"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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Effects of Counter-Terrorism Legislations on Societies and Civil Rights Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (758 words)
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¶ … Counter-Terrorism legislations on societies and civil rights

Counter terrorism legislation relates in particular to different measures taken by the state justified by it as a proactive measure against potential terrorist attacks.

The issue of terrorism has been a widely debated subject after the 9/11 events. However, terrorism is not a new subject and nor the legislation to prevent it. More precisely, terrorism defined as an insurgent action against the well being of the state is known in history since the 19th century. Thus, in France, the 19th century terrorist actions not only attracted the discontent of the population but also offered the first reasons for enacting anti-terrorist laws.

Among the first modern terrorists is Auguste Vallain in 1892 France (Wardlaw,1989) when he threw a bomb in the Chamber of Deputies. That incident represented one of the first reasons for which the French state decided to pass laws that would prevent further such events. In this sense, the first counter terrorism laws were in France related to the freedom of speech and assembly. This was largely due to the fact that France had had a well established tradition in the art of revolution and political terrorism.

Until the 20th century, there was little talk if any on the issue of terrorism. It was more a matter of insurgency related to revolutionary purposes. However, even so, actions were taken against the press or the assemblies forming in different areas of the cities throughout the country.

The 20th century saw an increase in terrorist practices largely due to the Cold War and the political practices that developed throughout. More precisely, the 70s saw a new type of terrorism, "the new terrorism" who some argue that it is the result of the Iranian Revolution (Juergensmeyer, 2000).

It is rather hard to ascertain whether the war on terror staged by the United States is a real war or is related to the actual desire of the state to infringe the actions of the society and to limit their rights. Terrorism is not a very concrete, visible action. The only visible parts are the actual results which include attacks, deaths, and misfortunes. Therefore, the war on terror is as well an invisible endeavor. Indeed, some results are visible such as the capture of…… [read more]


Terrorism in Academic, Military, and Civilian Discussions Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  6 pages (1,904 words)
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Terrorism

In academic, military, and civilian discussions about terrorism, nothing strikes fear and dread into the hearts and minds of the participants like the thought of a small, splinter group purchasing and delivering a nuclear weapon. While many experts see this as an unlikely action, primarily due to the complexity required to deliver such a weapon; partially due to the… [read more]


War on Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,809 words)
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War on Terrorism:

Though it has been used since the beginning of recorded history, it is relatively hard to define terrorism. However, terrorism is a planned use of illegitimate violence to instill fear, targeted to intimidate government or societies in the hunt of goals that are generally political or religiously motivated by sub-national groups or undercover agents. Terrorism can also… [read more]


International Terrorism Essay

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International Terrorism

The text offers three sources of (or reasons for) violence in the Middle East. Which of the three sources do you think is most responsible, if any? Explain your answer. Also, given these sources, what do you think can and/or should be done to secure a lasting peace in the Middle East?

The answer in my opinion is… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,519 words)
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Domestic Terrorism

As the world evolves, so do its problems. For instance, on the one hand, the it community has come up with new gadgets and applications to improve the quality of our life, but on the other hand, the population becomes more sedentary and the incidence of cardio-vascular diseases increased. Another major threat of the modern day society is… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Thesis

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¶ … domestic terrorism. In what ways is it functionally different from international terrorism? Also, distinguish between domestic terrorism from above vs. domestic terrorism from below. Give examples.

Domestic terrorism is an act of terrorism that occurs on U.S. soil and is perpetrated by a U.S. citizen. Domestic terror can occur outside of the U.S., but the terrorism needs to… [read more]


Investigative Task Force. Include Information Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,470 words)
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¶ … investigative task force. Include information regarding the structure of a multi-agency investigative task force to include: manpower, information sharing, jurisdiction, participation, vehicle assignments, equipment, training, arrest powers, and classified information.

The role of an investigative task force is: to ensure that all resources involving intelligence gathering and investigations are effectively focused towards the common objective that the task… [read more]


Terrorism Definitions of Terrorism: The Federal Bureau Thesis

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Terrorism

Definitions of terrorism: The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) calls terrorism "The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, a civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives (www.fbi.gov). Under the U.S. Law Code Title 22, Chapter 38, Para. 2656f (d) terrorism means "…premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents" (http://terrorism.about.com) (Zalman). And according to Princeton University's definition (http://Wordnetweb.princton.edu) terrorism is "the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature." I think the Princeton University version is the best because it is most succinct and uses language everyone can understand. In fact the threat of terrorism is frightening, and Princeton University was the only definition to relate that fact.

TWO: How do terrorists justify their actions? "The goal of these extremists, as they have announced again and again," an article in the journal Commentary explains, "is nothing less than to restore a unified Muslim ummah (community)" (Marshall 2005). This new "community" the terrorists seek will be ruled by a "new caliphate," organized to "wage jihad against the rest of the world, and, above all, governed by what they regard as the immutable divine law declared by God to Muhammad -- the shari'a," Marshall continues.

The "shari'a" part of the Qur'an is where, in the minds of radicals, the religious basis of Islam joins with social and political dynamics. The shari'a actually deals with "matters of crime and judicial procedure," Marshall explains. Those extreme versions used by terrorists in the Islamic community justify jihad based on their belief that non-Muslims are either second-class citizens or non-existent, and the "rule of God" calls for killing them, according to Marshall, who is "senior fellow" at Freedom House's Center for Religious Freedom, and the author or editor of twenty books on religion and politics.

THREE: Structure of terror groups. According to the "Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century," the al-Queda (also spelled al-Qaeda) terrorist organization is a "loosely affiliated networks" rather than a hierarchical structure. Group leadership is certainly challenged by the fact that an individual with "minimal or no direct connection" to al-Queda and with "minimal training" can on his own, attempt terrorist actions. Richard Reid is an example of that problem (he attempted to bomb a commercial airliner in 2001). The challenge for leaders in terrorist groups is keeping everyone on the same page without giving away their location (cell phone transmissions can be intercepted). These groups are not typical armies that can be all in one place at the same time to receive orders and training, rather they form "cells" and sometimes blend into communities, such as a 9/11 terrorists did in Germany and Florida. This is also why law enforcement agencies have a difficult time locating and killing terrorists. And security personnel have a hard time arresting terrorists who… [read more]


Hundreds of Definitions of Terrorism Essay

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The only definition from the ones enumerated above that specifies the nature of targets is that used by the Department of State: "noncombatant."

The definition used by the State Department is the less satisfactory from the four because of its exclusion of noncombatant forces and differentiation between national and subnational groups. Targets such as unarmed soldiers that became victims of violence for the purpose of creating terror are thus excluded from this definition. The distinction authors of terrorist acts and agents of terrorist acts needs further explaining because the definition is specifying the authors as being subnational or clandestine agents.

2. In spite of their criminal behavior, the terrorists are convinced of the morality of their acts, being taught inside their organizations that violence is the right tool to reach their political goals. Terrorist leaders that come under several categories, posing as different types of leaders, work through indoctrination, claiming to prepare their groups or organizations for idealistic purposes that target the well being of a majority or an interest group even if it were at the expenses of a minority or groups that are not included in their vision of idealistic or messianic purposes. Other terrorist groups are simply driven by materialistic purposes and therefore they are justifying their criminal behavior classified as terrorism for the sole purpose of material gain. Most of the actors may also use their previous state of extreme poverty as a justification for taking away or innocent lives.

3. The network of a terror group is taking full advantage by the advanced means of communication that do not require its members to meet in person. Some groups have classical hierarchical structures, involving a leader that leads its organization through different hierarchical organizational layers. Some other groups have numerous cells involving even individual persons. Others are completely lacking a leader, their activity being based on communication through all cells. Each type of group organization has its advantages and disadvantages. In the case of the classical organizational structure, the potential problem may be the loss of information at certain level of the group. The groups organized in numerous smaller individual cells that have greater autonomy are less endangered in their activities if one or several of the cells are lost, but they are also less likely to establish a well formed strategy to reach their primary goals. A terrorist group needs two essential tools in order to achieve its goals: knowledge and resources. Depending of the strategies it adopts, it can rely on a type…… [read more]


Trash Covers Represent an Excellent Term Paper

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According to recent research, terrorists can be tried under the provisions of the Military Commissions Act of 2009 -- legislation passed by the U.S. Government that specifies the rights of terror suspects (or an "unlawful enemy combatant") on trial. Under the Act, terror suspects may not employ a civil defense lawyer "unless the attorney has been determined to be eligible for access to classified information that is classified at the level Secret or higher" (Military Commissions Act, 2009). Terror suspects can be found guilty by a "two-thirds majority of the members of the commission present at the time the vote is taken" rather than a unanimous vote by a jury of peers (Military Commissions Act, 2009). The Act denies habeas corpus, the right of a prisoner to be asked to be brought before a court to establish if he is being held lawfully. Denying habeas corpus logically denies the terror suspect the right to counsel.

For terrorist cases in which the Military Commissions Act is not employed, security is necessarily tighter because of the sensitivity of evidence involved, and the consequences of a possible leak; terrorist organizations can use the information for their own cause. Sensitivity of evidence also leads to trials where juries are altogether forgone (Donohue, 2007). Similarly, the use of a jury in terror cases limits the amount of information, due to its sensitivity, that the State can provide as evidence (Donohue, 2007). Compared to a criminal case, jury tampering is more likely in a terrorist trial; organized terrorist groups have a stronger capability to influence jurors (Donohue, 2007). Moreover, juries "may be sympathetic to those engaged in violence and acquit the guilty... [w]here nationalist conflict rages, as it does in Northern Ireland" (also known as jury nullification) (Donohue, 2007). Jurors can also be influenced by propaganda, originating from either side.

The above aspects of terrorist trials create a vast difference to conventional criminal trials. Conventional criminals are allowed habeas corpus, plea bargaining and counsel. Propaganda related to conventional court cases rarely if never exists. Jury nullification is less likely because the issues are less sensational, and jury tampering is also less likely because conventional criminals generally have much less ability to influence jurors than powerful terrorist organizations.

Works Cited

Abadie, Alberto. (2006). Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. The American

Economic Review, 96(2), 50-56. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034613

Barkun, Michael. (1997). Religion and the Racist Right: the Origins of the Christian Identity

Movement. The University of North Carolina Press.

Donohue, Laura K. (2007). Terrorism and Trial by Jury: The Vices and Virtues of British and American Criminal Law. The Stanford Law Review, 59, 1321 -- 1362. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/24795244/TERRORISM-AND-TRIAL-BY-JURY-THE-VICES-AND-VIRTUES-OF-BRITISH-AND-AMERICAN-CRIMINAL-LAW

Evans, Christopher M. (2002). Terrorism on Trial: The Presidents Constitutional Authority to Order the Prosecution of Suspected Terrorists by Military Commission. Duke Law

Journal, 51(6), 1831-1856. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1373217

Military Commissions Act (2009, October 26). Retrieved January 7, 2010 from the U.S. House

Of Representatives Committee on Rules:

http://www.rules.house.gov/111/LegText/111_hr2647cr_txt.pdf#page=980

Quarles, Chester L. (2004). Christian Identity: The… [read more]


Global War on Terrorism Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,797 words)
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Global Terror War

Policy Advice for Confronting the Global Terrorism Threat

The threat of terrorism to national security is as high as it has ever been. The scale and sophistication of the attacks which extremist militant groups have levied against their enemies in the West indicates that no nation which aligns itself with the goals of western democracy and capitalism… [read more]


Australia Terror Qs Australia Terrorism Questions Thesis

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Australia Terror Qs

Australia Terrorism Questions:

It is difficult to say that its involvement in trade across the East Timor has fully benefited Australia. Certainly, this has provided it with a unilateral dominance in affairs which provides it petroleum trade at a premium to other nations. Its ability to help Timor develop its oil infrastructure in the aftermath of war with Indonesia serves as a benefit, but its involvement in the private exploitation of Timor's resources has made it a target of terrorist groups. This was one stated motive for the Bali attack.

Though it is true that the strain of higher environmental laws might make it more costly for developing nations to conduct business operations and maintain factories, it is also true that the weakness of environmental laws in such nations has become a free pass for major corporate polluters from developed nations. It seems it would be more beneficial for the Protocol to apply to these nations at least where foreign outsourcing is concerned.

3. A major personal observation is that summer weather has become increasingly intensified by what most evidence suggests is a genuine pattern of global climate change. The already distinct dryness that dominates Australia's landscape is palpable as rainfalls appear to be fewer and further between than they were even during my childhood.

4.

Security was only the nominal goal of a commitment to war that hinged almost entirely on Australia's attention to its relationship with the United States. Based on the U.S. claim, since then generally rendered false, that Iraq represented an immediate threat to the global community, it applied political pressure to partners such as Australia in order to extend this false claim.

5 . The refugee issue would be one of many which exposed the Howard government as a regressively neoconservative regime bent on aggressively reflecting the humanitarian failures of the U.S. And U.K. The refusal on John Howard's part to establish a policy of asylum for refugees arriving on boats even as it used military means to support the goals of democracy throughout the world would be inconsistent with the commitments made to the world community through U.N. And WTO membership.

6 . One could certainly argue that the Rudd government's policy is responsible for the current scenario in which refugees are increasingly viewing Australia as a viable avenue for asylum…… [read more]


Terrorism Now, a White Male Sitting Essay

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Terrorism

Now, a white male sitting in church on Sunday is shot and killed by two Muslim men with black hoods over their faces who believe the man they killed ordered the kidnapping of one of the men's wives, which was unsuccessful. Is it perceived initially as terrorism?

What did we all think immediately after learning of the Oklahoma City bombing that was eventually blamed on Timothy McVeigh? We thought it was an act of terrorism. And it was.

The point of this exercise is that we do not know what the definition of terrorism is. How is it defined for us? Mostly, by the media. The web, TV, radio, newspapers, and magazines all tell us whether a particular act of violence is terrorism -- in almost every case -- whether that is true or not. In this way, media has taken a nebulous, vague, all-encompassing term and made it into what…… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism: Difficult Research Proposal

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Domestic Terrorism: Difficult to Define

Following such events as the Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11, 2001 attacks, the topic of domestic and international terrorism has been widely considered in the field of criminal justice, as well as in the media. Through a discussion of domestic and international terrorism, their similarities and differences, the history of domestic terrorism, and… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism and Incident Management Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (488 words)
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Domestic Terrorism Issues

The Turner Diaries and Racist/Anti-Government Groups:

William Pierce published the Turner Diaries in 1978 in which he presented a fictionalized account of the radical overthrow of the U.S. federal government. The principal ideas promoted by Pierce were the Nazism-based ideology that the Jews are responsible for destroying the United States and corrupting international relations among nations. The Turner Diaries inspired several major acts of radical domestic terrorism, including extensive robberies, other for-profit schemes, and the bombing of synagogues perpetrated by The Order. Timothy McVeigh also promoted the book before his infamous 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma federal building.

Christian Identity Beliefs and Philosophy:

In general, the Christian Identity movement espouses the same virulent anti-Semitic and racist philosophies promoted by William Pierce. Specifically, they believe that Jews are the offspring of Satan and that the non-white races are all subhuman. The Christian Identity movement includes many radical domestic terrorist organizations such as the Phineas Brotherhood, Posse Comitatus, Aryan Nations, The Order, Aryan Brotherhood, The Covenant, The Sword, and The Arm of the Lord.

The Decline of Radical Patriot/Hate Groups:

The four main reasons for the decline in radical domestic patriot/hate groups are: (1) the increased risk of criminal prosecution; (2) new legislation at the state level that criminalized many hate group and paramilitary activities; (3) the retirement of many original members and leaders in the community and a shift to online media for hate groups; and increased risk of civil liability for…… [read more]


Terrorism Has Posed a Threat for Society Research Proposal

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Terrorism has posed a threat for society ever since the early ages when people have resorted to committing crimes against other people with the belief that such an act would better their condition. There are several factors responsible for influencing certain people in performing such criminal activities. In spite of the fact that it has been proved that terrorism brings… [read more]


Loss of Civil Liberties Due to International Terrorism Research Proposal

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Terrorism and Loss of Civil Liberties

Terrorism and Civil Liberties

The aftermath of September 11 has been a controversial and challenging period for the U.S. Ethnic profiling and speculation without any accountability have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is… [read more]


International Terrorism Violence in the Middle East Essay

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International Terrorism

Violence in the Middle East:

The principle cause of perpetual violence in the Middle East is the extremist attitudes prevailing amongst Palestinian Arabs and other Arab states and militant groups toward the nation of Israel. Still today, large Arab nations like Iran and militant Islamic

organizations in positions of power throughout the Palestinian territories maintain formal

declarations of… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism the September 11, 2001 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,425 words)
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Domestic Terrorism

The September 11, 2001, attacks in New York and Washington were the most destructive ever on U.S. soil. But law-enforcement officials have also long struggled with a range of U.S.-based terrorist groups. Domestic extremists include hate groups motivated by ultra-conservative ideals that are often anti-Semitic and racially motivated; eco-terrorists who use violence to campaign for greater environmental responsibility;… [read more]


Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism International Terrorism Issues Essay

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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ISSUES

Compare and contrast several definitions of terrorism. Include definitions employed by government agencies as well as by scholars. Which definition do you find to be most accurate or most useful? Why? Also, by extension, why do you find certain definitions deficient?

According to the U.S. State Department, Title 22 of U.S. Code section… [read more]


United States Terrorism - Operations and Training Thesis

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United States Terrorism - Operations and Training, Interactions with the Media, and Domestic Terrorism

Introduction and Brief History

Long before September 11, 2001, terrorism was a sore subject in the United States. Dating back to the 1800s and the Old West with its bands of outlaws, renegade Native American bands, and citizen militias, terrorist attacks made themselves a monumental part… [read more]


Terrorism Reached a New Low the Morning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (891 words)
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terrorism reached a new low the morning of September 11, 2001 when perpetrators used three hijacked commercial jets as weapons of mass destruction. Yet terrorists had been plotting against the United States and its allies long before that date and continue to plague freedom-loving citizens of the world. What the events of September 11 marked was the beginning of a new war on terror, a new definition of warfare that would rely less on traditional battlefronts and more and more on technology and advanced intelligence-gathering. The terrorist attacks of September 11 also brought to attention the severity of the threat that fundamentalist Islam had been posing for decades. Until September 11, 2001 that threat had been underestimated or at least it had been in the mainstream media. The new terrorism is characterized by increased sophistication, mainly in terms of technology and communications.

Bin Laden's appeal among conservative Muslims is extensive, giving rise to a grassroots movement that foments and fuels the terrorist movement. Alive or dead, Bin Laden is a powerful symbol and provides a figurehead around which sympathizers can gather. The massive following charismatic leaders command remains one of the most frightful aspects of terrorism, which might be the greatest problem Americans will face at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

The methods and modes of communications terrorists use range from the conventional to the creative including the Internet and the media. Not only do terrorists rely on internal networks and coded communications but also on a reliable means to disseminate a core message of hatred to a large number of existing and potential new followers. The new terrorism would not exist were it not for the wide range of telecommunications available. Technology has changed the ways terrorists operate, conduct their business, network, and generate public support.

Technology also provides the primary tool for committing acts of terror like the destruction of the World Trade Center. By networking with a geographically fragmented group of people using cellular phones and other standard devices, leaders of terrorist groups can communicate easily. Being able to hijack planes required some knowledge of aviation, which was gleaned by attending traditional flight schools in the United States. Although some of the methods used by the Al Qaeda group on September 11 seemed primitive such as carrying box cutters onto the planes and using them as weapons, overall the methods used to carry out the attack were admirably sophisticated. For example, the effort was well-organized and required systematic communications between participants. Moreover, the participants needed to keep track of flight information and other pertinent data that would assist them in carrying out the attacks. Every step of the process was premeditated,…… [read more]


Terrorism What Was Once Seen on Television Term Paper

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Terrorism

What was once seen on television as part of temporary news broadcasts is now more and more present to even become a global threat. Terrorism is "the threat or use of violence, often against the civilian population, to achieve political or social ends, to intimidate opponents, or to publicize grievances" (the Columbia Encyclopedia, 2007). The most jeopardizing feature of… [read more]


Homeland Security Effects of Terrorism Term Paper

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Homeland Security

Effects of Terrorism on Homeland Security and Local Law Enforcement

The Homeland Security Program is supposed to work hand-in-hand with local law enforcement officials to instill national security and protection from the acts of terrorists. If one looks for a broad definition of Homeland Security, this definition would include air, land, and sea defense of the United States,… [read more]


War on Terrorism Term Paper

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War on Terrorism

Terrorism is one of the most foundational threats that the world has ever seen. Terrorism is also a difficult threat as it is rarely if ever linked directly to a source nation, that has an official role in terrorist acts or movements. For this reason the "war on terror" is a war unlike any other war. The… [read more]


Global War on Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … History of Terrorism

Historical depictions of warfare often lead one to think that war, especially as conducted on European soil, was an event of rules and engagement and strategy. Conducting war has been described as an "art." Famous men throughout history have become famous because they were perceived to be great strategists; Napoleon Bonaparte, William the Conqueror, Alexander… [read more]


Counter Terrorism You Are a Senior Counterterrorism Term Paper

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Counter Terrorism

You are a senior counterterrorism official for the federal government in a large American city. Your city has a significant Arab population -- including both Arab-American citizens and immigrants. To what degree are you going to focus your efforts on infiltrating that community within your city? Are you going to send agents to attend Mosques? Are you going… [read more]


Effects of Terrorism Term Paper

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Terrorism

The Effects of Terrorism on the Global Economy since Sept. 11th

Without question, terrorism has dramatic and significant impacts. The human cost can be high, and the damage can be extensive depending on the target and the method. However, it is unclear to some degree whether or not terrorism has a palpable impact on the global economy. Certainly, there… [read more]


Relationship Between Terrorism Organized Crime Term Paper

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Terrorism has become the bane of our time and terrorists have undermined the confidence and the security of people all over the world. Particularly, the aftermath of September 11 has created a constant fear among people world over. With the sprouting of so many terrorist organizations and the brutal methods of attack employed by them, it is imperative that we… [read more]


International Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,125 words)
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International Terrorism

Terrorism is widely considered to be an increasingly complex phenomenon and the events that keep the headlines each day come to prove this assumption. It has been rather difficult for both politicians and scholars to agree on a common definition of terrorism precisely due to its complexity and the eventual legal implications such a theoretical identification would have.… [read more]


International Terrorism Term Paper

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International Terrorism

Terrorism is now considered to be the largest threat facing the international system and the security framework around the world. Its transnational nature and the unconventional means used have transformed the phenomenon into an indisputable challenge for the national security strategies. In this context there are various types of terrorism which differ in the aims and scope of… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Every Discussion Related Term Paper

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Domestic Terrorism

Every discussion related to the phenomenon of terrorism must take into account certain aspects of this flagellum. On the one hand, it is important to consider the connection between domestic terrorism and international terrorism, taking into account the fact that they both use violence means in attaining their goals and influencing political leaders and governments. On the other… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Has Become in Recent Decades Term Paper

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Domestic Terrorism

Terrorism has become in recent decades one of the most important phenomena affecting the society, both inside a state and at the international level. The events that took place in the U.S. On September 11, 2001 represented an alarm signal for the world that terrorism is a flagellum that would influence the evolution of international relations to a… [read more]


Forecasting Terrorism Major Trends Term Paper

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Forecasting Terrorism

Major Trends in Terrorism in Recent Years

According to Raphael Perl, three major trends can be distinguished in terrorism: an increase in micro-actors, an increase in sophistication of terrorist activities, and an overlap of terrorism with international crime. In terms of the first, the increase in micro-actors is the result of a combination of different elements. Firstly, access… [read more]


Intelligence Community Changes Do to Terrorism Term Paper

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Intelligence

Terrorism's Effects on the U.S. Intelligence Community

The threat of terrorism has fundamentally altered the operation and function of the U.S. intelligence community, particularly in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. A recent press release from the Director of National Intelligence reports that there is a continued, perceived threat of terrorist threats against targets within the United States, especially from radical Islamic terrorist groups ("The Terrorist Threat"). Terrorism has always been a registered threat for the United States intelligence community. However, the dramatic attack that occurred in 2001, and the equally dramatic failure of the U.S. intelligence community to provide preventative intelligence at the time, has forced agencies in the United States to reassess their priorities and shift terrorism to a higher position on the list of threats to the nation.

Solid intelligence is a crucial component in preventing terrorism (Martin). One of the significant issues facing the intelligence community is that traditionally their role has only been to collect intelligence and analyze, but not necessarily act in a law enforcement capacity. The CIA, for example, is expressly forbidden from acting domestically; such actions are the purview of the FBI or local law enforcement agencies. Because terrorism blurs the line between intelligence gathering and law enforcement, it has resulted in confusion in the intelligence community as to how best to respond to the continued threat of terrorism (Martin).

One key way that terrorism has fundamentally altered the intelligence community has been in facilitating greater interagency cooperation between intelligence agencies in the United States and other nations, between domestic intelligence agencies, and between intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies ("The Terrorist Threat"). This increased cooperation has resulted in…… [read more]


State Sponsored Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … Sponsored Terrorism

State Sponsored Terrorism

What is terrorism and what is state-sponsored terrorism?

Terrorism: "The systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion" - Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Notwithstanding that simple definition by Merriam-Webster, there is an inherent difficulty in defining the concept of terrorism, writes Martha Crenshaw in the journal Political Psychology (Crenshaw, 2000). The problem in… [read more]


Global Terrorism Term Paper

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Terrorism

Global Terrorism Issues

Who: Mike McConnell, the Bush Administration's top intelligence official

What: Political Pressures on McConnell from the White House and Congress

Where: Washington, D.C.

When: August 2007

How: McConnell has been given the role of not only being the top person in charge of intelligence for the executive branch of government (the Bush Administration), but he has been given responsibility for negotiating with Congress for policies Bush wants in place.

Brief Analysis: McConnell, a retired admiral who took over the job of national intelligence in February, 2007, met with Democratic leaders from the House and Senate (in a conference call) to try to reach a compromise over the updated "eavesdropping" legislation ("Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act"), according to an article in the New York Times (Mazzetti, 2007). The word "surveillance" was used in this article although the updated law that eventually passed had to do with legal wiretapping (eavesdropping on citizens' phone calls) in an attempt to locate terrorists who may be plotting to attack the U.S. again. Bush has been wiretapping phone calls (without warrants) since soon after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but Congress has asked for some limits on how much "eavesdropping" the president can legally do without regard to existing law (which actually does require a president to get authorization from a court prior to wiretapping). One of the key points of this article is that the Democrats' proposal for a more limited authorization for Bush to wiretap was rejected, and the Democrats complained that McConnell should not be the senior member of the intelligence community, and also be a political negotiator for Bush. The real purpose behind McConnell's job of course is to protect Americans from terrorists, but as the writer of this article points out, "there is lingering anger among some on Capital Hill who say Mr. McConnell acted more as an advocate than an expert..." And also that the real issue should be going after bin Laden and other terrorists, not tapping phones hoping to catch a terrorist making some kind of evil plan.

Who:…… [read more]


Terrorism Global Term Paper

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Terrorism

Global Terrorism

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of current global terrorism. Specifically, it will discuss the arrest of three suspected terrorists in Germany, and their ties to the Al Qaeda terrorist organization.

Who: The Al Qaeda terrorist organization in Iraq was at the roots of this group of terrorists, and this organization is headed by Osama bin Laden. The men trained with the cell "Islamic Jihad Union," which is a "little-known" Sunni Muslim group in Uzbekistan that is tied to Al Qaeda.

What: Three terror suspects captured by German authorities, suspected of targeting American bases and tourist spots for bombing. Authorities are also looking for up to ten other suspects still at large.

Where: The suspects targeted Ramstein, an American air base in Germany, and other locations, such as Frankfort Airport, along with restaurants, pubs, and other establishments that cater to Americans and American tourists. The suspects were captured in a small village about two hours away from Frankfort, where they had recently rented a home. Authorities found numerous containers of hydrogen peroxide, which when mixed with other chemicals could create deadly explosives, and they found detonators and other explosive-making equipment.

When: 5 September 07 as reported by several different news services and reports, including the AP and Reuters, and national and local news. Most reports were essentially the same, reporting on how the men were captured and what they were hoping to accomplish. News sources said there was a gunfight in the small German town, and one terrorist tried to escape out a bathroom window, but was apprehended. Other news sources reported there were up to ten other suspects still wanted in the investigation.

How: The suspects trained in Pakistan with Al Qaeda, then spied on their locations to gain knowledge about where and when to attack. Suspects were going to build bombs using hydrogen peroxide…… [read more]


Terrorism Global Terrorism Preslar, D.B. ) Term Paper

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Terrorism

Global Terrorism

Preslar, D.B. (2000). The role of disease surveillance in the watch for agro-terrorism or economic sabotage. Retrieved from the Federation of American Scientists Web site: http://www.fas.org/ahead/bwconcerns/agroterror.htm24 Aug. 2007. This article discusses agro-terrorism, a facet of terrorism that is particularly alarming, because it seems as if it would be so easy to accomplish in so many countries, including our own. This was actually written before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which makes it all the more eerie. The author opens the document with the statement "The threats of terrorism and economic sabotage against agriculture in the United States are neither fixed nor certain. Some have said that it is not a matter of 'if.' But 'when'" (Preslar, 2000). The author discusses the U.S.'s own stockpiling of biological weapons, the threat to the food supply, and discusses some of the ways terrorists could undermine our trust in the food supply and the U.S. ability to manage and protect the food supply.

This is a worrisome article because it indicates just how vulnerable we are to global terrorism and how unprepared we are in so many…… [read more]


Terrorism Who: The U.S. Congress What: Congressional Term Paper

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Terrorism

Who: The U.S. Congress

What: Congressional Vote

Where: Washington D.C.

When: 6 Aug 2007 as reported by the New York Times

How: Recently, there was a congressional vote that authorized eavesdropping without warrants on international communications, including communications conducted by Americans residing within the United States.

Brief Analysis: Despite the Bush Administration's lack of credibility regarding the war in Iraq, fears regarding terrorism remain high enough that the Democratic Congress authorized the Bush Administration's ability to eavesdrop on citizens, ignoring civil libertarians' objections.

Who: The NYC Fire Department

What: The Deutsche Bank Fire

Where: NYC

When: 23 Aug 2007 as reported by the New York Times

How: Although the recent destructive fire at the Deutsche Bank in New York City was not caused by terrorist activity the fire has highlighted how safety recommendations for the city's fire department following 9/11 have not been implemented.

Brief Analysis: Even years after 9/11, every time a major explosion or fire occurs, the first thought that enters the mind of ordinary New Yorkers, and even professional firefighters, is the possibility that terrorism is the cause. But although NYC has learned to fear terrorism, it has not learned practical lessons in dealing with disasters from that day. For example, during the World Trade Center attacks, too many firefighters stormed the buildings at once, contributing to the staggering death toll. This mistake was repeated during the bank fire.

Who: The Pakistani Government

What: Release of terror suspect…… [read more]


Global Terrorism's Impact on International Business Term Paper

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Terrorism Impact

When a terrorism attack hits a country, such as September 11, 2001, naturally the citizens of that nation are most affected. They are the ones who are immediately impacted by the injuries and deaths of peers, friends and loved ones, the shut down of production and services, and the psychological and physical long-term effects. However, such an attack… [read more]


Management Managing Terrorism it Is Important Term Paper

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Management

Managing Terrorism

It is important, even critical, to apply a comprehensive emergency management model to the terrorist treat because that threat is constantly increasing becoming increasingly complex, and to ensure efficient response, a comprehensive emergency management model must be in place in locations around the United States. Author Waugh notes, "While exposure to the risk of terrorist violence is increasing, the design of antiterrorism polices ahs been difficult and has tended to reflect piecemeal solutions to a few aspects of the hazard" (Waugh, 2001, p. 660). The six models of Waugh's terrorist violence that Americans have had to face can apply to just about any form of terrorism, and they have been used in the country throughout history. Because these activities are on the increase, and Americans face a continued threat from overseas-based terrorist organizations, a comprehensive emergency management model must be applied to any terrorist threat, no matter whether it is internal or external.

The lack of a cohesive model was apparent in the September…… [read more]


Management Terrorism Events and Impact Term Paper

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Management

Terrorism Events and Impact

The impact of terrorist activities became much clearer after 9/11, and citizens began to realize that much more training and early detection of terrorist activities was necessary. The Nunn-Luger-Domenici program, created before the attacks, could not imagine the scope and deadly accuracy of the terrorists plans, or how it would throw a nation into fear. The threat of terrorism, locally, just did not seem that important, or as important as it would become. The program recognized the need for local government training and response, but did not support that training and response fiscally. Today, there is much more understanding about the nuances and threat of terrorism, and so, there is much more public support for funding any activities that can help thwart the spread of terrorism and efficiently react when terrorism occurs.

There should be more preparedness at the local government level, as these emergency responders are going to be the first on the scene of a terrorist attack. However, it is clear that terrorist activity is extremely well organized,…… [read more]


Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and Pan-Islamic Terrorism Essay

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¶ … Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Pan-Islamic terrorism in the Middle East and beyond.

The foundations of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict run deep and are very multi-causal, but in general the conflict is utilized as fodder for extremist teachings that can lead to terrorism. In general Israel is seen as a western power, that is contrary to Islamic values and the actions of the western powers, as well as Israel have led to an increased sense of us against them mentalities. In general the situation in Israel and the occupied territories feeds ideology through the extreme militaristic nature of the culture as well as the overt and covert oppression of what many consider the indigenous population, being the Palestinians. Each side claims some right to historical physical control of the region and the Palestinians, being the underdog express much hatred toward Western powers, and especially America for what it sees as blind support of the Israel right to settle and in some cases exploit the land and its peoples. The support of Israel, in a sense as a response to the inaction of many on the part of the Jews during WWII is in many ways seen as appropriate reparations and yet in supporting the Israeli agenda the Western powers are allowing and even advocating the suppression of the Palestinians, which for some extremists translates to an overt attack of Islam and the Islamic way of life. Though the history of the conflict in the region runs much deeper than WWII the modern actions of the Western Powers and Israel are frequently called upon by terrorists to expound on why the nations of Islam should band together and rise up against the Western states, with additional emphasis on the ideals of the historical conflicts. The conflict is then fed by these ideas and observations of conditions and situations of racism and religious and ethnic discrimination as well as general variances in the living conditions of the Palestinians as apposed to Israelis, is utilized as an overt example of the foundations of terrorism, and the need to strike down those who seek to oppress and control Islam. (Preble, 2004, p. 20)

2. Make a case for a link between Western foreign policy and the proliferation of terrorism worldwide.

Western foreign policy, is often fixated on the democratization of nations, through military as well as economic means. The idea of democratization in many non-western nations is equated with dominance, colonialism and suppression of the traditional forms of government as well as faith. The U.S. In particular has played a dominant role in attempting to openly spread its forms of both government and economy, namely capitalism which often results in extreme social and moral changes that can be seen by many as offensive and unreflective of the traditional manner in which peoples of other nations live their lives, govern their peoples and trade goods. Terrorism is directly linked to Western foreign policy as Western foreign policy is seen as an invasion of traditional ways of… [read more]


War on Terrorism Winning Term Paper

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War on Terrorism

Winning the "War on terrorism"; the Need for a Fundamentally Different Strategy" by Anthony B. Cordesman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies published September 18, 2006

Cordesman's article is a detailed analysis of the counterproductive nature of the current state of international counterterrorism. The work stresses that the current aggressive actions of the West coupled with the inaction of the Middle East create a counterproductive strategy that intensifies terrorism, rather than reducing it. The first point made by Cordesman is that the West identifies terrorism as a global situation, while in reality there are several smaller regional situations, that have little international effect and that any kind of terrorism that can be correctly labeled as global, in its effect is that that is spurned on by Islamist extremism, which he even more specifically identifies as neo-Salafi Sunni Islamist extremism. The work goes further to state that the struggle is not a military and/or secular one but one that is ideological and religious. This point moves forward to stress that any real progress in a real "war on terror" must be fought from within Islam at an ideological level. The work then moves forward to stress that the importance of this acknowledgement is fundamental to success and that there are extreme limitations to any military intervention, and that without a clear understanding of the forces of the threat there is limited action. The author states unequivocally that the West can only "score limited tactical victories, help local forces contain major terrorist movements, defend home territory and buy time." (2) Additioanlly the author stresses that the West has a bad name, as the meorires of colonialism and ties to Isreal for the West to be the leading force in winning any proverbial war. The West must limit its involvement to an involvement that helps ensure that local entities are the guiding force behind change, at a fundamental level. The author also stresses that without extreme changes in the image of the West, with regard to these and other issues there will be no headway gained in the fight. Cordesman, then focuses on the road to Israeli-Arab peace as one of the only manner in which the West can change its own image as a usurper, interloper and devastating force of destruction of ideology as well as natural resources. The author notes that the desire of Western societies to force instant "democracy" is also counterproductive, as such a system does not give historical precedence to the manner in which Islamic nations have always been governed, for the good or bad. Rapid, economic, social and demographic demands for change are also counterintuitive as they also do not take history into account and need to evolve with the evolution of political and social change. The author proposes…… [read more]


National Religious and Ideological Terrorism Term Paper

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International Terrorism

Terrorism is the notion of inflicting violence or terror on a
population to further some kind of agenda without adhering to the rules
regulating combat by the Geneva Convention. This is because terrorists
often have specific aims, whether political, ideological, or religious in
furthering their goals for which are often excluded from the institutions
governing politics and society.… [read more]


Computer Terrorism Term Paper

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Computer Terrorism

According to Weimann, "no single instance of real cyberterrorism has been recorded" and the threat is real but probably exaggerated. Cyberterrorism includes instances of hacking into closed systems including the computerized systems that help operate public works operations like hydroelectric dams or nuclear power facilities. Similarly, breaking into the FBI or other governmental organization's systems is classified as cyberterrorism. Cyberterrorism can also target private enterprise and may be politically, ideologically, or financially motivated.

Computer viruses also constitute acts of cyberterror because a virus can disable a critical system. Most small and large-scale infrastructure in the Western world depends on information technology and therefore cyberterror is a genuine and potentially grave concern. Weimann notes that cyberterrorism has the potential to become a valuable tool for international terrorist groups like Al Qaeda.

Angst over the threat of cyberterrorism grew during the 1990s when Internet use soared. Weimann claims that the term cyberterrorism is value-laden, evoking fears of both unfamiliar technology and of terrorist attacks. Especially since September 11, cyberterrorist has become a buzzword in the media. Counterterrorism units have focused on computer terrorism and funneled funds into fighting cyberterrorism. Weimann implies that media exaggerations of cyberterrorism may themselves be financially motivated and in fact states that combatting cyberterrorism is an "economically rewarding" industry. Weimann remains especially concerned about the consequences of media mismanagement of the counterterrorism threat.

One of the strengths of Weimann's analysis is the author's definition of terms and clarification of different types of cyberterrorism. For example, Weimann describes "hacktivism" as a politically-motivated project that can include "virtual blockades; e-mail attacks; hacking and computer break-ins; and computer viruses and worms." The "I LOVE YOU" virus that spread in 2000…… [read more]


Corporations and Terrorism Term Paper

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Terrorism

Corporations and Terrorism

Yes, corporations can certainly be a root of terrorism. Some, such as those you noted (Gestapo, etc.) are rooted in terrorism and mayhem. Others may be roots because of their actions and lack of interest in the people and countries where they do business. For example, Nike is known for its global operations and sweatshop working conditions for global employees, and has come under fire for these practices. Because they treat these employees poorly just to reduce manufacturing costs, they can be viewed as nothing but a greedy American corporation by many terrorist organizations. In addition, they can breed terrorism in their workers because they treat them so badly. This can breed hostility and even hatred in the workers, who may eventually turn to terrorism to better themselves and "get even" with corporate America.

A also agree that evil can be a root of terrorism, and that some corporations, due to their management and lack of ethics, are certainly…… [read more]


Terrorism Defining and Justifying Term Paper

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Terrorism

Defining and Justifying Terrorism

Terrorism has been around since Biblical times. In about 167 B.C. A disenfranchised group of Jews, called the Maccabees, went up into the mountains around Jerusalem to hide, coming down as frequent intervals to terrorize the Syrians who had invaded and were occupying their land. They worked to resist the oppression of Antiocus Epiphanes, who introduced worship of idols in their temple, erecting a statue in it of the goddess Diana. Of course, the Bible does not call the Maccabees terrorists. They are seen as patriotic and heroic, since eventually they did succeed in driving out the Syrians and taking back their temple for the worship of God.

The word terrorism is a powerful word often used by politicians to unite people emotionally against a common enemy. Brock (2006) points out that before 1980 the term was not found in Reader's Guide, which instead listed acts of violence (and articles written about them) under the location where the violence took place or under the people who committed the act. Ronald Reagan first used the term in 1981 to describe the Sandinista government in Nicaragua.

Likewise, the United Nations Security Council did not use the term terrorism until 1985. From 1985 until 2004 the UN did not attempt to define terrorism either, but limited its use to specific situations. The UN labeled as "terrorist" various activities, such as hostage-taking, abduction, "use of unlawful plastic explosives, assassinations of heads of state or political leaders, attacks on civilian aircraft, bombings of embassies and civilians,...and attacks on religious sites in armed conflicts" (Saul, 2005). After the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, however, things changed. Between 2001 and 2004 anti-terrorism measures "suffered from lack of definition, but, in late 2004 the council prospectively defined terrorism as serious (sectoral) criminal violence intended to provoke a state of terror, intimidate a population, or compel a government or organization" to take a certain action (Saul, 2005).

The media and politicians almost never discuss whether terrorist acts can be justified; generally, they discuss…… [read more]


Countering the New Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … counter the new terrorism threat (post 9/11) and whether these strategies have been successful. It will also look at many possible long-term strategies to counter the new terrorism. Terrorism is a growing threat to world safety and security. Countering this new terrorism menace is something all nations must work on together and in harmony, otherwise the threat of… [read more]


Amounting to Crimes and Terrorism Against Term Paper

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¶ … amounting to crimes and terrorism against the United States occurred, causing concern among citizens, government officials and the president alike. Almost exactly three years ago, President Bush, in his State of the Union address, mentioned two separate acts against the United States and the manner in which the United States fought against those that had committed the acts.… [read more]


Defining Terrorism Term Paper

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Terrorism

Encyclopedias and dictionaries define terrorism in the easy to understand language but in reality it is a concept that is hard to grasp. In the last two decades terrorism caused more damage to the world then anything else. Especially after 9/11 the word terrorism was being redefined. Despite differing definitions terrorism, is considered a crime in most of the… [read more]


Protect Ourselves Against Terrorism Term Paper

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Protecting Ourselves against Terrorism major consequence of 9/11 has been that now one cannot talk rationally about terrorism and its causes. Any attempt to look for the reason why anyone would be mad enough to blow up oneself smells of sympathizing with the terrorists and people are now becoming reluctant to voice their opinions.

Prior to Sept 11 horrible crime… [read more]


War on International Terrorism and Terrorism Inside Term Paper

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¶ … war on international terrorism and terrorism inside the U.S.A. is the main theme of mass media and political agendas. War on terrorism opens the eyes of Americans on modern geopolitical situation telling them about events in the remote and unknown parts of the world. Some 5 years ago most of Americans experienced trouble telling anything about Middle East… [read more]


Middle East, Counter-Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … Middle East, Counter-Terrorism and what the writer believes can be done in that area of the nation to promote peace. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

COUNTERTERROISM IDEAS AND THOUGHTS

Violence in the Middle East has been an issue for many years. For the most part the recent violence has been founded in the problems… [read more]


Counter Terrorism Issues. The Writer Uses Three Term Paper

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¶ … counter terrorism issues. The writer uses three sources to answer questions about Mosques, agents and privacy.

The city that we live in has a large Arab population. The Arab community is comprised of both Arab-Americans and immigrants from Arab nations. As a senior counter terrorism official for the United States government it is my duty to determine the… [read more]


Counterterrorism Training Program Terrorism Term Paper

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Social conditions that are likely to aid terrorists

Among the social conditions likely to aid terrorists are conditions such as those seen in Israel, where two distinct population groups claim or are attempting to 'homestead' in the same disputed land area (Almog, 2004).

Fanaticism that extends throughout much of a society is also a prime condition for terrorism to flourish.… [read more]


How Has Terrorism Effected the World Economy in Particular the United States Term Paper

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Terrorism and Economy

How has Terrorism Effected the World Economy and United States

There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism, and although at times people agree on a definition of terrorism, they also often disagree about whether or not the definition fits a particular incident (Terrorism pp). Thus, one must assess the different views of what exactly constitutes terrorism… [read more]


Terrorism Compare and Contrast a Secular Terrorists Essay

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Terrorism

Compare and contrast a secular terrorists and a religious terrorists.

Terrorists can be defined as people who use violence for the purpose of spreading fear rather than for the physical results of their actions. They do this to draw attention to things they perceive as wrongs that must be righted by society (Weisbach, 2004). Terrorists could be divided into two groups: those whose issues are religiously based and those whose issues are not based on religion. Al-qaeda is an example of a group that uses religious beliefs as the basis for their actions. The Basque terrorists of Spain would be an example of a politically-based organization.

Both groups have similarities. Both groups believe that working within the political system will not achieve their goals. They do not believe they can bring about the changes they want to see happen through such things as electing representatives to parliamentary bodies. Instead they use tactics designed to shock people into noticing their issues.

However, political terrorists rarely cross the boundaries of the political entities against which they fight. So the IRA, a group related to religious differences but not fighting based on what religion they think people should practice, commit acts of terror in Northern Ireland and England, but not in Africa or Asia. By contrast, Al-qaeda sees its religious message as important to the entire world, and believes that the actions of some other governments have a negative effect on religious practice in the areas they see as their domains. Because of this Al-qaeda objects to American troops in Saudi Arabia and sees American economic influence as an affront to their religion. So while the IRA sets off bombs in Great Britain, Al-qaeda has attacked in New York City and in Washington D.C., as well as bombing American embassies in Africa. There are no political boundaries for religious terrorists.

Using the IRA as an example, discuss ways terrorists groups finance their operations.

The Irish Republican Army, or IRA, has used a variety of ways to fund their operations. In one example December of last year, both the British and Northern Ireland governments believe that the IRA was behind a bank robbery described as "spectacular" in the media (Staff writer, 2005). In this bank robbery, thirty-eight Euros were stolen. That's nearly $50 million in American dollars (Staff writer, 2005). The British government says that the IRA made multiple attempts to launder the money using Mafia-like approaches, such as filtering the money through legitimate businesses. In the huge manhunt that followed the bank robbery, the Irish police seized over 3.5 million Euros, including the equivalent of 2.3 million pounds, all in cash, found with one businessman in Cork, Ireland, in February of this year. This arrest shows the ties to businesses for laundering purposes. The arrested man is a director for a financial company. Items such as computers have also been seized, suggesting that the IRA may be using modern technology to launder money.

In other cases, the IRA has been shown to… [read more]


Airline Terrorism as the Name Term Paper

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October 2001 saw the first military action initiated by the U.S. under this policy, when Afghanistan was invaded. Prior to the invasion, the Taliban had refused to hand over bin Laden without being shown evidence of his connection to the attacks. While the primary objective of capturing bin Laden failed, the invasion did succeed in uprooting the Taliban from power,… [read more]


Defeating Terrorism: American Priority Term Paper

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There were 651 significant terrorist incidents in 2004, not this high since the late 1980s. However, the numbers really are not comparable because the database for the 80s included a considerable amount of incidents not defined as significant: Of the 208 incidents reported in 2003, 161, or 77% of all reported incidents -- the highest proportion in some time --… [read more]


International Terrorism and Homeland Security Term Paper

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International Terrorism and Homeland Security

It is a basic principle of government, even in democracies, that when a country faces great danger, it may be necessary to curb some personal liberties to ensure the safety of the country. This has especially been true during times of war. The difficulty has always been that the government may be tempted to go… [read more]


Terrorism, During Its Long Violent Term Paper

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The following books / articles shall tentatively form the bibliography of my research:

"Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction" by Charles Townshend (Book)

"Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism" by Marjorie Cohn (Journal article)

"The Holy Qu'ran" Translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (Book)

"Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" By Alan Little (Website Article)

(Detailed bibliography is provided in the "Works Cited" page at the end of this proposal.)

4. Methodology of Research

In order to get a preliminary "feel" about the general topic of terrorism, I intend to browse a few articles on terrorism in encyclopedias such as the Microsoft Encarta and the Britannica. I shall then get to the "meat" of my research by reading the books and articles on terrorism that I have listed in the preliminary bibliography in order to identify the portions that relate directly to my topic of research, i.e., the causes of terrorism -- particularly the ones behind Islamic terrorism and investigate whether any passages in the Qu'ran support terrorism or violence. By this time, hopefully, I shall be able to draw certain conclusions about the best way to tackle terrorism. Next, I would create an outline of my research paper and gradually refine it to arrive at the final version of my research paper.

5. Significance of My Project

Terrorism, without question, is one of the most serious issues facing the world today. There is, however, no consensus among governments and experts about the best way to tackle the problem. This wide difference in perceptions about terrorism has led to visible cracks in even long-held political alliances such as the one between the United States and Western European countries. These differences, can in part, be traced to the differences in the perceptions about the causes that lead to terrorist acts such as the one committed by the 9/11 hijackers. It is, therefore, important to investigate the root causes behind the increasing trend of global terrorism which I intend to do in my research. My initial impression about the available literature on the causes of terrorism is that most of it is colored by the biases of the writers. I intend to analyze a variety of views on the subject in order to arrive at an unbiased conclusion.

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Little, Allan. "Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" BBC News online. December 6, 2001. February 20, 2005.

Townshend, Charles. Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002

American intellectual, Noam Chomsky, for example, believes that terrorism is typically sponsored by governments through the organisation, funding or training of para-military groups often under the banner of counter-terrorism

The Holy Book of the Muslims

the list may be expanded at the time of writing the actual…… [read more]


War on Terrorism: Post-Modern Warfare? Term Paper

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British Television/Journalism

The topic chosen is 'Is the War on Terrorism an example of 'Post-Modern Warfare?' being one that is very relevant to today's world, it deals with the causative factor behind the 'war on terrorism' that was declared by the United States of America after the attacks on some of its main centers on September 11, 2001, executed by… [read more]


Terrorism Americans' Views Term Paper

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In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.

However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to…… [read more]


New Factor in Terrorism Compared to the Latin American Urban Philosophy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (712 words)
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Terrorism: An Introduction and Refutation of White's Urban Model With Contemporary Islamic Paradigms

According to the author Jonathon R. White, in his text, Terrorism: An Introduction (2002), the Latin American urban philosophy of terrorist urban cells, from the community, directed against the government and the community, dominated the concept of terrorism from about 1960 until the early 1990s. This urban model was a guerrilla model of fighting, called the 'tupamaros' structure by the author, wielded against civilians in an undeclared war against highly public and publicized targets, with fairly specific objectives. This methodology was popularized by the Cuban revolutionaries, and later extended throughout the world, although it retained its popularity in Latin America up to this day. (White, 2002, pp.118 & 121)

Of course, the urban still influences many terrorist groups such as violent right-wing North American extremists, as was evidenced in the Okalahoma City offices bombing, for which the terrorist Timothy McVey was executed. But as systematically organized as such modern terrorist efforts as those wielded against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, these latest Islamic terrorist efforts were somewhat different, and reflected a different model other than the urban model.

Firstly, the World Trade Center bombing was an act of violence lacking a cohesive structure, with a specific effort. Unlike the kidnappings that dotted the war torn nation of Lebanon, for instance, during the 1980s, this act had no specific objective. It was a random act of terrorism wielded against an ideology, that of the secular West, in the name of Islamic religious fundamentalism. It was the act of an an organization spread across nations, from Saudi Arabia to Afghanistan in a way that was confusing to the West to understand or reconcile with previous community-located and objective-specific urban models. Rather than focusing attention on one event, attention was diffused throughout a variety of states of the American union, and upon both political and economic institutions.

Later, analysts 'read' this expression as the unity, in the terrorist's vision, not of a practical military objective but in a symbolic statement of hatred against the economic and political culture and dominance…… [read more]


Terrorism Different Topics, 3 Pages Each) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,022 words)
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Terrorism (4 Different Topics, 3 Pages Each)

Describe the major trends in terrorism in recent years.

Fundamentalism in general has been on the rise in recent years, for example, between the mid-1960s and the mid-1990s, the number of fundamentalist movements of all religious affiliations tripled worldwide. At the same time, as observed by Bruce Hoffman, there has been a virtual… [read more]


Narco-Terrorism Narco Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,780 words)
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From a national security, intelligence, and law enforcement perspective, it is increasingly important to recognize and exploit the nexus between terrorist organizations and drug trafficking activities. (Perl, R.)

In conclusion, it should be stated that the new sense and definition of terrorism views Narco-terrorism as a unique symbiosis of illegal drug trafficking and the actions of terrorists. Narcotics can be used to destabilize and reduce the regulatory structures in a society which can be just as destructive as any other weapon in the terrorist's arsenal.

Bibliography

A" Level Sociology Deviance and Social Control. October 27, 2004. http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en

Flynn, Stephen. "Worldwide Drug Scourge: The Response." Brookings Review Spring 1993: 36+. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Marshall, Donnie. "Narco-terrorism: the new discovery of an old connection." Cornell International Law Journal, December 22, 2002.

Narco-Terrorism: definition) Defense Technical Information centre. Accessed October 31, 2004. http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/data/n/03495.html

O'Meara, Kelly Patricia. "Dirty Dollars." Insight on the News 15 May 2000: 10. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/.

PERL R. "NARCO-TERRORISM: ": Congressional Testimony, May 20, 2003.

Scarborough R. Osama bin Laden a 'Narco-terrorist'. Washington Post, January 22, 2004. Accessed October 30, 2004. http://opioids.com/afghanistan/osama.html

Social Facts and Suicide. University of Regina. 1999. Accessed October 29, 2004. http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/o26f99.htm

SUICIDAL TERRORISM. NCWC.2004. Accessed October 31, 2004. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/429/429lect11.htm… [read more]


Real and Potential Economic Impacts of Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (437 words)
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¶ … Terrorism is such a real and pervasive physical fear in contemporary American society that it is easy to forget its economic impact. While estimates vary, the official figure for spending stands at around $120 billion since the within America's borders and the war in Iraq began, in rapid succession. (Bernasek, 2004) but as Anna Bernasek notes in her New York Times Business Section article, "Counting the Hidden Costs of War," on terror calculating the net effect of a continuing war without a real, projected end date, is almost impossible in a simple and precise fashion. Economists must calculate what is lost as well as what is spent to fight terrorism. Although open to debate, two economists, suggested the war on terror may have already cost the United States $150 billion in lost gross domestic product. "That is close to one percentage point of growth lost over the past year and a half. If that figure is correct, the nation's annual economic growth rate, which has been 3.7% during this period, could have been nearly 4.7% without the war." The study took into account factors like higher oil prices, increased budget deficits and greater consumer uncertainty. "When analyzing the effects of uncertainty, the authors estimated the impact of the war on financial markets, business investment and consumer…… [read more]


State Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … terrorism is "defined by some as violence upon a national population committed by national governments or their proxies." Additionally, states can "terrorize their own populations, to secure rule and suppress dissent, or foreign citizens, to support favored or destabilize unfavored foreign regimes."

As such, we may associate state terrorism with two different manifestations: internal state terrorism, where the… [read more]


Terrorism Is a Major Threat Term Paper

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This has effectively deterred the country from harboring those terrorists, and has enticed them to fully cooperate with the United States (NCT, 5)

In addition, the allied forces have used military force within Afghanistan, attacking key elements within terrorist networks within the country. By eliminating certain areas within the network, the military is effectively deterring terrorism by showing dire consequences for any association with a terrorist group. However, since the groups are relatively small, and difficult to find, other deterrents are also needed (Pillar, 11).

The recent attempt to capture Osama Bin Laden within Afghanistan and other countries, and the attempts to capture his allies, uses the deterrent of the intelligence networks. Using international law enforcement and intelligence, terrorists are deterred from traveling internationally in an attempt to gain access to countries they are attempting to attack (Pillar, 12).

The United States has a vast arsenal of anti-terrorism techniques in use. By using those components together, it is possible to produce a cohesive deterrent that is far more effective than the use of a single component alone. If not used in conjunction with one another, but instead used as separate entities, they can actually work against one another. The use of military force can, for example, interfere with the gathering intelligence, effectively negating the use of each component (Pillar, 13).

To effectively deter terrorism, the United States, and its allies, should always attempt the most effective means that causes the least amount of damage to all countries involved. Economic sanctions, social sanctions, and diplomacy must be attempted first, in an attempt to protect the lives of those within the country, and those at home. Policies must be in place to allow the fair, yet firm enforcement of all deterrent methods in use, and to coordinate those efforts in the most effective way. It is only through organized, uniform deployment of all deterrent methods possible that terrorism can truly be restricted and prevented.

References

Encarta. "Sanctions." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

Friedman, Benjamin. "Mini-Nukes, Bunker Busters, and Deterrence: Framing the Debate." Center for Defense Information: Terrorism. 26 Apr 2002. Center for Defense Information. 21 Apr 2004. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/mininukes-pr.cfm

Glasstone, Samuel. "Nuclear Weapons." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

Keller, Bill. "Missile Defense Is Not About Defense - It's About Offense." New York Times. 31 Dec 2003: C6.

LaFeber, Walter. "Cold War." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

National Commission on Terrorism (NCT). Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism: Report of the National Commission on Terrorism. Oklahoma City, OK: National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism,…… [read more]


Bio-terrorism Term Paper

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THE FUTURE

While the nation continues to ready itself for a possible bio-terrorist attack in the present, it is also preparing for how to handle the possibility in the future (Smolkin, 2003). Future plans are more about proactive actions than reactive actions (Neil, 2003). One of the things that is being done is the education of the public about the possibility of attacks on crops. The world is aware that crippling the ability to grow crops would place a serious financial and human burden on the nation's residents as well as the American government. Therefore, any concerns about future bio-terrorist attacks must include the possibility of crop attacks and steps being taken to prevent that from happening.

Biological weapons programs around the world have focused on developing wheat stem rust, Madden said. Other diseases that could be used in crop bio-terrorism are soybean rust and rice blast." The focus is currently on determining what the most serious risks are to the states.

Many states have taken measures to prepare for the future when it comes to the threat of bio-terrorist attacks (All, 2003). Ohio has implemented a homeland security program that has a multi-stepped approach to the future. "The state has spent $32 million in federal money to update its communications, laboratory and emergency systems so that it can respond efficiently and effectively should smallpox, anthrax or any other disease be used as a weapon of mass destruction. By August 2004, the federal government will make another $16 million available for Ohio (All, 2003)."

The state, which is representative of many states in its actions regarding bio-terrorism has taken several steps to prepare. Some of the things that have been done are:

Identified sites for mass vaccination and distribution of antibiotics and developed a smallpox vaccination plan for public health and response teams. The state has immunized 1,759 health care workers for smallpox so far.

Established contracts with local partners in seven regions to create regional bio-terrorism plans, and developed regional response plans among hospitals to include rural and Appalachian Ohio;

Increased the number of epidemiologists or people trained to investigate diseases;

Upgraded software and communications lines for the state's disease reporting system;

Renovated lab space to handle samples of agents identified as being used for bio-terrorism (All, 2003). "

CONCLUSION

Bio-terrorism has always been a concern, but the events of 9-11 brought it to the forefront of the nation. The possibility of being attacked through the use of bio-terrorist agents is no longer considered a science fiction impossibility, and is instead a future probability according to experts. The nation has spent the past three years stepping up the pace in preparation and agencies are working together to know how to handle any attack that may come. With the cooperation of all states, and the federal government, any group that decides to use bio-terrorism to attack America may be surprised and the response.

References

Closer to home: Long relegated to the margins, foreign news has experienced a modest resurgence since… [read more]


Terrorism Seems to Have Taken Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
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We will see what the proportion of violence is and what is the proportion of faith and religious values that Muslim["s" should be deleted"] societies consider in an attempt to create a different model of being.

From an occidental point-of-view, a new paradigm seems to have turned out in international relations. The new enemies are not a state, not a… [read more]


Media on Terrorism Acts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,734 words)
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Even more adults were tuning into the media coverage surrounding this incident.

Many adult studies revealed further information regarding the effect of media on terrorism, including the following studies (Hamblem, 2002):

Two hundred thirty-seven Israeli adults were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to television clips of terrorism and political violence; the other group was exposed to news… [read more]


Terrorism and Democracy Term Paper

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(Quoted by Hoffmann) This was followed by another resolution that called for international crackdown on financing for terrorism and greater exchange information between countries to fight terrorism. All of this proves that international co-operation and perhaps an International Committee on Prevention of Terrorism under the auspices of the UN would prove more effective in combating terrorism than say, the U.S. attack on Iraq.

Conclusion

Terrorism, as we have seen in this paper, undermines democracy in more than one way. Its effect on democracy becomes more pronounced when democratic countries such as the United States react by curtailing such cherished democratic traditions such as civil rights, liberties, freedom of expression, and the free flow of information in their own societies. It is also clear that terrorism can be more effectively countered through international co-operation rather than by solitary efforts by countries such as the U.S.

Works Cited

Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA

Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97

Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Prados, John. "Democracy 0, Terrorism 1: The Bush Administration's Secrecy Policies." The American Prospect. November 6, 2001. April 6, 2003. http://www.prospect.org/webfeatures/2001/11/prados-j-11-06.html

Democracy… [read more]


War on Terrorism Term Paper

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The actions and policies of the INS are strikingly draconian. Immigrants and visitors crossing the border into the United States are and will continue to be harangued unnecessarily because Ashcroft gives carte blanche to immigration officials. This reeks of Big Brother or the creation of an American "police state."

Ashcroft unabashedly supports restricting civil liberties in the name of anti-terrorism,… [read more]


War on Terrorism Term Paper

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In World War II we had a ready-made figure in Hitler. Stephen (2001) makes the point that we still tend to pick individuals on which to focus our anger: "a couple of decades ago, the man every American loved to hate was Colonel Gaddafi; ten years later, it was Saddam Hussein; now Osama Bin Laden is the devil incarnate about… [read more]


People Commit Acts of Terrorism? Term Paper

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In these nations, conservative and violent forces (some defined by Islam, others by other religions, still others by ethnicity or other attributes) see the United States as an evil power (Scheer 2002; Schemann 2001). And while the rhetoric against Western nations tends to focus on their association with the modern and either the secular or the Christian, it is difficult… [read more]


International Peace and Terrorism Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (2,764 words)
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International Peace and Terrorism

What changes to existing legal regimes may reduce the incentive and make the law more effective in preserving peace

In an attempt to enhance global peace and suppress terrorism, various stakeholders have in the past suggested a number of strategies that, in their view, ought to be embraced. This is particularly the case when it comes… [read more]


Threat of Non-Conventional Terror Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
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According to Lowther (2008), the greatest security danger facing the United States is the likelihood of Weapons of Mass Destruction (p.95). The United States is increasingly susceptible to the likelihood of detonation of a nuclear weapon in one of its major cities. The attack is likely to be politically motivated and occur because of the increase development of Weapons of Mass Destruction by terrorist groups and some countries in Asia. The probability of a WMD terror attack on the United States in the foreseeable future is also fueled by increased technological advancements that enable terrorists to develop sophisticated tools and measures of carrying out their activities.

There are two assumptions or theoretical viewpoints that have been used in exploring non-conventional terrorism. The first assumption is the belief that terrorists would not use these non-conventional weapons because of the potential of counter attacks on a sponsor state. This assumption is based on the premise that these individuals are rational actors who are unwilling to destroy relationships between states through using such weapons (Combs, 2012, p.328). The second assumption is that terrorists do not necessarily care about such relationships, though they may be sponsored by some states as demonstrated by 9/11 attacks. This assumption supports the likelihood of a WMD attack since terrorists are willing to undertake extreme measures to achieve their objectives.

References

Combs, C.C. (2012). The New Terrorist Threat: Weapons of Mass Destruction. In Terrorism in the twenty-first century (7th ed., Chapter 14). London, UK: Longman.

Lowther, A.B. (2008). Terrorism and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat to the United

States. Midsouth Political Science Review, 9, 95-118. Retrieved from http://www.arkpsa.org/MPSR%20articles/5%20Lowther.pdf… [read more]

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