Study "Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays 56-110

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Terrorism in Seattle Case Study

… On December 29, 1999, Seattle Mayor Paul Schell with the concurrence of the City Council decided to cancel the Millennium Celebration, even though it had been planned for over 24 months. The ostensible reason was a potential terrorist attack, based… [read more]


Terrorism What Is the Role of Intelligence A-Level Coursework

… Terrorism

What is the Role of Intelligence in Fostering and Maintaining a Contextual Understanding of the Threats Inherent within the Terrorism Environment?

The role of intelligence is crucial in fostering and maintaining an understanding of the threats inherent within the terrorism environment. Intelligence allows nations to arrive at an understanding of the threats that exist and which strategies should be implemented in order to strengthen national defense. Perhaps the overriding quality of intelligence is balance; nations utilize intelligence in order to balance many factors, including costs vs. benefits, severity of a given threat, and long-term strategy vs. short-term gains. Each of these conflicts plays a vital component in strong national security, and intelligence does not result from the actions of a lone governing individual but instead necessitates input from a plurality of voices.

Intelligence has become especially difficult to implement successfully in the modern-day global climate. In particular, the effects of globalization have been immense, and it is particularly difficult to arrive at an understanding of exactly who the enemy is at any point in time.

Accordingly, intelligence must recognize that the identification of the enemy cannot be tied down to an isolated nation. Moreover, the intelligence effort requires the participation of everyone, as terrorist attacks can be inflicted anyone at any time. One of the legacies of the September 11, 2001 is that they effectively transformed the way in which intelligence is framed and terrorist threats are viewed. No longer are terrorist threats attributed to an entire nation, and it is now common knowledge that terrorist attacks are administered by isolated individuals rather than vast systems of authority.

Successful intelligence necessarily involves the assumption that one cannot zone in too heavily on one particular area of national defense.

Furthermore, it is impossible to comprehensively control every aspect of national defense, and there is no way of completely eliminating the possibility of a terrorist attack. For this reason, effective intelligence must be structured around limiting the risk for a terrorist attack rather than chasing the impossible goal of wiping out any and all threats. One of the prevailing fallacies with regard to national defense is that a nation must choose between stopping all threats (but in an erratic fashion) and stopping a proportion of threats (but in a comprehensive manner); ultimately, the most effective approach involves some medium between the two methodologies.

An appropriate, integrated approach involves rendering the consequences of a terrorist attack less severe while also making sure to allocate funds toward eliminating terrorist attacks altogether. Because every policy implemented by national security occurs at some cost (financial or otherwise), intelligence must arrive at a nuanced medium of large and small-scale initiatives. This balance is difficult to achieve in light of the fact that the Department of Homeland Security is charged with the responsibility of targeting areas as diverse as infrastructure, industries, and resources, while also remaining cognizant of the fact that there are no constraints on the extent of terrorist violence.

Not only does intelligence play a… [read more]


Tilted "Terrorism and the Shape of Things A-Level Coursework

… ¶ … tilted "Terrorism and the Shape of Things to Come. Terrorism and Political Violence." (Weinberg & EUBank, 1999), and the research paper titled "Forecasting Terrorism: Indicators and Proven Analytic Techniques" (Khalsa, 2004). Weinberg at al (1999) investigates the factors leading to political terrorism. The authors evaluate the Huntington's hypothesis on the emergence of political terrorism and compare whether the violence activities of terrorists are more inter-civilizational than the Cold war conflict. On the other hand, Khalsa, (2004) uses forecasting methodology to identify 68 indicators of terrorisms and employ the proven analytical technique to arrive at good analysis.

Methodology Adopted

Weinberg at al (1999) use the quantitative method to collect data from several sources and the data are collected on several terrorists event between 1968 and 1990. To enhance the quality of the data collected, the authors collected data from the ITERATE II and ITERATE III data sets. Moreover, the author collected data from Department of Justice on pattern of global terrorisms.

Khalsa, (2004) in his own case uses the qualitative method for data collection. In his methodological approach, the authors believe that both structured technique and the intuition could be used for the systematic process in investigating the phenomenon.

Assumption

Weinberg at al (1999) research focuses on what the terrorists cause and collects data to investigate the international terrorism events. The authors assume that the terrorists are not to formulate violence in the international political arena; however, the terrorism is a form of important international political trends. Khalsa, (2004) in his own case presents assumption that "a systematic process is the most effective way to facilitate good analysis and doing something systematically is better than prediction method" (P 1). To validate his assumption, the author carries out the investigation in phases and in systematic methods.

Benefits

Weinberg at al (1999) employ quantitative method in the methodological approach and the author derive several benefits from the methodology adopted. First the authors were able to form the large database from the data collected because 5278 data were collected and data were coded for data transformation in order to enhance statistical data analysis. Moreover, the methodology adopted assists in presenting the information in tabular and graphical forms which enhance the visual presentation of the data collected. For example, Weinberg at al (1999) presented the terrorist events between 1968 and 1997 in the tabular form and the data collected have been used to compare terrorist acts before the cold war and after the cold war. The table also presents the variables in ratios. The method assists in communicating the results efficiently to readers under severe time-shortage, with information overloaded.

Other benefit from the methodology used is that it allows the authors to manipulate data in a constructive way thereby be able to compare data, combining figures as well as examining the…… [read more]


Terror Targets Terrorism A-Level Coursework

… She claimed that terrorist leaders are much like cult leaders and possess great amounts of charisma which allows for militants to be conditioned into performing violent or suicidal acts. Napoleoni realized however, that combating these 'cults' are more difficult than it seems because of the ever-changing platform of the battlefield. She regretfully mentioned " that whatever I say today about this will be different in six months."

Another key point in the terrorist battlefield deals with the idea of disinformation. If terrorist organizations are indeed powerful and competent groups, then surely wrong information is intentionally leaked to confuse and bewilder their enemies. Libicki et al. (2007) report seems to be a disinformation campaign aligned to confuse. This article portrays Al Qaeda as a terrorist organization that prefers to maliciously kill innocents for political reasons. I find this argument difficult to swallow due to the West's current reliance on al Qaeda to perform destabilizing missions for their governments.

Much money and effort has been spent to combat this idea of terrorism. The question remains however: How successful have these efforts been? It does seem wise and prudent to treat these organizations as ideologically motivated groups with definite goals and targets in mind. As long as terrorist threats are still abound, there still remains a serious problem. Counter-terrorism groups should focus on peaceful resolutions to this problem as this seems to be the next logical step. The rest of the world looks to the West for ideas on problem solving, and as long as violent measures are taken to eradicate terrorism, we should expect violence to continue.

Works Cited

Carpenter, Shanna. "Q&A with Loretta Napoleoni: The ever-changing face of terrorism." Ted, December 14, 2009, http://blog.ted.com/2009/12/14/qa_with_loretta / (accessed January 31, 2013).

Drake, C.J.M. "The Role of Ideology in Terrorists' Target Selection." 10 (1998): 53-85.

Libicki, Martin, Peter Chalk and Melanie Sisson. "Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences." Rand Corporation…… [read more]


Does Distinguishing Domestic Terrorism From International Terrorism Help or Hinder Homeland Security Intelligence Efforts? A-Level Coursework

… Domestic and International Terrorism

Domestic Terrorism vs. International Terrorism: Benefits and Disadvantages to Homeland Security

The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Centre reshaped the concept of terrorism in the global community. Although, international terrorist organizations and other fundamental Jihadi groups already posed a grave threat to the United States' security, prior to the incidents. These attacks started a new debate about the international terrorism and its implications on the internal security of the United States. Previously, terrorism was classified in to two broader categories by the Federal Bureau of Intelligence. The first category was of domestic terrorism, which referred to any terrorist activity that is committed within United States without the aid of any foreign terrorists. The second category was of international terrorists who are determined to organize events like 9/11 from outside United States. (Brannan 2002)

Today is the age of Globalization where the state boundaries have virtually been eliminated. Due to advance communication systems, ease in the international travel, and interdependence of international economies, a terrorist act is much easier to commit and its effects on the international economies can be far reaching than expected. As a result to the incidents like John Walker Lindh, the line of distinction between domestic and international terrorism has faded away. A movement surging in one country can give rise to another movement in another part of the world, without getting linked together. (Brannan 2002)

The distinction between these two categories of terrorism at this stage is supposed to adversely affect, the counterterrorism role of the Department of Homeland Security. There is a strong possibility that if the distinction between the two is given importance, most of the law enforcement officers and personnel may stereotype terrorism according to their individual perspectives. There is a chance, that a potential terrorist threat is not considered dangerous due to racial or religious preferences. Terrorism cannot be associated with a certain group of people with specific demographic resemblance. Any act, which…… [read more]


Define Terrorism Essay

… Terrorism

Defining Terrorism

Environmentalists have differing views and values regarding the sale and use of sports utility vehicles (SUVs), compared to the manufacturers and owners. To the environmentalists, owners of SUVs are polluters, harming the environment for their own enjoyment and pleasure. For the SUV manufacturers there is the argument that the vehicles and by extension the companies, are fully compliant with all legislation. It may also be argued that while some environmental groups may not like SUVs, many consumers do like them, otherwise they would not sell. The SUV owners themselves cite the desire for a large comfortable vehicle that they see as a car, which is provided for by the current commercial environment (Shpritz 1). A significant problem appears to be the way in which legislation controls, or fails to control, fuel efficiency on SUV's. Even the environmentalists recognize that the problem is with the legislation; one environmental supporter, Jeff Barrow, states that the problem is the way these vehicles "fall between the cracks on the federal fuel efficiency standards" (Shpritz 1). Despite this, there have been numerous attacks on SUVs by environmentalists, setting them alight and vandalizing dealerships associated with their sale (Shpritz 1; Tamaki et al. 1). In an article outlining the events Shpritz (1) as referred to the attacks as "domestic terrorism," while Tamaki (et al. 1) refers to the attackers as vandals acting in the name of environmentalism, these are two very different terms, used to refer to similar acts. There is little doubt that the environmentalists acting in order to try and make their message heard, possibly out of frustration, and using acts of violence against property to gain attention. However, is it fair to call those who are simply fighting for their view to be heard as domestic terrorist, or is this a fair label considering the amount of damage they are causing and the potential to create fear in those who see the acts?

The problem of determining whether or not those who set fire to the SUV's and damaged the dealerships are domestic terrorists, or may be defined as activists, rebels or counter terrorists, is difficult. The first stage is to consider exactly what is meant by terrorism. There is no singular fully encompassing definition of terrorism, Schmidt and Joungman in a book entitled political terrorism, found more than 109 different definitions for the meaning of terrorism. In order to identify a consensus on the meaning of the term, they undertook a survey of the definitions to identify characteristics on which the different definitions all agreed (Schmidt and Joungman 5). 83.5% all included the requirement for there to be violence or force, 65% required there to be a political element, 51% included the need for the act to focus on fear and place an emphasis on creating terror, 47% cited the need for it to create a threat, and 41.5% included consideration of the psychological effects and anticipated reactions that would be associated with acts of terrorism (Schmidt and Joungman… [read more]


Terrorism the Schwartz, Dunkel Essay

… 2. Of the types of identity that Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009) discuss, the most important to the exploitation of weaknesses in terrorist organizations is a social identity variable. Specifically, the authors find that "the belief hat there either is an ongoing or imminent threat to the survival of the ingroup or to the political rights of its members, or a history of persecution at the hands of the outgroup," (p. 546). Interestingly, this very same variable can be applied to Israel and not to Hamas, given that Israel's national security policy is built on the belief of ongoing threat to the country's survival. A closer analysis of Israel from the other side of the lens would show, however, that Israelis do not develop the other conditions (such as personal identity factors) that would qualify as terrorism.

Moreover, the belief in persistent threat is the one variable that is "necessary" to terrorism. This is what makes this the most important variable and one that must be considered when analyzing responses to terrorism or developing counterterrorism programs. To prevent terrorism, the conditions for tis existence must be eliminated. One of those conditions is real or imaginary threats. At the same time, this one variable is complex and woven in with other variables including personal identity variables. Disenfranchisement, a sense of alienation, and religious absolutism all converge to create a portrait of possible terrorists. When terrorism is placed within a complex framework like that outlined by Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009), it becomes easier to develop sensible and meaningful long-term solutions other than the continued use of brute force.

References

Ruff, K.D., Sandole, D.J.D. & Vasili, E. (n.d.) Identity and apocalyptic terrorism. Retrieved online: http://scar.gmu.edu/sept11/Identity%26Apocolypic_Terrorism.pdf

Schwartz, S.J., Dunkel, C.S. & Waterman, A.S. (2009). Terrorism: An identity theory perspective. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:537 -- 559, 2009… [read more]


Terrorism Memo to the Department Term Paper

… The U.S. currently uses the resources of the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), which is located in Brussels and serves as a "hub for international funds transfers" (Elsea, CRS-1). What was the authority for the Treasury Department to access banking information from SWIFT? The authors of this report reference the Executive Order #13224, "Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism," signed by President George W. Bush on September 23, 2001, just days after the terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and on the World Trade Center (Elsea, CRS-2). President Bush had the power to issue that Executive Order under the "International Emergency Economic Powers Ace (IEEPA)," which is the statute 50 U.S. Code § 1701-1706 (Elsea, CRS-2).

Other federal laws that have application to tracking terrorist finances include: a) The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to establish regulations that have "a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations"; b) Title III of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (permits forfeiture of accounts held in a foreign bank -- providing the bank has an "interbank account" with a U.S. bank -- and authorizes the Treasury Secretary to "require domestic financial institutions" to take "special measures" like forbidding transactions outside the U.S. -- from "special regions" like the Middle East); c) The Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Convention Implementation Act (makes it a crime to conceal fundraising efforts or to collect funds that support terrorist activities); and d) The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (cross-border transmittals are regulated) (Elsea, CRS-4 & 5).

What works well? How can local law enforcement interact with the federal government to control terrorist financing? The current federal laws outlined in this paper have been effective, and also the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has listed "publicly identified" jurisdictions that have been "uncooperative" in terms of identifying money flowing to and from terrorists' organizations. They are Bolivia, Cuba, Iran, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Ecuador, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Turkey, Vietnam, among other nations (FinCen, 2012). Meanwhile, local law enforcement agencies (and first responders) have in recent years become closely linked in partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The sharing of information and intelligence between agencies, and the information that law enforcement agencies receive from DHS is vital in order to protect the safety of citizens. Indeed the DHS has "made progress in improving the domestic capabilities to direct and prevent terrorist attacks against America's people" (Homeland Security).

Works Cited

Breinholt, Jeff. (2003). Terrorist Financing. United States Attorney's Bulletin. 51(4).

Retrieved November 13, 2012, from U.S. Department of Justice.

Elsea, Jennifer K. And Murphy, Maureen M. (2006). Treasury's Terrorist Finance Program's

Access to Information Held by the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial

Telecommunication (SWIFT). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22469.pdf.

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). Advisory. Retrieved November 13, 2012,

from http://www.fincen.gov.

Homeland Security. (2011). Law Enforcement…… [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

… For the person heading up the relief effort, the key to this negotiation event is to be calm, low-key, and recognize that the warlord needs to get something in return for letting the trucks through. Simply giving the supplies over to the terrorists would be a big mistake, but some compromise must be approached.

Preemption: George W. Bush, while he was president, used preemption, which the Brookings Institution suggests was not a good idea. "A broad-based doctrine of preemption carries serious risks," the Brookings Institution asserts. In fact elevating the preemptive approach to a "policy doctrine" can bring "negative consequences" because it opens up the image that the U.S. "…is too quick to use military force and to do so outside the bounds of international law and legitimacy" (Brookings, 2002). In the case of the Bush preemptive doctrine, it basically suggested to the world that force could be used (in response to suspected terrorist activities anywhere in the world) "…without evidence of an imminent attack" (Brookings). The United States should not make preemptive statements to the world such as "You're either for us or against us," with the subtle suggestion that the U.S. could attack any group anywhere in the world if there appears to be justification in the minds of U.S. military and political leaders.

Retaliation: It is a commonly accepted policy that when a nation is attacked, it is justified when it retaliates. The classic case is Afghanistan, which was controlled by the Taliban when Osama bin Laden was allowed to train his terrorists in that country. The U.S. pounded Taliban strongholds from the air and drove the Taliban (temporarily) out of the country. Unfortunately, the U.S. then became bogged down in another long unwinnable war and this must be avoided in the future.

Works Cited

Brookings Institution. (2002). The New National Security Strategy and Preemption. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www.brookings.edu.

Fenwick, Helen. (2008). Proactive counter-terrorist strategies in conflict with human rights.

International Review of Law Computers & Technology,…… [read more]


Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes Term Paper

… The responsibility for such transgressions in war lies on the shoulders of organizers, masterminds and collaborators who participate in the preparation or implementation of a general plan or plot to commit any of the mentioned crimes "are criminally responsible for everything done by anyone in carrying out such a plan" ("War Crimes," 2012).

Despite of the fact that war crimes are given significant importance, it is unfortunate that the accountability for war crimes has not done much to stop atrocities.

References

Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and

Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime

McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason

War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from…… [read more]


Somalia and Global Terrorism Research Proposal

… Somalia and Global Terrorism

This will be able to give us a critical examination of state letdown and the associated

Issues of terrorism and piracy that have been plaguing the country of Somalia for nearly two decades. Keeping the focus mainly on the events that happened inside of the nation following the exiling of the Union of Islamic Courts government which occurred in 2007, three research questions are searched in the investigation 1.) What were all the issues that brought everything letdown of the state in Somalia 2.) What actions directed to the increase of piracy and also terrorism in the nation of Somalia 3.) What international exertions attached at worldwide and local levels could aid in restoring peace in Somalia, and what can be done so that a reasonable solution can be brought forth. It is imagined that the disaster in Somalia is powerfully related with the interaction of the internal operational influences of nation structure, political group and governance, and external geo-government of power.

Somalia and Global Terrorism

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

The struggle to stop the spread of terrorism has turned into one of the most important security challenges that has ever taken place in this period of history. During the last decade, various kinds of highly dangerous terrorist attacks have been going on all over the world and that includes places such as North America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The variety of locations that have been chosen for attacks by terrorist clusters has established that the struggle that is going on against terrorist attacks is not merely an American or "Western" but actually a global one that is effecting the world.

To make issues even more complicated, a lot of the terrorist organizations that are functioning all over world are planning their attacks from some of the world's most disadvantaged and poorly governed countries. This is an intense tear from the past where just tough nation states with huge conservative armies were thought to bring a rift in the world peace society. In reply to this altering reality, the urgencies in the battle that is going on against terrorism has put a great emphasis on the challenge of stopping the wonder of "failed states" whose ungoverned terrains could be utilized by terrorist groups in order so that they could plot and carry out these horrible attacks. In early December of 2009, Defense Secretary Robert Gates recognized abortive states for instance Somalia as the main danger to United States national safety. One of the initial examples of the hazard that caused stated to fail had pose to America happened in Afghanistan where those that were associated followers of Al-Qaeda were able to cash in on of the disorder in the nation and utilize the land as a preparation ground for the terrorist attack that took place on 9/11 in the United States.

In current months, terrorist administrations are basically using nations that are considered to be weak as staging ground in order to launch attacks against America. In… [read more]


U.S. Approach to Terrorism Term Paper

… Even with President Barack Obama's desire to reduce troop strength in Afghanistan, there is little indication that the war against terrorism is ending.

Fewer troops do not mean the war is over. Now that Osama bin Laden is dead, who… [read more]


Terrorism Research Issues Research Proposal

… Resolving field issues in this situation is essential to achieving a purposeful inquiry as researchers are increasingly being asked to research populations with special characteristics, in this case those close to the epicenter of a terrorist attack. The reality is that most of this research must be done on a fresh scale as most institutional lists and/or databases limit information to retain anonymity and protect participants. Therefore as Rothbart, Fine, & Sudman stress, "As research becomes more pointed, more informed by what has gone before, and more oriented toward practical implications, general population surveys often prove inadequate…field-drawn samples have become increasingly essential to successful surveys." (1982, p. 409) Some examples of field issues might be the express impact of; yield, location problems, coverage bias, the effect of inclusion rule, cost savings, and ethnicity or many other possible field issues. Field issues and other issue might get even more difficult to address after much time has passed, for example it may have been relatively easy to locate identify and sample indirectly involved in the September 11 attacks but might now be much more difficult, do to transitory issues, relocation or simply individuals seeking not to readdress such issues therapeutically or otherwise and redress how they are and were affected by them presently. For instance Ford, Adams, & Dailey utilized research conducted very early on to present post-9/11 survey data on the outcomes of problems that were time sampled for three months after the events, rather than newly generated data to record and publish on sample that was not presented until 2007.

The recording of information and storing of information would require the protection of subjects by means of the standards set up by a human subjects committee which would also require secure storage of information and the possible resurgence of anonymity through security as well as data storage of information coded with participant data that might be identifying. Though site storage of information is rarely an issue discusses in research works the stipulations, being assumed to be following the utmost of care according to the protections leveled by the standards of the human subjects committee utilized to approve the project they are exceedingly important, especially if data is collected that might be accessed later to do novel research on similar topics or simply for the purpose of retaining the security of individual's personal information.

References

Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215

Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737… [read more]


Terrorism Final Examination Questions Essay

… Question 3

Why do some terrorist groups use suicide bombing as a strategy? Please include at least three reasons in your answer.

Terrorist groups use suicide bombing as a strategy is because suicide bombs are dramatic public displays of violence… [read more]


Terrorism Is Not a New Concept Case Study

… Terrorism is not a new concept or method. It has been used throughout the history of man but defining what is and what is not is a difficult proposition. Depending on one's point-of-view, it can be defined as political or… [read more]


Terrorism and the Low Numbers Introduction

… The claim of antiquity within this system arises from the legal allowance for the mistreatment and subjugation of women. In the realm of Human Rights in the 21st Century, Islamic Law is certainly exploitive and reminiscent of another era. In… [read more]


Terrorism Concepts Essay

… Terrorism Concepts

no answer available; no author "Dr. Hanle" could be found, either

Mao's first stage of revolutionary mobilization is the organization and consolidation of base areas, preserving certain enclaves (usually in areas that were hard for outsiders to reach, isolated and/or with rough surrounding terrain). Then, single-mission attacks meant to terrorize as well as obtain resources would be carried out to allow for progressive expansion. Finally, the enemy would be engaged in all-out warfare and destroyed.

During consolidation, terrorism is necessary in order to obtain political support, and to dissuade local citizens that might not side with the revolutionaries from becoming involved on the wrong side. Before enough power is obtained by the revolutionaries, terrorism is also the only real means of making attacks that have a real psychological effect on morale.

4)

Terrorism is meant to shatter the cohesion between the government and the populace as well as the social cohesion of the populace, but the political cohesion of the populace is a target not for disintegration, but rather for strengthening following realignment towards the revolutionaries.

5)

Aerial bombardment is impersonal and directly tactical. Terrorist assassinations are symbolic, stirring passions as well as creating tactical advantages. They also deliberately undermine the power structures and roles that exist in the political structure, rather than becoming a new expected part of that structure as can aerial bombardments.

6)

The humanitarian efforts practiced by Marines made them targets both for suspicion by the Viet Cong and provided a camouflage for the possibility of terrorist attacks, such as through the hiding of explosives that would target these humanitarian-minded Marines.

7)

Terrorism binds the cohesion of the terrorist organization by providing symbolic evidence of progress as well as real actions that can be easily observed and used as recruiting tools. As public displays, they are things that all members of an organization can share in the credit for.

8)

Wars fought by terrorists are wars of ideals, at least ostensibly, though often the guerilla warfare that they pursue is in reality more concerned with generating profits and the amassing of resources and arms for protection of the terrorist organization's leaders more than they are about the principles and injustices spoken of to the press and foreign governments.

9)

Mao asserted that political mobilization was the most fundamental condition for winning wars.

10)

Mao believed that the military force was also necessarily a political unit during revolutionary war, and that it could not be kept separate from the masses due to this political connection. The military was the force that could truly give revolutionary power, or at least the appearance of true revolutionary power, into the hands of the people, and in this manner served as a rallying point and a force of collective action and collective accomplishment.

Class 6

1)

One of the principle differences between state sponsored terrorism during the Cold War and now is that while many terrorist groups were understood to be proxies for state militaries then, now the terrorist… [read more]


Global Terrorism Strangling Term Paper

… Strategy:

The U.S. Intelligence community has formulated some strategies to stem the flow of money into terrorist cells. Many of these strategies for domestic terrorism come from the PATRIOT Act and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The PATRIOT Act advances electronic surveillance authority for law enforcement, permits the government to detain suspected terrorists, monitors domestic financial transactions, and expands the monitoring of foreign students. (Combs, 2006, p. 249). The PATRIOT Act is unique in that it allows for these measures to be conducted within the U.S., by law enforcement officials. CIA operatives have been using these tools for decades in foreign lands, but U.S. citizens have always been protected from surveillance by the CIA. These tools give law enforcement everything they need to conduct effective policing and overarching security to the nation from domestic terrorist threats.

To address the particular problem of international financial flows, the tactics of pointing out organizations to foreign governments has worked well. Since 9/11, the U.S. has successfully stopped terror financing with the help of such countries as Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and other European nations, as well as organizations like the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force. (Vardi, N. 2010). This strategy has limited al-Qaeda's funds from what they were in the 1990s, and the entire structure of the organization has changed as a result. Al-Qaeda was once a very top-down organization, but as financing for this is expensive, the core of al-Qaeda has given more autonomy to its various cells. This autonomy usually comes with instructions on what targets to hit, but with no available source of financing for the cell. This weakening core is not necessarily a sign of al-Qaeda becoming weaker, but more likely that it is simply adapting to the conditions on the battle field. It only takes a small amount of explosives in a particularly sensitive location for al-Qaeda to achieve maximum effectiveness in its terror campaign.

Recommendations:

The United States should renew the PATRIOT Act and all other international tactics in order to address the problem of finances moving internationally between terror cells. A renewal of the PATRIOT Act is unpopular with such organizations as the ACLU who advocate for personal liberties, however it is the most effective tool for strangling terrorists inside of the United States. Our other initiatives with such organizations as Interpol should also remain, as cooperation between states encourages a worldwide crackdown on terrorism.

Combs, C. (2006). Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Vardi, N. (2010). Forbes. Is Al-Qaeda Bankrupt?. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2010/0301/terrorism-funds-finance-osama-al-qaeda-bankrupt.html.… [read more]


Lone Extremist Terrorist Research Paper

… Terrorism -- the Lone Extremist Threat

What influence does the group with which the "Lone Extremist" is affiliated, or has been in the past, have on the individual actor?

Traditionally, lone extremists either operated largely in isolation and seclusion, but to the extent they were influenced by extremist groups, they typically maintained direct connections to those groups. For example, Tim McVeigh maintained loose connections with domestic radicals but operated in isolation with only a single accomplice (Schmalleger, 2009). Meanwhile, Buford Furrow Jr. who attacked a Jewish community center with an automatic assault rifle in 1999 was a member of the Aryan Nation. On one hand, he acted alone in his attack; on the other hand, there is absolutely no doubt that his association with the group encouraged and intensified his anti-Semitism and emboldened him with respect to carrying out the attack (Schmalleger, 2009). Perhaps the best example of a genuinely lone terrorist was Ted Kaczynski, the infamous Unabomber who perpetrated attacks on individuals and organizations over the course of two decades. E worked entirely alone and lived in complete isolation without any contact with others until he demanded that his Manifesto be published in the New York Times and the Washington Post (Schmalleger, 2009).

Today, the availability of the Internet medium means that lone extremists can operate in even greater isolation an anonymity until they strike because they can maintain a more remote connection as well as preserving their anonymity in the process if they choose to do so (Schmalleger, 2009). The cyber medium is likely to play an increasingly important role in that regard, particularly in connection with radical Islamic extremism and anti-American terrorism (Dyer, McCoy, Rodriguez, et al., 2007).

Is he or she persuaded by the group or by a particular individual in the group?

Generally, the profile of the lone terrorist…… [read more]


Technology Changed Security and Terrorism? Term Paper

… It would also help in preventing identity theft which is possible under the current system of personal identification using traditional passports that can be easily forged by terrorists. Having a biometric database would also enable quick identification of terrorists and… [read more]


Homeland Defense Homeland Security Is the Actual Course Research Paper

… Homeland Defense

Terrorism

Domestic counter terrorism

Domestic counter terrorism refers to any efforts by United States law enforcement and government agencies to detect, prevent, or cope with real or threatened act of terrorism against Americans or the American government. As a result of the United States' failure to prevent the 9/11 attacks, domestic efforts have increased dramatically and the government has created the Department of Homeland Security and National Counterterrorism Center; agencies that can devote 100% of their time to detection and prevention efforts (Treverton, 2008).

Border and transportation security

The successful implementation of border and transportation security is complex and challenging. From arresting terrorists before they reach the U.S. border to exercising emergency response procedures on the site of a terrorist attack, the defense of American borders and transportation systems requires many levels of complicated service. For example, cargo shipped to the United States from overseas will go through multiple people, organizations, check points and conveyances, and require "up to 40" separate documentations (Lake, Robinson, & Seghetti, 2005).

National strategies for homeland security

National strategies implemented post-9/11 to detect and prevent terrorist acts against the United States are vast and varied. Some examples include: "denying terrorists access to the material, expertise, and other enabling capabilities required to develop" weapons of mass destruction (WMD); preventing terrorists from utilizing legitimate transportation routes to gain access to U.S. vulnerabilities; screening people to detect suspected and potential terrorists through standards for driver licenses, airline passenger information, foreign exchange student policies, immigration, visas, and general travel; screening all cargo, freight, imports, and exports; garnering aid from all law enforcement bureaus and communities across the nation; and focusing on the protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (Homeland Security Council, 2007).

Homeland Security and Police Homeland Security Act of 2002

In 2002, the United States government established the Department of Homeland Security in response to 9/11. This executive department was introduced and described in the Homeland Security and Police Homeland Security Act of 2002. According to that Act, the mission of the department is: "to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism; and to minimize the damage, and assist in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States" (U.S. Homeland Security, 2002).

The USA Patriot Act

Now referred to as the "Patriot Act," this piece of legislation was enacted post-9/11 and has been a subject of controversy. The Act is said to "improve counter terrorism efforts in several significant ways," by allowing law enforcement to take advantage of existing tools used for the fights against organized crime and drug trafficking (Department of Justice, 2002). Some examples include the use of: general surveillance methods, roving wiretaps, "delayed notification search warrants," and business record investigations (Department of Justice, 2002).

History of Homeland Security

Before 9/11, homeland security efforts were very spread out across different agencies and departments (Homeland Security History Office, 2008). In order to consolidate these efforts to make them more effective,… [read more]


Terrorism in Afghanistan Article Review

… Terrorism in Afghanistan: A Critical Review of the Literature

This paper provides a critical review of two articles concerning terrorism in Afghanistan, including the respective international relations theory used by the authors. A summary of both articles is followed by an analysis of the theoretical approaches applied to the situation in Afghanistan at the time of writing. Finally, this paper provides an evaluation of the usefulness of both theories in analyzing terrorism in Afghanistan.

"Saving Afghanistan" by B. Rubin. Although it has not yet become an international basket-case, Rubin suggests that unless the United States reassesses is approach to the war in Afghanistan soon, the country will likely become a failed state where Taliban-sponsored terrorists have completely free rein once again. For example, Rubin emphasizes that, "For decades -- not only since 2001 -- U.S. policymakers have underestimated the stakes in Afghanistan. They continue to do so today. A mere course correction will not be enough to prevent the country from sliding into chaos" (2006, p. 57). Compounding the problem is the foreign policy approach that has been applied to the situation in Afghanistan following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In this regard, Rubin maintains that despite the American and NATO forces deployed to the country, there remains far too few boots on the ground and the foreign aid needed to reverse the growing perception among Afghanis and their neighbors that the country is not a high priority for the United States. In addition, Rubin argues that the U.S. has consistently failed to accurately gauge the situation in Afghanistan as evinced by its "pandering" to Pakistani leaders, focusing its military resources on Iraq, devoted far too little foreign aid to Afghanistan and failing to follow-up its short-term gains following the withdrawal of Soviet troops and the subsequent military operations by the U.S.-led coalition that drove Al-Qaeda into Pakistan. The Taliban has taken advantage of these failures by consolidating its position in the mountainous border regions between Afghanistan and Pakistan and has continued to actively recruit new insurgents to its cause. Indeed, the dire economic circumstances faced by the Afghani people make the country ripe for increased Islamic fundamentalist influence, and the series of broken promises of more support and resources by the United States have made the country's leadership untenable. Rubin maintains that both short-term transitional initiatives are required as well as a long-term commitment to creating an effective state in Afghanistan. In sum, Rubin posits that, "U.S. policymakers have misjudged Afghanistan, misjudged Pakistan, and, most of all, misjudged their own capacity to carry out major strategic change on the cheap" (2006, p. 78).

Article No. 2: "Market civilization and its clash with terror" by M. Mousseau. This author argues that the war on terrorism in Afghanistan is doomed to failure unless and until the United States can "win the hearts and minds" of the Afghani people. In this regard, Mousseau maintains that the main objective of the war on terrorism is not to kill all of the… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism the Al-Qaeda Group Term Paper

… Across the country in many airports faulty metal detectors are letting hundreds through security unchecked. There are also many baggage screeners that are ill trained or not interested in their job and thousands of bags are not screened properly or… [read more]


NATO's New Threat Assessments Asymmetric Threats and Global Terrorism Essay

… NATO and Terrorism

Now that NATO is involving itself more and more in the field of terrorism in Afghanistan and elsewhere, is NATO really equipped to become involved in terrorism?

Tomas Valasek, Senior Analyst for the Center for Defense Information in Washington, D.C., wrote that after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, and shortly thereafter when the U.S. went into Afghanistan to destroy the Taliban, NATO was "…nowhere in sight."

Valasek explains that the 19 allies in NATO had spent "decades planning for jointly defending one another from attack" but when the U.S. got into Afghanistan, NATO was asked not to become involved by the Bush Administration. "Some observers say that NATO's role as a fighting alliance is over," Valasek wrote in 2001. Lord Robertson, head of NATO, said at that time that the U.S. "…needs capable and effective European forces with which to cooperate, or on which to rely in peace support mission where the Alliance as a whole is not engaged" (Valasek, 2001, p. 3).

Meantime, the Bush decision -- in keeping with his administration's willingness to "go it alone" vis-a-vis wars against terrorists -- to keep NATO out of Afghanistan did not stand the test of time. Soon enough, NATO was involved, and Prasad P. Rane (writing in the journal Strategic Analysis) notes that in order to get into the fight NATO invoked Article 5 "…for the first time in the history of the Alliance" and declared that an attack on one of its members is indeed an attack on all NATO member nations (Rane, 2007, p. 73). In 2003 NATO took over the International Security and Assistance Force (ISAF) and subsequent to that NATO has had a "growing involvement" in Afghanistan. Rane writes (p. 74) that NATO's "…understanding of counter-terrorism is different from that of the U.S." due to differences "within and reservations of some of the NATO members."

On page 82 Rane writes that NATO's development of counter-terrorism strategies has "…required a fundamental restructuring" of its organization in "both spatial and temporal terms" and the implication is that NATO is not fully up to speed…… [read more]


Influence of Terrorism in Yemen and Its Affect on U.S. Interests Research Paper

… ¶ … terrorism in Yemen and it's affect on U.S. Interests

The influence of terrorism in Yemen and it's effect on U.S. Interests

The Republic of Yemen is believed to be an essential element in the international fight against terrorism, given that the Al Qaeda faction has members on the country's territory. Authorities in Yemen became concerned regarding terrorism particularly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. From then on, the Yemenite system focused on collaborating with the U.S. In removing terrorism from the country. Even with the fact that numerous terrorists were either captured or killed as a result of this relationship, there still are a large number of terrorists in the country. In spite of the success experienced by the Yemenite war on terror, terrorism has progressed in the country and has presently become one of the main terrorist threats to the world and to the U.S. In particular.

Recent events have shown that Yemen is not a country to be ignored when it comes to global security, with terrorism apparently thriving in the south of the Arab Peninsula. Osama bin Laden is especially passionate about keeping his forces in Yemen strong and there are a large number of terrorist individuals believed to have connections with Al Qaeda in the country. International forces have concentrated on removing the terrorist threat from Yemen. The country is believed to hold terrorists involved in the attack of the U.S.S. Cole on October 12, 2000 (Thackrah, 2004, p. 11). It is also very probable that the terrorist that were involved in the 9/11 attacks had received instructions in Yemen (Thackrah, 2004, p. 216).

Because of the influence it has in Yemen, Al Qaeda stands as a serious threat for any American individuals that are situated in the country. The terrorist group is believed to have planned the bombing of the U.S. Yemenite embassy, influencing U.S. forces in the territory to stay in a state of constant alert (Thackrah, 2004, p. 231).

Conditions in Yemen have demonstrated that the international fight against terrorism should not relate only to Afghanistan and Iraq. Last Christmas' (December 25, 2009) failed bombing attempt in Detroit have raised public awareness regarding terrorism and how it is still represents a threat to the U.S. Matters became critical when Al Qaeda individuals claimed that the group had been responsible for the attempted bombing. U.S. authorities had apparently been aware that a terrorist attack was likely to occur during the period. Also, authorities were informed that the terrorist involved was a Nigerian individual who was trained in Yemen (Spencer, 2010, p. 12).

Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the individual responsible for the bombing attempt, received instructions in Yemen, most probably during the time he attended the Iman University. Consequent to interrogating the terrorist, authorities found that Umar had not been the only individual receiving training meant to assist him in destroying U.S. planes. The FBI was informed concerning how numerous terrorists in Yemen are instructed with the purpose of committing missions similar… [read more]


Effects of Counter-Terrorism Legislations on Societies and Civil Rights Research Proposal

… ¶ … Counter-Terrorism legislations on societies and civil rights

Counter terrorism legislation relates in particular to different measures taken by the state justified by it as a proactive measure against potential terrorist attacks.

The issue of terrorism has been a widely debated subject after the 9/11 events. However, terrorism is not a new subject and nor the legislation to prevent it. More precisely, terrorism defined as an insurgent action against the well being of the state is known in history since the 19th century. Thus, in France, the 19th century terrorist actions not only attracted the discontent of the population but also offered the first reasons for enacting anti-terrorist laws.

Among the first modern terrorists is Auguste Vallain in 1892 France (Wardlaw,1989) when he threw a bomb in the Chamber of Deputies. That incident represented one of the first reasons for which the French state decided to pass laws that would prevent further such events. In this sense, the first counter terrorism laws were in France related to the freedom of speech and assembly. This was largely due to the fact that France had had a well established tradition in the art of revolution and political terrorism.

Until the 20th century, there was little talk if any on the issue of terrorism. It was more a matter of insurgency related to revolutionary purposes. However, even so, actions were taken against the press or the assemblies forming in different areas of the cities throughout the country.

The 20th century saw an increase in terrorist practices largely due to the Cold War and the political practices that developed throughout. More precisely, the 70s saw a new type of terrorism, "the new terrorism" who some argue that it is the result of the Iranian Revolution (Juergensmeyer, 2000).

It is rather hard to ascertain whether the war on terror staged by the United States is a real war or is related to the actual desire of the state to infringe the actions of the society and to limit their rights. Terrorism is not a very concrete, visible action. The only visible parts are the actual results which include attacks, deaths, and misfortunes. Therefore, the war on terror is as well an invisible endeavor. Indeed, some results are visible such as the capture of…… [read more]


Terrorism in Academic, Military, and Civilian Discussions Reaction Paper

… Terrorism

In academic, military, and civilian discussions about terrorism, nothing strikes fear and dread into the hearts and minds of the participants like the thought of a small, splinter group purchasing and delivering a nuclear weapon. While many experts see… [read more]


War on Terrorism Research Paper

… War on Terrorism:

Though it has been used since the beginning of recorded history, it is relatively hard to define terrorism. However, terrorism is a planned use of illegitimate violence to instill fear, targeted to intimidate government or societies in… [read more]


International Terrorism Essay

… International Terrorism

The text offers three sources of (or reasons for) violence in the Middle East. Which of the three sources do you think is most responsible, if any? Explain your answer. Also, given these sources, what do you think… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Essay

… Domestic Terrorism

As the world evolves, so do its problems. For instance, on the one hand, the it community has come up with new gadgets and applications to improve the quality of our life, but on the other hand, the… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Thesis

… ¶ … domestic terrorism. In what ways is it functionally different from international terrorism? Also, distinguish between domestic terrorism from above vs. domestic terrorism from below. Give examples.

Domestic terrorism is an act of terrorism that occurs on U.S. soil… [read more]


Investigative Task Force. Include Information Essay

… ¶ … investigative task force. Include information regarding the structure of a multi-agency investigative task force to include: manpower, information sharing, jurisdiction, participation, vehicle assignments, equipment, training, arrest powers, and classified information.

The role of an investigative task force is:… [read more]


Terrorism Definitions of Terrorism: The Federal Bureau Thesis

… Terrorism

Definitions of terrorism: The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) calls terrorism "The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, a civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives (www.fbi.gov). Under the U.S. Law Code Title 22, Chapter 38, Para. 2656f (d) terrorism means "…premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents" (http://terrorism.about.com) (Zalman). And according to Princeton University's definition (http://Wordnetweb.princton.edu) terrorism is "the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature." I think the Princeton University version is the best because it is most succinct and uses language everyone can understand. In fact the threat of terrorism is frightening, and Princeton University was the only definition to relate that fact.

TWO: How do terrorists justify their actions? "The goal of these extremists, as they have announced again and again," an article in the journal Commentary explains, "is nothing less than to restore a unified Muslim ummah (community)" (Marshall 2005). This new "community" the terrorists seek will be ruled by a "new caliphate," organized to "wage jihad against the rest of the world, and, above all, governed by what they regard as the immutable divine law declared by God to Muhammad -- the shari'a," Marshall continues.

The "shari'a" part of the Qur'an is where, in the minds of radicals, the religious basis of Islam joins with social and political dynamics. The shari'a actually deals with "matters of crime and judicial procedure," Marshall explains. Those extreme versions used by terrorists in the Islamic community justify jihad based on their belief that non-Muslims are either second-class citizens or non-existent, and the "rule of God" calls for killing them, according to Marshall, who is "senior fellow" at Freedom House's Center for Religious Freedom, and the author or editor of twenty books on religion and politics.

THREE: Structure of terror groups. According to the "Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century," the al-Queda (also spelled al-Qaeda) terrorist organization is a "loosely affiliated networks" rather than a hierarchical structure. Group leadership is certainly challenged by the fact that an individual with "minimal or no direct connection" to al-Queda and with "minimal training" can on his own, attempt terrorist actions. Richard Reid is an example of that problem (he attempted to bomb a commercial airliner in 2001). The challenge for leaders in terrorist groups is keeping everyone on the same page without giving away their location (cell phone transmissions can be intercepted). These groups are not typical armies that can be all in one place at the same time to receive orders and training, rather they form "cells" and sometimes blend into communities, such as a 9/11 terrorists did in Germany and Florida. This is also why law enforcement agencies have a difficult time locating and killing terrorists. And security personnel have a hard time arresting terrorists who… [read more]


Hundreds of Definitions of Terrorism Essay

… The only definition from the ones enumerated above that specifies the nature of targets is that used by the Department of State: "noncombatant."

The definition used by the State Department is the less satisfactory from the four because of its exclusion of noncombatant forces and differentiation between national and subnational groups. Targets such as unarmed soldiers that became victims of violence for the purpose of creating terror are thus excluded from this definition. The distinction authors of terrorist acts and agents of terrorist acts needs further explaining because the definition is specifying the authors as being subnational or clandestine agents.

2. In spite of their criminal behavior, the terrorists are convinced of the morality of their acts, being taught inside their organizations that violence is the right tool to reach their political goals. Terrorist leaders that come under several categories, posing as different types of leaders, work through indoctrination, claiming to prepare their groups or organizations for idealistic purposes that target the well being of a majority or an interest group even if it were at the expenses of a minority or groups that are not included in their vision of idealistic or messianic purposes. Other terrorist groups are simply driven by materialistic purposes and therefore they are justifying their criminal behavior classified as terrorism for the sole purpose of material gain. Most of the actors may also use their previous state of extreme poverty as a justification for taking away or innocent lives.

3. The network of a terror group is taking full advantage by the advanced means of communication that do not require its members to meet in person. Some groups have classical hierarchical structures, involving a leader that leads its organization through different hierarchical organizational layers. Some other groups have numerous cells involving even individual persons. Others are completely lacking a leader, their activity being based on communication through all cells. Each type of group organization has its advantages and disadvantages. In the case of the classical organizational structure, the potential problem may be the loss of information at certain level of the group. The groups organized in numerous smaller individual cells that have greater autonomy are less endangered in their activities if one or several of the cells are lost, but they are also less likely to establish a well formed strategy to reach their primary goals. A terrorist group needs two essential tools in order to achieve its goals: knowledge and resources. Depending of the strategies it adopts, it can rely on a type…… [read more]


Trash Covers Represent an Excellent Term Paper

… According to recent research, terrorists can be tried under the provisions of the Military Commissions Act of 2009 -- legislation passed by the U.S. Government that specifies the rights of terror suspects (or an "unlawful enemy combatant") on trial. Under the Act, terror suspects may not employ a civil defense lawyer "unless the attorney has been determined to be eligible for access to classified information that is classified at the level Secret or higher" (Military Commissions Act, 2009). Terror suspects can be found guilty by a "two-thirds majority of the members of the commission present at the time the vote is taken" rather than a unanimous vote by a jury of peers (Military Commissions Act, 2009). The Act denies habeas corpus, the right of a prisoner to be asked to be brought before a court to establish if he is being held lawfully. Denying habeas corpus logically denies the terror suspect the right to counsel.

For terrorist cases in which the Military Commissions Act is not employed, security is necessarily tighter because of the sensitivity of evidence involved, and the consequences of a possible leak; terrorist organizations can use the information for their own cause. Sensitivity of evidence also leads to trials where juries are altogether forgone (Donohue, 2007). Similarly, the use of a jury in terror cases limits the amount of information, due to its sensitivity, that the State can provide as evidence (Donohue, 2007). Compared to a criminal case, jury tampering is more likely in a terrorist trial; organized terrorist groups have a stronger capability to influence jurors (Donohue, 2007). Moreover, juries "may be sympathetic to those engaged in violence and acquit the guilty... [w]here nationalist conflict rages, as it does in Northern Ireland" (also known as jury nullification) (Donohue, 2007). Jurors can also be influenced by propaganda, originating from either side.

The above aspects of terrorist trials create a vast difference to conventional criminal trials. Conventional criminals are allowed habeas corpus, plea bargaining and counsel. Propaganda related to conventional court cases rarely if never exists. Jury nullification is less likely because the issues are less sensational, and jury tampering is also less likely because conventional criminals generally have much less ability to influence jurors than powerful terrorist organizations.

Works Cited

Abadie, Alberto. (2006). Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. The American

Economic Review, 96(2), 50-56. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034613

Barkun, Michael. (1997). Religion and the Racist Right: the Origins of the Christian Identity

Movement. The University of North Carolina Press.

Donohue, Laura K. (2007). Terrorism and Trial by Jury: The Vices and Virtues of British and American Criminal Law. The Stanford Law Review, 59, 1321 -- 1362. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/24795244/TERRORISM-AND-TRIAL-BY-JURY-THE-VICES-AND-VIRTUES-OF-BRITISH-AND-AMERICAN-CRIMINAL-LAW

Evans, Christopher M. (2002). Terrorism on Trial: The Presidents Constitutional Authority to Order the Prosecution of Suspected Terrorists by Military Commission. Duke Law

Journal, 51(6), 1831-1856. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1373217

Military Commissions Act (2009, October 26). Retrieved January 7, 2010 from the U.S. House

Of Representatives Committee on Rules:

http://www.rules.house.gov/111/LegText/111_hr2647cr_txt.pdf#page=980

Quarles, Chester L. (2004). Christian Identity: The… [read more]


Global War on Terrorism Thesis

… Global Terror War

Policy Advice for Confronting the Global Terrorism Threat

The threat of terrorism to national security is as high as it has ever been. The scale and sophistication of the attacks which extremist militant groups have levied against… [read more]


Australia Terror Qs Australia Terrorism Questions Thesis

… Australia Terror Qs

Australia Terrorism Questions:

It is difficult to say that its involvement in trade across the East Timor has fully benefited Australia. Certainly, this has provided it with a unilateral dominance in affairs which provides it petroleum trade at a premium to other nations. Its ability to help Timor develop its oil infrastructure in the aftermath of war with Indonesia serves as a benefit, but its involvement in the private exploitation of Timor's resources has made it a target of terrorist groups. This was one stated motive for the Bali attack.

Though it is true that the strain of higher environmental laws might make it more costly for developing nations to conduct business operations and maintain factories, it is also true that the weakness of environmental laws in such nations has become a free pass for major corporate polluters from developed nations. It seems it would be more beneficial for the Protocol to apply to these nations at least where foreign outsourcing is concerned.

3. A major personal observation is that summer weather has become increasingly intensified by what most evidence suggests is a genuine pattern of global climate change. The already distinct dryness that dominates Australia's landscape is palpable as rainfalls appear to be fewer and further between than they were even during my childhood.

4.

Security was only the nominal goal of a commitment to war that hinged almost entirely on Australia's attention to its relationship with the United States. Based on the U.S. claim, since then generally rendered false, that Iraq represented an immediate threat to the global community, it applied political pressure to partners such as Australia in order to extend this false claim.

5 . The refugee issue would be one of many which exposed the Howard government as a regressively neoconservative regime bent on aggressively reflecting the humanitarian failures of the U.S. And U.K. The refusal on John Howard's part to establish a policy of asylum for refugees arriving on boats even as it used military means to support the goals of democracy throughout the world would be inconsistent with the commitments made to the world community through U.N. And WTO membership.

6 . One could certainly argue that the Rudd government's policy is responsible for the current scenario in which refugees are increasingly viewing Australia as a viable avenue for asylum…… [read more]


Terrorism Now, a White Male Sitting Essay

… Terrorism

Now, a white male sitting in church on Sunday is shot and killed by two Muslim men with black hoods over their faces who believe the man they killed ordered the kidnapping of one of the men's wives, which was unsuccessful. Is it perceived initially as terrorism?

What did we all think immediately after learning of the Oklahoma City bombing that was eventually blamed on Timothy McVeigh? We thought it was an act of terrorism. And it was.

The point of this exercise is that we do not know what the definition of terrorism is. How is it defined for us? Mostly, by the media. The web, TV, radio, newspapers, and magazines all tell us whether a particular act of violence is terrorism -- in almost every case -- whether that is true or not. In this way, media has taken a nebulous, vague, all-encompassing term and made it into what…… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism: Difficult Research Proposal

… Domestic Terrorism: Difficult to Define

Following such events as the Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11, 2001 attacks, the topic of domestic and international terrorism has been widely considered in the field of criminal justice, as well as in… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism and Incident Management Research Proposal

… Domestic Terrorism Issues

The Turner Diaries and Racist/Anti-Government Groups:

William Pierce published the Turner Diaries in 1978 in which he presented a fictionalized account of the radical overthrow of the U.S. federal government. The principal ideas promoted by Pierce were the Nazism-based ideology that the Jews are responsible for destroying the United States and corrupting international relations among nations. The Turner Diaries inspired several major acts of radical domestic terrorism, including extensive robberies, other for-profit schemes, and the bombing of synagogues perpetrated by The Order. Timothy McVeigh also promoted the book before his infamous 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma federal building.

Christian Identity Beliefs and Philosophy:

In general, the Christian Identity movement espouses the same virulent anti-Semitic and racist philosophies promoted by William Pierce. Specifically, they believe that Jews are the offspring of Satan and that the non-white races are all subhuman. The Christian Identity movement includes many radical domestic terrorist organizations such as the Phineas Brotherhood, Posse Comitatus, Aryan Nations, The Order, Aryan Brotherhood, The Covenant, The Sword, and The Arm of the Lord.

The Decline of Radical Patriot/Hate Groups:

The four main reasons for the decline in radical domestic patriot/hate groups are: (1) the increased risk of criminal prosecution; (2) new legislation at the state level that criminalized many hate group and paramilitary activities; (3) the retirement of many original members and leaders in the community and a shift to online media for hate groups; and increased risk of civil liability for…… [read more]


Terrorism Has Posed a Threat for Society Research Proposal

… Terrorism has posed a threat for society ever since the early ages when people have resorted to committing crimes against other people with the belief that such an act would better their condition. There are several factors responsible for influencing… [read more]


Loss of Civil Liberties Due to International Terrorism Research Proposal

… Terrorism and Loss of Civil Liberties

Terrorism and Civil Liberties

The aftermath of September 11 has been a controversial and challenging period for the U.S. Ethnic profiling and speculation without any accountability have undermined the rule of law and overridden… [read more]


International Terrorism Violence in the Middle East Essay

… International Terrorism

Violence in the Middle East:

The principle cause of perpetual violence in the Middle East is the extremist attitudes prevailing amongst Palestinian Arabs and other Arab states and militant groups toward the nation of Israel. Still today, large… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism the September 11, 2001 Research Proposal

… Domestic Terrorism

The September 11, 2001, attacks in New York and Washington were the most destructive ever on U.S. soil. But law-enforcement officials have also long struggled with a range of U.S.-based terrorist groups. Domestic extremists include hate groups motivated… [read more]


Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism International Terrorism Issues Essay

… Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ISSUES

Compare and contrast several definitions of terrorism. Include definitions employed by government agencies as well as by scholars. Which definition do you find to be most accurate or most useful? Why? Also, by… [read more]


United States Terrorism - Operations and Training Thesis

… United States Terrorism - Operations and Training, Interactions with the Media, and Domestic Terrorism

Introduction and Brief History

Long before September 11, 2001, terrorism was a sore subject in the United States. Dating back to the 1800s and the Old… [read more]


Terrorism Reached a New Low the Morning Term Paper

… terrorism reached a new low the morning of September 11, 2001 when perpetrators used three hijacked commercial jets as weapons of mass destruction. Yet terrorists had been plotting against the United States and its allies long before that date and continue to plague freedom-loving citizens of the world. What the events of September 11 marked was the beginning of a new war on terror, a new definition of warfare that would rely less on traditional battlefronts and more and more on technology and advanced intelligence-gathering. The terrorist attacks of September 11 also brought to attention the severity of the threat that fundamentalist Islam had been posing for decades. Until September 11, 2001 that threat had been underestimated or at least it had been in the mainstream media. The new terrorism is characterized by increased sophistication, mainly in terms of technology and communications.

Bin Laden's appeal among conservative Muslims is extensive, giving rise to a grassroots movement that foments and fuels the terrorist movement. Alive or dead, Bin Laden is a powerful symbol and provides a figurehead around which sympathizers can gather. The massive following charismatic leaders command remains one of the most frightful aspects of terrorism, which might be the greatest problem Americans will face at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

The methods and modes of communications terrorists use range from the conventional to the creative including the Internet and the media. Not only do terrorists rely on internal networks and coded communications but also on a reliable means to disseminate a core message of hatred to a large number of existing and potential new followers. The new terrorism would not exist were it not for the wide range of telecommunications available. Technology has changed the ways terrorists operate, conduct their business, network, and generate public support.

Technology also provides the primary tool for committing acts of terror like the destruction of the World Trade Center. By networking with a geographically fragmented group of people using cellular phones and other standard devices, leaders of terrorist groups can communicate easily. Being able to hijack planes required some knowledge of aviation, which was gleaned by attending traditional flight schools in the United States. Although some of the methods used by the Al Qaeda group on September 11 seemed primitive such as carrying box cutters onto the planes and using them as weapons, overall the methods used to carry out the attack were admirably sophisticated. For example, the effort was well-organized and required systematic communications between participants. Moreover, the participants needed to keep track of flight information and other pertinent data that would assist them in carrying out the attacks. Every step of the process was premeditated,…… [read more]


Terrorism What Was Once Seen on Television Term Paper

… Terrorism

What was once seen on television as part of temporary news broadcasts is now more and more present to even become a global threat. Terrorism is "the threat or use of violence, often against the civilian population, to achieve… [read more]


Homeland Security Effects of Terrorism Term Paper

… Homeland Security

Effects of Terrorism on Homeland Security and Local Law Enforcement

The Homeland Security Program is supposed to work hand-in-hand with local law enforcement officials to instill national security and protection from the acts of terrorists. If one looks… [read more]


War on Terrorism Term Paper

… War on Terrorism

Terrorism is one of the most foundational threats that the world has ever seen. Terrorism is also a difficult threat as it is rarely if ever linked directly to a source nation, that has an official role… [read more]


Global War on Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Terrorism

Historical depictions of warfare often lead one to think that war, especially as conducted on European soil, was an event of rules and engagement and strategy. Conducting war has been described as an "art." Famous… [read more]


Counter Terrorism You Are a Senior Counterterrorism Term Paper

… Counter Terrorism

You are a senior counterterrorism official for the federal government in a large American city. Your city has a significant Arab population -- including both Arab-American citizens and immigrants. To what degree are you going to focus your… [read more]


Effects of Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism

The Effects of Terrorism on the Global Economy since Sept. 11th

Without question, terrorism has dramatic and significant impacts. The human cost can be high, and the damage can be extensive depending on the target and the method. However,… [read more]


Relationship Between Terrorism Organized Crime Term Paper

… Terrorism has become the bane of our time and terrorists have undermined the confidence and the security of people all over the world. Particularly, the aftermath of September 11 has created a constant fear among people world over. With the… [read more]


International Terrorism Term Paper

… International Terrorism

Terrorism is widely considered to be an increasingly complex phenomenon and the events that keep the headlines each day come to prove this assumption. It has been rather difficult for both politicians and scholars to agree on a… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.