"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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How Could a Terrorist Be Radicalized? Essay

Essay  |  17 pages (5,491 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30



How could a terrorist be de-radicalised?

terrorism strategies

How Could a Terrorist be Deradicalised?

In the last two decades there has been a rapid increase in the threat of both international and domestic terrorism in the world. This increase has been dramatically emphasized by a number of major terrorist attacks, such as the Oklahoma bombing in 1995, the attack… [read more]

Terrorism &amp National Policy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


S. went on to attack Iraq amidst the reservations of its allies. This policy gave priority on American freedom and dismissed the views of other nations where the views were deemed secondary or irrelevant. This approach led to the U.S. To have more enemies than it did before

Thirdly, Bush policy saw his administration engage in costly decisions. The Bush… [read more]

Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Muslim Suicide Terrorists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,687 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Muslim Suicide Terrorists

Proposed Muslim Suicide Terrorism Game Correlating Factors Showing the Prevalence of Suicide as a Terrorism Tactic

Today, suicide bombing takes place on a daily basis throughout the Middle East, and it is clear that the tactic has assumed a new level of importance for many terrorist organizations.… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism America Is Home Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


They once destroyed a laboratory in Michigan University because the laboratory was used to create genetically modified organisms funded by Monsanto (Grubbs, 2010). In reality, Monsanto only donated a paltry 2000 USD to send 5 African students to a conference on biotechnology. In their wisdom they have maintained that whatever they did was justified.

The Army of God revels on… [read more]

Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (3,210 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Religious Extremism: Radical Islam

Radical Islam is a multifaceted phenomenon, comprising numerous groups and movements that, while related (especially with regard to faith and anti-western mind-set), may embrace very different thoughts on means and objectives. Radical Islam is a politico-religious quest to establish - by violent means if necessary - a society that, as much as possible, tries to adhere… [read more]

American Terrorism for Many People Research Paper

Research Paper  |  50 pages (14,357 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


American Terrorism

For many people, terrorism was first brought to their attention after the events surrounding September 11th. As they were quickly made aware of the underlying threats that these groups can be. However, the last several years have seen a shift in tactics. As many organizations are focused on conducting domestic terrorism. This has caused the number of incidents… [read more]

Islam Radicalization Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Islam Radicalization

The Radicalization of Islam

The forces of economic, political and religious distinction which have driven a wedge between the Western World and the Arab world are steeped in a long history of divergent interests. The conflict as we know it today, largely waged between the United States and such long-standing allies as the United Kingdom and Australia, is the fallout of centuries of subjugation, exploitation and occupation. The colonial forces of Europe and the United States exist on a continuum within which Arab states and cultures, once themselves a dominant and imperial global entity, have developed both historical and modern motives for violent and militant resistance. These motives relate as much to a sense of political resentment as they do to a belief in religious martyrdom, with the realities of western exploitation, a permeation of objectionable living conditions and the presence of deceptive governmental or media forces have collectively created a divide between East and West that implicates the Arab culture as a militant defender of a waning tribalism. Today, the greatest visible identifiers of this militant disposition are those 'terrorist' groups which perpetrated the attacks of September 11th and who continue to obstruct American interests in places like Afghanistan and Iraq. The degree to which this identity has come to be seen as the primary face of Islam in the world is both a testament to the distortions imposed by Western society and the degree to which these extreme sects of Islam have come to dominate impressions. So is this evidenced in the text by Husain (2007), which details the experience of one Briton who would move from a life of normal devotion to one of extremist engagement with little warning.

A consideration of Husain's experience reveals that in such contexts as Europe, the U.K. And the U.S., the experience of humiliation and disenfranchisement which has been foisted upon Muslims living as second class citizens has helped to stimulate a virulent form of political and ideological resentment. This is a reality which can be correlated to a modern history of exploitation connected both the colonialism and to the Cold War. For Europe, this is especially the case, as the Muslim population continues to proliferate. As Leiken (2005) indicates "the mass immigration of Muslims to Europe was an unintended consequence of post-World War II guest-worker programs. Backed by friendly politicians and unsympathetic judges, foreign workers, who were supposed to stay temporarily, benefited from family reunification programs and became permanent. Successive waves of immigrants formed a sea of descendents. Today, Muslims constitute the majority of immigrants in most western European countries." (Leiken, 1)

Not only is this so, but Muslims also constitute a particularly disaffected part of the population, often deeply isolated into ethnic neighborhoods and schools as was the case for Husain. He would report that "I was sixteen years old and I had no white friends. My world was entirely Asian, fully Muslim. This was my Britain. Against this backdrop, the writings of Sarwar's guru, Mawdudi, took… [read more]

Psychology of Terrorism Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,176 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Psychology of Terrorism

Terrorism Defined: What is Terrorism?

Terrorism has been explained variedly both as a strategic effort as well as a tactic; a criminal act as well as a sacred obligation, a reaction which is justified against oppression as well as abomination which is unpardonable. To be obvious, a lot is based on whose perspective is represented. Acts of… [read more]

International Terrorism on Domestic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Since U.S. has been in the fore front in the war against Terror, this has formed the ground used by the jihad front in campaigning against American hegemony among the Muslims who are in America. Al Awlaki and bin Laden videos in addition to their several number of escapes from the U.S. forces has greatly bestowed them a cult status and greater number of their fan following. This mass appeal will always be a challenge to the United State in trying to curb this following. The agencies in U.S. who have the duty of countering terrorism have concentrated in dealing with radical Islamists who are closer to home, though the steps that they are using in countering this threat tend to be vague and far from being defined well.

From the evidence we can tell that the real threat does not exist on the amateur homemade explosives and random shootings, it originates from the ideology that gives birth to this radicalization, (Jerrold M. Post, 2005). Therefore, the U.S. government is supposed to deal with the ideological prejudices within as well as against Muslims. The aim of the government is supposed to be bringing itself closer to the Muslims communities but not just concentrating on fighting their civil liberties, for example, in the airline security checks that usually rises discord among the communities to make them gang up against the United State.

It has been clear enough that pouring tax money into Afghanistan was not enough to end the terror threat that America is still facing. A strategy that can be considered to be very effective is a multi-pronged counterterrorism strategy that focuses on the terrorist abroad and Muslim community that stay within the United States territory, joining hands in working with the antiterrorism agencies forms the key to the problem. The United State do not have any option of remaining safe from radical Islamist terrorism who influence the domestic terrorism but to implement a strategy that is based on intelligence as well as a coordinated law enforcement be carried out in a pro-active and sustainable partnership with the American Muslim community.


A nationwide, coordinated, community partnership framework tends to be the best solution to the problem of domestic terrorism. Muslims community local leaders are supposed to be brought around the table to have a dialogue with the law enforcement, more so to the counter terrorism officials and the government. Through this partnership intelligence can be gathered on the possible future terror plots. Such will make the law enforcement to have no need of being present within the areas that would hurt Muslim religious sentiments. The communities forms the reliable sources that reports unusual occurrences and radical propaganda, therefore they should be educated more on ways of reporting such matters. On the other hand, the law enforcement officials are supposed to be educated on the customs of the Muslim, that will enable them deal with any intelligence that they will receive and the best way to deal with any rising… [read more]

Is Terrorism Effective? Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Terrorism Effective?

The term "terrorism" is basically politically and fervently charged which compounds the struggle of providing a precise description of terrorism. Some examination studies by intellectuals have shown the fact that there are over 100 various terms of terrorism. A less diplomatically and emotionally charged denotation of terrorism is a better well-defined word that is often utilized for referring to fear. The word "fear" derives from a Latin word with a connotation that means "to be frightened." (American Heritage Online Dictionary, 2010) Many people share the definition of terrorism in that it means a violent activity which is envisioned to generate fear, to endorse an ideological/political objective, and purposely aim at civilians and non- civilian targets (American Heritage Online Dictionary, 2010). With that said, terrorism appears to be more effective when used against a democracy vs. A more repressive regime for many reasons.

Terrorism is more effective against a democracy because it poses distinctive challenge to the liberal democratic state. The transnational nature of terrorism requires collaboration among and between states to speak to this common threat. Comparative studies disclose that societies that are of liberal states must offer consensus for those anti and counter terrorist guidelines which are adopted by the state (Dantzker, 2010). If democracies that are liberal began to take police state-like action in reply to terrorism, then questionably the terrorists have accomplished what they set out to do. Terrorism goal is to make sure that they affect every root of democracy. However, their main goal is to get the citizens to even question that fact, Is democracy worth it? Is this form of government really bringing the protection that we need? Terrorist use this strategy to attack western democracy because it plants seeds in the back of the minds of every citizen. It is very effective because it brings panic to a group of people that have put all of their trust in a form of government that is popular all over the globe (Dantzker, 2010). The terrorist tactic is effective because it gets the people in debate on whether or not a democratic nation is even worth it. In short, terrorists target state lawfulness, and political culture is at the root of this investigation because it reflects a society's legality for its policies and its leaders. It is also the element that is missing of a lot of unrestricted social equalities.

It can be noted that one effect that terrorism has had on democracy is the impact of 9/11. Everyone knows that the terrorist attacks that went down on September 11, 2001 ("9/11"), really brought change to many things, as well as the consideration of scholars (Leahy, 2005). In the wake of those proceedings, investigation on how terrorism disturbs mass publics, and public view in specific, propelled from a modest originality to an industry that was booming. People getting an understanding of the roots and significances of terrorism, on democracy really turned out to be a matter of increased scholarly interest and… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism on Policing Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,231 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Within the terrorism arena, the key strength of local agencies clings to their experience in criminal investigation of both individuals and enterprises. Their techniques in investigation create a robust understanding of the extent in which the broad networks of individuals and enterprises link. As a result, the agencies developed a crime-fighting model that is useful in investigations of organized crimes,… [read more]

Homegrown Terrorism and International Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,510 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The message behind such actions is basically sending terrorist repercussions rather than following a logical path. These political acts usually points fingers at a general underprivileged society. The aim is to acquire some political power and rights to demand their rights. Conventional terrorism is domestic by default. Many extremists' groups and terrorists organizations have agents and supporters all across the… [read more]

Global Terrorism Policy Memo Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,214 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Terrorism Memo

Re: Possible rise of terrorism in Japan

Assessment of risk over the next six months and steps needed to mitigate terrorism recruitment (3/11-9/11)

Much of the world has watched in sympathy and respect over the last week as the Japanese people and their government have responded with grace to the triple catastrophe of a 9.0 earthquake, the following tsunami, and the still-ongoing struggle to contain problems at nuclear power plants. However, while there is much to praise in this effort to begin to come to terms with and then recover such a terrible blow from nature, there is also room for concern that the chaos that has naturally resulted will provide a breeding ground for terrorism.

The world's focus on terrorism over the last ten years has been almost entirely on Muslim extremists. There have been ongoing warnings about the perils of such a narrow focus, but these have been in general ignored for at least two reasons. The first of these is that there is a clear Western bias that tends to assume both that a greater percentage of Muslims are radicalized than are and that other communities are less likely to have radicalized members than is in fact the case.

Japan has not been the site of a serious terrorist attack since 1995, when five members of the cult/religion Aum Shinrikyo initiated a chemical terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway during rush hour. The chemical agent that they used was sarin, which is classified as a weapon as mass destruction and is a nerve agent that acts very quickly and in very small doses can prove fatal to humans.

Members of the cult had intended to aerosolize the sarin, but failed to do so. Had they been able to do so, the attack would no doubt have been far more deadly. As it was, the attack killed thirteen people, severely injured fifty and resulted in temporary albeit vision problems for almost a thousand other victims.

The religious group that organized and staged the attack has lost its official status with the Japanese government as a religion but still has over 200 members. They themselves are unlikely to be a significant threat in the future; however, the social forces that prompted them to become violent still exist in Japanese society.

Key Actors

As is the case with many manifestations of terrorism, the terrorists in were linked to religion. In that case, it was not Islam or Christianity but Shintoism. Shintoism is not an inherently violent religion. It has ancient, pantheistic roots and so should be allied with the most gentle and non-violent of human impulses. However, it is also the case that Shintoism has over the past century become a mechanism for radical nationalism in Japan.

Nationalism is at least as powerful a supporter and initiator of terrorism as is religion. When the two join hands so that a religion is seen to embody the nation and its leaders, then those who become linked to the national… [read more]

International Terrorism State Department Defines Modern Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,174 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


International Terrorism

State Department defines modern terrorism as "premeditated and politically motivated violence by sub-national groups or clandestine agents against non-combatant targets" often to influence a particular audience.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation describes it as:

…"the use of serious violence against persons or property, or the threat to use such violence, to intimidate or coerce a government, the public,… [read more]

Terrorism Asia the Political Complexity Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,028 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Terrorism Asia

The Political Complexity of the Asian Position on Terrorism:

As Seen in Pakistan

The forces of economic, political and religious distinction which have driven a wedge between the Western World and the Arab world are steeped in a long history of divergent interests. The conflict as we know it today, largely waged between the United States and the… [read more]

Argentina's Definition of Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,585 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Argentina's Definition Of Terrorism

Terrorism is nowadays one of the most important aspects of international security which states and international organizations are trying to address at all levels, both internal and global. This is largely due to the fact that the terrorist flabellum does not represent a regular threat to the national and international security, but rather an unconventional one,… [read more]

Roots of Domestic Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,576 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Terrorism has been defined as the sub-state application of violence or threatened violence intended to sow panic in a society to weaken or even overthrow the incumbents, and to bring about political change'. The society has observed several practices which are aimed at spreading 'intimidation, panic, and destruction in a population'. In real practice it has been observed that such… [read more]

Explosive Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



Ever since the year 2001, The United States Homeland Security has been specifically focused upon not only defending the country against terrorist attacks and providing care in the aftermath of such an attack, but also on preventing similar future attacks. The best way towards prevention is an understanding of the precise threats facing the country and cultivating ways in… [read more]

Domestic vs International Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


91). In fact, Mantri (2011) suggests that notwithstanding the numerous examples of domestic terrorism cited above, the potential for even more such attacks in the future may be far greater because of the ideological attraction that these acts hold for some people. In this regard, Mantri notes that, "Even more disturbing has been the concept that this is driven by… [read more]

International Terrorism Has Brought With it Destruction Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


International terrorism has brought with it destruction, bloodshed, the killing of untold thousands of innocent people, political reprisals and fear. But along with these unconscionable terror-related strategies and tactics, many innocent people of Islamic faith have been erroneously linked to fanatical Muslims merely because of their dress or their place of origin. This paper highlights the ethno-national identity problem that… [read more]

Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan

Narco-terrorism refers to the role that the narcotics trade plays in promoting and contributing to terrorism. Afghanistan is not only one of the largest sources of international terrorist, but also the world's leading supplier of opium. It is virtually impossible to ignore the relationship between the narcotics trade and terrorism. Furthermore, it is virtually impossible to ignore the fact that U.S. military intervention in Afghanistan may actually have increased the ability of narcotics growers to funnel money into terrorist activities by weakening the Taliban in Afghanistan. Prior to 9-11, the Taliban had cracked down on opium poppy production because of concerns that it would lead to UN-Sanctions, but U.S. intervention in the area removed that threat and actually encouraged poppy-production. Furthermore, there have been recent improvements in local manufacturing techniques, which has made it possible for Afghanis to process the heroin within the country's borders, reducing the bulk it needs to export in the narcotics trade.

In order to understand the extent of the impact of the narcotics trade on terrorism in Afghanistan, one must understand what a tremendous role narcotics production plays in the Afghan economy. Up to one-third of Afghanistan's economy is attributable to the narcotics trade. These narcotics impact other countries in two manners. First, it is believed that opiates originating in Afghanistan actually kill more people than any other illegal narcotic in the world, so the narcotics are their own form of terrorism. Second, the narcotics trade in Afghanistan exacerbates existing problems there, which makes the population more vulnerable to becoming terrorists. Third, it is believed that the lingering Taliban insurgents profit tremendously from this drug production, so that this narcotics industry funnels hundreds of millions of dollars each year to terrorists.

Significance of the Death of Osama Bin Laden

There is a tremendous amount of disagreement about the significance of the death of Osama Bin Laden. Bin Laden was certainly the face of Al Qaeda for many Americans, and, as the mastermind of 9-11, did plan the most serious and significant terrorist attack on American soil. He provided a tangible face for the literally thousands of terrorists worldwide who wished to target the United States. As such, Bin Laden served as a catalyst for American action, much as Hitler did decades earlier during World War II. Therefore, Bin Laden's death served as a symbolic victory for Americans, because it was a tangible success in the war on terror. Moreover, the circumstances of his death, where he had been forced into hiding and apparently had not had any real leadership role in Al Qaeda for some substantial period of time, reinforced the idea that one might be able to strike out successfully against the U.S. A single time, but that doing so would force a person into hiding and hamper the ability to plan and effectuate attacks against the United…… [read more]

Terrorism Assess the Likelihood of a Terrorist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (5,520 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Assess the likelihood of a terrorist group use of CBRN weapons

There is a high and rising probability of the usage of the chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear -CBRN weapons by majority of terrorists even though certain established terrorist groups are expected to remain restricted by such aspects like being alien to the weapon and its dubious political usefulness.… [read more]

Shifting Seas of Global Social Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Strategically, the Wells Fargo, or "Aguilla Blanca" as they called it, incident created two extreme problems for both the American officials and the Machetero base. Previously, the Macheteros were responsible or struggles against the armed forces of the U.S., whom they deemed an occupying force; after the incident, they were responsible for the death of two American civilians (the… [read more]

Terrorism What Is Involved in Terrorism Investigation? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



What is involved in terrorism investigation? Unlike many criminal investigations, investigating terrorism and terrorism issues are dependent on far more issues. First, the investigation may be national, international, or a combination -- it may involve a number of agencies, jurisdictions, and political formats. The terrorism investigation is also dependent on whether it is proactive or reactive. Proactive investigations are used to prevent acts of terrorism and include coordinated or long-term planning, intelligence gathering, and ways for different agencies to cooperate. Reactive methods are used to investigate terrorism after the incident occurs. These include crime scene processing and analysis, detective work (following leads and tips), using informants, data mining, surveillance, and other standard law enforcement tactics.

Proactive methods are designed, particularly after 9/11, by the theory of preventive policing -- to anticipate and diffuse the next terror attack. These techniques do not focus on crime, but on the idea that a crime might be committed on a future date. It is primarily intelligence gathering, data mining and analysis, sharing of information with pertinent agencies, and gathering of intelligence by different means so that there are few surprises to law enforcement. One real challenge in proactive investigation is balancing civil liberties against terrorist threats.

Reactive methods follow similar techniques to basic modern criminal investigations, but on a larger, more complex manner. Because of the nature of the incident, local officials might not have enough equipment or personnel to adequately handle the investigation, and it is highly likely that because of the nature of terrorism, that other cities or countries are also involved. Of course, the incident must have a responder, usually local law enforcement and then other agencies being called in. Once the incident is under control, crime scene processes sing and analysis occurs and is as extensive as possible. Information is gathered, leads checked, background issues are uncovered, and an agency, usually Homeland Security in the United States, coordinates efforts to build a profile and apprehend the suspects, with the help of coordinating agencies.

Part 2 -- What are crimes against humanity? Crimes against humanity are serious offenses against a nation, an ethic group, a part of society and a serious attack on humanity or degradation against one or more individuals. They are not isolated events, but part of a formal policy or a wide practice of atrocities, torture, or offenses that are somehow condoned by a de facto authority. Some examples of crimes against humanity are mass extermination, torture, rape, persecution for political, racial or religious reasons, and the systematic process of widespread criminal activities. While the term has been around for at least a century, it was the aftermath of World War II and the resulting Nuremberg Trials that brought the issue to the forefront. The jurisdictional element of these types of crimes is not limited to war but as a "part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population on national, political, ethnic, or religious grounds" (745).

Since 1948, the legal responsibility for prosecuting crimes… [read more]

Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Terrorism

The objective of this study is to choose from three definitions of terrorism and relate which one best represents the beliefs, values, experiences, and education of this writer. Section 802 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (Pub. L. No. 107-52) is reported to have expanded the definition of terrorism to cover 'domestic' terrorism. Domestic terrorism is committed by… [read more]

Terrorism Represents the Organized Use Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Terrorism represents the organized use of terror with the purpose of intimidating particular groups. Its complex nature makes it difficult for the act to be defined by the international community and a series of actions can thus be catalogued as being terrorist in character. The masses are typically accustomed to perceiving terrorism as being related to religious extremists wanting to… [read more]

Terrorism Is a Weapon of the Weak Global Jihad a Myth or Reality Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Terrorism is a "Weapon of the Weak -- / Global Jihad, a Myth or Reality

Terrorism is a weapon of the weak

Terrorism has become one of the most discussed subjects in terms of international security and in the foreign affairs offices throughout the world. Especially after the 9/11 events in the United States, terrorism has received the label of the most important threat to national security (Townshend, 2007). Both domestic and international terrorism are phenomena that can hardly be tackled with instruments that have been used traditionally during the Cold War in particular when security was established as a special area of expertise. This is largely due to the fact that this threat is an unconventional one and requires unconventional means to counter.

Terrorism is by no means a weapon of the weak. Although there is no generally accepted definition of terrorism, one that would encompass the complexity of the phenomenon, it is rather clear that terrorism represents a sum of causes and effects that can hardly be labeled in one way or another. Yet, terrorism is a means of applying pressure on the decision making bodies and to create a certain image and reaction at the level of the public opinion or the targeted audience.

It is rather difficult to asses weather terrorism is used only by the weak groups, largely because, as previous history has pointed out, terrorist groups have become more and more elaborated in their techniques of operation and act now at the global level (Kaplan, 2006). Of course, one of the most well-known terrorist groups is the Al Qaeda that is known to have ties and connections throughout the world. The 9/11 events proved precisely the magnitude of their influence at that time. Although at this point the organization is no longer as powerful as it was a decade ago largely due to the fact that its head, Osama bin Laden was killed by the American led interventions in the Middle East, the group still represents, at least in the mentality of the public opinion, the most representative terrorist group.

This notoriety is extremely benefic for terrorist groups and may make the difference between a weak or powerful terrorist movement. This is due to the fact that, as mentioned above, one of the main targets of the terrorist attacks is the creation of an impression over the public opinion, especially one of fear (Wilkinson, 2000). This connection is made considering in particular the effect the public opinion has on the elected decision making bodies. Public opinion can provide legitimacy to state actions or can condemn state actions. To point out an example, the American public for various reasons did not support the war in Vietnam; however, one of it was the belief that the threats in Indochina were not direct threats to the security of the American public. By comparison, when the 9/11 attacks were directly pointed at the safety of the American people, there was a massive domestic support for the American led… [read more]

How Is Terrorism Different From Violent Crime and Insurgency Ethno National Terrorism? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … terrorism different from violent crime and Insurgency / Ethno-National Terrorism

How is terrorism different from violent crime and insurgency

Terrorism has become one of the most discussed subjects in terms of international threat, national security, and domestic preventive action. In recent decades there have been numerous attempts to try to define the notion of terrorism and to tackle… [read more]

Terrorism Is at This Point Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This represents a real challenge for the law enforcement agencies such as the CBP as well as for the legislative body at the level of the country to ensure that, while maintaining and preserving the right of people to seek better life conditions, they do not do that at the expense of the law or do not jeopardize the security… [read more]

How Homeland Security Combats the Financing of Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Financing Terrorism: America's Unique Position In Blocking Such Efforts

Aside from issues in foreign policy and tense international relations, arguments about oil, and other factors which contributed to 9/11, the destruction of the World Trade Center would not have occurred if there hadn't been entities to back such an attack. While most civilians don't consider the practical and financial issues… [read more]

Latin American Terrorism Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (7,613 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

This group of terrorist is relatively weak and less active. Very few activities have been reported by this group. It has more than 32000 members dismissed. Thus, it remains inactive as a formal group. Despite of its less activities, many old members of AUC are engaged in criminal activities mostly drug trafficking, in newly… [read more]

What Is the Connection Between Terrorism and Criminal Organizations in Terms of Illicit Finance? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Terrorism and Illicit Finance

As a growing majority of middle class families fall victim to the economic devastation of the Great Recession, suffering from prolonged unemployment, depleted job markets and a rising cost of living, the threat of potential terrorist attacks striking America and its interests seems to have faded into the proverbial background of our collective consciousness.… [read more]

Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism Sovereign A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The subsequent ground invasions launched in Afghanistan and Iraq, predicted to achieve rousing strategic victories in a relatively short duration, offer demonstrable proof that "predicting discrete events in the future is impossible in an open and complex system" (Quiggin, 2006), while also illustrating the deficiencies of this approach to conducting counterterrorism and intelligence operations. By forming optimistic predictions about future events and tailoring national security strategy to these predictions, rather than adopting an anticipatory strategy founded on adaptability, the U.S. government unwittingly stumbled into a military quagmire, diverting invaluable resources to combat a seemingly infinite insurgency and squandering global support in the process.

While the calamitous conflicts still simmering throughout the Middle East provide conclusive proof that predicting future events is an untenable approach to counterterrorism intelligence, there are many circumstances which dictate the adoption of preventative strategy. The advent of the internet has enabled likeminded individuals across the planet to connect and exchange ideas on an instantaneous basis, allowing the once isolated realm of jihadist ideology to flourish under the cover of online anonymity. By monitoring suspicious activity through the use of wiretapping technology and other clandestine means, the intelligence community has gathered a voluminous amount of data concerning potential threats to national security, identifying key leadership figures and their proxies, and foiling several dozen attacks during the planning phase. Indeed, according to the Heritage Foundation "in 2009 alone, U.S. authorities foiled at least six terrorist plots against the United States (and) since September 11, 2001, at least 30 planned terrorist attacks have been foiled, all but two of them prevented by law enforcement" (McNeill, Carafano & Zuckerman, 2010). When a potential terrorist attack is prevented, however, it is essential that the reasons for this success be accurately identified before a false sense of security becomes firmly established. A consensus has emerged among intelligence experts that "with distributed terrorism threats such as homegrown jihadism, there is no key leadership cell and no key lines of command and communication" (Quiggin, 2006), and it is the ambiguous structure of terrorist networks which necessitates an anticipatory approach to combating threats. Even after dozens of planned attacks were prevented, Al-Qaeda and its affiliates continued to innovate, formulating plots involving "shoe-bombs," inciting Muslim military members to commit atrocities against their own army bases, and fomenting regional strife in an effort to destabilize American interests abroad. By adhering to a strictly predictive counterterrorism strategy, the intelligence community would effectively blind itself to the threats posed by these ancillary strategies, which is why the anticipatory approach is best suited for the demands of modern national security.


Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things

We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/080923risk.pdf (accessed February 16, 2013).

McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How

the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/04/30-terrorist-plots-foiled-how-the-system-worked (accessed February 15, 2013).

Quiggin, Thomas. Seeing the Invisible: National Security Intelligence in…… [read more]

Terrorism How Have Worries Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,172 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Salafi networks are organized specifically to target the United States, even more so than its allies. The great majority -- 84% -- of all Salafi organization members joined the movement in the diaspora, revealing the potential for sleeper cells throughout Europe and North America. Demographics for the Salafi network are also vastly different from those of religiously fundamental jihadist groups. For example, 87% of Salafi network members have had a secular education and come from a secular background; and most are professional or at least semiprofessional with families and no history of psychological illness ("Global Salafi Terrorist Networks").[footnoteRef:7] Current trends toward politically motivated anti-Americanism that is not rooted in Islamism are worrisome because they challenge preconceived notions of the underlying ideology of terrorism; thus, secular terrorism is harder to identify and harder to stop. [7: "Global Salafi Terrorist Networks"]

Intelligence does reveal some patterns in Salafi network membership patterns. For instance, about two-thirds of the secular jihadists join because of pre-existing friendships with existing members. Reasons for bonding together with fellow Muslims are parallel to those of other immigrant groups. For instance, immigrant students have the need to room with other Muslims for dietary (Halal) reasons and bond with persons from their social group -- not based on religion but on worldview, lifestyle, and ethnicity ("Global Salafi Terrorist Networks").[footnoteRef:8] Second generation immigrants tend to be raised in a secular society, but when ostracized or isolated seek social bonding. Therefore, the psychosocial development of individuals becomes the cornerstone of jihadist group membership and recruitment. [8: "Global Salafi Terrorist Networks"]

The trend away from al Qaeda toward even more nebulous networks presents particular threats for the United States. Although the Al Qaeda central administration has been weakened with the death of bin Laden, the prevailing ideology of jihad remains strong. "While al Qaeda Central is still very much in hiding, the al Qaeda social movement has flourished, fueled by worldwide Muslim resentment against the Western invasion and occupation of Iraq," (Sageman,, p. 133). Pillar confirms that anti-Western sentiment, in specific directed against the United States, has not subsided as the prevailing terrorist ideology. Thus, the current trends are in many ways extensions of the past, just in a slightly different format.

Although some trends are shifting away from al Qaeda, the organization is still alive and has even enjoyed a "resurgence" in Afghanistan via a strategic alliance with Afghan Taliban (Sageman, p. 132).[footnoteRef:9] The numbers of al Qaeda are indeed dwindling, though. There are new types of terrorism, and new leaders, emerging on the horizon. Al Qaeda is more than a singular terrorist network; it is a mentality, a philosophy, and a worldview that permeates similar and sympathetic organizations. Sageman points to the financial aspects of terrorist organizations, too, noting that market forces are becoming a prevailing trend in determining the shape and methodology of terrorism[footnoteRef:10]. These are issues that American counter-terrorism experts are contending with in the post-September 11, universe. [9: Sageman, M., 2008, p. 132] [10: Sageman, M., 2008]

Current… [read more]

Terrorism Influences Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


New mission of Homeland security

After the 9/11 homeland security mission has been revolutionized and distance between law enforcement and intelligence has been eliminated. These changes are more prominent on state level. Most of the countries have retaliated by combining existing public security, emergency response capabilities and law enforcement. Moreover, before most of the countries have no effective intelligence agencies but now most countries have reacted by creating multiple intelligence cells in existing setup. (Steiner)

Modern terrorism and new level of relationship between federal, state, local government agencies and private corporations

Modern terrorism has made federal governments more skeptical. For example before 9/11 everyone was allowed to get training of flying the plane in the U.S.A. But now these laws have been made stricter. Moreover, more local security agencies have been given contract like Black water in USA by the government. Tourist organizations are more answerable to state and its agencies. Private corporations are more under scrutiny.


Fine, J. (2008). contrastin secular and religious terrorism. Retrieved from Middle east forun: http://www.meforum.org/1826/contrasting-secular-and-religious-terrorism

Kahn, P.F. (2004). Protection against weapons of mass destruction.

Kreamer, T.A. (n.d.). Archiving early America. Retrieved from Sons of Liberty:Patriots or Terrorist: http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/fall96/sons.html

Kurgel, L. (2011, August). e-International Relations. Retrieved from Terrorism and Global economy: http://www.e-ir.info/2011/08/31/what-is-the-impact-of-terrorism-on-the-ipe/

Steiner, D.J. (n.d.). central intelligence agency. Retrieved from Improving Homeland Security at the State level: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html… [read more]

Terrorism Intelligence, Counterterrorism and Protection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This definition will most likely fall short of total comprehension upon further analysis. The intentional or unintentional habit of associating terrorism with foreign freedom fighters committing acts of war on American soil seems to have attracted the majority of Western consciousness in today's discussions. The aforementioned phrase may indeed be the new, applicable and suitable phrasing for a consensual definition, however this consensus must be collaborated with qualitative research.This qualitative research project may reach out to different segments of society to gather of differing opinions about the word terrorism and how it should be used with today's lexicon. Terrorism and counterintelligence and other terms may also be offered up for redefining in this type of research. The words that are used in associating value to social issues such as personal safety should be selected with extreme care and precision. Confusion and doubt are usually results of miscommunication resulting from such unwillingness to re-examine phrases whose old definitions may seem obsolete.


How much safety is a good thing? This question can be answered by many different approaches. Examining the economic expenditures and creating correlating qualitative values with this spending may be attempted in such a research project. For instance, violence statistics, such as random homicides, which may be classified as a terrorist attack, can be statistically investigated along with individual, state, and federal budgets. What is a safe living approach and is there an economic benefit to securing utility within the greater good?

Contrasting safe living with risky behavior, may also be an alternate approach for investigating this topic as well. What are the benefits of risking one's life? How can dangerous behaviors be used for the good of society? The answers to these questions, if found, may help alleviate certain pressures within society that have been continually misunderstood over the course of history.


Information flows freely and abundantly today in the 21st century. It may be time to look at the environment and see if there may be a possible overload of scientific information. Usually this information is classified as intelligence, but intelligence, with fragmented facts, may be more dangerous than its attainment may reveal. There is so much information and intelligence floating in the human consciousness today that it is a task in and of itself to organize the ever-changing, and ever rapidly changing systems of classification. This may be the challenge of all future research, the ability to flow and adapt with quick reacting systems as they evolve towards complexity and chaos. Finding a happy medium where information's quality is more appreciated may be a first step in new approaches of understanding intelligence, terrorism, and living a safe and well…… [read more]

Terrorism Linked to Religion Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The earlier terrorism caused by the military wing of HAMAS was used as a tool to gain political power to achieve their objectives of saving Muslims from oppression and devastation at the hands on Non-Muslims.

The constant evolution of the purposes and actions of such organizations must lead to the question that if Radical Islam and religious domination is not… [read more]

Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



m. Federal Bureau of Investigation -- 28 C.F.R. §0.85

"[Terrorism is] [t]he unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives."[footnoteRef:17] [17: (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2005).]

3. Two Approaches to the Complexity of Terrorism Definitions

As… [read more]

Combating Future Terrorism the Continuing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


, 168). Moreover, Americans should not be startled that so many foreign nations despise that the U.S. created a coup in Iraq, and has assassinated elected leaders in Chile and elsewhere. The point of this article is that terrorism will likely continue to be launched at the U.S. because the U.S. is seen as "the destroyer of indigenous cultural traditions, a unilateral bully in international economic affairs…an ominous threat to the environment, human rights, and worker protection" (Shlapentokh, 168).

How can the U.S. Use Socio-Economic Strategies Against Terrorists

Waszak, J.D.G. (2004). The Obstacles to Suppressing Radical Islamic Terrorist Financing.

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 36(2/3), 673-710.

The author Waszak points to the difficulty that U.S. government interests face when trying to cut off funding for terrorists. Laundering money for terrorists is easier than money laundering for drug traffickers, Waszak explains, because terrorists move smaller amounts of money and it is difficult for other countries to detect illegal transactions. Moreover, Waszak goes into the informal networks of money and why, because they don't leave a "paper trail," it is tough for U.S. security and intelligence agencies to close those money pipelines to terrorists.

Protecting the Country from Terrorist Attacks -- Creating a Secure Environment

Yusoff, M.A., and Soltani, F. (2012). Negative-Positive Security and the United States. Asian Social Science, 8(15), 244-248.

This scholarly paper relates to how the U.S. can attempt to secure its people and resources now that the terrorist attacks of 911 have proved that is it "…not possible by conventional approaches" to identify and destroy individuals in "weak states" that act independently of any official state authority. Al Qaeda is a classic example of the difficulty America has in keeping a secure environment. On page 247 the authors quote president Barack Obama saying that the U.S. "…must reserve the right to act unilaterally if necessary to defend our nation and our interests" (Yusoff, et al., 2012, 247). The authors conclude that the "dominate approach" to fighting terrorism should not just be through military actions but rather through the "…spreading of democratic values" (Yusoff, 248).

Why Will There Be More Terrorism?

Zakaria, F. (2002). Why They Hate Us. In Inside Islam: The Faith, the People, and the Conflicts

Of the World's Fastest-Growing Religion, J. Miller and A. Kenedi, Eds. Jackson, TN: De

Capo Press.

Zakaria explains in this book that terrorist don't hate Americans simply because we are strong and rich and they envy us, or because we stand for democracy and they hate it, although those are reasons that are legitimate. Terrorists hate Americans because of "religion," Zakaria writes on page 236. "September 11 was not mindless terrorism for terrorism's sake," Zakaria quotes from the scholarly publication The Nation. "It was a reaction and revenge, even retribution," Zakaria continues, against the U.S. because of the wrongs American interests and military power has perpetrated against Muslim countries over many years in the past. This essay is valuable in terms of understanding the background as to…… [read more]

Terrorism Organizations What Is Terrorism? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Prevention and mitigation methods are complex and often somewhat controversial in that some see Civil Rights being eroded, while others feel that the protection of the many, utilitarianism, is worth losing some personal liberty. In any case, diligence, scholarship and preparation are necessary as never before.


ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html

Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk

Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf

Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov

____. (2007, October). National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_homelandsecurity_2007.pdf

Masters, J. (2011). Militant Extremists in the United States. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/militant-extremists-united-states/p9236

Olson, S. (2001, October 24). Patriot Act Draws Privacy Concerns. Retrieved from CNET Networks: http://news.com.com/2100-1023-275026.html

Rand Corporation. (2012). Aryan Nations. Terrorist Organization Profiles. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29

Smith, D. (2001). Terrorism: Some Mundane Targets and Methods. CDI Terrorism

Project. Retrieved from: http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/targets-methods.html

Southern Poverty Law Center. (2013). Ku Klux Klan. SPLC. Retrieved from: http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/ideology/ku-klux-klan

Steiger, B. & S. (2006). Conspiracies and Secret Societies: The Complete Dossier. Canton, MI: Visible… [read more]

Terrorism in the Book Dying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ultimately, it would be helpful to prevent terrorism before it erupts by listening and responding to politically disenfranchised groups before the conflict becomes too long and drawn out.

Some types of terrorism occur not by nebulous non-state actors such as Al Qaeda but by officially recognized state powers. When governments commit acts of terror, the word terrorism is sometimes not even used because legitimacy is inferred. However, in the case with Syria, the government can easily be referred to as a terrorist organization even if it operates officially. Because terrorism is always political, it does not matter whether or not the state or a non-state organization perpetrates the terrorist acts. The responses to terrorism will always be similarly structured, targeting the root causes and preventing violent outbreaks in the future.

A comprehensive anti-terrorist strategy must also address the concern that terrorism may spread, via the contagion of a political ideology. Al Qaeda is a perfect example of how the ideology of Muslim liberation from Western state actors appeals to a wide geographic and cultural base from the Middle East to Southeast Asia (Pape, 2006). Responses to political terrorism need to be tailored to the situation. Thus, some types of terrorism may be met with an evaluation of the living conditions and political grievances of the people (as with Palestinians or Tamils, for example) with according diplomatic and strategic political responses that may never need to resort to military action. Other types of terrorism have an irrational foundation, such as that promoted by Al Qaeda and the Taliban. In those cases, military tactics are unfortunately necessary in the ongoing vigilance against global violence. Impediments to a military course of action range from human rights concerns, concerns over global hegemony via the large democratic states terrorists act against, and rising death tolls (Pape, 2006). Likewise, there are impediments to using diplomacy, including the relatively weak leadership of many terrorist organizations and the cacophony of voices on the international arena, leading to differential counterterrorism objectives.

Because each terrorist group has a different agenda, and comes from a unique cultural milieu, there will be a correspondingly large range of causes as well as manifestations of terrorism. Nationalism might be at the root of suicide terrorism, as Pape (2006) suggests, but other factors such as the desire to wrest control and power away from a perceived hegemon, seems to be the most unifying and blanket explanation for the use of terrorism. Political motivators for terrorism are likely to remain the primary causes for the use of violence, trumping other issues like culture and religion. Culture and religion might be tacitly linked to terrorist ideologies but politics will remain the primary cause -- and solution.


Crenshaw, M. (1981). The causes of terrorism. Comparitive Politics 13(4): 379-399.

Pape, R. (2006). Dying to Win. New York:…… [read more]

Terrorism Annotated Bibliography Gardner, K.L Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,222 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Although fundamentalist Muslims have been of concern for some decades, it was not until this event that they became the primary concern for the safety of the United States and its interests. According to the article by Brigette Narcos, the attack was, from the perspective of the terrorists, an unmitigated success because it both broad universal attentions to their cause and in proving they could conduct such an attack solidified those who were opposed to the United States.

In addition to their legacy of bloodshed, the attacks shaped international relations between the U.S. And the rest of the world, particularly the Middle East ever since and will continue to shape how the government reacts to potential terrorist threats. The way in which the attacks were carried out also served as a blueprint for other acts of terrorism. Those committed since both in the U.S. And elsewhere have had certain commonalities with 9/11 including the network of terrorists involved and how they were financially supported. Thus, the government has learned ways to predict and prevent potential threats by continuing to study how 9/11 was conducted.

Ranstorp, M. (2007). Introduction: mapping terrorism research -- challenges and priorities.

Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps, and Future Direction. Ed. Magnus Ranstorp. Routledge: New York, NY. 1-29. This text is a collection of various research into the issue of terrorism, but this particular piece discusses specific issues which impede this research. First and foremost according to Ranstorp is that people tend to think that focusing on past incidences of terrorism will allow people to predict future attacks. While past trends might indicate potential threats or groups which are threatening, there is no way to use trending data to suggest where and when another attack might occur. This can only be done by examining current information and collecting data by currently acting groups. Instead of focusing on outmoded methods, Ranstorp believes more attention should be given to the social and communication aspects of terrorist organizations.

In order to find ways to combat terrorism in the future, there should be increased focus on research into currently functioning organizations, how they communicate, and how they can access dangerous technologies. In this day and age, the world is changing rapidly and while we can learn about our own country's mistakes from past terrorist attacks, there is little else that can be gained in terms of combating terrorism or in predicting future attacks. By taking Ranstorp's suggestions seriously, emphasis can be placed on identification and proper research methodologies, thereby performing efficient work into prevention.

Sinclair, S.J. & LoCicero, A. (2007). Fearing future terrorism: development, validation, and psychometric testing of the terrorism catastrophizing scale (TCS). Traumatology. Sage. (13: 4). 75-90. Samuel Sinclair and Alice LoCicero, in this study, have devised a scale by which potential psychological damage to terrorism can be measured. This is an important aspect of terror management theory (TMT). Terrorism, by the very definition of the word, are acts which are designed to inflict terror and… [read more]

Combatting Future Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


He therefore notes that the prison departments have a noble duty of promoting positive influence with a lot of zeal as well as facilitating the transition of prisoners back to the mainstream society with great innovation. These correctional facilities within the country can act as a special and effective venue for ensuring that the convicted terrorists are de-radicalized and also… [read more]

Terrorism in the 21St Century Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,694 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … social issue of terrorism, which has exacerbated the overall safety and security of the citizens across the world. Over time, where people have modernized their lifestyle, terrorist activities, at the same time, have only escalated to paramount heights. The major causes that have augmented the terrorist activities have widely been discussed in the dissertation. Moreover, the adverse and… [read more]

Investigative Task Force. Include Information Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … investigative task force. Include information regarding the structure of a multi-agency investigative task force to include: manpower, information sharing, jurisdiction, participation, vehicle assignments, equipment, training, arrest powers, and classified information.

The role of an investigative task force is: to ensure that all resources involving intelligence gathering and investigations are effectively focused towards the common objective that the task… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Domestic Terrorism

As the world evolves, so do its problems. For instance, on the one hand, the it community has come up with new gadgets and applications to improve the quality of our life, but on the other hand, the population becomes more sedentary and the incidence of cardio-vascular diseases increased. Another major threat of the modern day society is… [read more]

International Terrorism Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


International Terrorism

The text offers three sources of (or reasons for) violence in the Middle East. Which of the three sources do you think is most responsible, if any? Explain your answer. Also, given these sources, what do you think can and/or should be done to secure a lasting peace in the Middle East?

The answer in my opinion is… [read more]

War on Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


War on Terrorism:

Though it has been used since the beginning of recorded history, it is relatively hard to define terrorism. However, terrorism is a planned use of illegitimate violence to instill fear, targeted to intimidate government or societies in the hunt of goals that are generally political or religiously motivated by sub-national groups or undercover agents. Terrorism can also… [read more]

Influence of Terrorism in Yemen and Its Affect on U.S. Interests Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … terrorism in Yemen and it's affect on U.S. Interests

The influence of terrorism in Yemen and it's effect on U.S. Interests

The Republic of Yemen is believed to be an essential element in the international fight against terrorism, given that the Al Qaeda faction has members on the country's territory. Authorities in Yemen became concerned regarding terrorism particularly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. From then on, the Yemenite system focused on collaborating with the U.S. In removing terrorism from the country. Even with the fact that numerous terrorists were either captured or killed as a result of this relationship, there still are a large number of terrorists in the country. In spite of the success experienced by the Yemenite war on terror, terrorism has progressed in the country and has presently become one of the main terrorist threats to the world and to the U.S. In particular.

Recent events have shown that Yemen is not a country to be ignored when it comes to global security, with terrorism apparently thriving in the south of the Arab Peninsula. Osama bin Laden is especially passionate about keeping his forces in Yemen strong and there are a large number of terrorist individuals believed to have connections with Al Qaeda in the country. International forces have concentrated on removing the terrorist threat from Yemen. The country is believed to hold terrorists involved in the attack of the U.S.S. Cole on October 12, 2000 (Thackrah, 2004, p. 11). It is also very probable that the terrorist that were involved in the 9/11 attacks had received instructions in Yemen (Thackrah, 2004, p. 216).

Because of the influence it has in Yemen, Al Qaeda stands as a serious threat for any American individuals that are situated in the country. The terrorist group is believed to have planned the bombing of the U.S. Yemenite embassy, influencing U.S. forces in the territory to stay in a state of constant alert (Thackrah, 2004, p. 231).

Conditions in Yemen have demonstrated that the international fight against terrorism should not relate only to Afghanistan and Iraq. Last Christmas' (December 25, 2009) failed bombing attempt in Detroit have raised public awareness regarding terrorism and how it is still represents a threat to the U.S. Matters became critical when Al Qaeda individuals claimed that the group had been responsible for the attempted bombing. U.S. authorities had apparently been aware that a terrorist attack was likely to occur during the period. Also, authorities were informed that the terrorist involved was a Nigerian individual who was trained in Yemen (Spencer, 2010, p. 12).

Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the individual responsible for the bombing attempt, received instructions in Yemen, most probably during the time he attended the Iman University. Consequent to interrogating the terrorist, authorities found that Umar had not been the only individual receiving training meant to assist him in destroying U.S. planes. The FBI was informed concerning how numerous terrorists in Yemen are instructed with the purpose of committing missions similar… [read more]

Effects of Counter-Terrorism Legislations on Societies and Civil Rights Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Counter-Terrorism legislations on societies and civil rights

Counter terrorism legislation relates in particular to different measures taken by the state justified by it as a proactive measure against potential terrorist attacks.

The issue of terrorism has been a widely debated subject after the 9/11 events. However, terrorism is not a new subject and nor the legislation to prevent it. More precisely, terrorism defined as an insurgent action against the well being of the state is known in history since the 19th century. Thus, in France, the 19th century terrorist actions not only attracted the discontent of the population but also offered the first reasons for enacting anti-terrorist laws.

Among the first modern terrorists is Auguste Vallain in 1892 France (Wardlaw,1989) when he threw a bomb in the Chamber of Deputies. That incident represented one of the first reasons for which the French state decided to pass laws that would prevent further such events. In this sense, the first counter terrorism laws were in France related to the freedom of speech and assembly. This was largely due to the fact that France had had a well established tradition in the art of revolution and political terrorism.

Until the 20th century, there was little talk if any on the issue of terrorism. It was more a matter of insurgency related to revolutionary purposes. However, even so, actions were taken against the press or the assemblies forming in different areas of the cities throughout the country.

The 20th century saw an increase in terrorist practices largely due to the Cold War and the political practices that developed throughout. More precisely, the 70s saw a new type of terrorism, "the new terrorism" who some argue that it is the result of the Iranian Revolution (Juergensmeyer, 2000).

It is rather hard to ascertain whether the war on terror staged by the United States is a real war or is related to the actual desire of the state to infringe the actions of the society and to limit their rights. Terrorism is not a very concrete, visible action. The only visible parts are the actual results which include attacks, deaths, and misfortunes. Therefore, the war on terror is as well an invisible endeavor. Indeed, some results are visible such as the capture of…… [read more]

Terrorism in Academic, Military, and Civilian Discussions Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  6 pages (1,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



In academic, military, and civilian discussions about terrorism, nothing strikes fear and dread into the hearts and minds of the participants like the thought of a small, splinter group purchasing and delivering a nuclear weapon. While many experts see this as an unlikely action, primarily due to the complexity required to deliver such a weapon; partially due to the… [read more]

Lone Extremist Terrorist Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Terrorism -- the Lone Extremist Threat

What influence does the group with which the "Lone Extremist" is affiliated, or has been in the past, have on the individual actor?

Traditionally, lone extremists either operated largely in isolation and seclusion, but to the extent they were influenced by extremist groups, they typically maintained direct connections to those groups. For example, Tim McVeigh maintained loose connections with domestic radicals but operated in isolation with only a single accomplice (Schmalleger, 2009). Meanwhile, Buford Furrow Jr. who attacked a Jewish community center with an automatic assault rifle in 1999 was a member of the Aryan Nation. On one hand, he acted alone in his attack; on the other hand, there is absolutely no doubt that his association with the group encouraged and intensified his anti-Semitism and emboldened him with respect to carrying out the attack (Schmalleger, 2009). Perhaps the best example of a genuinely lone terrorist was Ted Kaczynski, the infamous Unabomber who perpetrated attacks on individuals and organizations over the course of two decades. E worked entirely alone and lived in complete isolation without any contact with others until he demanded that his Manifesto be published in the New York Times and the Washington Post (Schmalleger, 2009).

Today, the availability of the Internet medium means that lone extremists can operate in even greater isolation an anonymity until they strike because they can maintain a more remote connection as well as preserving their anonymity in the process if they choose to do so (Schmalleger, 2009). The cyber medium is likely to play an increasingly important role in that regard, particularly in connection with radical Islamic extremism and anti-American terrorism (Dyer, McCoy, Rodriguez, et al., 2007).

Is he or she persuaded by the group or by a particular individual in the group?

Generally, the profile of the lone terrorist…… [read more]

Homeland Defense Homeland Security Is the Actual Course Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Homeland Defense


Domestic counter terrorism

Domestic counter terrorism refers to any efforts by United States law enforcement and government agencies to detect, prevent, or cope with real or threatened act of terrorism against Americans or the American government. As a result of the United States' failure to prevent the 9/11 attacks, domestic efforts have increased dramatically and the government has created the Department of Homeland Security and National Counterterrorism Center; agencies that can devote 100% of their time to detection and prevention efforts (Treverton, 2008).

Border and transportation security

The successful implementation of border and transportation security is complex and challenging. From arresting terrorists before they reach the U.S. border to exercising emergency response procedures on the site of a terrorist attack, the defense of American borders and transportation systems requires many levels of complicated service. For example, cargo shipped to the United States from overseas will go through multiple people, organizations, check points and conveyances, and require "up to 40" separate documentations (Lake, Robinson, & Seghetti, 2005).

National strategies for homeland security

National strategies implemented post-9/11 to detect and prevent terrorist acts against the United States are vast and varied. Some examples include: "denying terrorists access to the material, expertise, and other enabling capabilities required to develop" weapons of mass destruction (WMD); preventing terrorists from utilizing legitimate transportation routes to gain access to U.S. vulnerabilities; screening people to detect suspected and potential terrorists through standards for driver licenses, airline passenger information, foreign exchange student policies, immigration, visas, and general travel; screening all cargo, freight, imports, and exports; garnering aid from all law enforcement bureaus and communities across the nation; and focusing on the protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (Homeland Security Council, 2007).

Homeland Security and Police Homeland Security Act of 2002

In 2002, the United States government established the Department of Homeland Security in response to 9/11. This executive department was introduced and described in the Homeland Security and Police Homeland Security Act of 2002. According to that Act, the mission of the department is: "to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism; and to minimize the damage, and assist in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States" (U.S. Homeland Security, 2002).

The USA Patriot Act

Now referred to as the "Patriot Act," this piece of legislation was enacted post-9/11 and has been a subject of controversy. The Act is said to "improve counter terrorism efforts in several significant ways," by allowing law enforcement to take advantage of existing tools used for the fights against organized crime and drug trafficking (Department of Justice, 2002). Some examples include the use of: general surveillance methods, roving wiretaps, "delayed notification search warrants," and business record investigations (Department of Justice, 2002).

History of Homeland Security

Before 9/11, homeland security efforts were very spread out across different agencies and departments (Homeland Security History Office, 2008). In order to consolidate these efforts to make them more effective,… [read more]

Terrorism in Afghanistan Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Terrorism in Afghanistan: A Critical Review of the Literature

This paper provides a critical review of two articles concerning terrorism in Afghanistan, including the respective international relations theory used by the authors. A summary of both articles is followed by an analysis of the theoretical approaches applied to the situation in Afghanistan at the time of writing. Finally, this paper provides an evaluation of the usefulness of both theories in analyzing terrorism in Afghanistan.

"Saving Afghanistan" by B. Rubin. Although it has not yet become an international basket-case, Rubin suggests that unless the United States reassesses is approach to the war in Afghanistan soon, the country will likely become a failed state where Taliban-sponsored terrorists have completely free rein once again. For example, Rubin emphasizes that, "For decades -- not only since 2001 -- U.S. policymakers have underestimated the stakes in Afghanistan. They continue to do so today. A mere course correction will not be enough to prevent the country from sliding into chaos" (2006, p. 57). Compounding the problem is the foreign policy approach that has been applied to the situation in Afghanistan following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In this regard, Rubin maintains that despite the American and NATO forces deployed to the country, there remains far too few boots on the ground and the foreign aid needed to reverse the growing perception among Afghanis and their neighbors that the country is not a high priority for the United States. In addition, Rubin argues that the U.S. has consistently failed to accurately gauge the situation in Afghanistan as evinced by its "pandering" to Pakistani leaders, focusing its military resources on Iraq, devoted far too little foreign aid to Afghanistan and failing to follow-up its short-term gains following the withdrawal of Soviet troops and the subsequent military operations by the U.S.-led coalition that drove Al-Qaeda into Pakistan. The Taliban has taken advantage of these failures by consolidating its position in the mountainous border regions between Afghanistan and Pakistan and has continued to actively recruit new insurgents to its cause. Indeed, the dire economic circumstances faced by the Afghani people make the country ripe for increased Islamic fundamentalist influence, and the series of broken promises of more support and resources by the United States have made the country's leadership untenable. Rubin maintains that both short-term transitional initiatives are required as well as a long-term commitment to creating an effective state in Afghanistan. In sum, Rubin posits that, "U.S. policymakers have misjudged Afghanistan, misjudged Pakistan, and, most of all, misjudged their own capacity to carry out major strategic change on the cheap" (2006, p. 78).

Article No. 2: "Market civilization and its clash with terror" by M. Mousseau. This author argues that the war on terrorism in Afghanistan is doomed to failure unless and until the United States can "win the hearts and minds" of the Afghani people. In this regard, Mousseau maintains that the main objective of the war on terrorism is not to kill all of the… [read more]

NATO's New Threat Assessments Asymmetric Threats and Global Terrorism Essay

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NATO and Terrorism

Now that NATO is involving itself more and more in the field of terrorism in Afghanistan and elsewhere, is NATO really equipped to become involved in terrorism?

Tomas Valasek, Senior Analyst for the Center for Defense Information in Washington, D.C., wrote that after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, and shortly thereafter when the U.S. went into Afghanistan to destroy the Taliban, NATO was "…nowhere in sight."

Valasek explains that the 19 allies in NATO had spent "decades planning for jointly defending one another from attack" but when the U.S. got into Afghanistan, NATO was asked not to become involved by the Bush Administration. "Some observers say that NATO's role as a fighting alliance is over," Valasek wrote in 2001. Lord Robertson, head of NATO, said at that time that the U.S. "…needs capable and effective European forces with which to cooperate, or on which to rely in peace support mission where the Alliance as a whole is not engaged" (Valasek, 2001, p. 3).

Meantime, the Bush decision -- in keeping with his administration's willingness to "go it alone" vis-a-vis wars against terrorists -- to keep NATO out of Afghanistan did not stand the test of time. Soon enough, NATO was involved, and Prasad P. Rane (writing in the journal Strategic Analysis) notes that in order to get into the fight NATO invoked Article 5 "…for the first time in the history of the Alliance" and declared that an attack on one of its members is indeed an attack on all NATO member nations (Rane, 2007, p. 73). In 2003 NATO took over the International Security and Assistance Force (ISAF) and subsequent to that NATO has had a "growing involvement" in Afghanistan. Rane writes (p. 74) that NATO's "…understanding of counter-terrorism is different from that of the U.S." due to differences "within and reservations of some of the NATO members."

On page 82 Rane writes that NATO's development of counter-terrorism strategies has "…required a fundamental restructuring" of its organization in "both spatial and temporal terms" and the implication is that NATO is not fully up to speed…… [read more]

Terrorism Concepts Essay

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Terrorism Concepts

no answer available; no author "Dr. Hanle" could be found, either

Mao's first stage of revolutionary mobilization is the organization and consolidation of base areas, preserving certain enclaves (usually in areas that were hard for outsiders to reach, isolated and/or with rough surrounding terrain). Then, single-mission attacks meant to terrorize as well as obtain resources would be carried out to allow for progressive expansion. Finally, the enemy would be engaged in all-out warfare and destroyed.

During consolidation, terrorism is necessary in order to obtain political support, and to dissuade local citizens that might not side with the revolutionaries from becoming involved on the wrong side. Before enough power is obtained by the revolutionaries, terrorism is also the only real means of making attacks that have a real psychological effect on morale.


Terrorism is meant to shatter the cohesion between the government and the populace as well as the social cohesion of the populace, but the political cohesion of the populace is a target not for disintegration, but rather for strengthening following realignment towards the revolutionaries.


Aerial bombardment is impersonal and directly tactical. Terrorist assassinations are symbolic, stirring passions as well as creating tactical advantages. They also deliberately undermine the power structures and roles that exist in the political structure, rather than becoming a new expected part of that structure as can aerial bombardments.


The humanitarian efforts practiced by Marines made them targets both for suspicion by the Viet Cong and provided a camouflage for the possibility of terrorist attacks, such as through the hiding of explosives that would target these humanitarian-minded Marines.


Terrorism binds the cohesion of the terrorist organization by providing symbolic evidence of progress as well as real actions that can be easily observed and used as recruiting tools. As public displays, they are things that all members of an organization can share in the credit for.


Wars fought by terrorists are wars of ideals, at least ostensibly, though often the guerilla warfare that they pursue is in reality more concerned with generating profits and the amassing of resources and arms for protection of the terrorist organization's leaders more than they are about the principles and injustices spoken of to the press and foreign governments.


Mao asserted that political mobilization was the most fundamental condition for winning wars.


Mao believed that the military force was also necessarily a political unit during revolutionary war, and that it could not be kept separate from the masses due to this political connection. The military was the force that could truly give revolutionary power, or at least the appearance of true revolutionary power, into the hands of the people, and in this manner served as a rallying point and a force of collective action and collective accomplishment.

Class 6


One of the principle differences between state sponsored terrorism during the Cold War and now is that while many terrorist groups were understood to be proxies for state militaries then, now the terrorist… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism Thesis

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¶ … domestic terrorism. In what ways is it functionally different from international terrorism? Also, distinguish between domestic terrorism from above vs. domestic terrorism from below. Give examples.

Domestic terrorism is an act of terrorism that occurs on U.S. soil and is perpetrated by a U.S. citizen. Domestic terror can occur outside of the U.S., but the terrorism needs to… [read more]

Terrorism Definitions of Terrorism: The Federal Bureau Thesis

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Definitions of terrorism: The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) calls terrorism "The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, a civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives (www.fbi.gov). Under the U.S. Law Code Title 22, Chapter 38, Para. 2656f (d) terrorism means "…premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents" (http://terrorism.about.com) (Zalman). And according to Princeton University's definition (http://Wordnetweb.princton.edu) terrorism is "the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature." I think the Princeton University version is the best because it is most succinct and uses language everyone can understand. In fact the threat of terrorism is frightening, and Princeton University was the only definition to relate that fact.

TWO: How do terrorists justify their actions? "The goal of these extremists, as they have announced again and again," an article in the journal Commentary explains, "is nothing less than to restore a unified Muslim ummah (community)" (Marshall 2005). This new "community" the terrorists seek will be ruled by a "new caliphate," organized to "wage jihad against the rest of the world, and, above all, governed by what they regard as the immutable divine law declared by God to Muhammad -- the shari'a," Marshall continues.

The "shari'a" part of the Qur'an is where, in the minds of radicals, the religious basis of Islam joins with social and political dynamics. The shari'a actually deals with "matters of crime and judicial procedure," Marshall explains. Those extreme versions used by terrorists in the Islamic community justify jihad based on their belief that non-Muslims are either second-class citizens or non-existent, and the "rule of God" calls for killing them, according to Marshall, who is "senior fellow" at Freedom House's Center for Religious Freedom, and the author or editor of twenty books on religion and politics.

THREE: Structure of terror groups. According to the "Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century," the al-Queda (also spelled al-Qaeda) terrorist organization is a "loosely affiliated networks" rather than a hierarchical structure. Group leadership is certainly challenged by the fact that an individual with "minimal or no direct connection" to al-Queda and with "minimal training" can on his own, attempt terrorist actions. Richard Reid is an example of that problem (he attempted to bomb a commercial airliner in 2001). The challenge for leaders in terrorist groups is keeping everyone on the same page without giving away their location (cell phone transmissions can be intercepted). These groups are not typical armies that can be all in one place at the same time to receive orders and training, rather they form "cells" and sometimes blend into communities, such as a 9/11 terrorists did in Germany and Florida. This is also why law enforcement agencies have a difficult time locating and killing terrorists. And security personnel have a hard time arresting terrorists who… [read more]

Hundreds of Definitions of Terrorism Essay

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The only definition from the ones enumerated above that specifies the nature of targets is that used by the Department of State: "noncombatant."

The definition used by the State Department is the less satisfactory from the four because of its exclusion of noncombatant forces and differentiation between national and subnational groups. Targets such as unarmed soldiers that became victims of violence for the purpose of creating terror are thus excluded from this definition. The distinction authors of terrorist acts and agents of terrorist acts needs further explaining because the definition is specifying the authors as being subnational or clandestine agents.

2. In spite of their criminal behavior, the terrorists are convinced of the morality of their acts, being taught inside their organizations that violence is the right tool to reach their political goals. Terrorist leaders that come under several categories, posing as different types of leaders, work through indoctrination, claiming to prepare their groups or organizations for idealistic purposes that target the well being of a majority or an interest group even if it were at the expenses of a minority or groups that are not included in their vision of idealistic or messianic purposes. Other terrorist groups are simply driven by materialistic purposes and therefore they are justifying their criminal behavior classified as terrorism for the sole purpose of material gain. Most of the actors may also use their previous state of extreme poverty as a justification for taking away or innocent lives.

3. The network of a terror group is taking full advantage by the advanced means of communication that do not require its members to meet in person. Some groups have classical hierarchical structures, involving a leader that leads its organization through different hierarchical organizational layers. Some other groups have numerous cells involving even individual persons. Others are completely lacking a leader, their activity being based on communication through all cells. Each type of group organization has its advantages and disadvantages. In the case of the classical organizational structure, the potential problem may be the loss of information at certain level of the group. The groups organized in numerous smaller individual cells that have greater autonomy are less endangered in their activities if one or several of the cells are lost, but they are also less likely to establish a well formed strategy to reach their primary goals. A terrorist group needs two essential tools in order to achieve its goals: knowledge and resources. Depending of the strategies it adopts, it can rely on a type…… [read more]

Trash Covers Represent an Excellent Term Paper

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According to recent research, terrorists can be tried under the provisions of the Military Commissions Act of 2009 -- legislation passed by the U.S. Government that specifies the rights of terror suspects (or an "unlawful enemy combatant") on trial. Under the Act, terror suspects may not employ a civil defense lawyer "unless the attorney has been determined to be eligible for access to classified information that is classified at the level Secret or higher" (Military Commissions Act, 2009). Terror suspects can be found guilty by a "two-thirds majority of the members of the commission present at the time the vote is taken" rather than a unanimous vote by a jury of peers (Military Commissions Act, 2009). The Act denies habeas corpus, the right of a prisoner to be asked to be brought before a court to establish if he is being held lawfully. Denying habeas corpus logically denies the terror suspect the right to counsel.

For terrorist cases in which the Military Commissions Act is not employed, security is necessarily tighter because of the sensitivity of evidence involved, and the consequences of a possible leak; terrorist organizations can use the information for their own cause. Sensitivity of evidence also leads to trials where juries are altogether forgone (Donohue, 2007). Similarly, the use of a jury in terror cases limits the amount of information, due to its sensitivity, that the State can provide as evidence (Donohue, 2007). Compared to a criminal case, jury tampering is more likely in a terrorist trial; organized terrorist groups have a stronger capability to influence jurors (Donohue, 2007). Moreover, juries "may be sympathetic to those engaged in violence and acquit the guilty... [w]here nationalist conflict rages, as it does in Northern Ireland" (also known as jury nullification) (Donohue, 2007). Jurors can also be influenced by propaganda, originating from either side.

The above aspects of terrorist trials create a vast difference to conventional criminal trials. Conventional criminals are allowed habeas corpus, plea bargaining and counsel. Propaganda related to conventional court cases rarely if never exists. Jury nullification is less likely because the issues are less sensational, and jury tampering is also less likely because conventional criminals generally have much less ability to influence jurors than powerful terrorist organizations.

Works Cited

Abadie, Alberto. (2006). Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. The American

Economic Review, 96(2), 50-56. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034613

Barkun, Michael. (1997). Religion and the Racist Right: the Origins of the Christian Identity

Movement. The University of North Carolina Press.

Donohue, Laura K. (2007). Terrorism and Trial by Jury: The Vices and Virtues of British and American Criminal Law. The Stanford Law Review, 59, 1321 -- 1362. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/24795244/TERRORISM-AND-TRIAL-BY-JURY-THE-VICES-AND-VIRTUES-OF-BRITISH-AND-AMERICAN-CRIMINAL-LAW

Evans, Christopher M. (2002). Terrorism on Trial: The Presidents Constitutional Authority to Order the Prosecution of Suspected Terrorists by Military Commission. Duke Law

Journal, 51(6), 1831-1856. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1373217

Military Commissions Act (2009, October 26). Retrieved January 7, 2010 from the U.S. House

Of Representatives Committee on Rules:


Quarles, Chester L. (2004). Christian Identity: The… [read more]

Global War on Terrorism Thesis

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Global Terror War

Policy Advice for Confronting the Global Terrorism Threat

The threat of terrorism to national security is as high as it has ever been. The scale and sophistication of the attacks which extremist militant groups have levied against their enemies in the West indicates that no nation which aligns itself with the goals of western democracy and capitalism… [read more]

Australia Terror Qs Australia Terrorism Questions Thesis

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Australia Terror Qs

Australia Terrorism Questions:

It is difficult to say that its involvement in trade across the East Timor has fully benefited Australia. Certainly, this has provided it with a unilateral dominance in affairs which provides it petroleum trade at a premium to other nations. Its ability to help Timor develop its oil infrastructure in the aftermath of war with Indonesia serves as a benefit, but its involvement in the private exploitation of Timor's resources has made it a target of terrorist groups. This was one stated motive for the Bali attack.

Though it is true that the strain of higher environmental laws might make it more costly for developing nations to conduct business operations and maintain factories, it is also true that the weakness of environmental laws in such nations has become a free pass for major corporate polluters from developed nations. It seems it would be more beneficial for the Protocol to apply to these nations at least where foreign outsourcing is concerned.

3. A major personal observation is that summer weather has become increasingly intensified by what most evidence suggests is a genuine pattern of global climate change. The already distinct dryness that dominates Australia's landscape is palpable as rainfalls appear to be fewer and further between than they were even during my childhood.


Security was only the nominal goal of a commitment to war that hinged almost entirely on Australia's attention to its relationship with the United States. Based on the U.S. claim, since then generally rendered false, that Iraq represented an immediate threat to the global community, it applied political pressure to partners such as Australia in order to extend this false claim.

5 . The refugee issue would be one of many which exposed the Howard government as a regressively neoconservative regime bent on aggressively reflecting the humanitarian failures of the U.S. And U.K. The refusal on John Howard's part to establish a policy of asylum for refugees arriving on boats even as it used military means to support the goals of democracy throughout the world would be inconsistent with the commitments made to the world community through U.N. And WTO membership.

6 . One could certainly argue that the Rudd government's policy is responsible for the current scenario in which refugees are increasingly viewing Australia as a viable avenue for asylum…… [read more]

Terrorism Now, a White Male Sitting Essay

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Now, a white male sitting in church on Sunday is shot and killed by two Muslim men with black hoods over their faces who believe the man they killed ordered the kidnapping of one of the men's wives, which was unsuccessful. Is it perceived initially as terrorism?

What did we all think immediately after learning of the Oklahoma City bombing that was eventually blamed on Timothy McVeigh? We thought it was an act of terrorism. And it was.

The point of this exercise is that we do not know what the definition of terrorism is. How is it defined for us? Mostly, by the media. The web, TV, radio, newspapers, and magazines all tell us whether a particular act of violence is terrorism -- in almost every case -- whether that is true or not. In this way, media has taken a nebulous, vague, all-encompassing term and made it into what…… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism: Difficult Research Proposal

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Domestic Terrorism: Difficult to Define

Following such events as the Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11, 2001 attacks, the topic of domestic and international terrorism has been widely considered in the field of criminal justice, as well as in the media. Through a discussion of domestic and international terrorism, their similarities and differences, the history of domestic terrorism, and… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism and Incident Management Research Proposal

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Domestic Terrorism Issues

The Turner Diaries and Racist/Anti-Government Groups:

William Pierce published the Turner Diaries in 1978 in which he presented a fictionalized account of the radical overthrow of the U.S. federal government. The principal ideas promoted by Pierce were the Nazism-based ideology that the Jews are responsible for destroying the United States and corrupting international relations among nations. The Turner Diaries inspired several major acts of radical domestic terrorism, including extensive robberies, other for-profit schemes, and the bombing of synagogues perpetrated by The Order. Timothy McVeigh also promoted the book before his infamous 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma federal building.

Christian Identity Beliefs and Philosophy:

In general, the Christian Identity movement espouses the same virulent anti-Semitic and racist philosophies promoted by William Pierce. Specifically, they believe that Jews are the offspring of Satan and that the non-white races are all subhuman. The Christian Identity movement includes many radical domestic terrorist organizations such as the Phineas Brotherhood, Posse Comitatus, Aryan Nations, The Order, Aryan Brotherhood, The Covenant, The Sword, and The Arm of the Lord.

The Decline of Radical Patriot/Hate Groups:

The four main reasons for the decline in radical domestic patriot/hate groups are: (1) the increased risk of criminal prosecution; (2) new legislation at the state level that criminalized many hate group and paramilitary activities; (3) the retirement of many original members and leaders in the community and a shift to online media for hate groups; and increased risk of civil liability for…… [read more]

Terrorism Has Posed a Threat for Society Research Proposal

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Terrorism has posed a threat for society ever since the early ages when people have resorted to committing crimes against other people with the belief that such an act would better their condition. There are several factors responsible for influencing certain people in performing such criminal activities. In spite of the fact that it has been proved that terrorism brings… [read more]

Loss of Civil Liberties Due to International Terrorism Research Proposal

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Terrorism and Loss of Civil Liberties

Terrorism and Civil Liberties

The aftermath of September 11 has been a controversial and challenging period for the U.S. Ethnic profiling and speculation without any accountability have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is… [read more]

International Terrorism Violence in the Middle East Essay

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International Terrorism

Violence in the Middle East:

The principle cause of perpetual violence in the Middle East is the extremist attitudes prevailing amongst Palestinian Arabs and other Arab states and militant groups toward the nation of Israel. Still today, large Arab nations like Iran and militant Islamic

organizations in positions of power throughout the Palestinian territories maintain formal

declarations of… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism the September 11, 2001 Research Proposal

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Domestic Terrorism

The September 11, 2001, attacks in New York and Washington were the most destructive ever on U.S. soil. But law-enforcement officials have also long struggled with a range of U.S.-based terrorist groups. Domestic extremists include hate groups motivated by ultra-conservative ideals that are often anti-Semitic and racially motivated; eco-terrorists who use violence to campaign for greater environmental responsibility;… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism International Terrorism Issues Essay

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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism


Compare and contrast several definitions of terrorism. Include definitions employed by government agencies as well as by scholars. Which definition do you find to be most accurate or most useful? Why? Also, by extension, why do you find certain definitions deficient?

According to the U.S. State Department, Title 22 of U.S. Code section… [read more]

United States Terrorism - Operations and Training Thesis

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United States Terrorism - Operations and Training, Interactions with the Media, and Domestic Terrorism

Introduction and Brief History

Long before September 11, 2001, terrorism was a sore subject in the United States. Dating back to the 1800s and the Old West with its bands of outlaws, renegade Native American bands, and citizen militias, terrorist attacks made themselves a monumental part… [read more]

Terrorism Reached a New Low the Morning Term Paper

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terrorism reached a new low the morning of September 11, 2001 when perpetrators used three hijacked commercial jets as weapons of mass destruction. Yet terrorists had been plotting against the United States and its allies long before that date and continue to plague freedom-loving citizens of the world. What the events of September 11 marked was the beginning of a new war on terror, a new definition of warfare that would rely less on traditional battlefronts and more and more on technology and advanced intelligence-gathering. The terrorist attacks of September 11 also brought to attention the severity of the threat that fundamentalist Islam had been posing for decades. Until September 11, 2001 that threat had been underestimated or at least it had been in the mainstream media. The new terrorism is characterized by increased sophistication, mainly in terms of technology and communications.

Bin Laden's appeal among conservative Muslims is extensive, giving rise to a grassroots movement that foments and fuels the terrorist movement. Alive or dead, Bin Laden is a powerful symbol and provides a figurehead around which sympathizers can gather. The massive following charismatic leaders command remains one of the most frightful aspects of terrorism, which might be the greatest problem Americans will face at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

The methods and modes of communications terrorists use range from the conventional to the creative including the Internet and the media. Not only do terrorists rely on internal networks and coded communications but also on a reliable means to disseminate a core message of hatred to a large number of existing and potential new followers. The new terrorism would not exist were it not for the wide range of telecommunications available. Technology has changed the ways terrorists operate, conduct their business, network, and generate public support.

Technology also provides the primary tool for committing acts of terror like the destruction of the World Trade Center. By networking with a geographically fragmented group of people using cellular phones and other standard devices, leaders of terrorist groups can communicate easily. Being able to hijack planes required some knowledge of aviation, which was gleaned by attending traditional flight schools in the United States. Although some of the methods used by the Al Qaeda group on September 11 seemed primitive such as carrying box cutters onto the planes and using them as weapons, overall the methods used to carry out the attack were admirably sophisticated. For example, the effort was well-organized and required systematic communications between participants. Moreover, the participants needed to keep track of flight information and other pertinent data that would assist them in carrying out the attacks. Every step of the process was premeditated,…… [read more]

Terrorism What Was Once Seen on Television Term Paper

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What was once seen on television as part of temporary news broadcasts is now more and more present to even become a global threat. Terrorism is "the threat or use of violence, often against the civilian population, to achieve political or social ends, to intimidate opponents, or to publicize grievances" (the Columbia Encyclopedia, 2007). The most jeopardizing feature of… [read more]

Homeland Security Effects of Terrorism Term Paper

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Homeland Security

Effects of Terrorism on Homeland Security and Local Law Enforcement

The Homeland Security Program is supposed to work hand-in-hand with local law enforcement officials to instill national security and protection from the acts of terrorists. If one looks for a broad definition of Homeland Security, this definition would include air, land, and sea defense of the United States,… [read more]

War on Terrorism Term Paper

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War on Terrorism

Terrorism is one of the most foundational threats that the world has ever seen. Terrorism is also a difficult threat as it is rarely if ever linked directly to a source nation, that has an official role in terrorist acts or movements. For this reason the "war on terror" is a war unlike any other war. The… [read more]

Global War on Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … History of Terrorism

Historical depictions of warfare often lead one to think that war, especially as conducted on European soil, was an event of rules and engagement and strategy. Conducting war has been described as an "art." Famous men throughout history have become famous because they were perceived to be great strategists; Napoleon Bonaparte, William the Conqueror, Alexander… [read more]

Counter Terrorism You Are a Senior Counterterrorism Term Paper

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Counter Terrorism

You are a senior counterterrorism official for the federal government in a large American city. Your city has a significant Arab population -- including both Arab-American citizens and immigrants. To what degree are you going to focus your efforts on infiltrating that community within your city? Are you going to send agents to attend Mosques? Are you going… [read more]

Effects of Terrorism Term Paper

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The Effects of Terrorism on the Global Economy since Sept. 11th

Without question, terrorism has dramatic and significant impacts. The human cost can be high, and the damage can be extensive depending on the target and the method. However, it is unclear to some degree whether or not terrorism has a palpable impact on the global economy. Certainly, there… [read more]

Relationship Between Terrorism Organized Crime Term Paper

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Terrorism has become the bane of our time and terrorists have undermined the confidence and the security of people all over the world. Particularly, the aftermath of September 11 has created a constant fear among people world over. With the sprouting of so many terrorist organizations and the brutal methods of attack employed by them, it is imperative that we… [read more]

International Terrorism Term Paper

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International Terrorism

Terrorism is widely considered to be an increasingly complex phenomenon and the events that keep the headlines each day come to prove this assumption. It has been rather difficult for both politicians and scholars to agree on a common definition of terrorism precisely due to its complexity and the eventual legal implications such a theoretical identification would have.… [read more]

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