Study "Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays 551-605

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Understanding Homeland Security Essay

… Understanding the Core Challenges to American Homeland Security
Since the attacks on September 11th, which felled the World Trade
Towers and left a gaping hole in the edifice of the Pentagon, it has become
almost clich? to observe that this… [read more]


France's Homeland Security Challenges and the Policies Thesis

… France's homeland security challenges and the policies and actions of that nation in response to these issues.

The homeland security and counterterrorism procedures were pushed into overdrive after the September 11, 2001 attacks on U.S. soil and the following terrorist… [read more]


Al-Qaeda and Their Attack Thesis

… Al-Qaeda and Their Attack on the United States

On September 11th, 2001, Americans across the country added a new name to their common vocabulary -- Al-Qaeda. As the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center crumbled, the Pentagon smoldered, and a plane lay embedded in the middle of a Pennsylvania field, it became abundantly clear that America had a new enemy. With this realization came new questions. Who is Al-Qaeda? What ideology do they follow and what are their religious beliefs? What were Al-Qaeda's motivations for their attacks on America on September 11th? Lastly, who does Al-Qaeda consider to be their enemy?

Al-Qaeda Overview, Ideology and Religious Beliefs:

Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaeda network formed from a decade-long conflict in Afghanistan between the years 1979 and 1989. When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Afghan Islamist extremists, from around the world, came together to fight in the jihad against the invading Soviets. One of these extremists was a then 23-year-old Muslim from Saudi Arabia, then named Usama bin Ladin. He was the son of a wealthy construction magnate who had become devoutly religious following the sermons of Abdullah Azzam. Although bin Laden generously funded the jihad against the Soviets, bin Laden's plans were more global.

bin Laden established the 'Golden Chain', an international financial support network, that would eventually help fund Al-Qaeda proper. Using the money acquired from Saudi Arabia and Persian Gulf states, bin Laden and his religious mentor, Azzam, created a 'Bureau of Services'. These services helped bring in recruits for the Afghanistan jihad. In addition, the United States and Saudia Arabia were giving billions of dollars in secret assistance to rebel forces in Afghanistan

, further funding the organization that would evolve into Al-Qaeda of today.

In early 1989, as the Soviets retreated from Afghanistan, bin Laden and Azzam made the decision that their organization should remain intact. They established Al-Qaeda as the general headquarters for future jihad. However, not all was a differing opinion as to the direction of Al-Qaeda between bin Laden and Azzam. Azzam wanted to continue to fight in Afghanistan until a true Islamist government was in place. bin Laden, on the other hand, thought Al-Qaeda should be training for jihad anywhere globally. bin Laden took over full control of Al-Qaeda in 1989, following Azzam's murder, setting Al-Qaeda's path in stone.

Al-Qaeda's ideological and religious beliefs are intricately intertwined. It was bin Laden's studies with Azzam, as well as his experiences in Afghanistan that would lead him to the belief that effective military action could be undertaken by Muslims, centering on select Islamic principles. Al-Qaeda's ideology, based on bin Laden's personal belief system, involved a puritanical Salafist Islamic reform in all Muslim societies.

Al-Qaeda believes that there is an imbalance between Muslims, Christians and the West, and there needs to be global equality achieved.

This includes armed resistance, when necessary, in the face of perceive aggression. Al-Qaeda views this concept to be a communally binding principle of Islam, known as 'defensive jihad'. These views were… [read more]


Afghanistan War Thesis

… Afghanistan War

From all appearances U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East is going to take a different direction in the 'war on terror' due to the administration change in Washington, D.C. most recently. It has been signaled by the… [read more]


Personal Protection Plan Prior to the Terrorist Research Proposal

… ¶ … Personal Protection Plan

Prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, personal protection and transportation security were primarily of concern only to high-profile individuals and public figures. The security environment changed significantly after 9/11 which highlighted the importance of emergency preparedness for ordinary individuals. Subsequently, natural disasters such as those precipitated by Hurricane Katrina illustrated the degree to which the greatest risks to the individual may be even less predictable than terrorist attacks. In some respects, contemporary concerns about personal safety and security relate to surviving the acute crisis of terrorist attacks and natural disasters. In other respects, personal safety and security relates more to advanced evacuation planning and preparation to cope with the longer term exigencies of the disruptions caused indirectly by large-scale disasters regardless of their cause.

Personal Security:

Personal security requires situational awareness above all else (Hoffman, 2003; Holt, 2007). Situational awareness means (1) avoiding the natural tendency to develop automatic routines devoid of attention to details and circumstances, and (2) loss of external orientation through the phenomenon of "tunnel vision" in which the individual focuses so intently on personal matters and concerns that they obscure effective monitoring of external events and circumstances (Holt, 2007). Even in the context of ordinary personal safety outside of the home rather than terrorist threats or natural disasters, lack of situational awareness is the single most important contributor to becoming the victim of crime, particularly in large metropolitan societies (Safir, 2003).

Other important aspects of personal security in public places include identifying primary and secondary (or emergency) exit routes in every location such as in malls, shopping centers, stores, restaurants, and stadiums. This is a fundamental life saver in both terrorist scenarios as well as in fires and other natural disasters where second lost during escape can make the difference between life and death (Holt, 2007; Larsen, 2007).

Transportation:

With respect to routine personal security concerns, transportation represents a significant vulnerability, mainly by virtue of the regularity with which most people ordinarily travel (Holt, 2007; Larsen, 2007). Generally, the average person leaves the home at precisely the same time every workday and they take the identical route to work, even making the same stops for coffee or to drop off children on the way with hardly any variation whatsoever from day-to-day. Whether the risk at issue involves pre-planned kidnapping, murder, robbery, bodily assault, car-jacking, or any other crime against the individual, the regularity and predictability of ordinary travel routines are the greatest source of vulnerability.

Unlike pre-planned terrorist attacks, many of the greatest threats to the personal safety and security of the ordinary person are crimes of opportunity in which perpetrators selected their victims mainly because of their apparent vulnerability (Safir, 2003). For this reason, security experts advise against taking the exact same route to work every day or from establishing other elements of their travel that are would permit would-be wrongdoers an opportunity to plan attacks in advance (Holt, 2007). Instead of taking the same route to… [read more]


Policy Process Thesis

… Policy Process -- Agenda Setting

The Policy Process: Agenda Setting

The crafting of a new policy is not an easy task. This is especially true in the democratic policy-making process, wherein more than one participant has a say in the… [read more]


Terrorist Organizations What Sort Term Paper

… 2. Using the terrorist organizations, what are some of the recurring themes surrounding the development of new terrorist organizations? Knowing this, can you think of any counterterrorist policies that may prevent the creation of new terrorist organizations, specifically in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Rim?

The development of new terrorist organizations depends on funding, support, and manpower. If the organizers have those things, they will form a new terrorist organization, even if others like it already exist. Often, some form of oppression or perceived oppression is the key to forming a new terrorist group -- they form when a group of people feel they are persecuted, wronged, or oppressed in some way. If this is the case, then it would not be hard to believe that new terrorist organizations would form around the world, especially in areas where there is known oppression and persecution.

For example, terrorist organizations are likely to form (or have already formed) in areas of China, like Tibet, where the Chinese government has stopped protests, often with violence, and used other means to suppress dissent. The people will grow tired of the controls and manipulation, and will form covert terrorist organizations with the goal of gaining their freedom at any cost. In that, the American Revolution could be seen as a group of "terrorists" bent on gaining their independence from British eyes. Anywhere there is oppression, religious fervor, or persecution, terrorist groups could form, but so could peaceful advocates for social change. These advocates are not terrorist groups, but they might support the organization's goals, just not their methods of attaining them. It would not be surprising to hear that terrorist organizations have formed in North Korea, in Myanmar, and other places where there are oppressive governments, and it would not be surprising to know that more groups are forming in the Middle East. These places are hotbeds of hatred, fear, and unhappiness, and they are ripe for terrorism.… [read more]


US Security the Evolving U.S. Security Theory Essay

… US Security

The Evolving U.S. Security Theory: Cold War, War on Terror and Beyond

For the larger part of the 20th century following World War II, United States security policy revolved on Cold War theories of containment and nation-building. The… [read more]


Fearful Americans Essay

… Fearful Americans

America's Misplaced Fears

Why is it that Americans seem most afraid of things that happen rarely -- a lightening strike, a terrorist attack, a plane crash? In his article "Why Americans Fear the Wrong Things," Barry Glassner attempts to answer this questions. He argues that Americans are often afraid of the wrong things, supporting this evidence with a variety of examples. For instance, he argues that in instance when the unemployment rate is actually low, people fear loosing their jobs or they fear the economy. When crime rates are low, he argues that people fear crime, and actually consider crime rates to be much higher. A similar taboo exists with drugs. Glassner states that when drugs were hardly used by high schoolers -- in the late 1990s -- most people thought the drug problem was out of control. He also argues that people fear diseases like flesh-eating bacteria, when the probability of getting those diseases is slim to none. The author continues by listing numbers of people who think they have diseases; those numbers add up to more people than live in the United States.

These kinds of misplaced fears don't come cheap, Glassner argues. He states that one of the most obvious costs of misplaced fears is misplaced money -- funds poured into problems like drugs and child abuse that are not really as large a problem as poverty or other social conditions. In fact, Glassner argues that fear prompts massive amounts of spending on the police force and prisons each year when these kinds of investments are not really necessary. All this does is create more fear, and the illusion that there really is something scary out there. If not, why would we be investing our money in it.

So why do Americans fear the wrong things? Glassner narrows the answer down to two easy explanations. First, he argues that fear might be inspired by the date. Citing evidence such as the Salem witch trials and other panics, he argues that people have often launched into unexplainable panic…… [read more]


Rachel's Piece on Kant Research Proposal

… Rachel's Piece On Kant

If we torture a suspected terrorist in order to gain information about future terrorist plots, are we treating him as a means to an end and not an end in itself? That is, by Kant's lights, are we acting immorally? Should the government engage in this kind of activity? What do you think, and why?

The 'ticking time bomb' is a common plot device found in films and television today. In this construction, a terrorist 'must' be tortured by his captors, so as to retrieve critical information to save innocent lives. While this unrealistic scenario seems persuasive in the movies, it is only emotionally compelling because the audience members identify with the potential victims of terrorism. What if an American was being tortured by a fundamentalist, Islamic group? In the eyes of an Islamic group, an American soldier might be viewed as acting on behalf of a terroristic, immoral regime, and thus they would be 'correct' in torturing him, given that he represents an illegitimate cause.

When America tortures a terrorist, they are, in a Kantian sense, setting the 'rules' for the world for all time, including other terrorist groups. Kant would oppose any type of bad behavior that sets an immoral law for all time. He would likely oppose torture specifically, because the preservation of man is the ultimate end of all moral actions, and to torture a man, any man, is to act counter to such an injunction: "Man and generally any rational being exists as an end in himself, not merely as a means to be arbitrarily used by this or that will, but in all his actions, whether they concern himself or other rational beings, must be always regarded at the same time as an end." Unlike things, men as rational beings are ends in and of themselves. To preserve humanity is why all moral actions take place, and to torture someone is to obey the same logic as the terrorist. It is immoral for anyone to believe it is acceptable to mistreat someone or to take someone's life for a higher cause. Kant formulated his ethical theory specifically to counter utilitarian arguments that the 'greatest good for the greatest number' should prevail, which might…… [read more]


Blood Diamonds in Africa Research Paper

… Blood Diamonds

The Prologue in Greg Campbell's book Blood Diamonds: Tracing The Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones is not for the faint hearted. In fact this book isn't for the person who is squeamish or finds graft,… [read more]


Counterterrorism Briefing Thesis

… Counterterrorism Briefing

To those of you who are now entering into the field of national security, it will be important to recognize and understand a number of the realities that have become salient in our global defense outlook. Prominent among these realities is the very real and present threat of terrorism both at home and abroad. This makes counterterrorism one of the top priorities for all members of the nation's extended security apparatus.

Counterterrorism is essentially the array of strategies related to military objectives, intelligence gathering, policy objective, resource distribution, covert action and direct defense strengthening designed to preempt, prevent or respond to terrorism. According to the Department of Defense, its definition is more simply stated as "operations that include the offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism." (DoD, 1) This initiation of the idea of offensive maneuvering as being an initial point of reference in the definition for counterterrorism should serve as an indication to those of you entering the service of our nation's security that this may in some contexts mean operating overseas in concert with such efforts as those in Afghanistan and Iraq.

These operations denote a definition of counterterrorism which includes meeting threats abroad before they can materialize here. The nature of this objective is reinforced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), who maintains an up-to-date listing of the world's most-wanted terrorists. Here, the Assistant Director of the FBI's counterterrorism division, Michael Heimbach offers further articulation of counterterrorism responsibilities, denoting the obligation "to neutralize terrorist cells and operatives here in the U.S. And to help dismantle terrorist networks worldwide." (Heimbach, 1)

To the idea of dismantling terrorist cells, the work required will not always be militaristic in nature. Instead, counterterrorism objectives proceed with the understanding that financing and communication networks lay at…… [read more]


World Conflict Thesis

… Global Response to Refugees & Terrorists

Global response to refugees and terrorists

The September 11 bombings of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in New York City, USA in 2001 brought into fore critical issues that have not been pro-actively discussed by the nations of the world, be they allies or in conflict with each other. New alliances were once again formed, and the most prominent partnership forged against the terrorist group Al-Qaeda is between the U.S. And Britain. Almost immediately after the attacks, Middle Eastern nations have also responded by forming alliances with each other, either with the Al-Qaeda group or generally, against the offensive attack that the U.S. government had instigated against Afghanistan, and for the larger part, against Iraq (allegedly identified as harboring Osama bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda group, and in possession of weapons of mass destruction, or WMDs).

These series of events have brought about more than just a renewed debate on the issue of terrorism; it has also sparked new debates that question the admissibility of refugees seeking asylum in other countries, which are, more often than not, enemy state/nation of a refugee's native country. Popular media have demonstrated the blurring lines separating a refugee from a terrorist, and this belief has been supported by scholarly studies, which reviewed the changes in policy implemented by different governments and international political organizations/bodies. This gray area surrounding refugees and terrorists is the result of insufficiently defined definitions relating to terrorism and seeking asylum, especially when an individual seeking asylum is identified, in terms of race, ethnicity, or nationality, as an 'enemy' based on this profile information.

Indeed, this almost dissimilar treatment between terrorists and refugees has been echoed in Aiken's (2001) analysis of Canadian immigration laws. In the author's review of Canadian…… [read more]


Department of Homeland Security Thesis

… ¶ … Homeland Security

Department of Homeland Security

Since President Bush established the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2003, it has undergone constant change in scope, composition, and jurisdiction. (It had been the White House Office of Homeland Security since October 2001). The performance of DHS has been the subject of enormous scrutiny by the public as well as unprecedented oversight by 86 different congressional committees, particularly since The DHS/FEMA failures after Hurricane Katrina.

Right now, the perception of the department's ability to secure the safety and security of the country is poor. By the way, these are not only the results of surveys of public and private organizations, but of DHS employees as well. Like it or not, at the moment, it is a fact.

Jurisdiction & Mission

DHS is an enormously complex and broad organization with over 20 different agencies and a quarter of a million employees. Its directorates are responsible for everything from physical and virtual threats to U.S. security, to federal law enforcement, to federal emergency management and the Secret Service and U.S. Coast Guard. When the agency was first organized, it was accurately estimated it would take up to ten years for it to become completely functional. That estimate is valid today.

If we look at the overall objective of the department, it would consist of four basic elements that the American public and Congress expect it to accomplish: prevent terrorist attacks within the U.S., minimize this country's vulnerability to terrorism, limit any damage done from a terrorist attack and aid in the recovery from such an attack, and handle effectively and efficiently both natural and manmade disasters that impact the U.S. As well as emergency preparedness for such events. In addition, its mission would have to include the additional task of keeping this nation's borders safe and secure.

DHS jurisdiction includes coordinating federal resources in these situations whenever a federal department or agency requests assistance. If state and local resources are overwhelmed, as in Katrina, and federal help is requested, it is DHS responsibility to coordinate those activities. It is also the responsibility of DHS to coordinate if more than one federal department has become significantly involved in an incident, regardless of any request. And, anytime the President directs the agency to take over responsibility for a domestic problem the DHS must comply.

Regarding its support of state and local governments, DHS' jurisdiction includes responsibility for assisting them with planning, training, equipment, and practice exercises/scenarios replicating actual natural or manmade disasters. DHS also must ensure that all state and federal plans are attuned to each other. The department has to communicate and ensure coordination with private and nongovernmental…… [read more]


Muslim Islam Within the Media and Global Thesis

… Islam in the Media

Traditionally, the media has been viewed as impartial. Journalists are objective, while editorialists, essayists, and of course, writers of fiction, have subjective agendas or points-of-view. Yet, it is not always easy to divorce oneself from one's… [read more]


Torture Why Our Nation Cannot Use Essay

… Torture

Why Our Nation Cannot Use Torture

As it is the goal of this nation to establish an example for the rest of the world to follow in the freedom and responsibility of our society, the issue of torture must be immediately and definitively laid to rest. There are many policy makers and thinkers today that suggest that torture is not only acceptable, but that in certain instances it is even required. At first, this stance seems to make a great deal of practical sense -- if the lives of many or even one of our citizens could be saved by uncovering the details of a terrorist plot through torture, it seems reasonable that torture would be permitted in this instance, if not mandatory. This, however, is an overly simplistic and hypothetical view of what are actually incredibly complex real-world situations. A careful examination of the issue of torture, even from the incredibly pragmatic perspective of utilitarianism that we are so fond of in this country, reveals that there are actually many practical issues that render torture unviable from an ethical standpoint.

John Stuart Mills is the founder, or at least the first comprehensive and coherent explicator, of the utilitarian school of ethics. This ethical system is often summed up in the short platitude, "the greatest good for the greatest number." Mills himself referred to utilitarianism as the "Greatest Happiness Principle," and asserted that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness" (Mills Chapter 2, par. 2). Again, at first this seems to form an ethical argument for the use of torture in situations where information obtained could save many lives. The unhappiness of the victim of torture -- i.e. The terrorist -- would be meaningless when weighed against the happiness of the potential victims of the terrorist. In a world of certainty and black and white conclusions, such an argument would indeed be correct, but our world exists in shades of gray.

First of all, this argument requires that the terrorist is identified with complete certainty as someone who has information that could prevent widespread pain and/or death. Michael Levin makes this clear in his brief essay "The Case for Torture." After acknowledging and effectively establishing that torture is not justifiable as a punishment or to secure a confession of past acts, but only to save lives from future acts of evil, Levin raises a common objection: "Ah, but how can the authorities ever be sure they have the right malefactor? Isn't there a danger of error and abuse?" (Levin). The answer to these questions is, of course, that authorities could never be sure, and that there is always the risk for abuse of any permitted power.

Levin answers his own questions, however, by saying that terrorists easily identify themselves, and that therefore torture can be practiced with certainty. His explanations, however, reek of generalizations: "when 40 million people see a group of masked gunmen seize… [read more]


Long-Term Economic Repercussions to the U.S. Economy Thesis

… ¶ … Long-Term Economic Repercussions to the U.S. Economy that were the result of the 9/11 attacks

The Short- and Long-Term Economic Repercussions of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks upon the United States Economy

Much has been debated and much remains… [read more]


Military Intervention and Peacekeeping Thesis

… Military Intervention and Peacekeeping

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan, April 19, 2009 -- A potentially troubling era dawned Sunday in Pakistan's Swat Valley, where a top Islamist militant leader, emboldened by a peace agreement with the federal government, laid out an ambitious plan… [read more]


Iraq War and Weapon Technology Thesis

… Iraq War & Weapon Technology

Iraq War and Weapon Technology

The "shock and awe offensive" against Iraq following the World Trade Center attacks in New York, USA by Afghan terrorist group Al-Qaeda brought into fore the unpopular issue of weapons technology among politically- and/or militarily-strong countries. With the ongoing Iraq War, both American and British weapons were 'showcased' and 'put to test' in terms of its effectiveness to threaten and curb terrorist attacks supported by Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. Ultimately, the offensive attack against Iraq was also the allies' (U.S. And Britain) way of reinforcing their power not only against terrorist groups, but also to anti-U.S. And Britain countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan (generally, Middle Eastern countries).

Early reports on the U.S. offensive against Iraq listed Warthog A-10 tankbusters, JDam smart bombs, and Bradley fighting vehicles as commonly used American weapon technologies. Furthermore, Gahan (2003), in his BBC report on the U.S.-Iraq war, reported that this offensive move by both U.S. And Britain are 'opportunities' wherein they can test the effectiveness of weapons they have been developing through the years. This angle in Gahan's story brings out two critical issues surrounding weapon technology and the politics involving it: first, the possibility that the Iraq war is more than just an offensive attack, but an avenue for U.S. To explore and uncover Iraq's weapon technologies, and second, the U.S.-Iraq wars raised the question on the effectiveness of weapon technology in curbing terrorism and deescalating political conflicts. What is happening in Iraq at the present demonstrates that while the war displaced Hussein as Iraqi leader, it did not stop terrorist groups from committing crimes against civilians, be they locals or Americans.

Indeed, the question of weapons as effective means to curb terrorism and implement 'compliance' in terms of weapons development, testing, and deployment has never been more crucially discussed and answered until the U.S.-Iraq war. The numerous weapons deployed by…… [read more]


Patriot Act: Protection or Provocation? The Entire Essay

… Patriot Act: Protection or Provocation?

The entire nation was in terror after the attacks of 9/11. Many called for their leaders to step in and once again secure the nation so that daily life could continue unscathed by terror. The government's response -- the Patriot Act of 2001. This act strengthened the powers of the federal government and in the eyes of many placed many civil liberties in jeopardy. It is this controversial act which best represents the policies and practices of the Bush administration post 9/11.

This powerful and controversial act came into play within the scope of American politics directly after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. After the nation as stunned and mortified by the acts of terrorism conducted by Bin Laden's Al Queda in New York, many citizens demanded stricter government provisions which would further protect them from foreign dangerous nationalists just waiting for their own chance to strike on the American homeland. In response, Congress drafted and passed the Patriot Act. The Patriot Act was written in 2001 directly after the terrorist attacks in September of that year and was enacted by the 107th Congress (Public Law 107-56 2001). It was passed almost unanimously, winning by a large margin in both houses of Congress in 2001. The name itself is an anagram which stands for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56 2001). It is a large body of supplementary provisions which aimed to increase security measures within the United States. In fact, nine separate titles of heightened security measures meant to curb terrorism before it can lead to disastrous events such as the ones witnessed on September 11, 2001 (Public Law 107-56 2001). This act, once enacted, changed the face of the relationship between everyday citizens and their government in its effort to protect them from external dangers lurking just around the corner.

The Patriot Act itself made serious changes to the nature of civilian rights within the United States. Previous generations had continuously been influenced by the original patriotic idea that every citizen should have various freedoms which allow them to live their daily lives as they please. Restrictions of certain civil freedoms were generally frowned upon by the public. However, in the outcry which roared directly after the terrorist attacks of 2001, the public was ready for a change -- if it meant a safer life in the United States. And so, many civil rights enjoyed by citizens were put under much more scrutiny with the promise that greater restrictions meant greater safety levels. For example, the act allowed law enforcement agencies of both federal and state agencies to have greater power in recording telephone and email conversations (Lithwick 2003). More open medical & financial records. Such conversations were much more guarded in previous generations based on the sanctity of privacy within the United States. Strenuous efforts were required to get warrants in order to breach that privacy. However, the… [read more]


War on Terror the Conflict in Afghanistan Thesis

… War on Terror

The conflict in Afghanistan has fundamental and historical origins that have been eclipsed in importance and interest by the larger and more controversial war in Iraq. One of the most fundamental issues at hand in Afghanistan and… [read more]


War on Terror - Afghanistan Thesis

… War on Terror - Afghanistan

Introduction / Thesis

The Afghan people have been subjected to hostile takeovers and cultural disruptions for centuries, so the invasion by the Soviet Union in 1979 and the subsequent seizing of power by the Taliban… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Policy US Middle East Thesis

… U.S. Foreign Policy

US Middle East Foreign Policy

The United States (U.S.) as the sole superpower in a multipolar world system operates under its own set of rules and guided by the character of its people and values set by… [read more]


Obama Administration (and B Thesis

… ¶ … Obama Administration (and B. Obama as well in his presidential campaign) announced that in terms of foreign policy, one of the main priorities of this administration is going to be Afghanistan. This implies an extended and overarching approach… [read more]


NSA/FISA Following the Terrorist Attacks Term Paper

… NSA and FISA have to deal with other technological developments including the transition from circuit-based to packet-based communications; the globalization of communications infrastructure; and the development of automated monitoring techniques, including data mining and traffic analysis.

As it pertains to… [read more]


Present Problems Essay

… ¶ … Biggest Problems Facing America Today: The Economy and Security

On September 11, 2001, when the United States was attacked by terrorists, it was the beginning of what would be more than a war. It was the beginning of a new type of war. It was the kind of war that was waged anonymously from afar, its agents integrated into the very fabric of the diversity that was the American cultural melting pot. The mission was to wage a relentless, endless war of terrorism, and the goals, as are the goals of terrorists, to bring American to its knees financially and psychologically (Nathan, KS, and Kamali, Mohammad, 2005, xiv). Eight years later and it would be hard to argue that the terrorists did not accomplish their goals.

America is today in the throes of an economic crisis from which it may take decades to recover from. Internal and external security is a concern that is shared by American citizens, political leaders, and our world partners with whom Americans fought in, and against, World War II. Like America, Great Britain, France, Spain, Russia, Germany, and other countries of the world have all experienced the economic and security problems posed by terrorism. The question that we are all asking, as citizens, political leaders, and world partners in trade and an emerging world community is how do we change what is going on, and regain economic and security stability in our nations (Mooney, Jayne, and Young, Jock, 2005, 113)?

What must be acknowledged is that the security of the free world is directly tied to the economic stability of the free world, and that to regain the economic balance we must address the security issues that are interfering with free trade (Mackenzie, Simon, 2006, 162). Industry and oil shipments are still being interrupted by pirates off the coast of Somalia (Hopper, Anna, 2008, 28). Drug trafficking is still an issue around the world, and have actually proven to have been a more viable investment than many of the blue chip stocks; this has to change. World commerce must be made safe, and in the same vane must not serve as a front for drug trafficking.

The vulnerability of world investments has shown itself as a house of cards that have collapsed around the world (the Daily Mirror, 2008, 6). Governments around the world are scrambling to bail out businesses and banks. It is confusing, because it is not just America, but global. Confidence in government and investment entities are low, and it is hard to tell if it can go much lower.

There…… [read more]


Counterterrorism Strategy Essay

… Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism

COUNTERTERRORISM STRATEGY

The al-Qaeda Training Manual captured in the United Kingdom in 2000 provides valuable insight into the policies, methods, and procedures of al-Qaeda operatives engaged in terrorist activities against the West. Specific sections of the manual detail operational procedures that preset potentially recognizable patterns, provided that information is appropriately disseminated to law enforcement authorities.

Because many of the operational details pertain to ordinary transactions and relationships, certain components of the manual should also be provided to various non-governmental (i.e. private sector) entities to maximize their ability to recognize suspicious behavior consistent with the known practices of al-Qaeda operatives.

Likewise instructions contained in the manual also outline procedures used during travel and prescribed in connection with economic transactions that further expose possible al-Qaeda affiliation to the extent they are recognized by private citizens involved in those transactions. Forgery, and False Documentation:

Substantial portions of the al-Qaeda Training Manual are devoted to the fraudulent procurement and use of forged documentation of identity cards and other related instruments. Section BM-12 details the importance of obtaining false identification credentials, such as in connection with renting apartments. Likewise, section BM-41 (Item #3) specifically outlines the requirement that al-Qaeda operatives always purchase motor vehicles using forged documentation and false identities to avoid the possibility of connections established by investigating authorities between al-Qaeda operatives and those vehicles after their use.

Both of this sections strongly suggest that effective counterterrorism efforts must include heightened security measures and scrutiny in all phases of identification credential issuance. Local, state, and federal authorities must coordinate their respective responsibilities and establish uniform standards to ensure that al-Qaeda operatives attempting to procure fraudulent documentation are prevented from doing so.

Similarly, the implications of BM-41 are that dealers and licensed resellers of motor vehicles must satisfy identification verification procedures established by the state to identify and immediately report any attempted purchases using fraudulent credentials.

Apartment Rentals Used as Safe-Houses for Terrorist Activities:

Two different sections of the al-Qaeda Training Manual outline procedures for securing apartments used for clandestine operations in newly developed areas (BM-26, Item # 13), and for replacing existing apartment locks with new hardware upon doing so (BM-27, Item # 17). These provisions strongly suggest that effective…… [read more]


Criminal Justice - Ethical Issue Reconsidering Essay

… Criminal Justice - Ethical Issue

RECONSIDERING the ETHICAL ISSUE of TORTURE

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush announced the Global War on Terror as a national priority. Since then, egregious abuses of detainees and prisoners, such as reported in connection with the Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay facilities (among others) have highlighted the difficulties of prosecuting the War on Terror without violating traditional ethical standards that have always restricted the conduct of U.S. military and law enforcement actions in modern times.

Many commentators have suggested that certain specific elements of those traditional standards be reevaluated in light of contemporary issues. One of the most controversial concerns the proposal of torture warrants often advanced by Harvard Law School professor Alan Dershowitz.

The Ethical Issue of Torture Warrants:

In general, the use of torture for punishment and interrogation is strictly prohibited both by U.S. And international law. The U.S. has traditionally refrained from such practices and strongly encouraged other nations to do the same. However, since September 11, 2001 and the inception of the Global War on Terror, the prohibition of harsh interrogation techniques have been challenged, and in some cases, relaxed substantially.

Captured al Qaeda terrorists and others apprehended in connection with suspected terrorism have been transferred to allied nations, specifically because those nations use interrogation techniques prohibited by U.S. law; likewise, U.S. government officials at the highest level authorized techniques like "water boarding" and prolonged "stress positions" that have been criticized as forms of torture. In addition to the obvious human rights and constitutional legal issues, torture has also been criticized as an ineffective interrogation technique that produces as much fabricated information as genuine intelligence information. On the other hand,…… [read more]


USA Patriot Act Thesis

… USA Patriot Act

The United States we know today is the result of endless processes of change. The modifications that led to the creation of the contemporary American society emerged from diverse backgrounds, including society, economy, politics, arts or technology.… [read more]


U.S. Government Discuss the 2004 Elections Essay

… U.S. Government

Discuss the 2004 elections, and explain what led to the victory for the Republicans. Discuss whether candidates emphasis on "feel good" issues, leadership, competence, and values, detracts from substantive issues such as the deficit, crime, and poverty.

The… [read more]


USA Patriot Act the Uniting and Strengthening Essay

… USA PATRIOT Act

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorists (USA PATRIOT) Act, was written into law following the terrorist attacks on America, on September 11th, 2001.

While the intent of the law is to allow federal intelligence and law enforcement agencies to fight terrorism, it has received much debate. From the effectiveness of Section 311, to the appropriateness of the new admissions policy, to the expanding unchecked surveillance opportunities for federal agencies, much concern still remains about the PATRIOT Act.

One of the most powerful sections of the PATRIOT Act is Section 311.

Section 311 is one of the tools the United States has developed to address the threat of terrorist financing and money laundering.

The primary goals of Section 311 involves strengthening American measures to detect, prevent, and prosecute international money laundering, as well as terrorism financing to the United States.

As Yager (2008) notes, this Section provides a mechanism for the government to either prohibit "U.S. financial institutions from maintaining correspondent accounts with a foreign financial institution if the account involves jurisdictions or institutions found to be of primary money laundering concern, or to require recordkeeping and reporting on certain accounts."

Since 2002, the Department of the Treasury has used this mechanism to take action against eight targeted financial institutions.

However, there is still question about whether or not Section 311 is being used as effectively as it could be.

In addition to the questionable effectiveness of Section 311, of the PATRIOT Act, the appropriateness of the new admissions policy created by the PATRIOT Act is also up for debate. Clintora (2008) surmises that thousands of men and women, suffering from violence in their own countries, are then re-victimized by the PATRIOT Act. Refugees and asylum seekers that provide 'material support', often involuntarily, are classified as terrorists, under this…… [read more]


World Would Better Essay

… ¶ … extremists in the world refrain themselves from becoming terrorists and causing devastation around the world. Terrorism has been a long standing problem and it is not restricted to one country instead it affects all the countries either directly or indirectly. The 9/11 attacks in the U.S. caused havoc in the country and took away numerous innocent lives, people knew very little about the attacks, and they were taken by surprise. The world would have been definitely better had the 9/11 attack not taken place, there are no two ways about this. Terrorism is affecting the prosperity and the well being of the people all across the globe and it is high time to take suitable measures to counter the same. This paper will throw light on more such issues and a conclusion will be arrived at on how to make the world a better place to live in.

The world would be a better place if the people start having a sense of belongingness not only for their near and dear ones but also for all the other people in the world. People react strongly against terror strikes only if they lose their near and dear ones and this is the only reason why this long standing problem still haunts the people. If all the people in the world develop a sense of belongingness towards each other, they would surely standby each other when catastrophes strike and if this happens then all the major problems would surely be solved in snap of a finger. But this is possible only…… [read more]


USA Patriot Act Essay

… USA Patriot Act

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (also known as USA PATRIOT ACT), is a Congressional Bill passed into law by president George W. Bush as a reaction to the September 11 bombings and other acts of terrorism against New York City and the Pentagon. It purportedly enhances the powers of domestic law enforcement agencies in searching phone, internet, medical, financial, credit records of U.S. citizens (and visitors), it allows foreign intelligence investigations within the U.S.A., it increases the powers of the Treasury in regulating financial transactions of foreigners, widens the discretion of authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants, and enhances definition of terrorism to further include domestic terrorism. It has created changes in U.S. Laws such as in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, Money Laundering Act of 1986, Bank Secrecy Act and Immigration and Nationality Act. It is very controversial in nature and has had various proposals for amendments (none of which have been passed to date). The bill itself is said to have been passed into law in a "rushed" manner.

Like any law it has its share of advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages such as misuse and abuse of its provisions, far outweigh advantages. Advantages easily identified are:

1) Increased funding for counter-terrorist activities and funding for FBI Technical Support Center. The Patriot Act creates a fund for counter-terrorism as well as provides increased funding for the FBI as the main law enforcement agency that caters to acts of terrorism, thus enhancing national security.

2) S-214 Bill. This bill was created as an off shoot or effect of the Patriot Act. Suspicions and fears that background investigatory powers would be misused to choose and/or dismiss judges according to their political leanings regarding Republican issues resulted in the creation of a Preserving U.S. Attorney-General Independence Act of 1997 bill. T his protects the integrity, independence and term security of U.S. Attorney Generals.

3) Money Laundering. Definitions of money laundering is better delineated, cases related to it is better monitored, investigated, and prevented using electronic surveillance and additional provisions. Such provisions allow cases to be intercepted and prosecuted in places where the money laundering started from.

Disadvantages far outweigh the advantages, which includes:

Abuse of enhanced powers. Law enforcement agencies use the increased powers of investigation for "sneak and peak" investigations which allows delayed notification of search warrants; they use in to access private individuals' financial, credit, employment and health records. This is a clear violation of the citizens' rights to privacy.

Patriot Act against the Homeless. There has been a case where…… [read more]


Torture Can Be Simply Explained as Mental Essay

… Torture can be simply explained as mental, emotional or physical torment and suffering. The thesis will primarily include logical reasons and opinions on how the man-induced torture should not be used as a tool of war, barring exceptions or urgencies, and why. This topic of torture is important considering the current inclination of nations and states of the 21st century towards strengthening their war regimes and tactics which has simultaneously shown a substantial increase in the discussions on what form of torture is allowed and to what extent and purpose can it be used. The topic of torture has become even more significant for government candidates to include in their political campaigns since the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. soil and the consequent initiation of the War on Terror. In this thesis, the main emphasis will lie on the impacts of torture as a means to move forward with an intelligent war or conflict strategy. Furthermore this thesis will include opinions of both sides i.e. whether torture should be used as a war tactic or not.

Body:

One of the main observations that nobody seems to be making is that torture as a tool of war is limited in its range. This simply means that using torture to extract information is very circumstantial and highly dependent upon the gravity of the situation. There are many who are disillusioned by the War on Terror and clam that torture should in no way be a tactic because of the extent of inhumane personal intrusion that is its direct consequence.

John McCain, the 2008 Republican candidate for the U.S. presidential election, is a war veteran and a survivor of inhumane torture and hence he seems to condone any and all form of torture that can or has been used in the past to extract useful information. The main logic behind his overlooking the circumstantial importance in his proposal of a 'no torture' law is the "two-way street" approach. He portrays a strong belief that allowing the American interrogators to use inhumane or personally intrusive measures to extract information automatically gives every single enemy of theirs to treat American captives in a similar manner. This approach and logic has been supported by a vast majority of senators and citizens as well, and in all fairness, it does make a logical argument. There is no need to make a law with regards situations that are rare because if a law gives the window to use torture pertaining dire circumstances, then like most other criminal laws, the law of torture can also be manipulated for personal advantages.

The UN and Council of Europe have shown various concerns since the beginning of the War on Terror on the means and methods used by numerous interrogators to extract information claiming that the methodologies are defiant of the human and civil rights which are pertinent to all humans irrespective of their nationality, race or religion. This concern has been, though, voiced globally, has also faced severe criticism from numerous… [read more]


Film Review on Delta Force Essay

… ¶ … Delta Force is a 1986 film about the events that occur after an American airplane is hijacked by terrorists. It could not and would not be made today, given that the worst-case scenario envisioned by the filmmakers has already been overtaken by real life events. The film does not focus on the possibility of terrorists destroying the world, but more on the possibility of terrorism to destroy the lives of individual Americans. It has a 'beat the clock' pacing, as the renegade, elite squad of commandos known as the Delta Force races to save the lives of the potential victims. The audience is encouraged to identify with the hijacked Americans, not worry about the possibility of the destruction of major national landmarks. This is not to say that the film does not show violence, such as when an American serviceman is beaten to death by terrorists and but that "The Delta Force" shows an image of terrorism that clearly belongs to 'another era' of history.

However, one resonance with contemporary American culture is the way that the culture and belief system of the terrorists and their victims are portrayed. The perpetrators and their cause seem entirely alien. The terrorists are faceless members of another society threatening a fairly generic plane of Americans. Other than the fact that some of the passengers are Jews, little character distinction occurs to arouse the viewer's sympathy for the passengers as individuals, other than the fact that the hostages have been hijacked by evil people. The victims are objects to be rescued, more than personalities. The terrorists are vague in their goals, and seem more like generic Islamic militants who dislike everything relating to America and Israel, and nothing else. The objective of the attack, other than publicity, of their feat seems unclear. Even whether they are socialist or Islamic seems unimportant to the filmmakers, as if all of the anti-America enemies of the Cold War era were grouped together by the screenwriter. The terrorists announce that they are against "American imperialists, Zionists, terrorists, and all other anti-socialist atrocities" as if being 'for' Iran also means that a terrorist is 'for' Moscow.

The unspoken implication is that 'we' the American viewers do not need to know what the terrorists stand for, only that they are bloodthirsty and want to kill 'us.' The terrorists are angry, anti-Semitic, and fearful in their quasi-military, quasi-Islamic gear, and no positive examples of Muslims really counter these images. The lack of the validity of their cause as well as their methods is underlined by a press conference, where they force a pilot to speak with a gun to his head. They are 'cowboys,' their methods are unjustified -- in contrast to the lawless attitude of Major Scott McCoy, played by Chuck Norris. Given the evil nature of these enemies of America, only individuals who play fast and loose with the rules can save the day -- the American…… [read more]


Comprehensive Protection Plan Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Security Plan

COMPREHENSIVE SECURITY PLAN

Effective personal protection requires a comprehensive approach to anticipating, understanding, and preparing for multiple sources of threats to personal safety.

Contemporary events have emphasized terrorism in particular, but that is more a function of human psychology than the reality of the respective threat to personal posed by terrorism in comparison to natural catastrophes. Many times more human fatalities were attributable to the Asian-Pacific Tsunami and the flooding of New Orleans than to terrorism.

In addition to the threats from terrorism and natural disasters, personal protection agencies must be equally prepared to address conceivable threats posed by political unrest and civil disobedience, especially in foreign countries. At a minimum, this entails maintaining secure communications links and protocols for identifying, securing, and relocating all protected individuals within the zone of responsibility.

Communications Security:

Communications are essential to personal safety concerns at all times, but even more so immediately prior to, during, and immediately after serious safety threats materialize, regardless of their particular origin. The basic technological requirements for personal protection include an independent system that implements appropriately advanced signal scrambling to ensure imperviousness to unauthorized interception capable of compromising sensitive information. In that regard, more sophisticated threats to high-value targets may require counterintelligence electronic spectrum surveillance and offensive signal jamming technology such as routinely employed by military security details and the U.S. Secret Service, domestically (Larson 2007).

The basic tactical requirements for ensuring communications includes a "cascade" system outlining a chain of critical information dissemination to all personnel within the zone of responsibility. In addition to providing communications hardware throughout the community of remotely located protectees or isolated protective details, the threat response system should also include specific training of all non-security agents in accessing personal communications equipment and in situational rendezvous at pre- assigned designated areas. Terrorist Threats to Security:

In general, personal protection always requires thorough, real-time information of any factors that could possibly undermine mobility or, in the most extreme circumstances, evacuation, such as may arise in foreign territories. Ordinary operational security against isolated acts of terrorism (including abduction and assassination attempts) necessitates using as many appropriate alternate travel routes as possible, in addition to varying other elements capable of being surveilled by prospective terrorists.

Schedules should remain unpredictable, as should choice of transportation mode and/or specific vehicles.

Whereas non-terrorist threats to specific transportation routes are most likely to occur in isolated areas, terrorist attacks may involve a coordinated tactical denial of transportation routes. In that regard, personal protection agents must be prepared in advance to respond to every conceivable situation of transportation route denial, whether purposeful or resulting indirectly from terrorist attack. Ideally, personal protection agents should train regularly to respond to necessary changes to specific transportation routes so that doing so never requires ad hoc procedures or route selection except in circumstances that could never have been anticipated. Certain terrorist threats, such as chemical and biological agents, and even radiological or crude nuclear terrorism require shelter-in- place responses rather… [read more]


Powers of Federal Government Thesis

… Post-9/11 Expansion of Government Powers:

The Significance of Wiretapping

Background and impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks

Significance of September 11th in history and government

Introduction of the Patriot Act

Controversy surrounding the Patriot Act

Introduction of wiretapping and… [read more]


Food Not Bombs Case Study

… Food Not Bombs

The issue of hunger is considered to be one of the most stringent problems facing the world today. Despite the fact that we live in a globalised world, there are areas of the globe where hunger is the everyday life situation. At the same time, wars are constantly financed by the most important countries in the world, without paying attention to the human damage that is left behind or the costs such devastating operations mean in terms of food resources in particular.

Despite this grim situation, the international community tries to point out these aspects and intervene through every means possible. In this sense, the work and activity of transnational organization and in general of international forums has increased, particularly in the area of hunger prevention and protests against war. One such initiative is the Food not Bombs movement (FNB). According to their own description, FNB is not a charity movement in the sense that "for over 25 years the movement has worked to end hunger and has supported actions to stop the globalization of the economy, restrictions to the movements of people, end exploitation and the destruction of the earth" (Food not Bombs, 2008).

The activities of the FNB movement include volunteers on a large scale. Unlike charity movements who tend to raise mostly money, FNB works on a system that aims at also raising the awareness on the global changes that take place every day. In this sense, they collect food for those in need; they offer vegetarian meals without discrimination. This comes to point out the fact that their range of activity expands beyond helping those unable to provide food for themselves; it is also a movement which aims to draw the attention on the need to helping to protect the environment from wars, ecological disasters, and in general the destruction of the planet.

It is important however to consider the fact that the activities of the FNB movement are transnational because they include a large number of international activities. In this sense, they worked in Asia as well to help with the relief effort in Indonesia. This technique is important because it offers a wider perspective on the aspects that need to be covered and because the actions must be local as well (Huey, 2005)

2.The events from 9/11 have had an impact on the entire world. Most importantly however, it must be pointed out that the help received by the workers on the site was largely provided by organizations such as the FNB movement. In turn, the events impact their activity as well. More precisely, the volunteers were among the first to give assistance to work aids but at the same time, following the 9/11 events, a large number of FNB volunteers were suspected of terrorism.

The main effect of the 9/11 attacks is that nowadays the police tend to be more vigilant and more suspicious of movements such as FNB. The action of the FNB especially after 9/11 included a larger… [read more]


Criminal Justice - Security Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Security

CRIMINAL JUSTICE: SECURITY QUESTIONS

Discuss the growing need for computer security:

The modern business environment relies so heavily on computer technology that malicious external infiltration of computer systems and unauthorized internal access may threaten the entire business operation. Because sensitive identifying and billing information is stored in computer systems, security is essential to protect employee privacy as well.

Discuss the various options to reduce vulnerability to computer crimes:

Strict control of internal access on a need-to-know basis is one option to reduce vulnerability to computer crimes. Implementation of sophisticated network security features such as "honey nets" and "honey pots" help identify malicious threats and resolve existing vulnerabilities inherent in coded software applications.

Discuss the issue of workplace violence as a threat to the productivity of an organization as well as a crime against employees:

Workplace violence threatens the productivity of an organization because it undermines employee motivation and concentration. Virtually all instances of violence in the workplace represent crimes against persons (Schmalleger 1997) that should be appropriately addressed by legal authorities.

Identify some of the tools used by loss prevention, EAP, and HR personnel to prevent violence at work:

Pre-employment background investigations and criminal history checks are some of the most valuable tools for preventing workplace violence because the data suggest that this type of behavior occurs in patterns rather than in isolation (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Identify the steps that should be taken by security personnel in dealing with workplace violence situations:

In cases of workplace violence, security should notify administrative personnel and law enforcement authorities immediately. In serious cases warranting temporary suspension or permanent removal, security should ensure that all access materials and identification credentials are secured from the perpetrator or inactivated to prevent future use.

Provide a brief historical perspective on the…… [read more]


Security Aviation Security Pre and Post 911 Term Paper

… Security

Aviation Security Pre and Post 911

The security in most airports did not used to be much of a problem for anyone. For many years before the events of September 11, 2001, travelers did not think much about security… [read more]


Biological Science Term Paper

… Technology - Biological Science

WEAPONS of MASS DESTRUCTION and HOMELAND SECURITY ISSUES Introduction - Biological Terrorism and Homeland Security:

The horrific terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 were followed very shortly by the purposeful distribution of Anthrax through the U.S. Mail. Federal law enforcement authorities all but discounted any connection to al Qaeda or other foreign terrorists within months, and focused almost exclusively on the assumption that only domestic entities perpetrated the attack.

However, at least one prominent terrorism expert has since criticized this assumption, suggesting instead that good reason exists to reconsider the implications of the 2001 biological weapons attack within the context of the global War on Terror announced by the Bush administration that same year.1 in particular, Larsen (2007) points to the discovery in the aftermath of the Anthrax attacks in 2001 that a physician who treated a roommate of Mohamed Atta, leader of the 9/11 hijackers suspected an Anthrax connection that he communicated to the FBI in early 2002.

Specifically, that physician, Dr. Cristos Tsonas, a Florida emergency room physician had previously been interviewed by the FBI after a prescription bottle found in Atta's apartment for the antibiotic Keflex had been traced back to him. According to Tsonas, the patient had explained the infected lesion on his leg as resulting from a collision with furniture at the time. Tsonas contacted authorities after the publicity of the subsequent Anthrax attacks raised his awareness of the similarity between the symptoms for which he had prescribed the Keflex and those associated with Anthrax exposure.

Law Enforcement Response to WMD Terrorist Attacks: The use of weaponized biological agents and other weapons of mass destruction

WMD) present complex challenges for authorities within the Department of Homeland Security and the entire domestic law enforcement community. Local law enforcement agencies must be fully prepared and trained to mobilize personnel and other HAZMAT resources on very…… [read more]


Technological Advance Most Influencing National Security Term Paper

… Technological Advance Most Influencing National Security and Intelligence

The greatest technological advance that will impact national security and intelligence are the continual developments of Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), an advanced pattern recognition series of algorithms that parses through unstructured content to create patterns inherent in the data. These series of algorithms are capable of taking in significant amounts of unstructured content from websites, e-mails, intercepted cellular telephone conversations, and many other forms of content and construct linguistic patterns and models within them. Latent Semantic Indexing initially was developed for commercial applications, specifically for looking through vast amounts of customer comments for underlying causes and trends. These sets of technology have now progressed to being able to capture network threats, classify, and then block them.

There are several challenges inherent in the contribution of these technologies to increasing national defense however. The first is the ability to interpret the many dialects of Arabic, Chinese and languages which have many variations in their pronunciation compared to English. Each language and its dialect have specific dialects that must be included as part of the linguistic modeling structure. The selection of the best possible linguistic model is the most pivotal decision of how to deploy a Latent Semantic Indexing strategy for interpreting data. The structure of these linguistic models also requires extensive training on probabilistic theory and the development of constraint modeling for creating the most appropriate probabilistic model to fit the language, dialect and evolution of linguistic models. In considering how linguistic models drive the interpreting threats, consider how much traffic between al Qaeda was intercepted by the State Department and the FBI yet no one had a sense of how critical the massive amounts of information was. With latent semantic indexing the discovery of the plot on September 11, 2001 could have been averted. Flights the hijackers practiced on could have been parsed from the data they sent in their commentaries and coded messages to each other. Linguistic modeling could have deconstructed all messages and helped alleviate a disaster. The use of latent semantic indexing is a critical for managing…… [read more]


English Literature - Satire Proposal to Expand Term Paper

… English Literature - Satire

PROPOSAL to EXPAND the AUTHORITIES of the HOMELAND

SECURITY SECRETARY as NECESSITATED by the WAR on TERROR

This nation's lead position in the global War on Terror makes it the premier target for the inevitable projection of international terror on its citizens and sovereign territories.

In 2005, Congress recognized the degree of threat posed by unauthorized entry into the United States and authorized the Office of Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff to issue waivers for any legislation that could potentially interfere with the timely and efficient completion of the security fence project currently planned to seal the borders of Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas against continued illegal infiltration.

While ensuring the earliest possible completion of the fence project is certainly necessary, the requirement that the Secretary's authority to issue waivers of legislation relate to this one project alone is not. Such authority need not relate exclusively to the issue of securing physical borders. Instead of limiting the Secretary's necessary authority to the narrow purpose of completing a single component of the War on Terror, Congress must immediately recognize that the global War on Terror requires that the Homeland Security Secretary have the same authority to waive any law, constitutional provision or principle, as well as any component of the Bill of Rights that could potentially impact negatively on our efficient and timely prosecution of the War on Terror. The authority to waive laws directly in conflict with physical border security is but a minor first step in updating principles of government that reflect a simpler time when the Framers, brilliant as they may have been, could never have anticipated the grave situation currently faced by the United States in its struggle against international assailants bent on her destruction. Regrettably, the time has come to discard unreasonable deference to personal liberties and rights, both natural and man-made, in favor of more appropriate governmental authority over individuals and concepts that undermine this nation's defense against global terrorists.

Undoubtedly, outdated constitutional principles of personal liberty, "penumbras" of privacy, equal protection of law, warranted search and arrest, and free speech have served us well in their time. But the new era in which we must live is shaped and defined by the need to protect this nation from international terror through timely and efficient administration and prosecution of the War on Terror. There can be no doubt that had the Framers been capable of envisioning the circumstances in which America finds herself today, the Constitution would have authorized the…… [read more]


Oklahoma City Bombing Term Paper

… Oklahoma City Bombing and Emergency Preparedness

On April 19, 1995, at 9:02 A.M., people in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, were going about their daily workday routines; car pools, day care, school, babysitters, jobs; the things that most people, at least most… [read more]


September 11, 2001 Term Paper

… 9/11 is considered to be a day of alarm and pain in the recent times of America. The changes took place around 8.46 in the morning of 9/11. A commercial airplane filled with about 10,000 gallons of petroleum, flying at… [read more]


Al Qaeda: Current and Future Trends Term Paper

… Al Qaeda: Current and Future Trends

Many people were heard to observe that "things would never be the same" following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and some even suggested the Osama bin Laden could consider himself a "dead… [read more]


Identifying a Leader Term Paper

… Leadership

Identify a leader has had a major impact on society.

At present, former Senator George Mitchell is most famous for chairing the current hearings on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in American baseball. But the reason Mitchell is so respected by his colleagues in the senate is because during the 1990s, he did what seemed impossible. Mitchell brokered a successful peace agreement between rival Protestant and Catholic factions in Northern Ireland, in what cumulated in the now-historic Good Friday Agreement in 1998.

Before, the conflict in the region was considered intractable. Northern Ireland was in a constant state of tension, as rivalries simmered between Catholic Sein Fein and the Protestant Ulster Unionists. All of Great Britain lived in fear that Irish terrorist factions like the IRA (Irish Republican Army, the military faction of the Sein Fein) would strike within its borders. As a result of Mitchell's efforts to create peace, not only can ordinary Irish men and women live in an environment without fear, but Ireland is also enjoying a state of greater prosperity, given that it is no longer afflicted by political tensions. The Good Friday Agreement is seen evidence that all the world's "apparently unsolvable conflicts" such as the conflict that exists between the Israelis and the Palestinians, can have solutions and that terrorism can come to an end through negotiations as well as through bloodshed and war ("George Mitchell," Understanding Northern Ireland: BBC News, 2008).

What characteristics did this leader have that contributed to his or her effectiveness?

Mitchell stumbled into his role as historic peacemaker and broker. He first came to Northern Ireland as part of the Clinton Administration's efforts to improve the Irish economy. However, Mitchell quickly realized that little economic improvement was possible until the threat of attack from paramilitary weapons was removed. He knew no one would want to invest in Ireland if there was a constant threat of IRA bombs putting the property and lives of other nationalities at risk. Also, ordinary Irish people were unable to effectively use any infusions of economic aid, if they were constantly worried about their day-to-day survival.

Mitchell…… [read more]


War and Torture Term Paper

… Torture and War

Drawing the line between what is torture and what is coercion, on one level, is an exercise in semantics. Mark Bowden, in his book, the Art of Interrogation, explores all the various words and their semantic applications… [read more]


Attacks on the World Trade Center Term Paper

… ¶ … attacks on the world trade center, the U.S. government decided to evaluate and review the country's response capabilities following a man-made or man-initiated disaster. Memories of attacks and pictures of the first responders -- firefighters, police and paramedics… [read more]


United Foreign Policy the Bush Administration Term Paper

… United Foreign Policy

The Bush Administration is considered to represent a milestone in the U.S. foreign policy. This is partly because of the events that took place in September 2001 and partly due to the consequence they had on reshaping… [read more]


Looming Tower by Lawrence Wright Term Paper

… ¶ … Looming Tower by Lawrence Wright

Lawrence Wright's book, the Looming Tower, published by Alfred Knopf in 2006. In Chapters 1 through 11, Wright make the complex workings of al-Qaeda easy to comprehend. The first half of the book traces the history of al-Qaeda back to post World War II, where the ideas of a jihad were but seeds of thought in Sayyid Qutb's mind. Wright does well to explore the main players' characters religious and political involvement. Political ideas coupled with religious persuasions help us to understand the aspirations of these men that help form the underground movement that we would later come to know as the Islamic fundamentalist movement.

Wright does well with his research in that we feel as though we get into the minds of these main players. We seem them as young boys that grew in their faith and radicalism. We see the men with their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Their lives are almost normal - almost. Wright's description of these men make them real to us and, as a result, we can come closer to understanding them.

As mentioned, the book begins with the beginning of what we have come to know as Islamic fundamentalism in late 1948. Wright goes back in time to Sayyid Qutb, a middle-class bureaucrat, who came up with the first ideas that would "beckon to a generation of rootless young Arabs who were looking for meaning and purpose in their lives and would find it in jihad" (10). Wright paints a powerful portrait of Qutb and his way of thinking noting, "In Qutb's passionate analysis, there was little difference between the communist and capitalist systems" (14). Qutb was passionate. In 1952, he worked for the Egypt government under Gamal Abdul Nasser and was appointed the position of editor of the Muslim Brothers magazine, Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin. The magazine was eventually shut down by the government for its critical editorials. In 1954, Qutb was charged with being a members of the Muslim Brothers' "secret apparatus" (28) that was responsible for an assassination attempt on Nasser. Qutb and other members of the Brotherhood were sentenced to life in prison but due to till health, he was moved to the prison hospital in 1955. While imprisoned, he wrote a "lucid, highly personal eight-volume commentary called in the Shade of the Quran (29). In addition, he was able to smuggle outside a manifesto entitled Milestones, which circulated underground for years in the form of letters. The book was…… [read more]


Patriot Act Has Generated Great Controversy Term Paper

… Patriot Act has generated great controversy since it was signed into law on October 26, 2001. The Act was created as a form of support for the government in the fight against terrorism and it immediately passed as a law after the tragic events of September 11. The opponents of the Patriot Act argue that the law abridges essential freedom and that it allows governmental agencies the right to break basic freedoms guaranteed through the Constitution under the pretext of fighting against terrorism. They claim that every citizen can easily become a victim under this law as it broadens too much the power of governmental authorities to invade the individual freedom.

However, the Patriot Act was designed to protect American citizens from their enemies that seem to come more from within the territory of the United States than from outside. The terrorist attacks of 9/11 were an act of war conducted by enemies of our country that operated from within our borders and it is only natural that the first step that must be taken to prevent further attacks and to punish those responsible for the attacks in 2001 is to provide security inside our nation. The terrorist attacks of September 11 were acts of war and this calls for war measures of national security. The Patriot Act was designed as a measure of fighting against terrorism considering the circumstances in which the U.S. was found. Undeniably, there are points of the Act that seem to threat individual freedom, but the basic point of the law was to protect American citizens from further terrorist attacks.

The response of the Bush administration after 9/11 was a declaration of war against terror and those that support it. America engaged in an actual war that involves military operations against terrorists and their supporters in Afghanistan and Iraq, but in order to provide the needed security to Americans against other possible attacks, measures must be taken inside our own borders, especially after it was proven that the terrorists that planned the attacks from U.S. territory. The use of military force abroad, while necessary, is by no means sufficient and domestic counterterrorism efforts by the FBI and other domestic law enforcement agencies are at least as essential to defeating the enemy.

The Patriot Act is a complex measure to boost the federal government's ability to prevent and detect terrorism. Most opponents of the Act focus on the fact that the law provides authorities with greater power of surveillance and overlook that the law also brings some much needed change in the field of intelligence in U.S.. Past laws were not updated enough to take into consideration the technological evolutions that terrorists can use and they could not provide…… [read more]


Extraordinary Rendition Refers to the Practice Research Paper

… Extraordinary Rendition refers to the practice of transferring terror suspects from one country to another by means that bypass all judicial due process. After their secret transfer to selected countries, which do not care much for human rights or the… [read more]


U.S.A. Patriot Act Has Generated Great Controversy Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S.A. Patriot Act has generated great controversy since its very beginning, many voices claiming that it is damaging to the basic individual freedoms that Americans have always valued. The Act was initially designed as one of the governmental measures taken in the fight against terrorism after September 11, but the measures stipulated in it generated massive debates over whether or not the Patriot Act abridges essential freedom.

The Patriot Act was passed by the Senate and the House with an overwhelming majority soon after the attacks of 9/11. Considering the circumstances under which the law was voted, it is not surprising that the legislation passed, but there are parts of the Act that require further analysis that will most likely show that it is endangering essential freedoms. The Act was designed and was quickly adopted as a response from the American government to the terrifying terrorist attacks that hit America in 2001 and it represents a measure of internal security.

The official name of the Patriot Act is "The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act" and its main purpose is to facilitate investigators that are dealing with discovering and preventing terrorist attacks. As terrorist attacks became one of the greatest fears of Americans after 9/11, the Patriot Act was initially seen as a measure that will provide greater power and access to terrorism investigators and it was seen as one of the measures that would prevent other terrorist attacks from happening. However, there are many measures stipulated in the Patriot Act that were later contested and that can be seen as flagrant braking of basic individual freedom.

The USA Patriot Act permits tracking Web sites and e-mails if the law enforcement agency certifies that it relates to an ongoing investigation; searching a business or residence with a warrant but without being forced to notify the owner on the reason of the search or even that the search was made until later in the investigation; installing wiretaps on all phones used by a suspect, even on public phones that might be used by the suspect; detaining non-citizens without a hearing; deportation of non-citizens based on their support to a certain terrorist group, even if that does not necessary qualify as terrorist activity, and many other measures of this type.

Parts of the measures of the U.S.A. Patriot Act were greatly contested by the public opinion that qualifies the Act as threatening to individual freedom. The fact that the FBI would have the possibility to investigate, wiretap and constantly supervise any individual that is considered to be related to terrorist activities is regarded as a grave breaking of individual freedom and many consider that the Patriot Act would eventually end up in allowing the government to create a supervised society in which we can all be victims by simply using a pay phone that is also used by a terrorism suspect.

There are also parts of the U.S.A. Patriot Act that… [read more]


Counterterrorism Course the Central Reason Term Paper

… Counterterrorism Course

The central reason for taking this course is to learn and understand the fundamentals of counterterrorism. The motivation behind my enthusiasm for this course is related to the age in which we live and to the ever-present danger of terrorism. The fact that terrorism has become such as a dominant feature of the contemporary world necessitates knowledge of the ways in which it can be combated. This also includes understanding the different forms that terrorism takes and the way that information and data play an important if not crucial part in dealing with and possibly eradicating terrorism. Therefore the more that one studies and understands the phenomenon of terrorism the better are the chances of countering and eliminating a threat which has become so pervasive in the modern world.

The prior preparation for this course in my case consists largely of my own readings and observations. I have made a point of reading the latest news and reports on terrorism and counterterrorist initiatives…… [read more]

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