"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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International Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,305 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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International Terrorism

Terrorism is now considered to be the largest threat facing the international system and the security framework around the world. Its transnational nature and the unconventional means used have transformed the phenomenon into an indisputable challenge for the national security strategies. In this context there are various types of terrorism which differ in the aims and scope of… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Every Discussion Related Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,071 words)
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Domestic Terrorism

Every discussion related to the phenomenon of terrorism must take into account certain aspects of this flagellum. On the one hand, it is important to consider the connection between domestic terrorism and international terrorism, taking into account the fact that they both use violence means in attaining their goals and influencing political leaders and governments. On the other… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Has Become in Recent Decades Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,496 words)
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Domestic Terrorism

Terrorism has become in recent decades one of the most important phenomena affecting the society, both inside a state and at the international level. The events that took place in the U.S. On September 11, 2001 represented an alarm signal for the world that terrorism is a flagellum that would influence the evolution of international relations to a… [read more]


Forecasting Terrorism Major Trends Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,786 words)
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Forecasting Terrorism

Major Trends in Terrorism in Recent Years

According to Raphael Perl, three major trends can be distinguished in terrorism: an increase in micro-actors, an increase in sophistication of terrorist activities, and an overlap of terrorism with international crime. In terms of the first, the increase in micro-actors is the result of a combination of different elements. Firstly, access… [read more]


Intelligence Community Changes Do to Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Intelligence

Terrorism's Effects on the U.S. Intelligence Community

The threat of terrorism has fundamentally altered the operation and function of the U.S. intelligence community, particularly in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. A recent press release from the Director of National Intelligence reports that there is a continued, perceived threat of terrorist threats against targets within the United States, especially from radical Islamic terrorist groups ("The Terrorist Threat"). Terrorism has always been a registered threat for the United States intelligence community. However, the dramatic attack that occurred in 2001, and the equally dramatic failure of the U.S. intelligence community to provide preventative intelligence at the time, has forced agencies in the United States to reassess their priorities and shift terrorism to a higher position on the list of threats to the nation.

Solid intelligence is a crucial component in preventing terrorism (Martin). One of the significant issues facing the intelligence community is that traditionally their role has only been to collect intelligence and analyze, but not necessarily act in a law enforcement capacity. The CIA, for example, is expressly forbidden from acting domestically; such actions are the purview of the FBI or local law enforcement agencies. Because terrorism blurs the line between intelligence gathering and law enforcement, it has resulted in confusion in the intelligence community as to how best to respond to the continued threat of terrorism (Martin).

One key way that terrorism has fundamentally altered the intelligence community has been in facilitating greater interagency cooperation between intelligence agencies in the United States and other nations, between domestic intelligence agencies, and between intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies ("The Terrorist Threat"). This increased cooperation has resulted in…… [read more]


State Sponsored Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,599 words)
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¶ … Sponsored Terrorism

State Sponsored Terrorism

What is terrorism and what is state-sponsored terrorism?

Terrorism: "The systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion" - Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Notwithstanding that simple definition by Merriam-Webster, there is an inherent difficulty in defining the concept of terrorism, writes Martha Crenshaw in the journal Political Psychology (Crenshaw, 2000). The problem in… [read more]


Global Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (692 words)
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Terrorism

Global Terrorism Issues

Who: Mike McConnell, the Bush Administration's top intelligence official

What: Political Pressures on McConnell from the White House and Congress

Where: Washington, D.C.

When: August 2007

How: McConnell has been given the role of not only being the top person in charge of intelligence for the executive branch of government (the Bush Administration), but he has been given responsibility for negotiating with Congress for policies Bush wants in place.

Brief Analysis: McConnell, a retired admiral who took over the job of national intelligence in February, 2007, met with Democratic leaders from the House and Senate (in a conference call) to try to reach a compromise over the updated "eavesdropping" legislation ("Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act"), according to an article in the New York Times (Mazzetti, 2007). The word "surveillance" was used in this article although the updated law that eventually passed had to do with legal wiretapping (eavesdropping on citizens' phone calls) in an attempt to locate terrorists who may be plotting to attack the U.S. again. Bush has been wiretapping phone calls (without warrants) since soon after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but Congress has asked for some limits on how much "eavesdropping" the president can legally do without regard to existing law (which actually does require a president to get authorization from a court prior to wiretapping). One of the key points of this article is that the Democrats' proposal for a more limited authorization for Bush to wiretap was rejected, and the Democrats complained that McConnell should not be the senior member of the intelligence community, and also be a political negotiator for Bush. The real purpose behind McConnell's job of course is to protect Americans from terrorists, but as the writer of this article points out, "there is lingering anger among some on Capital Hill who say Mr. McConnell acted more as an advocate than an expert..." And also that the real issue should be going after bin Laden and other terrorists, not tapping phones hoping to catch a terrorist making some kind of evil plan.

Who:…… [read more]


Terrorism Global Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (631 words)
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Terrorism

Global Terrorism

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of current global terrorism. Specifically, it will discuss the arrest of three suspected terrorists in Germany, and their ties to the Al Qaeda terrorist organization.

Who: The Al Qaeda terrorist organization in Iraq was at the roots of this group of terrorists, and this organization is headed by Osama bin Laden. The men trained with the cell "Islamic Jihad Union," which is a "little-known" Sunni Muslim group in Uzbekistan that is tied to Al Qaeda.

What: Three terror suspects captured by German authorities, suspected of targeting American bases and tourist spots for bombing. Authorities are also looking for up to ten other suspects still at large.

Where: The suspects targeted Ramstein, an American air base in Germany, and other locations, such as Frankfort Airport, along with restaurants, pubs, and other establishments that cater to Americans and American tourists. The suspects were captured in a small village about two hours away from Frankfort, where they had recently rented a home. Authorities found numerous containers of hydrogen peroxide, which when mixed with other chemicals could create deadly explosives, and they found detonators and other explosive-making equipment.

When: 5 September 07 as reported by several different news services and reports, including the AP and Reuters, and national and local news. Most reports were essentially the same, reporting on how the men were captured and what they were hoping to accomplish. News sources said there was a gunfight in the small German town, and one terrorist tried to escape out a bathroom window, but was apprehended. Other news sources reported there were up to ten other suspects still wanted in the investigation.

How: The suspects trained in Pakistan with Al Qaeda, then spied on their locations to gain knowledge about where and when to attack. Suspects were going to build bombs using hydrogen peroxide…… [read more]


Terrorism Global Terrorism Preslar, D.B. (2000) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (377 words)
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Terrorism

Global Terrorism

Preslar, D.B. (2000). The role of disease surveillance in the watch for agro-terrorism or economic sabotage. Retrieved from the Federation of American Scientists Web site: http://www.fas.org/ahead/bwconcerns/agroterror.htm24 Aug. 2007. This article discusses agro-terrorism, a facet of terrorism that is particularly alarming, because it seems as if it would be so easy to accomplish in so many countries, including our own. This was actually written before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which makes it all the more eerie. The author opens the document with the statement "The threats of terrorism and economic sabotage against agriculture in the United States are neither fixed nor certain. Some have said that it is not a matter of 'if.' But 'when'" (Preslar, 2000). The author discusses the U.S.'s own stockpiling of biological weapons, the threat to the food supply, and discusses some of the ways terrorists could undermine our trust in the food supply and the U.S. ability to manage and protect the food supply.

This is a worrisome article because it indicates just how vulnerable we are to global terrorism and how unprepared we are in so many…… [read more]


Terrorism Who: The U.S. Congress What: Congressional Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (484 words)
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Terrorism

Who: The U.S. Congress

What: Congressional Vote

Where: Washington D.C.

When: 6 Aug 2007 as reported by the New York Times

How: Recently, there was a congressional vote that authorized eavesdropping without warrants on international communications, including communications conducted by Americans residing within the United States.

Brief Analysis: Despite the Bush Administration's lack of credibility regarding the war in Iraq, fears regarding terrorism remain high enough that the Democratic Congress authorized the Bush Administration's ability to eavesdrop on citizens, ignoring civil libertarians' objections.

Who: The NYC Fire Department

What: The Deutsche Bank Fire

Where: NYC

When: 23 Aug 2007 as reported by the New York Times

How: Although the recent destructive fire at the Deutsche Bank in New York City was not caused by terrorist activity the fire has highlighted how safety recommendations for the city's fire department following 9/11 have not been implemented.

Brief Analysis: Even years after 9/11, every time a major explosion or fire occurs, the first thought that enters the mind of ordinary New Yorkers, and even professional firefighters, is the possibility that terrorism is the cause. But although NYC has learned to fear terrorism, it has not learned practical lessons in dealing with disasters from that day. For example, during the World Trade Center attacks, too many firefighters stormed the buildings at once, contributing to the staggering death toll. This mistake was repeated during the bank fire.

Who: The Pakistani Government

What: Release of terror suspect…… [read more]


Global Terrorism's Impact on International Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,627 words)
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Terrorism Impact

When a terrorism attack hits a country, such as September 11, 2001, naturally the citizens of that nation are most affected. They are the ones who are immediately impacted by the injuries and deaths of peers, friends and loved ones, the shut down of production and services, and the psychological and physical long-term effects. However, such an attack… [read more]


Management Managing Terrorism it Is Important Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
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Management

Managing Terrorism

It is important, even critical, to apply a comprehensive emergency management model to the terrorist treat because that threat is constantly increasing becoming increasingly complex, and to ensure efficient response, a comprehensive emergency management model must be in place in locations around the United States. Author Waugh notes, "While exposure to the risk of terrorist violence is increasing, the design of antiterrorism polices ahs been difficult and has tended to reflect piecemeal solutions to a few aspects of the hazard" (Waugh, 2001, p. 660). The six models of Waugh's terrorist violence that Americans have had to face can apply to just about any form of terrorism, and they have been used in the country throughout history. Because these activities are on the increase, and Americans face a continued threat from overseas-based terrorist organizations, a comprehensive emergency management model must be applied to any terrorist threat, no matter whether it is internal or external.

The lack of a cohesive model was apparent in the September…… [read more]


Management Terrorism Events and Impact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (351 words)
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Management

Terrorism Events and Impact

The impact of terrorist activities became much clearer after 9/11, and citizens began to realize that much more training and early detection of terrorist activities was necessary. The Nunn-Luger-Domenici program, created before the attacks, could not imagine the scope and deadly accuracy of the terrorists plans, or how it would throw a nation into fear. The threat of terrorism, locally, just did not seem that important, or as important as it would become. The program recognized the need for local government training and response, but did not support that training and response fiscally. Today, there is much more understanding about the nuances and threat of terrorism, and so, there is much more public support for funding any activities that can help thwart the spread of terrorism and efficiently react when terrorism occurs.

There should be more preparedness at the local government level, as these emergency responders are going to be the first on the scene of a terrorist attack. However, it is clear that terrorist activity is extremely well organized,…… [read more]


Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and Pan-Islamic Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Pan-Islamic terrorism in the Middle East and beyond.

The foundations of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict run deep and are very multi-causal, but in general the conflict is utilized as fodder for extremist teachings that can lead to terrorism. In general Israel is seen as a western power, that is contrary to Islamic values and the actions of the western powers, as well as Israel have led to an increased sense of us against them mentalities. In general the situation in Israel and the occupied territories feeds ideology through the extreme militaristic nature of the culture as well as the overt and covert oppression of what many consider the indigenous population, being the Palestinians. Each side claims some right to historical physical control of the region and the Palestinians, being the underdog express much hatred toward Western powers, and especially America for what it sees as blind support of the Israel right to settle and in some cases exploit the land and its peoples. The support of Israel, in a sense as a response to the inaction of many on the part of the Jews during WWII is in many ways seen as appropriate reparations and yet in supporting the Israeli agenda the Western powers are allowing and even advocating the suppression of the Palestinians, which for some extremists translates to an overt attack of Islam and the Islamic way of life. Though the history of the conflict in the region runs much deeper than WWII the modern actions of the Western Powers and Israel are frequently called upon by terrorists to expound on why the nations of Islam should band together and rise up against the Western states, with additional emphasis on the ideals of the historical conflicts. The conflict is then fed by these ideas and observations of conditions and situations of racism and religious and ethnic discrimination as well as general variances in the living conditions of the Palestinians as apposed to Israelis, is utilized as an overt example of the foundations of terrorism, and the need to strike down those who seek to oppress and control Islam. (Preble, 2004, p. 20)

2. Make a case for a link between Western foreign policy and the proliferation of terrorism worldwide.

Western foreign policy, is often fixated on the democratization of nations, through military as well as economic means. The idea of democratization in many non-western nations is equated with dominance, colonialism and suppression of the traditional forms of government as well as faith. The U.S. In particular has played a dominant role in attempting to openly spread its forms of both government and economy, namely capitalism which often results in extreme social and moral changes that can be seen by many as offensive and unreflective of the traditional manner in which peoples of other nations live their lives, govern their peoples and trade goods. Terrorism is directly linked to Western foreign policy as Western foreign policy is seen as an invasion of traditional ways of… [read more]


War on Terrorism Winning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
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War on Terrorism

Winning the "War on terrorism"; the Need for a Fundamentally Different Strategy" by Anthony B. Cordesman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies published September 18, 2006

Cordesman's article is a detailed analysis of the counterproductive nature of the current state of international counterterrorism. The work stresses that the current aggressive actions of the West coupled with the inaction of the Middle East create a counterproductive strategy that intensifies terrorism, rather than reducing it. The first point made by Cordesman is that the West identifies terrorism as a global situation, while in reality there are several smaller regional situations, that have little international effect and that any kind of terrorism that can be correctly labeled as global, in its effect is that that is spurned on by Islamist extremism, which he even more specifically identifies as neo-Salafi Sunni Islamist extremism. The work goes further to state that the struggle is not a military and/or secular one but one that is ideological and religious. This point moves forward to stress that any real progress in a real "war on terror" must be fought from within Islam at an ideological level. The work then moves forward to stress that the importance of this acknowledgement is fundamental to success and that there are extreme limitations to any military intervention, and that without a clear understanding of the forces of the threat there is limited action. The author states unequivocally that the West can only "score limited tactical victories, help local forces contain major terrorist movements, defend home territory and buy time." (2) Additioanlly the author stresses that the West has a bad name, as the meorires of colonialism and ties to Isreal for the West to be the leading force in winning any proverbial war. The West must limit its involvement to an involvement that helps ensure that local entities are the guiding force behind change, at a fundamental level. The author also stresses that without extreme changes in the image of the West, with regard to these and other issues there will be no headway gained in the fight. Cordesman, then focuses on the road to Israeli-Arab peace as one of the only manner in which the West can change its own image as a usurper, interloper and devastating force of destruction of ideology as well as natural resources. The author notes that the desire of Western societies to force instant "democracy" is also counterproductive, as such a system does not give historical precedence to the manner in which Islamic nations have always been governed, for the good or bad. Rapid, economic, social and demographic demands for change are also counterintuitive as they also do not take history into account and need to evolve with the evolution of political and social change. The author proposes…… [read more]


National Religious and Ideological Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,130 words)
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International Terrorism

Terrorism is the notion of inflicting violence or terror on a
population to further some kind of agenda without adhering to the rules
regulating combat by the Geneva Convention. This is because terrorists
often have specific aims, whether political, ideological, or religious in
furthering their goals for which are often excluded from the institutions
governing politics and society.… [read more]


Computer Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (562 words)
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Computer Terrorism

According to Weimann, "no single instance of real cyberterrorism has been recorded" and the threat is real but probably exaggerated. Cyberterrorism includes instances of hacking into closed systems including the computerized systems that help operate public works operations like hydroelectric dams or nuclear power facilities. Similarly, breaking into the FBI or other governmental organization's systems is classified as cyberterrorism. Cyberterrorism can also target private enterprise and may be politically, ideologically, or financially motivated.

Computer viruses also constitute acts of cyberterror because a virus can disable a critical system. Most small and large-scale infrastructure in the Western world depends on information technology and therefore cyberterror is a genuine and potentially grave concern. Weimann notes that cyberterrorism has the potential to become a valuable tool for international terrorist groups like Al Qaeda.

Angst over the threat of cyberterrorism grew during the 1990s when Internet use soared. Weimann claims that the term cyberterrorism is value-laden, evoking fears of both unfamiliar technology and of terrorist attacks. Especially since September 11, cyberterrorist has become a buzzword in the media. Counterterrorism units have focused on computer terrorism and funneled funds into fighting cyberterrorism. Weimann implies that media exaggerations of cyberterrorism may themselves be financially motivated and in fact states that combatting cyberterrorism is an "economically rewarding" industry. Weimann remains especially concerned about the consequences of media mismanagement of the counterterrorism threat.

One of the strengths of Weimann's analysis is the author's definition of terms and clarification of different types of cyberterrorism. For example, Weimann describes "hacktivism" as a politically-motivated project that can include "virtual blockades; e-mail attacks; hacking and computer break-ins; and computer viruses and worms." The "I LOVE YOU" virus that spread in 2000…… [read more]


Corporations and Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (326 words)
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Terrorism

Corporations and Terrorism

Yes, corporations can certainly be a root of terrorism. Some, such as those you noted (Gestapo, etc.) are rooted in terrorism and mayhem. Others may be roots because of their actions and lack of interest in the people and countries where they do business. For example, Nike is known for its global operations and sweatshop working conditions for global employees, and has come under fire for these practices. Because they treat these employees poorly just to reduce manufacturing costs, they can be viewed as nothing but a greedy American corporation by many terrorist organizations. In addition, they can breed terrorism in their workers because they treat them so badly. This can breed hostility and even hatred in the workers, who may eventually turn to terrorism to better themselves and "get even" with corporate America.

A also agree that evil can be a root of terrorism, and that some corporations, due to their management and lack of ethics, are certainly…… [read more]


Terrorism Defining and Justifying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
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Terrorism

Defining and Justifying Terrorism

Terrorism has been around since Biblical times. In about 167 B.C. A disenfranchised group of Jews, called the Maccabees, went up into the mountains around Jerusalem to hide, coming down as frequent intervals to terrorize the Syrians who had invaded and were occupying their land. They worked to resist the oppression of Antiocus Epiphanes, who introduced worship of idols in their temple, erecting a statue in it of the goddess Diana. Of course, the Bible does not call the Maccabees terrorists. They are seen as patriotic and heroic, since eventually they did succeed in driving out the Syrians and taking back their temple for the worship of God.

The word terrorism is a powerful word often used by politicians to unite people emotionally against a common enemy. Brock (2006) points out that before 1980 the term was not found in Reader's Guide, which instead listed acts of violence (and articles written about them) under the location where the violence took place or under the people who committed the act. Ronald Reagan first used the term in 1981 to describe the Sandinista government in Nicaragua.

Likewise, the United Nations Security Council did not use the term terrorism until 1985. From 1985 until 2004 the UN did not attempt to define terrorism either, but limited its use to specific situations. The UN labeled as "terrorist" various activities, such as hostage-taking, abduction, "use of unlawful plastic explosives, assassinations of heads of state or political leaders, attacks on civilian aircraft, bombings of embassies and civilians,...and attacks on religious sites in armed conflicts" (Saul, 2005). After the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, however, things changed. Between 2001 and 2004 anti-terrorism measures "suffered from lack of definition, but, in late 2004 the council prospectively defined terrorism as serious (sectoral) criminal violence intended to provoke a state of terror, intimidate a population, or compel a government or organization" to take a certain action (Saul, 2005).

The media and politicians almost never discuss whether terrorist acts can be justified; generally, they discuss…… [read more]


Countering the New Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,129 words)
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¶ … counter the new terrorism threat (post 9/11) and whether these strategies have been successful. It will also look at many possible long-term strategies to counter the new terrorism. Terrorism is a growing threat to world safety and security. Countering this new terrorism menace is something all nations must work on together and in harmony, otherwise the threat of… [read more]


Amounting to Crimes and Terrorism Against Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,878 words)
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¶ … amounting to crimes and terrorism against the United States occurred, causing concern among citizens, government officials and the president alike. Almost exactly three years ago, President Bush, in his State of the Union address, mentioned two separate acts against the United States and the manner in which the United States fought against those that had committed the acts.… [read more]


Defining Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30

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Terrorism

Encyclopedias and dictionaries define terrorism in the easy to understand language but in reality it is a concept that is hard to grasp. In the last two decades terrorism caused more damage to the world then anything else. Especially after 9/11 the word terrorism was being redefined. Despite differing definitions terrorism, is considered a crime in most of the… [read more]


Terrorism Is Not a New Concept Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,941 words)
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Terrorism is not a new concept or method. It has been used throughout the history of man but defining what is and what is not is a difficult proposition. Depending on one's point-of-view, it can be defined as political or military tactic or strategy, a crime, a holy duty, or a justified reaction to oppression. It contains elements of military… [read more]


People Commit Acts of Terrorism? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,494 words)
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In these nations, conservative and violent forces (some defined by Islam, others by other religions, still others by ethnicity or other attributes) see the United States as an evil power (Scheer 2002; Schemann 2001). And while the rhetoric against Western nations tends to focus on their association with the modern and either the secular or the Christian, it is difficult… [read more]


State Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,797 words)
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¶ … terrorism is "defined by some as violence upon a national population committed by national governments or their proxies." Additionally, states can "terrorize their own populations, to secure rule and suppress dissent, or foreign citizens, to support favored or destabilize unfavored foreign regimes."

As such, we may associate state terrorism with two different manifestations: internal state terrorism, where the… [read more]


Real and Potential Economic Impacts of Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (437 words)
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¶ … Terrorism is such a real and pervasive physical fear in contemporary American society that it is easy to forget its economic impact. While estimates vary, the official figure for spending stands at around $120 billion since the within America's borders and the war in Iraq began, in rapid succession. (Bernasek, 2004) but as Anna Bernasek notes in her New York Times Business Section article, "Counting the Hidden Costs of War," on terror calculating the net effect of a continuing war without a real, projected end date, is almost impossible in a simple and precise fashion. Economists must calculate what is lost as well as what is spent to fight terrorism. Although open to debate, two economists, suggested the war on terror may have already cost the United States $150 billion in lost gross domestic product. "That is close to one percentage point of growth lost over the past year and a half. If that figure is correct, the nation's annual economic growth rate, which has been 3.7% during this period, could have been nearly 4.7% without the war." The study took into account factors like higher oil prices, increased budget deficits and greater consumer uncertainty. "When analyzing the effects of uncertainty, the authors estimated the impact of the war on financial markets, business investment and consumer…… [read more]


Terrorism (4 Different Topics, 3 Pages Each) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,022 words)
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Terrorism (4 Different Topics, 3 Pages Each)

Describe the major trends in terrorism in recent years.

Fundamentalism in general has been on the rise in recent years, for example, between the mid-1960s and the mid-1990s, the number of fundamentalist movements of all religious affiliations tripled worldwide. At the same time, as observed by Bruce Hoffman, there has been a virtual… [read more]


New Factor in Terrorism Compared to the Latin American Urban Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (712 words)
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Terrorism: An Introduction and Refutation of White's Urban Model With Contemporary Islamic Paradigms

According to the author Jonathon R. White, in his text, Terrorism: An Introduction (2002), the Latin American urban philosophy of terrorist urban cells, from the community, directed against the government and the community, dominated the concept of terrorism from about 1960 until the early 1990s. This urban model was a guerrilla model of fighting, called the 'tupamaros' structure by the author, wielded against civilians in an undeclared war against highly public and publicized targets, with fairly specific objectives. This methodology was popularized by the Cuban revolutionaries, and later extended throughout the world, although it retained its popularity in Latin America up to this day. (White, 2002, pp.118 & 121)

Of course, the urban still influences many terrorist groups such as violent right-wing North American extremists, as was evidenced in the Okalahoma City offices bombing, for which the terrorist Timothy McVey was executed. But as systematically organized as such modern terrorist efforts as those wielded against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, these latest Islamic terrorist efforts were somewhat different, and reflected a different model other than the urban model.

Firstly, the World Trade Center bombing was an act of violence lacking a cohesive structure, with a specific effort. Unlike the kidnappings that dotted the war torn nation of Lebanon, for instance, during the 1980s, this act had no specific objective. It was a random act of terrorism wielded against an ideology, that of the secular West, in the name of Islamic religious fundamentalism. It was the act of an an organization spread across nations, from Saudi Arabia to Afghanistan in a way that was confusing to the West to understand or reconcile with previous community-located and objective-specific urban models. Rather than focusing attention on one event, attention was diffused throughout a variety of states of the American union, and upon both political and economic institutions.

Later, analysts 'read' this expression as the unity, in the terrorist's vision, not of a practical military objective but in a symbolic statement of hatred against the economic and political culture and dominance…… [read more]


Somalia and Global Terrorism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,112 words)
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Somalia and Global Terrorism

This will be able to give us a critical examination of state letdown and the associated

Issues of terrorism and piracy that have been plaguing the country of Somalia for nearly two decades. Keeping the focus mainly on the events that happened inside of the nation following the exiling of the Union of Islamic Courts government which occurred in 2007, three research questions are searched in the investigation 1.) What were all the issues that brought everything letdown of the state in Somalia 2.) What actions directed to the increase of piracy and also terrorism in the nation of Somalia 3.) What international exertions attached at worldwide and local levels could aid in restoring peace in Somalia, and what can be done so that a reasonable solution can be brought forth. It is imagined that the disaster in Somalia is powerfully related with the interaction of the internal operational influences of nation structure, political group and governance, and external geo-government of power.

Somalia and Global Terrorism

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

The struggle to stop the spread of terrorism has turned into one of the most important security challenges that has ever taken place in this period of history. During the last decade, various kinds of highly dangerous terrorist attacks have been going on all over the world and that includes places such as North America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The variety of locations that have been chosen for attacks by terrorist clusters has established that the struggle that is going on against terrorist attacks is not merely an American or "Western" but actually a global one that is effecting the world.

To make issues even more complicated, a lot of the terrorist organizations that are functioning all over world are planning their attacks from some of the world's most disadvantaged and poorly governed countries. This is an intense tear from the past where just tough nation states with huge conservative armies were thought to bring a rift in the world peace society. In reply to this altering reality, the urgencies in the battle that is going on against terrorism has put a great emphasis on the challenge of stopping the wonder of "failed states" whose ungoverned terrains could be utilized by terrorist groups in order so that they could plot and carry out these horrible attacks. In early December of 2009, Defense Secretary Robert Gates recognized abortive states for instance Somalia as the main danger to United States national safety. One of the initial examples of the hazard that caused stated to fail had pose to America happened in Afghanistan where those that were associated followers of Al-Qaeda were able to cash in on of the disorder in the nation and utilize the land as a preparation ground for the terrorist attack that took place on 9/11 in the United States.

In current months, terrorist administrations are basically using nations that are considered to be weak as staging ground in order to launch attacks against America. In… [read more]


Terrorism Americans' Views Term Paper

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In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.

However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to…… [read more]


War on Terrorism: Post-Modern Warfare? Term Paper

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British Television/Journalism

The topic chosen is 'Is the War on Terrorism an example of 'Post-Modern Warfare?' being one that is very relevant to today's world, it deals with the causative factor behind the 'war on terrorism' that was declared by the United States of America after the attacks on some of its main centers on September 11, 2001, executed by… [read more]


Terrorism, During Its Long Violent Term Paper

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The following books / articles shall tentatively form the bibliography of my research:

"Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction" by Charles Townshend (Book)

"Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism" by Marjorie Cohn (Journal article)

"The Holy Qu'ran" Translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (Book)

"Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" By Alan Little (Website Article)

(Detailed bibliography is provided in the "Works Cited" page at the end of this proposal.)

4. Methodology of Research

In order to get a preliminary "feel" about the general topic of terrorism, I intend to browse a few articles on terrorism in encyclopedias such as the Microsoft Encarta and the Britannica. I shall then get to the "meat" of my research by reading the books and articles on terrorism that I have listed in the preliminary bibliography in order to identify the portions that relate directly to my topic of research, i.e., the causes of terrorism -- particularly the ones behind Islamic terrorism and investigate whether any passages in the Qu'ran support terrorism or violence. By this time, hopefully, I shall be able to draw certain conclusions about the best way to tackle terrorism. Next, I would create an outline of my research paper and gradually refine it to arrive at the final version of my research paper.

5. Significance of My Project

Terrorism, without question, is one of the most serious issues facing the world today. There is, however, no consensus among governments and experts about the best way to tackle the problem. This wide difference in perceptions about terrorism has led to visible cracks in even long-held political alliances such as the one between the United States and Western European countries. These differences, can in part, be traced to the differences in the perceptions about the causes that lead to terrorist acts such as the one committed by the 9/11 hijackers. It is, therefore, important to investigate the root causes behind the increasing trend of global terrorism which I intend to do in my research. My initial impression about the available literature on the causes of terrorism is that most of it is colored by the biases of the writers. I intend to analyze a variety of views on the subject in order to arrive at an unbiased conclusion.

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Little, Allan. "Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" BBC News online. December 6, 2001. February 20, 2005.

Townshend, Charles. Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002

American intellectual, Noam Chomsky, for example, believes that terrorism is typically sponsored by governments through the organisation, funding or training of para-military groups often under the banner of counter-terrorism

The Holy Book of the Muslims

the list may be expanded at the time of writing the actual…… [read more]


International Terrorism and Homeland Security Term Paper

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International Terrorism and Homeland Security

It is a basic principle of government, even in democracies, that when a country faces great danger, it may be necessary to curb some personal liberties to ensure the safety of the country. This has especially been true during times of war. The difficulty has always been that the government may be tempted to go… [read more]


Defeating Terrorism: American Priority Term Paper

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There were 651 significant terrorist incidents in 2004, not this high since the late 1980s. However, the numbers really are not comparable because the database for the 80s included a considerable amount of incidents not defined as significant: Of the 208 incidents reported in 2003, 161, or 77% of all reported incidents -- the highest proportion in some time --… [read more]


Airline Terrorism as the Name Term Paper

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October 2001 saw the first military action initiated by the U.S. under this policy, when Afghanistan was invaded. Prior to the invasion, the Taliban had refused to hand over bin Laden without being shown evidence of his connection to the attacks. While the primary objective of capturing bin Laden failed, the invasion did succeed in uprooting the Taliban from power,… [read more]


Counterterrorism Training Program Terrorism Term Paper

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Social conditions that are likely to aid terrorists

Among the social conditions likely to aid terrorists are conditions such as those seen in Israel, where two distinct population groups claim or are attempting to 'homestead' in the same disputed land area (Almog, 2004).

Fanaticism that extends throughout much of a society is also a prime condition for terrorism to flourish.… [read more]


Terrorism Compare and Contrast a Secular Terrorists Essay

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Terrorism

Compare and contrast a secular terrorists and a religious terrorists.

Terrorists can be defined as people who use violence for the purpose of spreading fear rather than for the physical results of their actions. They do this to draw attention to things they perceive as wrongs that must be righted by society (Weisbach, 2004). Terrorists could be divided into two groups: those whose issues are religiously based and those whose issues are not based on religion. Al-qaeda is an example of a group that uses religious beliefs as the basis for their actions. The Basque terrorists of Spain would be an example of a politically-based organization.

Both groups have similarities. Both groups believe that working within the political system will not achieve their goals. They do not believe they can bring about the changes they want to see happen through such things as electing representatives to parliamentary bodies. Instead they use tactics designed to shock people into noticing their issues.

However, political terrorists rarely cross the boundaries of the political entities against which they fight. So the IRA, a group related to religious differences but not fighting based on what religion they think people should practice, commit acts of terror in Northern Ireland and England, but not in Africa or Asia. By contrast, Al-qaeda sees its religious message as important to the entire world, and believes that the actions of some other governments have a negative effect on religious practice in the areas they see as their domains. Because of this Al-qaeda objects to American troops in Saudi Arabia and sees American economic influence as an affront to their religion. So while the IRA sets off bombs in Great Britain, Al-qaeda has attacked in New York City and in Washington D.C., as well as bombing American embassies in Africa. There are no political boundaries for religious terrorists.

Using the IRA as an example, discuss ways terrorists groups finance their operations.

The Irish Republican Army, or IRA, has used a variety of ways to fund their operations. In one example December of last year, both the British and Northern Ireland governments believe that the IRA was behind a bank robbery described as "spectacular" in the media (Staff writer, 2005). In this bank robbery, thirty-eight Euros were stolen. That's nearly $50 million in American dollars (Staff writer, 2005). The British government says that the IRA made multiple attempts to launder the money using Mafia-like approaches, such as filtering the money through legitimate businesses. In the huge manhunt that followed the bank robbery, the Irish police seized over 3.5 million Euros, including the equivalent of 2.3 million pounds, all in cash, found with one businessman in Cork, Ireland, in February of this year. This arrest shows the ties to businesses for laundering purposes. The arrested man is a director for a financial company. Items such as computers have also been seized, suggesting that the IRA may be using modern technology to launder money.

In other cases, the IRA has been shown to… [read more]


How Has Terrorism Effected the World Economy in Particular the United States Term Paper

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Terrorism and Economy

How has Terrorism Effected the World Economy and United States

There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism, and although at times people agree on a definition of terrorism, they also often disagree about whether or not the definition fits a particular incident (Terrorism pp). Thus, one must assess the different views of what exactly constitutes terrorism… [read more]


Middle East, Counter-Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … Middle East, Counter-Terrorism and what the writer believes can be done in that area of the nation to promote peace. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

COUNTERTERROISM IDEAS AND THOUGHTS

Violence in the Middle East has been an issue for many years. For the most part the recent violence has been founded in the problems… [read more]


War on International Terrorism and Terrorism Inside Term Paper

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¶ … war on international terrorism and terrorism inside the U.S.A. is the main theme of mass media and political agendas. War on terrorism opens the eyes of Americans on modern geopolitical situation telling them about events in the remote and unknown parts of the world. Some 5 years ago most of Americans experienced trouble telling anything about Middle East… [read more]


Counter Terrorism Issues. The Writer Uses Three Term Paper

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¶ … counter terrorism issues. The writer uses three sources to answer questions about Mosques, agents and privacy.

The city that we live in has a large Arab population. The Arab community is comprised of both Arab-Americans and immigrants from Arab nations. As a senior counter terrorism official for the United States government it is my duty to determine the… [read more]


Protect Ourselves Against Terrorism Term Paper

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Protecting Ourselves against Terrorism major consequence of 9/11 has been that now one cannot talk rationally about terrorism and its causes. Any attempt to look for the reason why anyone would be mad enough to blow up oneself smells of sympathizing with the terrorists and people are now becoming reluctant to voice their opinions.

Prior to Sept 11 horrible crime… [read more]


Define Terrorism Essay

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Terrorism

Defining Terrorism

Environmentalists have differing views and values regarding the sale and use of sports utility vehicles (SUVs), compared to the manufacturers and owners. To the environmentalists, owners of SUVs are polluters, harming the environment for their own enjoyment and pleasure. For the SUV manufacturers there is the argument that the vehicles and by extension the companies, are fully compliant with all legislation. It may also be argued that while some environmental groups may not like SUVs, many consumers do like them, otherwise they would not sell. The SUV owners themselves cite the desire for a large comfortable vehicle that they see as a car, which is provided for by the current commercial environment (Shpritz 1). A significant problem appears to be the way in which legislation controls, or fails to control, fuel efficiency on SUV's. Even the environmentalists recognize that the problem is with the legislation; one environmental supporter, Jeff Barrow, states that the problem is the way these vehicles "fall between the cracks on the federal fuel efficiency standards" (Shpritz 1). Despite this, there have been numerous attacks on SUVs by environmentalists, setting them alight and vandalizing dealerships associated with their sale (Shpritz 1; Tamaki et al. 1). In an article outlining the events Shpritz (1) as referred to the attacks as "domestic terrorism," while Tamaki (et al. 1) refers to the attackers as vandals acting in the name of environmentalism, these are two very different terms, used to refer to similar acts. There is little doubt that the environmentalists acting in order to try and make their message heard, possibly out of frustration, and using acts of violence against property to gain attention. However, is it fair to call those who are simply fighting for their view to be heard as domestic terrorist, or is this a fair label considering the amount of damage they are causing and the potential to create fear in those who see the acts?

The problem of determining whether or not those who set fire to the SUV's and damaged the dealerships are domestic terrorists, or may be defined as activists, rebels or counter terrorists, is difficult. The first stage is to consider exactly what is meant by terrorism. There is no singular fully encompassing definition of terrorism, Schmidt and Joungman in a book entitled political terrorism, found more than 109 different definitions for the meaning of terrorism. In order to identify a consensus on the meaning of the term, they undertook a survey of the definitions to identify characteristics on which the different definitions all agreed (Schmidt and Joungman 5). 83.5% all included the requirement for there to be violence or force, 65% required there to be a political element, 51% included the need for the act to focus on fear and place an emphasis on creating terror, 47% cited the need for it to create a threat, and 41.5% included consideration of the psychological effects and anticipated reactions that would be associated with acts of terrorism (Schmidt and Joungman… [read more]


Does Distinguishing Domestic Terrorism From International Terrorism Help or Hinder Homeland Security Intelligence Efforts? A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (654 words)
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Domestic and International Terrorism

Domestic Terrorism vs. International Terrorism: Benefits and Disadvantages to Homeland Security

The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Centre reshaped the concept of terrorism in the global community. Although, international terrorist organizations and other fundamental Jihadi groups already posed a grave threat to the United States' security, prior to the incidents. These attacks started a new debate about the international terrorism and its implications on the internal security of the United States. Previously, terrorism was classified in to two broader categories by the Federal Bureau of Intelligence. The first category was of domestic terrorism, which referred to any terrorist activity that is committed within United States without the aid of any foreign terrorists. The second category was of international terrorists who are determined to organize events like 9/11 from outside United States. (Brannan 2002)

Today is the age of Globalization where the state boundaries have virtually been eliminated. Due to advance communication systems, ease in the international travel, and interdependence of international economies, a terrorist act is much easier to commit and its effects on the international economies can be far reaching than expected. As a result to the incidents like John Walker Lindh, the line of distinction between domestic and international terrorism has faded away. A movement surging in one country can give rise to another movement in another part of the world, without getting linked together. (Brannan 2002)

The distinction between these two categories of terrorism at this stage is supposed to adversely affect, the counterterrorism role of the Department of Homeland Security. There is a strong possibility that if the distinction between the two is given importance, most of the law enforcement officers and personnel may stereotype terrorism according to their individual perspectives. There is a chance, that a potential terrorist threat is not considered dangerous due to racial or religious preferences. Terrorism cannot be associated with a certain group of people with specific demographic resemblance. Any act, which…… [read more]


Tilted "Terrorism and the Shape of Things A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … tilted "Terrorism and the Shape of Things to Come. Terrorism and Political Violence." (Weinberg & EUBank, 1999), and the research paper titled "Forecasting Terrorism: Indicators and Proven Analytic Techniques" (Khalsa, 2004). Weinberg at al (1999) investigates the factors leading to political terrorism. The authors evaluate the Huntington's hypothesis on the emergence of political terrorism and compare whether the violence activities of terrorists are more inter-civilizational than the Cold war conflict. On the other hand, Khalsa, (2004) uses forecasting methodology to identify 68 indicators of terrorisms and employ the proven analytical technique to arrive at good analysis.

Methodology Adopted

Weinberg at al (1999) use the quantitative method to collect data from several sources and the data are collected on several terrorists event between 1968 and 1990. To enhance the quality of the data collected, the authors collected data from the ITERATE II and ITERATE III data sets. Moreover, the author collected data from Department of Justice on pattern of global terrorisms.

Khalsa, (2004) in his own case uses the qualitative method for data collection. In his methodological approach, the authors believe that both structured technique and the intuition could be used for the systematic process in investigating the phenomenon.

Assumption

Weinberg at al (1999) research focuses on what the terrorists cause and collects data to investigate the international terrorism events. The authors assume that the terrorists are not to formulate violence in the international political arena; however, the terrorism is a form of important international political trends. Khalsa, (2004) in his own case presents assumption that "a systematic process is the most effective way to facilitate good analysis and doing something systematically is better than prediction method" (P 1). To validate his assumption, the author carries out the investigation in phases and in systematic methods.

Benefits

Weinberg at al (1999) employ quantitative method in the methodological approach and the author derive several benefits from the methodology adopted. First the authors were able to form the large database from the data collected because 5278 data were collected and data were coded for data transformation in order to enhance statistical data analysis. Moreover, the methodology adopted assists in presenting the information in tabular and graphical forms which enhance the visual presentation of the data collected. For example, Weinberg at al (1999) presented the terrorist events between 1968 and 1997 in the tabular form and the data collected have been used to compare terrorist acts before the cold war and after the cold war. The table also presents the variables in ratios. The method assists in communicating the results efficiently to readers under severe time-shortage, with information overloaded.

Other benefit from the methodology used is that it allows the authors to manipulate data in a constructive way thereby be able to compare data, combining figures as well as examining the…… [read more]


Terrorism What Is the Role of Intelligence A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (1,006 words)
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Terrorism

What is the Role of Intelligence in Fostering and Maintaining a Contextual Understanding of the Threats Inherent within the Terrorism Environment?

The role of intelligence is crucial in fostering and maintaining an understanding of the threats inherent within the terrorism environment. Intelligence allows nations to arrive at an understanding of the threats that exist and which strategies should be implemented in order to strengthen national defense. Perhaps the overriding quality of intelligence is balance; nations utilize intelligence in order to balance many factors, including costs vs. benefits, severity of a given threat, and long-term strategy vs. short-term gains. Each of these conflicts plays a vital component in strong national security, and intelligence does not result from the actions of a lone governing individual but instead necessitates input from a plurality of voices.

Intelligence has become especially difficult to implement successfully in the modern-day global climate. In particular, the effects of globalization have been immense, and it is particularly difficult to arrive at an understanding of exactly who the enemy is at any point in time.

Accordingly, intelligence must recognize that the identification of the enemy cannot be tied down to an isolated nation. Moreover, the intelligence effort requires the participation of everyone, as terrorist attacks can be inflicted anyone at any time. One of the legacies of the September 11, 2001 is that they effectively transformed the way in which intelligence is framed and terrorist threats are viewed. No longer are terrorist threats attributed to an entire nation, and it is now common knowledge that terrorist attacks are administered by isolated individuals rather than vast systems of authority.

Successful intelligence necessarily involves the assumption that one cannot zone in too heavily on one particular area of national defense.

Furthermore, it is impossible to comprehensively control every aspect of national defense, and there is no way of completely eliminating the possibility of a terrorist attack. For this reason, effective intelligence must be structured around limiting the risk for a terrorist attack rather than chasing the impossible goal of wiping out any and all threats. One of the prevailing fallacies with regard to national defense is that a nation must choose between stopping all threats (but in an erratic fashion) and stopping a proportion of threats (but in a comprehensive manner); ultimately, the most effective approach involves some medium between the two methodologies.

An appropriate, integrated approach involves rendering the consequences of a terrorist attack less severe while also making sure to allocate funds toward eliminating terrorist attacks altogether. Because every policy implemented by national security occurs at some cost (financial or otherwise), intelligence must arrive at a nuanced medium of large and small-scale initiatives. This balance is difficult to achieve in light of the fact that the Department of Homeland Security is charged with the responsibility of targeting areas as diverse as infrastructure, industries, and resources, while also remaining cognizant of the fact that there are no constraints on the extent of terrorist violence.

Not only does intelligence play a… [read more]


Terrorism in Seattle Case Study

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On December 29, 1999, Seattle Mayor Paul Schell with the concurrence of the City Council decided to cancel the Millennium Celebration, even though it had been planned for over 24 months. The ostensible reason was a potential terrorist attack, based on the December 14th arrest of an Algerian man, Ahmed Ressam, who was arrested in Port Angeles with enough explosives… [read more]


Terrorism Is an Act Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (985 words)
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In matters of global challenges, the 2012 assessment revealed that India established active cooperation with Afghanistan and supports the U.S. initiatives in the country as opposed to a year before when it merely looked into the idea. The potential difficulty posed by China as an international actor in 2011 was reassessed a year later when it was acknowledged that Beijing is also an important regional factor and a powerful influence over China altogether.

Problems in the Middle East and Africa with local economy and development were further addressed in the 2012 assessment with Clapper mentioning that international help is required for many countries within the region and that ?violence, corruption, and terrorism are likely to plague Africa in areas key to U.S. interests.

Therefore, what determined new assessments was that, while many of the countries will further depend on international help, consequently the U.S., the latter is also likely to be affected, though not on a similar level with actual countries in the region. Moving closer to Europe, assumptions were made in regards to Russia which was expected to lessen its cooperative relationship with U.S. due to Putin being reelected in May 2012. Moreover, when addressing the issue of cyber attacks in 2012, Clapper stated that both Russia and China were considered primary actors, which further puts Russia into spotlight. In Latin America, the drug cartels in Mexico continued to pose challenges to the government, but Clapper assessed no advance in interfering seriously outside the U.S. border.

In matters of intelligence threats, the 2012 assessment seems to have given somewhat extended attention to transnational organized crime, although it remains at the bottom of the list. Whereas in 2011, economy was addressed within a larger context, it was given intrinsic attention in the following assessment because of continuing struggles such as unemployment and credit tightening. Furthermore, if originally ?the impact of water and other resource scarcity on state stability?

needed in depth attention, in 2012 it was concluded that there will be problems with water which will contribute to regional instability in the next 10 years.

It would appear as though the most significant insight provided to terrorist escalation from the 2011 assessment to the year 2012 is within the cyber attacks area.

James R. Clapper, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment of threats presented to the House Permanent Select Committee, February 10, 2012), p. 8.

Idem, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment of threats presented to the House Permanent Select Committee, February 10, 2011), p. 3.

James R. Clapper, op. cit., p. 6.

James R. Clapper, ibid., p. 18.

Idem,, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment…… [read more]


2003 Annual Report Global Terrorism Case Study

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The integration of all information and reports of terrorism can provided a vivid picture of perceived terror threats. The analytical and statistical tools should be developed to counter the terrorism threats. The complete integration of all intelligence information provides an opportunity for essential defense mechanism.The rigorous review of the databases, information systems, procedures, interagency process, methodology, criteria, and definitions used… [read more]


Terror Targets Terrorism A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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She claimed that terrorist leaders are much like cult leaders and possess great amounts of charisma which allows for militants to be conditioned into performing violent or suicidal acts. Napoleoni realized however, that combating these 'cults' are more difficult than it seems because of the ever-changing platform of the battlefield. She regretfully mentioned " that whatever I say today about this will be different in six months."

Another key point in the terrorist battlefield deals with the idea of disinformation. If terrorist organizations are indeed powerful and competent groups, then surely wrong information is intentionally leaked to confuse and bewilder their enemies. Libicki et al. (2007) report seems to be a disinformation campaign aligned to confuse. This article portrays Al Qaeda as a terrorist organization that prefers to maliciously kill innocents for political reasons. I find this argument difficult to swallow due to the West's current reliance on al Qaeda to perform destabilizing missions for their governments.

Much money and effort has been spent to combat this idea of terrorism. The question remains however: How successful have these efforts been? It does seem wise and prudent to treat these organizations as ideologically motivated groups with definite goals and targets in mind. As long as terrorist threats are still abound, there still remains a serious problem. Counter-terrorism groups should focus on peaceful resolutions to this problem as this seems to be the next logical step. The rest of the world looks to the West for ideas on problem solving, and as long as violent measures are taken to eradicate terrorism, we should expect violence to continue.

Works Cited

Carpenter, Shanna. "Q&A with Loretta Napoleoni: The ever-changing face of terrorism." Ted, December 14, 2009, http://blog.ted.com/2009/12/14/qa_with_loretta / (accessed January 31, 2013).

Drake, C.J.M. "The Role of Ideology in Terrorists' Target Selection." 10 (1998): 53-85.

Libicki, Martin, Peter Chalk and Melanie Sisson. "Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences." Rand Corporation…… [read more]


Terrorism the Schwartz, Dunkel Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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2. Of the types of identity that Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009) discuss, the most important to the exploitation of weaknesses in terrorist organizations is a social identity variable. Specifically, the authors find that "the belief hat there either is an ongoing or imminent threat to the survival of the ingroup or to the political rights of its members, or a history of persecution at the hands of the outgroup," (p. 546). Interestingly, this very same variable can be applied to Israel and not to Hamas, given that Israel's national security policy is built on the belief of ongoing threat to the country's survival. A closer analysis of Israel from the other side of the lens would show, however, that Israelis do not develop the other conditions (such as personal identity factors) that would qualify as terrorism.

Moreover, the belief in persistent threat is the one variable that is "necessary" to terrorism. This is what makes this the most important variable and one that must be considered when analyzing responses to terrorism or developing counterterrorism programs. To prevent terrorism, the conditions for tis existence must be eliminated. One of those conditions is real or imaginary threats. At the same time, this one variable is complex and woven in with other variables including personal identity variables. Disenfranchisement, a sense of alienation, and religious absolutism all converge to create a portrait of possible terrorists. When terrorism is placed within a complex framework like that outlined by Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009), it becomes easier to develop sensible and meaningful long-term solutions other than the continued use of brute force.

References

Ruff, K.D., Sandole, D.J.D. & Vasili, E. (n.d.) Identity and apocalyptic terrorism. Retrieved online: http://scar.gmu.edu/sept11/Identity%26Apocolypic_Terrorism.pdf

Schwartz, S.J., Dunkel, C.S. & Waterman, A.S. (2009). Terrorism: An identity theory perspective. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:537 -- 559, 2009… [read more]


Terrorism Memo to the Department Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,040 words)
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The U.S. currently uses the resources of the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), which is located in Brussels and serves as a "hub for international funds transfers" (Elsea, CRS-1). What was the authority for the Treasury Department to access banking information from SWIFT? The authors of this report reference the Executive Order #13224, "Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism," signed by President George W. Bush on September 23, 2001, just days after the terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and on the World Trade Center (Elsea, CRS-2). President Bush had the power to issue that Executive Order under the "International Emergency Economic Powers Ace (IEEPA)," which is the statute 50 U.S. Code § 1701-1706 (Elsea, CRS-2).

Other federal laws that have application to tracking terrorist finances include: a) The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to establish regulations that have "a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations"; b) Title III of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (permits forfeiture of accounts held in a foreign bank -- providing the bank has an "interbank account" with a U.S. bank -- and authorizes the Treasury Secretary to "require domestic financial institutions" to take "special measures" like forbidding transactions outside the U.S. -- from "special regions" like the Middle East); c) The Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Convention Implementation Act (makes it a crime to conceal fundraising efforts or to collect funds that support terrorist activities); and d) The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (cross-border transmittals are regulated) (Elsea, CRS-4 & 5).

What works well? How can local law enforcement interact with the federal government to control terrorist financing? The current federal laws outlined in this paper have been effective, and also the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has listed "publicly identified" jurisdictions that have been "uncooperative" in terms of identifying money flowing to and from terrorists' organizations. They are Bolivia, Cuba, Iran, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Ecuador, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Turkey, Vietnam, among other nations (FinCen, 2012). Meanwhile, local law enforcement agencies (and first responders) have in recent years become closely linked in partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The sharing of information and intelligence between agencies, and the information that law enforcement agencies receive from DHS is vital in order to protect the safety of citizens. Indeed the DHS has "made progress in improving the domestic capabilities to direct and prevent terrorist attacks against America's people" (Homeland Security).

Works Cited

Breinholt, Jeff. (2003). Terrorist Financing. United States Attorney's Bulletin. 51(4).

Retrieved November 13, 2012, from U.S. Department of Justice.

Elsea, Jennifer K. And Murphy, Maureen M. (2006). Treasury's Terrorist Finance Program's

Access to Information Held by the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial

Telecommunication (SWIFT). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22469.pdf.

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). Advisory. Retrieved November 13, 2012,

from http://www.fincen.gov.

Homeland Security. (2011). Law Enforcement…… [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

For the person heading up the relief effort, the key to this negotiation event is to be calm, low-key, and recognize that the warlord needs to get something in return for letting the trucks through. Simply giving the supplies over to the terrorists would be a big mistake, but some compromise must be approached.

Preemption: George W. Bush, while he was president, used preemption, which the Brookings Institution suggests was not a good idea. "A broad-based doctrine of preemption carries serious risks," the Brookings Institution asserts. In fact elevating the preemptive approach to a "policy doctrine" can bring "negative consequences" because it opens up the image that the U.S. "…is too quick to use military force and to do so outside the bounds of international law and legitimacy" (Brookings, 2002). In the case of the Bush preemptive doctrine, it basically suggested to the world that force could be used (in response to suspected terrorist activities anywhere in the world) "…without evidence of an imminent attack" (Brookings). The United States should not make preemptive statements to the world such as "You're either for us or against us," with the subtle suggestion that the U.S. could attack any group anywhere in the world if there appears to be justification in the minds of U.S. military and political leaders.

Retaliation: It is a commonly accepted policy that when a nation is attacked, it is justified when it retaliates. The classic case is Afghanistan, which was controlled by the Taliban when Osama bin Laden was allowed to train his terrorists in that country. The U.S. pounded Taliban strongholds from the air and drove the Taliban (temporarily) out of the country. Unfortunately, the U.S. then became bogged down in another long unwinnable war and this must be avoided in the future.

Works Cited

Brookings Institution. (2002). The New National Security Strategy and Preemption. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www.brookings.edu.

Fenwick, Helen. (2008). Proactive counter-terrorist strategies in conflict with human rights.

International Review of Law Computers & Technology,…… [read more]


Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

The responsibility for such transgressions in war lies on the shoulders of organizers, masterminds and collaborators who participate in the preparation or implementation of a general plan or plot to commit any of the mentioned crimes "are criminally responsible for everything done by anyone in carrying out such a plan" ("War Crimes," 2012).

Despite of the fact that war crimes are given significant importance, it is unfortunate that the accountability for war crimes has not done much to stop atrocities.

References

Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and

Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime

McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason

War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from…… [read more]


U.S. Approach to Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Even with President Barack Obama's desire to reduce troop strength in Afghanistan, there is little indication that the war against terrorism is ending.

Fewer troops do not mean the war is over. Now that Osama bin Laden is dead, who is the enemy in this war? Who does the United States hunt and where does it find them? According to… [read more]


Terrorism Research Issues Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Resolving field issues in this situation is essential to achieving a purposeful inquiry as researchers are increasingly being asked to research populations with special characteristics, in this case those close to the epicenter of a terrorist attack. The reality is that most of this research must be done on a fresh scale as most institutional lists and/or databases limit information to retain anonymity and protect participants. Therefore as Rothbart, Fine, & Sudman stress, "As research becomes more pointed, more informed by what has gone before, and more oriented toward practical implications, general population surveys often prove inadequate…field-drawn samples have become increasingly essential to successful surveys." (1982, p. 409) Some examples of field issues might be the express impact of; yield, location problems, coverage bias, the effect of inclusion rule, cost savings, and ethnicity or many other possible field issues. Field issues and other issue might get even more difficult to address after much time has passed, for example it may have been relatively easy to locate identify and sample indirectly involved in the September 11 attacks but might now be much more difficult, do to transitory issues, relocation or simply individuals seeking not to readdress such issues therapeutically or otherwise and redress how they are and were affected by them presently. For instance Ford, Adams, & Dailey utilized research conducted very early on to present post-9/11 survey data on the outcomes of problems that were time sampled for three months after the events, rather than newly generated data to record and publish on sample that was not presented until 2007.

The recording of information and storing of information would require the protection of subjects by means of the standards set up by a human subjects committee which would also require secure storage of information and the possible resurgence of anonymity through security as well as data storage of information coded with participant data that might be identifying. Though site storage of information is rarely an issue discusses in research works the stipulations, being assumed to be following the utmost of care according to the protections leveled by the standards of the human subjects committee utilized to approve the project they are exceedingly important, especially if data is collected that might be accessed later to do novel research on similar topics or simply for the purpose of retaining the security of individual's personal information.

References

Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215

Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737… [read more]


Terrorism Final Examination Questions Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,815 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Question 3

Why do some terrorist groups use suicide bombing as a strategy? Please include at least three reasons in your answer.

Terrorist groups use suicide bombing as a strategy is because suicide bombs are dramatic public displays of violence often taking place in sensitive areas. Consider suicide bombings in Israel, Palestine, and other areas in what is referred to… [read more]


Terrorism and the Low Numbers Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  10 pages (2,629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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The claim of antiquity within this system arises from the legal allowance for the mistreatment and subjugation of women. In the realm of Human Rights in the 21st Century, Islamic Law is certainly exploitive and reminiscent of another era. In countries that have adopted Islamic Law, women are not allowed to drive cars, vote, initiate a divorce, or show their… [read more]


Global Terrorism Strangling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (876 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Strategy:

The U.S. Intelligence community has formulated some strategies to stem the flow of money into terrorist cells. Many of these strategies for domestic terrorism come from the PATRIOT Act and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The PATRIOT Act advances electronic surveillance authority for law enforcement, permits the government to detain suspected terrorists, monitors domestic financial transactions, and expands the monitoring of foreign students. (Combs, 2006, p. 249). The PATRIOT Act is unique in that it allows for these measures to be conducted within the U.S., by law enforcement officials. CIA operatives have been using these tools for decades in foreign lands, but U.S. citizens have always been protected from surveillance by the CIA. These tools give law enforcement everything they need to conduct effective policing and overarching security to the nation from domestic terrorist threats.

To address the particular problem of international financial flows, the tactics of pointing out organizations to foreign governments has worked well. Since 9/11, the U.S. has successfully stopped terror financing with the help of such countries as Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and other European nations, as well as organizations like the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force. (Vardi, N. 2010). This strategy has limited al-Qaeda's funds from what they were in the 1990s, and the entire structure of the organization has changed as a result. Al-Qaeda was once a very top-down organization, but as financing for this is expensive, the core of al-Qaeda has given more autonomy to its various cells. This autonomy usually comes with instructions on what targets to hit, but with no available source of financing for the cell. This weakening core is not necessarily a sign of al-Qaeda becoming weaker, but more likely that it is simply adapting to the conditions on the battle field. It only takes a small amount of explosives in a particularly sensitive location for al-Qaeda to achieve maximum effectiveness in its terror campaign.

Recommendations:

The United States should renew the PATRIOT Act and all other international tactics in order to address the problem of finances moving internationally between terror cells. A renewal of the PATRIOT Act is unpopular with such organizations as the ACLU who advocate for personal liberties, however it is the most effective tool for strangling terrorists inside of the United States. Our other initiatives with such organizations as Interpol should also remain, as cooperation between states encourages a worldwide crackdown on terrorism.

Combs, C. (2006). Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Vardi, N. (2010). Forbes. Is Al-Qaeda Bankrupt?. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2010/0301/terrorism-funds-finance-osama-al-qaeda-bankrupt.html.… [read more]


Technology Changed Security and Terrorism? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

It would also help in preventing identity theft which is possible under the current system of personal identification using traditional passports that can be easily forged by terrorists. Having a biometric database would also enable quick identification of terrorists and other people with a criminal history. [John Woodward, pg 3]

Terahertz Imaging

Terahertz imaging is the latest in imaging technologies… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism the Al-Qaeda Group Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Across the country in many airports faulty metal detectors are letting hundreds through security unchecked. There are also many baggage screeners that are ill trained or not interested in their job and thousands of bags are not screened properly or not screened at all. Many of the screeners are outdated anyway, they can a 2D figure and the screeners are… [read more]


Islam and Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

d.). The politicization of scholars, experts and media commentators in the post 9/11 period has created a minefield for policymakers and the general public as they search for answers to questions like: "What are the causes of radicalism and anti-Americanism?," "Why do they hate us?," "What do Muslim women think about their status in Islam?" "Is Islam compatible with democracy?,"… [read more]


Fort Hood Shooting on November Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

When this plea was denied, defense attorneys acting for Hasan entered a plea of "not guilty." In October of 2012, Hasan sent letters to the Fox News television channel wherein he declared that he was renouncing his oaths of allegiance to the United States and renouncing his American citizenship because the laws of this country do not agree with the… [read more]


War on Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In World War II we had a ready-made figure in Hitler. Stephen (2001) makes the point that we still tend to pick individuals on which to focus our anger: "a couple of decades ago, the man every American loved to hate was Colonel Gaddafi; ten years later, it was Saddam Hussein; now Osama Bin Laden is the devil incarnate about… [read more]


War on Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,448 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The actions and policies of the INS are strikingly draconian. Immigrants and visitors crossing the border into the United States are and will continue to be harangued unnecessarily because Ashcroft gives carte blanche to immigration officials. This reeks of Big Brother or the creation of an American "police state."

Ashcroft unabashedly supports restricting civil liberties in the name of anti-terrorism,… [read more]


Terrorism and Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

(Quoted by Hoffmann) This was followed by another resolution that called for international crackdown on financing for terrorism and greater exchange information between countries to fight terrorism. All of this proves that international co-operation and perhaps an International Committee on Prevention of Terrorism under the auspices of the UN would prove more effective in combating terrorism than say, the U.S. attack on Iraq.

Conclusion

Terrorism, as we have seen in this paper, undermines democracy in more than one way. Its effect on democracy becomes more pronounced when democratic countries such as the United States react by curtailing such cherished democratic traditions such as civil rights, liberties, freedom of expression, and the free flow of information in their own societies. It is also clear that terrorism can be more effectively countered through international co-operation rather than by solitary efforts by countries such as the U.S.

Works Cited

Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA

Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97

Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Prados, John. "Democracy 0, Terrorism 1: The Bush Administration's Secrecy Policies." The American Prospect. November 6, 2001. April 6, 2003. http://www.prospect.org/webfeatures/2001/11/prados-j-11-06.html

Democracy… [read more]


Media on Terrorism Acts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Even more adults were tuning into the media coverage surrounding this incident.

Many adult studies revealed further information regarding the effect of media on terrorism, including the following studies (Hamblem, 2002):

Two hundred thirty-seven Israeli adults were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to television clips of terrorism and political violence; the other group was exposed to news… [read more]


Terrorism Seems to Have Taken Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

We will see what the proportion of violence is and what is the proportion of faith and religious values that Muslim["s" should be deleted"] societies consider in an attempt to create a different model of being.

From an occidental point-of-view, a new paradigm seems to have turned out in international relations. The new enemies are not a state, not a… [read more]


Bio-terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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THE FUTURE

While the nation continues to ready itself for a possible bio-terrorist attack in the present, it is also preparing for how to handle the possibility in the future (Smolkin, 2003). Future plans are more about proactive actions than reactive actions (Neil, 2003). One of the things that is being done is the education of the public about the possibility of attacks on crops. The world is aware that crippling the ability to grow crops would place a serious financial and human burden on the nation's residents as well as the American government. Therefore, any concerns about future bio-terrorist attacks must include the possibility of crop attacks and steps being taken to prevent that from happening.

Biological weapons programs around the world have focused on developing wheat stem rust, Madden said. Other diseases that could be used in crop bio-terrorism are soybean rust and rice blast." The focus is currently on determining what the most serious risks are to the states.

Many states have taken measures to prepare for the future when it comes to the threat of bio-terrorist attacks (All, 2003). Ohio has implemented a homeland security program that has a multi-stepped approach to the future. "The state has spent $32 million in federal money to update its communications, laboratory and emergency systems so that it can respond efficiently and effectively should smallpox, anthrax or any other disease be used as a weapon of mass destruction. By August 2004, the federal government will make another $16 million available for Ohio (All, 2003)."

The state, which is representative of many states in its actions regarding bio-terrorism has taken several steps to prepare. Some of the things that have been done are:

Identified sites for mass vaccination and distribution of antibiotics and developed a smallpox vaccination plan for public health and response teams. The state has immunized 1,759 health care workers for smallpox so far.

Established contracts with local partners in seven regions to create regional bio-terrorism plans, and developed regional response plans among hospitals to include rural and Appalachian Ohio;

Increased the number of epidemiologists or people trained to investigate diseases;

Upgraded software and communications lines for the state's disease reporting system;

Renovated lab space to handle samples of agents identified as being used for bio-terrorism (All, 2003). "

CONCLUSION

Bio-terrorism has always been a concern, but the events of 9-11 brought it to the forefront of the nation. The possibility of being attacked through the use of bio-terrorist agents is no longer considered a science fiction impossibility, and is instead a future probability according to experts. The nation has spent the past three years stepping up the pace in preparation and agencies are working together to know how to handle any attack that may come. With the cooperation of all states, and the federal government, any group that decides to use bio-terrorism to attack America may be surprised and the response.

References

Closer to home: Long relegated to the margins, foreign news has experienced a modest resurgence since… [read more]


Terrorism Is a Major Threat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This has effectively deterred the country from harboring those terrorists, and has enticed them to fully cooperate with the United States (NCT, 5)

In addition, the allied forces have used military force within Afghanistan, attacking key elements within terrorist networks within the country. By eliminating certain areas within the network, the military is effectively deterring terrorism by showing dire consequences for any association with a terrorist group. However, since the groups are relatively small, and difficult to find, other deterrents are also needed (Pillar, 11).

The recent attempt to capture Osama Bin Laden within Afghanistan and other countries, and the attempts to capture his allies, uses the deterrent of the intelligence networks. Using international law enforcement and intelligence, terrorists are deterred from traveling internationally in an attempt to gain access to countries they are attempting to attack (Pillar, 12).

The United States has a vast arsenal of anti-terrorism techniques in use. By using those components together, it is possible to produce a cohesive deterrent that is far more effective than the use of a single component alone. If not used in conjunction with one another, but instead used as separate entities, they can actually work against one another. The use of military force can, for example, interfere with the gathering intelligence, effectively negating the use of each component (Pillar, 13).

To effectively deter terrorism, the United States, and its allies, should always attempt the most effective means that causes the least amount of damage to all countries involved. Economic sanctions, social sanctions, and diplomacy must be attempted first, in an attempt to protect the lives of those within the country, and those at home. Policies must be in place to allow the fair, yet firm enforcement of all deterrent methods in use, and to coordinate those efforts in the most effective way. It is only through organized, uniform deployment of all deterrent methods possible that terrorism can truly be restricted and prevented.

References

Encarta. "Sanctions." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

Friedman, Benjamin. "Mini-Nukes, Bunker Busters, and Deterrence: Framing the Debate." Center for Defense Information: Terrorism. 26 Apr 2002. Center for Defense Information. 21 Apr 2004. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/mininukes-pr.cfm

Glasstone, Samuel. "Nuclear Weapons." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

Keller, Bill. "Missile Defense Is Not About Defense - It's About Offense." New York Times. 31 Dec 2003: C6.

LaFeber, Walter. "Cold War." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

National Commission on Terrorism (NCT). Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism: Report of the National Commission on Terrorism. Oklahoma City, OK: National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism,…… [read more]


Narco-Terrorism Narco Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

From a national security, intelligence, and law enforcement perspective, it is increasingly important to recognize and exploit the nexus between terrorist organizations and drug trafficking activities. (Perl, R.)

In conclusion, it should be stated that the new sense and definition of terrorism views Narco-terrorism as a unique symbiosis of illegal drug trafficking and the actions of terrorists. Narcotics can be used to destabilize and reduce the regulatory structures in a society which can be just as destructive as any other weapon in the terrorist's arsenal.

Bibliography

A" Level Sociology Deviance and Social Control. October 27, 2004. http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en

Flynn, Stephen. "Worldwide Drug Scourge: The Response." Brookings Review Spring 1993: 36+. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Marshall, Donnie. "Narco-terrorism: the new discovery of an old connection." Cornell International Law Journal, December 22, 2002.

Narco-Terrorism: definition) Defense Technical Information centre. Accessed October 31, 2004. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/data/n/03495.html

O'Meara, Kelly Patricia. "Dirty Dollars." Insight on the News 15 May 2000: 10. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

PERL R. "NARCO-TERRORISM: ": Congressional Testimony, May 20, 2003.

Scarborough R. Osama bin Laden a 'Narco-terrorist'. Washington Post, January 22, 2004. Accessed October 30, 2004. http://opioids.com/afghanistan/osama.html

Social Facts and Suicide. University of Regina. 1999. Accessed October 29, 2004. http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/o26f99.htm

SUICIDAL TERRORISM. NCWC.2004. Accessed October 31, 2004. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/429/429lect11.htm… [read more]


Global Terrorism Is a Systematic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

To achieve its goals, the group uses series of force, which include bombing, and hijacking of planes.

"AI Qaeda seeks to destroy the U.S. For what they feel is oppressive foreign policy. They are also against Israel. AI Qaeda has been linked to various terrorist attacks in the world including the 2001 attack against the World Trade Center in New York.." (Jack, Bailey, & Matt, 2012, p. 238).

The group has also been linked to hotel attack in Yemen in 1992 as well as bombing of strategic places In Saudi Arabia between 1995 and 1996."AI Qaeda has declared a holy war, or "Jihad, against the U.S. AI Qaeda is also heavily involved in terrorist activity at present in Iraq." (Jack, Bailey, & Matt, 2012, p. 238).

Conclusion

Terrorisms have probably existed for thousand of years; however, the concept terrorism has only evolved a couple of hundreds years ago. The research aims is to explore a global terrorism as the main aim of inflicting destruction. Fundamental aim of global terrorism is to expand political ideology to non-supporters. Meanwhile, terrorists use act of force such as bombing, suicide bombing and plane hijacking to achieve their goals. However, advanced development of telecommunication has enhanced rapid development of global terrorism. Typically, past terrorist acts are different from the present day terrorist activities. In the past, states were the main actors that sponsored terrorism; however, the present day terrorism involved non-states actors and the United States seems to be the main target of global terrorism. Although national and global efforts have been implemented to stop global terrorism, however, global terrorism is likely to increase in the future if collective global action is not implemented.

The study recommends that international global efforts should be implemented to curb the global terrorism. Presently, the United States is the only country in the forefront that wages war against global terrorism. The United Nation should sign a protocol signed by all member states to mandate all member states to assist United Nation to arrest any suspected terrorist group member operating in any corner of the globe. The strategy will assist in reducing global terrorism around the world.

Reference

Alex, S. (2004). Terrorism Definition Problem. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law36.2/3: 375-3419.

Blocher, D. (2011). Terrorism as an international crime: the definitional problem.(Report). Eyes on the International Criminal Court, Reading Level (Lexile):1790.

EBSCO, (2014). About EBSCO. EBSCO Industries, Inc.USA.

Jack, N.K. Bailey, D. & Matt, S. (2012).Global Terrorism: Past Present & Future,

Journal of American Business Review, Cambridge: 1(1): 237-243.

Kushner, H.W. (2003). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Thousand…… [read more]


Why Do People Become Terrorists? Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

References

DeAngelis, T. (2009). Understanding terrorism. APA. 40 (10): 60. Retrieved from:

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/11/terrorism.aspx

Moscoe, A. (2013). Why do people join terrorist groups? Graduate School of Public and International

Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/5585121/Why_Do_People_Join_Terrorist_Groups

M3A1: Memorandum 1 on the Bojinka Plot

Sample memorandum

To: Department of Homeland Security

Re: Bojinka Plot

Prior to the attacks of 9/11, the so-called 'Bojinka Plot' was… [read more]


Terrorism, Destabilization, and the Modern Global Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

There is also increased fears of the use of nuclear and biological weapons through which terrorists can launch violent attacks (The diplomacy of counterterrorism, 2002, USIP:4).

Conclusion

In response to many of these problems, the drive has been towards consolidation -- consolidating domestic efforts within the United States to enhance information-sharing between law enforcement agencies and also to improve efforts between states to engage in mutually beneficial monitoring of the geopolitical situation to reduce terrorism. Certain aspects of the new, globalized world will be difficult to contain, however, including the diffusion of communication as well as enhanced capabilities to launder money for illicit, terrorist purposes. There are no quick fixes for addressing the problem of terrorism given the growing pervasiveness and diffusion of the problem: "the most effective measures are those that are developed in the context of a multifaceted policy, with political, legal, social, diplomatic, economic, and military elements" (The diplomacy of counterterrorism, 2002, USIP: 8).

References

Garrett, B. & Adams, J. (2004). U.S.-China cooperation on the problem of failing states and transnational threats. United States Institute for Peace, 126: 1-16

Denning, D. (2001). "Activism, hacktivism, and cyberterrorism." Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime, and militancy. Rand, 239-288

The…… [read more]


Al Qaeda and Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,185 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

While that, technically, is an assumption, it is based on the proper level of knowledge of the organization and its movements, instead of being based only on some ideas of what could be the case (White, 2014).

When homeland security takes strong knowledge and uses it to draw conclusions, they are more likely to have success as opposed to what may happen when they simply make a guess. When Jihadist attacks happen, it is important for homeland security to take the time to mitigate the immediate damage, but after that it must also focus on making sure that another attack does not happen. That means the focus needs to address how the current attack was able to take place, and what went wrong that allowed Al Qaeda or any other Jihadist network to get through the country's defenses and cause terror and damage (White, 2014). Until that weak point is determined and adjusted to avoid future risk of attacks, the country will remain vulnerable. That can be a serious concern, since it can take time to discover what went wrong and put plans into place that will protect the country's people and stop future attacks from occurring. That is not the end of the issue, though, because a Jihadist network that no longer has a particular avenue will simply look for another one.

Often, these networks are able to find other avenues, as well. It may take some time, but that does not mean that it cannot be accomplished -- and Jihadist networks are always looking for ways in which that can be accomplished. Past ways of infiltration are generally tried, but if they are unsuccessful then other options have to be considered. The difficulty with that is that the Jihadist network cannot know if the intelligence it is receiving is completely accurate. The homeland security personnel have the same difficulties. They get information about Al Qaeda or another network, but they can only rely on that information to a certain degree. They may not be able to completely rely on what they are being told, and how much trust they can put into the information they are being given must factor into what they decide is acceptable when it comes to their level of risk and speculation (White, 2014). The more they feel they can trust the source of the information, the more they can use that information to draw conclusions about what the Jihadist network may do next.

It becomes a cat and mouse game, and does not allow for reasoning and discussion. That would be the ideal way to work out differences, but it is not something a Jihadist network is willing to allow. It is not interested in discussion, because it does not believe that the people it is targeting have any value. There is a deep hatred there, and one that no level of discussion can correct. Because of that hatred, homeland security knows that it must not plan to address the issues that the… [read more]


Local Police and Terrorism Response Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

This is so because of the political class and public exert a rather clear cut directive in these matters. When, however the scope of work expands into concerns of national threat (terrorism and other intrusive activities) beyond local issues, the local police could be found wanting in their capabilities as the training regarding missing political acumen would largely be felt.… [read more]


Terrorism and Civil Liberties Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

In some cases, many citizens have shown the readiness to surrender some of the freedoms in order to obtain improved security in light of increase in terrorism.

This trend towards considerable diminution of freedoms for Americans in the name of the fight against terrorism cannot be justified. This is mainly because civil liberties are the constitutional principles through which the country was founded. Civil liberties act as the necessary foundation for the creation of responsible, independent citizens in the country (Mitrano, 2003). Therefore, there is no justification for lessening these freedoms in attempts to improve homeland security. In addition, the government can develop effective ways for dealing with terrorism without necessarily resulting in lessening of civil liberties for Americans.

References

Mitrano, T. (2003, January 1). Civil Privacy and National Security Legislation: A Three-

Dimensional View. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(6). Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/civil-privacy-and-national-security-legislation-three-dimensional-view

Whitehead, J.W. & Aden, S.H. (2002). Forfeiting 'Enduring Freedom' for 'Homeland Security':

A Constitutional Analysis of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and the Justice Department's Anti-Terrorism Initiatives. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/CAofUSAPA.html… [read more]


Terrorism Preparedness Since September 11 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

The perceived problem is that the NRP does not full address the problem associated with the hurricane problems. Moreover, there is a lack of effective operation plan with response to the NRP.

Essentially, the CIA (Catastrophic Incident Annex) is the overarching strategy to accelerate and coordinate proactive response to catastrophic incident. Essentially, the CIA-NRP is intended to address short-notice or no-notice incidents with respect to catastrophes. However, integrating non-federal stakeholders in the NRP is other issues that make policy maker think that NRP is not appropriate for the Katrina emergence. For example, the state government, local government, non-profits organizations and private sectors have been poorly integrated to address the national emergency policy that NRP could have implemented.

One of weakness of CIA-NRF is that many states lack effective strategies to address the catastrophes associated with hurricane. For example, the Louisiana was affected by the hurricane in 2008, killing 26 people and leaving million of homes without power. In the same years, the hurricane hit Texas leading to the deaths of 30 people and millions of homes lost power.

One of the strategies that could be employed to address the weakness is for the federal government to disburse funds to implement a comprehensive training for staff at the state level to support CIA-NRF to address the problem of hurricane at the state level. Moreover, the government should also conduct a specific -- task oriented training for the non-state stakeholders that want to participate in the CIA-NRF.

III: NIMS "(National Incident Management System)"

NIMS "(National Incident Management System)" was formed in 2004 as a framework to organize response to emergency at a national scale. The NIMS uses the principle, doctrine, and organizational process to provide efficient, collaborative and effective incident management. The primary objective of NIMS is to use a framework policy to organize an incident response at national scale. Essentially, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) is one the key players in coordinating with NIMS to organize the incident management in effective and efficient manner. The primary portfolio of DHS is to coordinate the proper execution for the incident response. (Department of Homeland Security, 2012).

Despite effective method the NIMS used in preparing for the emergence, however, the organization possesses an evident bias toward terrorism. Moreover, the key players of the organization do not give much attention to prevention activities. (Stenner, Kirk, Stanton, 2006). Essentially, terrorism is one of the major incidents facing the United States presently because of the global terrorism. Failure of the key players to include terrorism in the incident planning serves as the weakness of the organization.

Reference

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). 9-11 Commission Report. USA.

Stenner, R.D. Kirk, J.L. Stanton, J.R. (2006).National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report. U.S. Department of Energy.

Department…… [read more]


Terrorism Be Justified Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Self-Defense Argument for Terrorism

The self-defense argument for terrorism has been supported by Wilkins and implies that terrorist acts can be used when these are directed towards the oppressing forces, not as tools to intimidate the population or against other terrorists. As a further development of this argument, economic sabotage is probably a good example of self-defense terrorism. Still perceived as terrorist acts, these are nevertheless acts that are directed towards the economic power of the oppressing forces rather than towards individuals or human populations.

Wilkins supports the argument according to which the Jews during the Second World War (but also the other occupied populations during the war) were entitled to use terrorist acts as a mean to fight the repression of the Germans. The problem with the self-defense argument is that all terrorist groups can interpret facts to imply that all their actions are in self-defense. The terrorist organizations like Hamas and Hezbollah have used this argument asserting that Israel unlawfully occupies land, but this can obviously not be accepted as a proper argument: international law recognizes Israel's rights, as do most of the countries around the world .

Collective Guilt

Collective guilt implies that all individuals in a community bear the responsibility of a certain act. The Second World War again comes in handy as a good example. In this case, the German people can be held accountable and marked with collective guilt because it had tacitly approved the acts against the Jews, as well as the general development in society of Nazi ideas (one needs to remember that Hitler was voted into power by the people).

The idea of collective guilt is when the wrong being done is so monstrous that the only means of fighting it is by using terrorism and self-defense. This is closely related to what has been discussed in the previous subchapter related to self-defense terrorism.

Conclusions

Terrorism has generally been judged as an unethical act, mainly because its impact and toll on human life is so great. Nevertheless, philosophical argumentation can be used to pass reasonable arguments of situations when terrorism can be used as a last remaining instrument in fighting oppression or repression. Utilitarian value can be found in the case of…… [read more]


Al Qaeda in the Looming Tower Al Qaeda and the Road to 9-11 Book Review

Book Review  |  10 pages (3,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Looming Tower: A Book Review

The attacks which occurred on September 11th 2001 were immediately received by the United States as an act of war. Indeed, when commercial airliners slammed into the two towers comprising the World Trade Center, into the Pentagon and into a field in Pennsylvania, there could be little doubt that the United States had been victimized… [read more]

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