"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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Terrorism-Related Disaster Preparation Exercises Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Media houses should be trained on what to air and what not to air in a terrorist attack as a disaster preparation exercise. Such news broadcasted in the media may enhance disaster management or work against disaster management efforts.

The two areas that I believe are significant media related issues within the conduct of terrorism-related disaster preparation exercises are the healthcare of the casualties, and comprehensive coverage on terror activities (Vasterman, Yzermans, & Dirkzwager, 2004). After a fatal terrorist attack, focus should be given to the recovery of the victims' health. However, the healthcare givers have always struggled with the media in ensuring full recovery of these victims. The media seem not to consider the traumatic effects that remain within victims after a terrorist attack. Therefore, they continually air terrorist attack incidences and show traumatic pictures way after the attack. This trend usually brings up the traumatic experience to most victims, which jeopardizes their recovery process.

Oftentimes, terrorists have used the media platform to flourish. They have hinged on the extensive coverage of their activities, to further their terrorism activities and recruit other potential terrorists. The media have failed to filter their content on terrorism attacks, which has not only served the purpose of briefing the public but enhancing further terrorism-related disaster.

In order to avoid the failure of the media, disaster preparation exercises needs to be extensively done to media houses. They need to be thanked for the good work of relaying information on terrorism, but also warned of the disservice that they cause to disaster management efforts. They need to be informed during the terrorism-related disaster preparation exercise of the content of their coverage and the amount of airtime to give to terrorism-related matters.


Bloomberg, M.R., Scoppetta, N., & Cassano, S.J. (2007). Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness Strategy. Fire Department City of New York, 21-39.

Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C.J., & Dirkzwager, A.J. (2004). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Oxford Journals,…… [read more]

How Narco-Terrorism Affects International Relations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The lack of political will, poor border policies and regional issues enhance these threats.

These two global threats complement each other (Sanderson 2004). The sale of narcotics remains the most solid and reliable source of funds for terrorism and criminal activity. One solid evidence presented by the Drug Enforcement Administration is methamphetamine production and distribution in Hezbollah initiatives. It revealed the existence of Hezbollah-operated methamphetamine laboratories in the rural areas. One more glaring and frightening proof of their strong link is the increased opium production in Afghanistan a decade ago. Reports disclosed that these labs turned out 3,500 metric tons of opium from 225,000 acres. These represented 76% of the global supply of heroin and opium in 2001 alone. The volume increased to 5,500 tons in 2003.

Schmid (2004) writes that the "in-house" organized crime activities by terrorist groups are more formidable. They are a greater problem than just a close alliance or union of organized crime and terrorist organizations. The Palermo Convention against Transnational Organized Crime could deflect money from falling into terrorist hands. The money is intended for the launching and maintenance of terrorist campaigns.

In addition to globalization, other conditions provided the suitable environment for the narcotics, terrorism and organized crime to flourish worldwide (Cilluffo 2000). These include the end of the Cold War the evolution of world economy. These trends benefited the nations of the world positively as they did these threats. The trouble lies in the oversight and the lack of uniformity with which the nations of the world has been responding to these transnational threats.


Cilluffo, F. (2000). The Threat Posed from the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug

Trafficking, and Terrorism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10-17.

Sanderson, T. (2004). Transnational Terror and Organized Crime. SAIS Review,…… [read more]

Community Outreach and Counterterrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


While programs directed at raising public awareness concerning terrorism were largely successful, there were also cases of individuals feeling that they were discriminated on account of their background. Canada's "National Security Community Outreach Program was created to respond to issues raised by the minority communities of Canada during the Anti-terrorism Act (ATA) Tri-annual Parliamentary Review as well as community consultations… [read more]

United Kingdom Government Response to Post-9/11 Attacks of Islamic Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,453 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


S. Governments.

Moreover, the United Kingdom responded to the post-September 11 terrorist attacks by doubling its resources devoted to preventing terrorism, including strategies such as transferring some of the personnel back to the London to work with the MI5 in countering terrorism. Similarly, the United Kingdom Government responded in its overseas states by recruiting security agents who ran disruption of… [read more]

Psychological Process Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,156 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


General provisions of FISA establish procedures for the authorization of electronic surveillance, the use of pen registers, trap, and trace devices, conducting physical searches and business records for purposes of gathering foreign intelligence. I support use of extraordinary rendition by the government against foreign individuals suspected of acts of terrorism against the United States because they are not U.S. citizens hence not supported by law. Secondly, this can help deter any foreign terrorist who intends to carry out terrorism activity with the United States.

The statute regarding a material witness permits the government under circumstances that are not limited to detain people who will be required as witnesses' in future judicial proceedings and they cannot be relied upon to appear for those proceedings. Enemy combatant are subject to capture and detention but they are also subject to be tried and punished by military tribunal acts that render their belligerency unlawful. This means that they have a right to a due process and the ability of challenging their enemy combatant status before an impartial authority. On the other hand, an alien who is engaged in an activity, which endangered the security of United States, have to be detained for several days before any charges against them are brought forward. Immigration detention and removal policies apply to the investigation of terrorist activity since they help in getting a hold of suspected terrorist. These suspects can help in giving useful information on terrorist groups and lead to arrests of other terrorists.

Unlawful combatants normally qualify for some protection under the Fourth Geneva convection while the Geneva Convention does not cover the enemy combatants. Therefore, the enemy combatants are subject to prosecution for charges of international terrorism. Civilian prosecution of terrorism and supporters of terrorism are different. Civilian prosecution of terrorists involves civilians taking action against terrorists while supporters of terrorism are civilians who support terrorism activities. The exposure of classified information risks civilians taking law into the own hands and prosecuting the terrorists. The military commission has frameworks in place that are specifically meant to execute the terrorist cases as opposed to civil or federal court. Furthermore, the military commission has more experience in dealing with terrorist related cases unlike the federal or civilian courts.

The federal bureau of investigation is the primary federal investigative service within the United States. Its mission is to uphold and enforce federal criminal laws, assist international, state and local police and investigative services when required in order to protect the United States against any terrorism and threats that are against the nations interest. This agency relies on domestic as well as foreign information to assist in the anti-terror operations that it carries out.

Posse comitatus is a loosely organized, and far-right social movement which spreads a conspiracy-minded as well as anti-Semitic message using the name of white males Christians in order to counter what they believe is an attack on their rights. The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, 18 U.S.C. § 1385 was intended to limit the… [read more]

Global Efforts to Reduce Terrorism: Have They Been Effective? Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,530 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


' For reasons that will be highlighted in the subsequent sections of this text, this approach has largely been ineffective.

There is the well-founded claim that one of the reasons the war on terror is being lost in many parts of the words is as a result of failure to grasp the workings and the grand strategy of terrorist formations.… [read more]

Future Terrorist Hot Spots Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  6 pages (1,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


S. must also be careful not to create the impression it is trying to control these groups and serve its own interests alone.

DAVID FOSTER M8D2 Reply to original post

Given the history and the close proximity to Israel, the instability in the Sinai is especially worrisome: Israel has strongly supported Egypt's efforts to create stability there and hopefully Israel will not feel a need to further intrude into the area, which could further create anger and outrage.


An excellent point that anti-immigrant, xenophobic sentiment may stir up sympathies for radical Islam. Even more so than economic disenfranchisement, alienation from the rest of society and unmet expectations can create fertile psychological ground for radicalism. A high rate of criminals of minority ethnicities alone suggests that there is a profound disconnect between social expectations and the desire of new immigrants for a better life. Of course, ironically, the more that minority groups are associated with terrorist actions, the greater the likelihood innocent members of minority groups are likely to face prejudice by virtue of guilt-by-association.


North Africa is an area of the world which is currently receiving little attention in the media, despite the fact that there is widespread agreement it is likely to become a future 'hot spot' of terrorist activity. Political unrest and social discontent combined with little control of the territories by unstable government are a toxic combination. Add access to weapons and divisiveness between warring ethnic groups and the prediction of African unrest seems sound.

With this in mind, intelligence analysts must seek to gather more data about the area and find persons who speak the languages of likely hot spot areas. Criminal justice professionals must prepare now rather than wait for something bad to happen.… [read more]

Radical Organized and Lone Wolf Terrorism Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Of course, we do not want to live in fear of terrorism but we also do not want to live in fear that a post on Facebook that we make disagreeing with an action by the American government might potentially be interpreted as 'support for terrorism' either.


Feldman, N. (2013). Speech isn't free when terrorism is involved. Bloomberg News.

Retrieved from:


M4D2: Lone Wolves vs. The Pack: Who Poses a Greater Threat?

Lone wolf terrorists tend to have less formal organizational capabilities and training than organized terrorists. Events which caused mass causalities like the 9/11 bombings require more careful planning and coordination that one individual (particularly a mentally unhinged individual) is likely to be capable of; also, organized terrorists have financial resources that lone wolf terrorists do not possess, either from selling money through the drug trade, wealthy radical backers, or other means. Thus it would seem that lone wolves are less likely to precipitate actions with mass causalities. However, they can still be quite deadly as in the case of "Nidal Malik Hasan in the United States, who killed many of his fellow soldiers after opening fire at a military base" (Thompson 2013). The problem with lone wolf terrorists is that their motives may be so shadowy and their logic so twisted it is difficult to anticipate their actions or predict where they will strike. Or, in the case of Hasan, they may be a case of an insider whose disaffection with the organization gradually spills over… [read more]

Force: Examining the Most Relevant Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Pape finds that ultimately all suicide terrorists are inspired by a certain level of logic which pushes to coerce modern liberal democracies to engage in more significant territorial concessions; additionally, terrorism has been on the rise because scholars have found that there is in fact a benefit to suicide terrorism and that there is a strong cause and effect to suicide terrorism. Pape's article pushes for administration of policies which push for terrorists to better understand the ideologies of the decades past and to truly understand how new policies based on more nuanced comprehension of what terrorism is and what it means need to better shape homeland security, rather than offensive military maneuvers (Pape, 2003). In a similar fashion, Cronin argues that we must look to our past in order to understand how terrorist groups eventually become eradicated for all time (2011).

Thus, this paper has looked at some of the most cutting edge ideas regarding the shape and patterns of world politics and violence. Many of the thinkers discussed here have made ground-breaking points about the nature of government, security and violence, so that we can better prepare ourselves for a world where terrorism is viewed as a means of critical capital.


Art, R. (2012). The Four Functions of Force. In R. Art, & R. Jervis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 164-71). Pearson Education.

Cronin, A. (2012). Ending Terrorism. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 402-15). Pearson.

Hoffman, B. (2012). What is Terrorism? In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 186-95 ). Pearson Education.

Pape, R. (2012). The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 214-31). Pearson Education.

Schelling, T. (2012). The Diplomacy of Violence. In R. Art, & R. Jarvis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (pp. 172-85). Pearson…… [read more]

Terrorism/Homeland Security Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,528 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The current activity of the organization was the security meeting held on April 19-21 at Strasbourg. In this meeting, France was given the chance to be a member. In the meeting, preventive measures, international efforts towards terrorism and integration of strategies were reviewed in details in relation to war on terror. Participants also examined the legal and the judicial systems. From the meeting tasks on identification, information sharing, criminalization and safeguards towards terrorism were formulated to law (Jonathan, 2003).


Terrorism is a global threat to the security of humanity. The vice has been prevalent since the first century and has now grown to cover almost the entire world. Most prominent groups are Muslim affiliated. Al-Qaeda under the leadership of Osama bin Laden has carried attacks in Africa, Europe, and Middle East and in the United States of America. From the above information it is clear that terrorist organizations are mostly prevalent in the Middle East and in Europe. A small number of these organizations are in other parts of the world.


Howard, M. (2002). What's in a name? How to fight terrorism. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 8-13.

Bruce, R. (2007). Al Qaeda strikes back. Foreign Affairs, 84 (3), 24-70.

Scott, D.M. (2002). Somebody else's civil war. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 22-42.

Zachary, A. (2003). Funding terrorism in…… [read more]

Terrorism and the American Psyche Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (968 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


It is true that many have been traumatized by 9/11, but the human mechanism for naturally recovering from such events is robust and as one psychiatrist stated, "feelings of upset tend to lessen over time." (The American Psyche: Post 9/11") As the years have past, many Americans have tried to return to a state of "normalcy" and live their lives the way they did before 9/11. But the constant stream of threats and attacks have forced many to accept that there is a new "normal," and that this includes the acceptance that they are not truly safe. From the Anthrax tainted letters to the bombing of the Boston Marathon, the American public has been forced to remain in a state of constant readiness for more than a decade, waiting for the next attack to come.

The constant state of preparedness and warnings of potential attacks have also taken their toll on the American psyche. The color coded alert system, which was incorporated after the attacks of 9/11, is a daily reminder that the American people live in a state of constant fear and contributes to the increase in psychological pressure. When, for instance, alert levels are raised people show an increase in levels of depression, anxiety, fear and other signs of PTSD. Strangely though, when the alert levels are lowered people demonstrate the same increase in symptoms "indicating that public reminders of the danger acted as a stressor regardless of the direction of the change." (Silke)

In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, there is a natural increase in symptoms of PTSD among the population. But these symptoms generally decrease over time as people try to return to their normal lives. If 9/11 had been an isolated incident the psychological affects, while permanent for a few, would have slowly eased over time for the majority of the American public. However, 9/11 was only the opening attack in what has become known as the "War on Terrorism," and the continuation of that war has caused a constant flood of threats and attacks on Americans. This constant threat of attack has forced Americans to find a new "normal," one where they are constantly suffering from the affects of PTSD to some degree. In effect, terrorism has alter the American psyche into a fearful and paranoid version of itself.

Works Cited

Hamblin, Jessica and Laurie Slone. "Research Findings of the Traumatic Stress Effects

Of Terrorism." U.S. Dept. Of Veteran Affairs: National Center for PTSD. Web.

11 Oct. 2012. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/research-findings-traumatic-stress-terrorism.asp

Silke, Andrew. "The Psychological Impact of the Continued Terrorist Threat."

American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. Web. 12 Oct. 2013.


"The American Psyche, Post 9/11" WebMD. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.


Whalley, Matthew, and Chris Brewin. "Mental health following terrorist attacks."

The British Journal of Psychology 190 (2007): 94-94. (2007). Web. 11…… [read more]

Radicalization Is a Feeble Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


" The other viewpoint is the European approach: " The European approach aims to confront cognitive and behavioral radicalization, but places more emphasis on the former." In other words this is an exercise in mind reading and prophecy.

The author's premise that the attacks of 9-11 were committed by radical Islamist terrorists is quite laughable in today's world where it is obvious this staged attack was something quite different and even more radical than the author can imagine. Sectarian and ethnic conflicts rarely serve as a direct national or global threat, especially in a world where governments, mainstream and non-radical elements, are responsible for the lion's share of all mass murder, incarceration and general unease throughout.

Radicalization, like every other thing, idea or concept is both good and bad and is nothing more than a tool to be used to help accomplish a goal. The author's attempt to conflate this word to a threat is weak and demonstrates a lack of understanding about how society operates. Military and governments are the radicals in today's society where violence and retribution is in no short order. The state has a legal monopoly of violence, and any attempt to drift from this official line, should be examined and considered a threat according to this article.

The articles confirmed its own lack of understanding as it concluded " As this article has shown, the process of dealing with this challenge will be difficult and, at times, controversial. If anything, the trouble with radicalization has only just begun." In other words the author has little to offer on the matter other…… [read more]

Homeland Security Strategies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


They also emphasize the Department's commitment to securing the U.S. from terror and beefing up security along the United States borders, enforcing immigration laws, securing cyberspace and generally building resilience to disasters (DHS, 2007). The other function often overlooked is to secure the major infrastructure like bridges and towers, airport as well as key natural resources and also respond to and recover from the incidences that may occur within the U.S. The mention of maximizing effectiveness and efficiency of the tax payer's dollar implies that the leaders of this Department are people of integrity.

From this paper it is clear how an organization's missions, goals, and objective are integral in coming up with a strategic plan. It is also clear that a strategy must have performance measures.


DHS, (2007). The National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/national-strategy-homeland-security-october-2007

DHS. (2013). Mission. Retrieved July 23, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/mission

DHS. (2012). Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan FY 2012-2016. Retrieved July

23, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-strategic-plan-fy-2012-2016.pdf

Office of Homeland Security (2002). National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved July

23, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_hls.pdf

Rudolph K., (2007). Data Breaches: The Truth About Consequences. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from http://www.nativeintelligence.com/ni-articles/article-eLC-3-07.asp… [read more]

Terrorists and Social Identity Theory News Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Terrorists and Social Identity Theory

News in Psychology

Viewing Terrorists through the Lens of Social Identity Theory

Viewing Terrorists through the Lens of Social Identity Theory

The clinical psychologist Dr. Dale Archer saw red when the news media began to characterize the two brothers accused of carrying out the Boston Marathon bombing as "losers" (2013). What seems to bother Archer at a deep level is the belief that more and more young people disillusioned with their lives increasingly feel justified to use violence to vent their angst. Archer has posted blog entries on this topic in the past, so it appears to be a topic he is familiar with. What seemed to trigger his most recent post was not that mass murder may be on the rise, but the idea that being a 'loser' is now sufficient to qualify someone as a potential terrorist, along with loners, delinquents, and the severely mentally ill. Rather than question the idea that being a loser is sufficient to qualify someone as a potential terrorist, Archer seems to take these statements at face value.

This essay will not make the same mistake and will instead examine the research evidence for what may increase the risk of an individual turning to terrorism and attacking the community within which they have lived for years.

Defining Radicalization

Aly and Striegher (2012) review contemporary models for explaining the radicalization process that leads to the commission of a terrorism act and fail to agree with earlier models that suggest Islam is the only religious ideology or ideology that fosters acts of mass destruction. They are not alone in this criticism and the New York City Police Department seems to be listening, because they recently broadened their terrorism investigative focus beyond the Islamic community.

The terrorism model under scrutiny is that authored by Silber and Bhatt (cited and reviewed in Aly and Striegher, 2012), which proposes individuals go through a four-stage process of pre-radicalization, self-radicalization, indoctrination, and then jihadist or Holy warrior. This model depends heavily on the influence of religious rituals and Salafi Islam, but numerous experts have pointed out that more than a few terrorists have been Christian or non-religious.

Understanding why this model may be misleading is important, because it is obviously being relied upon by some law enforcement agencies to guide their terrorism investigative efforts, sometimes with great harm to civil liberties (Friedersdorf, 2013). In an effort to better understand whether Silber and Bhatt's radicalization model actually works and in what ways it does not, Aly and Striegher examined the case of the Australian homegrown Islamic terrorist Jack Roche (2012).

After a brief stint in the British military, Roche traveled around Europe, met and married his wife, then moved to Sidney, Australia. Roche's life then took a turn for the worst and he began to drink heavily and his marriage ended. Roche then turned to religion (Islam) to satisfy his feelings of emptiness, traveled to Indonesia to learn more about his adopted religion, joined the Jamaah… [read more]

Extremist Ted Kaczynski Biopic Profile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,276 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Extremist Ted Kaczynski

Biopic Profile of Ted Kaczynski

Ted Kaczynski is considered to be one of the most brilliant masterminds, evil genius and excellent mathematician, who was responsible for using letter bombs as method of attacking universities as well as airline companies. He had adopted the alias of Unabomber, which represents University and Airline Bomber, as he particularly targeted universities… [read more]

NATO Defense Against Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Evaluation of the PowerPoint Presentation

Evaluation of the PowerPoint presentation finds many spelling and formatting errors, which is frustrating and irritating to the viewer. The following problems were noted with the PowerPoint Presentation:

(1) The presentation is not clear on what it intends to accomplish in terms of the information that is being relayed to the view;

(2) The PowerPoint presentation utilizes abbreviations that the layman unfamiliar with NATO abbreviations does not understand. Specifically what is 'MILF'?

(3) The word storage is misspelled as is the word 'components' on slide 7.

(4) The sections are jumbled and disorganized on the majority of the slides.

(5) On slide 12 there should be arrows pointing the opposite direction and in the first line, spacing is off.

(6) On slide thirteen the bullet points are missing online three and text is misaligned in the bottom half of the slide.

(7) On slide 14 the first sentence begins with & #8230; and is not capitalized and spacing is off and while someone is being quoted quotation marks are missing on all of the quotations on this slide.

(8) The colors are nondescript and uninteresting on all slides.

(9) Obviously this PowerPoint presentation was meant to be accompanied by speaker or speaker notes as while the majority of it does make some sense, put all together, the information is sketchy, scattered and really lacks clarity about what is being said in the presentation.

(10) The title page contains formatting errors.

Summary and Conclusion

The problems with this presentation are many in nature. This does not appear to be a professional PowerPoint presentation and the presentation lacks in clarity, proper spelling, and formatting and overall is a very poor example of a PowerPoint presentation.


Countering Terrorism (2013) NATO. Retrieved from: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-834E72CE-C2545290/natolive/topics_77646.htm?

Ridley, N> (2007) Financing of Terrorism -- Suicide…… [read more]

Real Do You Think Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,268 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


As a result, all large-scale, medium and small-scale private and public sector business organizations situated in regions or nations prone to terrorists' threats must make sure that they put all the necessary measures needed to protect their businesses and their staff. Proper crisis management structures, which entail briefed, fully trained and frequently exercised measures, are paramount (Homeland Security 2011, p.27).… [read more]

Terrorist Tactics Understanding the Enemy A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The only way to prevent tragedy is by being as prepared for potential dangers as is possible (Department 2007, 5). Experts on military tactics, psychology, and sociology have been researching patterns of behavior of the enemy in order to ascertain potential leads about impending dangers (Overcoming). Such preparation can help us determine where and when viable attacks are coming.

One example of preventative measures is the work of RAND homeland security research and analysis. In a document written by Jackson and Frelinger, it is determined that a hierarchy of prioritizing threats should be undertaken. Many threats to the United States will be classified as "niche" which are unlikely to result in any actual action (Jackson 2009, 7). Emerging threat scenarios should be classified as those which the enemy has a high degree of actually accomplishing. Criteria to be included in such an analysis will be the available weaponry and availability of circumstances in which a terrorist threat could be executed. This classification system allows people in charge of defense the ability to ignore lower plans with least likelihood of execution and give full attention to the terrorist plots which might actually succeed. There is simply not enough time or man power to go down every rabbit hole when the defense of the country is at stake. Prioritization easily eliminates a great deal of wasted time and effort which is greatly needed elsewhere.

The best way to prevent harm to American citizens is through diligence. Americans must not only be willing to defend the country on the battlefield, but in other ways as well. The best way to hinder the efforts of the enemy is to analyze their behaviors and to ascertain where the greatest dangers are coming from. A prepared people are better able to defend themselves than a group that is caught unawares.

Works Cited:

Department of the Army. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Fort Leavenworth, KS:

TRADOC. 2007.

"Emerging Threats and Security Challenges."


Jackson, Brian A. And Frelinger, David. Emergency Threats and Security Planning: How Should

We Decide What Hypothetical Threats to Worry About? Santa Monica, CA: Rand. 2009.

"Overcoming Extremism: the Evolution of Terrorist Tactics."

http://fora.tv/2007/10/22/Overcoming_Extremism_Evolution_of_Terrorist_Tactics… [read more]

Weapons of Mass Destruction Nuclear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Seeing the ease and availability, there is present another factor why terrorist groups can get access to WMD.

Weapons of mass destruction aren't the only tools that the terrorists made use of to instill terror amongst people. The Anthrax plot that was initiated after 9/11 was developed to cause destruction in large amounts. Ayman Zawahiri, who is the deputy chief of al Qaeda, ran the project personally as other members of the organizations were determined to attain WMD. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 8)

Also, the radiological weapon or dirty bob is ready available to the al Qaeda network. Even though this weapon cannot cause the same effects as those caused by nuclear weapons, the mere use of a radiological weapon can cause fear amongst the people. (O'Neil, 2003, 102) Chemical and Biological weapons are easier to obtain than Nuclear weapons. It is stated that if a country has a functioning biotechnology and chemical industry at the civilian level, then its access to the weapons is easier as well .(O'Neil, 2003, 102) This basically shows that majorities of the terrorist group could have links to these national interests as well. This gives them to ways of causing mass damage by means other than weapons of mass destruction. Seeing how the threat is present from many different groups and of many different sorts of weapons, the defense should be alert and responsive at all times. Even though it has been more than ten years to the world trade center tragedy, the threats of WMD use by terrorist groups should still be taken seriously. (Cordesman, 2002, 45)


Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger

Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies

Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School

O'Neil, Andrew.…… [read more]

Congress Toward Coordination of Intelligence Defensive Analysis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,895 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Congress Toward Coordination of Intelligence

Defensive analysis: This is one of the steps taken by the congress toward coordination of intelligence in the United States of America, the process involves looking for vulnerabilities within an organization, mainly the individual organization while closing any discovered hole. While doing this process, it is important to consider the benefits and risks,… [read more]

Subversion as a Facet of Modern Day Terrorism and Insurgency Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Subversion as a Facet of Modern Day Terrorism and Insurgence

Subversion is a modern day practice. In most cases, studies have shown that the roots of subversion date back to the era of the cold war. It is a war in itself. It is fierce and assumes most of its threats to the European countries, and more so to the Muslim communities. Clutterbuck and Rosenau (2009) have shown that subversion instinctively refers to the penetration of the structures of power, military forces, and insurgencies together with every existing military structure with or without ill motives while clinging on the grievances of the people. The aspect also focuses on their unawareness, and the entire human need for pleasure and fulfillment, to establish a space of injustice and execute an oriented deal. This is happening in most states. The call for peace has turned out to be a tool of subversion.

It is with no reasonable doubt that an armed force turns to another armed force in search for peace, within a single mission of looking for peace. Nevertheless, to say, cold war has taken root. Subversive elements are everywhere in the society. It has even penetrated the government's most trusted intelligent forces. It has entered into families and divided homes, but few get to know. This is the nature of the present war in the world. The future looks bleak (Clutterbuck & Rosenau, 2009).

Clutterbuck and Rosenau (2009) have identified various exploitative weaknesses being used to perpetuate cases of subversion across the globe. They are created within terrorist organizations. For instance, there is regular penetration of communities, religious settings, government politicians, prisons, security services, and structures, moderate members of the society, and killings upon political and military components. The human need and grievances for certain needs are made to be paid for through subversion. This happens in prisons. In its historical context, subversion only presented itself in the field of war. Rather, today sees subversion even in the majesties tables and frontlines of wars.

My opinion

I do not think the…… [read more]

War on Terror Has Changed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,354 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Terrorist organizations can potentially be found anywhere in the country at any given time, which is why having ears and eyes in every American metropolis is valuable to the nation's overall intelligence gathering efforts. The FBI is an important ally to police departments in this area, as local police departments inherit technology developed by the FBI first. Police then dispatch that intelligence technology around their jurisdiction, and therefore reinforce the nationwide efforts on this front.

The final policy recommendation to counter-terrorism units is to teach the various forms of terrorism that may occur, including exceptional situations which may involve biologic, chemical, or even nuclear threats to American lives. It is also clear that automatic weapons, random explosives, suicide bombers, and hostage taking are all tactics that terrorists have used previously to great effect in violent undertakings around the world. Understanding the tools of terrorism is crucial to being able to mitigate terrorist threats. Just as the airline industries updated their aircraft and in-flight policies in the wake of the September 11th attacks, so too must police departments stay on the cutting edge of counter-terrorism strategy and training.

The future of counter-terrorism and the struggle of the War on Terror will be fought in many ways. The first line of defense will be the U.S. troops sent abroad to secure missions, similar to the one that killed Osama bin Laden. The second line of defense will be the spy agents and agencies that are charged with discovering terrorist plots and putting an end to them before they can be hatched. This line of defense is typically handled by the Central Intelligence Agency, however others like the FBI have had an impact as well. This line of defense grew dramatically, as the agencies had stopped spying as much after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and instead they now had to hire specialists in several different languages including Arabic and Urdu. The third line of defense from terrorists lie on U.S. soil, and is typically considered a combination of the National Guard, the FBI, the NSA, and the entirety of America's local police force. This line of defense is important because these professionals are constantly looking out for terrorists and suspicious activity, and are usually the first ones to notice this.

The final line of defense from terrorists lies in the population of the U.S. itself. This includes the general populace, which is now much more able to understand and respond to terrorist threats, due to the extensive coverage of September 11th. America depends on the good nature of its citizens to report problems and to prevent crimes from taking place, and overall, the citizenry can be trusted to this task. There is a subset of America's population that is Muslim that has an extra duty to be vigilant against extremists that may enter their communities. Often, terrorists will not associate with anybody outside of their immediate communities, and therefore the only way for law enforcement to know what these extremists are… [read more]

Homeland Security and U.S. Intelligence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,940 words)
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Furthermore, where CIA was responsible for Inland and across the border security measures, the span of authorities was rather limited. Resultant was a formation of department of Homeland Security. It was a single department with a unified leadership and extremely diverse responsibilities and authorities. The slogan behind formation of DHS was "one fight, one team" which was suggested in 9/11… [read more]

Norfolk Virginia Is a Medium Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,365 words)
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Norfolk Virginia has long since had a special operations team to assist patrol officers with special circumstances that may have arisen, for instance, hostage situations, bank robberies, and other such criminal activities. But because of the threats posed by terrorism "the Special Operations Team has received specialized training in Weapons of Mass Destruction and anti-terrorism response, CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological,… [read more]

Exploitable Weakness in Terrorist Organizations Essay

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¶ … Terrorist Organizations

Exploitable Weakness in Terrorist Organizations

Terrorism and Counter Terrorism mirroring Criminology and Criminal Justice

In simple words, terrorism is a systematically organized act of violence that affects people, government, and the country overall while counter terrorism refers to tactics, strategies, or attacks carried out by the authoritative forces to counter terrorism. Criminology on the other hand is the subject that studies how crime is carried out. Terrorism is one of the topics within criminology, study of which enables people to attain a better understanding of how terrorism is carried out and why. Criminal Justice is a field of study that scrutinizes the policies, tactics and strategies carried out by law, to counter crime or in other words terrorism (Cohn, Farrington, & Wright, 1998).

Normalization of Counter Terror Practices- a Matter of Concern

Normalization of counter terror practices basically refers to standardization of counter practices for terrorism. While in some cases, standardization appears to be beneficial, in this case it becomes a matter of concern. Terrorism is not just one systematic act, it comprises of different systematic acts of violence where each act is completely different from the other. Also the impact of the terrorism act will also be different depending upon the factors how, where and why the attack was carried out. Thus normalizing the counter terror practices will give a limited and ineffective control over terrorism as the same practices will be carried out for different acts of terrorism (Bolz, Dudonis, & Schulz, 2001).

First Principle, Interest, and Passion Rationalities -- Approaches and Decisions

First principle approach towards rationality requires gathering evidence or proof before jumping to a conclusion. Interest approach to rationality refers to rationalization on the basis of collective interest of a nation while Passion approach to rationality refers to rationalizing on the basis of passion. In light of terrorism, counter terrorism, criminology, and criminal justice, the decision taken by law to punish the terrorists are taken through first principle approach of rationality while decisions taken by terrorists to carry out a terrorist act is based on passion approach of rationality while conciliations and mutual understanding between the authorities and violent groups are clear examples of decisions taken through interest approach of rationality.

2001 Patriot Act

While there are many controversial views about this act, it would not be wrong to state that it had a positive impact on prosecutorial and intelligence purposes of the FISA court. The purposes were altered by increasing the degree of severity of each purpose. Criminal information was quickly attainable due to severe intelligence standards and robust information was available as a linkage between the intelligence officials and the prosecutors. The most significant impacts are both positive and negative. The positive impacts are the volumes of application filed in the FISA court since the act's implementation has dramatically increased and therefore terrorism is more controlled. The negative impact is lack of individual privacy which was the main reason of controversial views (FBI, 2012).

While there is no doubt… [read more]

Intelligence Counter-Terrorism Protection Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  9 pages (2,527 words)
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Intelligence & Counterterrorism

The intelligence community and the changes in counterterrorism tactics in the past decade have been outstanding examples of fundamental change in both the direction and the mindset of America's defensive forces. Several journal outlets have shaped the value of these strategies since the September 11th attacks, and academics and private individuals alike have had valuable input through… [read more]

Threats and Consequences Terrorism Research Paper

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The September 11th attacks were the largest terrorist attacks ever carried out on American soil, and the entire world was able to see the attack progress in real-time. It did have a negative impact on tourism, and flights to the United States especially, but tourism did not suffer as strongly in the United States because of the very fast defeat of the Taliban, and the immediate reaction of calmness that U.S. officials took. (Dow, 2011) In reaction to the flight hijackings, flight cabins were reinforced, and protocols were adopted in airports that would ease the entire process of flight security, while at the same time being much more thorough in inspections. The United States' reaction to its terrorist problem was greater than any nation's reaction to terrorism in history. The Indian terrorist attacks affect tourism itself more profoundly because they targeted hotels.

In conclusion, terrorism affects all aspects of a nation's economy in many ways, but none so immediately as the tourism sector. Tourism depends on trust, and the feeling of safety; something that was lost in some respect for India. The tourism sector in India has bounced back in the years following, as the terrorist attacks now seem as a one time outstanding incident rather than a continual pattern of harassment by Pakistani terrorist groups. The United States saw a similar dip in its immediate tourist losses after the September 11th terrorist attacks, but has since recovered to pre 9/11 numbers.

Works Cited

Chandigarh, M. (2009, June 29). 'mumbai terror incident hits tourist inflow. . Retrieved from http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/mumbai-terror-incident-meltdown-hits-foreign-tourist-inflow/65960/on

Dow, R. (2011, Sept 21). Retrieved from http://www.rejuvenatemeetings.com/2011/09/21/u-s-lost-606-billion-in-tourism-after-911/… [read more]

Validity of Postmodernism to Intelligence Essay

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Counterterrorism - Postmodernism

Validity of Postmodernism and other Schools of Thought to Counterterrorism and Intelligence

The study of counter-terrorism is laden with different perspectives and schools of thought, especially because it deals with the development and planning of strategies intended to counter potential threats or attacks to a specific group or geographic area. In the study of counter-terrorism, one must be able to know and understand two or more sides of a conflict, regardless if it's ongoing or not. For analysts studying counter-terrorism or gathering intelligence, knowing all sides of the "story" makes for good planning, although understanding all sides does not necessarily mean one must believe one side over the other. Counter-terrorism is inevitably biased and would always be in the favor or interest of the group planning and implementing the strategies.

In understanding the different sides of a story, there are also several schools of thought that have been and are still being used to justify or rationalize terrorism and counter-terrorism. It is possible that one group committing what is considered a "terrorist" act might subsist to a different ideology than its target or subject of the threat or attack. On the same vein, the target of a terrorist attack would have a different ideology, almost always opposite of what are considered "terrorists" believe in. In fact, this scenario is not uncommon, and is actually illustrated by the potential threat that specific countries in the Middle East (mainly Muslim countries) poses against the U.S., which is considered the bastion of democracy and freedom. The 'oppressive' nature of U.S. leadership in international political and economic arena has always led to its dominance in the world, until other groups or governments with different ideologies decided to end the U.S.' oppression of other countries through a "terrorist attack," of which the September 11 bombings is an example.

One of the schools of thought wherein counter-terrorism is considered valid is critical theory. In critical theory, the prevailing school of thought is that in society, there has always been a class struggle, wherein the 'many oppressed' are ruled by the 'few oppressors.' The few oppressors, or the bourgeoisie, have economic and political control of the oppressed or proletariat class. It is posited that the only way that this class struggle will be resolved is through a revolution, which would abolish all forms of politico-economic classification in the society. It is in this aspect of revolution that terrorism and counter-terrorism is reflected. The act of terrorism is considered the 'revolution' committed by the oppressed, by those who do not dominate and are at the periphery of international politics and economics.…… [read more]

Counterterrorism &amp Research Traditions Essay

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Counterterrorism & Research Traditions

Research Traditions and the Study of Counterterrorism

In the study of counter-terrorism, it is important to know the different perspectives from which counter-terrorism could be interpreted and developed. In the field of social research, particularly the qualitative domain, there exist different research traditions that have the potential to provide significant insights and ideas on how counter-terrorism programs could be developed, and the concept of counter-terrorism itself can be understood and interpreted by the lay man or general public. These research traditions are: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study.

Before delving into a discussion on what research tradition is most appropriate to the study of counter-terrorism, it is important to have a good understanding of the concept itself. As the term suggests, counter-terrorism are planned actions that intend to actively "respond" to an identified threat to a specific group or geographic area. However, counter-terrorism is not only defensive in its actions. It is also offensive in that it identifies, anticipates, and plans for potential attacks or threats. Thus, even before a threat happens, counter-terrorism would have anticipated this threat and developed a plan to prevent the potential threat from becoming a reality. In the current international political climate, counter-terrorism is a "buzz word" that is both controversial and necessary, as numerous countries and governments are threatened by hostile countries and governments. This threat is especially true in countries in North America and Europe, which are considered leaders in international politics and are therefore susceptible to threats and attacks by countries and governments that do not espouse the principle of democracy embodied by the Western nations.

Looking at the research traditions under study, each has its own merit in providing significant insights as it applies in the study of counter-terrorism. It is critical to note that in studying and planning for counter-terrorism, interpretation is key to a successful tactic or strategy. This is why the research traditions are important: they provide guidance in understanding information, providing a different perspective and understanding of specific events and phenomena that would otherwise have been ignored or not highlighted.

Narrative research, one of the research traditions under study, is determined through its rigorous data collection and analysis methods. This tradition relies on texts and documents as basis for understanding an event or phenomenon. These texts can be in the form…… [read more]

Terrorist Attacks of September 11th Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,050 words)
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There is a clear sense that the state of emergency declared by the governor was not only well founded but necessary as was continual communication and coordination on the part of the helping agencies in the state. "To ensure safety, we have increased security at our airports public buildings major events, bridges, and tunnels-anywhere that terrorists might look to further spread fear, violence, and death. At the request of the president, I activated the state's National Guard to provide security at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Guard members remained on duty until the new federal airport security force, created by Congress in response to the terrorist attacks, was deployed" (22).

Some of these changes in security and even the common sense of collective awareness among Maryland citizens and really citizens across the nation have remained in place and simply become a new part of the landscape of the nation, while some have abated. The immediate and long-term response to the attacks will likely be felt for decades as changes become cemented into the psyche of the nation. For instance it is not uncommon now to hear of calls for the police to investigate suspicious abandoned packages and though less common the occasional news story about foiled new terrorist plots on U.S. soil. There was a time when an abandoned duffle bag on a bus bench made no impact on the minds of individuals and parking as close as possible to a public building for convenience was expected while today these things are different and most people accept these minor changes. The governor of Maryland to some degree spearheaded the demand for people to return to "normal" lives, support the affected area, through normal activities like tourism, himself heading a group of governors on a tourism tour of New York and a visit to the Pentagon within weeks of the attacks to challenge the fact that the terrorists had not succeeded in bringing the economy and the nation's spirit to its knees (23).

Above all as stated by the now former governor a new sense of normalcy should include public vigilance and awareness, with a new and greater awareness of our surroundings but not a complete paralyzing fear of public events and spaces. Additionally, the governor stressed that keeping the economy strong was essential to remaining strong in the state and the nation and many steps were taken by the state to actively recover and respond to changes in economic need due to the events of September 11th. There is no better spokesperson than the then governor of the state of Maryland as to the actions of the state in the short-term in response to September 11th, as well as a keen sense of foreshadowing of what might be changed forever in the future of the state and the nation.


Glendening, P.N. (Sep. 11, 2002) Governing after September 11th: A new normalcy. Public Administration Review 62 Special Issue: Democratic Governance in the…… [read more]

Islam Public Space and Religious Tolerance Media and Terrorism Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (599 words)
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Media and Terrorism

Mass Media and Terrorism

Terrorism is hard to define when compared to the much easier concept of war, where there is an absolutely identifiable enemy. In fact, terrorism is much more complicated, making it harder to identify and fight in realistic terms. In today's world there is an interesting relationship between terrorism and the media, as the media often exaggerates and gives too much attention to terrorism and terrorists who thrive off the fear that is produced with this heightened media attention. Increased media attention just often increases the public's fear about terrorism, which can be detrimental to the people's quality of lives. It is often the case that the understanding of terrorism is associated directly with the media coverage of terrorist events. Here, the research states that "without media coverage, the argument often goes, terrorism would simply go away," (168). Essentially, the terrorists are relying on high levels of media coverage because that increases the overall public fear of terrorism, giving terrorists much more control and power. Greater levels of attention help give meaning to terrorist acts and increase awareness and fear of particular terrorist individuals.

There are a number of things the media can do when being threatened by terrorist threats in order to stop the wave of fear the terrorists are looking to spread within American society. First, removing terrorists' access to the media will help decrease the media's relationship with spreading terror. Media outlets should refuse to print or highlight the terrorists own explanations of attacks and threats, as many terrorists often accompany threats with tapes or other sorts of verbal statements. This decreased attention will not continue to increase public fear as much, therefore not serving the terrorists on a silver platter.

Yes, there have been some radical Muslims that have…… [read more]

Al Queda Has Shaped Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


They believe this voice comes with the possession of WMD capabilities. Any such capability certainly gives the group who possesses it the potential to gain collective support from, and further unify, Islamic radicals and certainly makes the rest of the world pay attention.

Al-Qaeda and United States

The discussion of voice highlights the difference between what targets terrorist threaten, and… [read more]

Elements Within Islam That Led to the Terrorist Acts Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,031 words)
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Islamic Extremists

An Analysis of Islamic Extremism and Its Role in 9/11

Islamic Extremists are represented by the United States government as being the perpetrators behind 9/11. Yet, many independent researchers do not accept such a simplistic representation. This paper will look at the elements within Islam that are said to have led to the acts of 9/11 and show… [read more]

Global Terrorism Since September 2011 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
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More so, the incidence of terrorism seems to grow with no sign of it abating.

The question that one must ask is whether this terrorism was not instigated as a reaction to American offense and defense. Without extolling terrorist activities, some of the Islamic countries perceived themselves as being besieged by occupiers and foreign values. Iraq was a prime example of such sentiment. And, indeed, America's intent was to institute a form of government on Iraq ("Nation-building"), which, to America constitutes a democracy but to a rigidly Islamic country constitutes rebellion against its faith and cultural values. The fact that terrorism is abating rather than declining may also point to the fact of reaction and counter-reaction where each precipitating aggressive event - or retaliation -- causes a reaction in kind and since this path of reaction / counter-reaction is difficult to stop, terrorist incidents in general, and particularly in Iraq, show no sign of abating. The fact that much of the terrorism of the post-9/11 saga stems from Iraq reinforces the question regarding whether this terrorism was reactionary rather than offensive and should, therefore, be seen in a different light. Taylor (1988) shows that a precipitating event may force terrorism. The question then is whether this should be called terrorism or defense for liberty of maintaining one's cultural values and way of life.

In short, terrorism can be, and is, a factor of numerous products. Whilst never positive, the different strands of terrorism need to be separated so that we can adequately assess whether post 9/11 activities can be perceived as 'terrorism' or as a form of defense for a country's traditions and values.


Conetta, C. (2006) War & Consequence: Global terrorism has increased since 9/11 attacks. Project on Defense Alternatives Briefing Memo #38


Green, D.P., McFalls, LH & Smith, JK (2001). Hate Crime:…… [read more]

Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Thus, the Chief Security Analyst will develop a plan for safekeeping our most sensitive data. Working with key consultants in the field of counterterrorism will enable the Chief Security Analyst to devise methods of responding to disasters of all types, including those that involve human casualties. Direct links to emergency response teams is one of the benefits of having a full-time security and antiterrorism expert on our team.

Finally, the Chief Security Analyst will lead training seminars for managers and all employees. Managers will be required to master counterterrorism techniques specific to their department, and employees will learn via drills. This organization is committed to protecting the lives of its employees. Training will be offered to all new recruits and periodically, refresher courses will be given to employees who need to stay aware of the latest threats.

Our organization is firmly committed to counterterrorism policies that do not exploit xenophobia. The backlash against Muslims that resulted after September 11 shall not be tolerated within this organization. We in fact value the contributions of Muslims at every strata of our company, and seek open dialogue with Muslim community leaders. Working with community organizations, charities, and other external groups will enhance our ability to counter terrorism with intelligent prevention and response strategies. Based on advice given by the Department of Homeland Security and private terrorism consultation firms, I also recommend placing terrorism into a more global perspective. After all, much terrorism is homegrown and much is also rooted in social and economic injustice.


Henwood, D. (2001). Terrorism and globalization. The Nation. 3 December, 2001. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/terrorism-and-globalization

Witkowsky, A. (2010). Preventing Terrorism: Strategies and Policies To Prevent and Combat Transnational Threats. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved online: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/2010/150068.htm… [read more]

Counterterrorism the Future of Counterterrorism Policies: Examining Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  14 pages (4,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Future of Counterterrorism Policies:

Examining Partnerships


Special Operations Forces

Law Enforcement Agencies

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 will never be forgotten by the millions of people who witnessed them, whether live or on television, whether American or foreign, and whether old or young. This date has surely joined others as an infamous date in American… [read more]

Human Rights Are Negotiable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (760 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Unfortunately, the 1949 Conventions and their protocol additions did not include sufficiently clear definitions of combatants or guidance for handling terrorist organizations. Over the ensuing years, the United States engaged in numerous highly publicized and controversial abuses ranging from the invasion of Iraq, egregious treatment of prisoners of war in installations like Abu Ghraib, crimes against civilians, torture of suspects, and the detention of prisoners at the Guantanamo Bay facility without charge or due process. As a result, American leadership and reputation related to international law and human rights were severely compromised by the Bush administration's aversion to the spirit and letter of the Conventions.

With the democratic presidential victory in 2008, the Obama administration took active steps to reaffirm American support of the Geneva Conventions in an effort to restore international credibility to the United States. Whereas this expressed intention undoubtedly assisted President Obama in garnering a Nobel Peace Prize award, the promised change has been disappointingly slow to manifest and inadequate, in the eyes of many. President Obama was unable to effect closure of the Guantanamo Bay detention facility, where numerous detainees remain incarcerated without the benefit of standard human rights they would have been accorded if the facility had been situated on United States soil.

Bellinger (2010) has suggested several constructive measures the Obama administration could pursue, to properly establish that whereas human rights do indeed appear to have been treated as negotiable as related to terrorism, this situation needs to be positively rectified to provide all human beings with clear and appropriate rights and protections, in all combat and peacetime situations.


Bellinger, J. (2010, November 8). Obama, Bush, and the Geneva Conventions. FP Foreign Policy. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://shadow.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2010/08/11/obama_bush_and_the_geneva_conventions

Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism (Human Rights Watch, 29-1-2004). (2004, January 29). Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.hrw.org/legacy/english/docs/2004/01/29/global7127.htm

Protecting Human Rights while countering terrorism. (2010).UN Action to Counter Terrorism. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.un.org/terrorism/terrorism-hr.shtml

Wilson, S., & Kamen, Al. (2009, March 25). "Global War On Terror" Is Given New Name. Retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/24/AR2009032402818.html… [read more]

Terrorism Is Spreading in Today's World Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Terrorism is spreading in today's world and despite focused scientific research and numerous programs and articles on the subject, the situation continues. There are various reasons for the origin of terrorism. One of them is the explanation that terrorism is caused by "Social facilitation" (International Encyclopedia of Terrorism, 1997), i.e. social / ethnic / cultural / and/or religious traditions, and habits that cause aggression and praise violence against another frequently saying how this violence should be done. An example of this is the Irish tradition of terrorism that dates back to the eighteenth century based on the story of Michael Collins in 1919 that still leads to some of the terrorism of the IRA.

The strength of social facilitation is shown by study after study saying that terrorism is largely a cultural rather than an economic-driven phenomena (ibid.) and that, in that case, it is difficult to stop since cultural / religious myths tend to get transmitted from generation to generation as something that one has to do and as good.

Programs such as encounter groups (where people are encouraged to meet others of another race / nation) or other prejudice-targeting programs, usually prove helpful only in a laboratory environment (and generally when done on college / university students). In real life, these programs usually fall flat for a variety of reasons that include the following:

1. People growing up a terrorist environment are generally discouraged from being friends with their enemy in the first place. To the extreme, their lives may be in danger if they do so. At the very least, their doing so causes them to be rejected by their community.

2. People are influenced by their acculturation to an extent that consequences are enduring (Bargh, 1997) and

3. Cognitive psychology shows that individuals veer towards my-confirmation (i..e that their beliefs are right and it is difficult to think otherwise) and naive realism (i.e. preferring to believe that the other is wrong and that they are right) and rarely if ever changing their views (Nisbett, & Ross, 1980).

For all these reasons, a new and innovative approach must be created and this is where my idea comes in:


People, the world over, are interested in improving their behavior, if not for personal…… [read more]

Counter Terrorism Annotated Bibliography Tikuisis, P. ) Article Review

Article Review  |  1 pages (388 words)
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Counter Terrorism

Annotated Bibliography

Tikuisis, P. (2009). On the relationship between weak states and terrorism. Behavioral Sciences

of Terrorism and Political Aggression. 1(1): 66-79

The study examined the relationship between weak nation states and terrorism. The researcher engaged in this research because of the inconclusive nature of the studies in the discipline and more specifically the lack of empirical support for the relationship. The work examined two major hypotheses firstly "weak states experience a higher incidence of fatal terrorism than non-weak states, irrespective of major terrorist groups." Secondly, the "presence of major terrorist groups present a global security threat if the groups export their violence." Consequently the variables of interest to the researcher were weak states, fatal terrorism, terrorist incidents, and global security. The work identifies the odds of a state receiving an attack but it is unable to address the issue of predicting future trends or which types of states are most likely to become weak states. The author used the Failed State Index (FSI) to identify failed states this enhanced the validity or the work. Through the use of quantitative methodology aids supports the validity of the work as well as its…… [read more]

Global Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
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Gause looks at India, another democratic nation, and sees that 75% of terrorist attacks have occurred within that country. This is due to national, ethnic, social, and class problems within an ancient society, something outside of the realm of Western democracy.

Although I agree with President Bush that terrorists must be hunted down and captured or killed, I do not believe that democracy as a form of government is the key to ending all forms of terrorism, and I do not believe that democracy can by itself make that part of the world wealthier, it takes hard work and innovation for money to be made. Democracy will however help the Middle East solve many other problems, particularly in countries ruled by oppressive dictators for decades, which have not been servants of the people for a day of their administration. I believe President Bush had to say what he did, but I do not know if he truly believes that democracy is the simple answer to such a complex problem as global terrorism.

In conclusion, it is important to recognize context in the times in which each side was writing his opinions on global terrorism. The war in Iraq was at its peak, and Osama bin Laden was still plotting attacks against the United States. There was a heavy cloud over the country still after the events of September 11th, and relations with the Middle East were at an all-time tense point. After looking back at the past decade, it is amazing to see how shaped American politics were by the War on Terror, and how much of America's thinking on the subject evolved over time as conflicts became worse and better to today's Arab Spring democratic…… [read more]

Global Warming Anti-Terrorism Measures in the UK Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Global Warming

Anti-terrorism measures in the UK and its effects on privacy

The level of terrorism in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and the Northern Ireland is one of the highest in the Western block and it manifests itself both internally and externally. Some of the most controversial measures in what regards anti-terrorist measures have been taken in the UK in the last 50-60 years and many of these measures have created various negative movements regarding personal privacy and human rights.

Most of the anti-terrorist mechanism of the UK state was on a higher alert in the days of the 2005 attacks, both as a result of information about terrorist activities and due to the high alert systems installed after the 9/11 American attacks. Yet this mechanism did not work to the full extent as a significant number of people were killed in the 2005 terrorist attack on the London subway. Theory states that if more surveillance would have been in place, and if more information would have been able to extract from regular British citizens, such a terrorist attack could have been prevented or could have had smaller effects. This raises not only legal but also ethical questions in the British political and social environments, as more and more people demand more protection and in the same time the reduction of state intervention and surveillance. A 2009 House of Lord report shows that "successive U.K. governments have gradually constructed one of the most extensive and technologically advanced surveillance systems in the world" (House of Lords, 2009), and, alongside with other reports of the House of Lords and Commons, or the latest reports of civil society, it gives an image of a controlled society. Such a society, safer in face of terrorism seems to lose in its internal freedom to win in its external protection.

As a mass psychology analysis would point out, the level of acceptance of anti-terrorist measures would be at maximum immediately after a terrorist attack yet it would drop as time passes. Individuals, especially in democratic societies of liberal sophistication like the UK, have a hard time accepting the control of the state on their personal lives, even in for a greater good or for their own protection. In a city like London, where surveillance of street and in-house activities is at its highest level, getting accustomed with cameras and hidden cameras has been a difficult process.

The general public is largely unaware of the real level of surveillance, of any form, a type of state control over its citizens that would be unacceptable in a society that would not be this threaten by external and internal threats. Alongside with the United State, Britain has one of the most complex anti-terrorist strategies that mainly involve data gathering, data protection, terrorist groups prevention and so on. The basis of the UK anti-terrorism policy that governs the level of the state's intervention of anyone's life is the "Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000" (Regulation of Investigatory Powers… [read more]

Homeland Security and Terrorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Homeland Security & Terrorism

The Costs of Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism

Freedom and human rights

in America are doomed.

The United States will lead the American people into an unbearable hell and a choking life.

Osama bin Laden, CNN 2002

On September 11, 2001, the United States was attacked by a group of nineteen terrorists who hijacked airplanes and… [read more]

Defining Terrorism Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (698 words)
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¶ … Terrorism

Gray, Jacqueline M. And Margaret A. Wilson. "Understanding the 'War on Terrorism': Responses to 11 September 2001." In Journal of Peace Research, 43:1 (January 2006).

The present article discusses the issue of terrorism as seen in the perspective of the 9/11 attacks. More precisely however, it represents an interpretation of the way in which people assessed the response to these attacks.

Terrorism is seen as a means of communication. While terrorists try to communicate with the legitimate decision makers in the state, the government, the ones responding are in a first instance the audience around the world. However, the messages sent across by the government are different and they transmit various ideas of punishment. In this sense, Gray and Wilson present the retributive and utilitarian philosophies of punishment. While the former considers punishment to be enforced at the same level as the acts committed, without any consideration for rehabilitation, the latter focuses on the potential wider outcome of the punishment, without attracting necessarily the adequate punishment but in line with potential benefic results of the punishment.

These two perspectives give way to potential messages to be transmitted and to ways in which the war on terrorism can be conducted. Thus, utilitarian theory may suggest dealing with the causes of terrorism, rather than with the actual events. This in turn determines several messages, one of the most important being that of deterrence. More precisely, when dealing with the causes rather than with the effects of terrorism, a message of deterrence is transmitted. As presented by the authors, the certainty of punishment is more important than the severity of the punishment. This acts as a deterrent and therefore has more possibility of utility for the case at hand. Finally, another message that can be transmitted is related to the issue of punishment. Yet, should the group consider this punishment unjust, deterrence is not achieved.

The main scope of the article however is the way in which people interpret the war on terrorism. The study was made on university students, aged from 20 to 49. The nationalities varied; however,…… [read more]

Cultural and Political Systems Research Paper

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Cultural and Political Systems

Terrorism and Relativism Do you agree 'that one country's terrorist is another country's freedom fighter'? Do you think it is right to donate millions / billions of dollars to the families that lost loved ones in the collapse of the World Trade Towers when occasionally police and firefighters die doing their job other times and get… [read more]

Status and Power -- Terrorism Issues Essay

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¶ … Status and Power -- Terrorism Issues

The Evolution of the Western Image of al-Qaeda

Prior to the infamous terrorist attacks against the United States in September 2001, the group called al-Qaeda was hardly known to the public (BBC/Curtis, 2004). Even within government counterterrorism agencies, the organization was not referred to as a sophisticated global terrorism network by any stretch of the imagination. Similarly, Osama bin Laden was known to U.S. counterterrorism agencies but primarily as a financier of disconnected terrorist acts rather than the supreme leader of a global anti-Western terrorist network dedicated to the destruction of the American nation and way of life.

The al-Qaeda organization was known in connection with its previous involvement in various terrorist activities prior to the post-9/11 era of the "war on terror," but was not regarded as a sophisticated or widely influential organization by U.S. counterterrorism agencies (BBC/Curtis, 2004). In fact, the group was mentioned by name only once in a 1998 CIA President's Daily Briefing -- "Bin Laden Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft and other Attacks" to President Bill Clinton. Subsequent to September 2001, the Bush administration seems to have merely taken the conservative Right-Wing political methodology of the Reagan-Bush Era and made the same use of al-Qaeda and bin Laden that Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney had made of the "Soviet menace" in the last stage of the Cold War (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

To a large degree, it seems, at least in retrospect, that the image of both al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden himself are almost completely a fictional creation of entities within the U.S. administration in the wake of the September 11th terrorist attacks on the U.S. (BBC/Curtis, 2004). Generally, the U.S. presidential administration of George W. Bush purposely misrepresented the nature of al-Qaeda and deliberately misused the September 11th attacks to justify an unnecessary and unjustified focus…… [read more]

Al Qaeda in the Looming Tower Al Qaeda and the Road to 9-11 Book Review

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Looming Tower: A Book Review

The attacks which occurred on September 11th 2001 were immediately received by the United States as an act of war. Indeed, when commercial airliners slammed into the two towers comprising the World Trade Center, into the Pentagon and into a field in Pennsylvania, there could be little doubt that the United States had been victimized… [read more]

International Terrorist Organizations Research Proposal

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The Irish Republican Army (IRA) has splintered off into several smaller groups in Ireland, including the Real IRA, which is carrying the torch for violence against the presence of the British in Northern Ireland. Although there has been a peace pact in Ireland and the old IRA has been disbanded, there are still tensions and the RIRA… [read more]

Mara Salvatrucha MS-13 Research Proposal

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MS-13 and International Terrorism

The Mara Salvatrucha or MS-13 gang has been committing acts of terror for nearly two decades. The gang has its roots in El Salvador, starting as a street gang and eventually becoming one of the largest and most violent Central American terrorist groups in existence. Like their American counterparts, Central American street gangs off struggling youths… [read more]

Iraq Afghan Culture the War on Terror Thesis

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Iraq Afghan Culture

The War on Terror and the Imposition of Cultural Change

The War in Iraq began on March 19th, 2003, when American bombers began a 'Shock and Awe' campaign designed to 'decapitate' Iraqi Republican Army leadership and to pound the civilian population into preemptive submission. The attack preceded the arrival of a deadline by which despot Saddam Hussein… [read more]

Is the Preemptive Use of Force Against Terrorism Lawful? Essay

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The objective of this work is to examine the issues of terrorism and whether the use of pre-emptive force against terrorism is lawful in nature. Toward this end this work will review an extensive base of literature which examines pre-emptive use of force against Terrorism and will examine this issue on… [read more]

Terrorism in Japan Thesis

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Japan Terrorism

Aum Shinrikyo: A Cult of Terror

Throughout its history, Japan's proclivity toward highly centralized forms of government has prompted no small amount of social resistance. As an imperial democracy with an extensive history of regional conflict, occupation and human rights abuse, Japan has engendered resentment, resistance and organized acts of subversion for its political, military and economic activities… [read more]

Criminal Justice and Terrorism Term Paper

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The United Nations has asked the group to disarm several times, and they have refused, and many countries, including the United States, view the group as a terrorist organization. The group has been accused of numerous suicide bombings and other attacks on U.S. And other targets (they have denied involvement), and they have been involved in several wars and other violence with Israel. While they have grown to be a political and social organization, their roots still remain in violence and terrorism, and that is why they should be considered a terrorist organization. Their goal is still to do away with Israel with whatever means they have, and that makes them dangerous and unpredictable. They also were behind the 2006 war that lasted for 34 days, and killed 158 Israelis, many of them civilians. They began the war by firing rockets on Israel and kidnapping Israeli soldiers. They are a terrorist organization,…… [read more]

Terrorism Causes Thesis

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Causes of Terrorism

It is clear that in recent years, terrorism has become a threat to global security. After 9/11, the entire world became aware of the pervasive threat posed by global terrorists from all corners. While a great deal of efforts have gone into fighting global terrorism, it is also important to identify the causes of terrorism in order to prevent it. Three causes terrorism that can be identified are poverty, nationalism, religious fanaticism.

Poverty has often been identified as a cause of terrorism, as impoverished people are more apt to join terrorists sects in order to support themselves and their families. Some argue that when a group is deprived of their basic needs, they are willing to rebel. In addition the conflict between East and West or impoverished and rich may be to blame ("Causes of Terrorism" 2005). Indeed, it makes sense that impoverished groups would turn to terrorism. Terrorists often have well-funded networks that can provide resources to their comrades in other countries and in many geographical locations. Because these terrorists can promise food and perhaps even survival, young and old members of impoverished society are likely to sign up. Thus, poverty can be designated as a global threat, causing terrorism.

In addition to poverty, nationalism often contributes to a person's decision to join a terrorist organization. Zalman says that all terrorist acts are either motivated by "social and political injustice" or "the belief that violence or its threat will be effective, and usher in change" (para. 1). While these motivations need not be tied to nationalism, they very well can be. Once again, the East-West class…… [read more]

Terrorism Technological Innovation as a Weapon Thesis

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Terrorism Tech

Technological Innovation as a Weapon Against Terrorism

The United States is regarded as among the world's most vaunted leaders in technology development. Simultaneously, its military denotes one of the most formidable fighting forces in the world, both with respect to its capability to wage war and its capacity to provide defense to the homeland. These claims are inextricably… [read more]

Terrorism Be Justified Term Paper

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Self-Defense Argument for Terrorism

The self-defense argument for terrorism has been supported by Wilkins and implies that terrorist acts can be used when these are directed towards the oppressing forces, not as tools to intimidate the population or against other terrorists. As a further development of this argument, economic sabotage is probably a good example of self-defense terrorism. Still perceived as terrorist acts, these are nevertheless acts that are directed towards the economic power of the oppressing forces rather than towards individuals or human populations.

Wilkins supports the argument according to which the Jews during the Second World War (but also the other occupied populations during the war) were entitled to use terrorist acts as a mean to fight the repression of the Germans. The problem with the self-defense argument is that all terrorist groups can interpret facts to imply that all their actions are in self-defense. The terrorist organizations like Hamas and Hezbollah have used this argument asserting that Israel unlawfully occupies land, but this can obviously not be accepted as a proper argument: international law recognizes Israel's rights, as do most of the countries around the world .

Collective Guilt

Collective guilt implies that all individuals in a community bear the responsibility of a certain act. The Second World War again comes in handy as a good example. In this case, the German people can be held accountable and marked with collective guilt because it had tacitly approved the acts against the Jews, as well as the general development in society of Nazi ideas (one needs to remember that Hitler was voted into power by the people).

The idea of collective guilt is when the wrong being done is so monstrous that the only means of fighting it is by using terrorism and self-defense. This is closely related to what has been discussed in the previous subchapter related to self-defense terrorism.


Terrorism has generally been judged as an unethical act, mainly because its impact and toll on human life is so great. Nevertheless, philosophical argumentation can be used to pass reasonable arguments of situations when terrorism can be used as a last remaining instrument in fighting oppression or repression. Utilitarian value can be found in the case of…… [read more]

Terrorism Hamas Is a Radical Islamic Thesis

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Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization which became active in the early stages of the intifada. It operates primarily in the Gaza District but also has some presence in Judea and Samaria. It was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Hamas has been known to have used both… [read more]

Emergency Response to Domestic Terrorism: Oklahoma City Thesis

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Emergency Response to Domestic Terrorism: Oklahoma City Alfred P. Murrah Building Attack

Impact of Terrorist Attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Building on Emergency Responses

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers suggested that "nothing would ever be the same again," but for the citizens of Oklahoma City, things had already changed in substantive ways years earlier… [read more]

Terrorism Terrorist Organizations Have a Wide Range Thesis

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Terrorist organizations have a wide range of methods and materials at their disposal. First, terrorist organizations depend on technology for communications and organizational management. Terrorist networks are relatively loose because they operate in clandestine and unofficial ways, but the networks are also impressively well-organized partly because of their ability to use technology not just for violence but for operations and communications. Seemingly nonviolent technologies can also be used as weapons: such h as large-scale cyber-terrorism. Terrorist hackers can take down an entire company or even a market. Second, terrorist organizations do rely heavily on weapons technology. The advancements in weapons technology and the availability of weapons-related information both contribute the growing strength of terrorist networks. The main challenge in using advanced weapons technology is that terrorist networks must operate exclusively on a black market. Third, terrorist groups do have access to a number of low-tech weapons of mass destruction that are shockingly easy to execute. Poisoning a water supply with a biological agent is a sure way to kill large numbers of people relatively easily, and the act can be carried out…… [read more]

Intelligence Surveillance Policies and Procedures Thesis

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Intelligence/Surveillance Policies & Procedures

After the tragedy of September 11 attacks on Pentagon and World Trade Center, the National Security Agency (NSA) was given authority to listen to all kinds of communications between those U.S. residents who are suspected to have links to Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups around the world. It was assumed that by tapping their communication… [read more]

Emasculation Leads to Terrorism Essay

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Emasculation Leads to Terrorism

Michal Kimmel attempts explain the criminal acts committed by those like Timothy McVeigh, the American GI, the author of the terrorist attack of a federal building in Oklahoma City, in 1995, Mohammed Atta, the Egyptian suicide bomber involved in the airplanes crashes in September 11, 2001, or Hitler.

Kimmel presents a sketchy portrait of these three, with psychological insights gathered from historical documents, testimonies of their families and peers and speculations and builds up a theory of emasculated low-middle class men who wanted to get even (Kimmel, 2008). Kimmel creates parallels between those white Americans enrolling in civil militia or other forms of paramilitary with the intention to regain "the white man's supremacy" in a flattening world from more than one point-of-view. Kimmel reduces the whole issue to a single sided point-of-view, thus oversimplifying the matter. He is partially successful in his attempt, since there might be some gender-related implications in the mass murder acts the three afore mentioned were involved, no doubt, but there are also various other aspects that are thus left unconsidered. Kimmel focuses on these three as examples to draw a conclusion for the majority of all those who ever thought of blowing up a building or an airplane in order to make a point.

Kimmel starts his analysis with a reminder of all those women who died or suffered along with the men in the unfortunate events of 9/11. He is almost blaming "our haste to lionize the heroes of the World Trade Center collapse" as the danger of unilateralism leading to all dangers. He compares this attitude to that of the Taliban people towards their women. The comparison seems exaggerated, but it may have some hyperbolic motivations.

Kimmel's main argument relies on his discovery made based on the similarities in Timothy McVeigh's letter addressed to an editor of a new York paper, two years prior to his terrorist act and some of the thinking patters the terrorists who blew up World Trade Center had. The author of the article Gender, Class, and Terrorism finds striking similarities in the frustrations the two young men have grown up with and were never able to shake off. Of course there are similarities like age and coming from middle-class families who might have put pressure on them at a young age in order for them to grow "strong" and cope with the demanding modern society. but, other common grounds in the lives of those two can be partially or entirely made up. McVeigh may have been unhappy because he saw globalization as an engulfing ocean that annihilated values he inherited from his father and grandfather and reduced his opportunities to raise above the masses of workers for industrial giants or in administrative offices, like thousands or millions of others in the whole world. On top of that, he may have been a repressed homosexual and in desperate need to find a scapegoat for his failure. Atta may also have been a potential repressed homosexual,…… [read more]

Terrorism and Policy Thesis

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Terrorism and Policy: An Examination of the Federal Policy Changes Since 9/11

The objective of this work is to summarize the federal policy changes that resulted from the tragic events of September 1, 2001. This work will examine Homeland Security National Strategy and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act in conducting an analysis of contemporary crime control policies.


Arab Americans Racism Before and After 9-11 Essay

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Arab-Americans: Racism Before and After September 11, 2001


Throughout American history, civil liberties have ebbed and flowed in response to times of national crisis and threats to its survival. For example, Abraham Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and Franklin Roosevelt interred millions of Japanese-Americans following the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor. These extra- and unconstitutional approaches to ensuring national security,… [read more]

Nuclear Terrorism - Book Response Essay

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Nuclear Terrorism - Book Response


Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. (2004) by Graham Allison

Graham Allison is a political scientist and terrorism expert whose past accomplishments include serving both President Reagan and President Bill Clinton as Special Advisor to the Secretary of Defense and as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Plans, respectively. In the Clinton administration, he coordinated DOD strategy and policy towards Russia, Ukraine, and the other states of the former Soviet Union. The current Director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and Douglas Dillon Professor of Government at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, Dr. Allison was twice awarded the Department of Defense's highest civilian award, the Distinguished Public Service Medal. In 2004, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe, was selected by the New York Times as one of its "100 most notable books of 2004."

According to Allison, the risk of nuclear terrorism on American soil is much more likely than commonly believed; in fact, Allison expects that such an attack is actually much more likely to be perpetrated sooner, (i.e. within the next decade) than later. That is primarily because the technology necessary to design and construct a crude nuclear device similar in explosive yield to the first weapons employed 1945 to end World War II is fully within the technical abilities of any graduate physics student.

Second, the chances of detecting and interdicting the amount of weapons-grade uranium before it crosses U.S. borders are infinitesimally small because the 25 pounds or so of fissile material required for such a device are easily shielded from radiation detectors. In that regard, Allison also reminds us that tons of marijuana are successfully smuggled across U.S. borders annually and that marijuana bales are much larger than the softball-sized mass of uranium necessary for a terrorist weapon more powerful than one of the bombs dropped over Hiroshima.

Acquiring fissile…… [read more]

Piracy Maritime Terrorism Term Paper

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Maritime Piracy and Terrorism in the Atlantic and Caribbean Oceans - a Methodology to Counteract

More than six years after the attacks of September 11th, 2001 showed the United States to be a nation deeply vulnerable to the type of attacks which are favored by terrorist organizations, the security policies and approaches to protecting the American people and America's friends… [read more]

Terrorism Profiling Term Paper

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Terrorist Profiling: The New Face of Islamic Terror

Since 9/11 the accepted profile of the 'typical' terrorist has undergone a seismic shift. Before, it was often assumed, even by experts, that most radical Islamic suicide bombers sought martyrdom because they had little to lose, personally and economically. Their average age was twenty-two, and they were recruited and indoctrinated for short, intense periods of time to minimize the chance that they would have second thoughts. Also, the perceived advantage of suicide bombing was its rough simplicity, from a technical point-of-view, in terms of its use of explosive detonation and minimal planning (Wilgoren 2001:1).

However, the oldest terrorist involved in the 9/11 attacks was forty-one. Richard Reid, the 'shoe bomber' was thirty-two (McGrory & Hussein 2005). Furthermore, the relatively educated men behind the Al Qaeda organization had "spent years studying and training in the United States, collecting valuable commercial skills and facing many opportunities to change their minds" (Wilgoren 2001:1). They also had a more flexible attitude to their religion, were often seen drinking alcohol with non-Muslims at sports bars and many had held professional jobs. This 'blending in' is still practiced as a technique today by terrorists. One terrorists training camp in Pakistan is staffed by radical Muslims still living in the UK, and a teacher is said to have instructed some British recruits: "don't go to well-known radical mosques in the UK, as they are under police surveillance. Don't wander into bookshops which sell violent videos and militant literature as they too are being watched' (McGrory & Hussein 2005).

The 9/11 attackers had strong societal ties characteristic of the middle-aged, and one of them behind a wife and young children. Perhaps the only 'obvious' indication that these men might be terrorists was their fascination with flight, and their fixation upon learning how to fly, rather than to land an airplane. Monitoring flight school enrollment and communications technology thus is important when profiling potential suspects, more so than an expressed ideological affinity with militant Islam. A key weapon for Islamic militants is new communications technology like the Internet that enables them to rally support and recruit from all over the world, at little expense, shift funds electronically and use the Internet to keep in contact with the rest of their deliberately dispersed organization, while they "gather information about their targets and publicize their threats" (Nicolson, 2004).

Many terrorists have lived in the countries they are targeting, or are natives, and may even be converts to Islam, as terrorist organizations have begun to put aside their usual resistance to recruiting from outside the faith. "The new terrorists are global citizens, resourceful and meticulous, skilled with technology and with the patience to wait years for the opportunity to attack" (Nicolson, 2004). Their disaffection with society is just as likely to be ideological as economic -- many, regardless of age and status, are still 'finding themselves' and militancy provides an easy answer and life's purpose. This may have been true…… [read more]

Social Conflict Theory Public Policy Towards Terrorism and Terroristic Acts Term Paper

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In order for the present status quo to change from the perspective of social conflict theory there must be a conflict between two classes occur which has directly resulted because of the dominant administration in Washington. This domination, most specifically in the Middle East has resulted in terrorist activity as the al Qaeda seeks a venue to validate itself and its grievances which it feels have been ignored and unaddressed by the U.S. government or its citizens.

The United States has undergone many legal transformations since the occurrence of September 11, 2001, such as no-fly lists, and a general trampling of basic Constitutional rights of U.S. citizens. This compliance or passivity relating to many injustices of the U.S. government is much of what has driven terrorism in the United States in that the masses of U.S. citizens have ignored many acts of the U.S. government and military operations in the Middle East. Therefore, according to the social conflict theory the terrorist attacks in the United States were a way of reflecting negative attention on the U.S. Government for its actions in the Middle East by the terrorists committing the attacks. Social Conflict theory has as its basis the belief that the fundamental causes of crime are social and economic forces that operate within society. In this view, crimes of the street receive extreme and severe punishment while crimes, which are large scale financial, and business type crimes receive a greater amount of leniency in their treatment. Presently there is a movement in the United States, which threatens to rise up in indignation against the present ruling class. Within the framework of social conflict theory, the key to making these systems workable is the acceptance of authority and the legitimate use of power. Furthermore, the strength of the group in power determines their ability to make and enforce laws. Groups, which pose a threat to the ruling group, are the groups most likely to be controlled and generally are the weaker and poorer groups in society.

I. SINCE 9/11

The media has extensively covered terrorism since 9/11 with focuses on the 'how's' and 'why's' of the attack on New York City and yet it has barely been mentioned that terrorism has been in existence for a very long time. Terrorism is used as a weapon of those who are willing to use violence because they understand that a real power struggle cannot be won by them due to their weakness in power and authority. The work of Karen a. Feste entitled: "Intervention and Terrorism Conflict: Theory, Strategy and Resolution" (2004) writes that several theories exist which "explain the intervention-terrorism conflict link and account for its persistence. Some emphasize ideology, culture and values. The clash of civilizations implies the conflict is eternal and intractable. Goals of Arab fascism vs. goals of democratic liberalism point to distinct, non-complementary social order approaches as the two collide." (2004) in addition, Feste relates "Security designs of… [read more]

Since the 9/11 Attacks Research Paper

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The first step towards better and more targeted policies within the criminal justice system is therefore establishing the fundamental reasons behind terrorism. In order to do this, a thorough investigation of currently existing and past government and criminal justice policies need to be examined. These can then be scrutinized as establishing a basis for the nature of the current manifestations of terrorism in the United States.

There are several existing policies that I also feel should be either eliminated or replaced by better policies. Profiling possible terrorists for example often target people of Arabian origin, or those adhering to the Muslim religion. When one of these people is arrested for even a minor offense, the criminal justice system often treats them unfairly as compared to other ethnic groups. Ironically, while the system occupies itself with ineffective and time-consuming policies, terrorism thrives. In this, the criminal justice system has created for itself a decoy and for the terrorism network in the country an opportunity like never before.

To curb this problem, I would suggest a policy of more thorough investigation as a starting point for curbing the terrorism problem. Under-cover agents can for example be used in order to investigate suspicious persons, rather than arresting the suspected offenders without conclusive proof of their actions. Under cover agents could also uncover larger networks of terrorism rather than making a single arrest at a time and then possibly targeting citizens who are law-abiding in the first place.

Each arrest occupies valuable time and resources within the criminal justice system. A more targeted policy would focus these towards a more effective policy to curb terrorism. Targeted and multiple arrests via under cover work will also have the benefit of discouraging existing terrorists from their activities. While it is possible that this will also lead to more covert and hidden activities, a more targeted policy can at least make it more difficult for terrorists to conduct their activities with quite the same confidence as before.

The current system of policies in criminal justice focuses time, human, and financial resources into very ineffective practices. Changing the existing policy towards one that targets potential terrorists for investigation rather than summary arrest will initially require more resources in terms of time and finances. However, the ultimate result will be much more effective than the current policies.

The criminal justice system is the cornerstone of the freedoms and rights built up over centuries of life in the United States. It would be a shame to let these drown in a political quagmire of needing to prove innocence rather than guilt while power hungry leaders in the country pursue an agenda entirely of their own.


Thompson, Larry D. (2003, Oct 12). Terrorism and the U.S. Criminal Justice System. Brookings. http://www.brookings.edu/speeches/2003/1012terrorism_thompson.aspx

Weisbrot, Mark (2001, Sept 22). To Prevent Terrorism, U.S. Foreign Policy Must Change. Common Dreams News Center. http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0922-09.htm… [read more]

State Terrorism Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Iraq Under Saddam

The country of Iraq has become a strong source of state terrorism in today's society. As show of proof, Iraq has many of the characteristics associated with enforcement terror. First, the acts inflicted on the population are done through men in uniform, rather than small bands of rebel forces. Iraq has, in the past, used violence for political ends, such as land control. The Iraqi government has harmed people not involved in the countries struggles. Their purpose is to spread panic and terror to ensure surrender of the people. Their attacks are spontaneous, yet well planned, and are clearly performed by governmental forces. Further, Saddam and his military use dualism to create the illusion of an "us vs. them" mentality (Galtung, 2002).

However, terrorism in the region did not start without warning. Saddam's rise to power left a trail of blood and death as he quickly rose through the ranks of the military. His presidency became legitimate only after killing many of the most prominent men in Iraq. As Saddam took power, he began quickly ridding the country of entire populations, committing genocide and mass destruction. It was this step that essentially created terrorism as a policy tool in Iraq. As Saddam grew in power, his use of terror persuaded many individuals to follow his lead,…… [read more]

Threat of Terrorism and WMD Term Paper

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¶ … Threat of Terrorism and WMD

If you are person living in the isolation of the South American rain forest, you might answer the question: How realistic do you perceive the threat of terrorist use of weapons of mass destruct ion (WMD) to be? Your answer might be you do not perceive it to be realistic at all. However, if you were in New York City, or at the U.S. Pentagon, or standing in rural Pennsylvania field on September 11, 2001, you would probably say that the threat of a terrorist using WMD against a civilian population is very real. If you are a Sudanese national, in the Darfur region, you would say that terrorists have already resorted to the use of WMD against the civilian population. if, on the morning of July 7, 2005, you were on a particular bus on your way to work; you might answer, yes. The threat of terrorist use of WMD against a civilian population is not a question of will they use it; it is a question of when will they use it.

Unfortunately for the civilian populations of the world, whose own governments often sell and trade…… [read more]

Terrorism the Intelligence Community Does a Fairly Term Paper

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The intelligence community does a fairly good job in analyzing terrorist operations, but they have not been able to find Osama bin Laden, and they have not been able to control terrorism around the world, in fact, terrorism events are up this year, despite more analysis and control. There are so many tools available to help analyze terrorism that it is almost overwhelming, and terrorists can outwit most analysts because they are determined to do so, and they have the tools to help them outwit terrorist control and continue their activities. As soon as our country or another country puts one type of control in place, the terrorists attempt to override it, or find another way to resume their attacks of terror. For example, airline security is now extremely tight around the world, so terrorist strikes have been against other forms of transportation, such as busses, railways, and subways, and other forms or airport attacks have been devised, such as suicide bombing terminals.

There have been many unsuccessful terrorist plots uncovered in the past…… [read more]

Forecasting Terrorism Term Paper

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Forecasting Terrorism

One of the primary patters of terrorist operations than can indicate an attack and should concern intelligence services is weapons movement. Since large-scale attacks often necessitate a mass of weapons, this is a good indicator and intelligence services should pay close attention to this type of movement. Of course, as the September 11, 2001 attacks indicate, large-scale weapons movement is not always necessary in modern terrorist attacks. The recent arrests in Germany indicate, however, that large-scale massing of ingredients to create weapons is also a high indicator of upcoming terrorist activity.

Another key indicator is terrorist propaganda. While propaganda is not always an indicator of upcoming terrorist activity, it can be a good indicator that activity is going to increase in the near future, and often, propaganda includes threats against specific nations, which can be excellent indicators that an attack is going to occur. Combine propaganda with another indicator, increased terrorist movement and activity in certain areas, and the likelihood of a terrorist attack…… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism Term Paper

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Domestic Terrorism has been regarded in recent times to be one of the most important threats facing internal security in the U.S. In order to have a complex view on the terrorist phenomenon taking place inside the borders of the United States, it is important to take into account certain theoretical delimitations and examples that would support them. In this… [read more]

Forecasting Terrorism Americans Have Worried Term Paper

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Forecasting Terrorism

Americans have worried more about terrorism since the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001. In reality, 9-11 was not the start of major terrorist activity against the United States. Al-Qaeda and extremists groups allied with Osama bin Laden pledged to destroy American interests years before, and had already tried once before, in 1993, to destroy the World Trade Center, which they viewed as representation of American pride and power.

Forecasting terrorism is not very difficult in the Internet age, especially when those committed to perpetrate it against you are very vocal about their intentions, publicizing them throughout the Islamic world and broadcasting their intentions in public statements on video tapes disseminated over the Internet. According to the direct statements of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, and other terrorists intent on harming the U.S., they have every intention of launching subsequent attacks on this country whose…… [read more]

Forecasting Terrorism Ideology May Have an Impact Term Paper

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Forecasting Terrorism

Ideology may have an impact on the structure of organization which terrorist groups choose to adopt. The use of an organized network may make the organizing of operations easier due to the larger resources and expertise that are likely to be available to them than when operating as a small isolated group. The use of a network makes the may make the terrorists more proficient due to these extended resources and experience. The recruitment of younger members to the terrorist group is less problematic when using networked structures as it allows for tutelage of the newer recruits from experienced mentors. This lowers the risks associated with the operations which involve newer members and is likely to allow the unit to operate for a prolonged period of time.

Networks also provide an effective means for the terrorist organization to obtain intelligence, as there is only the requirement for one or two members of the organization…… [read more]

Psychological Approaches to Analyzing Terrorism Term Paper

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Psychological Approaches to Analyzing Terrorism

Ours is a high tech world, where mass communications has made possible the ability to connect with someone on the other side of the world in the time it takes to push a button on a computer keyboard (Thomas, Timothy, 2003). This has facilitated the goals of extremists, who must physically conceal themselves in order to perpetrate terrorism on the rest of the world populations who move about in the public sphere with never so much as a thought as to harming others on the basis of their religion, race, or cultural traditions. Psychology has taken on a new importance in analyzing terrorism in order to sort through the bogus messages that are sent via the internet and other means of mass communications containing encrypted messages of intent to harm others. Psychological analysis of these messages has become a new tool in the realm of intelligence gathering and forecasting terrorism.

Fortunately, the starting points as to where to begin an analysis are often times clear when it comes to forecasting terrorism. There are distinct and very public differences of opinion, philosophy, politics and religion about which certain groups are very vocal, because the intent is to win support for their cause amongst the masses; even if ultimately those masses are put in harm's way…… [read more]

International Terrorism it Is Difficult Term Paper

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International Terrorism

It is difficult to say that the United States has placed too much emphasis on the notion of jihad; given the very real, calculable effects that terrorism has had, not simply upon U.S. own soil, but on the safety other lands as well. However, to simplistically view all potential terror suspects as mindlessly following a fanatical religious doctrine, without any consideration of different motives of different groups or individuals is absurd, and ultimately unhelpful in fighting the war on terror. Political prisoners commit suicide for any number of reasons, some political, some personal, such as despair. "The suicides should surprise no one because the detainees believe they will be held indefinitely with no chance for justice, said Josh Colangelo-Bryan with the Center for Constitutional Rights, which represents about 200 of the detainees. 'They've been told that while at Guantanamo they have no rights as human beings' he told reporters" (Starr, 2006).

However, although the reasons the detainees at Gitmo committed suicide cannot be deduced after the fact, at very least, we can attempt to get past the mentality that the members of terrorist organizations act as a monolith, and that the action of every individual accused of terrorist actions is somehow in the service of a single concept of jihad. This conveniently ignores the human complexities of why individuals commit acts of terror, and also absolves their keepers of any…… [read more]

Terrorism and the Internet Modern Media Technologies Term Paper

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Terrorism and the Internet

Modern media technologies are revolutionizing the form of risk in the modern society. Internet has emerged as an important instrument for the massive distribution of news, hoaxes and rumors, as also portrayals of public anguish, in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. There is a real immediate need to comprehend the manner in which the dynamics… [read more]

Internet and Terrorism Term Paper

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Internet and Terrorism by James a. Lewis of the Center for Strategic and International Studies published April, 1 2005, in the Proceedings of the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Society for International Law.

Lewis's article is a detailed opinion piece stressing the nature of the threat of the internet, as it is utilized as a tool by terrorists. The author stresses that the internet is above all a tool that has been utilized by terrorists to spread extremist doctrine and commit fraudulent acts that ensure funding, through means that are better and less risky than bank robberies and kidnappings. Lewis describes the need to assess the threat of the utilization of the internet by terrorists and take action that logically hinders its use for illegal means, such as identity theft or other means of obtaining resources. Lewis stresses that those who wish to limit access to terrorists of internet are not thinking logically but act impetuously in a manner that will likely hurt democratic society and free speech more than it will hurt terrorists. The answer according to Lewis is not to restrict access but to control illegal activity through aggressive logical law enforcement of the new field, win the debate with the ideology, and monitor activities rather than attempt to restrict access or force the addresses to constantly relocate, furthering their ideology through word of mouth which feeds the idea that they are in some way winning the war with the weapon of the enemy. The author stresses that the terrorist is not likely to use the internet as a weapon, as those with intent to do harm wish to do so in a way that is violent, public and bloody and strikes terror in the hearts of the "enemy." This work stresses that as the creators of the internet we should be able to use the home court advantage to better deal with the utilization of the internet by terrorists, rather than trying to eliminate such use, an illogical possibility given the structure and nature of the internet. The author makes clear that like in so many other things overreaction, that created restricted use for whole regions and/or many individuals, via restriction would create demonstrative problems for the majority, rather than the minority, being the terrorists.

The problem in this work is clearly stated. The author is stating that the gut reaction by many to attempt to restrict the use of the internet by terrorists is not only illogical but likely impossible and would do more harm than good. The purposes of the article are…… [read more]

Terrorism Self-Determination No Group or Individual Term Paper

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No group or individual has the right to commit a wrong on another person, even in the right to self-determination, but that is not always how the world works. No person has the right to do wrong to another at all. In many countries, punishment is retribution, for example, in many Arab countries; thieves are punished by having a hand cut off. When one person commits a wrong on another, because of a perceived wrong or right, then it is retribution, and that is wrong. Often the fight for self-determination can turn into a fight of retribution, and that should never be the case. Again, the world is not perfect, and so retribution exists, just as violence during self-determination. A group can experience self-determination without committing offenses on another, but it can be difficult. If they do commit offenses, they may acting out of retribution, and this is never the right way to solve problems or differences.

Certainly, people have the right to decide their…… [read more]

Roots of International Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


International Terrorism

Acts of international terrorism can be traced as far back as 1931, with the first documented hijacking of an airline passenger jet in Peru. However, depending upon how you define "international terrorism," international terrorism might be traced even further back, during the Christian crusades in the Holy Land. There was, too, the French Revolution, which was preceded by… [read more]

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