Study "Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays 606-660

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Vulnerability and Weakness of the U.S. Embassies in Oversea Term Paper

… Vulnerability and weakness of the U.S. Embassies in oversea

The United States is widely viewed as being one of the most important targets for terrorist attacks due to the increased violence actions around the world. The 9/11 events have pointed… [read more]

Malcolm X Was a Black Nationalist Term Paper

… Malcolm X was a black nationalist and a Muslim leader and his personality and dedication to the causes he protected made him one of the most important African-Americans in the history of the United States. Although he lived a short… [read more]

Abadie, Alberto and Javier Gardeazabal. The Economic Term Paper

… ¶ … Abadie, Alberto & Javier Gardeazabal. "The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country. September 2002.

Explain the question that the paper addresses.

It seems like common sense that political instability reduces economic prosperity. However, this is difficult to demonstrate empirically, given that all nations experience political instability to some degree during their development, and all nations begin from different starting places, in economic terms, even when they suffer similar terrorist attacks. To answer this question and assess its validity, the authors use the Basque country in Spain as a kind of case study of the effects of terrorism upon a nation.

Unlike many previous studies, their examination is specific to the region, rather than a cross-national comparison. The purpose of this methodology was to reduce the number of variables that might affect economic growth besides terrorism, like previous economic development and access to natural resources. After the outbreak of terrorism, per capita GDP in the Basque Country declined 10% and seemed to widen in response to spikes in terrorist activity (Abadie Gardeazabal, 2002, p.2).

2. Why is it an important question, in your view and the author's view?

The study is important for two reasons. The first, as articulated by the authors, is that the Basque conflict has not been studied very much before. The authors provide a cursory overview of the issues and characterization of the group. Given the relatively short length the article and the fact that they are primarily interested in assessing quantifiable economic data rather than providing a historical overview of the terrorist activity in the region, this section is not very detailed.

The second significant contribution of the article is of its theoretical importance, namely how to examine and quantify the connection of political instability in a region with economic prosperity. The impact of terrorism upon economic stability (which is directly linked to social stability), of course, is of particular concern today upon such nations as Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as in the West.

3. Why and how does this paper contribute to existing literature?

Examining the impact of terrorism within the region, and using Catalonia as a kind of control group…… [read more]

Collecting Fingerprints From International Visitors for Homeland Term Paper

… ¶ … collecting fingerprints from international visitors for homeland security. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently upgraded from collecting two fingerprints to all ten fingerprints of international visitors at Dulles Airport in Washington D.C. This use of biometrics to pinpoint terrorist and other illegal activities is a necessity in America's continuing war on terror.

Biometrics (fingerprints and a photo) are collected "from all non-U.S. citizens between the ages of 14 and 79, with some exceptions" (Press Secretary, 2007). This data is then compared with the fingerprints collected at Dulles (and in the future, nearly 300 points of entry) to identify known and unknown terrorists.

Collecting and using biometrics ensures that all international visitors will be screened and identified, weeding out terrorists and other undesirables. In addition, this practice has been proven to help solve other criminal activities, such as identity theft, and it helps all passengers move through the airports more efficiently. Michael Chertoff, director of DHS says, "Biometrics tell the story that the unknown terrorist tries to conceal, and it causes them to question whether they've ever left a print behind" (Press Secretary, 2007). Thus, collecting fingerprints can match them with any prints currently existing in FBI and many other organizations' databases, and it can help control criminal activity on many levels. Collecting biometrics gives Americans more security, but it also keeps those who are illegal from reentering the country and remaining illegally, as immigration violators are also on file in the fingerprint records.

In conclusion, collecting biometric data is essential in maintaining American safety from terrorism and other criminal activities. It has been proven to help solve crimes and keep people safer, and it keeps illegal immigrants from entering the country, so it serves a dual purpose.

Homeland Security has been collecting fingerprints from foreign visitors since 2004, and they are increasing this collection from two fingers to all ten by the end of 2008 at nearly 300 entry points in the United States. This practice…… [read more]

Anticipatory Self-Defense in International Law Term Paper

… Anticipatory Self Defence in International Law

The concept of anticipatory self defence in international law has become more prominent and has grown to be a dominant topic of discussion in recent years. The attacks on American soil on September 11,… [read more]

Real ID Act Term Paper

… ¶ … REAL ID Act has created great controversy in the past years since it was designed because it generated debates about whether or not it decreases the degree of freedom for Americans, establishing a surveillance society. The Real ID… [read more]

Comparing Between the Two U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan and Pakistan After 2001 Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S. Interventions in Afghanistan and Pakistan

intervention in Afghanistan in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and its involvement in Pakistan since 2001, although of diametrically opposite nature, are intertwined in many ways. Its intervention in Afghanistan… [read more]

Patriot Act Nothing Passed 2004 Term Paper

… Patriot Act Ecdriesbaugh

Patriot Act

Many of the privacy issues driven by the "war against terror" can be directly linked to the Patriot Act. Title II of the Patriot Act, "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures," increased the government's authority to seize oral, wires, and electronic exchanges; to engage in pen register and trap and trace searches; to be granted access to certain business, library, and medical records; to use a single search warrant for nation-wide searches; to utilize subpoenas for electronic communications; to search records and not notify the owners; to limit the legal responsibility of persons who divulge private records to the government (a direct infringement of privacy laws); and to authorize information sharing between law enforcement and intelligence-gathering organizations (Baker, 2004). Many of these stipulations infringed upon civil liberties, and because the Patriot Act did not provide a system of checks and balances, legislators were prompted to include a sunset clause.

The sunset clause would automatically terminate some of the government's surveillance authority on or by a specific date. At this point, legislators could scrutinize how well these tools had worked, and how appropriately government officials had applied the laws (Epic, 2005). The Patriot Act's original sunset clause was set to expire on December 31, 2005, but legislators have granted several extensions since then. During this time, new rules and regulations have been incorporated into the Patriot Act in an effort to protect the civil liberties of the average American citizen.

The Patriot Act amended a number of different statutes, one of which was the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). This amendment made it easier for the FBI to utilize FISA for obtaining information through pen register/trap and trace devices. These devices acquire information from senders and recipients in various types of electronic communications. The provision extended the government's surveillance authority to email, Internet communications, wire communications, and telephone conversations (Epic, 2005).

Formerly, FISA had the legal obligation to show that the surveillance was intended for "agents of foreign power" before obtaining a pen register/trap and trace order; however, the government can now acquire a pen register/trap and trace device for any reason concerning foreign intelligence information, and they no longer have to demonstrate that the device will be utilized by foreign agents or individuals participating in international terrorism. However, this section forbids the use of these devices against any U.S. citizen where the search is performed based exclusively on activities that are protected by the First Amendment (Epic, 2005).

Moreover, FISA offers significantly less protection than those that are mandatory under the federal wiretap statutes. Section 206 amends the power of FISA in reference to intelligence gathering on U.S. soil by permitting gathering of information without the due process limitations that otherwise restrict domestic law enforcement. This section also "contemporizes" the wiretap authority under FISA by stripping away the requirement that law enforcement attain a separate order for monitoring each device used by the person being investigated. This authority is most commonly described as a "roaming wiretap," which "taps"… [read more]

Potential Terrorist Attacks Using Toxic Industrial Materials Term Paper

… ¶ … Terrorist Attacks using Toxic Industrial Materials

The use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear weapons (CBRN) weapons by terrorists is the most dreaded of the possible worst-case scenarios that can be imagined. Out of these, the possibility of a terrorist attack using Toxic Industrial Materials (TIM) is perhaps the most likely for the simple reason that large quantities of such materials are easily available. This paper discusses the specific threats and toxic materials that could be used by terrorists; it also discusses some such attacks that have already taken place.

What are Toxic Industrial Materials?

Toxic industrial materials are potentially hazardous chemicals that are manufactured, stored, transported, and used in countless industries throughout the world. They are available in gaseous, liquid, or solid state and their chemical and physical properties pose a number of potential hazards. For example, their toxic and carcinogenic properties can cause death or serious health problems after entering the body through inhalation, through the skin, or through digestion; cause fire or destruction due to their combustible, explosive nature; and may destroy or damage crops and plants after coming in contact with them ("Toxic Industrial Chemicals").

Potentially Dangerous Toxic Industrial Chemicals

There are literally thousands of potentially dangerous Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) that can be used by terrorists as weapons. The U.S. Department of Transportation classifies 3,000 chemicals as hazardous, while the U.S. Occupational Safety and Hygiene Administration enforces workplace exposure limits on about 600 chemicals (Eadon). Some TICs that are classified as 'highly hazardous' include ammonia, arsine, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, phosgene, sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide and a host of other commonly produced chemicals.

Ways in which TICs can be used by terrorists

Thousands of toxic industrial chemicals, being manufactured all over the world, are stored in large quantities at chemical and manufacturing plants-- often close to densely populated urban centers -- and are freely transported by highway, railway, or ships. Taking advantage of their vulnerability during transport and storage, terrorists could launch an effective TIC attack by simple hijacking a truck that is transporting TICs by road and releasing its contents in a place of their choosing; by detonating a railway car in a populated area; or by bombing chemical storage tanks at a plant located near a city.

The U.S. homeland security experts have estimated that an attack on a chemical plant where dangerous chemicals are stored could result in thousands of deaths. This may not be such an alarmist estimate if we recall that in a chemical factory accident in Bhopal, India in 1984 thousands of people died, when the highly toxic methyl isocyanate gas was released into the atmosphere near a thickly populated city. (Lehrman) more sophisticated chemical weapon can also be developed by terrorists by using easily available toxic industrial chemicals and accessing open sourced 'how-to' information on the Internet. Such 'sophisticated' chemical weapons developed from commonly available TICs are far more toxic and can be used with deadly affect in enclosed spaces, e.g., public buildings like theaters… [read more]

Code of Ethics in the Department of Justice Term Paper

… Code of Ethics in the Justice Department

Ethics and the Justice Department

Ethics is a very important component of the business world. This is particularly so in the Justice Department, as its purpose is to ensure the safety and security… [read more]

Jemaah Islamiyah Term Paper

… Jemaah Islamiah

Jemaah Islamiyah is Arabic for "Islamic Community" and the translation alone of the name of this Southeast Asian terrorist group shows the beliefs of this organization. In a world where the major terrorist concern is directed towards al-Qaeda,… [read more]

Future of Governmental Controls in Bioterrorism Term Paper

… Soon after 911 terrorist attack, the federal government introduced a regulation as per which 'export controls and trade sanctions and embargoes were regarded as the tools to guard against terrorism, and is devoting heightened focus to compliance and enforcement in… [read more]

Patriot Act Term Paper

… Patriot Act is probably one of the most controversial pieces of legislation in American history. Many see it as a somewhat hysterical reaction to the 9/11 attacks. They see it as a response to a terrorist threat of which the… [read more]

Homeland Security Annotated Bibliography Carafano, James Jay Term Paper

… Homeland Security

Annotated Bibliography

Carafano, James Jay & Paul Rosenzweig. (2005). Winning the long war: lessons from the Cold War for defeating terrorism and preserving freedom. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation.

Moore, Kathleen. (Autumn, 2002). "Part of U.S. Or apart from U.S.: Post-September 11 attitudes toward Muslims and civil liberties." Middle East Report, 224. 32-35.

One of the most controversial questions that arose after 9/11 was the extent to which racial profiling should be part of the Bush administration's anti-terrorism policy and if the majority of Americans would endorse such policies. On one hand the administration promised tolerance and freedom, that patriotic Muslims were like 'us' and were still part of the 'U.S.' (in reference to the title pun). But the administration also used highly polarizing rhetoric to justify its policies towards Muslim countries in the Middle East.

Despite the media's stress on multiculturalism, even in the post-civil rights era, racism and fundamentalism exist in America. Non-European, non-white, non-Christian cultures are still seen by some Americans incommensurate with American values. However, a study by the author revealed some surprising results, even in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. The majority of non-Muslims Americans polled said they were slightly less likely to admit wanting to infringe upon the civil liberties of Arab and Muslim- Americans than before nor did they wish to target them as a group (Moore 2002:34). This showed a reluctance to justify racism by recent political events and a desire to equate America with tolerance (Moore, 2002: 34). Yet nearly 50% felt that Muslim immigration to the U.S. should be reduced or stopped (Moore 2002: 35). The article paints a compelling statistical portrait of the contradictory attitudes of Americans in the way of the attacks, and gives a snapshot of the country's mood towards its Muslim population at the time.

Parker, Charles F. & Eric K. Stern. (Sep., 2002). "Blindsided? September 11 and the origins of strategic surprise." Political Psychology, 23 (3), 601-630.

Rothkopf David J.. (May - Jun., 2002). "Business vs. Terror."

Foreign Policy, 130, 56-64.

This article advances the theory that because the terrorist threat has grown so diffuse; Washington D.C. will not be able to fully address all of the security concerns posed by the threat to homeland security, nor curtail the rapid proliferation of different threats from new sectors, such as the Internet. Rather, an alliance government and…… [read more]

Role of State and Local Law Enforcement Is Within Homeland Security Term Paper

… ¶ … Local Police in Homeland Security


On September 11, 2001, the United States suffered the loss of almost three-thousand citizens in the largest terrorist attack on the American homeland in its… [read more]

Oral History Term Paper

… Oral History And Historiography

Oral history has often been discounted by the academic community as hearsay because it is often not based on provable fact. Therefore, oral history has been omitted from many traditional accounts of events. When one considers… [read more]

Fire Technology Term Paper

… Fire Technology

The firefighting industry, like many others, face a paradigm of continuous change today. Not only is the world changing, but its needs and the way that it uses services are changing as well. One of these is protection against threats from nature, as well as threats from attack such as terrorism. After 9/11 especially, the firefighter's important role in protecting the public has been at the forefront of attention. Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina have also taught many lessons in terms of what the fire service needs in order to optimize its service to the public.

According to John Nicholson, the fire service, among other rescue services, is one of the first to arrive at the scene of terrorist attacks or natural disaster. This is why, in 2003, the fire service called upon Congress to take its service into account when developing the new Department of Homeland Security. To this end, Nicholson also suggests that staffing and continuous training for firefighting personnel is of the greatest importance, and standardized national training and equipment requirements need to be in place for this. Training should also be continuous in order to meet the ever-changing needs of the community the fire department serves.

Another important aspect of change in the fire department is communications. Technological and electronic developments have made very sophisticated communication equipment possible. In this, firefighters now have access to technology that can track the position of a firefighter in a building, and thus save their lives if necessary. on-scene communication is also supplemented by intelligence data on terrorist or disaster threats where these are likely to occur, so that the fire department can be ready ahead of time to mitigate or even avert the disaster.

For the fire department, change is nothing new. Indeed, according to Charlie Dickinson, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) has been deeply connected to the changes needed to best serve its community since its inception. In this, its first recognition of better fire regulation and legislation has evolved to become sophisticated questions relating to the fire department's response to disaster, its connections with a variety of government organizations, and the technological equipment needed to perform their function adequately.

The basic functions of the USFA is to ensure that the fire service is equipped with the necessary knowledge to perform at an optimal level. In this, the Administration provides research, data and training. It also provides the public with knowledge regarding how to handle disasters and threats in terms of education and prevention.

In terms of organization, the events on 9/11 have also revealed the necessity of working closer with government agencies in order to mitigate, prevent, and respond to national disasters. Hence the USFA moved to the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Preparedness Directorate in 2005 (Dickinson). This connection helped the Administration to become more involved in creating a paradigm of preparedness not only for the fire service, but also for the…… [read more]

Private Security and Patriot Act. The U Term Paper

… ¶ … Private Security and Patriot Act. The U.S. Patriot Act of 2001 which was enacted on October 26, 2001, came to be regarded as an important source in the U.S.'s fight against terrorism. Being quickly made into a law… [read more]

Hamas Organization Is the Most Influential Islamism Term Paper

… Hamas organization is the most influential Islamism movement on Palestinian territories. The word "hamas" means zeal and the name of the organization is acronym for Harakat al-Mugawima al-Islamiyya. The organization is also known as the Islamic Resistance Movement.

The organization… [read more]

Terrorist Attacks Term Paper

… Terrorist Attacks

An assessment of how a terrorist attack might be conducted using Weapons of Mass Destruction

The danger of a terrorist attack on American soil has been extensively reported and commented on in the media, especially after the events… [read more]

Nuclear War the Potential for Terrorist Use Term Paper

… Nuclear War

The potential for terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction is currently much more a possibility than was considered possible just a few short years ago. During the Cold War era, most governments had a policy that centered on stopping other governments from using nuclear weapons. Now the focus of many government policies is on terrorist groups, and the individuals in those groups, who seem to be seeking weapons of mass destruction in order to create havoc and death.

This switch in focus does not necessarily mean that those same governments have taken their collective eyes off the nations that might also be seeking to develop those weapons, if anything, the focus has become even more sharpened. This sharpening of focus could be due to the fact that the governments that are seeking to develop those weapons house many of those same terrorist groups that would be used as the deliverers of those destructive forces.

Those groups, and governments, are also quite proficient in technology and it would not be surprising to find that they are also seeking ways to disrupt financial markets, the transportation industry and the daily activities of government through the use of cyber-terrorism. This technology, however, is a two-edged sword. By using computer technology, the terrorist groups leave footprints that savvy investigators can use to track them.

It is an ongoing battle between government and those groups and individuals who wish to topple that government.

Countries that would seem likely to use…… [read more]

WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction Much Publicity Term Paper


Weapons of Mass Destruction

Much publicity has been given the issue of weapons of mass destruction in recent years, especially following the terrorist acts of 9/11. There is some doubt however, in the minds of the public as to whether terrorists have the ability to use or intent to use such weapons in a large-scale attack against the U.S. Or any other foreign nation. This paper argues most terrorists are not likely to use weapons of mass destruction. WMD, so emphasized during the last few years, have been a subject of much debate. The war with Iraq is clouded with the finding that few if any WMDs existed among the terrorist camps located and seized by government agents. Just how likely are terrorists to use such weapons, and how effective are they?

Analysis of Research

Much of the information presented by the media suggests terrorists like Bin Laden are likely to try to use weapons of mass destruction. McCloud & Osbourne (2001) note testimony by Jamal Ahmad al-Fadl suggested Bin Laden often attempted to acquire raw materials for use as weapons of mass destruction. As the researchers note, it is important for the public to ascertain from evidence given from testimony like this weather the use of WMD by terrorists is a "practical" or real threat. Testimony by Al-Fadl suggests Bin Laden did have an interest in nuclear weapons. There are questions however as to whether the testimony offered by this witness is credible, in part because the witness admitted he broke with Al-Qa'ida some time ago, and may have been attempting to anger them or illicit some financial gain by testifying.

There are many parties in fact with alleged testimony implicating Al Qa'ida and other terrorists groups in plots to engage in nuclear warfare. For example, the U.S. declared in 1998 its actions against the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant were justified because government secret service agents suspected the plan was manufacturing chemical or other types of weapons of mass destruction.

Ackerman & Bale (2002) note following the attacks on the World Trade Towers, allegations that terrorist planned to use WMD became commonplace. The media reported numerous events where plants and camps oversees were bombed because world and U.S. officials suspected the camps may be harboring terrorists attempting to develop chemical, biological or nuclear agents.

What one must realize however is many of these reports of camps and efforts to deliver or create weapons of mass destruction come from incredible resources. For example, some reports come from Arab intelligence agencies, anonymous "anti-terrorist" experts and even witnesses in trials against known terrorists. Many are now arguing however, if the threat of terrorists using WMD is so real, why have they not used them by now? Many suggest the evidence confirming the existence of a threat is nothing more than "hearsay." While it is true it is likely most terrorists would like to use such weapons, there is not a lot of evidence suggesting they have the wherewithal to do so, or… [read more]

International Cooperation Term Paper

… International Cooperation

The Lessons of International Cooperation in Counterterrorism: Address to RUSI Conference in Transnational Terrorism, a Global Approach" by Anthony Cordesman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies published January 18, 2006.

Cordesman's article clearly addresses experts in the field of counterterrorism, through a developed set of points regarding historical lessons that have been learned with regard to the need for international cooperation in counterterrorism efforts and future suggestions about such communications. The author first points out discrepancies in the definition of terrorism that are dependant upon the intent or view of the individual or organization, then moves on to discuss seven points about international communication on counter terrorism. The first seems logical enough, that there is a need for international cooperation. Lesson number two being that there is a need for international organizations that cross cultural, ethnic, regional and religious lines in cooperation and that such organizations must be empowered to act and unilateral on action, rather than fractured by factional communication.. Lesson three stresses the strengths and potential weaknesses of regional cooperation, the greatest strength being the ability to act and the greatest potential weakness being that the two groups are drawn together only on paper, mostly for political reasons and not in a real active fashion that creates change. Lesson four stresses the need for a balance between secrecy and transparency in all counterterrorism agencies, stressing the need to keep information secure when it needs to be but not utilize security as an excuse to cover incompetence. Lesson five stresses the need for cooperation on a very basic level, between those who hold positions in counterterrorism that are roughly lateral to positions in other nations. Cordesman stresses that these cooperation's need not be formal but can be, but should be strong regardless. Lesson six stresses that great care must be taken to focus action only on those who are actual known terrorists and not unilaterally on innocents, a strategy that runs the risk of further feeding the extremist view and breeding future terrorists and lastly lesson seven stresses that the issues that feed terrorism, especially in the Middle East and West conflicts must be addressed on a level that furthers a future with less terrorism, as no matter how much we fight it success will never be felt unless the underlying issues causing it are moving toward resolution.

The problem of international cooperation in counterterrorism is clearly defined though this work is an address offered to a Royal United Service Institute conference on transitional terrorism, so it reads much like a speech. The problem of unilateral communication…… [read more]

911 Hijackers Pirates Term Paper

… ¶ … 911 tragedy has set off the war against terrorism worldwide. United States led the battle against the Osama Bin Laden and his troops. The attack caused the lives of many innocent people who were "caught in the middle" of a powerful government and ruthless revolutionists. The world was set on fire and watched the destruction of the World Trade Center. Everyone was in deep mourning and a war against nations started.

For the Al Qaeda suicide hijackers what they may be doing is something noble for their country and Allah. In their own beliefs, sacrificing their lives is the only way to "shake" an oppressive government. They are revolutionaries in their own rights because they have set an uprising between two powerful forces. Although their means of a revolt may not be acceptable to the majority, they have succeeded in getting the attention of the United States government and the rest of the world. The hijackers' goal may be set to a particular government or…… [read more]

Corporate Risk Management Terrorist Threat Term Paper

… Corporate Risk Management: Terrorist Attack

In today's business world, practically all reasonably-sized organizations have expanded globally. One of the risks associated with globalization is the increased probability of terrorist attack. Terrorism occurs when groups with a certain goal use violence and/or threat to attain their objectives. This is facilitated when a targeted organization branches out to a country where the terrorist group in question resides. Indeed, this expansion may be one of the reasons for possible resentment from purist organizations. In order to mitigate such risks, it is therefore important to plan for contingencies in a targeted and practical way. There are a variety of practical ways in which the threat of terrorism can be mitigated.

The first option is to avoid the risk altogether. This can be done by a thorough risk assessment and concomitant action to minimize the risk of terrorist attack. Countries where such risks are high can then be avoided when planning for global expansion. The problem with this approach is however that other risks may be incurred while avoiding the risk of terrorism. Opportunities to increase revenue may for example be lost by not expanding to certain countries. The company's reputation and public image may furthermore be harmed, as the failure to expand to certain countries may be seen as evidence of prejudice, racism, or social irresponsibility. It is therefore important, when prioritizing and quantifying the risk of terrorism and its possible avoidance, to also quantify the risks incurred as a result of avoidance.

Secondly, companies facing possible terrorism may also wish to reduce the likelihood of this risk rather than avoiding it altogether. In this way, the risk associated with avoidance may be mitigated, while also reducing the effects of possible terrorist attacks. Once again, initial research into and quantification of the exact risks involved are important actions. For reducing the likelihood of terrorist risk, the country into which the company aims to expand should be specifically researched for its likelihood of terrorism. When the likelihood is small, mitigation measures may include elements as simple as a risk manual, through which each personnel member is made aware of measures to be taken in the event of terrorist…… [read more]

Patriot Act the USA Term Paper

… Patriot Act

The USA Patriot Act, commonly referred to as the Patriot Act, was signed into law on October 26, 2001 just 45 days after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City… [read more]

Preemptive Warfare Term Paper

… Preemptive Warfare

The concept of preemptive warfare and the explication of its goals are clearly outlined in a September 2002 White House publication entitled "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." This seminal neoconservative essay outlines the… [read more]

Domestic Terror the Hammerskin Nation Term Paper

… Domestic Terror

The Hammerskin Nation, often known simply as the Hammerskins, is a white-supremacist hate group that originated in Dallas in the late 1980s, but now has spread to several states and countries. While recent power struggles have resulted in… [read more]

How Conflict Between the CIA and FBI Has Exacerbated US Government Interests Term Paper

… CIA and FBI: Competing interests

The bombings of the World Trade Towers brought the conflict between the FBI and CIA to the surface. These two government agencies are the ones associated with gathering intelligence on activities that might threaten U.S.… [read more]

Terrorist He Watches Term Paper

… ¶ … Terrorist, He Watches

Using exquisite detail, Wislawa Szymborska re-creates the tense four minutes before a bomb goes off in a bar. The poem "The Terrorist, He Watches" is full of suspense: the title suggests the theme of the poem but the first line gives the ending away when the narrator states, "The bomb will go off in the bar at one twenty PM." Armed with this knowledge, the reader gets a sense of what it must be like to live in a location plagued by periodic terrorist attacks. Moreover, the poem reads like a ticking time bomb and the format is appropriate for its topic. The impersonal narrator and the lack of connection with any of the people in the bar reveal how a terrorist must depersonalize and detach fully in order to kill. In fact, the narrator may be the terrorist himself because at no point in the poem does the narrator use first person. Referring to the terrorist in the second stanza, the narrator simply states that he "has already crossed to the other side of the street. / the distance protects him from any danger, / and what a sight for sore eyes:" Standing opposite the bar, the terrorist is not only safe from the bomb; he is also able to watch potential victims stream in and out of the bar as if they were merely ants. The terrorist seems inhumanely detached and emotionless.

One of the most salient features of Szymborska's poem is its irony, both dramatic and contextual. The poet creates dramatic irony by revealing that the bomb is about to go off in four minutes in a crowd of unsuspecting civilians. Only the narrator, the potential terrorist, knows. The poet also creates contextual irony by describing a scene of impending doom without any emotional content.

As the terrorist, the narrator watches with mild interest as a "woman in a yellow jacket" goes into the bar and a "man in dark glasses" comes out. The terrorist does not care who happens to be inside or out at one-twenty when the bomb will explode. He simply watches with a bit of curiosity, noticing for example the man who "goes back for those…… [read more]

Judgment Under Uncertainty Heuristics and Biases Term Paper

… Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases

Tversky and Kahneman's article Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, was published in 1974 and it occupies a pivotal place in the literature of decision making, judgment process. The core premise of this article revolves around the argument that people are not influenced as much by factual probability data as they are by cognitive heuristics when making a decision or judgment. "In general, these heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors"

The authors maintain that when a person is making a decision about something, he is likely to assign them probabilities. In the process, he will eliminate those possibilities, which have a zero probability. Once they are removed, the rest of the possibilities will be arranged according to a sub-process, which is based on three important heuristics. These heuristics are defined as availability, representative-ness and anchoring. Availability is the heuristic device that is used to assess the frequency and possibility of some event. In this case frequency is connected with the number of times this event occurred in the past and possibility is connected with likelihood of it happening in the future. A person living in Australia doesn't need to check any data or statistics to know that snow is more likely in June than in December. Similarly a person living in America would for example think just the opposite because of the number of times it has happened in the past.

Availability is a useful device and the authors are absolutely correct in including this in list of useful heuristics that people commonly rely on. But authors feel that heuristics can result in systemic errors because of biases that influence them. In the case of availability for example, Tversky and Kahneman 1974 argue that there are six biases that would affect recollection of events. We understand that availability is heavily depended on how accurately a person is capable of recalling an event therefore it is not entirely wrong to assume that recollection may not always be precise and accurate since some biases might come into play. The six biases identified by the authors are:

1.How familiar a person is with an event raises the probability of it being recollected with greater ease. The more familiar an event, the easier it is to recall it. A person may have seen snow in his city all his life but he may have heard of snow in New York and thus while he can judgment more accurately in his own case, he may not be able to predict snow with same accuracy in NY.

2. The magnitude of an event also bears on a person's ability to recall. The greater or more dramatic an event was, the sharper its image in the memory is.

3. The duration between now and the event. If the event were fairly recent, it would be recalled with more ease than an event that happened years ago.

4. The search sets created for this purpose… [read more]

President Bush's Speech About Events of 9-11 Term Paper

… ¶ … speeches given by President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the speeches and their points-of-view. Bush and Blair are addressing two different audiences who experienced the terrorist attacks in different ways, and this is the major difference between their speeches. Bush leans on patriotism and a sense of justice, while Blair views the attacks as a turning point in history and for humankind in general.

President Bush's speech was geared to buoy up the American people, instilling patriotism and the need for justice. Most of Bush's speech refers to the attacks on America, what Americans suffered, and how Americans and the world have reacted to the attacks. He also places blame for the attacks, and begins to indicate how it will punish those who are responsible. Blair's speech is far less full of blame and far more based in tragedy and lack of understanding. Blair questions the justice of the attack, while Bush begins to set the stage for retribution. Blair says, "I believe their memorial can and should be greater than simply the punishment of the guilty. It is that out of the shadow of this evil, should emerge lasting good: destruction of the machinery of terrorism wherever it is found; hope amongst all nations of a new beginning where we seek to resolve differences in a calm and ordered way" (Blair One). Already, the differences in reaction between America and other nations are set by these speeches. America has an agenda, while Great Britain hopes something positive can come out of a terrible situation.

Blair refers to the world reaction to the attacks, and Bush alludes to that support as well. He says, "And on behalf of the American people, I thank the world for its outpouring of support. America will never forget the sounds of our National Anthem playing at Buckingham Palace, on the streets of Paris, and at Berlin's Brandenburg Gate" (Bush).

Bush is on the attack, while Blair attempts to reassure the British people that civilization will not collapse due to economic and political conditions around the world.

Both men place blame on Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. Both men urge action, but Blair is…… [read more]

Oklahoma City Bombing Term Paper

… Oklahoma City Bombing

Events before the bombing

What went wrong

Timothy McVeigh, the person who planned and executed the Oklahoma bombing in 1995 was able to create his own bombs by buying the needed chemicals (such as the ammonium nitrate)… [read more]

Policy Analysis Market Over Its Disadvantages Term Paper

… ¶ … Policy Analysis Market Over Its Disadvantages Had it Been Able to Operate

Conceived and developed by the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) on an idea from Net Exchange, the Policy Analysis Market was a revolutionary… [read more]

Non-Profit Disaster Mitigation Organization Term Paper

… ¶ … non-profit disaster mitigation organization. Specifically, it will analyze the American Red Cross, including the mission of the organization, and its involvement in recent disasters, and funding issues. Founded in 1881, the American Red Cross is one of the largest disaster response organizations in the country. There are Red Cross chapters in just about every city and town in the country, and the organization relies on a large stable of volunteers to help when disasters strike. However, the organization has come under fire during recent disasters, because of funding and fund-raising issues.

The American Red Cross has been in existence since the nineteenth century. Organized by nurse Clara Barton, it has grown to be one of the premier disaster mitigation organizations in the country and the world. It is a non-partisan, humanitarian organization responds to all types of local and national emergencies, from families displaced by home fires to war and terrorism victims. Its mission is to step in during any time of disaster and provide food, clothing, shelter, and assistance to any victims of that disaster.

The Red Cross plays an integral role in regional and national emergency management systems. In many cases, they are the first and only relief organization responding to a disaster. For example, a recent hotel fire in Reno, Nevada, occurred on Halloween night. The fire destroyed a residential hotel in the downtown area, displaced 62 families, and killed 12. The Red Cross opened a shelter at a local high school immediately after the fire. They also worked with county and state agencies to locate new housing for all the victims displaced by the fire ("Northern Nevada," 2006). This is an example of how local Red Cross agencies work. The staff work with people on a personal level, and ensure their needs are all met before the close shelters and move on to respond to other local disasters.

The organization is a member of the National Response Plan, and as a direct provider, it responds when the government invokes the Plan. The Red Cross is also responsible for coordinating disaster relief with such agencies as FEMA. It is interesting to note that the American Red Cross is the only disaster responder who is considered a direct provider under the Plan. Many people think the Red Cross is a healthcare or search and rescue type provider, but instead, it mainly deals with food, shelter, clothing, and even some healthcare and mental health services. Emergency rescue and ambulance services are not part of the Red Cross mission.

The Red Cross was first on the scene of the Comair Crash in Kentucky in August 2006, and in national disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, they provide funding, housing, and even counseling assistance for victims. However, many of their fund-raising and disbursement techniques have come under question after these very public disasters, and CEOs of the organization have been replaced.

After the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Red Cross set up disaster… [read more]

Civil Liberties Post 9-11 Term Paper

… Civil Liberties Post-September 11th

September 11th forever changed America and its views on their vulnerability to attacks from foreign entities. Not since Pearl Harbor had an act of war been conducted on American soil. Invisible boundaries that were once believed… [read more]

Alternative Interrogation Method With the Strikes Essay

… ¶ … Alternative Interrogation Method

With the strikes on America on September 11th, America changed. No longer were the borders of one of the strongest countries in the world effective barriers against terrorism. Foreign terror had breached these invisible lines and struck at the very heart of the nation. With this breach came an all out war on terror. And, as in any war, interrogation becomes a primary means of information gathering. Because of this, the use of alternative interrogation techniques has risen to the forefront of the American debate.

Interrogation is a methodology employed during the interview of a person, referred to as a "source," to obtain information that the source would not otherwise willingly disclose" ("Interrogation").

In contrast, alternative interrogation techniques go one step further. The end goal of obtaining information is the same, however, the methods are quite different.

It is not the building of relationships with sources or the asking of questions, but usually placing the source under some sort of physical and/or mental duress in order to force information from them. Specifically, the United States has policies against using torture, in the form of extreme physical or mental anguish, in their interrogation techniques; however, some of the alternative strategies have become questionable, with the highly exposed media coverage of the war on terror and terrorism suspects held in prisons such as Guantanamo Bay and Abu Gharib.

It is difficult to determine what involvement President Bush's administration had prior to passing of legislation such as the Military Commissions Act. President Bush has insisted that the interrogators themselves requested the tough alternative interrogation techniques.

Yet, others insist that documents show that instead these coercive techniques were forced on the interrogators (Horton). One thing is certain, the Abu Gharib scandal has caused the general public to question just what techniques are being used during interrogation, and at what point does alternative morph into torture?

Abu Gharib prison is, perhaps, one of the most notorious recent military scandals brought to the American public's attention. With debate over America's presence in Iraq in full force, the accounts of abuse and torture coming from the prison in 2003 were perfect fuel for the fire. An internal investigation conducted in 2004, and later exposure in the American media, found American military personnel abusing prisoners, severely damaging the credibility of America's presence in Iraq, both at home and abroad. Although the Bush administration noted that these acts were isolated acts of individuals, others noted that these actions were condoned by the military as forms of alternative interrogation.

Perhaps the most famous instance of abuse at Abu Gharib is that of Satar Jabar. Jabar was hooded and placed on a box while wires were attached to various parts of his body. He was told that if he fell from the box, he would be electrocuted. The military stated that at no time were these wires live; therefore, Jabar was never in any real physical danger (Scelfo & Nordland). However, certainly the mental abuse was… [read more]

U.S. Foreign Policy After 911 Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S. Foreign Policy After 911

Has the U.S. foreign policy changed since the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001? Most certainly, the U.S. policy toward foreign affairs has changed dramatically.… [read more]

We Are All Suspects Term Paper

… ¶ … society labels individuals, which sometimes causes the individuals to become what they are suspected of being. The write explores the events of 9-11 and how that event impacted immigrant families around the country as told through the book,… [read more]

Attacks on the World Trade Center Term Paper

… ¶ … 11th of September 2001 two planes crashed into the World Trade Center. The event was termed as 'day of reckoning' (CNN World News online news, Sept 2001). Never did the people of America realize that they'll be subjected… [read more]

Customs and Border Services: September 11th Term Paper

… Canadian National Security and Privacy

This paper presents a detailed examination of issues surrounding borders and customs in Canada following the events of 9-11. The writer explores changes that have taken place and the impact of those changes on the… [read more]

Role of the Media in Terrorist Actions Term Paper

… ¶ … Media in Terrorist Actions

In today's increasingly globalized and increasingly violent world, terrorist actions have come to the forefront of the American public's minds. With the advent of September 11th, gone is the false sense of security American's… [read more]

Scare-Talk ) Makes Several Excellent Points Term Paper

… ¶ … scare-talk (2006) makes several excellent points regarding how the Republican Party in the United States is making the most of the wide differences in perception of which political party is most adept at anticipating and thwarting terrorist attacks. The article brings up a startling statistic from the latest Gallup/USA Today poll that says the majority of the voting public perceives Republicans will do a far better job than Democrats fighting terrorism (68% - 17%). This is the widest gulf of any of the issues covered in the poll, and point to the fact that for the November 7th Congressional and Senate elections, the most likely political platform the Republicans will rely on is building on the perception of being able to anticipate, combat, and alleviate terrorist attacks. In the same poll, President Bush's approval rating jumped from 31% to 44% also as a result of stressing victories in the war on terror. The drop in U.S. gas prices throughout September has also helped the President's approval rating.

While the Republicans are clearly working their advantage of messaging that they are tougher on terrorism than Democrats, when it comes to the handling of the war in Iraq, their impressive gains in polls are erased with the majority of voters seeing Democrats as more capable of managing the war (60%) versus Republicans (23%).

Clearly for the Republicans,. The more media weight and coverage they can put on terror, the higher the likelihood of success in both the House of Representatives and Senate races.

November 7th of this year is a very significant election for both parties, as it is widely considered on that will dictate how effective the next President will be in getting their policies accomplished. With every seat in the House of Representatives up for re-election and a third of all seats in the Senate, the Democrats are predicting they will control either one or both houses of Congress after the November 7th election. Recent poll results substantiate this optimism…… [read more]

War on Terror the Transcript Concentrates Term Paper

… War on Terror

The transcript concentrates on the decision by the Senate Armed Services Committee to pass the bill prohibiting the use of inhumane treatment, with direct applicability to the measures taken by the American administration and the CIA regarding the treatment of alleged terrorists detained in CIA jails and other different detention camps throughout the world. In the end, it is basically a discussion on how far a government or a country can go in order to reach its goals in something that may otherwise be considered entirely right. Are we allowed to use force and forceful actions in order to discover terrorists and in order to continue the global fight against terrorism in an efficient manner?

Certainly, the first observations is that torture was something generally used in the Middle Ages and that, since those times, it had only limited and regional applicability throughout history. On the other hand, these are certainly modern times, times where torture doesn't seem to belong and where human rights are a reality guaranteed by international law.

However, we can point out towards the fact that, different from the Middle Ages and from all challenges of humanity ever since, we are facing a new and dangerous enemy: global terrorism. In no time in history has terrorism been such a constant and global presence, a presence that can be felt in its invisible form in almost any country. The war against this formidable enemy can encompass extraordinary measures.

On the other hand, we are always bound to ask ourselves whether these measures can fit a certain framework, whether we can define reasonable limits to which we can act in the fight against terrorism. In my opinion, we can find that such reasonable limits…… [read more]

Foreign Policy War on Terror Term Paper

… Foreign Policy: War on Terror

President Bush has recently supported the idea that the United States is winning the global war on terror. To support this assertion, he pointed out to the fact that 9/11 was the only terrorist threat to occur on the American soil over the last five years and that, despite the initial bleak perspective, no other attacks occurred in the aftermath.

On the other hand, there are still numerous voices, from all parts of the civil society and including all political parties involved, that insist towards the fact that not only the war on terror is not won, but it is still far from being decided and far from being one. The article the Terrorism Index investigates some of the arguments brought forwards by those supporting this idea.

According to the persons questioned, there are two main flaws in the war against global terrorism. The first flaw is related to the policy initiatives that the Bush administration has decided to use in this war. First of all, the way that the U.S. has handled the other poles of terrorism, including North Korea and, possibly, Iran, as the so-called rogue states is deemed unacceptable. Further more, the U.S. administration have chosen a rather single-handed war rather than a closer collaboration with its European allies, while the detention of the suspected terrorists in Cuba (along with the CIA jails scandal currently under progress) did nothing but affect the American image over the world rather than gain new allies.

The second flaw is the national security apparatus, with almost all areas directly responsible for the organization of the war on terror and terrorism response deemed to be operating under their real capacity and underperforming.

Investigating the assertions of the article, we can draw several conclusions on its objectivity and applicability to real facts. First of all, the facts are indeed that the American soil has not been attacked since the 9/11 attacks. That is an undeniable fact and we can…… [read more]

Proposals for Government Policies Term Paper

… ¶ … Patriot Act -- the Death of Civil Liberties in the Wake of 9/11 and Becker's theory of the "Outsider"

Becker's theory of how social labeling creates and actually fosters "outsider" or criminal groups deemed to be beyond the pale of ordinary society was created long before terrorism became a common fear of everyday Americans and federal law enforcement authorities. But Becker's theory could easily apply to marginalized groups in America that were created in the wake of 9/11 and the Iraqi War, such as Muslims and anti-war activists. These persons, subject to heightened government scrutiny, may feel even more alienated from society as a result of increased government surveillance. According to the White House's official press release on its web site: ("America is safer today because of the President's policies to strengthen the security of our Nation's infrastructure and our borders." But viewed through Becker's eyes, the attempt to label such individuals as outsiders, deviant, or un-American may actually have a counterproductive effect upon national security.

Also, according to the progressive watchdog group, Moving Ideas: The Electronic Policy Network ( the tools used to enforce fears of outsiders, in the hope of bringing 'other' Americans together, violate the very principles of…… [read more]

Osama Bin Laden Has Risen to Iconic Term Paper

… Osama Bin Laden has risen to iconic status as the mastermind behind the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. His message and his movement resonate not only throughout the Middle East, but also throughout… [read more]

Fahrenheit 911 and Bowling for Columbine Term Paper

… Fahrenheit 911 & Bowling for Columbine

Vs Fahrenhype 911 & Celsius 411

The Docudrama Films Fahrenheit 911 and Bowling for Columbine vs. The Docudrama Films FahrenHype 9/11 and Celsius 41.11 - The Temperature at Which the Brain Begins to Die… [read more]

Hezbollah Financing Diamond Trade in West Africa Term Paper

… Hezbollah Financing:

Diamond Trade in West Africa

While there has been an increasing amount of research in recent years concerning the nature of organizations and the networks that help them communicate from a positive perspective, there has been a paucity… [read more]

Culture That Encourages Human Rights Term Paper

… 20). The Lieber Code led to and served as a model for Prussia and other armies in Europe. The American idea of how prisoners should be treated in wartime became the basis for the Hague Regulations at the turn of… [read more]

Perceptions of US Term Paper

… Perceptions

Behaviorism - Cross Cultural Values

Cross cultural conflict often occurs when members of varying cultures share different beliefs, values and understandings of events, issues or proper ways of behaving. It is vital that cultural differences be examined to help… [read more]

Internet and the Increased Availability Term Paper

… In addition, the magnitude of the new problems that are being confronted depends on how national security is defined and how thresholds for acceptable damage are set (Lewis). The report also points out that

From a legal or public safety… [read more]

911 Commission: The Clinton Administration Term Paper

… The commission stated that rather than a singularly focused intelligence objective upon one nation as it was in the past, the focus of American intelligence agencies must be multinational and multifaceted as the terrorist networks these agencies such as the CIA are attempting to study.

Greater communication between local and international law enforcement is one way this may be achieved. Without local law enforcement's connection to international systems of authority, and vice versa, terrorist networks can make local incursions into the infrastructure of the United States as Al Qaeda through flight schools, and through other grass roots means of communication, such as simple as a call on a untapped cell phone. The commission calls for a comprehensive overhaul intelligence gathering in the United States.

One way to facilitate communication is through the creation of a post for a single National Security Director to act as an umbrella administrator of all the intelligence related and law enforcement connected areas of government. Although one can never know if this could have potentially thwarted both the embassy bombings and the attacks on the Trade Towers, it would enable a more unified study of potential terrorist 'chatter.' The creation of a National Counter-terrorism Center could deal with the unique threats posed by terrorism to intelligence in the United States, threats that were not nearly as pressing during the Cold War era. Thus, although it allows for the demands of the Israeli-Palestinian negotiations that made the region unstable during the Clinton Administration, ultimately the 9/11 report finds fault with the approaches of both the Clinton and Bush administrations in their response to the most formidable post-Cold War threat to the United States security and the demands for intelligence…… [read more]

American National Interest After September Term Paper

… However, the determination that it is so easy to glean the national interest in such a perfect fashion flies in the face of the conclusion of the commission that the United States was unable to fully determine the level of threat posed by Al Qaeda to the nation partly because it was unaware of the depths of hatred in the Muslim world for the Untied States. Moreover, an inductive theory of international polices would remind the United States that the needs of the world community must be considered, as the loyalty or tolerance in the Muslim world of terrorism ties into the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. An inductive view would stress less military action, and put the focus on eliminating the root political causes of the existence of terrorism in the Muslim world, which the commission also endorses, but in far less detail. And a democratic approach to international politics would stress the need on the part of America not to sacrifice individual rights at home in the name of keeping Americans safe, and to solicit the nation and other nations willingly into the fight through persuasion, rather than coercive means or even…… [read more]

Intelligence Factors in the Cuban Term Paper

… After the early1990's, the primary threat to the United States shifted from the Soviet Union to terrorism. However, the infrastructure of intelligence collection and analysis did not -- and still has not -- changed from its Cold War roots.

(Carafano.… [read more]

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