"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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Bloodlines and Race Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Elijah Mohammad, "Yakub promised his followers that he would graft a nation from his own people, and he would teach them how to rule his people, through a system of tricks and lies whereby they use deceit to divide and conquer, and break the unity of the darker people, put one brother against another, and then act as mediators and rule both sides" (Gardell 1996). Hence Blacks are the superior ones and should rule over White community, according to Malcom X, that genetically black is dominant while white is recessive, therefore white supremacy must be condemned and blacks must rule over the world. They just use the name of Islamic rules of truthfulness, honesty and human equality etc. In order to attract more and more people (Gardell 1996).

Who was Alain Locke? What was his contribution to race discourse?

Alain Locke was a famous philosopher, writer and educationist during the period of Harlem Renaissance, in fact he is considered to be the founder of the movement. Born in 1886 and died in 1954, Locke served as a motivating philosopher for the African-Americans to identify and promote their talents as writers, poets, musicians, other skillful persons and thus obtain a dignity to have better social position in the society. He was of the view of "Ethnic Race" that races are not based on biological or hereditary characteristics, rather there are social and cultural basis upon which a race depends. Any race does not determine a social culture rather it is the culture and the society which forms the fundamentals of race. Hence the two are not independent of each other since the latter is the product of the former. A particular race is determined by particular psychological and emotional responses and reactions to the circumstances which then become only specific to them since that particular community socially inherits such dispositions. Thus by this means, people remain distinctive to each other and are therefore, categorized on ethnical basis as a race rather than biologically. The particular traits, expressions, lifestyles remain preserved to a particular community and people can be identified by such characteristics (SEP 2012, Locke and Jeffrey 1992).


Firmin, Joseph-Ante-nor. 2000. The equality of the human races: (positivist anthropology). New York: Garland Pub.

Gardell, Mattias. 1996. In the name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Locke, Alain, and Jeffrey C. Stewart. 1992. Race contacts and interracial relations: lectures on the theory and practice of race. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.

SEP: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March…… [read more]

Afghanistan the Current Situation Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The current situation in Afghanistan is not improving as was hoped for given the massive and expensive American and NATO intervention. There are crises and serious issues in the country including: a) the lack of a competent, well-trained military defence force; b) a lingering legacy of poverty and hopelessness; and c) the re-emergence of the Taliban, a radical Islamic… [read more]

Homeland Security Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Specifically stated is that among the prominent successes of DH are "…the physical screening of airplane passengers and cargo at airports and the pre-screening of airline passengers and cargo bound for the U.S.; information sharing among federal, state, and local officials; and a Federal Emergency Management Agency more capable of responding to catastrophic disasters. The Department is better integrated than ever before, having melded 200,000 employees and dozens of agencies with different cultures and management policies together under one banner." (U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Internal Affairs, 2011, p.1)

IV. Foiled Terrorist Plots Among DHS Successes

According to a report published in U.S. News 'The Daily Beast' since 911 there have been, "at least 45 jihadists terrorist attacks plotted again Americans -- each of them thwarted by a combination of intelligence policing and citizen participation." (Avlon, 2011, p.1) The latest cases states the report involved three individuals and one of them "believed to be a U.S. citizen" who entered into the U.S. In August with plans to use a car-bomb attack "against Washington D.C. Or New York. The suspected terrorists are thought to have come from Afghanistan or Pakistan, and at least two rental trucks are being sought nationwide." (Avlon, 2011, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

The Department of Homeland Security has realized a great deal of success in its operations since 911 as evidenced by the literature reviewed in this study and most specifically by the terrorists plots that were thwarted before they could attack U.S. cities. Furthermore, in an age characterized by Cyber-attacks, the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security in addressing that potential are critical and for this, the efforts of the DHS should be applauded.


Avlon, John (2011) Forty-Five Foiled Terror Plots Since 9/11. U.S. News. Daily Beast. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/08/9-11-anniversary-45-terror-plots-foiled-in-last-10-years.html

A Decade After 9/11, DHS Matures Lieberman, Collins Commend Department's Development, Press for Continued Progress. (2011) U.S. Senate on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 7 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/media/a-decade-after-9/11-dhs-matures-lieberman-collins-commend-departments-development-press-for-continued-progress

Statement of Gene L. Dodaro (2011) Progress Made and Work Remaining in Implementing Homeland Security Missions 10 Years after 9/11. Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Department of Homeland Security. 7 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11919t.pdf

Hoover, J. Nicholas (2011) 7 Key Homeland Security IT Developments Since 9/11. Information Week Government. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/security/231601054… [read more]

9-11 and Public Communication Visual Rhetoric and Leadership Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


9/11 and Public Communication, Political Rhetoric & Leadership

I always thought that George W. Bush was one of the least competent leaders America has ever had. His speeches always seemed to me to be simplistic, devoid of complicated analysis, incoherent, but nevertheless occasionally funny. Reading John Murphy's "Our Mission and Our Moment' George W. Bush and September 11" made me re-think my evaluation of the 43rd President of the United States. Bush was a master of persuasion. It might not have been his personal skill but rather his advisers', but the fact remains that for a moment after 9/11 his popularity was unrivalled. Murphy shows that Bush specifically used a political rhetoric that allowed him to dominate the interpretation of 9/11. To a large extent, he was successful. This is remarkable, given the fact that his interpretation, as I look back and analyze it, was ridiculous. His September 20, 2001, speech had nothing to do with reality; it was a pure persuasion campaign, intended to exploit the tragedy for supporting wars and almost dictatorial Presidency. I have even less respect for that President now.

Although Murphy's discussion of Presidential rhetoric makes me wary of the power of rhetoric, I agree with David Zarefsky who argues in his article "Presidential Rhetoric and the Power of Definition" that we should not judge the efficacy of Presidential rhetoric solely based on the case of George W. Bush. Zarefsky analyzes the use of rhetoric by eight U.S. Presidents, from George Washington to Bush II. Zarefsky convincingly argues that Presidential rhetoric is a complex process, involving writers, speakers, audiences, and critics. He also argues that the effects of rhetoric can be understood as an invitation to respond. Although I am wary of Presidential rhetoric, I can appreciate why a President might…… [read more]

Water Sector Countermeasures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Guardian Blue Early Warning System

Is the Nation's drinking water supply safe from terrorist attack? In overall, the danger of corruption of drinking water complete by terrorist activities is small but it can still happen. Many do not realize that a lot of contaminants would need to be utilized in very large amounts, in that way reducing a definite threat.… [read more]

Triage During a Terrorist Attack Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Additionally, bringing victims into a central triage area can equally result in easy targeting for later attacks. This concern has yet to be addressed in modern emergency plans, resulting in the reality that it could pose a potential threat to rescue workers and victims at a later time.

The final concern with regard to triage is organizing transport to the nearby hospitals. It is standard protocol that emergency vehicles take victims to the closest hospitals, often resulting in an overwhelming wave of patience and a very long wait for walking wounded (CDC). Current protocol by the National Terrorist Response website and the CDC is actually to recognize this problem and instruct any walking wounded with a means of transportation to move away from the area and seek medical assistance at a farther away hospital, thus ensuring faster review times and less stress on the hospital staff at the immediate hospital sites.

Large-scale terrorist attacks are a reality of conflict with other countries and something that will not likely end anytime soon. Since the 9/11 incident, the United States has learned much about prioritizing victims through sophisticated triage techniques. Hopefully with more time and continued review of procedures, the safety of both victims and rescue workers will be organized into a method that ensures the most lives are consistently saved.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Preparing for a Terrorist Bombing: A Common Sense Approach." Accessed 12 March 2012.

Cushman, James; et al. "Two New York City Hospitals' Surgical Response to the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attack in New York City." Journal of…… [read more]

Madrid Case Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


On top of the communication barriers, the triage of patients was not properly conducted. In one area one patient would be given care, while many others were left unattended. Although the military personnel had training and exposure to this type of situation, they were not consulted for much help. The experience from the military personnel could have greatly helped many of the injured patients and possibly saved more lives in the process.

In a massive situation such as this; Madrid needed help from all nearby agencies, which became a challenging case due to the different organizational procedure and protocols each district followed. Establishing a framework such as the NIMS, for each agency and organization to follow can be an effective strategy in similar situations. The National Incident Management System (NIMS), was established on February 28, 2003 by Homeland security following the devastation of the 9/11 attacks. It was created to better handle and manage the response to massive attacks and for agencies to help one another if they become the victim to such events. This system provides a nationwide team framework between Federal and local governments, in order for them to work together to combat domestic incidents. The NIMS includes a set of rules in the event that an attack occurs, and is a way to train and identify terrorist attacks. After the aftermath of September 11, 2001, homeland security wanted to implement a system that could minimize the detriment of an attack. The NIMS framework could give first responders in state and local agencies the ability to communicate any dangers in a one area and signal the next agency to prepare themselves. The NIMS bases its core on flexibility and standardization. The flexibility of this system makes it possible for all levels of government and private organizations to work in an organized environment to cover the prevention, recovery and response of any incident. The standardization the system provides helps the organizations involved; follow the requirements needed to carry out the processes and procedures necessary. The NIMS system is also a channel for the public information systems, which is an important factor in situations like Madrid. In hindsight Madrid officials did not handle the public information sector very well, in the beginning they jumped to quickly blaming the ETA. Although they did have a past with this violent group, they failed to see the signs that Al-Qaeda had some involvement. One individual reported seeing an empty care playing what sounded to be teachings from the Qur'an, this should have been a sign to officials nearby to investigate and alert other respondents of suspicious activity.

Fast forward to today and we can see the effects these terrorist attacks have had on the security of every nation, and the advancement on security. Although not every attack can be predicted, there are signs that should be taken seriously to ensure the safety of innocent people.

Works Cited

Madrid train bombings of 2004 (terrorist attacks, Spain) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.

(n.d.). Encyclopedia - Britannica… [read more]

Chemical Attack the Events Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The level of preparedness has risen, because the realization was that the United States was more vulnerable than it thought it was. Generally, the U.S. appeared to be mostly invincible to terrorist activity before 9/11 happened, and those kinds of activities took place in other countries, where security was not as good. What 9/11 showed the entire world was that the U.S. had some vulnerability issues, and that those could be exploited by the right people at the right time (Bolton, 2006). Because that was suddenly an issue, the U.S. public safety agencies were forced to take a step back and reevaluate what they needed to do in order to keep the country safe. That led to more security measures at airports, and also the creation of the Homeland Security Agency to make sure security measures were enacted that worked for everyone.

There are arguments on both sides of the issue, of course. Some feel that the country is much safer today than it was before the attacks in 2001, and others feel that nothing was really done to make things any safer. These individuals argue that the security measures at airports, and the other measures that were enacted after 9/11 might make Americans feel safer, but they have really done nothing to make them truly safer overall. Both of these arguments have some merit, because there are valid points with each of them (Bolton, 2006). The policies that the U.S. has for terrorist attacks and other critical incidents have changed significantly, but there are still gaps where problems could occur. Despite these gaps, the U.S. overall is much more prepared for an attack on any of its major infrastructures, including the subway systems used in some of the larger cities. Trains, airplanes, and other mass transit options are all better protected in today's society, often with security measures that many people simply do not see. The behind-the-scenes options are better, because they do not cause alarm to citizens.


Bolton, M.K. (2006). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Eldridge, J. (ed). (2006). Jane's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense 2006 -- 2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK;…… [read more]

Long-Term Management Capability the Government Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


That can save hundreds or even thousands of lives, protect property, and help the American people feel more secure as they go about their daily lives.

From a learning standpoint, each critical incident is an opportunity (Bolton, 2006). Naturally, the government wants to be as prepared as possible for any kind of CBRNE incident, so the damage to lives and property can be minimized. Despite that desire for preparedness, the government is only able to get ready for so much by practicing. Eventually, that same government will be at a loss as to exactly how something will play out because there are only so many scenarios which can be created, and there is a limit to what can be done for practice. Additionally, if the government does very well in response to and management of a particular incident, there is always the concern that will lead to complacency (Eldridge, 2006). That is a very real concern, and not something to be taken lightly, but it is also something over which it is not necessary to obsess.

As long as the government stays properly trained and remains apprised of terror threats and other potentially critical incidents as much as possible, it is doing all it can. Changing what it does and how it reacts in light of what it has done and how it has reacted in the past only makes sense, but how the government manages critical incidents in the future must be focused on the specific incident it is handling at that time. Because each incident is unique, not even the lessons learned from a past incident will necessarily protect the government from making a mistake on a future incident (Eldridge, 2006). There are no guarantees of safety or correct procedure when it comes to a critical incident, which is why practice and training are both such valuable components for any team that is designed to respond to and manage critical incidents in any level of government.


Bolton, M.K. (2006). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Eldridge, J. (ed). (2006). Jane's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense 2006…… [read more]

Thinking as a Utilitarian Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Utilitarian approach to the issue requires that the various courses of action available and the consequences for each action be studied in detail and the benefits or disadvantages tabled such that the course of action that can produce the biggest benefit is chosen thus benefiting more people. In this issue the actions that followed and the event discussed are as under: The United Airlines Flight 93 was the last of the four hijacked planes to go down in the United States on 11 September, 2001 crashed killing 44 persons -- 40 passengers and crew and four terrorists. The myth created over the incident runs that the passengers hearing the news of the other hijacked planes on mobile phones stormed the cockpit and forced the plane down. There were alternate versions that the U.S. military brought down the plane; or even a bomb went off aboard and this was denied. The fact that the location of U.S. Air Force jets, at Andrews Air Force base near Washington at 9.35am -- precisely the time that Flight 93 turned almost 180 degrees off course towards Washington also lent credence to the doubt of a shoot down. (Carlin, 2002) Assuming that there was no shoot down but the plane was crashed by the passengers and the terrorists, the alternates namely bringing down the plane by shooting it has to be examined. The shooting of the plane is discounted after the congressional submission of the events. (United States Government Printing Office, 2001)


From the point-of-view of the terrorists, the aim was to create scare and terror and inflict maximum damage to the lives and property of those the terrorist organization considered as enemies. The individuals who carried out the terrorist act, as in this…… [read more]

History of Building Construction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Finally, due to numerous firefighters' deaths in the towers' collapse, we are looking into systems that can predict the possibilities of a structure's collapse (Pennwell Corporation, 2003) before firefighters enter the structure.

Works Cited

Command Safety. (2010). 1980 MGM Grand Hotel Fire - Thirty Years Ago. Retrieved from commandsafety.com: http://commandsafety.com/2010/11/1980-mgm-grand-hotel-fire-thirty-years-ago/

Firmage, J.P. (2006, August 8). Intersecting Facts and Theories on 09/11. Retrieved from Journal of 911 Studies: http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/Intersecting_Facts_and_Theories_on_911.pdf

Flannery Associates. (2008, January). Section 1: Fire and People: Unit 4 - Occupancy Types and Means of Egress. Retrieved from cuny.edu: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~tflan/documents/101docs/FIS101OccupancyTypesandExits.pdf

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). Commission Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Office of the Vice President for University Operations, the University of Texas at Austin. (2009, February 5). Fire Prevention Services: Historic Fires. Retrieved from utexas.edu: http://www.utexas.edu/safety/fire/safety/historic_fires.html

Pennwell Corporation. (2003, September 4). Fire Technology for a Safer Tomorrow. Retrieved from Fire Engineering: http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-157/issue-5/features/fire-technology-for-a-safer-tomorrow.html

Pinkerson, D. (Director). (2011). Triangle: Remembering the Fire [Motion Picture].

Remember the Triangle Fire Coalition. (2011). Remember the Triangle Fire Coaltion. Retrieved from Rememberthetrianglefirecoaltion.org: http://rememberthetrianglefire.org/

Rosa, P. (n.d.). HistoryBuff.com -- History Library -- The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Retrieved from HistoryBuff.com: http://www.historybuff.com/library/refshirtwaist.html

Yaz, G. (n.d.). The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911: Leap for Life, Leap of Death. Retrieved from csun.edu: http://www.csun.edu/~ghy7463/mw2.html… [read more]

Emergency Preparedness Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Emergency Preparedness Web Portal Reviews

Toolkit- Community Renewal/Community Preparedness: http://www.serve.gov/toolkits/disaster/

The resource provided here is sponsored by the Corporation for National & Community Service. Its primary intention is to serve as a step-by-step guide by which users may outline strategies for community-wide emergency preparedness. The Toolkit is formatted so that the user can navigate it in two ways, either clicking through the steps for creating an emergency management plan or by using the leftbound sidebar menu to view specific elements of developing such a plan. The steps offered are practical and attainable in smaller communities though are less likely to be effective in urban settings. In either event, the links for government agencies and community groups such as the Citizen Corps and the Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) are a useful resource to all potential users.

CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/

The source provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the heading of Emergency Preparedness and Response is, like many government agency web portals, a glut of information all at once. This can be extremely disorienting to the inexperienced user. The CDC site offers a myriad of ways to navigate the site, including an alphabetically catalogued set of links relating to different emergencies, broad category links identifying types of emergencies such as 'Bioterrorism" or "Natural Disasters, " and a list of linked news items from all manner of category, among others. These provide a wide variance of paths to follow in addressing one's emergency preparedness needs. The site is simultaneously obfuscating to the novice user and highly informative to the experienced user.

CDC Mass Casualty Event Preparedness and Response: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/masscasualties/

The source provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the heading of Mass Casualty Event Preparedness and Response is the page that the…… [read more]

Thinking the Unthinkable Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Unthinkable," Glenn Bowman reflects as an anthropologist on the events of September 11, 2001. This person normally works doing ethnographies of people and places. This was a personal ethnography of a day in the life of a person and a nation. It was definitely interesting to look at anthropology from this viewpoint. It is not one which one normally thinks of in terms of approaching the subject matter. While it is interesting for the college student, it is a bit over the head of the average person. My reading comprehension was good. It definitely made me want to find out more about the subject matter.

It was interesting to think that an academic would also think that the change in people's normal reactions in New York City were profound. As they noted, before the tragedy, these people that never acknowledged each other were now so shocked by the event that a spontaneous kindredship came over them. They now embraced the other human beings in their paths as if this was the most natural thing in the world. This reflected the change in the author himself. In the beginning, he thought it was almost humorous and he was amazed that America was finally receiving a metaphoric punch in the nose (17)."

However, as the shock of the event wore off and the enormity of what happened on that day sank in, they lost the knee-jerk reaction of the left-wing academic and remembered that the people who "got the metaphoric punch" did nothing to deserve it. Most of them were guilty of nothing other than going to work that day and minding their own business. To say the least, whatever a person's view of America and its actions overseas, the lack of the ability of the author to step out of the political agenda initially was shocking. The fact that almost 3000 Americans…… [read more]

People's Moujahedin Organization of Iran v. United Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


People's Moujahedin Organization of Iran v. United States Department of State (182 F.3d 17) (D.C. Cir. 1999).

Summary of case

The then Secretary of State, Madeline Albright categorized the People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil "foreign terrorist organizations' with all the implications of American law consequent upon such designation. Both groups petitioned review of the designations.

The complaint that the groups had was that the Secretary made this allegation without any adversary hearing, or presentation of evidence to courts, or advance notice to either of the two groups and this is despite the result that both groups will experience penalty as a result of their designation whish extends to seizure of bank accounts and criminal prosecution of potential donors. More so, classified information on which the Secretary made her decision remains secret. The groups, therefore, insisted that her judgment may be biased and distorted and that, therefore, review of her judgment should be made.

Material that Albright collected was presented in court, but the court had no way of evaluating the evidence, more so this case was also unique in that the Secretary could accept accounts even were they based on third-hand corroboration.

Non-corroborated accounts that were quoted by the court indicated that both groups had longstanding connections and were intimately involved in terrorist activities. Neither account could be proved.

Section 1189(a) of 1996 authorized the Secretary of State to designate an organization as terrorist on the basis of three conditions: (a) the organization is a foreign one; (b) the organization engages in terrorist activity; (c) the terrorist activity of the organization threatens the U.S. In one or various ways.

Terrorist activity is further…… [read more]

Healthcare and the Threat Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Besides using a cyber attack to disable or disrupt the ability of emergency services at a hospital or field location to function, cyber attacks could be used to destroy medical records and alter prescriptions maintained as digital files in such a way that lives could be threatened. A cyber attack designed to cripple the ability of emergency services to respond to an emergency could also be used to amplify the destructive effect of a terrorist bombing.

Types of Cyber-Terrorism

A cyber terrorist could be anyone who has the appropriate technical skills, even a disgruntled current or former employee. The most common forms of cyber-terrorism today are denial of service, destruction of information, and the alteration of information (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 273). Making private information public would be another way to undermine the reputation of an organization and cause clients and patients to seek care elsewhere. The feasibility of such an attack was recently revealed when a group of hackers calling themselves "Anonymous" infiltrated the Bay Area Transit District's database and made public user names, addresses, phone numbers, and passwords (California Beat, 2011). Communications networks are also vulnerable to cyber attacks, including 911 services (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 274).

Recommendations and Summary

The recommended network security strategies include scheduled backups, firewalls, up-to-date computer security systems, and adherence to best practice guidelines at all times (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 274). With the proper network security precautions most, if not all, intrusions can be stopped, thus potentially saving a healthcare business thousands of dollars in damages and its reputation for being able to protect the privacy of its patients.


California Beat. (2011, Aug. 14). Anonymous hackers attack BART, personal information for some riders released. Retrieved Oct. 17, 2011 from http://www.californiabeat.org/2011/08/14/anonymous-hackers-attack-bart-personal-information-for-some-riders-breached

Clem, A., Galwankar, Sagar, and Buck, George. (2005). Health implications of cyber-terrorism. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 18, 272-275.

Gewitz, David. (2010). State-sponsored cyberterrorism. Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International, 16, 8-10.

Rantala, Ramona R. (2008). Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2011 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cb05.pdf

Scholl, Matthew, Stine, Kevin, Hash, Joan, Bowen, Pauline, Johnson, Arnold, Smith, Carla D. et al. (2008). Information Security: An introductory resource guide for implementing the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule. Publication 800-66 Revision…… [read more]

Loose Change: An American Coup Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


According to Monbiot, if that was indeed the case, there would have been whistle-blowers from inside who would have exposed the conspiracy. Monbiot says the conspiracy theory is ultimately contradictory: it alleges that the U.S. government is super-competent on the hand one as it was able to orchestrate such a spectacular false flag operation but also not competent enough to hunt down and eliminate some of the alleged hijackers, who, the film claims, are still alive (Monbiot).

Another journalist who criticized Loose Change is Patrick Smith. Smith goes point by point, countering theories presented in the film. For example, the film alleges that no one has seen a plane crashing into the Pentagon building. But Smith says that there is a lot of testimony which the film ignores. Mike Walter, an anchor reporter for USA Live was among those who witnessed the plane crash, Smith says, but the film took Walter's words "I'd described it as being like 'a cruise missile with wings'" out of context. Smith concedes that there might be some truths the government has withheld from the public. But he argues that the theories presented in Loose Change are contradictory and lack evidence. The grand conspiracy is "a preposterous idea based on little more than erroneous interpretation of some pictures and selective, manipulative use of evidence." He concludes by saying that arguing against 9/11 conspiracy theorists is like arguing against religion because at the heart of the conspiracy lies faith.

Works Cited

Avery, Dylan. Loose Change: An American Coup (2009).

Monbiot, George. "A 9/11 Conspiracy Virus is Sweeping the World, But it has No Basis in Fact." The Guardian, 5 Feb. 2007. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.

Smith, Patrick. "Ask the Pilot." Salon, 19 May 2006, Web.…… [read more]

Post-9/11 Management of U.S. Airline Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


S. airline industry, management strategy based its decisions largely on easing the growing anxiety of individuals who had ties to the industry. In an industry that had gone from maintaining the standards of excellence one moment to being thrown into utter disarray the next, managerial efforts to reorganize work and employees needed to address the corresponding disruption that had become… [read more]

Security Professionals Respond Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


First, "threat awareness" means conducting the highest level of intelligence that is possible. "There simply is no adequate substitute for good intelligence," Chertoff explains (10). Secondly, detection is of enormous importance. Screening incoming visitors for radiological devices is imperative, and there are 3 types of information that detect an anthrax attack: a) traditional "clinical data" must be gathered from the public health community; b) "BioWatch" data -- received from detectors in various places in the country -- must be able to detect pathogens that will be airborne; and c) intelligence of a non-medical nature needs to be sufficient to locate the source of the terrorist activities.

Thirdly, Chertoff believes that protection against the toxic pathogens is critical. This involves planning in order to prevent "disruption in food, water, the power supply and other necessities" (11). Medical personnel must be in close communication with those professionals "who operate critical infrastructure" in the U.S. And lastly, taking Chertoff's protocol past awareness, detection, prevention and protection, the country must be in a position to "address the matter of response and recovery," which is a "complex undertaking," he adds (11). How do the medical people distribute vaccines "…among millions of people in a 48-hour 'make-it-or-break-it' environment"? How will the response team handle the millions of cases with too few doctors and so little time? Chertoff did not provide answers to these questions, but the very fact that he posed them points to the uncertainty that goes hand-in-hand with any potential anthrax attack.

Moreover, Chertoff doesn't know what government limits are regarding its ability to quarantine and isolate people, nor does he know if the federal government can "trump" states when it comes to dealing with such a crisis. Legal matters will play a huge role during such an attack and certainly in the aftermath as well. The bottom line is this: the time to have "thorough, candid, and public conversations" about all these issues is "today, before anything happens tomorrow," Chertoff asserts (12).

Works Cited

Chertoff, Michael. (2008). Confronting Biological Threats to…… [read more]

Fire Department Manages Emergencies Like 911 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,808 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


¶ … Fire Department Manages Emergencies Like 911 and Katrina

The abstract provides a general overview of what the paper will be discussing.

The section will introduce the topic of the paper and dealing initially with the history of fire and the fire service.

The Evolution of the Fire Service

The section will provide more details on the history of… [read more]

Stress Management Since the September Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


("Plant Security," 2011)

Evaluate the long-term effects of unaddressed stress.

Section Heading

To determine the different weaknesses of these kinds of approaches we will look at the possible issues that could have been overlooked. This is the point that we can see the underlying amounts of collateral damage in the event that there is some kind of security breech.

The long-term effects of unaddressed stresses are to limit any kind breaches to the facility. This is accomplished by having each location following these standard protocols. In the event that there is some kind of attack, this will limit the possibility that there could be significant damage to the core of the reactor. ("Plant Security," 2011)

Evaluate resilience as a component of CISM.

Section Heading

To deal with the various challenges the CISM plan has been designed to help protect the core reactor. In this section we are examining how this will take place in the event that there is a successful breach of the outside security perimeter. This is the point that we will have a better understanding of these issues and the long-term impact they are having on the industry.

Resilience is one of the main characteristics of the strategy that is being utilized. Where, there are six inches of reinforced steel that is designed to limit any kind of effects from the use of conventional explosives. This is intended to give crews the ability to quickly adjust to changes inside the facility itself. ("Plant Security," 2011)

Evaluate Interventions appropriate to the prevention and treatment of CIS.

Section Heading

In this section we are examining the possibility that there could be a successful breach of a particular facility. At the same time, we are looking at what kinds of strategies are being used to address these issues. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights about these risks that are being evaluated.

There are different interventions that are occurring to prevent and identify the underlying risks facing a facility. One of the most notable includes: having outside consultants objectively evaluating these weaknesses based upon conducting unannounced visits to the facility. Once this occurs, they will then release a report to management illustrating their underlying vulnerabilities. ("Plant Security," 2011) (Harwood, 2010)

Evaluate the role of culture in the design of CISM.

Section Heading

This part of the evaluation examines the impact that culture is playing in the design of CISM strategy. As, this will help to understand how this is influencing the different aspects of the strategy and the way it was designed.

Culture was part of the strategy, as the plan is… [read more]

Infrastructure Protection Utilities Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,015 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Vulnerabilities associated with the production of electricity are of special interest because of its integral role in economy, national defence, and quality of life. "The inoperability caused by wilful attacks, accidental events, or natural causes can set off a complex chain of cascading impacts on other interconnected systems, and the ripple effect that could occur from a disruption in electricity production alone is profound. The desire for higher levels of national security and the survivability of the economy demands better assessment and management of our critical infrastructures.

Through interdependencies, the disruption of one infrastructure system can cascade into other infrastructure systems. That is, the loss of expected services of one infrastructure system could be the result of disruptions within another. For example, in power outage that occurred in the western United States in 1996, a power line short-circuited after it sagged onto a tree, and then cascaded into a power-grid collapse that almost led to the collapse of telecommunications networks. (Robinson, 1998)

Strategy for Protection

Our society is increasingly reliant upon certain critical infrastructures. Thus highly interconnected infrastructures increase the chance of catastrophic impacts from a disruption in one part of the supply chain.

Because of the heavy reliance on infrastructures as part of our way of life, their protection is vital. Strategic guidance/objectives for critical infrastructure protection are provided in a series of National Strategy documents, congressional acts, presidential directives, and DoD directives. Government has introduced plans to protect infrastructure, however, there are insufficient resources and funding to fully protect all the nation's infrastructures. In addition, much of this infrastructure is in private hands. Even if resources were greatly increased, it would be fiscally and physically impossible to protect everything, particularly while an open society in maintained.

Therefore, continued analysis is needed to investigate how to optimally invest in infrastructure protection, i.e., how to obtain the most protection with limited resources. This is especially important in light of both potential terrorist attacks and risk of natural disasters.

The severe consequences caused by natural disasters and malicious attacks in the past years showed the importance of understanding the interdependencies among infrastructures in order to take preventive actions and to make post event responses. There is need to identify and understand interdependency related problems among infrastructures to prevent and manage interdependency related risks.


Federal Highway Administration and Cambridge Systematics Inc., (2005) "An Initial Assessment of Freight Bottlenecks on Highways," Federal Highway Administration, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.

John Moteff and Paul Parfomak. (2004) Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets: Definition and Identification

Massoud Amin. (2002). Toward Secure and Resilient Interdependent Infrastructures. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 8:67

Robert G. Spulak and Jessica G. Turnley. (2005) Theoretical Perspectives of Terrorist Enemies as Networks. JSOU Press

U.S. Congressa, (2001) The Patriot Act, Public Law 107-56, 10.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, (2004) National Plan for Research and Development in Support of Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Y.Y. Haimes, B.M. Horowitz, J.H.Lambert, J.R. santos, C.Lian, and K.G. Growther, (2005) "Inoperability Input-Output Model for Interdependent Infrastructure Sectors. I: Theory and… [read more]

Media Both Includes and Excludes Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … media both includes and excludes in order to make its point. An author, even an in academic works, chooses sources carefully to provide evidence for the thesis. In the same way, the way news casting has evolved over the last several decades does the same thing. When we see a news reporter standing outside a political rally, we can only assume that the scene behind them is a real. When a news reporter dons a flack jacket and helmet and reports from a war zone, with the sounds of small arms fire in the distance, we cannot help but form an opinion about the area in question. In a sense then, our perceptions as the viewing public are being shaped by the inclusion of "staged" news -- of the effect, of the scene, and whether strictly choreographed or not, we do seem to adopt the "mean world syndrome" of perceiving the world is a far more dangerous place than it is, simply based on the framing of the newscast -- and likely what "sells" in viewer ratings.

In a real way, the intensity of this "telling of television" has increased since the nightly news became popular in the late 1950s. We see images of news casters like Walter Cronkite, no maps, no graphics, simply a professional reading of the news and then compare to even the most local television station's sound bites of the newest robbery, murder, or violent event and we wonder if we are living in the same country. In fact, most statistics tell us that the world (other that war zones) is a much less violent place now than ever before. We would never know this by watching the news, though.

This cannot help but influence out behavior, for the media is the average person's view into the world. And if a picture is worth 1,000 words, then people who watch a large amount of television see a world through the eyes of the stagers; as an intimidating, unforgiving, and exceedingly dangerous world. We cannot help but be influenced in our voting and decision-making opinions by this view, for many, this is the only view available.

Part 2 -- in the world of media, one of the ways in which a stereotype is created is a three pronged technique -- repetition, simplicity, and rewards for believing. There are numerous examples of this, but one that comes to mind occurred surrounding the after math of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The facts of the event were that on September 11, 2001 a terrorist organization known as Al-Qaeda put in motion the largest ever terrorist attack against the United States of America. Al-Qaeda, a splinter Islamic group led by Saudi Osama Bin Laden, planned to hijack several civilian airplanes and crash them into multiple buildings on American soil. On 8:46 AM on the morning of September 11, 2001 Flight 11, which was one of the hijacked planes slammed… [read more]

World Trade Center Movie Movie Review

Movie Review  |  3 pages (925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


World Trade

Oliver Stone's 2006 film World Trade Center does not intend to be a documentary. However, many of the main characters and events portrayed in the movie are directly derived from the actual events that took place on September 11, 2001. The film focuses not on the political issues that characterize the terrorist attacks. In fact, Stone does not even dramatize the planes crashing into the buildings and the subsequent reaction on the streets as much as the filmmaker might have. World Trade Center focuses on the experiences of a small group of men: most of whom are firefighters or police. The men become trapped in the south tower of the World Trade Center after the collapse, and the film details their struggles for survival.

World Trade Center opens before the first plane hits, allowing the audience to get to know its main characters John McLoughlin (Nicholas Cage) and Will Jimeno (Michael Pena), who are Port Authority police officers. The officers are shown with their wives, to underscore their humanity and engender the audience's sympathy. Once the disaster unfolds, the officers rush to help out of a sense of personal and professional duty. In fact, before the planes hit, McLoughlin starts the day like any other. He gives a routine pep talk to his officers and asks them to "watch each others' backs." Watching each other's back becomes one of the main themes explored in World Trade Center.

When the first plane hit, shock envelops New York City, as it did in real life. The officers are not immune from feeling the personal terror at seeing the plane hit, and understanding the extent of the impending death toll. McLoughlin points out that as officers, they are prepared to meet a lot of disasters but nothing of this scale has ever entered their consciousness. They are caught off guard, unprepared for a disaster of this proportion. Yet the officers dig deep and draw upon their training and their sense of duty in order to save lives.

The spirit of selfless service continues, as the officers battle between their own survival and their duty to save others. While they have wives and personal lives outside of the force, their duty as officers is to do whatever it takes to survive. Their survival story becomes more focused on them, as they are isolated from the rest of the force when they are trapped McLoughlin and Jimeno are joined by a few other officers including Dominick Pezzulo (Jay Hernandez). At the time of their arrival, the south tower still stands. The building starts to collapse with the men still inside, trapping them and creating the crux of the cinematic drama.

The bulk of World Trade Center takes place inside the collapsed building, and depicts the…… [read more]

Coordinating Response to a Terrorist Bombing Application Essay

Application Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Coordinating Response to a Terrorist Bombing

Te immediate concern following a terrorist bombing at a university is, of course, the safety of the student body, faculty, and other personnel in the affected buildings at the time of the attack. Contacting emergency medical services as soon as the bombing occurs can be crucial in saving lives; activating these first responder units is a natural first step in responding to these incidents. Local fire departments, including the university's own fire department if applicable and the city/county department of the locale where the university is located, are also a part of this first response, and can limit the threat to life and health that structural damage, fire, and other hazards that are potential results of a bombing present. These responses may seem obvious, and indeed they are generally known by members of the lay public given the current geopolitical climate, but there are other entities and teams that need to be contacted with great speed in order to effectively respond to a terrorist bombing.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have issued guidelines for recommendations in dealing with the surge of medical needs for victims of the bombing (2007). Contacting local hospitals and other nearby emergency service organizations, when needed and available, can be key in providing enough to lead time to effectively triage and begin treatment for the large and sudden influx of victims that can be expected after such an incident (CDC 2007). Burn and trauma units should be made especially alert, and hospital systems for calling in extra emergency services, which should already be in place as part of an emergency plan, should be activated to increase the number of available personnel (CDC 2007).

In addition to the immediate and ongoing medical concerns of the victims of the bombing, ensuring that the university…… [read more]

Contemporary Strategy Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,991 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Strategy-Afghanistan War

Contemporary Strategy

Treacherous Terrain/geography of Afghanistan.

One major problem for the allied forces was and continues to be unfamiliarity with counterinsurgency techniques. The great majority of units are trained in large-scale conventional maneuver warfare, and are skilled in armored operations. When it became necessary to withdraw troops from the eastern border to counter militancy in the… [read more]

Social Science Research Silver, Roxane Cohen ) Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Social Science Research

Silver, Roxane Cohen (2004). Conducting research after the 9/11 attacks: challenges and results. Families, Systems & Health, 22 (1), 47-51.

Over time, what were the emotional, cognitive, and social responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks across the United States? Are there predictors for these reactions? Do previously traumatized individuals respond differently than others?

Research Design & Method for Data Collection: This was a longitudinal study, meaning that the sample population was interviewed multiple times over many months to see how their reactions were changing. The researchers used an anonymous online survey to collect data from nearly 2,000 individuals in New York, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Miami. Assessments were conducted periodically for two years following the 9/11 tragedy.

Difficulties with Research Design:

a) Challenge finding a sample. Finding a sample of traumatized populations in real time is challenging. In some cases, when those traumatized individuals have sought treatment, those institutions may actively work to "protect" those individuals from serving as research subjects. Institutional Review Boards also work hard to protect traumatized individuals, and may not approve research that seeks to interview those individuals using sensitive questions.

b) Time consuming. Once a general sample population has been identified and the project has been approved, it is still very time consuming to establish rapport with…… [read more]

How Secure Is the Northeastern US Border of the United States From Maine to Michigan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



How Secure is the Northeastern U.S. Border of the United States from Maine to Michigan

The North East border of the United States is made up of mainly under patrolled borders and huge areas of waterways. The area covers the nation from Maine to Michigan and includes the majority of the Great Lakes. Due to the openness of the… [read more]

Homeland Security Act of 2002 Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (352 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Port Security and the Homeland Security Act of 2002

The direct effects of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 on port security in the United States are not as straightforward as might be thought. The Act itself does not devote any specific title or section to the issue of port security, instead making far more general provisions regarding customs officials and organizations, border security issues, and transportation security (HAS 2002). The response to the spirit and intent of the Act, however, and of the event underlying the act -- the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 -- has been more measurable.

One of the primary effects of the Act and the attacks in this regard has been the refocusing of energies and efforts to an examination of port vulnerabilities and corrective measures. Port security was not on the forefront of most authorities' minds in the period leading up to September 11, and though some would argue that it is still not the primary concern of the multiple interests involved in maintaining port security there has been…… [read more]

Munich Massacre of 1972 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (355 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Specifically, the terrorists asked for a helicopter to the airport, and for two planes to take them and the hostages to Cairo. After hours of negotiation, the Germans agreed, simultaneously giving their police force orders to kill the terrorists at the airport without harming the hostages.

Upon arrival at the airport, the German sharp shooters unsuccessfully attempted to fulfill their orders, and a gunfight ensued. A terrorist threw a grenade into a helicopter that had hostages in it, killing everyone aboard, and shot and killed the rest of the hostages. Five terrorists and a German police officer were killed in the standoff, and three terrorists were captured alive.

At the end of October, terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa airliner and demanded the release of the three captured terrorists. The terrorists were freed.


Palestine Facts 2010, Israeli 1972 Olympic Team Murdered…… [read more]

George W. Bush George Walker Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The American nation was reminded of its vulnerability when the terrorist attacks of September 2001 killed around 3000 people on American soil. Consequently, the U.S. invaded Afghanistan, declared war on Iraq and kept, terrorist suspects prisoners at a naval base at Guantanamo Bay, a highly controversial action, both home and abroad.

A deep economic depression fell over the country that… [read more]

Leadership Management Organization Processes Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,511 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … March (1981) concerns that process of change in an organizational setting, attempting to recast the discourse on change from something dramatic, extraordinary and all-encompassing to something more streamlined, regular and specific to emergent needs. That is to say that, according to March, organizational change is not something which occurs only under special or extenuating circumstances. Instead, this should… [read more]

Sharia Islamic Law Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,734 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Sharia Islamic Law

Indonesia should not allow sharia Islamic law to be implemented as it will replace Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, leading to social disorder and possibly the destruction of the country. Sharia law is the legal system of Islam. It is derived from Koran, which is taken as the word of God, and from the hadith, which is based on… [read more]

Fourth Amendment Issues and the War Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fourth Amendment Issues and the War on Terror

The Fourth Constitutional Amendment:

According to the Fourth Amendment, it provides the following protections: "The

right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized" (Schmalleger, 2008).

Those protections also prohibit the government from engaging in certain kinds of surveillance, such as wiretaps or searches for evidence of criminal involvement. In the War on Terror, several disturbing reports in the national news suggest troubling concerns about Fourth Amendment violations (Larsen, 2007; Schmalleger, 2008).

The Patriot Act and the FBI:

One of the most significant legislative changes to be implemented after the September 11, 2001 attacks was the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT. It was intended to allow federal law enforcement authorities responsible for counterterrorism and homeland security additional tools to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. In principle, the Act provides specific formal guidelines for pursuing certain types of investigations in connection with counterterrorism as exceptions to more general Fourth Amendment constraints on law enforcement (Larsen, 2007: Schmalleger, 2008).

However, several highly publicized events illustrated the degree to which Fourth Amendment rights are vulnerable to law enforcement investigations through the counterterrorism mechanisms of the Act. In particular, the lack of proper oversight and compliance with procedural rules governing the use of national security letters by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) suggested that some of those counterterrorism tools conflicted with the fundamental rights associated with the Fourth Amendment (Schmalleger, 2008). The intended use of national security letters by the FBI to review library records, for one example, exposed ordinary American citizens to impermissible violations of the Fourth Amendment rights and protections that are fundamental to national concepts of liberty and freedom. Even worse, subsequent review revealed that the highest levels of FBI management who were supposed to guarantee compliance with procedural protections misunderstood some of the most important aspects of the Act and the authorized uses of national security letters (Larsen, 2007).

Impermissible Surveillance and the NSA:

Another example of the challenges of increasing national security without undermining Fourth Amendment rights came to light in 2008 after a former National Security Agency (NSA) analyst revealed that the agency had purposely misused its access to private…… [read more]

United 93 Directed by Paul Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,107 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


That was clear in the opening of the film when everyone on the plane was totally ignoring the safety information at the beginning of the flight.

Clearly, the lines of communication between agencies and the government were poor at best. The FAA Command Center could not even "find" anyone at Headquarters to talk to about the highjackings, the President was on Air Force 1 heading for a bunker, the Vice President would not authorize the military, and the FAA had a tight chain of command that would not make snap decisions, even when they were necessary. The military did not even know about the crash of United 93 until 15 minutes after it happened. If they had shared communication lines, everyone would have known what was happening immediately, and much smarter decisions could have been the outcome.

It is amazing that the federal agencies do not have some secure way to communicate with each other quickly and effectively. This is still a problem within the Homeland Security department, which does not have centralized computers or software among all its many agencies, so they cannot share information effectively. The terrorists have to know this, which does not bode well for the future, and nothing seems to be done to change the communications issues. The problem is not shrinking, it seems to be getting worse, and most Americans are not aware of it or ignore it. That may be one reason the government is not attempting to fix the problems. Of course, they would be costly. However, Americans are not demanding them, even after the communications breakdown after Hurricane Katrina in 2005, so there is really no pressure on the government to change their communications problems, and to do it as quickly as possible.

There has been progress in some areas. Another writer notes, "Passenger aircraft are much less vulnerable to another 9/11-style of attack. More air and sea cargo is being scrutinized in some fashion" (Johnstone, 2007). There are air marshals on board flights now, and flight crews undergo training called "Common Strategy" that includes how to deal with terrorists (Johnstone, 2007). However, there are complaints about the system, as author Johnstone notes. He says, "The quality of the new security training has also been doubted, with the Association of Flight Attendants indicating that 'we still have not been trained to appropriately handle a security crisis or terrorist attack onboard our airplanes'" (Johnstone, 2007). The people may feel safer flying because of security measures taken after 9/11, but the truth is, the same situation could occur again, and the government has done little to beef up the communications process to keep that from happening.

In conclusion, it is quite clear from this film and journalist reports that communications was one of the biggest problems in dealing with the terrorist attacks. Of course, no expected them, they were not prepared for this type of attack, and it would be incredibly hard to anticipate an attack of this magnitude. However, the government and… [read more]

Intelligence Best Support the Shaping Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … intelligence best support the shaping of the information environment to decrease Taliban influence in Afghanistan?

Since the focus of Information Operations (IO) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

consists primarily of influence operations, it proves critical to incorporate previously learned lessons to decrease Taliban influence in Afghanistan and ensure that past mistakes are not repeated.

Along with sheltering Osama… [read more]

Nation of Islam Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Nation of Islam has been one of the most important religions for African-Americans. The Nation of Islam is also a significant political and social movement in the African-American community. Wallace Dodd Fard founded the Nation of Islam in 1930 Detroit. Fard was a "mysterious peddler and purported ex-convict" who "delivered an important message to African-Americans in the midst of the Great Depression," (Curtis 2). That message would become the foundation for the Nation of Islam. W.D. Fard had claimed to be from Mecca, the holy city of Islam (Curtis). However, no evidence exists that suggests where Fard was actually born (Curtis). W.D. Fard changed his name to Farad Muhammad because he identified with the religion of Islam. Farad Muhammad believed that all African-Americans came from an Islamic heritage and should embrace their true identities. Although Farad Muhammad had an incorrect picture of African-American history, he inspired his fellow African-Americans to question the Christian culture that had oppressed them for so long. The Nation of Islam is a spiritual, social, and political movement that empowers African-Americans.

Farad Muhammad disappeared from Detroit soon after he founded what he called the "Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America," (Curtis 2). After he left, one of his followers became the new head of the organization. That person was named Elijah Poole. Poole was from Georgia but moved to Detroit in 1923. He was running from the law and was also being watched by the federal government, because Poole was suspected of anti-American activities. He may even have sympathized with the Japanese Empire during World War Two and was convicted for evading the draft (Curtis 2). Therefore, Elijah Poole was attracted to the philosophy of Farad Muhammad and the concept of the Nation of Islam.

When he met Farad Muhammad, Elijah Poole became devoted to his teachings and became Farad Muhammad's chief assistant (Curtis 2). Elijah Poole became known as Elijah Muhammad in 1931. Elijah Muhammad would become the key figure in the Nation of Islam until Louis Farrakhan. Elijah Muhammad believed that Farad Muhammad was a Messenger of God (Gardell 6). Some sources suggest that Elijah Muhammad believed that Farad Muhammad was actually Allah incarnated (Curtis; "Nation of Islam").

Elijah Muhammad built the religion that was started by Farad Muhammad. By 1935, Elijah Muhammad was preaching the message of the Nation of Islam across the United States ("Nation of Islam"). In addition to the religious message of Islam, Elijah Muhammad also preached about racial politics. Farad Muhammad had taught about "the original black Asiatic man" (Gardell 13). Farad Muhammad also taught that people of color should…… [read more]

Current Events Elisabeth Bumiller's Report Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,496 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Current Events

Elisabeth Bumiller's report from the U.S. aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt is published on the 23rd of February, 2009, in the New York Times, under the title: From a Carrier, Another View of America's Air War in Afghanistan. Bumiller reports on the U.S. Navy supply of airpower from the U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt, on the Arabian Sea, aimed at fighting… [read more]

911 on Older Kids Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … 911 on Older Kids

The 9 of September, 2001 is a day of grief for both the U.S. And the civilized world because of the thousands of innocent people that lost their lives for an unjust cause. Four commercial airplanes had been hijacked during the morning of 9/11 by Islamic terrorists who were believed to be connected to the al-Qaeda. The terrorists had planed to use the planes for hitting major targets within the U.S. borders. Two of the hijacked planes had crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York, and one hit the Pentagon building. The last plane was planned to reach Washington D.C., but it had crashed on a Pennsylvanian field after some of the people on board attempted to regain control.

With approximately three thousand people dead in the nightmare, the attack is believed to be the most terrible in U.S. history and second only to that of Pearl Harbor when considering the death toll. The U.S. system is believed to be partly responsible for the terrorist attacks because of the incompetence of the institutions of that time which have let people suspected to be terrorists unmonitored.

The aftermath of the 9/11 attack was of great proportions, with thousands of American families being disbanded and the U.S. economy suffering losses of billions of dollars. When hearing about the terrorist attacks of 9/11 one often thinks about the twin towers. This is mostly because of the fact that the images and clips sent from the incident had a dramatic effect on those watching the event from home. Most televisions interrupted their usual programs to transmit live footage from the World Trade Center disaster. The American nation, which is usually known not to pay much attention to news concerning terrorist attacks or similar acts, had halted most of their plans in order to catch a glimpse of how their nation had been under attack.

There is much controversy concerning the 9/11 terrorist…… [read more]

Theories and Facts of Flight United 93 Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (616 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Death and Dying - Flight 93


The infamous terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 involved four separate hijackings of commercial airliners in the United States. Two crashed into the World Trade Center buildings in New York City and a third crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The last of the hijacked planes crashed into a field in Pennsylvania, about 150 miles from Washington, DC. It is believed that its intended target was either the White House of the Capitol building. All four hijackings were the result of terrorists associated with Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda operatives who trained for their missions in the United States by taking lessons in flying commercial airliners in the year prior to the attacks.


United flight 93 was scheduled to take off from Newark International Airport in New Jersey and to land in at San Francisco International Airport in California. It is believed that the hijackers purposely chose flight scheduled for long routes because they would contain more fuel than shorter flights and the additional fuel would increase the destruction when they crashed into their targets (Larsen, 2007). At first, reports based on statements of Osama bin Laden were that United Flight 93 targeted the White House. Later interviews of captured al-Qaeda leaders and materials confiscated by U.S. military forces in Iraq seemed to indicate that the actual target was the Capitol building.

Apparently, bin Laden and other al-Qaeda terrorists responsible for the attacks had made statements about attacking the White House to increase the public perception of their power to destroy the most highly protected site in the U.S. (Longman, 2002).

Analysis of the attacks revealed that several of the terrorists had received flight training at American flight schools. Controversy arose in that regard after it was also revealed that flight instructors at one flight school…… [read more]

Skyscraper and the Airplane Humanity in Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,259 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Skyscraper and the Airplane

Humanity in Technology in Adam Goodheart's "9.11.2001: The Skyscraper and the Airplane."

British painter Lucien Freud has made his living off of painting ugly portraits. Recently, his depiction of an overweight woman sprawled unpleasantly on a couch broke the world record for the most expensive painting sold at auction by a living artist. For Freud and the painting's buyer, the human element brought a spark of beauty to the most horrific and ugly scenes. By weaving vivid imagery and historical fact, Adam Goodheart conveys similar attitudes toward beauty and humanity with his poignant essay "9.11.01: The Skyscraper and the Airplane." Goodheart's descriptions were part of the "torrent of words [that] rushed to fill the void, contain the terror, and offer meaning to what had just happened" (Stein 187). Though Howard F. Stein's article reviewing and interpreting September 11th essays, including Goodheart's, in terms of cultural psychodynamics suggests that the attacks issued "an assault on the American cultural sense of self and group boundaries," Goodheart describes the attacks and their aftermath as a catalyst that allowed Americans to understand their cultural selves and groups, even their basic humanity. By describing how two of the most mechanical and sterile symbols of the modern era actually represent the beauty, awe, and horror of the cycle of human life and death, Goodheart suggests that the magic, mystery, poetry, and importance of humanity and the human spirit are not lost, even in this technological age.

With the first sentence of Goodheart's essay, the author establishes a unique connection between the horror of human emotion and death and the mechanics of engineering by presenting the reader with the conflicting warm and emotive images of "fire," "ash," and "bodies tumbling solitary through space" with the cold and sterile images of "one think skin of metal and glass" (Goodheart 187). Although Goodheart is not the first essayist to use the events of September 11, 2001 as a springboard from which to ponder the human existence -- Jean Gardner follows a similar model to discuss the issue of sustainable cities in her article "Architecture as Eternal Delight: Reflections on the Attack of the World Trade Center" -- Goodheart's essay is by far the most concerned with the intangible element of human existence. Brilliantly, Goodheart uses one of the most passionate evokers of human emotion in the last decade, the September 11th attacks, to elicit from the reader a response involving all the passion, poetry, and mystery of life and death. Following this provocative rhetorical strategy, Goodheart draws the reader into a short course on technological history, a subject that would generally strike readers as dry, mechanical, and an antithesis to human passion and emotion. Drawing on the connection between technology and humanity that he establishes at the beginning of the essay, and the human emotion evoked from that connection, Goodheart manages to describe both the skyscraper and airplane as representations of humanity and the cycle of human life and death.

In his narrative of skyscraper… [read more]

Iraqi War Should the U.S. Leave or Stay Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


U.S. In Iraq


Argument for Leaving Iraq:

The war in Iraq was unjustified in the first place and would never have been supported by Congress if the Bush administration had presented the case for war honestly and used only reliable information to reach the conclusion that a U.S. war in Iraq was justified. We now know that Saddam Hussein did not have any of the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) upon which the war was justified to the American people.

While Saddam Hussein was an oppressive tyrant, U.S. foreign policy does not include removing oppressive foreign leaders who do not threaten the U.S. Or its allies.

Iraqis are better off without Saddam Hussein, his murderous sons and his Baathist party.

A full-scale Iraqi civil war is now inevitable unless the U.S. is prepared to remain in the country in sufficient force to prevent it for the foreseeable future, well into the next decade. At the current rate of American casualties from insurgent attacks, we will eventually surpass the American losses in Vietnam before an independent moderate Iraqi government becomes capable of securing its control over the country without continued U.S. military support.

Argument Against Leaving Iraq:

The fact that the war in Iraq may have been unjustified at the time is not particularly relevant to the current issue about whether or not to remain in the region now. The fact is we are presently engaged in a war and we must decide whether the interests of this country are better served by continuing our occupation of Iraq or by withdrawing our forces.

In 1991, we encouraged Iraqi citizens to rise up against their oppressive government and support U.S. efforts to overthrow Saddam Hussein. When we decided to pull our forces out after the short ground war instead of occupying Baghdad, most of…… [read more]

Disasters Critical Infrastructure Protection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



Impact of Disasters to Infrastructure in a Networked World

Disaster planning has been made that much more difficult in recent decades because of the increasingly networked nature of our own societies. As economies and cultures become more interconnected and seemingly disparate systems rely on each other to function, the effects of disasters on critical infrastructures become more significant and… [read more]

Infrastructure Protection Disasters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Infrastructure and Disasters

The twenty-first century brought with it some challenging disasters; manmade, technological, and natural. These disasters, among others, are most reflected or associated in the minds of the public with Hurricane Katrina, and its devastating affects on the Gulf region and, most notably, the City of New Orleans. There was, too, the technological "blackout" of much of the eastern seaboard in 2003, when circuits overloaded and crashed, leaving millions of people without electricity during one of the worst heat waves of the summer. Then, in 2001, what has perhaps become the most visible and lasting disaster, a manmade one, when the events of September 11, 2001, unfolded in New York City, Washington, D.C., and in a rural field in Pennsylvania. Each of these events tested and tried the existing infrastructures of the places where the events took place. This paper examines the response of infrastructure to event, and whether or not American infrastructures have improved and are better prepared to deal with these kinds of events today.

It is perhaps the saddest of the events discussed here, because the events were within the decisive control of mankind to prevent them from ever having occurred. However, the choice was made by a few to carry out the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, and the actions of but a few, affected so many and continues to do so today.

Looking at the events of September 11, 2001, beginning in New York City; two commercial jetliners bound for destinations outside of New York were commandeered by terrorists, who then turned those passenger jets into flying weapons of mass destruction. Two planes hit the north and south towers of the World Trade Center, igniting jet fueled fires that completely destroyed both towers.

Brian J. Godfrey adds some perspective to the tragedy. He says, "In addition to the carnage of nearly 3,000 lost lives, the World Trade Center attacks destroyed or severely damaged nearly 30 million square feet of office and retail space in Lower Manhattan, forcing 100,000 of the area's workers to relocate to other areas. The crippled public transportation infrastructure, which will take years to rebuild, put the Financial District's remaining 270,000 jobs at risk. New York City's economy stands to lose roughly $83 billion and 57,000 jobs over three years, according to an economic impact analysis by the New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce (NYCP 2001). As the Lower Manhattan Redevelopment Corporation debates various proposals for rebuilding "Ground Zero," it serves us well to ponder the historical geography of America's largest city.

The New York City infrastructure - fire department, police department, emergency ambulances, area hospitals, airports, department of transportation, the FAA responded, but response on the part of each of the vital components of the infrastructure were varied; although no response could have prevented the disaster.

The NYFD and NYPD as first responders were the components of infrastructure most affected. Although the firefighters and police followed training procedures and protocol, there… [read more]

Afghanistan Is a Natural Crossroad for Invaders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Afghanistan is a natural crossroad for invaders. It is predominantly Muslim, 77% of whom live in the rural areas. They are also called Pakhtuns. With the overthrow of the Soviets by the United States in 1989, a civil war turned the virtual rule of the country to the dreaded Taliban movement in 1996. After the September 11, 2001 bombings in… [read more]

Animal 911 Heroes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,420 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Animal 911 Heroes

September 11th, 2001 will go down in history as one of America's greatest tragedies. Yet, from the death and destruction, out of the rubble and debris, came the true spirit of humankind, like a phoenix rising from the ashes. There are so many stories of heroism on that fateful day that it fills the heart with hope.… [read more]

Cause and Consequence of 911 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (368 words)
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According to researcher and scholar Peter Bergen, exactly what caused
the September 11, 2001 attacks by alleged terrorists against the World
Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. is not
fully known nor understood, due to the extremely complex nature of
America's relationship with the Middle East and with those who align
themselves with extremists Islamic groups and even al Qaeda. Bergen points
out a number of possible causes, including abject poverty in some countries
in the Middle East, the teaching of madrasas in Muslim religious schools
which may serve as "the breeding ground for terrorists," deep-seated hatred
of all free Americans and for the CIA, weak and failing states in the
Middle East which act as "attractive bases for terrorists and criminals,"
the financial backing of Saudi financiers who sponsored al Qaeda, the
result of occupation by the United States in the Middle East, and lastly, a
clash between totalitarian ideologies, similar in nature to that between
the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. However, all of these
suggested…… [read more]

Emergency Management While Analyzing the Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (361 words)
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Emergency Management

While analyzing the model it is evident that these practices would have been beneficial during Hurricane Andrew and the September 11 terrorist attacks. One of the main reasons why it would have beneficial is because people would have been more aware of their surrounds and possible "terrorist" activities that may have been taking place. Col and Chu's analysis prove that there is a strong correlation between science and administrative action in a positive manner when they are used effectively together. If the two are applied, there is a stronger opportunity for reaction and possible prevention. If people are given the opportunity to learn things like what the weather looks like when there is a particular type of storm is coming, or how animals react to various poisonous gases in the air, etc. This arms them with important knowledge that could later prove to be detrimental and beneficial to their safety and others around them.

It is stated in the reading that that people can learn to be more active through experience of natural disasters and focused learning e.g.,…… [read more]

Soviet Afghan War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,980 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Soviet-Afghanistan War. Specifically it will analyze the Afghan resistance in the Soviet-Afghanistan War, including the factions, leaders, tactics, ideologies, and external connections. The war between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan began in 1979 and did not end until 1989. Throughout the war, the mujahidin rebel forces repeatedly outfoxed the Soviet troops, leading to a war that dragged on… [read more]

Terrorist Organizations Hamas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,421 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … threat analysis of Hamas, the Palestinian terrorist organization. Hamas began as a group dedicated to jihad against Israel, and is today one of the most powerful political and terrorist organizations in the world, recently gaining prominence by winning the Palestinian Authority's elections. It is still a terrorist organization first and foremost, and a continued threat to Middle Eastern… [read more]

Volunteerism in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (368 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Volunteerism in America as it Relates to Heifer International

The rise of volunteerism in America has been studied by many charitable, religious, civic and philanthropic organizations, all of which point to a significant increase in the level of volunteerism nationally throughout the last 30 years. One of the most quoted and recognized research reports is published by the Corporation for National & Community Service (et.al) which states that the growth in volunteering has been driven primarily by three age groups. These include older teenagers between 16 and 19, mid-life adults between 45 and 64, and older adults 65 years of age and older. These three age groups' enthusiasm for volunteering more than offset the reduction in volunteerism in other demographic groups. The rise in volunteerism is considered a rejuvenation of the strong service ethic that has pervaded the American culture for the last two centuries. Hastening this focus on community service, volunteerism and philanthropy has been a re-centering by many teenagers, mid-life adults (sometimes called baby boomers) and the elderly on their core values. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 shocked the nation…… [read more]

Legal Pluralism Is Among the Greatest Challenged Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,458 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Legal pluralism is among the greatest challenged confronting democratic societies today (Van Cott 2000). It is that of incorporating populations of distinct group identities and cultural norms into a single polity under a constitution, which reflects and affirms the different identities and norms of the citizens. The most important factors affecting the practical realization of legal pluralism have been identified… [read more]

Emergency Manager How Does Mitigation Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,394 words)
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¶ … Emergency manager how does mitigation effect you and your responsibility?

In the wake two of most catastrophic disasters in United States history (the attacks of 9/11 and hurricane Katrina) and in the wake of what many consider disastrous emergency response to at least one of the two, emergency management mitigation has come to the forefront of the political and economic minds of the country. Calls for substantial change in the way that federal and local governments respond to disaster including preventative measures, such as the timing of evacuation orders, enforcement and assistance for evacuees as well as post disaster response, such as evacuating those who did not initially evacuate, providing emergency relief benefits in kind and in monetary forms are all essential issues that need to be addressed and need to have concrete plans and systems for the ease of action, before during and after disaster events. The purpose of mitigation is to realize the opportunity of immediately past disasters to analyze the actions that occurred, in the area of emergency management. The mitigation process is essential to understanding what was done correctly and what was done incorrectly or ineffectually to improve the future plan for reaction and recovery. As an emergency manager the mitigation process is an essential identifying process and can ultimately improve every aspect of emergency response. (Mileti, 2004, pg. 236) The areas that will be discussed in this work include the ways in which mitigation can improve communication during and immediately after a disaster occurs, the manner in which people can be better protected with preventative measures.


One of the paramount concerns that has been proven time and time again is that there is a lack of clear goals for change on the part of local, state and federal officials. The simple fact that these and other entities must work together to solve problems, in a pre-disaster and post disaster circumstance also challenges the cause of the reduction of lost life and property. All of these complex issues in combination with the limited time that agencies and individuals have to respond in an emergency situation can make the situation far worse, creating a situation often contrary to the goal of reducing loss and risk. (Mileti, 2004, pg. 236) To solve this complex issue, communication is key and mitigating the communication plans including back up forms of communication and chain of command plans as essential to changing the ways in which an emergency manager deals with a potential or realized disaster.

A lesson can here be learned from analyzing the manner in which government officials and private industry responded to communication issues in the Hurricane Katrina disaster. A lesson learned from Katrina about communication is that private companies that did well in the wake of the disaster were able to rather quickly solve problems for their own people, through established and newly created systems of communication. Some of the companies that did well, by comparison created immediate alternative forms of communication to access employees… [read more]

Personal Privacy Threats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Personal Privacy Threats

The various issues connected with personal privacy and the protection of personal information are gaining more and more visibility in the media, and the main reason why is that the threats to personal privacy are growing, not decreasing. This paper will review the problems and concerns that are created due to the loss of personal privacy, due… [read more]

What's so Great About America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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¶ … America - Dinesh D'Souza

America's enemies, according to D'Souza, include the Taliban, radical Islamic terrorists - who are also "deeply religious Muslims" (p. 7) - led by Osama bin Laden. Why do they hate us? D'Souza writes that for one thing, Muslims see that Israel receives many of their weapons and other war materials from the U.S. For another, bin Laden rages against U.S. sanctions against Iraq (note: the book was published in 2002, prior to the U.S. invasion of Iraq) and also the fact that the U.S. "piously invokes principles of...human rights while supporting undemocratic regimes..." (p. 18). The "poverty and degradation of the Islamic world" is blamed on the Western world, specifically "American oppression." The West, D'Souza writes (p. 19) is based on "principles that are radically different from those of traditional societies" - subversive too - and if U.S. principles are "admitted" into other societies, it will "displace cherished values" and produce a society "unrecognizable from the one it destroyed."

Is D'Souza right? When he says Islamic thinkers may be partly correct (that American capitalism is "a form of idolatry"; high rates of divorce, pornography, abortion, racism and other moral flaws indicate huge problems) he is on the right track. But hen he says the Islamic critique stands out as "refreshing clarity" he is way out in left field. The only thing really clear about Islamic fundamentalism is that they are willing to be suicide bombers in order to kill Americans.

QUESTION #2: The case that D'Souza puts forward in chapter two is bizarre in places. Like on page 46, saying the reason that Western civilization "became dominant" over the last 500 or so years is because the West is "evil" - and specifically because…… [read more]

My Values Term Paper

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¶ … values revolve strongly around friends and family, and emotional connections. My most important values today are (with the most important value always listed first): family, friends, having fun, love, and money.

Before the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, my values were: having fun, family, friends, money, and love. Immediately after the attacks, my values were: family, friends, love, peace, and having fun.

My values clearly change with circumstances. The list shows an interesting shift towards long-lasting and non-material connections after 9/11. Immediately after the attacks, money was no longer on my list, and peace appeared for the first time. Other values changed position, with family becoming the most important thing on the list after the attacks (replacing having fun as the most important). However, now, years after the attacks, my values have shifted again, more towards more material and temporary things. For example, money appears on the list again, peace is no longer on the list, and having fun has moved up to third.

Today, I try to act in ways that reflect my values. This includes trying to make time for my most important priority: family. However, I often act in ways that contradict these values. Often, I will…… [read more]

Sociology of Violence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Institutional Violence in Modern Society

Sociology of Violence Today

In Iadicola and Shupe's book, "Violence, Inequality, and Human Freedom," they addressed the different types of violence that exist and persist in today's contemporary society. In light of the recent terrorist attacks against the United States, the issue of institutional violence becomes an even more controversial topic. Taking into the context of institutional violence the 9/11 attack, it can be said that the victim were the Americans, generally the United States of America, while the suspects was purportedly the terrorist group Al-Qaeda, which mainly operated in Afghanistan.

What eventually happened in the aftermath of 9/11 is reminiscent of Sarat's analysis in "When the State Kills." In it, he illustrated how society's sense of retributive justice ultimately results to the incorrect perception of institutional violence. Using the case of Timothy McVeigh in the infamous Oklahoma bombing as an example, Sarat showed how tragedy tended to mislead people to treat justice as retributive rather than just. The bombing's victims' family equated the extent of McVeigh's crime only with death; any punishment not equivalent to death would be unfair and unjust. Sarat's example is illustrative of Iadicola and Shupe's analysis and description of how institutional violence is extant and practiced in society today.

And how is institutional violence enforced in today's society? Taking cue from Iadicola and Shupe's example, the 9/11 attack depicted how institutional violence was used to pursue a country's interest, and blurs the distinction that defines the perpetrators from the victims.

Initially, the 9/11 attack was attributed to the Al-Qaeda group, and people from all over the world reacted with anger, in the…… [read more]

9/11 Commission Report -- Prisoner Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


September 11, 2001 brought some immense changes globally. Bin Laden was wanted since quite some time by the United States for the bombing of its embassies and the U.S.S. Cole. Afghanistan and the long time supporter of the Taliban regime, Pakistan were pressed through diplomatic means to defect against Bin Laden and pressurize the Taliban to root him out of Afghanistan. The Northern Alliance, the opposition to the Taliban regime, was also contacted to defect against Bin Laden and the CIA also hired individuals from amongst them to kill Bin Laden. After September 11, Pakistan did defect against Afghanistan and provided bases to the United States for its war on Afghanistan. The Northern Alliance also became an ally of the United States in the war against terror. Moreover from the report it is seen that after 9/11, Saudi Arabia also started sharing intelligence against Bin Laden with the United States. Previously they did not share complete information despite the fact that top officials from both sides were working together against Bin Laden. When these nations and people defected against Bin Laden, there were some changes in the U.S. foreign policy regarding these countries. After the overthrow of the Taliban regime, Northern Alliance was installed as the interim government. Northern Alliance was rewarded for its defect against Bin Laden and his supporters, the Taliban. The U.S. has also made it a point to get over and solve the U.S.-Saudi problems and to develop a strong relationship between the countries that go beyond the superficial relationship concerning oil. Moreover, the U.S. is now looking forward to strengthen long-term ties with both Pakistan and Afghanistan. International commitments are also being made for a better and bright future of the two countries.


(1) Anonymous - The Prisoners' Dilemma [online website] Available from: http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/PRISDIL.html [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]… [read more]

9/11 Commission 9/11 Brought Considerable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (466 words)
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He was briefed that Al Qaeda is planning more attacks but the report stated that the attacks were to be carried out overseas and not on American soil. As a result security measures were being taken overseas rather than within the United States. Diplomatic steps were being taken and pressure was to be put on the Taliban and on Pakistan to expel Bin Laden from Afghanistan. Moreover information about the use of unmanned reconnaissance aircraft was conveyed and measures were being taken to arm it with a missile so as to kill Bin Laden. Approval from Bush was required and he was to sign the approval on September 11, 2001, the day when the tragedy occurred and millions died.

Lack of intelligence on Bin Laden's location and whereabouts delayed actions that could be taken by the two administrations. Clinton also faced the problem of not enough evidence regarding the U.S.S. Cole otherwise he would have utilized other measures. Bush was planning to eradicate Bin Laden and as the threat was regarding attacks to occur overseas; his plans did not include any direct military action on Bin Laden or the Taliban who had given him shelter. These factors limited the decisions and action that the two administrations took.… [read more]

See No Evil Term Paper

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¶ … September 11 was a disaster that might have been averted with better intelligence operations; in his book See No Evil, Robert Baer tells us how and why American intelligence failed. With his twenty-plus years of experience as a CIA field officer and recipient of intelligence community awards, Robert Baer is in a unique position to alert America to the weaknesses within its government and especially, within its intelligence services including the CIA and the NSA. Baer, who was stationed in some of the most dangerous parts of the world during his stint as field officer, knows first-hand of the specific dangers and threats that the United States continues to face. In See No Evil, he recounts what he knows through personal experience and thus delivers to the public a valuable resource for understanding the current state of affairs in the realm of national security.

According to the author, the end of the Cold War marked a beginning of an era of political correctness and essentially, ignorance toward the evils that are brewing throughout the…… [read more]

Rebuilding the World Trade Center Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many people believe that it will take at least ten to twelve years to rebuild, and there are other roadblocks in the rebuilding process that will have to be overcome. The LMDC faces stiff opposition from the developer of the Twin Towers, who still holds the lease to the building site. Reporter Trotta continues,

Of particular worry to the Lower… [read more]

Blowback as We Begin This Discussion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



As we begin this discussion of Chalmers Johnson's book, Blowback, it is interesting to note that it was written in 2000, a year before the attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 (9-11). This was not the first attack on the Center, and in articles written after 9-11, Johnson has maintained that the 9-11 attacks fit within the patterns he describes in his book.

Blowback' is shorthand for saying that a nation reaps what it sows, even if it does not fully understand what it has sown." It is a term used in espionage to describe unintended consequences. It can also mean retaliation as the result of actions undertaken by nations. According to Johnson, it is a term first used by the CIA "in March 1954 in a recently declassified report on the 1953 operation to overthrow the government of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran. It is a metaphor for the unintended consequences of the U.S. government's international activities that have been kept secret from the American people." In his book, Blowback, Johnson uses the term to attempt to show that the evil nature of American foreign policy has consistently resulted in unwelcome consequences. "Military crimes, accidents, and atrocities make up only one category on the debit side of the balance sheet that the United States (U.S.) has been accumulating, especially since the Cold War." central point in Johnson's argument is that America is an empire, but not in the sense that we commonly think of as an empire..

In speaking of an "American Empire," however, I am not using the concept in these traditional senses. I am not talking about the United States' former colony in the Philippines, or about such dependent territories as Puerto Rico; nor when I use the term "imperilism" in this book do I mean the extension of one state's legal domination over another; nor do I even want to imply that imperialism must have primarily economic causes. The modern empires I have in mind normally lie concealed beneath some ideological or judicial concept - commonwealth, alliance, free world, the West, the communist bloc - that disguises the actual relationships among its members.

In Johnson's view this empire is maintained at a very high cost to people both at home and abroad. When he speaks of blowback, the danger is not just to Americans, such as in the attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993, which he attributes to our actions in the first Gulf War and support of Israel. The danger is also to other people around the world, such as the difficulties which took place in Chile after the United States assisted the military coup of Allende in September 1973.

If this incident in Chile seems vague, it is because of another part of Johnson's message, which is that most of the situations in which the U.S. has interfered in a similar clandestine manner have been kept secret from the American people. "No ordinary citizen of the United States… [read more]

Human History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (381 words)
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Five years ago was before September 11th and the attacks on the World Trade Center. Five years ago I did not read the paper regularly. Five years ago, I thought my school was the world, and my own personal life was all that mattered.

These changes in my physical confidence and my mental sense of my place in the world have affected my spirit. I am a more spiritual person than I was five years ago. I am less selfish because I have had to assume more personal and family responsibilities, and I know that my needs are not the only needs that matter in the world. Five years ago, I lived only for the moment and I only thought about what I was going to do the next day, or the next hour. Now I live for the future.

The world has changed over the past five years, and I have changed. I like the person I have become. I hope the next five years bring equally positive changes within my character -- and that the world is a better place, too, in…… [read more]

Logic and Critical Thinking Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,108 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Logic and Critical Thinking

In the Terror Next Time, the author looks into the idea of terrorists using weapons of mass destruction. The author concludes that there are three obstacles facing terrorist who want to use weapons of mass destruction: finding a supply, turning that supply into a weapon, and delivering the weapon to the target. After investigating the obstacles,… [read more]

9/11 it Is Always Instructive to Read Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (450 words)
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¶ … 9/11

It is always instructive to read different narrative reflections upon historical events, but seldom does a reader have a chance to read two essays upon an event that will surely pass into history as an occurrence of seismic importance, from his or her lifetime. Moreover, Adam Mayblum's "The Price We Pay" and Robert Stone's "In the Mind's Eye of the Bomber," both offer fresh yet contrasting perspectives upon the tragedies that occurred on September 11th, 2001, before this event has assumed a kind of concrete and fixed status in the collective memory of American history.

The thesis of Adam Mayblum's essay "The Price We Pay," is that September 11th was the result of the profound symbolism America had incurred, as the embodiment of freedom as well around the world. "Today the images that people around the world equate with power and democracy are gone, but "America" is not [just] an image [or a nation], it is a concept. That concept is only strengthened by our pulling together as a team." Mayblum sees the attacks as an assault upon the principles of freedom and democracy, as well as upon American citizens and our collective national security. He uses the figurative language of the 'team' of democratic adherents to stress the simple, eloquent message that this was not just an attack upon America, but…… [read more]

Taliban and Its Impacts on Afghan Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Taliban and its impacts on Afghan and world cultures are not easy to discuss within a completely objective framework and in only 153 pages of text. However, Peter Marsden successfully brings several muddled issues into focus in his book the Taliban: War, Religion and the New World Order in Afghanistan. Marsden presents a broad-minded political, historical, religious, and… [read more]

Economy in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. resumed.

Historical events, even those seeming to have little to do with economics, always have a significant impact upon the economy and the stock market in turn, yet those events with have the greatest social impact on the U.S. have remarkable effects upon the stock market. Though a comparative analysis of the effect of the events of September 11th and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 is warranted in a general sense the three remarkable differences makes the nine-eleven events stand on their own as historically effective of the stock market and the economy in general. Just as nine-eleven will mark a new era in the culture of the U.S. It will also mark a new era in economics. Even after more than three years the nine-eleven struggles are still intimately felt by those closest it and the world that watched events unfold in live broadcasts after the first plane hit the towers. ("The Spirit of September" A18)

Works Cited

Burk, James. Values in the Marketplace: The American Stock Market under Federal Securities Law. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1992.

"Correspondence." The American Prospect 18 June 2001: 6. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .

Dingle, Derek, and Sakina P. Spruell. "Bouncing Back: In the Aftermath of the Terrorist Attacks, Black-Owned Business Learn the True Meaning of Crisis Management as They Turn Losses into Gains." Black Enterprise Dec. 2001: 77+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .

"Economy Still Strong after 9/11." The Washington Times 13 Sept. 2002: F32. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .

Flynn, Patrice. "Financial Bailout of September 11: Rapid Response." Challenge 45.1 (2002): 104+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .

Harper, Paul and Joann P. Krieg, eds. John F. Kennedy, The Promise Revisited. New York: Greenwood…… [read more]

Fahrenheit 911: Movie Review Michael Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (332 words)
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Bush's 'War on Terror' in Afghanistan and Iraq is depicted as a cynical attempt to benefit his friends in the oil and defense industry.

Two of the most memorable moments in the film involve 'behind the scene' shots of President Bush and his Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz. The first is the, by now famous, scene of the President continuing to read "My Pet Goat" to school children even after being informed of the 9/11 attacks. The other shows Wolfowitz putting the comb in his mouth to slick down his hair while preparing for a TV interview.

Michael Moore's objective in making the film, of course, was to show George W. Bush in the worst possible light in an election year. On November 2, the U.S. electorate re-elected Bush for 4 more years with a significant vote-margin. Just goes to show that Fahrenheit 9/11, whatever its merits, is a film that does no more…… [read more]

Hell Aligheiri Dante's "Inferno Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,071 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


High Hell is also where a majority of Earth's sinner will go, because their sins are not so bad that they affect others lives, or create death and destruction. Neo and the Special Agent from "The Matrix" would end up here, because they acted in too many sequels that didn't live up to the first film, and so would bad actors like Ben Affleck, Jennifer Lopez, and Jackie Chan. This would also be the place for your next-door neighbor who plays their stereo loud enough for the entire block to hear at 2 a.m. In the morning, and your first girlfriend, who dumped you for a jock and then got pregnant. High Hell is annoying, but not so bad that those sinners suffer intolerably.

Middle Hell is for the next level of sinner, such as the plumber who charged you an outrageous amount to fix your garbage disposal, and then didn't fix it, and won't return to make it right. It's also a special place for most cab drivers, customer service people, and sinners who have affected others, like spouses who beat their mates and/or their children, or cheat on their spouses. It's also the place for thieves, and most other criminals, and blatant liars, such as most corporate executives and used car salesmen. The Enron group would belong at this level, except what they did was so reprehensible, they could move on to Deepest Hell, especially depending on the outcome of their trials. Martha Stewart would reside at this level, not because of her stock trading, but because she has inspired millions of women to take on too much responsibility and be "perfect," when perfection is simply unattainable, as her current prison sentence illustrates. Historical figures such as Marie Antoinette, King George, Benedict Arnold, and others would reside at this level too, because their actions affected so many others, especially their selfishly motivated actions. This level would also include the kids that bullied you in elementary school, and many of your childhood teachers.

Finally, Deepest Hell is reserved for the worst people in history. They have murdered, tortured, and ruled with despotism and hatred. People like Hitler, Attila the Hun, many of the Roman emperors, and numerous people in history would reside on this level. The Columbine shooters would reside her, and so would anyone else who has murdered, maimed, or created havoc on the world. Words cannot express how horrible this level is, and how desperately people would want to leave it. The evilest of the evil are here, and bound together for eternity, they make a terrible stew. Occasionally, when this level fills up to dangerous levels, bin Laden and Lucifer reduce the numbers by tossing some of the worst offenders into the fire pit, to keep the fires burning forever. The others can see their faces forever writhing in the flames as they are consumed by the Fahrenheit 411 flames.


Dante Aligheiri, "The Inferno." The Divine Comedy. Translated and with Commentary by Charles S. Singleton,… [read more]

Misperception Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (616 words)
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In spite of this, the misperception of Iraq's involvement in September 11 continues to sway the American public. This is in large part due to the need to have a scapegoat. Because the Bush administration has not been able to successfully locate or bring down Osama bin Laden, they portrayed Saddam Hussain as the real culprit in the terrorist attacks. Creating the myth that Iraq possessed nuclear weapons, the Bush administration enabled a misperception to flourish.

Although it appears clear now that the preemptive strike was unwarranted, many citizens continue to believe that the invasion was justified. This misperception, that the invasion of Iraq was warranted because the nation possessed weapons of mass destruction, persists. It could also affect the outcome of the upcoming presidential election. Yet the misperception is based not on fact but on fiction and emotion. Many Americans cling to the misperception about Iraq because it promotes patriotism and loyalty to the presidency, even though many administration members have been forced to admit the weakness of the facts.

Thus, it is important for the American public to become more educated about the facts about Iraq and to cease buying into the misperceptions. The only way to eliminate misperception is through education, open-mindedness, and awareness, as the basis of any misperception is ignorance. In this case, the media should take a stronger stance on the issue and make it blatantly clear that while Saddam Hussain was an evil general that the nation of Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction and that the war was unjustified. Educators also need to make a stance in the classroom, not for political reasons or to denounce the Bush administration but simply to help eliminate misperceptions. Even though students in grade school can't vote, their learning the facts could eventually rub off on their parents or older…… [read more]

Safe After 911? Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
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The government tells us that they are patrolling the borders and that our Intelligence agencies are watching for terrorist's plots.

It is not really the many things that terrorists could possibly do to our country that is so frightening. It is the fact that it is not just a possibility that it could happen. It did happen and shocked us all. It was unbelievable that any one would attack our country like they did, killing unsuspecting innocent people for their cause.

The fact that the terrorists did what they did and continue to commit terrorist's acts for a cause they believe will get them to heaven is extremely frightening. Their cause is one that not only allows them to die; it encourages them to do it in the name of Allah. It is difficult to fight a group willing to die for the cause and who has a hatred for our country. Fear of dying or imprisonment usually will deter dangerous crimes, not for this group of terrorists. So, not only do we know they want to harm us, we know that they will. It seems that the only deterrent is the lack of success on their part. They want to kill us and harm our country so much; their caution is only due to the fact that they do not want to fail in their attempts.

I think if you took a survey of people of all ages, sexes, income and education, the result would be the same for the answers. Many people in this country are afraid of what the terrorists will do to us next. They will tell you that the safety they felt in their own homes has been reduced and the safety they feel in other countries may never be the same as before 9/11. They would probably say that flying doesn't hold the same appeal as it did before and that unconsciously or subconsciously they are looking at the other passengers to see if they could possibly be terrorists. The safe feeling that we didn't ever think about is gone and we feel…… [read more]

Micheal Levins the Case Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,249 words)
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Conventions against use of torture are similar to conventions against use of mass destruction weapons, etc. have been signed. If one does not respect one of them, what guarantee do we have that any of them would be respected?! What is the point of signing international conventions if one does not abide by them?

The second argument against using torture with a terrorist (with anybody, for that matter...) is the fact that you can never be too sure about the truth or the utility of confessions under torture. What if the terrorist blabbers out a misleading location? What was the point of torture then? The Inquisition gave plenty of examples of persons who could suddenly admit the most terrible crimes under torture. On terrorists, this may have a similar effect, with the same amendment that the quality of information thus obtained may be rather poor.

The third argument is that torture is a barbaric and ancient method. What will come next after this?! Killing a man with stones?! We are not here to discuss the barbarism of executions, but torture seems to go back hundreds of years, all the way to the Dark Ages and nobody really wants to return there.

One of the most important and dangerous counterarguments seems to me the fact that, if such a thing as torture is allowed even in these remote cases and procedures, there is nothing to guarantee that its use will not be gradually extended in the future. For example, the first step would be to extend torture use to all terrorists, even if they have not necessarily laid a bomb, in order to obtain information about the terrorist network. Then, we can extend it to the suspected terrorist, in the same way and for the same purpose (wouldn't Mr. Levin like to torture some Islamic population in the United States) and so on and so forth. Where will this get to in the end?!

One of the most solid arguments seems to me the fact that the use of torture would mean serious retaliation from terrorist factions everywhere. Of course, it is not that the Allied behavior stops that from practicing barbaric acts now, but if the Western countries would decide to use torture, there would really be nothing to differentiate them from the barbaric terrorists.

Finally, the last and perhaps the most important argument is the fact that democracy, the rule of law, the respect of human rights is at the very foundation of all Western democracies. Such things as the use of torture (in any condition and under any circumstances) is the worst blow that they can receive, because it is a blow from within and a blow they have inflicted on themselves.

The strangest and perhaps most embarrassing thing occurred to me when reading Mr. Levin's article. He underlines and points out to every argument (or rather counter-argument) I have used, yet it never seems to occur to him that his thesis is wrong, that it destroys everything… [read more]

Accusations of Ignorance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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' The European community wanted to take into consideration the feelings and motivation of those who attacked us. In Arundhati Roy's article challenging the U.S.'s approach to responding to the trade center attack in kind, as an act of war, he accused the U.S. Of rushing to judgment. He says "America is at war against a people it doesn't know, because they do not appear on the television." (p. 429) In other words, Mr. Roy is accusing the Americans as being ignorant, and knowing nothing more than what appears on the telly. According to Mr. Roy, our myopic view of the world is matched only by our bullying shortsightedness by which we think we can push the world around. "The trouble (with America) is, that once American goes off to war, it can't very well return without having fought one. If it doesn't find its enemy, for the sake of the enraged folks back home, it will have to manufacture one." (p., 429, parentheses added)

I would invite Mr. Roy to remember the video telecast of the Taliban leader sitting piously at his royal desk in Afghanistan, telling the world in a canned and pompous statement that he was sorry for the attack in the U.S. And he hoped that the Americans found full justice through their court system against whoever was responsible. The arrogance, and evil of this group's head cleric, who would take to a public stage and display his lack of concern for the thousands of lives his organization snuffed out more than identified the enemy in this war. It is people who have no regard for life, and wish to pursue their own agenda regardless of who they have to kill. These people, Mr. Roy, fired the first shot. The terrorists organizations are those who attempt to walk secretly through the world, pushing others around in order to forward their own agendas.

I wonder if the British Mr. Roy, through some miracle of time travel, would have given the same advice for the British soldier's after the Boston tea party. "Men, these american's are just ignorant, and somewhat backward colonial farmers. We really don't understand their rage. We sit in our Victorian homes across the sea, and expect the world to live by our standards. So, before we respond to this outrage of destroying our products in the bay, we really need to think about their point-of-view." The entire reason for the Revolutionary war was that the American and the British did not see eye-to-eye on important topics which affected…… [read more]

Discrimination Involves Classifying People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,716 words)
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The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s won the passage of important legislation; decisions of the Supreme Court and regulations of federal agencies have contributed greatly to fighting discrimination, yet it is obvious that a great deal more needs to be done.

U.S leaders must change the way we operate around the world or we are in for many years of violence and body bags. And if that happens, it won't merely be the fault of those who attack us from outside, but also the fault of those who were the enemies of justice, equality, and peace on the inside. The sad consequence of this continuation of hate will result in increased discrimination -- a terrible reality in this day and age.


Ackerman, Seth. (2003). Who Knew?: The Unanswered Questions of 9/11.In these Times. Retrieved on the Internet at: http://www.alternet.org/

Davis, Nicole. (2001). The Slippery Slope of Racial Profiling, Colorlines. Retrieved at: http://www.alternet.org/

Lindorff, David. (2002). Grounded: The Government's Air Passenger Blacklist. Salon. Retrieved @ http://www.alternet.org/

Lydersen, Kari. War Brings Boom in Racial Profiling. (2003). Impact Press. Retrieved from Internet @ http://www.alternet.org/

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. (2003). Discrimination. MSN. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761573635/Discrimination.html

Wikipedia. 2003. Discrimination. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination

Willoughby, Brian. Intolerance…… [read more]

Future it Initially Sounds Appealing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
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Only after learning from my own mistakes did I come to realize the wisdom of her guidance.

Knowledge of a catastrophic event before it happens would be a curse more than a blessing. That's because I would not be able to do anything about what's about to happen. For instance, if I had known of the September 11th events in advance, I can't imagine how I could have used this knowledge to prevent the attack. I wouldn't have had access to the people that could have had any influence and, even if I did, they would have considered my warnings to be the ranting of a lunatic. Having knowledge without ability to affect change would only bring frustration, guilt, and heartache. Even when considering a personal acquaintance or loved one, there's nothing I could really do to turn the tide of disease or old age, the leading causes of death. And, for the same reasons I've given above, I would be hesitant about interfering with any of their life's experiences.

After carefully thinking about the pros and cons of being able to predict the future, I choose to reject this ability. Riding the ups and downs of everyday life makes for a better person than someone who has experienced only a part of life's experiences. The ability to predict the future would inevitably encourage me to avoid the negative parts of life and I don't believe this is necessarily the best course of action. In making my decision, I've also considered how I could use the ability to look into the future to help others. But, I also doubt that my ability would lead to any significant benefit for mankind. So, "Que…… [read more]

George W. Bush Term Paper

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By attempting hegemony, the United States in fact isolates itself from the global community. The violence now being perpetrated on Iraq will inevitably backfire. Terrorist groups will launch systematic campaigns to fight back in the only way they can: with suicide bombers and other low-tech attacks. Israel will be a likely target, especially if the United States continues to threaten other Middle Eastern nations like Syria and Iran. As George W. Bush grows more and more smug in front of the television cameras, it seems highly likely that the violence won't end in the Middle East. If the repercussions of America's actions aren't felt this year, surely they will be felt some years down the road. Groups of people, terrorist organizations, state governments, and coalitions of governments will find it necessary to retaliate against perceived transgressions, and the cycle of violence…… [read more]

Ethnic and Minority Group Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,374 words)
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If one wants proof that the events of 9-11 had a negative impact on ethnic relations and minority relations in American one need look no further than the businesses who employ Muslims. Many of them reported an immediate drop in patronage, with one-day care center reported a ten percent drop in the rate of new clients when the potential clients would meet the staff and see the several Muslim staff members (Raghunthan, 2002). One of the ways that the nation can begin repair to the fractured ethnic and minority relations is to begin promoting the active patronage of minority owned businesses. Pulling away from doing business with minorities allows the terrorists to win. They are here, we have proof that they are in this country now, observing, watching and reporting to those who plan the attacks. What better way to fight back than by holding heads high and reaching out more than ever before to embrace the diversity that this great nation was built on. Instead of transferring our anger for those who did this against the innocent minorities here let's shower them with understanding and business so they know we do not blame them for the actions of a few.

The entire concept of the Nazi regime was to divide and conquer. Gangs on our urban streets operate with the same mindset. Separate teens from parents and family and conquer that way. The terrorists must not see that their efforts have caused a racial divide in this nation..

Another way my perspective has changed following my belief in supporting minority business is to spend some funds on public service ads to promote diversity. My perspective has changed because in the past I felt that such ads were a waste of funds and time. The nation had worked hard to promote ethnic relations and I felt that it would continue on the path of success in its natural time frame. Following the events of 9-11 we no longer have the privilege of time and it is time to help the process along. One group of Arab-Americans have already taken steps to encourage the interfacing of their cultures with the others in America (Media Campaign Encourages Tolerance in Response to American Tragedy: "Hate is Our Enemy" (http://www.aaiusa.org/pr/release10-01-01.htm).

In the days following the terrorist attacks, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights received complaints from Arab and Muslim Americans who were being targeted in the wake of the attacks. In order to address these troubling incidents and prevent additional hate crimes, the Ad Council worked with the USCCR and The Arab-American Institute to create radio and print public service ads which communicate to all Americans the message that hate is not the solution to hate (Media Campaign Encourages Tolerance in Response to American Tragedy: "Hate is Our Enemy" (http://www.aaiusa.org/pr/release10-01-01.htm)."


The message is clear; hate is like a cancer and will eat America from the inside out. My perspective on ethnic relations and minority relations had always been pro-active but following the events… [read more]

Liberty We Are Living Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
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Since Mill is a man who believes in the value of ideas, and in arguing for and against them, and challenging ideas, he would hopefully be willing to reassess his optimism. Societies do not simply proceed to ever greater advancement, particularly in the areas of wisdom. There will always be conflict. And in an age of conflict, it is necessary to circumscribe certain civil liberties in order to protect citizens, to protect life, and to quiet "barbarian" forces.

On the other hand, there is something to be said for listening to the complaints of the disenfranchised. Mill points out that tolerating dissent has had catastrophic results in history. Currently in the United States in the wake of the terrorist attacks, not enough of a critical dialogue has been allowed. Even in times of unique crisis such as this, dissenting opinions and even criticism must be welcomed. Here I agree with Mill. He notes that "the claims of an opinion to be protected form public attack are rooted not on much on its truth, as on its importance to society." The current public policy has quietly embraced this, and unfortunately, certain truths are not shown. The darker aspects of war are whitewashed -- at least from our side. And it's important to discuss whether the terrorists have any legitimate claims. Although journals like Foreign Affairs may openly analyze the situation we are in, the level of public discourse is purposely simplified and sentimentalized. This helps us ignore our own flaws as a superpower, and where we might adjust our policies in order to create more international harmony.

What of Mill's point that individuals should be allowed to act as they wish, as long as they don't make themselves "a nuisance to other people." He says, "To individuality should belong the part of life in which it is chiefly the individual that is interested; to society, the part which chiefly interests society." In these complicated time, the overlap between the two is complex. An individual child may borrow a gun -- and harm society. An individual terrorist may learn how to fly planes in America -- and bring down the World Trade Centers and harm and kill thousands -- as well as cost millions to society. One of the individual rights is the right to live a safe life -- a life where stopping to get gas, one is not gunned down by a sniper; where, attending school, one is not gunned down by a classmate; where, going to work one sunny morning, one is forced to jump from a 100 story window because one is burning to death. I believe Mill would have called this a time for government intervention, much along the lines we are seeing now, because he would view this as an unfortunate time where "barbarians" put us at risk for our very safety -- out of which liberty arises. But I also believe he would argue for a very public discussion, one that has been squelched. Though… [read more]

Age of Political Correctness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (429 words)
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The Men in the Photo

The three men in the picture are upset and disappointed that the statue has become a political issue instead of historical. Their attorneys are attempting to stop production of the statue and have contacted both the Fire Department and management company (Windle, 2002).


The Vulcan Society, "an organization that represents black firefighters" feels the symbolism of the statue is more important than the who is actually depicted and the diversity should be considered more than factual correctness (Windle, 2002).

Changing History

Those who oppose the statue feel there's more to be considered than just the issue at hand.

They feel it's another way to change history into something politically correct. They point out the history books now emphasize what ethnic minorities have achieved, while minimizing the sacrifices the white Americans made.

They are concerned about what will be changed next in history in the name of political correctness.


Political correctness is starting to replace historical facts more and more in America. The American people need to stop and decide what is more important to them, and decide if it's worth it to rewrite history.

Works Cited

Windle, N.R. COLUMN: Statue seeks…… [read more]

Post- Traumatic Stress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,339 words)
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Fiorello was deeply disturbed with the thought of his wife being so near the place of the attack, and although his wife was able to get out of the area immediately before great damage had been done, the fact that his wife had been so close to death (and with him talking to her at that moment), Francesco Fiorello eventually suffered from a feeling of great fear and agitation when he is in public and overcrowded places. Evidently, Fiorello was one of the many individuals who suffered from the September 11 bombings, even though he hasn't witnessed it personally, and had no great injury or participation in the said event. Thus, the powerful, yet detrimental, effects of PTSD is apparent in Fiorello's case of experiencing psychological trauma after the terrorist attack, and this is displayed in a symptom observed in his behavior about PTSD, which is the constant occurrence of intrusive memories about the fateful event (Cowley 52). The second case discussed is an individual who showed signs of withdrawal from his family, and is a victim of the psychological trauma of the 1995 Oklahoma bombings. The said victim of PSTD had been directly involved with the said terrorist attack, being a member of the rescue team who helped people injured from the damage caused by the bombing, and also helped in retrieving the bodies of the victims of the attack. The rescue worker's memory of pulling out from the rubble a dead body of a baby had caused him severe stress and trauma that he started withdrawing away from his family. After proper psychological treatment, it was determined that the man's reason for withdrawal is that this sight of his young daughter reminds him of the traumatic sight of the dead baby, and after proper treatment, the worker was able to alleviate his stress and trauma regarding the terrorist incident (Cowley 52A).

The last case regarding PTSD symptoms is an article written by Nancy Gibbs for the TIME magazine. Her article focused on the symptom of "hyper-vigilance," wherein an individual is characterized to experience panic and is always on alert about possible danger or unexpected events. Gibbs narrates how her own community had struggled from the psychological trauma they all experienced after the Sept. 11 bombings, and she comments that despite the people's ability to argue, and "vent their anger" about the terrorist attack, Gibbs reasons out that "there is so much of it...After the firs few weeks of quiet, the city's hotlines are blistered with calls... And no beds available in the psychiatric wards" (Gibbs 72). Apparently, fear, panic, agitation, and uncertainty had 'plagued' Gibbs' community regarding the WTC bombings, and Gibbs ends her essay by giving the resolution and suggestion that in these traumatic times, "it's better not to pretend where you're going. Better to listen to advice, argue with passion... And every time we fight the urge to panic and help someone else regain his balance, we may better arm ourselves for whatever these next days… [read more]

Worldcom Noose Getting Tighter: Bankruptcy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (561 words)
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Reminding us of the reality of suicide bombers through this joke, the writer uses the opportunity to present both sides of prevalent political issues.

Xerox Reduces1996-2001 Revenues by 2%" describes the deviant, controversial behavior of a major corporation. Because Xerox is a recognizable name, the issue becomes personalized and relevant to current economic issues. Xerox "improperly recorded more revenue," which is a controversial, conflict-filled, and concrete event. The events of the impropriety are identifiable; the facts listed are dry and verifiable. Attempting to sensationalize the issue, the writer indicates that the company paid the largest levy "against a company for financial-reporting violations." Corporate deviance is as relevant and newsworthy as criminal deviance, especially to investors.

None of these articles contain all the components of newsworthiness. Only the "Photo of baby suicide bomber called 'a joke'" contains elements of violence. Although all three articles indicate some sort of action, none of them are particularly riveting narratives. Nevertheless, the issues are personalized enough to grab the reader's attention. The journalist in each case links the facts to prevalent current events: the business articles through economic issues and the photo article through political issues. All articles list concrete events that are identifiable; the facts are clear. The photo of the baby is of course the most novel and deviant of the three, as well as being the most dramatic. However, the writers of the WorldCom and Xerox pieces attempts to sensationalize their points by emphasizing corporate deviance. All three articles depict some type of controversy and conflict. Attention-grabbers are necessary for newspaper sales; therefore even the driest news must be made…… [read more]

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