues, as well. It may take some time, but that does not mean that it cannot be accomplished -- and Jihadist networks are always looking for ways in which that can be accomplished. Past ways of infiltration are generally tried, but if they are unsuccessful then other options have to be considered. The difficulty with that is that the Jihadist network cannot know if the intelligence it is receiving is completely accurate. The homeland security personnel have the same difficulties. They get information about Al Qaeda or another network, but they can only rely on that information to a certain degree. They may not be able to completely rely on what they are being told, and how much trust they can put into the information they are being given must factor into what they decide is acceptable when it comes to their level of risk and speculation (White, 2014). The more they feel they can trust the source of the information, the more they can use that information to draw conclusions about what the Jihadist network may do next.

It becomes a cat and mouse game, and does not allow for reasoning and discussion. That would be the ideal way to work out differences, but it is not something a Jihadist network is willing to allow. It is not interested in discussion, because it does not believe that the people it is targeting have any value. There is a deep hatred there, and one that no level of discussion can correct. Because of that hatred, homeland security knows that it must not plan to address the issues that the… [read more]


Terrorism, Destabilization, and the Modern Global Environment Research Paper

… There is also increased fears of the use of nuclear and biological weapons through which terrorists can launch violent attacks (The diplomacy of counterterrorism, 2002, USIP:4).

Conclusion

In response to many of these problems, the drive has been towards consolidation -- consolidating domestic efforts within the United States to enhance information-sharing between law enforcement agencies and also to improve efforts between states to engage in mutually beneficial monitoring of the geopolitical situation to reduce terrorism. Certain aspects of the new, globalized world will be difficult to contain, however, including the diffusion of communication as well as enhanced capabilities to launder money for illicit, terrorist purposes. There are no quick fixes for addressing the problem of terrorism given the growing pervasiveness and diffusion of the problem: "the most effective measures are those that are developed in the context of a multifaceted policy, with political, legal, social, diplomatic, economic, and military elements" (The diplomacy of counterterrorism, 2002, USIP: 8).

References

Garrett, B. & Adams, J. (2004). U.S.-China cooperation on the problem of failing states and transnational threats. United States Institute for Peace, 126: 1-16

Denning, D. (2001). "Activism, hacktivism, and cyberterrorism." Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime, and militancy. Rand, 239-288

The…… [read more]


Why Do People Become Terrorists? Discussion and Results Chapter

… References

DeAngelis, T. (2009). Understanding terrorism. APA. 40 (10): 60. Retrieved from:

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/11/terrorism.aspx

Moscoe, A. (2013). Why do people join terrorist groups? Graduate School of Public and International

Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/5585121/Why_Do_People_Join_Terrorist_Groups

M3A1: Memorandum 1 on the Bojinka Plot

Sample… [read more]


Global Terrorism Is a Systematic Research Paper

… To achieve its goals, the group uses series of force, which include bombing, and hijacking of planes.

"AI Qaeda seeks to destroy the U.S. For what they feel is oppressive foreign policy. They are also against Israel. AI Qaeda has been linked to various terrorist attacks in the world including the 2001 attack against the World Trade Center in New York.." (Jack, Bailey, & Matt, 2012, p. 238).

The group has also been linked to hotel attack in Yemen in 1992 as well as bombing of strategic places In Saudi Arabia between 1995 and 1996."AI Qaeda has declared a holy war, or "Jihad, against the U.S. AI Qaeda is also heavily involved in terrorist activity at present in Iraq." (Jack, Bailey, & Matt, 2012, p. 238).

Conclusion

Terrorisms have probably existed for thousand of years; however, the concept terrorism has only evolved a couple of hundreds years ago. The research aims is to explore a global terrorism as the main aim of inflicting destruction. Fundamental aim of global terrorism is to expand political ideology to non-supporters. Meanwhile, terrorists use act of force such as bombing, suicide bombing and plane hijacking to achieve their goals. However, advanced development of telecommunication has enhanced rapid development of global terrorism. Typically, past terrorist acts are different from the present day terrorist activities. In the past, states were the main actors that sponsored terrorism; however, the present day terrorism involved non-states actors and the United States seems to be the main target of global terrorism. Although national and global efforts have been implemented to stop global terrorism, however, global terrorism is likely to increase in the future if collective global action is not implemented.

The study recommends that international global efforts should be implemented to curb the global terrorism. Presently, the United States is the only country in the forefront that wages war against global terrorism. The United Nation should sign a protocol signed by all member states to mandate all member states to assist United Nation to arrest any suspected terrorist group member operating in any corner of the globe. The strategy will assist in reducing global terrorism around the world.

Reference

Alex, S. (2004). Terrorism Definition Problem. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law36.2/3: 375-3419.

Blocher, D. (2011). Terrorism as an international crime: the definitional problem.(Report). Eyes on the International Criminal Court, Reading Level (Lexile):1790.

EBSCO, (2014). About EBSCO. EBSCO Industries, Inc.USA.

Jack, N.K. Bailey, D. & Matt, S. (2012).Global Terrorism: Past Present & Future,

Journal of American Business Review, Cambridge: 1(1): 237-243.

Kushner, H.W. (2003). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Thousand…… [read more]


Fort Hood Shooting on November Research Paper

… When this plea was denied, defense attorneys acting for Hasan entered a plea of "not guilty." In October of 2012, Hasan sent letters to the Fox News television channel wherein he declared that he was renouncing his oaths of allegiance… [read more]


Islam and Terrorism Term Paper

… d.). The politicization of scholars, experts and media commentators in the post 9/11 period has created a minefield for policymakers and the general public as they search for answers to questions like: "What are the causes of radicalism and anti-Americanism?,"… [read more]


Terrorism Is an Act Essay

… In matters of global challenges, the 2012 assessment revealed that India established active cooperation with Afghanistan and supports the U.S. initiatives in the country as opposed to a year before when it merely looked into the idea. The potential difficulty posed by China as an international actor in 2011 was reassessed a year later when it was acknowledged that Beijing is also an important regional factor and a powerful influence over China altogether.

Problems in the Middle East and Africa with local economy and development were further addressed in the 2012 assessment with Clapper mentioning that international help is required for many countries within the region and that ?violence, corruption, and terrorism are likely to plague Africa in areas key to U.S. interests.

Therefore, what determined new assessments was that, while many of the countries will further depend on international help, consequently the U.S., the latter is also likely to be affected, though not on a similar level with actual countries in the region. Moving closer to Europe, assumptions were made in regards to Russia which was expected to lessen its cooperative relationship with U.S. due to Putin being reelected in May 2012. Moreover, when addressing the issue of cyber attacks in 2012, Clapper stated that both Russia and China were considered primary actors, which further puts Russia into spotlight. In Latin America, the drug cartels in Mexico continued to pose challenges to the government, but Clapper assessed no advance in interfering seriously outside the U.S. border.

In matters of intelligence threats, the 2012 assessment seems to have given somewhat extended attention to transnational organized crime, although it remains at the bottom of the list. Whereas in 2011, economy was addressed within a larger context, it was given intrinsic attention in the following assessment because of continuing struggles such as unemployment and credit tightening. Furthermore, if originally ?the impact of water and other resource scarcity on state stability?

needed in depth attention, in 2012 it was concluded that there will be problems with water which will contribute to regional instability in the next 10 years.

It would appear as though the most significant insight provided to terrorist escalation from the 2011 assessment to the year 2012 is within the cyber attacks area.

James R. Clapper, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment of threats presented to the House Permanent Select Committee, February 10, 2012), p. 8.

Idem, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment of threats presented to the House Permanent Select Committee, February 10, 2011), p. 3.

James R. Clapper, op. cit., p. 6.

James R. Clapper, ibid., p. 18.

Idem,, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment…… [read more]


2003 Annual Report Global Terrorism Case Study

… The integration of all information and reports of terrorism can provided a vivid picture of perceived terror threats. The analytical and statistical tools should be developed to counter the terrorism threats. The complete integration of all intelligence information provides an… [read more]


Terrorism in Seattle Case Study

… On December 29, 1999, Seattle Mayor Paul Schell with the concurrence of the City Council decided to cancel the Millennium Celebration, even though it had been planned for over 24 months. The ostensible reason was a potential terrorist attack, based… [read more]


Terrorism What Is the Role of Intelligence A-Level Coursework

… Terrorism

What is the Role of Intelligence in Fostering and Maintaining a Contextual Understanding of the Threats Inherent within the Terrorism Environment?

The role of intelligence is crucial in fostering and maintaining an understanding of the threats inherent within the terrorism environment. Intelligence allows nations to arrive at an understanding of the threats that exist and which strategies should be implemented in order to strengthen national defense. Perhaps the overriding quality of intelligence is balance; nations utilize intelligence in order to balance many factors, including costs vs. benefits, severity of a given threat, and long-term strategy vs. short-term gains. Each of these conflicts plays a vital component in strong national security, and intelligence does not result from the actions of a lone governing individual but instead necessitates input from a plurality of voices.

Intelligence has become especially difficult to implement successfully in the modern-day global climate. In particular, the effects of globalization have been immense, and it is particularly difficult to arrive at an understanding of exactly who the enemy is at any point in time.

Accordingly, intelligence must recognize that the identification of the enemy cannot be tied down to an isolated nation. Moreover, the intelligence effort requires the participation of everyone, as terrorist attacks can be inflicted anyone at any time. One of the legacies of the September 11, 2001 is that they effectively transformed the way in which intelligence is framed and terrorist threats are viewed. No longer are terrorist threats attributed to an entire nation, and it is now common knowledge that terrorist attacks are administered by isolated individuals rather than vast systems of authority.

Successful intelligence necessarily involves the assumption that one cannot zone in too heavily on one particular area of national defense.

Furthermore, it is impossible to comprehensively control every aspect of national defense, and there is no way of completely eliminating the possibility of a terrorist attack. For this reason, effective intelligence must be structured around limiting the risk for a terrorist attack rather than chasing the impossible goal of wiping out any and all threats. One of the prevailing fallacies with regard to national defense is that a nation must choose between stopping all threats (but in an erratic fashion) and stopping a proportion of threats (but in a comprehensive manner); ultimately, the most effective approach involves some medium between the two methodologies.

An appropriate, integrated approach involves rendering the consequences of a terrorist attack less severe while also making sure to allocate funds toward eliminating terrorist attacks altogether. Because every policy implemented by national security occurs at some cost (financial or otherwise), intelligence must arrive at a nuanced medium of large and small-scale initiatives. This balance is difficult to achieve in light of the fact that the Department of Homeland Security is charged with the responsibility of targeting areas as diverse as infrastructure, industries, and resources, while also remaining cognizant of the fact that there are no constraints on the extent of terrorist violence.

Not only does intelligence play a… [read more]


Tilted "Terrorism and the Shape of Things A-Level Coursework

… ¶ … tilted "Terrorism and the Shape of Things to Come. Terrorism and Political Violence." (Weinberg & EUBank, 1999), and the research paper titled "Forecasting Terrorism: Indicators and Proven Analytic Techniques" (Khalsa, 2004). Weinberg at al (1999) investigates the factors leading to political terrorism. The authors evaluate the Huntington's hypothesis on the emergence of political terrorism and compare whether the violence activities of terrorists are more inter-civilizational than the Cold war conflict. On the other hand, Khalsa, (2004) uses forecasting methodology to identify 68 indicators of terrorisms and employ the proven analytical technique to arrive at good analysis.

Methodology Adopted

Weinberg at al (1999) use the quantitative method to collect data from several sources and the data are collected on several terrorists event between 1968 and 1990. To enhance the quality of the data collected, the authors collected data from the ITERATE II and ITERATE III data sets. Moreover, the author collected data from Department of Justice on pattern of global terrorisms.

Khalsa, (2004) in his own case uses the qualitative method for data collection. In his methodological approach, the authors believe that both structured technique and the intuition could be used for the systematic process in investigating the phenomenon.

Assumption

Weinberg at al (1999) research focuses on what the terrorists cause and collects data to investigate the international terrorism events. The authors assume that the terrorists are not to formulate violence in the international political arena; however, the terrorism is a form of important international political trends. Khalsa, (2004) in his own case presents assumption that "a systematic process is the most effective way to facilitate good analysis and doing something systematically is better than prediction method" (P 1). To validate his assumption, the author carries out the investigation in phases and in systematic methods.

Benefits

Weinberg at al (1999) employ quantitative method in the methodological approach and the author derive several benefits from the methodology adopted. First the authors were able to form the large database from the data collected because 5278 data were collected and data were coded for data transformation in order to enhance statistical data analysis. Moreover, the methodology adopted assists in presenting the information in tabular and graphical forms which enhance the visual presentation of the data collected. For example, Weinberg at al (1999) presented the terrorist events between 1968 and 1997 in the tabular form and the data collected have been used to compare terrorist acts before the cold war and after the cold war. The table also presents the variables in ratios. The method assists in communicating the results efficiently to readers under severe time-shortage, with information overloaded.

Other benefit from the methodology used is that it allows the authors to manipulate data in a constructive way thereby be able to compare data, combining figures as well as examining the…… [read more]


Terror Targets Terrorism A-Level Coursework

… She claimed that terrorist leaders are much like cult leaders and possess great amounts of charisma which allows for militants to be conditioned into performing violent or suicidal acts. Napoleoni realized however, that combating these 'cults' are more difficult than it seems because of the ever-changing platform of the battlefield. She regretfully mentioned " that whatever I say today about this will be different in six months."

Another key point in the terrorist battlefield deals with the idea of disinformation. If terrorist organizations are indeed powerful and competent groups, then surely wrong information is intentionally leaked to confuse and bewilder their enemies. Libicki et al. (2007) report seems to be a disinformation campaign aligned to confuse. This article portrays Al Qaeda as a terrorist organization that prefers to maliciously kill innocents for political reasons. I find this argument difficult to swallow due to the West's current reliance on al Qaeda to perform destabilizing missions for their governments.

Much money and effort has been spent to combat this idea of terrorism. The question remains however: How successful have these efforts been? It does seem wise and prudent to treat these organizations as ideologically motivated groups with definite goals and targets in mind. As long as terrorist threats are still abound, there still remains a serious problem. Counter-terrorism groups should focus on peaceful resolutions to this problem as this seems to be the next logical step. The rest of the world looks to the West for ideas on problem solving, and as long as violent measures are taken to eradicate terrorism, we should expect violence to continue.

Works Cited

Carpenter, Shanna. "Q&A with Loretta Napoleoni: The ever-changing face of terrorism." Ted, December 14, 2009, http://blog.ted.com/2009/12/14/qa_with_loretta / (accessed January 31, 2013).

Drake, C.J.M. "The Role of Ideology in Terrorists' Target Selection." 10 (1998): 53-85.

Libicki, Martin, Peter Chalk and Melanie Sisson. "Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences." Rand Corporation…… [read more]


Does Distinguishing Domestic Terrorism From International Terrorism Help or Hinder Homeland Security Intelligence Efforts? A-Level Coursework

… Domestic and International Terrorism

Domestic Terrorism vs. International Terrorism: Benefits and Disadvantages to Homeland Security

The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Centre reshaped the concept of terrorism in the global community. Although, international terrorist organizations and other fundamental Jihadi groups already posed a grave threat to the United States' security, prior to the incidents. These attacks started a new debate about the international terrorism and its implications on the internal security of the United States. Previously, terrorism was classified in to two broader categories by the Federal Bureau of Intelligence. The first category was of domestic terrorism, which referred to any terrorist activity that is committed within United States without the aid of any foreign terrorists. The second category was of international terrorists who are determined to organize events like 9/11 from outside United States. (Brannan 2002)

Today is the age of Globalization where the state boundaries have virtually been eliminated. Due to advance communication systems, ease in the international travel, and interdependence of international economies, a terrorist act is much easier to commit and its effects on the international economies can be far reaching than expected. As a result to the incidents like John Walker Lindh, the line of distinction between domestic and international terrorism has faded away. A movement surging in one country can give rise to another movement in another part of the world, without getting linked together. (Brannan 2002)

The distinction between these two categories of terrorism at this stage is supposed to adversely affect, the counterterrorism role of the Department of Homeland Security. There is a strong possibility that if the distinction between the two is given importance, most of the law enforcement officers and personnel may stereotype terrorism according to their individual perspectives. There is a chance, that a potential terrorist threat is not considered dangerous due to racial or religious preferences. Terrorism cannot be associated with a certain group of people with specific demographic resemblance. Any act, which…… [read more]


Define Terrorism Essay

… Terrorism

Defining Terrorism

Environmentalists have differing views and values regarding the sale and use of sports utility vehicles (SUVs), compared to the manufacturers and owners. To the environmentalists, owners of SUVs are polluters, harming the environment for their own enjoyment and pleasure. For the SUV manufacturers there is the argument that the vehicles and by extension the companies, are fully compliant with all legislation. It may also be argued that while some environmental groups may not like SUVs, many consumers do like them, otherwise they would not sell. The SUV owners themselves cite the desire for a large comfortable vehicle that they see as a car, which is provided for by the current commercial environment (Shpritz 1). A significant problem appears to be the way in which legislation controls, or fails to control, fuel efficiency on SUV's. Even the environmentalists recognize that the problem is with the legislation; one environmental supporter, Jeff Barrow, states that the problem is the way these vehicles "fall between the cracks on the federal fuel efficiency standards" (Shpritz 1). Despite this, there have been numerous attacks on SUVs by environmentalists, setting them alight and vandalizing dealerships associated with their sale (Shpritz 1; Tamaki et al. 1). In an article outlining the events Shpritz (1) as referred to the attacks as "domestic terrorism," while Tamaki (et al. 1) refers to the attackers as vandals acting in the name of environmentalism, these are two very different terms, used to refer to similar acts. There is little doubt that the environmentalists acting in order to try and make their message heard, possibly out of frustration, and using acts of violence against property to gain attention. However, is it fair to call those who are simply fighting for their view to be heard as domestic terrorist, or is this a fair label considering the amount of damage they are causing and the potential to create fear in those who see the acts?

The problem of determining whether or not those who set fire to the SUV's and damaged the dealerships are domestic terrorists, or may be defined as activists, rebels or counter terrorists, is difficult. The first stage is to consider exactly what is meant by terrorism. There is no singular fully encompassing definition of terrorism, Schmidt and Joungman in a book entitled political terrorism, found more than 109 different definitions for the meaning of terrorism. In order to identify a consensus on the meaning of the term, they undertook a survey of the definitions to identify characteristics on which the different definitions all agreed (Schmidt and Joungman 5). 83.5% all included the requirement for there to be violence or force, 65% required there to be a political element, 51% included the need for the act to focus on fear and place an emphasis on creating terror, 47% cited the need for it to create a threat, and 41.5% included consideration of the psychological effects and anticipated reactions that would be associated with acts of terrorism (Schmidt and Joungman… [read more]


Terrorism the Schwartz, Dunkel Essay

… 2. Of the types of identity that Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009) discuss, the most important to the exploitation of weaknesses in terrorist organizations is a social identity variable. Specifically, the authors find that "the belief hat there either is an ongoing or imminent threat to the survival of the ingroup or to the political rights of its members, or a history of persecution at the hands of the outgroup," (p. 546). Interestingly, this very same variable can be applied to Israel and not to Hamas, given that Israel's national security policy is built on the belief of ongoing threat to the country's survival. A closer analysis of Israel from the other side of the lens would show, however, that Israelis do not develop the other conditions (such as personal identity factors) that would qualify as terrorism.

Moreover, the belief in persistent threat is the one variable that is "necessary" to terrorism. This is what makes this the most important variable and one that must be considered when analyzing responses to terrorism or developing counterterrorism programs. To prevent terrorism, the conditions for tis existence must be eliminated. One of those conditions is real or imaginary threats. At the same time, this one variable is complex and woven in with other variables including personal identity variables. Disenfranchisement, a sense of alienation, and religious absolutism all converge to create a portrait of possible terrorists. When terrorism is placed within a complex framework like that outlined by Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009), it becomes easier to develop sensible and meaningful long-term solutions other than the continued use of brute force.

References

Ruff, K.D., Sandole, D.J.D. & Vasili, E. (n.d.) Identity and apocalyptic terrorism. Retrieved online: http://scar.gmu.edu/sept11/Identity%26Apocolypic_Terrorism.pdf

Schwartz, S.J., Dunkel, C.S. & Waterman, A.S. (2009). Terrorism: An identity theory perspective. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:537 -- 559, 2009… [read more]


Terrorism Memo to the Department Term Paper

… The U.S. currently uses the resources of the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), which is located in Brussels and serves as a "hub for international funds transfers" (Elsea, CRS-1). What was the authority for the Treasury Department to access banking information from SWIFT? The authors of this report reference the Executive Order #13224, "Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism," signed by President George W. Bush on September 23, 2001, just days after the terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and on the World Trade Center (Elsea, CRS-2). President Bush had the power to issue that Executive Order under the "International Emergency Economic Powers Ace (IEEPA)," which is the statute 50 U.S. Code § 1701-1706 (Elsea, CRS-2).

Other federal laws that have application to tracking terrorist finances include: a) The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to establish regulations that have "a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations"; b) Title III of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (permits forfeiture of accounts held in a foreign bank -- providing the bank has an "interbank account" with a U.S. bank -- and authorizes the Treasury Secretary to "require domestic financial institutions" to take "special measures" like forbidding transactions outside the U.S. -- from "special regions" like the Middle East); c) The Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Convention Implementation Act (makes it a crime to conceal fundraising efforts or to collect funds that support terrorist activities); and d) The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (cross-border transmittals are regulated) (Elsea, CRS-4 & 5).

What works well? How can local law enforcement interact with the federal government to control terrorist financing? The current federal laws outlined in this paper have been effective, and also the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has listed "publicly identified" jurisdictions that have been "uncooperative" in terms of identifying money flowing to and from terrorists' organizations. They are Bolivia, Cuba, Iran, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Ecuador, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Turkey, Vietnam, among other nations (FinCen, 2012). Meanwhile, local law enforcement agencies (and first responders) have in recent years become closely linked in partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The sharing of information and intelligence between agencies, and the information that law enforcement agencies receive from DHS is vital in order to protect the safety of citizens. Indeed the DHS has "made progress in improving the domestic capabilities to direct and prevent terrorist attacks against America's people" (Homeland Security).

Works Cited

Breinholt, Jeff. (2003). Terrorist Financing. United States Attorney's Bulletin. 51(4).

Retrieved November 13, 2012, from U.S. Department of Justice.

Elsea, Jennifer K. And Murphy, Maureen M. (2006). Treasury's Terrorist Finance Program's

Access to Information Held by the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial

Telecommunication (SWIFT). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22469.pdf.

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). Advisory. Retrieved November 13, 2012,

from http://www.fincen.gov.

Homeland Security. (2011). Law Enforcement…… [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

… For the person heading up the relief effort, the key to this negotiation event is to be calm, low-key, and recognize that the warlord needs to get something in return for letting the trucks through. Simply giving the supplies over to the terrorists would be a big mistake, but some compromise must be approached.

Preemption: George W. Bush, while he was president, used preemption, which the Brookings Institution suggests was not a good idea. "A broad-based doctrine of preemption carries serious risks," the Brookings Institution asserts. In fact elevating the preemptive approach to a "policy doctrine" can bring "negative consequences" because it opens up the image that the U.S. "…is too quick to use military force and to do so outside the bounds of international law and legitimacy" (Brookings, 2002). In the case of the Bush preemptive doctrine, it basically suggested to the world that force could be used (in response to suspected terrorist activities anywhere in the world) "…without evidence of an imminent attack" (Brookings). The United States should not make preemptive statements to the world such as "You're either for us or against us," with the subtle suggestion that the U.S. could attack any group anywhere in the world if there appears to be justification in the minds of U.S. military and political leaders.

Retaliation: It is a commonly accepted policy that when a nation is attacked, it is justified when it retaliates. The classic case is Afghanistan, which was controlled by the Taliban when Osama bin Laden was allowed to train his terrorists in that country. The U.S. pounded Taliban strongholds from the air and drove the Taliban (temporarily) out of the country. Unfortunately, the U.S. then became bogged down in another long unwinnable war and this must be avoided in the future.

Works Cited

Brookings Institution. (2002). The New National Security Strategy and Preemption. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www.brookings.edu.

Fenwick, Helen. (2008). Proactive counter-terrorist strategies in conflict with human rights.

International Review of Law Computers & Technology,…… [read more]


Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes Term Paper

… The responsibility for such transgressions in war lies on the shoulders of organizers, masterminds and collaborators who participate in the preparation or implementation of a general plan or plot to commit any of the mentioned crimes "are criminally responsible for everything done by anyone in carrying out such a plan" ("War Crimes," 2012).

Despite of the fact that war crimes are given significant importance, it is unfortunate that the accountability for war crimes has not done much to stop atrocities.

References

Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and

Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime

McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason

War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from…… [read more]


Somalia and Global Terrorism Research Proposal

… Somalia and Global Terrorism

This will be able to give us a critical examination of state letdown and the associated

Issues of terrorism and piracy that have been plaguing the country of Somalia for nearly two decades. Keeping the focus mainly on the events that happened inside of the nation following the exiling of the Union of Islamic Courts government which occurred in 2007, three research questions are searched in the investigation 1.) What were all the issues that brought everything letdown of the state in Somalia 2.) What actions directed to the increase of piracy and also terrorism in the nation of Somalia 3.) What international exertions attached at worldwide and local levels could aid in restoring peace in Somalia, and what can be done so that a reasonable solution can be brought forth. It is imagined that the disaster in Somalia is powerfully related with the interaction of the internal operational influences of nation structure, political group and governance, and external geo-government of power.

Somalia and Global Terrorism

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

The struggle to stop the spread of terrorism has turned into one of the most important security challenges that has ever taken place in this period of history. During the last decade, various kinds of highly dangerous terrorist attacks have been going on all over the world and that includes places such as North America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The variety of locations that have been chosen for attacks by terrorist clusters has established that the struggle that is going on against terrorist attacks is not merely an American or "Western" but actually a global one that is effecting the world.

To make issues even more complicated, a lot of the terrorist organizations that are functioning all over world are planning their attacks from some of the world's most disadvantaged and poorly governed countries. This is an intense tear from the past where just tough nation states with huge conservative armies were thought to bring a rift in the world peace society. In reply to this altering reality, the urgencies in the battle that is going on against terrorism has put a great emphasis on the challenge of stopping the wonder of "failed states" whose ungoverned terrains could be utilized by terrorist groups in order so that they could plot and carry out these horrible attacks. In early December of 2009, Defense Secretary Robert Gates recognized abortive states for instance Somalia as the main danger to United States national safety. One of the initial examples of the hazard that caused stated to fail had pose to America happened in Afghanistan where those that were associated followers of Al-Qaeda were able to cash in on of the disorder in the nation and utilize the land as a preparation ground for the terrorist attack that took place on 9/11 in the United States.

In current months, terrorist administrations are basically using nations that are considered to be weak as staging ground in order to launch attacks against America. In… [read more]


U.S. Approach to Terrorism Term Paper

… Even with President Barack Obama's desire to reduce troop strength in Afghanistan, there is little indication that the war against terrorism is ending.

Fewer troops do not mean the war is over. Now that Osama bin Laden is dead, who… [read more]


Terrorism Research Issues Research Proposal

… Resolving field issues in this situation is essential to achieving a purposeful inquiry as researchers are increasingly being asked to research populations with special characteristics, in this case those close to the epicenter of a terrorist attack. The reality is that most of this research must be done on a fresh scale as most institutional lists and/or databases limit information to retain anonymity and protect participants. Therefore as Rothbart, Fine, & Sudman stress, "As research becomes more pointed, more informed by what has gone before, and more oriented toward practical implications, general population surveys often prove inadequate…field-drawn samples have become increasingly essential to successful surveys." (1982, p. 409) Some examples of field issues might be the express impact of; yield, location problems, coverage bias, the effect of inclusion rule, cost savings, and ethnicity or many other possible field issues. Field issues and other issue might get even more difficult to address after much time has passed, for example it may have been relatively easy to locate identify and sample indirectly involved in the September 11 attacks but might now be much more difficult, do to transitory issues, relocation or simply individuals seeking not to readdress such issues therapeutically or otherwise and redress how they are and were affected by them presently. For instance Ford, Adams, & Dailey utilized research conducted very early on to present post-9/11 survey data on the outcomes of problems that were time sampled for three months after the events, rather than newly generated data to record and publish on sample that was not presented until 2007.

The recording of information and storing of information would require the protection of subjects by means of the standards set up by a human subjects committee which would also require secure storage of information and the possible resurgence of anonymity through security as well as data storage of information coded with participant data that might be identifying. Though site storage of information is rarely an issue discusses in research works the stipulations, being assumed to be following the utmost of care according to the protections leveled by the standards of the human subjects committee utilized to approve the project they are exceedingly important, especially if data is collected that might be accessed later to do novel research on similar topics or simply for the purpose of retaining the security of individual's personal information.

References

Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215

Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737… [read more]


Terrorism Final Examination Questions Essay

… Question 3

Why do some terrorist groups use suicide bombing as a strategy? Please include at least three reasons in your answer.

Terrorist groups use suicide bombing as a strategy is because suicide bombs are dramatic public displays of violence… [read more]


Terrorism Is Not a New Concept Case Study

… Terrorism is not a new concept or method. It has been used throughout the history of man but defining what is and what is not is a difficult proposition. Depending on one's point-of-view, it can be defined as political or… [read more]

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