"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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Sociology T1 How Does the Eternal Jew Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sociology T1

How does the Eternal Jew film clip relate to Thomas's Theorem?

The way the film relates to Thomas's Theorem is to demonstrate how the definition of something will influence the present. In this case, the Germans are showing the Jews as selfish individuals, who will hide among the different segments of society for their own benefit. According to Massey (1989), this is a process known as hyper segregation. This is when individual groups are separated based upon the different social beliefs and attitudes about them. Moreover, EO (2003) determined that a particular group will have specific characteristics which help them to have a sense of pride. In this aspect, these ideas are showing how the film is depicting the Jews as vermin. That has no respect for cultural traditions. This support Thomas's Theorem by illustrating the how the film is changing the definition of them and their contributions to civilization. ("The External Jew," 1941) (James, 2003) (Massey, 1989) (Philips, 2013)

How does equating humans with rats effect how we react to/interact with those kinds of humans?

The equating of humans with rats is used to show one group as nothing more than rodents. They will multiply and live off society for the benefit of themselves. From the social creation of reality perspective, this is illustrating how they must be stopped in order to change everyone's perceptions about them. (Massey, 1989)

What stereotypical or bigoted words or language do you use or hear used by others that fit into Q1 and Q2?

There are a number of stereotypical words included such as: rodent, vermin, filth and selfish. In the film, these ideas are changing perceptions and creative negative views. When this happens, no one will feel sorry for them and support more aggressive actions against the Jews. ("The External Jew," 1941)

Are the people in the Zimbardo, Milgram, and Abu Ghraib film clips evil people?

No. They are showing how the group can become caught up in the momentum of the situation. From a socialization and cultural perspective, these insights are used to illustrate how normal people can become involved in various atrocities. This occurs with them being influenced and desensitized about what is occurring. ("Abu Ghraib," 2008)

Why is science not the same as common sense?

The reason why science is not the same as common sense is from it using verifiable facts and observing what is taking place. Common sense is based upon individual experiences…… [read more]

Homeland Security-Boston Bombing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


2013). The FBI have come on record acknowledging that they had probed the elder brother upon getting warning from Moscow but they were not able to get any derogatory details hence they closed the case. The CIA too received same warnings from Russia in 2011 and the government even had Tsarnaev within two if it's anti-terror database.

The situation on communication appears to be the greatest impediment that still deters the effective prevention of terror attacks. All those involved in the post investigations and interviews in the committee admitted that one single most challenge among the agencies is communication process. Edward Davis, recognized that the federal, state and local police worked out in a coordinated manner and handled the situation as best as they could be, there was still a big challenge in information sharing particularly at the top levels of the investigative agencies when there is still time to do so and prevent terror (Remal G., 2013). There is still need to have a better way of sharing the databases among the investigative agencies under the homeland security and better channels fro passing down information from one arm to the other arm of investigations. Unfortunately, these seem to be the same mistakes made in 9/11 that were repeated in the Boston bombing, the only fortunate thing is that the magnitude was mush smaller and that the culprits behind the act were apprehended almost immediately.


Barry G. (2013). FBI, Homeland Security withheld information on Boston bombing suspects from local, state police. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/05/11/bomb-m11.html

Larry B., (2013). Boston bombing refocuses attention on homeland security. USA Today May 2, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/05/02/minnesota-homeland-security-funding/2130441/

Remal G., (2013). Homeland Security chair: FBI not cooperating with Boston Bombing Probe. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.redicecreations.com/article.php?id=26052… [read more]

Airport Screening for Terrorists Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,069 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


If such profiling was formally instituted in airports via Homeland Security agencies, for instance, there could be considerable legal repercussions. Although profiling does happen regularly it is not necessarily legal -- implementing it as such on a formal basis therefore would result in legal infringement.

Alternatives to profiling could include utilizing so-called 'big data' to more closely monitor the movements of individuals and even collectives both within and outside of the airport. For instance, the recent National Security Association breach revealed that government officials are monitoring people's online activity as well as call records for the purported purpose of identifying terrorists (Faris, 2013). These measures could be increased to augment airport security. Additionally, smart phones can contribute to sensor data so that the whereabouts of people are known at most points in time -- which may be of use when attempting to identify terrorists or potentially hazardous activity.

Another potential option that is currently in place in a trial phase is the so-called trusted traveler program, which is part of a larger initiative referred to as Global Entry. For a $100 fee (which will almost surely increase if this initiative is adopted on a permanent basis) travelers can enroll in a program where a host of personally identifiable information -- such as fingerprints, passports and residency cards -- is taken and collected about travelers. These individuals will also have to pass an interview. The point is to establish the fact that they are low risk travelers, whose personal information is already confirmed. Then, when they attempt to travel at airports, they can submit their identification cards at a kiosk and either be directed to baggage or to security for another interview.

As previously mentioned, the trusted traveler program is currently in a pilot phase. It is worth noting that there are other countries adopting similar measures around the world. As such, it is a viable option to assist with screening for terrorists. However, I believe that such measures, as well as the aforementioned monitoring of people via big data and through sensor data obtained through smart phones, are largely unnecessary. Perhaps I simply do not fly enough, but security measures have never impeded my progress or significantly impacted my time at the airport (except in hopefully contributing to safe flights). I honestly do not think that the current method of screening for terrorist activity is that bad. I believe it should remain in place, without alternative, since it has (again, hopefully) contributed to less terrorist activity involving airplanes since this method was implemented.


Faris, S. (2013). "Have the NSA leaks compromised big data's future?" DATAVERSITY. Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/have-the-nsa-leaks-compromised-big-datas-future/

Huddy, L. Feldman, S. (2011). "Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath." American Psychologist. 66 (6): 455-467. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=6c5746c9-4b73-4b98-b07f-37a2c3b154f1%40sessionmgr13&hid=4

Neria, Y., DiGrande, L, Adams, B.G. (2011). "Posttraumatic stress disorder following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks." American Psychologist. 66 (6): 429-446. http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6c5746c9-4b73-4b98-b07f-37a2c3b154f1%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&hid=4… [read more]

Secure After 911? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The bin Laden assassination was based on Obama's authorization to the Navy SEALS to use a risky night-time raid into Pakistan. Many believe that killing bin Laden makes the U.S. safer because -- while there is some debate as to how much authority bin Laden had within the al Qaeda organization at the time of his death -- bin Laden was an iconic, bright, wealthy and creative terrorist planner, and may have been putting together new plans for attacks against the U.S.

Example #2 -- Obama has gone on the offensive against terrorists everywhere

Through the use of high-tech unmanned drones, the Obama Administration has killed a number of key al Qaeda leaders in Pakistan, Sudan and in Yemen as well. Clearly the use of drones to kill suspected enemies is controversial and is being criticized widely because along with suspected terrorist leaders innocent civilians are also among the casualties when a drone strike is launched. That having been said, in April, 2013, two U.S. drone strikes in Yemen (a hotbed for terrorist activities) killed "…at least five suspected militants and destroyed the house of one of them in a mountainous area" near Sanaa, Yemen (CBS News). One of those killed in Yemen in April, 2013, was Hamed Radman, suspected of recruiting radical Muslims for terrorist attacks and suicide bombings (CBS News).

In conclusion, while some of the tactics used by the U.S. government are controversial, the fact is that by going on the offensive against Islamic terrorists where they train and plan their evil deeds the U.S. is more secure. Rather than preparing to ward off attacks in the U.S. The Obama Administration has keyed on taking out terrorists in the Middle East before they can make their demonic killing plans against American citizens. Also, while the increased domestic security efforts did not stop the Boston bombing, in most cases terrorist tactics against Americans in the U.S. have been foiled.

Works Cited

Boyd, Dallas, Dunn, Lewis A., and Scouras, James. "Why Has the United States Not Been

Attacked Again?" The Washington Quarterly, 32.3 (2009): 3-19.

CBS News. "Yemen: U.S. drone strikes kill 5 al Qaeda members." Retrieved May 19, 2013,

from http://www.cbsnews.com.

Zakheim, Dov. S. "What 911…… [read more]

Khaled Hosseini's Novel Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The decision to marry Mariam off ruins her life, as she ends up with an abusive husband. Mariam's husband has socially sanctioned power over her, and in a twisted way, he has the legitimate power in the relationship to do what he wants with his "property," which is how Mariam is viewed and treated. This type of marriage is considered legitimate in the Afghan society. It might be morally incorrect, and entirely depraved, but it is legitimate. Laila sees through the illegitimacy of the Taliban and also of the wife abuse, and it is with her help that Mariam is eventually able to see that she is indeed the only legitimate source of power and strength in her own life.

When the Taliban come to power, the legitimacy of their rule calls into question the entire fabric of the society. There are many in Afghan society that left before the Taliban came to power, as they foresaw the troubles lying ahead. Those people recognized that the Taliban would have no legitimate authority over the Afghan people, as long as the Afghan people left the geo-political boundaries of their homeland. The people who could not afford to leave Afghanistan but who also believed that the Taliban were illegitimate, like Laila and Mariam, were in the position of subverting the law. The law was illegitimate, from a moral standpoint, in their eyes. This is why they worked tirelessly to overcome the illegitimate social order as best they could. The only legitimate power in their lives came from their friendship and loyalty to one another. When Mariam kills Rasheed, the killing was entirely legitimate as it was done in self-defense of Laila. Yet the state has the legitimate authority to kill Mariam. What Hosseini shows in the story is that political, economic, and social power is not necessarily legitimate, even when the people with weapons, money, and status claim that it is. The only legitimate power is moral and ethical power.


Hosseini, K. (2007). A Thousand…… [read more]

Credible Warnings or False Alarms? Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


S. intelligence services to become aware of a possible strike in planning by the terrorists of Al-Qaeda.

Followed by this would be the factors that made it possible for the terrorist outfit to enter the country without coming under the radar of the intelligence authorities. This section would focus on the immigration and public policies that existed prior to the 9/11 attacks. An explanation of the concept of connections between the public policy making, public decisions and policy making theories and their impacts on the society would have to be given using a thorough detail of the pre-9/11 policies in place, which could be reviewed from an external source (R.Rosenblum, 2011). The research regarding this concept would provide information upon the matter in detail, such as the impact of the old policies towards creating the new public policies, especially in relation to immigration. Additionally, the policy making and implementation aspects of public administration in the United States would be highlighted via the research conducted. The research would present an understanding of the functions of policy making whilst looking at the existing system in place.

The Research Analysis

After presenting the background information, links between the events that occurred before the 9/11 attack would be analyzed. This analysis would help in determining the events that could have been considered as credible warnings by the U.S. intelligence agencies in detecting a possible attack on 10th September, 2001. Various theories would have to be reviewed using research data obtained to describe the results of the research paper. The concept of acquiring basic skills to be intelligent and critical consumers of quantitative information would also be achieved through this analysis, which would help in understand the information gathered in statistical fashion as well.

The Conclusion

Finally a concluding summary of all the report would have to be presented which would present the findings of the research in conclusive form and using the analysis carried before, would outline the lessons learned from the attacks and how these could be used in the future to plan an effective strategy regarding the prevention of such attacks. Moreover, a brief light would be shed on the findings of the organizational issues of Al-Qaeda and how such organizations might be stopped from indulging in such terrorist activities. The development of appropriate policies would also be advised in the concluding summary, based on the understanding developed of public policy making in the United States via the research conducted.


R.Rosenblum, M. (2011). U.S. Immigration Policy Since 9/11: Understanding the Stalemate over Comprehensive Immigration Program. Migration Policy Institute.

Rollins, J. (2011). Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications…… [read more]

Aeronautical the September 11 Terrorist Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The tragedy hit every tentacle of the aviation industry -- from airport management to manufacturing and maintenance. Security issues evolved almost as extensions of the overarching problems that faced managers on a daily basis, ranging from distressed or grieving staff members to problematic passengers. The politics of aviation that ensued following the terrorist attacks were like never before; altering relationships between senior management and federal aviation officials; between senior management and employees; and between airport management and security personnel.

Murphy (2006) focuses on specific airlines and specific airports, too. The analysis allows for a microcosmic and microscopic view of events that took place the fateful day of the terrorist attacks. Murphy's perspective shows how the terrorist attacks did not just impact the airports and airlines that were directly impacted but the entire industry, worldwide. The post-September 11 regulations have dramatically altered the organizational climate in which aeronautical managers work, shaping policy in every area from human resources to procurement, from scheduling to pricing. It is hard to imagine one event leaving such a broad mark on an entire industry -- without any new technological innovations to stimulate change. The only forces driving change were human factors: the motivation to succeed, the need to keep stalwart companies afloat during a major crisis.

Crisis management and disaster recovery are ancillary themes in aeronautical management that are dealt with in a tangential way in Reclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women who Kept America Flying. Because the emphasis on the book is on human factors, it is important to keep in mind that aeronautical management has had a firm foundation in human factors long before the terrorist attacks (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008; Jensen, 1997). Yet no official organizational policy related to crisis management can substitute for actual responders, and leadership qualities that transcend textbook models.

Beyond the issues discussed in Reclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women who Kept America Flying, the aeronautical industry continues to contend with issues that are only distantly connected with the September 11 attacks, such as pricing and other financial considerations. Revenue management and other factors are, however, inextricably linked with the means by which the airline industry recovered from the September 11 disasters. Thus, September 11 highlighted both the strengths and the weaknesses in the aeronautical industry, helping it to plot out future courses that will increase revenue growth around the world.


Blake, A. & Sinclair, M.T. (2003). Tourism crisis management: U.S. response to Septmeber 11. Annals of Tourism Research 30(4): 813-832.

Campbell, R.D., & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human performance and limitations in aviation. Blackwell. Retrieved online: http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/105044474.pdf

Jensen, R.S. (1997). The Boundaries of Aviation Psychology, Human Factors, Aeronautical Decision Making,…… [read more]

Amnesty International and Human Rights Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


S. authorities, the killing of Osama bin Laden would appear to have been unlawful. (Amnesty International, Annual Report, 2012)

Now, this is ridiculous since bin Laden was a man who was wanted on account of numerous global terrorist attacks. The man would have continued to perpetrate dozens more had he not been caught no matter how. Each time, the terrorist had slipped out of their grasp or had killed others who were attempting to capture him. And AI quibbles over the capture of the man!

Many of the reports have also been exaggerated. Take this one, for instance on Guantanamo Bay. In the foreword to AI's Report 2000, the Secretary General, Irene Khan, referred to the Guantanamo Bay prison as: "the gulag of our times, entrenching the practice of arbitrary and indefinite detention in violation of international law. Trials by military commissions have made a mockery of justice and due process." (AI Report 2005 )

She later added:

"If Guantanamo evokes images of Soviet repression, "ghost detainees" -- or the incommunicado detention of unregistered detainees -- bring back the practice of "disappearances" so popular with Latin American dictators in the past. According to U.S. official sources there could be over 100 ghost detainees held by the U.S. In 2004, thousands of people were held by the U.S. In Iraq, hundreds in Afghanistan and undisclosed numbers in undisclosed locations. AI is calling on the U.S. Administration to "close Guantanamo and disclose the rest." ( Amnesty International Report 2005

Speech by Irene Khan

at Foreign Press Association | Amnesty International

This, as Rumsfeld, Cheney, and Bush remarked were a list of exaggerations and absurdities. The Washington Post, in fact, commented that "lately the organization has tended to save its most vitriolic condemnations not for the world's dictators but for the United States."( Washington Post, May 26, 2005). The United States might occasionally err as it did with its treatment of captors, as reported in the Amnesty Report of 2003. Nonetheless, their reports are exaggerated and, at their worst, American treatment of captors in no way resembled those of treatment afforded to prisoners by, for instance, the former Russian system. Yet, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International fail to draw legitimate comparisons and equivocate 'brutality' of the U.S. To 'brutality' of another publicly perceived brutal system.

In their comparison of Guantanamo to the Soviet Gulag, Podhoretz writing for the New York Post commented: "The case of Amnesty International proves that well-meaning people can make morality their life's work and still be little more than moral idiots" (New York Post, May 27, 2005).


AI Report 2005


Amnesty International, Annual Report, 2012


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights


The White House (May 25, 2005) Press Briefing by Scott McClellan.


New York Post, May 27, 2005 Amnesty's Idiocy http://www.nypost.com/postopinion/opedcolumnists/24416.htm

Washington Post, May 26, 2005 American Gulag

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/05/25/AR2005052501838.html?nav=mb… [read more]

Global Stage, What Distinguishes Jose Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, Wilson still remained in prison until 2003. Despite the presence of the Freedom of Information Act, Wilson lacked access to critical documents which were classified because they were deemed to be vital to national security. His case demonstrates the difficulty of having a fair trial in the U.S. when the government can use national security as a defense for withholding evidence.

Q4. What point was clearly made in Fernandez regarding the disclosure of classified information? Provide a full explanation

Fernandez was accused of acting as a co-conspirator with Oliver North and others in defrauding the United States and circumventing the ban on arming the rebel contras in Nicaragua. The independent counsel's indictment accused Fernandez of engaging in a conspiracy and making false statements. However, the Attorney General stated that there could be "potentially serious damage to national security from disclosure of the two categories of classified information deemed relevant to Fernandez's defense" ("Chapter 20: United States vs. Joseph F. Fernandez," n.d.). The Fernandez case was the first time that a CIA chief was subject to charges regarding his duties, so the case had great legal significance ("Chapter 20: United States vs. Joseph F. Fernandez," n.d.). It was also the first time that an attorney general used his power to "prohibit the introduction of classified information at trial. As a result, independent counsel was deprived of the opportunity to demonstrate at trial the crucial role Fernandez played in the contra resupply operation...as well as the extent to which Fernandez tried to obstruct the inquiries of official investigative bodies attempting to learn the facts of the Iran-Contra matter" ("Chapter 20: United States vs. Joseph F. Fernandez," n.d.). The case raised serious questions about the ability to have a fair trial in a nation with powerful intelligence agencies. It suggested that the actions of operatives could put them above the law, provided they could claim national security as a defense for not releasing documents.

Works Cited

"Chapter 20: United States vs. Joseph F. Fernandez." [2 Sept 2012]


Karon, Tony. "Jose Padilla." Time. 14 Jun 2002. [2 Sept 2012]


Sherrer, Hans. "Federal Judge Tosses Conviction of Ex-CIA Agent Framed by the CIA and Federal Prosecutors. Justice: Denied 24: 4. [2 Sept 2012]


"Timothy McVeigh." CNN. 29 Mar 2001. [2 Sept 2012]

http://articles.cnn.com/2001-03-29/us/profile.mcveigh_1_timothy-mcveigh-oklahoma-city-bombing-religion-basic-training-fort-bragg?_s=PM:U.S.… [read more]

Vulnerability Assessment the Terrorist Incident Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


One primary concern that law enforcement agencies have been particularly concerned about is the possibility of either a dirty bomb or other small nuclear device. Iran has been linked to Hamas and other groups, and there is the possibility that these groups could use some type of nuclear device supplied to them by Iran. It would not be necessary for the bomb to cause a nuclear reaction as long as there was the fear of the release of nuclear contamination. Since the Metro system is used by a great number of government employees it would be a delivery system that could be used to cause a great deal of destruction.

Security at the Metro stations has not been of primary concern in the past because there has never been any type of attack on a U.S. rail service. However, following 9/11 in the United States terrorists used an attack on a railway system in downtown London to great effect. The city was shut down for several days and the transportation system was damaged which caused a disruption in commercial and governmental services. Like London's rail system, the Metro is vulnerable because it is centrally located and close to both large numbers of people and important structures. The explosion of a dirty bomb could literally cripple Washington and the U.S. government.

Defeating a terrorist plan to use the Metro for such a purpose would begin with radiation detection equipment and a greater law enforcement presence at terminals. Plans are already being discussed to make the system safer, but they have not yet been enacted because of the bureaucracy that exists in Washington. The seriousness of the issue has not been fully realized (Brainard & Derrick-Mills, 2011).


Brainard, l. A., & Derrick-Mills, T. (2011). Electronic commons, community policing, and communication: Online police-citizenship discussion groups in Washington, DC. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 33(3), 22-34.

Post, B. (2007). The great society subway: A History of the Washington, DC…… [read more]

Public Policy Analysis the Definitions Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Responsibility must start with the understanding that under the best arrangements there will be irresponsibility in administrative actions to a considerable margin. Accountability to another person or body requires some agreement concerning the action or the end result. It is evident that a principal cannot effectively bring about the responsible conduct of public affairs, unless elaborate techniques make explicit what purposes and activities are involved in all the many different phases of public policy (Friedrich). The memorandum on February 7, 2002 stated the Geneva Convention rules did not apply to conflict between the U.S. And al Qaeda because he was not a high contracting party to Geneva. It did not mention anything about the detainees being exempted and the Geneva Convention rules did not make any exceptions. This is clearly a conflict of policy as well as no clear definition of what consists of with al Qaeda.

Assuming causality is a nonexperimental approach that assumes a connection between the availability or level of a program and a condition in the target population (Rosembloom). The definition given in law for torture is not clearly defined. It bases the definition on the objectives and does not include the actual actions and does not define the term severe, or how far one must go to commit torture.

'Process analysis concerns the way in which a particular policy or program is implemented. The content of the policy and its impact on the ones affected can be modified, elaborated, or even negated during its implementation. The Executive Order where President Bush authorized the interrogation techniques did not clearly define the limits of those interrogation techniques.

Implementation evaluation depends on policy analysis, but it is whether the implementation of the policy is appropriate, rather than whether it has the intended impact. It really depends on the perspective, whether managerial, political, or legal. The forced interrogation techniques brought about a questionable quality of the information they were seeking. The techniques were political and ignored the legal and management of those techniques.

General Conclusions and Recommendations

General conclusion: Terms should be fully defined where there is little doubt or confusion about their meaning and what applies and what does not.

Recommendation: Terms can be defined by committees of at least ten participants to invalidate more meaning and criticality. Using committees can define terms more fully to have better understanding.

General conclusion: Leadership should be more accountable for their decisions in implementing public policy and the training of personnel.

Recommendation: Where policies conflict or violate another, it should be agreed upon by a committee to evaluate the appropriateness.

General conclusion: When a policy has been implemented, any changes to that policy should follow an organizational structure. One administrator should not be allowed to change the policy.

Recommendation: When a change in policy needs to be implemented, the administrator that originally implemented the policy should be on the committee to change it.


Friedrich, C.J. (n.d.). Public Policy and the Nature of Administrative Responsibility. In Stillman, Public Administration-Concepts and… [read more]

Bloodlines and Race Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Elijah Mohammad, "Yakub promised his followers that he would graft a nation from his own people, and he would teach them how to rule his people, through a system of tricks and lies whereby they use deceit to divide and conquer, and break the unity of the darker people, put one brother against another, and then act as mediators and rule both sides" (Gardell 1996). Hence Blacks are the superior ones and should rule over White community, according to Malcom X, that genetically black is dominant while white is recessive, therefore white supremacy must be condemned and blacks must rule over the world. They just use the name of Islamic rules of truthfulness, honesty and human equality etc. In order to attract more and more people (Gardell 1996).

Who was Alain Locke? What was his contribution to race discourse?

Alain Locke was a famous philosopher, writer and educationist during the period of Harlem Renaissance, in fact he is considered to be the founder of the movement. Born in 1886 and died in 1954, Locke served as a motivating philosopher for the African-Americans to identify and promote their talents as writers, poets, musicians, other skillful persons and thus obtain a dignity to have better social position in the society. He was of the view of "Ethnic Race" that races are not based on biological or hereditary characteristics, rather there are social and cultural basis upon which a race depends. Any race does not determine a social culture rather it is the culture and the society which forms the fundamentals of race. Hence the two are not independent of each other since the latter is the product of the former. A particular race is determined by particular psychological and emotional responses and reactions to the circumstances which then become only specific to them since that particular community socially inherits such dispositions. Thus by this means, people remain distinctive to each other and are therefore, categorized on ethnical basis as a race rather than biologically. The particular traits, expressions, lifestyles remain preserved to a particular community and people can be identified by such characteristics (SEP 2012, Locke and Jeffrey 1992).


Firmin, Joseph-Ante-nor. 2000. The equality of the human races: (positivist anthropology). New York: Garland Pub.

Gardell, Mattias. 1996. In the name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Locke, Alain, and Jeffrey C. Stewart. 1992. Race contacts and interracial relations: lectures on the theory and practice of race. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.

SEP: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March…… [read more]

Homeland Security Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Specifically stated is that among the prominent successes of DH are "…the physical screening of airplane passengers and cargo at airports and the pre-screening of airline passengers and cargo bound for the U.S.; information sharing among federal, state, and local officials; and a Federal Emergency Management Agency more capable of responding to catastrophic disasters. The Department is better integrated than ever before, having melded 200,000 employees and dozens of agencies with different cultures and management policies together under one banner." (U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Internal Affairs, 2011, p.1)

IV. Foiled Terrorist Plots Among DHS Successes

According to a report published in U.S. News 'The Daily Beast' since 911 there have been, "at least 45 jihadists terrorist attacks plotted again Americans -- each of them thwarted by a combination of intelligence policing and citizen participation." (Avlon, 2011, p.1) The latest cases states the report involved three individuals and one of them "believed to be a U.S. citizen" who entered into the U.S. In August with plans to use a car-bomb attack "against Washington D.C. Or New York. The suspected terrorists are thought to have come from Afghanistan or Pakistan, and at least two rental trucks are being sought nationwide." (Avlon, 2011, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

The Department of Homeland Security has realized a great deal of success in its operations since 911 as evidenced by the literature reviewed in this study and most specifically by the terrorists plots that were thwarted before they could attack U.S. cities. Furthermore, in an age characterized by Cyber-attacks, the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security in addressing that potential are critical and for this, the efforts of the DHS should be applauded.


Avlon, John (2011) Forty-Five Foiled Terror Plots Since 9/11. U.S. News. Daily Beast. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/08/9-11-anniversary-45-terror-plots-foiled-in-last-10-years.html

A Decade After 9/11, DHS Matures Lieberman, Collins Commend Department's Development, Press for Continued Progress. (2011) U.S. Senate on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 7 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/media/a-decade-after-9/11-dhs-matures-lieberman-collins-commend-departments-development-press-for-continued-progress

Statement of Gene L. Dodaro (2011) Progress Made and Work Remaining in Implementing Homeland Security Missions 10 Years after 9/11. Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Department of Homeland Security. 7 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11919t.pdf

Hoover, J. Nicholas (2011) 7 Key Homeland Security IT Developments Since 9/11. Information Week Government. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/security/231601054… [read more]

Madrid Case Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


On top of the communication barriers, the triage of patients was not properly conducted. In one area one patient would be given care, while many others were left unattended. Although the military personnel had training and exposure to this type of situation, they were not consulted for much help. The experience from the military personnel could have greatly helped many of the injured patients and possibly saved more lives in the process.

In a massive situation such as this; Madrid needed help from all nearby agencies, which became a challenging case due to the different organizational procedure and protocols each district followed. Establishing a framework such as the NIMS, for each agency and organization to follow can be an effective strategy in similar situations. The National Incident Management System (NIMS), was established on February 28, 2003 by Homeland security following the devastation of the 9/11 attacks. It was created to better handle and manage the response to massive attacks and for agencies to help one another if they become the victim to such events. This system provides a nationwide team framework between Federal and local governments, in order for them to work together to combat domestic incidents. The NIMS includes a set of rules in the event that an attack occurs, and is a way to train and identify terrorist attacks. After the aftermath of September 11, 2001, homeland security wanted to implement a system that could minimize the detriment of an attack. The NIMS framework could give first responders in state and local agencies the ability to communicate any dangers in a one area and signal the next agency to prepare themselves. The NIMS bases its core on flexibility and standardization. The flexibility of this system makes it possible for all levels of government and private organizations to work in an organized environment to cover the prevention, recovery and response of any incident. The standardization the system provides helps the organizations involved; follow the requirements needed to carry out the processes and procedures necessary. The NIMS system is also a channel for the public information systems, which is an important factor in situations like Madrid. In hindsight Madrid officials did not handle the public information sector very well, in the beginning they jumped to quickly blaming the ETA. Although they did have a past with this violent group, they failed to see the signs that Al-Qaeda had some involvement. One individual reported seeing an empty care playing what sounded to be teachings from the Qur'an, this should have been a sign to officials nearby to investigate and alert other respondents of suspicious activity.

Fast forward to today and we can see the effects these terrorist attacks have had on the security of every nation, and the advancement on security. Although not every attack can be predicted, there are signs that should be taken seriously to ensure the safety of innocent people.

Works Cited

Madrid train bombings of 2004 (terrorist attacks, Spain) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.

(n.d.). Encyclopedia - Britannica… [read more]

History of Building Construction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Finally, due to numerous firefighters' deaths in the towers' collapse, we are looking into systems that can predict the possibilities of a structure's collapse (Pennwell Corporation, 2003) before firefighters enter the structure.

Works Cited

Command Safety. (2010). 1980 MGM Grand Hotel Fire - Thirty Years Ago. Retrieved from commandsafety.com: http://commandsafety.com/2010/11/1980-mgm-grand-hotel-fire-thirty-years-ago/

Firmage, J.P. (2006, August 8). Intersecting Facts and Theories on 09/11. Retrieved from Journal of 911 Studies: http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/Intersecting_Facts_and_Theories_on_911.pdf

Flannery Associates. (2008, January). Section 1: Fire and People: Unit 4 - Occupancy Types and Means of Egress. Retrieved from cuny.edu: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~tflan/documents/101docs/FIS101OccupancyTypesandExits.pdf

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). Commission Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Office of the Vice President for University Operations, the University of Texas at Austin. (2009, February 5). Fire Prevention Services: Historic Fires. Retrieved from utexas.edu: http://www.utexas.edu/safety/fire/safety/historic_fires.html

Pennwell Corporation. (2003, September 4). Fire Technology for a Safer Tomorrow. Retrieved from Fire Engineering: http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-157/issue-5/features/fire-technology-for-a-safer-tomorrow.html

Pinkerson, D. (Director). (2011). Triangle: Remembering the Fire [Motion Picture].

Remember the Triangle Fire Coalition. (2011). Remember the Triangle Fire Coaltion. Retrieved from Rememberthetrianglefirecoaltion.org: http://rememberthetrianglefire.org/

Rosa, P. (n.d.). HistoryBuff.com -- History Library -- The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Retrieved from HistoryBuff.com: http://www.historybuff.com/library/refshirtwaist.html

Yaz, G. (n.d.). The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911: Leap for Life, Leap of Death. Retrieved from csun.edu: http://www.csun.edu/~ghy7463/mw2.html… [read more]

Healthcare and the Threat Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Besides using a cyber attack to disable or disrupt the ability of emergency services at a hospital or field location to function, cyber attacks could be used to destroy medical records and alter prescriptions maintained as digital files in such a way that lives could be threatened. A cyber attack designed to cripple the ability of emergency services to respond to an emergency could also be used to amplify the destructive effect of a terrorist bombing.

Types of Cyber-Terrorism

A cyber terrorist could be anyone who has the appropriate technical skills, even a disgruntled current or former employee. The most common forms of cyber-terrorism today are denial of service, destruction of information, and the alteration of information (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 273). Making private information public would be another way to undermine the reputation of an organization and cause clients and patients to seek care elsewhere. The feasibility of such an attack was recently revealed when a group of hackers calling themselves "Anonymous" infiltrated the Bay Area Transit District's database and made public user names, addresses, phone numbers, and passwords (California Beat, 2011). Communications networks are also vulnerable to cyber attacks, including 911 services (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 274).

Recommendations and Summary

The recommended network security strategies include scheduled backups, firewalls, up-to-date computer security systems, and adherence to best practice guidelines at all times (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 274). With the proper network security precautions most, if not all, intrusions can be stopped, thus potentially saving a healthcare business thousands of dollars in damages and its reputation for being able to protect the privacy of its patients.


California Beat. (2011, Aug. 14). Anonymous hackers attack BART, personal information for some riders released. Retrieved Oct. 17, 2011 from http://www.californiabeat.org/2011/08/14/anonymous-hackers-attack-bart-personal-information-for-some-riders-breached

Clem, A., Galwankar, Sagar, and Buck, George. (2005). Health implications of cyber-terrorism. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 18, 272-275.

Gewitz, David. (2010). State-sponsored cyberterrorism. Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International, 16, 8-10.

Rantala, Ramona R. (2008). Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2011 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cb05.pdf

Scholl, Matthew, Stine, Kevin, Hash, Joan, Bowen, Pauline, Johnson, Arnold, Smith, Carla D. et al. (2008). Information Security: An introductory resource guide for implementing the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule. Publication 800-66 Revision…… [read more]

Infrastructure Protection Utilities Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,015 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Vulnerabilities associated with the production of electricity are of special interest because of its integral role in economy, national defence, and quality of life. "The inoperability caused by wilful attacks, accidental events, or natural causes can set off a complex chain of cascading impacts on other interconnected systems, and the ripple effect that could occur from a disruption in electricity production alone is profound. The desire for higher levels of national security and the survivability of the economy demands better assessment and management of our critical infrastructures.

Through interdependencies, the disruption of one infrastructure system can cascade into other infrastructure systems. That is, the loss of expected services of one infrastructure system could be the result of disruptions within another. For example, in power outage that occurred in the western United States in 1996, a power line short-circuited after it sagged onto a tree, and then cascaded into a power-grid collapse that almost led to the collapse of telecommunications networks. (Robinson, 1998)

Strategy for Protection

Our society is increasingly reliant upon certain critical infrastructures. Thus highly interconnected infrastructures increase the chance of catastrophic impacts from a disruption in one part of the supply chain.

Because of the heavy reliance on infrastructures as part of our way of life, their protection is vital. Strategic guidance/objectives for critical infrastructure protection are provided in a series of National Strategy documents, congressional acts, presidential directives, and DoD directives. Government has introduced plans to protect infrastructure, however, there are insufficient resources and funding to fully protect all the nation's infrastructures. In addition, much of this infrastructure is in private hands. Even if resources were greatly increased, it would be fiscally and physically impossible to protect everything, particularly while an open society in maintained.

Therefore, continued analysis is needed to investigate how to optimally invest in infrastructure protection, i.e., how to obtain the most protection with limited resources. This is especially important in light of both potential terrorist attacks and risk of natural disasters.

The severe consequences caused by natural disasters and malicious attacks in the past years showed the importance of understanding the interdependencies among infrastructures in order to take preventive actions and to make post event responses. There is need to identify and understand interdependency related problems among infrastructures to prevent and manage interdependency related risks.


Federal Highway Administration and Cambridge Systematics Inc., (2005) "An Initial Assessment of Freight Bottlenecks on Highways," Federal Highway Administration, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.

John Moteff and Paul Parfomak. (2004) Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets: Definition and Identification

Massoud Amin. (2002). Toward Secure and Resilient Interdependent Infrastructures. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 8:67

Robert G. Spulak and Jessica G. Turnley. (2005) Theoretical Perspectives of Terrorist Enemies as Networks. JSOU Press

U.S. Congressa, (2001) The Patriot Act, Public Law 107-56, 10.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, (2004) National Plan for Research and Development in Support of Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Y.Y. Haimes, B.M. Horowitz, J.H.Lambert, J.R. santos, C.Lian, and K.G. Growther, (2005) "Inoperability Input-Output Model for Interdependent Infrastructure Sectors. I: Theory and… [read more]

911 Attack Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


The PA is planning to hard-wire the new buildings at the site and build in transmitters, antennas and broadcast equipment that would allow emergency workers to communicate even if all power fails and the buildings again come under attack (Margolin, 2011). Former Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge called the United States' inability to achieve interoperable communications between first responders "a national disgrace" during a speech that assessed how far homeland security has come since 9-11 (Harwood, 2011).

Although there have been some improvements to the communication system in NYC, they are still a long way away from having a fully functioning interoperable system. Communication is certainly one of the most salient critical success factors in the event of a disaster. Therefore, it is definitely a cause for concern that over ten years after 9/11 that there still is no effective system to communicate in one of the U.S.'s most important cities. New York is likely one of the highest targets imaginable for many of the most feared terrorist groups. As a result, NYC should also be at the forefront of the best prepared cities. However, to this day, that is not the case.


The environment at the scene of an incident is generally chaotic and in a general state of disarray. It is the duty of the first responders to attempt to make sense out their surroundings so that they can offer the most effective response possible. Yet, when communication is limited this can be challenging. Furthermore, various agencies arrive in waves and have different responsibilities. These responsibilities can be dynamic and various agencies are expected to give up command or shift their roles if or when another agency comes in and assumes the command post. However, with limited communication at their disposal, this can be an almost impossible transition to orchestrate.

The events of 9/11 illustrated many of the weaknesses that New York City and the country in general have in regards to mounting an effective response to a terrorist attack. There have also been other unrelated incidents such as Katrina that have illustrated similar issues. Communication technology is the backbone of an effective team effort. This technology has evolved rapidly over the last few years and the current technology is light-years beyond what could be found in previous generations of communication devices.

Despite the technology reaching such heights, many agencies have failed to adopt these advances. Furthermore, even if the technology within departments is improved upon, there must also be efforts taken to allow for communication between responders and other agencies. This requires that all agencies coordinate their technologies so that communication across the entire response can be coordinated. Although there have been improvements in the adoption of more effective communication platforms, another challenge is that these technologies must be integrated and their use practiced to ensure that all agencies can communicate and coordinate their efforts in the event of a disaster. To achieve this it will take both leadership as well as the funding to invest… [read more]

Advice, Not Color Codes John Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" Is green the "no worries" level? At green level, do we send all the airport security staff home for the day? Since September 11, many would argue that we will never have a green day, and perhaps we never should have.

The reader gets the feeling that these five colors are supposed to be sort of like our tornado warning system. People who live in tornado-prone areas know about these. "Tornado watch" means exactly that -- conditions are ripe for tornado formation; pay attention to the weather around you. A tornado warning means that a tornado has been spotted in your area, either by trained spotter or by radar. People who live in these areas have already evaluated their homes and know where to put their families for greatest safety should the tornado hits their home. They know what to do, how to do it, and when to do it. In other words, the warnings hold real meaning, and the simple words "tornado warning" communicate a course of action.

What do we do on "red alert," besides not going to the airport to catch our flight? What about orange? Apparently these messages would be carried by the media. Stossel makes the point that on September 11, the media had all the accurate information first. I don't see that as a put-down of our government. That's what the media does - they follow breaking news, and they do it well.

We don't need to be told to be on high alert. We all got that message September 11. The Office of Homeland Security should ditch the color-coded messages that communicate nothing, and give us a plan we can follow.

Works Cited

Stossel, John.…… [read more]

Worldcom Noose Getting Tighter: Bankruptcy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Reminding us of the reality of suicide bombers through this joke, the writer uses the opportunity to present both sides of prevalent political issues.

Xerox Reduces1996-2001 Revenues by 2%" describes the deviant, controversial behavior of a major corporation. Because Xerox is a recognizable name, the issue becomes personalized and relevant to current economic issues. Xerox "improperly recorded more revenue," which is a controversial, conflict-filled, and concrete event. The events of the impropriety are identifiable; the facts listed are dry and verifiable. Attempting to sensationalize the issue, the writer indicates that the company paid the largest levy "against a company for financial-reporting violations." Corporate deviance is as relevant and newsworthy as criminal deviance, especially to investors.

None of these articles contain all the components of newsworthiness. Only the "Photo of baby suicide bomber called 'a joke'" contains elements of violence. Although all three articles indicate some sort of action, none of them are particularly riveting narratives. Nevertheless, the issues are personalized enough to grab the reader's attention. The journalist in each case links the facts to prevalent current events: the business articles through economic issues and the photo article through political issues. All articles list concrete events that are identifiable; the facts are clear. The photo of the baby is of course the most novel and deviant of the three, as well as being the most dramatic. However, the writers of the WorldCom and Xerox pieces attempts to sensationalize their points by emphasizing corporate deviance. All three articles depict some type of controversy and conflict. Attention-grabbers are necessary for newspaper sales; therefore even the driest news must be made…… [read more]

Post- Traumatic Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,339 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fiorello was deeply disturbed with the thought of his wife being so near the place of the attack, and although his wife was able to get out of the area immediately before great damage had been done, the fact that his wife had been so close to death (and with him talking to her at that moment), Francesco Fiorello eventually suffered from a feeling of great fear and agitation when he is in public and overcrowded places. Evidently, Fiorello was one of the many individuals who suffered from the September 11 bombings, even though he hasn't witnessed it personally, and had no great injury or participation in the said event. Thus, the powerful, yet detrimental, effects of PTSD is apparent in Fiorello's case of experiencing psychological trauma after the terrorist attack, and this is displayed in a symptom observed in his behavior about PTSD, which is the constant occurrence of intrusive memories about the fateful event (Cowley 52). The second case discussed is an individual who showed signs of withdrawal from his family, and is a victim of the psychological trauma of the 1995 Oklahoma bombings. The said victim of PSTD had been directly involved with the said terrorist attack, being a member of the rescue team who helped people injured from the damage caused by the bombing, and also helped in retrieving the bodies of the victims of the attack. The rescue worker's memory of pulling out from the rubble a dead body of a baby had caused him severe stress and trauma that he started withdrawing away from his family. After proper psychological treatment, it was determined that the man's reason for withdrawal is that this sight of his young daughter reminds him of the traumatic sight of the dead baby, and after proper treatment, the worker was able to alleviate his stress and trauma regarding the terrorist incident (Cowley 52A).

The last case regarding PTSD symptoms is an article written by Nancy Gibbs for the TIME magazine. Her article focused on the symptom of "hyper-vigilance," wherein an individual is characterized to experience panic and is always on alert about possible danger or unexpected events. Gibbs narrates how her own community had struggled from the psychological trauma they all experienced after the Sept. 11 bombings, and she comments that despite the people's ability to argue, and "vent their anger" about the terrorist attack, Gibbs reasons out that "there is so much of it...After the firs few weeks of quiet, the city's hotlines are blistered with calls... And no beds available in the psychiatric wards" (Gibbs 72). Apparently, fear, panic, agitation, and uncertainty had 'plagued' Gibbs' community regarding the WTC bombings, and Gibbs ends her essay by giving the resolution and suggestion that in these traumatic times, "it's better not to pretend where you're going. Better to listen to advice, argue with passion... And every time we fight the urge to panic and help someone else regain his balance, we may better arm ourselves for whatever these next days… [read more]

Age of Political Correctness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Men in the Photo

The three men in the picture are upset and disappointed that the statue has become a political issue instead of historical. Their attorneys are attempting to stop production of the statue and have contacted both the Fire Department and management company (Windle, 2002).


The Vulcan Society, "an organization that represents black firefighters" feels the symbolism of the statue is more important than the who is actually depicted and the diversity should be considered more than factual correctness (Windle, 2002).

Changing History

Those who oppose the statue feel there's more to be considered than just the issue at hand.

They feel it's another way to change history into something politically correct. They point out the history books now emphasize what ethnic minorities have achieved, while minimizing the sacrifices the white Americans made.

They are concerned about what will be changed next in history in the name of political correctness.


Political correctness is starting to replace historical facts more and more in America. The American people need to stop and decide what is more important to them, and decide if it's worth it to rewrite history.

Works Cited

Windle, N.R. COLUMN: Statue seeks…… [read more]

Liberty We Are Living Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Since Mill is a man who believes in the value of ideas, and in arguing for and against them, and challenging ideas, he would hopefully be willing to reassess his optimism. Societies do not simply proceed to ever greater advancement, particularly in the areas of wisdom. There will always be conflict. And in an age of conflict, it is necessary to circumscribe certain civil liberties in order to protect citizens, to protect life, and to quiet "barbarian" forces.

On the other hand, there is something to be said for listening to the complaints of the disenfranchised. Mill points out that tolerating dissent has had catastrophic results in history. Currently in the United States in the wake of the terrorist attacks, not enough of a critical dialogue has been allowed. Even in times of unique crisis such as this, dissenting opinions and even criticism must be welcomed. Here I agree with Mill. He notes that "the claims of an opinion to be protected form public attack are rooted not on much on its truth, as on its importance to society." The current public policy has quietly embraced this, and unfortunately, certain truths are not shown. The darker aspects of war are whitewashed -- at least from our side. And it's important to discuss whether the terrorists have any legitimate claims. Although journals like Foreign Affairs may openly analyze the situation we are in, the level of public discourse is purposely simplified and sentimentalized. This helps us ignore our own flaws as a superpower, and where we might adjust our policies in order to create more international harmony.

What of Mill's point that individuals should be allowed to act as they wish, as long as they don't make themselves "a nuisance to other people." He says, "To individuality should belong the part of life in which it is chiefly the individual that is interested; to society, the part which chiefly interests society." In these complicated time, the overlap between the two is complex. An individual child may borrow a gun -- and harm society. An individual terrorist may learn how to fly planes in America -- and bring down the World Trade Centers and harm and kill thousands -- as well as cost millions to society. One of the individual rights is the right to live a safe life -- a life where stopping to get gas, one is not gunned down by a sniper; where, attending school, one is not gunned down by a classmate; where, going to work one sunny morning, one is forced to jump from a 100 story window because one is burning to death. I believe Mill would have called this a time for government intervention, much along the lines we are seeing now, because he would view this as an unfortunate time where "barbarians" put us at risk for our very safety -- out of which liberty arises. But I also believe he would argue for a very public discussion, one that has been squelched. Though… [read more]

Ethnic and Minority Group Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If one wants proof that the events of 9-11 had a negative impact on ethnic relations and minority relations in American one need look no further than the businesses who employ Muslims. Many of them reported an immediate drop in patronage, with one-day care center reported a ten percent drop in the rate of new clients when the potential clients would meet the staff and see the several Muslim staff members (Raghunthan, 2002). One of the ways that the nation can begin repair to the fractured ethnic and minority relations is to begin promoting the active patronage of minority owned businesses. Pulling away from doing business with minorities allows the terrorists to win. They are here, we have proof that they are in this country now, observing, watching and reporting to those who plan the attacks. What better way to fight back than by holding heads high and reaching out more than ever before to embrace the diversity that this great nation was built on. Instead of transferring our anger for those who did this against the innocent minorities here let's shower them with understanding and business so they know we do not blame them for the actions of a few.

The entire concept of the Nazi regime was to divide and conquer. Gangs on our urban streets operate with the same mindset. Separate teens from parents and family and conquer that way. The terrorists must not see that their efforts have caused a racial divide in this nation..

Another way my perspective has changed following my belief in supporting minority business is to spend some funds on public service ads to promote diversity. My perspective has changed because in the past I felt that such ads were a waste of funds and time. The nation had worked hard to promote ethnic relations and I felt that it would continue on the path of success in its natural time frame. Following the events of 9-11 we no longer have the privilege of time and it is time to help the process along. One group of Arab-Americans have already taken steps to encourage the interfacing of their cultures with the others in America (Media Campaign Encourages Tolerance in Response to American Tragedy: "Hate is Our Enemy" (http://www.aaiusa.org/pr/release10-01-01.htm).

In the days following the terrorist attacks, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights received complaints from Arab and Muslim Americans who were being targeted in the wake of the attacks. In order to address these troubling incidents and prevent additional hate crimes, the Ad Council worked with the USCCR and The Arab-American Institute to create radio and print public service ads which communicate to all Americans the message that hate is not the solution to hate (Media Campaign Encourages Tolerance in Response to American Tragedy: "Hate is Our Enemy" (http://www.aaiusa.org/pr/release10-01-01.htm)."


The message is clear; hate is like a cancer and will eat America from the inside out. My perspective on ethnic relations and minority relations had always been pro-active but following the events… [read more]

George W. Bush Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


By attempting hegemony, the United States in fact isolates itself from the global community. The violence now being perpetrated on Iraq will inevitably backfire. Terrorist groups will launch systematic campaigns to fight back in the only way they can: with suicide bombers and other low-tech attacks. Israel will be a likely target, especially if the United States continues to threaten other Middle Eastern nations like Syria and Iran. As George W. Bush grows more and more smug in front of the television cameras, it seems highly likely that the violence won't end in the Middle East. If the repercussions of America's actions aren't felt this year, surely they will be felt some years down the road. Groups of people, terrorist organizations, state governments, and coalitions of governments will find it necessary to retaliate against perceived transgressions, and the cycle of violence…… [read more]

Future it Initially Sounds Appealing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Only after learning from my own mistakes did I come to realize the wisdom of her guidance.

Knowledge of a catastrophic event before it happens would be a curse more than a blessing. That's because I would not be able to do anything about what's about to happen. For instance, if I had known of the September 11th events in advance, I can't imagine how I could have used this knowledge to prevent the attack. I wouldn't have had access to the people that could have had any influence and, even if I did, they would have considered my warnings to be the ranting of a lunatic. Having knowledge without ability to affect change would only bring frustration, guilt, and heartache. Even when considering a personal acquaintance or loved one, there's nothing I could really do to turn the tide of disease or old age, the leading causes of death. And, for the same reasons I've given above, I would be hesitant about interfering with any of their life's experiences.

After carefully thinking about the pros and cons of being able to predict the future, I choose to reject this ability. Riding the ups and downs of everyday life makes for a better person than someone who has experienced only a part of life's experiences. The ability to predict the future would inevitably encourage me to avoid the negative parts of life and I don't believe this is necessarily the best course of action. In making my decision, I've also considered how I could use the ability to look into the future to help others. But, I also doubt that my ability would lead to any significant benefit for mankind. So, "Que…… [read more]

Accusations of Ignorance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


' The European community wanted to take into consideration the feelings and motivation of those who attacked us. In Arundhati Roy's article challenging the U.S.'s approach to responding to the trade center attack in kind, as an act of war, he accused the U.S. Of rushing to judgment. He says "America is at war against a people it doesn't know, because they do not appear on the television." (p. 429) In other words, Mr. Roy is accusing the Americans as being ignorant, and knowing nothing more than what appears on the telly. According to Mr. Roy, our myopic view of the world is matched only by our bullying shortsightedness by which we think we can push the world around. "The trouble (with America) is, that once American goes off to war, it can't very well return without having fought one. If it doesn't find its enemy, for the sake of the enraged folks back home, it will have to manufacture one." (p., 429, parentheses added)

I would invite Mr. Roy to remember the video telecast of the Taliban leader sitting piously at his royal desk in Afghanistan, telling the world in a canned and pompous statement that he was sorry for the attack in the U.S. And he hoped that the Americans found full justice through their court system against whoever was responsible. The arrogance, and evil of this group's head cleric, who would take to a public stage and display his lack of concern for the thousands of lives his organization snuffed out more than identified the enemy in this war. It is people who have no regard for life, and wish to pursue their own agenda regardless of who they have to kill. These people, Mr. Roy, fired the first shot. The terrorists organizations are those who attempt to walk secretly through the world, pushing others around in order to forward their own agendas.

I wonder if the British Mr. Roy, through some miracle of time travel, would have given the same advice for the British soldier's after the Boston tea party. "Men, these american's are just ignorant, and somewhat backward colonial farmers. We really don't understand their rage. We sit in our Victorian homes across the sea, and expect the world to live by our standards. So, before we respond to this outrage of destroying our products in the bay, we really need to think about their point-of-view." The entire reason for the Revolutionary war was that the American and the British did not see eye-to-eye on important topics which affected…… [read more]

Micheal Levins the Case Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conventions against use of torture are similar to conventions against use of mass destruction weapons, etc. have been signed. If one does not respect one of them, what guarantee do we have that any of them would be respected?! What is the point of signing international conventions if one does not abide by them?

The second argument against using torture with a terrorist (with anybody, for that matter...) is the fact that you can never be too sure about the truth or the utility of confessions under torture. What if the terrorist blabbers out a misleading location? What was the point of torture then? The Inquisition gave plenty of examples of persons who could suddenly admit the most terrible crimes under torture. On terrorists, this may have a similar effect, with the same amendment that the quality of information thus obtained may be rather poor.

The third argument is that torture is a barbaric and ancient method. What will come next after this?! Killing a man with stones?! We are not here to discuss the barbarism of executions, but torture seems to go back hundreds of years, all the way to the Dark Ages and nobody really wants to return there.

One of the most important and dangerous counterarguments seems to me the fact that, if such a thing as torture is allowed even in these remote cases and procedures, there is nothing to guarantee that its use will not be gradually extended in the future. For example, the first step would be to extend torture use to all terrorists, even if they have not necessarily laid a bomb, in order to obtain information about the terrorist network. Then, we can extend it to the suspected terrorist, in the same way and for the same purpose (wouldn't Mr. Levin like to torture some Islamic population in the United States) and so on and so forth. Where will this get to in the end?!

One of the most solid arguments seems to me the fact that the use of torture would mean serious retaliation from terrorist factions everywhere. Of course, it is not that the Allied behavior stops that from practicing barbaric acts now, but if the Western countries would decide to use torture, there would really be nothing to differentiate them from the barbaric terrorists.

Finally, the last and perhaps the most important argument is the fact that democracy, the rule of law, the respect of human rights is at the very foundation of all Western democracies. Such things as the use of torture (in any condition and under any circumstances) is the worst blow that they can receive, because it is a blow from within and a blow they have inflicted on themselves.

The strangest and perhaps most embarrassing thing occurred to me when reading Mr. Levin's article. He underlines and points out to every argument (or rather counter-argument) I have used, yet it never seems to occur to him that his thesis is wrong, that it destroys everything… [read more]

Safe After 911? Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The government tells us that they are patrolling the borders and that our Intelligence agencies are watching for terrorist's plots.

It is not really the many things that terrorists could possibly do to our country that is so frightening. It is the fact that it is not just a possibility that it could happen. It did happen and shocked us all. It was unbelievable that any one would attack our country like they did, killing unsuspecting innocent people for their cause.

The fact that the terrorists did what they did and continue to commit terrorist's acts for a cause they believe will get them to heaven is extremely frightening. Their cause is one that not only allows them to die; it encourages them to do it in the name of Allah. It is difficult to fight a group willing to die for the cause and who has a hatred for our country. Fear of dying or imprisonment usually will deter dangerous crimes, not for this group of terrorists. So, not only do we know they want to harm us, we know that they will. It seems that the only deterrent is the lack of success on their part. They want to kill us and harm our country so much; their caution is only due to the fact that they do not want to fail in their attempts.

I think if you took a survey of people of all ages, sexes, income and education, the result would be the same for the answers. Many people in this country are afraid of what the terrorists will do to us next. They will tell you that the safety they felt in their own homes has been reduced and the safety they feel in other countries may never be the same as before 9/11. They would probably say that flying doesn't hold the same appeal as it did before and that unconsciously or subconsciously they are looking at the other passengers to see if they could possibly be terrorists. The safe feeling that we didn't ever think about is gone and we feel…… [read more]

Modernity, the Idea of Culture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Of course, in the past, community was somewhat dependent upon geography -- one of the hallmarks of civilization was the manner in which individuals bonded together to form mutually advantageous groups that would protect each other, distribute labor based upon expertise, and act as a safety net so that the group would survive and prosper. We know that community tends… [read more]


Assessment  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


I'm talking about rolling up our sleeves, diving into the muck, taking a good, hard look at who we are and what we do and goddamn the excuses." This contextualizes precisely what form of art we are dealing with.

2. What are the ten ways that media tries to manufacture our consent in the play, and give an example of how each of them work, which is not given in the play? (20 marks)

Brooks and Verdecchia list the following ten ways in which the media tries to manufacture consent: "Choice of Topic," "Placement," "Ideological Assumptions," "Blind Stupidity," "Biased Sources," "Quoting out of Context," "The Memory Hole," "Captions and Headlines," "Doublespeak," and "Weight."

"Choice of Topic" is simple: rather than reporting on, say, the legality of a drone strike to kill a U.S. citizen, instead the media will focus on Anwar Al-Awlaki's ties to radical Islam. The legality of a government-ordered assassination of an individual without due process of law immediately takes a backseat to the details about that individual which make it seem like it was a good idea to kill him. "Placement" has to do with establishing a sense of importance without any change in content -- the capture of PFC Jessica Lynch in 2003 by Saddam Hussein's forces is a "front page" story, the death of thousands of Iraqi civilians gets less emphatic placement. "Ideological assumptions" have to do with the media taking advantage of the assumptions that the reader will make: Osama bin Laden is assumed to be a moral monster for having perpetrated 9/11, as a result the question of whether or not his "targeted killing" was lawful… [read more]

Why Do Terrorist Groups "End Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Jones' research underlines the critical nature of working with the national population and local law enforcement agencies from the country where the terrorists arise, given that they likely offer the best hopes of reintegrating members of the group back into society and engaging in more conventional counter-insurgency efforts. Jones deems Pakistani authorities to be critical in the apprehension of terrorist groups such as al-Qaida. The challenge is, however, that efforts by the U.S. To apprehend such groups are often constructed as imperialist by the terrorists and many members of the local population and even the government may be unwilling to cooperate as a result. Still, working with the police and emphasizing mutual interests rather than the U.S. interests alone is essential. Recruiting from within the group for counterinsurgency efforts allows for a 'penetrate from within' strategy which can be very effective, given that it is tailored to the specific modes of expression of that group.


Jones, S. (2008). Defeating terrorist groups. RAND. Retrieved from:

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/2008/RAND_CT314.pdf… [read more]

America and the Post Cold Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Another advantage about reading this particular narrative is that the authors are extremely neutral in their tone of voice. One might argue that there is bias shown in the events and occurrences that they choose to dedicate pages to and those that they did not; however, one cannot accuse the authors of writing about these events in a biased manner. The matter of Iraq is obviously a crucial one considering the contemporary focus that the U.S. has on this territory and its role in the overall War on Terror. The following passage in which the authors detail Iraq's importance in the foreign policy of the presidents elected during this interim period illustrates the neutral tone the author's use which characterizes the rest of the book. "George H.W. Bush left Iraq unresolved for Clinton; Clinton handed off the Iraq question for his successor to deal with; and so it is again" (p. 328).

The most poignant weakness found in this work is the fact that the authors do not uncover any new revelations. In some respects, their failure to do so is expected since they are discussing previous events. However, their selection of topics could have been improved so that they could have written about subjects that were less known. For the most part, they describe major events such as the instances of ethnic cleansing that took place in places like Africa and in parts of Eastern Europe. Nonetheless, even when recounting topics that are all too painfully familiar to Americans (such as Iraq, for example), they fail to do so with a new perspective or by unveiling new information about these subjects. Perhaps their intention was to write a staid manuscript. Still, the authors entice the reader early on by stating that, 'Just as history did not end on 11/9, it did not begin on 9/11' (p. xi). In detailing that history, however, it would have been more enlightening if they could have done so with information or a perspective that was more novel than the one they chose.

Actually, this weakness found in the book has a lot to do with the sources used. For the most part, the authors utilized published sources from conventional media outlets. They also incorporated material from the National Security Archive collection of various documents. On the one hand, these sources are respectable -- albeit not as academic as they could be. On the other hand, they were responsible for the dearth of new material or innovative perspectives found in the book. The same sentiment applies to interviews with U.S. foreign policy personnel, who did not offer (and perhaps were not pressed to offer) anything substantially new.


Chollet, Derek., Goldgeier, James. America Between the Wars: From 11/9 to 9/11. New York, NY: Public Affairs, 2008.

End Notes

1. Derek Chollet and James Goldgeier, America Between the Wars: From 11/9 to 9/11 (New York: Public…… [read more]

Film Depictions of Women in War Conform to Western Biases Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Women Suicide Bombers

Film Portrayals of Conflict Women

The movie by Julie Loktev, Day Night, portrays a would-be woman suicide bomber (WSB) in New York City. Although audience members are kept in suspense regarding the moral of the movie until the very end, after the first hour it becomes clear that the planning of the terrorist organization was not perfect.… [read more]

Memorial Architecture at Ground Zero Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



"There was a moment on September 11, 2001 when the World Trade Center in New York City became Ground Zero…the media had found the new name and it stuck," (Sturken 311). What to with the World Trade Center site has been one of the most contentious and politicized urban development stories in American history. Even the term Ground Zero… [read more]

Effective Leadership Skills of Oedipus and Creon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,162 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Oedipus, Creon and Leadership


Graphic Organizer

Parse the prompt below: (What is the question asking? Break it into the answerable parts)

How are Oedipus and Creon similar? How are they different? How is each effective and ineffective as a leader?

Prewriting: Choose one of the following brainstorming techniques from chapter one of your Grammar text book and map it out below

Oedipus: loves the people (good quality), wants to solve the mystery (good), impulsive (bad quality), attempts to defy the will of the gods (bad quality), finally submits to the will of the gods (good quality)

Creon: respectful of the gods in Oedipus Rex (good), less respectful in Antigone (bad), responsible for deaths of persons close to him (bad)

Prewriting/Research: Read the provided article on leadership styles. Identify three to four quotes that you think will be beneficial to your argument and write them in the space below:

"Leadership is the uniquely consistent and defining force behind great, enduring organizations." (Givray)

2. Leadership is "uncompromised integrity in both words and actions" (Givray)

3. Leadership is "honoring one's word by always delivering on promises and commitments" (Givray)

4. Leadership is "authentic humility..[which] fuels your willingness and ability to show genuine appreciation and support of others" (Givray)

Thesis Statement:

Oedipus and Creon are both leaders of Thebes, and while both have their good points, each also demonstrates a number of flaws: this paper will show what makes both Oedipus and Creon effective and ineffective leaders.

Prewriting: Outlining (this is just a template)

Introduction Paragraph: Introducing Thebes

Introducing Hook: The world of Thebes is governed by two men, both of whom have good and bad points as leaders.

Introduction of topic: While both Oedipus and Creon are strong leaders, they are consistently inconsistent and therefore flawed leaders.

Thesis statement: This paper will show what makes both Oedipus and Creon effective and ineffective leaders.

Body paragraph one: Good qualities of Oedipus and Creon

Topic sentence: Oedipus and Creon demonstrate the following good qualities throughout their reign:

Supporting details: Oedipus is kind, loyal, persistent, determined, dutiful, humble; Creon is respectful.

Clincher sentence: As a result, the people trust them.

Body paragraph two: Bad qualities of Oedipus and Creon

Topic sentence: Oedipus and Creon demonstrate the following bad qualities throughout their reign:

Supporting details: Oedipus is rash, impulsive, loses his temper, defies the gods; Creon disrespects the body of the brother of Antigone, shows no compassion

Clincher sentence: As a result, they lose their command.

Body paragraph three: Why they are effective and ineffective

Topic sentence: Oedipus and Creon are effective leaders because they show humility, integrity, and commitment; they are ineffective leaders when they show arrogance, inconsistency, and vengefulness.

Supporting details: Oedipus is humble at the end, Creon is proud at the end

Clincher sentence: They are effective at times but ineffective at others, and this plays a part in their downfall.

Conclusion: It is possible for leaders to be a complex mixture of good and bad qualities, which translate into effective and ineffective… [read more]

Analyzing the Charismatic Leadership Phenomenon Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (715 words)
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Charismatic Leadership

What is Charismatic Leadership?

A leader is deemed to be charismatic, if he or she is charming and highly persuasive. For one to be an effective charismatic leader, he or she must not only be highly persuasive, but also committed to the vision towards which, he is leading the organization. For this reason, charismatic leaders have to be effective communicators with the ability to communicate at a deep and emotional level with their audiences. Like all other strong leaders, charismatic leaders have to come out strong during times of crisis, so as to steer their followers in the right direction (Yukl, 2010; Conger & Kanungo, 2006).

Meaning of the Statement that Charismatic Leaders Use Active Impression Management with their Followers to Support their Image. Provide and Elaborate on One Example

When communicating with a subordinate, a charismatic leader focuses his whole attention on the individual, making him feel as if he or she is the most important individual to the leader. Charismatic leaders can easily read situations, and have an eye for picking up the concerns or the moods of their followers. After picking up the moods, they carefully choose their words and actions to fit the situations at hand (CONGER, KANUNGO & MENON, 2000). Such leaders often use their skills to manage their image as powerful, influential and down-to-earth individuals. Charismatic leaders also show confidence in their subordinates and can use words and actions to convince followers to do what they want (Conger & Kanungo, 2006).

For one to see charismatic leadership, he or she has to simply look at leading politicians. This is because for one to be successful at politics, he or she has to be charismatic. Religious leaders, too, are charismatic. For one to learn how to be more charismatic, he or she should learn the body language of being charismatic and watch videos of how charismatic leaders interact with their audiences. This can help them learn how to strongly identify with their followers, so as to establish a strong image of themselves (CONGER et al., 2000).

Ronald Wilson Reagan is an example of a charismatic leader. Born in 1911, Reagan…… [read more]

Successful Leadership Approaches and Corporate Strategies Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


General Electric Five Planning Strategies

Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric (GE) is known as one of the most intriguing, yet intelligent, corporate leaders of our time. During his reign at GE, his primary goal was to make the company "the world's most competitive enterprise." He believed that he needed a revolution to transform this dream into reality. For Welch, this revolution implied waging war on the GE's old ways of doing business and reinventing the firm from top to bottom. Based on Jack Welch's advice and others within the videos, this essay will discuss five planning strategies I would implement as the project manager of a diverse team selected to deliver a new technology initiative for the current organization. The paper will also reflect on how these strategies may align with the mission and goals of the organization.

In the video, Welch emphasizes the concept of motivation. He says, "as a leader, I should give people self-confidence as by far, it is the most vital thing that I can do." Such empowerment is predicted to make people act positively. According to Welch, a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators serves a perfect formula for motivation as a whole. In the videos, the approach has been described as a differentiation strategy (Suseno, 2010). Specifically, Welch brands it 20-70-10 in describing this people differentiation strategy, and he points out that at times, it might seem cut-throat. The 20-70-10 numbers represent percentages of the staff population categorized into three based on job performance. Here, 20 is the leading twenty percent, 70 is the group comprising of the middle seventy percent, and 10 is the group composed of the bottom ten percent performers (Moore, 2014). After this classification, Welch recommends that as a leader, I need to shower the top performers with increased gifts and compensation in the form of training, stock options, and praise. According to Welch, different individuals value different motivators; however, empowerment is the underlying concept of motivation.

The second strategy that the videos recommend is "do not manage, instead, lead the change" (Suseno, 2010). At GE, Jack Welch nurtured a culture of learning. He achieved this by setting forth a set of key assumptions, norms, values, understandings and encouraging all staff members to participate in his vision. As a group leader, Welch recommends that I should initiate this culture by knocking down communication boundaries and including all organizational levels in idea sharing. For instance, after making all associates part of the conversation at GE, Welch began to implement the best ideas, regardless of where they came from or who they are. Lastly, under this strategy, I need to follow up to ensure that the ideas are implemented properly and functioning as originally intended. While creating a learning culture, Welch says that I should make searching for new ideas a priority, hold idea-sharing meetings regularly and provide rewards to employees who shared their ideas in a candid manner. Besides, idea sharing, Welch believes that I need to respond… [read more]

Comparison of Leadership Articles Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Leadership Trait Theory vs. Skill Leadership Theory

Research Question, Populations, and Purpose

One definitional view of leadership is that it simply involves the ability to influence others. The definition is that leaders exercise influence, taking actions that, in one way or another, shape the behavior of people (Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, & Fleishman, 2000). However, the researchers want to investigate the results of this influence and how the resulting performance affects the overall outcome. For example, no one would dispute the fact that Stalin was able to exert a great deal of influence over other people, yet it is slightly less clear whether or not he was an effective leader. This research paper proposes a new framework for thinking about leadership and does not have a population in the study. The purpose of this article is to attempt to create a framework that presents a skills-based model that is directed at solving complex social problems. It is argued that leaders not only exert influence, but they should use their skills to do so judiciously by tackling the right problems -- it shifts to the concept of leadership to a problem-focused theory.

Another theory of leadership looks at the leader as a composition of various traits. This trait based theory would predict that those with certain traits would be more effective leaders than others that possessed traits that are inconsistent with leadership. However, there has been much debate in the literature about whether a trait analysis was useful at predicting leadership. This study surveys a sample of 53 project managers worldwide who were asked to take a Briggs-Myers personality test (Gehring, 2007). The study conducted an extensive literature review to determine which traits in this model were most suited to the ideal project manager. The purpose was to determine if there were any traits that could predict a greater likelihood of a project manager being successful when leading a project.

Importance and Results

In the first study, the researchers feel that constructing a leadership model based more on a problem-based approach is important because it creates a model in which the desirability of leadership to move an organization towards certain ends is considered in the model. This study is more theoretical in nature while the next study is based more on a pragmatic approach to understanding specific leadership traits. The researchers in this study believed that if they could identify the most ideal traits associated with project management, then they could create a baseline personality profile that could be used to compare an actual project manager's personality makeup to the ideal one. Through such a comparison a project manager could gain insights…… [read more]

Leadership Skills Inventory and Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Leadership development plan is an important step towards becoming a better leader, proving a self-assessment and then a pathway to becoming a better leader (Craig et al., 2015). The objective of a leadership development plan is to underscore some of the things that contribute to one being a better leader. Such plans provide a valuable inventory of skills and attributes… [read more]

External and Internal Inspiration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

I am motivated by a number of different factors. These factors are both extrinsic and intrinsic. Moreover, I am also motivated by some of the concepts expressly denoted in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as expressly applied to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, serves to categorize the different forms of motivation that actualize me. Applying these different ideas to my own experience helps to demonstrate the worth of these concepts in terms of my own motivation.

Perhaps the crux of my motivation is readily demonstrated in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This tenet has a couple of different layers. On the one hand, Maslow's hierarchy is fairly simple to understand, and revolves around the idea that people must take care of their basic needs prior to attending to more personal needs on a higher level (Lester, 2013). At the base of this hierarchy are common physical needs such as those pertaining to food, clothing and shelter. At the apex of this hierarchy are needs pertaining to self-actualization. Between these two needs, in ascending order, are those related to safety, love and belonging, and esteem (Lester, 2013). At this point in my life I believe that I have actually procured my needs pertaining to the first two levels of this hierarchy (physical and safety). Instead, I am greatly motivated by self-actualization, and the fulfillment of my self and my perception of the world. Still, even in attempting to utilize self-actualization as my primary form of motivation, there are specific events in my life that provide both internal and external motivation.

The most obvious aspect of intrinsic motivation that pertains to the way that self-actualization provides intrinsic motivation to me simply stems from my parents and my perception of them. My parents have sacrificed a lot and worked very hard to provide me with a better life than they had. As such, I truly feel obligated to succeed in life in terms of my own self-actualization in order to repay them for what they have done for me. This conviction is one of the core notions that is at the center of my self-actualization, and is an extremely potent form of intrinsic motivation -- which is defined by Pritchard et al. (1977) as that which allows one to feel "competent and self-determining." I do not think that I am intended for a life of mediocrity. I believe that any such mediocrity on my part -- in my career and in my personal life -- would effectively squander that which my parents have given. That gift, specifically, is more than mere life, and encompasses a charge to be a unique, special person. As such, I truly believe that the need to excel in my professional endeavors, merely as a means of fulfilling all of the other elements of Maslow's hierarchy (except for the level pertaining to love) plays a huge part in my motivation. I do not think I owe my parents money or love;… [read more]

Laws to Consider for Leadership Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (542 words)
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Leadership Laws and Principles

I believe that one of the most apropos laws of leadership that Maxwell explicates in his 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership is law # 18: the law of sacrifice. I believe that this law can relate to my personal life in a fairly salient way. After I have children, it will be necessary for me to make a number of different sacrifices in order to help lead them to a future in which they can attain all the sorts of success and promise that I want for their young lives. Parents are actually leaders for their children; the latter play the most fundamental role in helping these young people to learn how to live life and to get what they want from the world. Parents also have to make a number of sacrifices in order to give their children the things that they need to grow up well and be able to contribute to society. Primarily, that sacrifice will mean that I can no longer just live for the sake of myself or my spouse, but give up such attention to my needs to bestow it upon my children.

A likely scenario in my future professional work that will bring the law of sacrifice into action involves me owning my own law firm. As such, I will have numerous employees that I will have to account for, and ensure that their immediate needs are met so that they can sustain the firm. Thus, it will be necessary for me to work harder than everyone else to not only make sure that they are all doing their jobs…… [read more]

Power of Servant Leadership on Employee Performance Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Servant-Leadership Assessment of a Community College Employee

Broadly, servant-leadership involves the process of serving others. In the economic platform, it concerns influencing assets with an aim of acquiring worthwhile change. All entities implement the practice to transform their organizations and enhance success by inspiring people. The initial stage of servant leadership is drafting a vision. In this case, the leader… [read more]

Analyzing Leadership Secrets of Colin Powell by Oren Harari Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Leadership Secrets of Colin Powell by Oren Harari

Collin Powel is considered to have been one of the most successful leaders at his level. It is rare to find parallel leadership models among the military. However, according to an exposition by Harari, Collin postulates that leadership has more to do with responsibility than privilege and rank. He says… [read more]

Leadership Development Plan for Social Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Leadership Plan

My objective is to be the Director at a mental health and wellness agency, with a focus on working with children and families. I am presently working at such a facility now, but I envision myself being able to build a career through a variety of progressive roles until I reach the Director's role. To do this, I know that I must demonstrate leadership at all steps of the way. There is an old adage that one must dress at a job interview for the level above what that job is. This is the principle by which I will build my career demonstrating a level of leadership and competency hat is above my current level. In such a way, I will be able to continue positioning myself for the progressive career path that I envision.

Along the way, I will need ot build my leadership skills. Building leadership skills is a lifelong task, but the effort will be more successful with a coherent plan, complete with time frames. The first step is to have an objective in mind -- as noted above -- and then the subsequent steps are to determine the skills, knowledge and resources that I will need to acquire to reach this objective. It is also important to understand my present starting point, including my existing strengths and weaknesses.

My interest lies with the bio-social-psycho model, but with a spiritual element. This holistic approach to mental health and well-being. This approach posits that ill health stems from elements in the environment that act upon the individual. If these elements, be they biological, social or psychological, can be addressed then that is the pathway to health. Individuals do not simply find themselves in need of social workers; there are many elements in their lives that bring about crisis, at which point they will need social worker intervention (Sagy, 2014). I also subscribe to the person-in-environment theory, which holds that people are often products of their environments. By helping them make improvements to the systems that influence their lives, such as the biological, social and economic, social work interventions can be more successful (Green & McDermott, 2010).

My vision is to work within these perspectives and underlying philosophies to help clients. I will this for a few years, gaining experience along the way. After a time, I will progress into managerial roles, which will help me to take on a more formal leadership role, facilitating other social workers to help their clients. Within this vision, progressive managerial roles will expand my sphere of influence, and will allow me to help more people. Leadership is something that can be practiced at each stage of this journey, and that will be one of my main focuses throughout my leadership development.

There are a number of resources that are critical to cultivating this sort of career path. Self-efficacy is a baseline resource, referring to the belief that one has in one's own abilities. I understand that today I would not… [read more]

Why Servant Leadership Is the Most Effective Style Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Leadership Theory Paradigms

List and define the leadership theory paradigms.

The three leadership theories to be defined in this paper are: Servant Leadership, Paternalistic Leadership, and Autocratic Leadership.

Servant Leadership

This is a very popular leadership style because as the title suggests, it is more about service, being a servant to others, than it is about managing using autocratic or paternalistic strategies. The term "servant leadership" was originated by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1970, and Greenleaf said this about his style of leadership:

"The servant-leader is servant first ... it begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. The conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is a leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions ... the servant leader makes sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served ... " (Greenleaf.org).

The servant leader is trained to focus on the well-being and the professional growth of others in the company or in the community to which the servant leader belongs. Unlike traditional leadership, where there is generally one person at the top of the totem pole so to speak, the servant leader is one that shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps to develop others into servant leaders.

When a servant leader shows concern for others, and cares for others' needs before his own needs, that is what Greenleaf believed is "the rock upon which a good society is built"; moreover, organizations as well as individuals can become servant leaders. "If a better society is to be built," Greenleaf wrote, "one that is more just and more loving," then servant leadership needs to be out in front and leading the way -- a role model for a better world (Greenleaf.org).

Autocratic Leadership

This type of leadership is also known as "authoritarian leadership," because basically one person, or a tight-knit group of two or three, handles all the decisions and there is no sharing of power within an organization. Little or no input is expected or accepted from group members in a company run autocratically; and all the strategies, policies, and decisions are the purview of the autocratic leader.…… [read more]

Great Leaders and Their Strategies for Success Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Multi-Frame Thinking in Leadership

Bolman and Deal showed that "multiple thinking" occurred when organizations use several frames to analyze and solve organizational problems hence, allows complex and challenging situations to be scrutinized in a variety of ways, but with clarity. Therefore, it requires people to move beyond mechanical approaches that are narrow in understanding their organizations. In the present world, leaders face many challenges, but multiple thinking helps them isolate problems and find solutions without overlooking any and hence, improves on company's effectiveness. Leaders' using the multi-frame analysis has managed to view situations from different angles and gave them room for change (Bolman & Deal, 2013).

After taking the "Leadership Orientations" inventory, the dominant orientation is that of human resource, which I was not expecting. However, I am more inclined to that direction because I emphasize more on the importance of people. Therefore, as a manager, my central task is to develop a good fit between the organization and its population. I believe in the importance of motivation, coaching, teamwork, participation, and having good interpersonal relations. Therefore, I am a leader who facilitates and participates in supporting and empowering others.


Under the Structural Frame, we find things like rules, a division of labor, coordination of activities, policies, and hierarchies. In Chris Cunningham's case, it is evident that co-ordination and control are a problem for him because he rigidly adheres to company rules and policies. It is very clear where the final authority lies, but Chris wants things done his way, and this organization structure facilitates problems among employees. The organization has divided responsibilities for its employees and has used the system of multiple roles and chapter. Here, each person in the organization is responsible for executing a narrowly focused array of outcomes and tasks. The salespeople were not assigned exclusive territories because they kept their pre-existing customers and this posed as the biggest problem when it came to respecting the organization. In many instances, the schedule of the production department has been able to be knocked to pieces and even has mixed the new designs of the engineering department. He has also tampered with the flow of work in the purchasing department forcing other orders from sales people be pushed aside by purchasing agents.

Human Resources Frame looks at things such as skills, motivation levels, individual needs, harmony, relationships, enthusiasm, competency profiles, cooperation and unity (AFA Essential, 2012). The case portrays that the management's assumption concerning employees like Chris is that they are resistant to change. This frame is reasonable for the organization because it has credit for championing the possibility for Chris in the organizations to experience aspects of being productive, energized, and mutually rewarded. Therefore, they fully engage the talents and energy of people such as Chris and not putting them into narrowly assigned roles like in the Structural Frame.

The political frame encompasses things such as power, coalitions, competition, alliances, networks, negotiation, persuasion, and influence. Under this framework, organizations are viewed as being alive… [read more]

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Studying Leadership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Versus Quantitative Methods: Challenges Facing Transformational Leaders

Phenomenological studies in the tradition of qualitative research attempt to understand the different sides of a particular phenomenon without an overriding hypothesis or even a desire to construct a particular theory grounded in inductive research. In the case of Savage- Austen & Shorter (2011), regarding the phenomenon of servant leadership: "Literature suggests that the servant leader is distinguishable through the care that is taken to ensure that other people's highest priority needs are being served ... instead of followers serving the needs of the leader, the leader ensures that the needs of the subordinates are met" (Savage-Austen & Honeycutt, 2011, 50). Of course, what constitutes something as ambiguous as a servant-leader is difficult to quantify, hence the usefulness of a qualitative study to provide guidance. In the study, servant-leadership is specifically compared with transformational leadership, which the authors distinguish from servant leadership as still focusing upon the leader him or herself and his or her own ability to establish a vision which transforms both the organization and its followers. Although transformational leadership is not ego-focused, it still places the orientation of the leadership theory squarely upon the leader, not upon his or her followers. With servant-leadership, changes in the organization in regards to new technologies are not imposed but rather evolve organically.

Savage- Austen & Shorter (2011) focused upon the "lived experiences of 15 business leaders who practice the servant leadership philosophy" through unstructured qualitative interviews (Savage-Austen & Honeycutt, 2011, 52). The leaders described their perceptions of how increased employee involvement in leadership decisions led to corresponding increases in productivity. The most common barriers identified were organizational -- i.e., a lack of organizational support and fear of change, as well as a lack of self-confidence. Open communication was deemed to be key to fostering sharing of ideas between leaders and followers to promote an effective service-based orientation (Savage-Austen & Honeycutt, 2011, 53). In servant leadership, the leader does not set the agenda…… [read more]

Different Methods of Leadership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Individuals often interchangeably use the words management and leadership, regardless of the fact that the two terms can refer to variant and at times overlapping roles and responsibilities. Leadership, in the organizational context, refers to the ability to set and communicate a vision or a direction towards which an organization should move. While in some situations academics have defined leadership… [read more]

Leadership Theory Analysis and Review Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … leader? What responsibilities does a leader have? Resolving conflict is a major part of being a good leader.

Resolving Conflicts- What leadership styles help to resolve conflicts? Go into Conflict Resolution

Leadership Styles:

Collaborative hard but helps resolve conflicts because both parties get what they want. Good for long-term

Compromising: Both parties get some of what they want. May resolve conflict for short-term.

Leadership theories:

Background on Authentic and Servant

How do these theories help with conflict resolution?

Answer questions A1 and A2.

Power Analysis

Sources of Power, Leverage and Application Using two sources of power

Areas of Application

Groups and Teams

Dealing with Conflict

Diversity and Cultural Competence

Answer parts a, b, and c.

Finish with conclusion.

Please let me know if this outline and references are suitable for assignment. Thank you. Paper is not finished. This is an outline for approval purposes to begin assignment.


Boulton,…… [read more]

Analyzing Leadership and Ethics Issues Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … ethics in an organization, and their association with organizational effectiveness. Organizational leadership skills and traits necessary for tackling ethical issues will also be examined.

Importance of Organization Ethics/Organizational Effectiveness

Ethics is being prioritized in organizations. In the present era, ethics isn't an option or a luxury. Society is becoming increasingly intolerant towards irresponsible and selfish behavior, which enriches… [read more]

How Charismatic Leadership Can Help and Hurt a Team Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … charismatic leadership?

A charismatic leader is an individual who can inspire a team to accomplish a specified goal. In many instances, a charismatic leader can inspire a team to achieve synergies in their overall functions. These leaders have an ability to create a vision that is often larger than the individual components that comprise it (Herman, 2003). This vision, provides an emotional appear to the respective team members. It is these emotions that ultimately provide an incentive for team members to achieve more than they believed possible. We see these emotional appeals by charismatic leaders both in sports and in business. A sports team may be experiencing some form of controversy throughout the season. However, through charismatic leadership, the head coach finds a way to strike and emotional appeal with the team that allows them to overcome the adversity. For example, we saw this in the NBA finals where Michael Jordan overcame the flu to lead his team to a championship.

Part B: Explain what the statement means that charismatic leaders use active impression management with their followers to support their image. Provide and elaborate on one example.

Through social interaction, leaders attempt to alter perceptions through their behavior and communication. Charismatic leaders selectively use communication to inspire and motivate their constituents. They are selective in their behavior because they don't want their motivational tactics to become stale. What makes a charismatic leader influential is their tone and behavior. These characteristics are contagious in large part due to active impression management. Charismatic leaders often pick the appropriate time to act or to appropriately inspire others. A prime example is Bill Belichick, coach…… [read more]

Williamson and Fellay a Battle for Control Case Study

Case Study  |  9 pages (2,913 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Leadership Challenge: A Tale of Two Leaders -- The Issue of Leadership in the SSPX

Leadership at the Fraternal Order of the Society of St. Pius X, headquartered in Switzerland, with stations in countries around the world, was always an issue from day one. The non-profit seminary for Traditional Catholics wishing to learn the traditional Catholic teachings (which the Church… [read more]

Trying to Get in School Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Christofel and I'm from Indonesia. Indonesia is part of Southeast Asia; with over 18,000 counted islands it is by far the largest and most varied archipelago on Earth. The purpose of this letter of introduction is to give you an idea about myself.

I am writing this letter of introduction to offer more information about my background and my career goal.

First, I'll explain my background. I grew up in the largest city in Indonesia, Jakarta, which is the capital. It is currently the largest city in Southeast Asia with an estimated population of 10.2 million people. I had lived there for almost 19 years before I moved to United States to pursue a bachelor degree. At first, it was really hard for me to decide whether to study in the United States because my time in Indonesia as a teenager was really memorable and enjoyable. However, I eventually decided to go to U.S. after my parents persuaded me to get a better education in order to pursue my big dream of becoming a successful businessman. The first time I arrived here in the America, I didn't apply to any universities because I realized that my English skills were not at the level where one can talk normally to people in English. Therefore, I decided to attend a community college at the beginning of my journey. My first community college was called Green River Community College which is located in Auburn, Washington. It's a very nice city to live in if you prefer a rural area where the people are really friendly. I spent one and a half years there and then transferred to Glendale Community College in…… [read more]

Analysis of Three Ethical Propositions for Organizational Leaders Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,012 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethical Theory Through a Global Lens

Today, organizational leaders are confronted with a bewildering array of unprecedented ethical dilemmas that demand a comprehensive understanding of the relevant theoretical issues that are involved in an increasingly complex and diverse global context (Lund-Thomsen & Lindgreen, 2014; Thompson, 2010; Voegtlin, Patzer, and Scherer, 2012). To help develop new insights into these issues, this paper selects three of the eight propositions for ethical leadership proposed in an opinion article by Voegtlin et al. (2012) to develop corresponding critiques of their likely outcomes at various levels. In addition, a discussion concerning the unanswered questions that scholars should address to further understand these leadership propositions is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

The three propositions proposed by Voegtlin et al. (2012) selected for this analysis are presented below, followed by a critique of their likely outcomes at various levels:

Proposition No. 1: Responsible leadership helps to build and maintain the legitimacy of an organization

Of the eight propositions proposed by Voegtlin et al. (2012), this is by far the most straightforward and easily supported. For instance, according to Nwagbara (2013), one of the hallmarks of a legitimate organization is responsible leadership that takes into account the views of all stakeholders. Likewise, Zaccaro and Klimoski (2009) emphasize the need for responsible leadership to promote the legitimacy of organizations of all sizes and types in both the public and private sectors. At the local level, it is reasonable to suggest that higher levels of responsible leadership would help improve public relations with the communities in which private sector organizations compete, while public sector organizations would experience improved relationships with their constituents.

Similarly, because many private sector organizations compete nationally by virtue of commercial Web sites, responsible leadership would help ensure that these enterprises were perceived by consumers as being a legitimate brand that deserves their trust and business. In the public sector, responsible leadership could help improve the perception among the general public that the government was performing its mandates in accord with the public will and the law of the land. Finally, at the international level, responsible leadership is an essential element of overcoming the fundamental cross-cultural differences that challenge relations with other countries, even those with comparable histories, cultures and values.

Proposition No. 4: Responsible leaders can gradually change the ethical culture of an organization over time. Responsible leadership will thereby encourage a culture of discursive conflict resolution and deliberative practices.

To their credit, Voegtlin et al. (2012) concede that changing the ethical culture of any organization represents a challenging enterprise that requires time, but they are less clear concerning how best to make these changes, even on a gradual basis. Nevertheless, their recommendation to encourage a "culture of discursive conflict resolution" draws on the Socratic tradition that "truth emerges from debate" (Barber, 1994, p. 45). The recommendation to implement "deliberative practices" to gradually change the ethical culture of an organization over time… [read more]

Motivating the Creative Team Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Motivating the Creative Team

There are two different types of motivation, the intrinsic and the extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation comes from within, while extrinsic motivation is something that comes from an external source. People who are intrinsically motivated are driven by things within themselves, such as a desire to be better, a desire for achievement or for actualization. Extrinsic motivators can be things like rewards, or punishments.

I find these concepts to be interesting, as I have my own experience with the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. I was always a hard worker when I was a child, but never had the best grades. There were times when I just wanted to be better, and that is what drove me. But if I did not get the results, it could get discouraging sometimes, which shows that the grades were something of a motivation. My mum was excellent about recognizing this in me, and rewarding me when I had made the right effort. As a twin, part of my intrinsic motivation was just to create my own identity, and that drove a lot of my effort. But there is little question that praise was something I wanted, and could be used as motivation as well. For most people, they might have a preference for one or the other, but there is usually a mix of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators at work. My brother is mostly extrinsic, and responded to grades, while I often was forced rely on intrinsic motivation, such as the satisfaction that came from going my best. Looking back, I associate my intrinsic motivation to me being more artistic, while my brother is mostly scientific. Scientific inclination certainly leads to more tangible rewards, whereas an artist is more inclined to be satisfied with creating a work that reflects his or her own vision, regardless of whatever other outcomes there might be.

Cognitive dissonance refers to conflicting attitudes or behaviors. When there is cognitive dissonance, we often develop strategies to minimize this, as it can be stressful. I don't really feel that there is cognitive dissonance for me -- I certainly never was in a situation where I had to deliberately overcome it. The processes for overcoming cognitive dissonance are often unconscious anyway, so it would be difficult to think back to a decision I never really made to apply the principles of overcoming cognitive dissonance to restore balance in some dilemma I felt.

I feel that praise plays a significant role for me, as one of the more powerful forms of extrinsic motivation. There are things that people do for the pure pleasure of the activity, and that is where creativity can be at its highest, because there are no constraints on the activity; the person can feel free to express their creativity because other outcomes do not matter. When extrinsic motivation is introduced, this changes the way that the motivation works.

For example, people who receive rewards for high performance feel pressure to perform, if they are driven… [read more]

Understanding the Various Dimensions of Offshoring Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  10 pages (4,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Outsourcing & Offshoring: Annotated Bibliography

Kadzik, A.M. (2006). Current Trend to Outsource Legal Work Abroad and the Ethical Issues Related to Such Practices. The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics19.3: 731-739.

According to Kadzik (2006), ethical issues are the ones being compromised with many companies legally outsourcing to the external firms. As from the research is done in the article, there… [read more]

Comparison of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Approaches Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  3 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Transformational and Transactional Leadership Theories

Transformational and transactional leadership practices have generated significant attention in the past few years, which has contributed to numerous studies on these theories. The first article or study that will be used in this analysis is Contingent Reward Leader Behaviour: Where Does it Come From? by Joaquin Camps and Federico Torres. The second article is Leading from within: the Effects of Emotion Recognition and Personality on Transformational Leadership Behavior by Robert S. Rubin, David C. Munz, and William H. Bommer.

The purpose of the study by Rubin, Munz & Bommer (2005) is to examine whether the tendency to be more transformational can be accurately predicted and how to do so (p.846). The researchers sought to examine this issue because of the considerable scholarly focus on transformational leadership, which has developed to become the most commonly accepted leadership approach across the world. In contrast, the purpose of the study by Camps & Torres (2011) is to enhance knowledge regarding the origin of contingent reward behavior in transactional leadership (p.224). This purpose was developed because of the existing research gap regarding the determinants of CR transactional leader behavior, particularly with regards to individual and contextual antecedents for such behavior.

The research question in the study by Camps & Torres (2011) is, "Where does contingent reward leader behavior come from?" while the one in the study by Rubin, Munz & Bommer (2005) is, "What are the antecedents to transformational leadership behavior?" While these studies seek to examine the origin of leadership behaviors, they focus on different leadership approaches and style. Camps & Torres (2011) conducted their analysis on a group of 145 managers from a large agricultural/biotechnology firm whereas Rubin, Munz & Bommer (2005) conducted their study on 795 professors from 70 university departments.

As previously mentioned, these studies examine the origin of antecedents for leadership behavior in these different types of approaches to leadership. Consequently, these studies have different findings that can also be attributed to differences in research methodologies, purpose of study, and sample population. Rubin, Munz & Bommer (2005) found that personality traits and emotional recognition are positively associated with transformational leadership behavior. Moreover, they found that transformational leadership behavior is moderately correlated to contingent reward behavior at a high level, which implies overlapping constructs. On the contrary, Camps & Torres (2011) found that the antecedents of contingent reward transactional behavior are organization learning capability and employability. In this case, the organization learning capability is a contextual variable while employability is a subordinate's attribute.

Camps & Torres (2011) have utilized the study by Rubin, Munz & Bommer (2005) despite the different leadership approaches that are examined. The use of the older study…… [read more]

Personal Leadership Approaches and Principles Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Spirituality in Young Children Self-Control: Cultural Influence

Currently, I am an affiliative leader because I tend to care about the well-being of others (Northouse, 2016). In fact, I am often involved in minimal conflicts in teams I run because many people around me feel valued and appreciated. This has always served to create an overall sense of harmony wherever I am. Surveys indicate that most people feel undervalued during change implementation (Kasemsap, 2016). For this reason, the currently employed staff and existing institutions are unresponsive to system change in U.S. public schools. With an affiliative leader, there is hope for change and this scenario will not be true. I would make the currently employed staff and existing institutions feel valued, welcome and happy about the change. However, my approach to leadership has some weaknesses. The most notable of them is that I could have a tough time managing inevitable conflicts when they occur, and I will be less expected to handle these scenarios as they are. Also, this can lead to poor performance from employees who become complacent under the flow of positive feedback because they get lost in striving to be better.

From such s weaknesses, I desire to change my affiliative leadership approach into a transformational approach. The key to managing the current problem is a long lasting and an effective leader. To achieve this, a transformational leader must transform the institutional behavior and performance by influencing the current employees to share my vision and allow them to perform beyond their specified responsibilities. As a transformational leader, I am expected to exhibit behaviors that can overcome individual's resistance to change (Northouse, 2014). This includes influencing my followers' perceptions of system change by offering a common vision and making them see that the change is an appropriate opportunity and not a threat. I must allow them to apply self-direction and accept change towards the objectives without the feeling of threats. McGregor's "Theory Y" has clearly described this leadership by stating that it will allow me to overcome resistance and generate better performance. By focusing on the interests and needs of my followers, transformational leadership will help me promote the creation of reliable and trustworthy relationships. Therefore, the United States public schools will achieve a system change leading to lower levels of psychiatric disorders and medication with psychotropic medications among their students.

Question two

Three leadership principles outline the expectations regarding the conduct of the capstone research project. They apply to everyone involved in the capstone project including lead researcher, students, research support staff, administrators and research managers.

Ethics, respect and professional standards

My capstone project research should respect and maintain the rights, dignity, well-being and safety of all involved or who might be impacted by the study. The researcher and research support staff must understand and know how to access the relevant ethical and legal requirements. They must adopt proper measures to maintain confidentiality, manage data, and reduce any effect their work might have on animals, people, and the… [read more]

Richard Branson's Leadership Style Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Leadership Style of Richard Branson / Richard Branson Leadership Formula to Success

In 1973, entrepreneur #Richard Branson started Virgin Records. Now Virgin Group owns more than 200 companies in more than 30 countries. Branson is famous for his adventurous nature and achievements in sports, crossing oceans in a hot air balloon are one of them (Biography l, 2015).

the impact… [read more]

Transformational Leadership and Adopting Technology Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Transformational Leaders: Service Delivery and Leveraging of New Technologies

Evolving technologies have initiated the emergence of disruptive business models thereby challenging dominant industry logistics thereby reshaping established value chains.

The dominance of industry players relies on the scheme of value creation. Dynamism in technological fields has triggered the realignment of strategies in product and service delivery. In this paper, we identify the factors that may trigger the change in companies in the development of strategies to capture value from new technologies. Our analysis delves in various market players, especially the drug industry on the changes that bioinformatics and biotechnologies have brought to this industry.

Literature Review Analysis

Bioinformatics and Biotechnology have contributed to the adoption of new methods of discovery and development of drugs (Sabatier, Craig-Kennard, & Mangematin, 2012). As a result, innovation and technology management has realigned the strategies employed by leaders in the transformation of service delivery in the drug industry. Managers play a crucial role within the 'dominant logic' framework as critical resource allocation decisions rely on them. The dominant industry-level logic depicts a conceptualization of the administrative and business tools meant to accomplish set goals within the organization. It provides a general framework that managers can utilize to ensure company profitability. Sharing of the logic guides encompasses value creation, value context, and value capture. Of the three aspects, value creation depicts the competencies and capabilities utilized by an organization in the generation of products and services.

Transformation leaders require a clear grasp of the value creation aspect to facilitate the success of the business. Business models dictate the strategy utilized by the business in the marketplace. Practitioners in the early 1990s developed business models aimed at managing portfolios to facilitate the realization of expected revenues considering the period (Sabatier, Craig-Kennard, & Mangematin, 2012). The close relation of business models and industry logics dictates the mindset of managers in their perception of the business environment including competitors. Reactions to the perceptions and discontinuities in business models and corporate strategies affect the emergence of more…… [read more]

Working in Collaborative Environments Film Review

Film Review  |  5 pages (862 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Integrative ties as an approach to managing organizational conflict" is rather ambitious in scope. The author takes a decidedly maverick-like approach to addressing the issue of organizational conflict and the sort of resolutions that might be posed to mitigate it. Whereas most forms of addressing organizational conflict seek to ameliorate this phenomenon after it has taken place, Gawerc's approach is much more preemptive. Quite simply, the author posits the notion that by strengthening organizational ties that she refers to as integrative (meaning that they exist between the parties involved in the conflict) that one can help to prevent conflict from reaching a point to where it is no longer helpful and is instead disruptive to organizations.

As fascinating as this theory is, the author utilizes a number of different examples to demonstrate its merit. The principle drawback in doing so (and in regards to the article in general) is that the bevy of these examples do not address conflict in the workplace. The author illustrates the fact that there was considerable conflict between the U.S. and Great Britain, as well as between Great Britain and France, yet that neither of these situations escalated to the point of the conflict between the U.S. and Russia (or the Soviet Union) during the Cold War. The reason why is because the integrative ties referenced in the first of these two examples was much stronger than those in the Cold War example. Additionally, the author is able to illustrate her thesis with references to the current ongoing conflict between Palestinians and Israelis. She provides some examples in which the integrative ties between these two partisans (in instances of specific integrated organizations) were strong enough to withstand the ensuing conflict. She also provides examples in which they were not. In providing some of these examples, the author also offers some basic principles that organizations can do to enhance their integrative ties and reduce the negative impact that conflict produces. These include some fairly obvious points. For instance, she advises that being respectful between partisans can help to strengthen integrative ties. She also poses the notion that emphasizing equality can help to achieve a similar objection. Again, most of these points are issues of mutuality that ideally should be present within contemporary working environments. As such, they are not necessarily elucidating in and of themselves.

The quote from the reading that appears eminent to me "Finally, for these initiatives, most found it was critical to recognize the asymmetry and commit to working as equally as possible" (Gawerc, 2013, p. 223).

The question that I have…… [read more]

Studies on the Problems Facing Transformational Leadership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Transformational Leaders: Service and Technology

Quantitative research

The quantitative research considered here seeks to show the amount of variance in teacher job satisfaction and organizational commitment which can be clarified by not only the transactional behaviors but also the transformational leadership behaviors. The research used the hierarchical linear modeling to measure the added value of transformational leadership behaviors.

In the research, the author expresses limited scope of the research as one of the main challenges he had. The research was based on only five high schools within Pennsylvania and it is data obtained from these schools that was used to draw conclusions, a fact that limits the replicability of these conclusions and recommendations. The limitation of the geographical area was also a factor that was a challenge to the author, since he used only Eastern Pennsylvania region. This limits the findings and the generalization of the findings may not be acceptable. These were the factors that threatened the validity of the method used and also the sampling method and the subsequent data that was collected.

In order to address these challenges, the author engaged in thorough literature review that presented data and findings that came from researches previously done in other regions within the U.S. He also engaged the use of various theories on transformational lead ship that helped in the shaping of the conclusions drawn in the research and these theories, used together with the collected gave a consistent data and information that was reliable at the end. To have a comparative data, the author also carried out literature review on transformational leadership outside education sector, this would give a better grasp of the facts around the application of the transformational leadership in education sector as a whole, not just in Eastern Pennsylvania alone (Kieres C.H., 2012).

Qualitative research

The qualitative research that was utilized herein is on the place of transformational leadership in the army and how it has, over the years, changed with…… [read more]

Leadership Styles in Managing Groups Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Group Dynamics on Leadership

Effects of Group Dynamics on leadership

Group dynamics results in In-groups and out-groups. Some intriguing behaviors emerge in groups notably; close colleagues and friends easily revolve in the 'us-versus-them' mentality. The outcome is a psychological dispute precipitated by cognitive dissonance. In the decision-making process, two distinct teams emerge. A predictable behavioral dynamic accompanies this. Quickly, those… [read more]

Two Pages on Leadership and Diversity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (630 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … organization? Think about how this is different from management. Also provide any example.

Leadership means working with others to achieve missions and goals while remaining committed to shared values and visions. Successful leaders recognize that "each group member is an individual," motivated by unique values and ideals (Chapter 11, Slide 22). Moreover, leaders are not as concerned with specific means of achieving an end; leaders are more concerned with "how" things have to be done to ensure that a high ethical standard is being maintained (Chapter 12, Slide 6). Leadership means motivating individuals and teams, recognizing the value of each contributor. Leadership depends on ongoing communication and social exchanges, although leaders must also remain strong and decisive, less concerned with being personally liked than with achieving mutually beneficial goals.

Organizations need strong leaders and not just managers. Managers are necessary for executing leadership tasks, ensuring that timelines and deadlines are being adhered to, and delegating tasks. Leaders should be more visionary in their approach, in spite of the many different styles and types of leadership. Some leaders will be more charismatic and have strong personalities; whereas others might be more laid back and transformational or even laissez-faire in nature. When organizations develop strong leaders, they should do so in accordance with the values and goals of that organization. Situational variables might also influence the type of leader that is most effective. For example, a crisis situation might call for a more charismatic leader who can take charge of a situation (Chapter 12, Slide 27).

Generally, though, transformational leaders are most effective for the long-term goals of an organization. Organizations with transformational leaders are committed to developing the next generation of leadership and inspiring all members of the team to contribute. For example, a transformational leader will not seek power in a self-serving way, but will work with others, recognizing the value of each…… [read more]

Stepping Outside the Comfort Zone in Life Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … competitive world, playing it safe is not the answer. The key to success is to push our boundaries to the point where we become completely out of our comfort zone. Pushing outside the comfort zone a little at a time, we can embrace change and achieve our goals. The article "Why Getting Comfortable with Discomfort is Crucial to Success" depicts the importance of embracing change and risk and accepting the discomfort it brings.

A "Comfort Zone" is a place where an individual feels at ease without any stress. It brings security and a sense of safety and routine. Stepping out of your comfort zone is one of the hardest things to do because of how good inertia can feel compared with the thought of doing something risky or different. However, dissatisfaction and unhappiness stem from the resistance to change. Stepping outside the comfort zone can be the most rewarding thing to do. Once we give up comfort, security and routine, we make room for opportunity and growth. Our confidence increases because we learned something new or achieved a small goal. This then leads us to set our sights on even farther horizons and push the limits of what we once thought possible. The key to successfully achieving goals is to remember that mistakes are bound to happen on the way, and that we should not let them get to us. Rather, mistakes teach us and enable us to flourish.

When it comes to me, I am equally divided between doing what has always been done as routine familiarity and challenging the old assumptions to embrace change. I do realize that the situations where I have taken risks are those where I have felt more accomplished and proud of myself than those times I played it safe.

The feeling of excitement after pushing out of a comfort zone is one that makes me want to seek new challenges. People who frequently take risks, such as those who are interested in extreme sports, enjoy being outside of their comfort zone and they continually push their boundaries to inspire others to do the same. Unfortunately, I am terrified of failure, which leaves me to…… [read more]

Analysis of Three Papers on Leadership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,334 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … role that ethical leadership plays in organizational effectiveness. Over the three papers, a number of different measures are examined. Sharif and Neubert did, anyway. The Rubin paper is about emotional recognition, so emotional intelligence, and its influence on "transformational leadership behavior," an equally vague notion.

One theme common to all three articles is leadership. There are differences in terms of how leadership is discussed. In two of the papers, the concept of ethical leadership is the independent variable, while in the Rubin paper leadership is the dependent variable, but all of the papers are about leadership.

A second theme that all studies deal with the emotional elements of leader-follower relations. The Rubin study is most direct in this respect, with emotion recognition as the independent variable. The other studies are less direct, looking at perceptions of ethical conduct. The key is that perceptions are inherently emotional responses to cues -- the followers do not know if the leader is ethical or not, but simply bases their perceptions on cues that they receive from the leader. The leader, conversely, can maintain the appearance of being ethical by either being ethical or by reading the emotions of the followers and doing things that employees will perceive as ethical. The emotion-mediated relationship between leader and follower is therefore worked into all three of these studies.

A third theme in these studies is that they each seek to tackle the less tangible aspects of leadership. All three draw on a fairly large body of literature where scholars have attempted to define and operationalize the sometimes complex, subtle nature of leadership. At least two of these papers have conceptual faults that perhaps illustrate how difficult it is to study leadership, especially in its emotional aspects. All leadership has some emotional element, inherently because of the key roles of leadership is to motivate, that is to spur an emotional response in followers. How leaders are perceived, how they read the emotional states of others, and how they influence those emotional states are key elements that distinguish leadership from management. Yet, these are difficult concepts with which to work. There are no clean ways to operationalize these soft skills, and there are a host of other variables that make it impossible to truly isolate these skills in the real world. Thus, the authors faced challenges in conducting their research, and these papers highlight how difficult it can be for people studying leadership to learn anything meaningful in such a context.

As for conclusions to be drawn from the three articles, there are two articles that study the same subject and one that does not. That the Rubin paper has leadership as dependent variable makes it distinct from the other two papers, which have ethical leadership as the independent variable. That difference alone means that there is no common theme between these three papers. They are not all studying things that leadership influence, nor are they all studying things that influence leadership. Conceptually, Rubin paper is… [read more]

Importance of a Group in Leadership Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (1,162 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Group Leadership

Aritz, J. & Walker, R.C. (2014). Leadership Styles in Multicultural Groups: Americans and East Asians Working Together. International Journal of Business Communication, 51(1), 72-92.

The study was conducted to offer a better understanding on the impact of leadership styles in multicultural groups that include American and East Asia cultures. The reason for conducting the research was the need to determine the extent cultural forces affect individual expectations on leaders and their behaviors. The researchers found that varying discursive leadership styles not only affects members participation and input but also influence feelings of inclusion and satisfaction within the team. The strengths of the study include demonstrating successful leadership styles and approaches to all cultures and showing the impact of cultural factors on leadership and organizational processes. Its weaknesses include narrow focus on American and East Asia cultures, ignoring important variables in organizational settings, and use of simulation. The implication for practice is the need to consider cultural influences and use appropriate styles and approaches to ensure effective leadership. Key words include intercultural business communication, leadership, multicultural groups, and organization.

Fusco, T., O'Riordan, S. & Palmer, S. (2015, September 2). Authentic Leaders are ... Conscious, Competent, Confident, and Congruent: A Grounded Theory of Group Coaching and Authentic Leadership Development. International Coaching Psychology Review, 10(2), 131-146.

This study focuses on exploring and combining group coaching and authentic leadership development, which are two important fields of coaching. The research was carried out because of the need to develop a leadership theory for the 21st Century since every era has its distinctive leadership theory. The researchers developed an evidenced based approach to ALD in which authentic leadership is based on four concepts i.e. consciousness, competence, confidence, and congruence. The strengths of the study include introduction of social theory into authentic leadership, new form of coaching, and creation of a leadership theory for this century. The weaknesses are its assumption that authentic leadership is a dignified objective, inappropriateness of small group coaching to everyone, and use of sampling and generalization. The implication for practice is that leadership should be based on competence, congruence, confidence, and consciousness. The key words include authentic leadership, grounded theory, coaching, competence, congruence, consciousness, and confidence.

Hood, M.B. (2015, June 11). Us vs. Them: Effects of Group Dynamics on Leadership. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 1-9.

The study highlights the impact of group dynamics on leadership and was carried out because of the emergence of interesting behaviors when examining a fact pattern from a fictitious criminal case and attempting to reach a decision. The researcher found that leaders must remain aware of the past and understand measures to prevent losing the society's equilibrium in order to avoid the mentality of us-versus-them. The strengths of this highlight include presentation of ways to approach leadership for inclusion of group members and the need to understand group actions when exercising leadership. The weakness of the study is its limitation on examining law enforcement settings alone. The implication for practice is that group processes and… [read more]

Effective Management of Diverse Teams Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (537 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Diversity: The positive effects of considerate leadership on diverse teams" by Astrid C. Homan and Lindred L. Greer (2013)

Describe the purpose of the article -- what were the authors attempting to address?

This study focused on identifying and overcoming constraints to effective performance of teams comprised of diverse members who may differ culturally, racially, or along any number of other dimensions. To this end, the authors critically reviewed three studies concerning the effects of considerate leadership of diverse team functioning based on the following hypotheses:

Members of diverse teams are more likely to prefer leader consideration than members of homogeneous teams;

Diverse teams (compared to homogeneous teams) will perform better and experience less subgroup formation to the degree that their leader shows more consideration;

Diversity will be more strongly related to leader perceptions of individual differences (i.e., leader individuation) to the degree that the leader scores higher on consideration; and,

4. The interaction between team diversity and leader consideration on team performance will be mediated by perceived subgroup formation and leader individuation (pp. 109-110).

What do the authors mean when they say the positive effects of considerate leadership in diverse teams?

While their findings are relatively intuitive, Homan and Greer make the point that the extent to which team leaders recognize individual team members as unique individuals will likely be the extent to which these teams perform at their optimal level. In this regard, Homan and Greer (2013) report that, "Considerate leadership is an effective way to deal with the potential downsides of diversity. Considerate leaders show concern and respect for followers, look out for…… [read more]

Applying Change Management to Physical Therapy Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Quality Care and Change Management Within Physical Therapy

According to the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, "policies and processes are the main pillars of a coherent institutional quality assurance system" and this as true in education as it is in physical therapy (SEG, 2015, p. 12). Likewise, the European Region World Confederation for Physical Therapy has stated… [read more]

Succession Planning and Leadership Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Leadership Development and Succession Planning

Leadership changes occurred in the following two companies after:

Steve Jobs leaving Apple Inc. in 2011

Timothy Cook, Jobs' successor, who is now the CEO of the company, during the 14 years he worked for Apple, earned himself some good reputation for both industry and execution experience. As the CEO of the company, Timothy Cook outsourced almost all the manufacturing aspects of Apple in order to improve the margins of the company (Roady, 2011). During his early days as Apple's CEO, Cook took two important steps. Firstly, he ensured the promotion of Eddy Cue, the very famous Apple's internet services vice president. Secondly, he began a charity program, raising and donating at least $10, 000 per annum (Kane, 2014).

Yahoo! Inc. between the Years 2007 and 2012

Carol Bartz spent nearly three years as the CEO of Yahoo!, Inc., and her tenure began with a big splash early in 2009, ushering in a very impressive agenda for a professional turnaround. In the first six months she spent as the CEO of Yahoo! Inc., she turned around the organizational structure of the company, changed the executives, laid off about 5% of the entire workforce to cut costs. Both investors and the industry analysts were quite impressed; according to them, these changes were exactly what the company needed at that time. But, by the end of the honeymoon, Bartz could not deliver the turnaround she had promised. So, in September 2011, barely three years after she took over as Yahoo!'s CEO, Bartz was removed as the company's CEO; after three days, she tendered her resignation to the board of directors (Roady, 2011).

A Brief Summary of the Circumstances:

a) What was the public plan prior to the departure of the CEOs?

Apple -- "We are excited to bring our highest quarter ever," according to Apple's CEO, Steve Jobs. "At the moment, we remain very committed and thrilled to bring iCloud and iOS 5 to our esteemed users during this fall" (Baskaran & Mahtani, Jul 2011). During the 2011 WWDC event, Apple made the announcement concerning its MobileMe being replaced by its most recent cloud services, iCloud. This service housed all other major services offered by MobileMe. Moreover, the company dropped Gallery, iDis, and iWeb (Wikipedia, 2016).

Yahoo -- In 2007, October 16, to be precise, Yahoo made the announcement regarding its plans to stop Yahoo! 360°, which included bug repairs. According to the explanation provided by the company, it planned to launch what it called a Universal Profile in 2008, which would resemble the experimental system of Yahoo Mash (Wikipedia, 2016). On the 7th of April, 2008, Yahoo's APT was announced by the company, originally named Yahoo's AMP, an online-based platform for managing advertising. The platform makes advertising sales much simpler by unifying the seller and buyer markets. In September 2008, the service was launched (Wikipedia, 2016).

b) What business and HR objectives were most important prior to the switch?

Apple - To ensure its employees actively… [read more]

Why Supporting Others Is a Good Leadership Style Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Career Center

The resources available in the Career Center are numerous. There are links in the Job Center, for example, to various hiring pages that can be used to help students apply to the different available jobs in the market. These links are categorized under the departments by which students identify their field -- from Agriculture, Animals and… [read more]

Analyzing the Leadership Approach Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Leadership Approach

Golden Rule Leadership Approach

Impact on organization's leaders' ability to exert influence on others and thereby impacting team effectiveness

Transformational leadership is a type of leadership in which a leader has the ability to convince people to follow a particular path of reforms and transformations. It entails changing the organizational direction, moral compass and attitudes of an organization's employees. A leader can be considered transformative if his end values are successfully adopted by his or her subordinates resulting in a change in their goals, beliefs and ways of thinking (Lian & Tui, 2012). Transformative leadership has also been defined in the context of leaders and subordinates motivating each other and giving each other a sense of higher purpose; a sense where the goals and aspirations of both the leaders and followers become one. Many companies and individuals have been interested in understanding transformational leadership as it has been constantly linked with higher organizational performance. Several factors have contributed to the superior performance of organizations with transformational leaders, namely; increased trust in leaders, intrinsic motivation, higher commitment by both parties, increased morale and so on (Darling & Leffel, 2010). Positive relationships have also been associated between transformational leadership and individual and organizational performance. Thus, the fundamental values of leaders can help align the attitudes, beliefs and values of followers to the collective interest of the organization (Lian & Tui, 2012).

For one to be a transformational leader, one should first start with awareness -- awareness of how his or her own feelings and thought processes affect their actions and the affective states of those around you. As one's awareness grows, he or she might begin to experience an increase in an internal motivating force and an increase in passion for what he or she is doing and how these are affecting the people around them. The increase in perception enables one to choose the exact way to behave in a certain scenario to elicit the desired kind of response from others (Darling & Leffel, 2010). This type of leadership speaks to the "being" part of one's followers, inspiring the wholeness of being so that thoughts and actions become consistent. Transformational leadership is about leaders having the authority and integrity that resonates with his followers and encourages them to follow without question. The followers start owning the organization's vision and aspirations and in a way start behaving as leaders themselves. Unlike other leadership styles, transformational leadership does not promote unnecessary competitions among teams, individuals or groups in the same organization, instead it promotes the movement of all followers in the same direction through the sharing of goals and values. Transformational leadership expands the vision of organizations from the narrow focus on bottom lines to broader sustainable operational models in which an organization takes care of the needs of all those involved, and not simply the ones in authority (Von Bergen & Soper, 2002).

Impact on team member relationships and their cohesion

Four factors define transformational leaders, namely: individual consideration, intellectual… [read more]

Anlayzing Philosophy of Leadership Statement Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (1,213 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Leadership Statement

Philosophy of Leadership Statement

A leader is one who is in charge of selecting, equipping, training, and influencing his followers. The followers could either belong to diverse backgrounds or have diverse abilities. The leader guides and advises them to exploit their skills fully to achieve the goals the organization has set, charged with both physical and emotional energy as coordinated efforts (Winston & Patterson, 2006, p. 7).

Leadership in Public Safety

Public safety leadership is responsible for determining the best approach to ensuring public safety and promises its followers that irrespective of the circumstance, such safety level must be ensured. The attainment of the pre-arranged safety standards are the responsibility of the followers. The organization must have the capacity and inclination to share the goals with each one of the followers, which calls for a very high assistance level and not just compliance (Silverii, 2013).

Necessity of Leadership

Almost 90% of all company CEOs found in different parts of the world profess by the understanding that increasing the investments channeled towards effective leadership yield positive results for the company (Feser, Mayol, & Srinivasan, 2015). It will then be right to say that development in leadership is one very essential challenge and element in terms of human capital for companies. According to McKinsey research results, leadership is a very vital aspect of the welfare of any organization and every company's shareholder believes it is major driver for returns on investment. The leaders with high-quality leadership characteristics display four major types and characteristics of behaviors, listed below:

Effective solution for problems

Aiming for powerful orientation of results

Searching for varied prospects

Supporting others/followers

Habits and Qualities of a Good Leader

1. Honesty: Every leader has a group of followers who are the leader's responsibility. Therefore, honesty is one of the required behaviors and responsibilities of the leader towards his/her team of followers (Prive, 2012).

2. Delegate: Delegating tasks to competent people among the followers is one major responsibility of every leader because he knows who can perform which task better and who cannot, depending on expertise and skills. Sometimes, a leader is required to push the followers beyond their limits in order to achieve a common goal.

3. Communication: Clear communication of mission and goal of any organization is important for any leader and his followers to achieve the right results. Therefore, the leader is expected to have good communication skills to enable him communicate well with his followers at the same level and with the same level of commitment to ensure the followers follows him in the exact same way as he presents himself to members of the team.

4. Confidence: It is important for the leader to maintain his confident poise to create room for each of the followers to look up to him positively. It is important for the leader to give his followers the assurance that setbacks happen naturally and always carry vital lessons. He is expected to help them stay focused in the face of… [read more]

Overcoming Fear or Failure and Handling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … willing and able to learn from failure is often what separates effective from ineffective leaders. All successful leaders have failed for one reason or another. Many successful leaders, like my interview subject Noel Gavrache of local restaurant Panache, state that the only true failure is not trying. Research substantiates the common knowledge that failure helps build character, clarify values and goals, and to perform better in the long run. For example, a study of students showed that the ability to learn from their moral and ethical failures proved "critical for overall character development, (Dalton, 2015, p. 71). Failure is as important to groups and organizations as it is to individual leaders, too. Starbuck & Hedberg (2001) found that organizational learning is based on reaction to failure, which helps to create a roadmap for the future of the organization. In other words, it is impossible to know what works for the organization before knowing what does not work. We cannot avoid errors until we know why they occur and how to prevent them and respond to them when crises arise. Research on math students also shows that failure actually enhances learning outcomes. Students who attempt math problems before an instructional lesson do better in the long run versus students who study before doing those same problems, precisely because the students who did not learn the material first were forced to learn from their mistakes and not from the abstract instructional information (Kapur, 2014). Similarly, failure helps us understand why the concepts matter, promoting deep cognitive changes that are more meaningful than the superficial learning that comes from repeated successes. The two most important ways to use failure to improve leadership vision include (a) planning for failure; and (b) proactively directing cognitive change.

In an interview, Noel Gavrache stated that failing makes one stronger in business and tougher when it comes to withstanding criticism and setbacks. As someone who now owns five establishments in three different cities, Gavrache is exceptionally successful in his chosen field, not only as a chef but also as a businessman. When asked about exposing his team to the idea of failure to prepare them for consequences of wrong choices, Gavrache laughed and immediately said that he had done exactly that. One day, he sat down with his team at Panache and told them that they were all taking huge risks breaking into a new market with recipes and a dining approach that had not yet been tried before in this city. He said that brainstorming the worst-case scenario helped to minimize fears by having everyone on the team voice their concerns. Holding your fears inside, claimed Gavrache, is worse than confronting those fears verbally. By talking about our fears to our colleagues, we can gain support and learn what strategies had been successful to team members when they failed in the past. Without those valuable stories learned from the failures of others, we would be less likely to succeed. Therefore, it is important to learn… [read more]

Team and Leadership Scenario Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,303 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … team I had for a dance class. The team was tasked to do choreography and design outfits for the final assignment. It was difficult because my group was the only group that did not have any experienced dancers. No one knew what to do and how to create and implement suitable choreography. The team also featured some strong personalities that wanted to lead rather than follow.

One (white female) was on her way to being valedictorian, another was a Hispanic young mom, another was a performer (white male) and a loud personality, and then there was the quiet black guy, and the quiet Asian girl. Those two went along with whatever the other louder personalities wanted. The ones that were in the middle, taking both the follower and leader positions were myself and the Jewish girl who was not even officially part of the class, but simply wanted the experience. Together it made for a highly diverse and turbulent team.

The first goal that needed to be achieved, at the time was figuring out what would need to be done and assign roles. This group was in the norming stage where although personalities clashed, people eventually took up their roles and were able to succeed amidst differences and obstacles from said differences (Carlock, 2012). To say the least, it was a long and winding road to get to that point. Regardless that first step was crucial in beginning communication I the group.

The next step was creating rules for communication. There needed to be respect amongst the team or else it would fall into chaos and nothing would be accomplished (Lyons, Priest, Wildman, Salas, & Carnegie, 2009). Since there three strong personality types, two balanced types, and two weak personality types, there needed to be a mixed leadership so everyone felt they had a say in the direction of the team without leaving it to one person. This helped ease tension and remove potential conflict from arising. This is because although it was a traditional team like attitude the group took on, it was technically a temporary team because once the task was finished (the final assignment) the team dissolved (Roe, 2014).

Being a temporary team in the norming stage, it took time for people to get used to each other's communication styles and there were moments where there were loud disagreements. However, these disagreements created a chance for the team to really come together and work hard to achieve the main objective, get a good grade in the class. With there being 7 team members that were very diverse (4 females and 3 males of varying ethnic and cultural backgrounds, there needed to exist a time to bond and time for getting out what was required of everyone.

The three main major goals were as follows.

1. Communicate effectively, meaning everyone had a chance to speak, give their input, and listen to each other's ideas.

2. Attend every meeting. This is because team members needed to learn… [read more]