Study "Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays 111-165

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International Terrorism Term Paper

… International Terrorism

Terrorism is now considered to be the largest threat facing the international system and the security framework around the world. Its transnational nature and the unconventional means used have transformed the phenomenon into an indisputable challenge for the… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism Every Discussion Related Term Paper

… Domestic Terrorism

Every discussion related to the phenomenon of terrorism must take into account certain aspects of this flagellum. On the one hand, it is important to consider the connection between domestic terrorism and international terrorism, taking into account the… [read more]

Domestic Terrorism Has Become in Recent Decades Term Paper

… Domestic Terrorism

Terrorism has become in recent decades one of the most important phenomena affecting the society, both inside a state and at the international level. The events that took place in the U.S. On September 11, 2001 represented an… [read more]

Forecasting Terrorism Major Trends Term Paper

… Forecasting Terrorism

Major Trends in Terrorism in Recent Years

According to Raphael Perl, three major trends can be distinguished in terrorism: an increase in micro-actors, an increase in sophistication of terrorist activities, and an overlap of terrorism with international crime.… [read more]

Intelligence Community Changes Do to Terrorism Term Paper

… Intelligence

Terrorism's Effects on the U.S. Intelligence Community

The threat of terrorism has fundamentally altered the operation and function of the U.S. intelligence community, particularly in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. A recent press release from the Director of National Intelligence reports that there is a continued, perceived threat of terrorist threats against targets within the United States, especially from radical Islamic terrorist groups ("The Terrorist Threat"). Terrorism has always been a registered threat for the United States intelligence community. However, the dramatic attack that occurred in 2001, and the equally dramatic failure of the U.S. intelligence community to provide preventative intelligence at the time, has forced agencies in the United States to reassess their priorities and shift terrorism to a higher position on the list of threats to the nation.

Solid intelligence is a crucial component in preventing terrorism (Martin). One of the significant issues facing the intelligence community is that traditionally their role has only been to collect intelligence and analyze, but not necessarily act in a law enforcement capacity. The CIA, for example, is expressly forbidden from acting domestically; such actions are the purview of the FBI or local law enforcement agencies. Because terrorism blurs the line between intelligence gathering and law enforcement, it has resulted in confusion in the intelligence community as to how best to respond to the continued threat of terrorism (Martin).

One key way that terrorism has fundamentally altered the intelligence community has been in facilitating greater interagency cooperation between intelligence agencies in the United States and other nations, between domestic intelligence agencies, and between intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies ("The Terrorist Threat"). This increased cooperation has resulted in…… [read more]

State Sponsored Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Sponsored Terrorism

State Sponsored Terrorism

What is terrorism and what is state-sponsored terrorism?

Terrorism: "The systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion" - Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Notwithstanding that simple definition by Merriam-Webster, there is an inherent… [read more]

Global Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism

Global Terrorism Issues

Who: Mike McConnell, the Bush Administration's top intelligence official

What: Political Pressures on McConnell from the White House and Congress

Where: Washington, D.C.

When: August 2007

How: McConnell has been given the role of not only being the top person in charge of intelligence for the executive branch of government (the Bush Administration), but he has been given responsibility for negotiating with Congress for policies Bush wants in place.

Brief Analysis: McConnell, a retired admiral who took over the job of national intelligence in February, 2007, met with Democratic leaders from the House and Senate (in a conference call) to try to reach a compromise over the updated "eavesdropping" legislation ("Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act"), according to an article in the New York Times (Mazzetti, 2007). The word "surveillance" was used in this article although the updated law that eventually passed had to do with legal wiretapping (eavesdropping on citizens' phone calls) in an attempt to locate terrorists who may be plotting to attack the U.S. again. Bush has been wiretapping phone calls (without warrants) since soon after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but Congress has asked for some limits on how much "eavesdropping" the president can legally do without regard to existing law (which actually does require a president to get authorization from a court prior to wiretapping). One of the key points of this article is that the Democrats' proposal for a more limited authorization for Bush to wiretap was rejected, and the Democrats complained that McConnell should not be the senior member of the intelligence community, and also be a political negotiator for Bush. The real purpose behind McConnell's job of course is to protect Americans from terrorists, but as the writer of this article points out, "there is lingering anger among some on Capital Hill who say Mr. McConnell acted more as an advocate than an expert..." And also that the real issue should be going after bin Laden and other terrorists, not tapping phones hoping to catch a terrorist making some kind of evil plan.

Who:…… [read more]

Terrorism Global Term Paper

… Terrorism

Global Terrorism

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of current global terrorism. Specifically, it will discuss the arrest of three suspected terrorists in Germany, and their ties to the Al Qaeda terrorist organization.

Who: The Al Qaeda terrorist organization in Iraq was at the roots of this group of terrorists, and this organization is headed by Osama bin Laden. The men trained with the cell "Islamic Jihad Union," which is a "little-known" Sunni Muslim group in Uzbekistan that is tied to Al Qaeda.

What: Three terror suspects captured by German authorities, suspected of targeting American bases and tourist spots for bombing. Authorities are also looking for up to ten other suspects still at large.

Where: The suspects targeted Ramstein, an American air base in Germany, and other locations, such as Frankfort Airport, along with restaurants, pubs, and other establishments that cater to Americans and American tourists. The suspects were captured in a small village about two hours away from Frankfort, where they had recently rented a home. Authorities found numerous containers of hydrogen peroxide, which when mixed with other chemicals could create deadly explosives, and they found detonators and other explosive-making equipment.

When: 5 September 07 as reported by several different news services and reports, including the AP and Reuters, and national and local news. Most reports were essentially the same, reporting on how the men were captured and what they were hoping to accomplish. News sources said there was a gunfight in the small German town, and one terrorist tried to escape out a bathroom window, but was apprehended. Other news sources reported there were up to ten other suspects still wanted in the investigation.

How: The suspects trained in Pakistan with Al Qaeda, then spied on their locations to gain knowledge about where and when to attack. Suspects were going to build bombs using hydrogen peroxide…… [read more]

Terrorism Global Terrorism Preslar, D.B. ) Term Paper

… Terrorism

Global Terrorism

Preslar, D.B. (2000). The role of disease surveillance in the watch for agro-terrorism or economic sabotage. Retrieved from the Federation of American Scientists Web site: Aug. 2007. This article discusses agro-terrorism, a facet of terrorism that is particularly alarming, because it seems as if it would be so easy to accomplish in so many countries, including our own. This was actually written before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which makes it all the more eerie. The author opens the document with the statement "The threats of terrorism and economic sabotage against agriculture in the United States are neither fixed nor certain. Some have said that it is not a matter of 'if.' But 'when'" (Preslar, 2000). The author discusses the U.S.'s own stockpiling of biological weapons, the threat to the food supply, and discusses some of the ways terrorists could undermine our trust in the food supply and the U.S. ability to manage and protect the food supply.

This is a worrisome article because it indicates just how vulnerable we are to global terrorism and how unprepared we are in so many…… [read more]

Terrorism Who: The U.S. Congress What: Congressional Term Paper

… Terrorism

Who: The U.S. Congress

What: Congressional Vote

Where: Washington D.C.

When: 6 Aug 2007 as reported by the New York Times

How: Recently, there was a congressional vote that authorized eavesdropping without warrants on international communications, including communications conducted by Americans residing within the United States.

Brief Analysis: Despite the Bush Administration's lack of credibility regarding the war in Iraq, fears regarding terrorism remain high enough that the Democratic Congress authorized the Bush Administration's ability to eavesdrop on citizens, ignoring civil libertarians' objections.

Who: The NYC Fire Department

What: The Deutsche Bank Fire

Where: NYC

When: 23 Aug 2007 as reported by the New York Times

How: Although the recent destructive fire at the Deutsche Bank in New York City was not caused by terrorist activity the fire has highlighted how safety recommendations for the city's fire department following 9/11 have not been implemented.

Brief Analysis: Even years after 9/11, every time a major explosion or fire occurs, the first thought that enters the mind of ordinary New Yorkers, and even professional firefighters, is the possibility that terrorism is the cause. But although NYC has learned to fear terrorism, it has not learned practical lessons in dealing with disasters from that day. For example, during the World Trade Center attacks, too many firefighters stormed the buildings at once, contributing to the staggering death toll. This mistake was repeated during the bank fire.

Who: The Pakistani Government

What: Release of terror suspect…… [read more]

Global Terrorism's Impact on International Business Term Paper

… Terrorism Impact

When a terrorism attack hits a country, such as September 11, 2001, naturally the citizens of that nation are most affected. They are the ones who are immediately impacted by the injuries and deaths of peers, friends and… [read more]

Management Managing Terrorism it Is Important Term Paper

… Management

Managing Terrorism

It is important, even critical, to apply a comprehensive emergency management model to the terrorist treat because that threat is constantly increasing becoming increasingly complex, and to ensure efficient response, a comprehensive emergency management model must be in place in locations around the United States. Author Waugh notes, "While exposure to the risk of terrorist violence is increasing, the design of antiterrorism polices ahs been difficult and has tended to reflect piecemeal solutions to a few aspects of the hazard" (Waugh, 2001, p. 660). The six models of Waugh's terrorist violence that Americans have had to face can apply to just about any form of terrorism, and they have been used in the country throughout history. Because these activities are on the increase, and Americans face a continued threat from overseas-based terrorist organizations, a comprehensive emergency management model must be applied to any terrorist threat, no matter whether it is internal or external.

The lack of a cohesive model was apparent in the September…… [read more]

Management Terrorism Events and Impact Term Paper

… Management

Terrorism Events and Impact

The impact of terrorist activities became much clearer after 9/11, and citizens began to realize that much more training and early detection of terrorist activities was necessary. The Nunn-Luger-Domenici program, created before the attacks, could not imagine the scope and deadly accuracy of the terrorists plans, or how it would throw a nation into fear. The threat of terrorism, locally, just did not seem that important, or as important as it would become. The program recognized the need for local government training and response, but did not support that training and response fiscally. Today, there is much more understanding about the nuances and threat of terrorism, and so, there is much more public support for funding any activities that can help thwart the spread of terrorism and efficiently react when terrorism occurs.

There should be more preparedness at the local government level, as these emergency responders are going to be the first on the scene of a terrorist attack. However, it is clear that terrorist activity is extremely well organized,…… [read more]

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and Pan-Islamic Terrorism Essay

… ¶ … Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Pan-Islamic terrorism in the Middle East and beyond.

The foundations of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict run deep and are very multi-causal, but in general the conflict is utilized as fodder for extremist teachings that can lead to terrorism. In general Israel is seen as a western power, that is contrary to Islamic values and the actions of the western powers, as well as Israel have led to an increased sense of us against them mentalities. In general the situation in Israel and the occupied territories feeds ideology through the extreme militaristic nature of the culture as well as the overt and covert oppression of what many consider the indigenous population, being the Palestinians. Each side claims some right to historical physical control of the region and the Palestinians, being the underdog express much hatred toward Western powers, and especially America for what it sees as blind support of the Israel right to settle and in some cases exploit the land and its peoples. The support of Israel, in a sense as a response to the inaction of many on the part of the Jews during WWII is in many ways seen as appropriate reparations and yet in supporting the Israeli agenda the Western powers are allowing and even advocating the suppression of the Palestinians, which for some extremists translates to an overt attack of Islam and the Islamic way of life. Though the history of the conflict in the region runs much deeper than WWII the modern actions of the Western Powers and Israel are frequently called upon by terrorists to expound on why the nations of Islam should band together and rise up against the Western states, with additional emphasis on the ideals of the historical conflicts. The conflict is then fed by these ideas and observations of conditions and situations of racism and religious and ethnic discrimination as well as general variances in the living conditions of the Palestinians as apposed to Israelis, is utilized as an overt example of the foundations of terrorism, and the need to strike down those who seek to oppress and control Islam. (Preble, 2004, p. 20)

2. Make a case for a link between Western foreign policy and the proliferation of terrorism worldwide.

Western foreign policy, is often fixated on the democratization of nations, through military as well as economic means. The idea of democratization in many non-western nations is equated with dominance, colonialism and suppression of the traditional forms of government as well as faith. The U.S. In particular has played a dominant role in attempting to openly spread its forms of both government and economy, namely capitalism which often results in extreme social and moral changes that can be seen by many as offensive and unreflective of the traditional manner in which peoples of other nations live their lives, govern their peoples and trade goods. Terrorism is directly linked to Western foreign policy as Western foreign policy is seen as an invasion of traditional ways of… [read more]

War on Terrorism Winning Term Paper

… War on Terrorism

Winning the "War on terrorism"; the Need for a Fundamentally Different Strategy" by Anthony B. Cordesman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies published September 18, 2006

Cordesman's article is a detailed analysis of the counterproductive nature of the current state of international counterterrorism. The work stresses that the current aggressive actions of the West coupled with the inaction of the Middle East create a counterproductive strategy that intensifies terrorism, rather than reducing it. The first point made by Cordesman is that the West identifies terrorism as a global situation, while in reality there are several smaller regional situations, that have little international effect and that any kind of terrorism that can be correctly labeled as global, in its effect is that that is spurned on by Islamist extremism, which he even more specifically identifies as neo-Salafi Sunni Islamist extremism. The work goes further to state that the struggle is not a military and/or secular one but one that is ideological and religious. This point moves forward to stress that any real progress in a real "war on terror" must be fought from within Islam at an ideological level. The work then moves forward to stress that the importance of this acknowledgement is fundamental to success and that there are extreme limitations to any military intervention, and that without a clear understanding of the forces of the threat there is limited action. The author states unequivocally that the West can only "score limited tactical victories, help local forces contain major terrorist movements, defend home territory and buy time." (2) Additioanlly the author stresses that the West has a bad name, as the meorires of colonialism and ties to Isreal for the West to be the leading force in winning any proverbial war. The West must limit its involvement to an involvement that helps ensure that local entities are the guiding force behind change, at a fundamental level. The author also stresses that without extreme changes in the image of the West, with regard to these and other issues there will be no headway gained in the fight. Cordesman, then focuses on the road to Israeli-Arab peace as one of the only manner in which the West can change its own image as a usurper, interloper and devastating force of destruction of ideology as well as natural resources. The author notes that the desire of Western societies to force instant "democracy" is also counterproductive, as such a system does not give historical precedence to the manner in which Islamic nations have always been governed, for the good or bad. Rapid, economic, social and demographic demands for change are also counterintuitive as they also do not take history into account and need to evolve with the evolution of political and social change. The author proposes…… [read more]

National Religious and Ideological Terrorism Term Paper

… International Terrorism

Terrorism is the notion of inflicting violence or terror on a
population to further some kind of agenda without adhering to the rules
regulating combat by the Geneva Convention. This is because terrorists
often have specific aims, whether… [read more]

Computer Terrorism Term Paper

… Computer Terrorism

According to Weimann, "no single instance of real cyberterrorism has been recorded" and the threat is real but probably exaggerated. Cyberterrorism includes instances of hacking into closed systems including the computerized systems that help operate public works operations like hydroelectric dams or nuclear power facilities. Similarly, breaking into the FBI or other governmental organization's systems is classified as cyberterrorism. Cyberterrorism can also target private enterprise and may be politically, ideologically, or financially motivated.

Computer viruses also constitute acts of cyberterror because a virus can disable a critical system. Most small and large-scale infrastructure in the Western world depends on information technology and therefore cyberterror is a genuine and potentially grave concern. Weimann notes that cyberterrorism has the potential to become a valuable tool for international terrorist groups like Al Qaeda.

Angst over the threat of cyberterrorism grew during the 1990s when Internet use soared. Weimann claims that the term cyberterrorism is value-laden, evoking fears of both unfamiliar technology and of terrorist attacks. Especially since September 11, cyberterrorist has become a buzzword in the media. Counterterrorism units have focused on computer terrorism and funneled funds into fighting cyberterrorism. Weimann implies that media exaggerations of cyberterrorism may themselves be financially motivated and in fact states that combatting cyberterrorism is an "economically rewarding" industry. Weimann remains especially concerned about the consequences of media mismanagement of the counterterrorism threat.

One of the strengths of Weimann's analysis is the author's definition of terms and clarification of different types of cyberterrorism. For example, Weimann describes "hacktivism" as a politically-motivated project that can include "virtual blockades; e-mail attacks; hacking and computer break-ins; and computer viruses and worms." The "I LOVE YOU" virus that spread in 2000…… [read more]

Corporations and Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism

Corporations and Terrorism

Yes, corporations can certainly be a root of terrorism. Some, such as those you noted (Gestapo, etc.) are rooted in terrorism and mayhem. Others may be roots because of their actions and lack of interest in the people and countries where they do business. For example, Nike is known for its global operations and sweatshop working conditions for global employees, and has come under fire for these practices. Because they treat these employees poorly just to reduce manufacturing costs, they can be viewed as nothing but a greedy American corporation by many terrorist organizations. In addition, they can breed terrorism in their workers because they treat them so badly. This can breed hostility and even hatred in the workers, who may eventually turn to terrorism to better themselves and "get even" with corporate America.

A also agree that evil can be a root of terrorism, and that some corporations, due to their management and lack of ethics, are certainly…… [read more]

Terrorism Defining and Justifying Term Paper

… Terrorism

Defining and Justifying Terrorism

Terrorism has been around since Biblical times. In about 167 B.C. A disenfranchised group of Jews, called the Maccabees, went up into the mountains around Jerusalem to hide, coming down as frequent intervals to terrorize the Syrians who had invaded and were occupying their land. They worked to resist the oppression of Antiocus Epiphanes, who introduced worship of idols in their temple, erecting a statue in it of the goddess Diana. Of course, the Bible does not call the Maccabees terrorists. They are seen as patriotic and heroic, since eventually they did succeed in driving out the Syrians and taking back their temple for the worship of God.

The word terrorism is a powerful word often used by politicians to unite people emotionally against a common enemy. Brock (2006) points out that before 1980 the term was not found in Reader's Guide, which instead listed acts of violence (and articles written about them) under the location where the violence took place or under the people who committed the act. Ronald Reagan first used the term in 1981 to describe the Sandinista government in Nicaragua.

Likewise, the United Nations Security Council did not use the term terrorism until 1985. From 1985 until 2004 the UN did not attempt to define terrorism either, but limited its use to specific situations. The UN labeled as "terrorist" various activities, such as hostage-taking, abduction, "use of unlawful plastic explosives, assassinations of heads of state or political leaders, attacks on civilian aircraft, bombings of embassies and civilians,...and attacks on religious sites in armed conflicts" (Saul, 2005). After the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, however, things changed. Between 2001 and 2004 anti-terrorism measures "suffered from lack of definition, but, in late 2004 the council prospectively defined terrorism as serious (sectoral) criminal violence intended to provoke a state of terror, intimidate a population, or compel a government or organization" to take a certain action (Saul, 2005).

The media and politicians almost never discuss whether terrorist acts can be justified; generally, they discuss…… [read more]

Countering the New Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … counter the new terrorism threat (post 9/11) and whether these strategies have been successful. It will also look at many possible long-term strategies to counter the new terrorism. Terrorism is a growing threat to world safety and security.… [read more]

Amounting to Crimes and Terrorism Against Term Paper

… ¶ … amounting to crimes and terrorism against the United States occurred, causing concern among citizens, government officials and the president alike. Almost exactly three years ago, President Bush, in his State of the Union address, mentioned two separate acts… [read more]

Defining Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism

Encyclopedias and dictionaries define terrorism in the easy to understand language but in reality it is a concept that is hard to grasp. In the last two decades terrorism caused more damage to the world then anything else. Especially… [read more]

Protect Ourselves Against Terrorism Term Paper

… Protecting Ourselves against Terrorism major consequence of 9/11 has been that now one cannot talk rationally about terrorism and its causes. Any attempt to look for the reason why anyone would be mad enough to blow up oneself smells of… [read more]

War on International Terrorism and Terrorism Inside Term Paper

… ¶ … war on international terrorism and terrorism inside the U.S.A. is the main theme of mass media and political agendas. War on terrorism opens the eyes of Americans on modern geopolitical situation telling them about events in the remote… [read more]

Middle East, Counter-Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Middle East, Counter-Terrorism and what the writer believes can be done in that area of the nation to promote peace. There were three sources used to complete this paper.


Violence in the Middle East… [read more]

Counter Terrorism Issues. The Writer Uses Three Term Paper

… ¶ … counter terrorism issues. The writer uses three sources to answer questions about Mosques, agents and privacy.

The city that we live in has a large Arab population. The Arab community is comprised of both Arab-Americans and immigrants from… [read more]

Counterterrorism Training Program Terrorism Term Paper

… Social conditions that are likely to aid terrorists

Among the social conditions likely to aid terrorists are conditions such as those seen in Israel, where two distinct population groups claim or are attempting to 'homestead' in the same disputed land… [read more]

How Has Terrorism Effected the World Economy in Particular the United States Term Paper

… Terrorism and Economy

How has Terrorism Effected the World Economy and United States

There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism, and although at times people agree on a definition of terrorism, they also often disagree about whether or not… [read more]

Terrorism Compare and Contrast a Secular Terrorists Essay

… Terrorism

Compare and contrast a secular terrorists and a religious terrorists.

Terrorists can be defined as people who use violence for the purpose of spreading fear rather than for the physical results of their actions. They do this to draw attention to things they perceive as wrongs that must be righted by society (Weisbach, 2004). Terrorists could be divided into two groups: those whose issues are religiously based and those whose issues are not based on religion. Al-qaeda is an example of a group that uses religious beliefs as the basis for their actions. The Basque terrorists of Spain would be an example of a politically-based organization.

Both groups have similarities. Both groups believe that working within the political system will not achieve their goals. They do not believe they can bring about the changes they want to see happen through such things as electing representatives to parliamentary bodies. Instead they use tactics designed to shock people into noticing their issues.

However, political terrorists rarely cross the boundaries of the political entities against which they fight. So the IRA, a group related to religious differences but not fighting based on what religion they think people should practice, commit acts of terror in Northern Ireland and England, but not in Africa or Asia. By contrast, Al-qaeda sees its religious message as important to the entire world, and believes that the actions of some other governments have a negative effect on religious practice in the areas they see as their domains. Because of this Al-qaeda objects to American troops in Saudi Arabia and sees American economic influence as an affront to their religion. So while the IRA sets off bombs in Great Britain, Al-qaeda has attacked in New York City and in Washington D.C., as well as bombing American embassies in Africa. There are no political boundaries for religious terrorists.

Using the IRA as an example, discuss ways terrorists groups finance their operations.

The Irish Republican Army, or IRA, has used a variety of ways to fund their operations. In one example December of last year, both the British and Northern Ireland governments believe that the IRA was behind a bank robbery described as "spectacular" in the media (Staff writer, 2005). In this bank robbery, thirty-eight Euros were stolen. That's nearly $50 million in American dollars (Staff writer, 2005). The British government says that the IRA made multiple attempts to launder the money using Mafia-like approaches, such as filtering the money through legitimate businesses. In the huge manhunt that followed the bank robbery, the Irish police seized over 3.5 million Euros, including the equivalent of 2.3 million pounds, all in cash, found with one businessman in Cork, Ireland, in February of this year. This arrest shows the ties to businesses for laundering purposes. The arrested man is a director for a financial company. Items such as computers have also been seized, suggesting that the IRA may be using modern technology to launder money.

In other cases, the IRA has been shown to… [read more]

Airline Terrorism as the Name Term Paper

… October 2001 saw the first military action initiated by the U.S. under this policy, when Afghanistan was invaded. Prior to the invasion, the Taliban had refused to hand over bin Laden without being shown evidence of his connection to the… [read more]

Defeating Terrorism: American Priority Term Paper

… There were 651 significant terrorist incidents in 2004, not this high since the late 1980s. However, the numbers really are not comparable because the database for the 80s included a considerable amount of incidents not defined as significant: Of the… [read more]

International Terrorism and Homeland Security Term Paper

… International Terrorism and Homeland Security

It is a basic principle of government, even in democracies, that when a country faces great danger, it may be necessary to curb some personal liberties to ensure the safety of the country. This has… [read more]

Terrorism, During Its Long Violent Term Paper

… The following books / articles shall tentatively form the bibliography of my research:

"Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction" by Charles Townshend (Book)

"Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism" by Marjorie Cohn (Journal article)

"The Holy Qu'ran" Translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (Book)

"Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" By Alan Little (Website Article)

(Detailed bibliography is provided in the "Works Cited" page at the end of this proposal.)

4. Methodology of Research

In order to get a preliminary "feel" about the general topic of terrorism, I intend to browse a few articles on terrorism in encyclopedias such as the Microsoft Encarta and the Britannica. I shall then get to the "meat" of my research by reading the books and articles on terrorism that I have listed in the preliminary bibliography in order to identify the portions that relate directly to my topic of research, i.e., the causes of terrorism -- particularly the ones behind Islamic terrorism and investigate whether any passages in the Qu'ran support terrorism or violence. By this time, hopefully, I shall be able to draw certain conclusions about the best way to tackle terrorism. Next, I would create an outline of my research paper and gradually refine it to arrive at the final version of my research paper.

5. Significance of My Project

Terrorism, without question, is one of the most serious issues facing the world today. There is, however, no consensus among governments and experts about the best way to tackle the problem. This wide difference in perceptions about terrorism has led to visible cracks in even long-held political alliances such as the one between the United States and Western European countries. These differences, can in part, be traced to the differences in the perceptions about the causes that lead to terrorist acts such as the one committed by the 9/11 hijackers. It is, therefore, important to investigate the root causes behind the increasing trend of global terrorism which I intend to do in my research. My initial impression about the available literature on the causes of terrorism is that most of it is colored by the biases of the writers. I intend to analyze a variety of views on the subject in order to arrive at an unbiased conclusion.

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Little, Allan. "Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" BBC News online. December 6, 2001. February 20, 2005.

Townshend, Charles. Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002

American intellectual, Noam Chomsky, for example, believes that terrorism is typically sponsored by governments through the organisation, funding or training of para-military groups often under the banner of counter-terrorism

The Holy Book of the Muslims

the list may be expanded at the time of writing the actual…… [read more]

War on Terrorism: Post-Modern Warfare? Term Paper

… British Television/Journalism

The topic chosen is 'Is the War on Terrorism an example of 'Post-Modern Warfare?' being one that is very relevant to today's world, it deals with the causative factor behind the 'war on terrorism' that was declared by… [read more]

Terrorism Americans' Views Term Paper

… In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.

However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to…… [read more]

New Factor in Terrorism Compared to the Latin American Urban Philosophy Term Paper

… Terrorism: An Introduction and Refutation of White's Urban Model With Contemporary Islamic Paradigms

According to the author Jonathon R. White, in his text, Terrorism: An Introduction (2002), the Latin American urban philosophy of terrorist urban cells, from the community, directed against the government and the community, dominated the concept of terrorism from about 1960 until the early 1990s. This urban model was a guerrilla model of fighting, called the 'tupamaros' structure by the author, wielded against civilians in an undeclared war against highly public and publicized targets, with fairly specific objectives. This methodology was popularized by the Cuban revolutionaries, and later extended throughout the world, although it retained its popularity in Latin America up to this day. (White, 2002, pp.118 & 121)

Of course, the urban still influences many terrorist groups such as violent right-wing North American extremists, as was evidenced in the Okalahoma City offices bombing, for which the terrorist Timothy McVey was executed. But as systematically organized as such modern terrorist efforts as those wielded against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, these latest Islamic terrorist efforts were somewhat different, and reflected a different model other than the urban model.

Firstly, the World Trade Center bombing was an act of violence lacking a cohesive structure, with a specific effort. Unlike the kidnappings that dotted the war torn nation of Lebanon, for instance, during the 1980s, this act had no specific objective. It was a random act of terrorism wielded against an ideology, that of the secular West, in the name of Islamic religious fundamentalism. It was the act of an an organization spread across nations, from Saudi Arabia to Afghanistan in a way that was confusing to the West to understand or reconcile with previous community-located and objective-specific urban models. Rather than focusing attention on one event, attention was diffused throughout a variety of states of the American union, and upon both political and economic institutions.

Later, analysts 'read' this expression as the unity, in the terrorist's vision, not of a practical military objective but in a symbolic statement of hatred against the economic and political culture and dominance…… [read more]

Terrorism Different Topics, 3 Pages Each) Term Paper

… Terrorism (4 Different Topics, 3 Pages Each)

Describe the major trends in terrorism in recent years.

Fundamentalism in general has been on the rise in recent years, for example, between the mid-1960s and the mid-1990s, the number of fundamentalist movements… [read more]

Narco-Terrorism Narco Term Paper

… From a national security, intelligence, and law enforcement perspective, it is increasingly important to recognize and exploit the nexus between terrorist organizations and drug trafficking activities. (Perl, R.)

In conclusion, it should be stated that the new sense and definition of terrorism views Narco-terrorism as a unique symbiosis of illegal drug trafficking and the actions of terrorists. Narcotics can be used to destabilize and reduce the regulatory structures in a society which can be just as destructive as any other weapon in the terrorist's arsenal.


A" Level Sociology Deviance and Social Control. October 27, 2004.

Flynn, Stephen. "Worldwide Drug Scourge: The Response." Brookings Review Spring 1993: 36+. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Marshall, Donnie. "Narco-terrorism: the new discovery of an old connection." Cornell International Law Journal, December 22, 2002.

Narco-Terrorism: definition) Defense Technical Information centre. Accessed October 31, 2004.

O'Meara, Kelly Patricia. "Dirty Dollars." Insight on the News 15 May 2000: 10. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004

PERL R. "NARCO-TERRORISM: ": Congressional Testimony, May 20, 2003.

Scarborough R. Osama bin Laden a 'Narco-terrorist'. Washington Post, January 22, 2004. Accessed October 30, 2004.

Social Facts and Suicide. University of Regina. 1999. Accessed October 29, 2004.

SUICIDAL TERRORISM. NCWC.2004. Accessed October 31, 2004.… [read more]

Real and Potential Economic Impacts of Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Terrorism is such a real and pervasive physical fear in contemporary American society that it is easy to forget its economic impact. While estimates vary, the official figure for spending stands at around $120 billion since the within America's borders and the war in Iraq began, in rapid succession. (Bernasek, 2004) but as Anna Bernasek notes in her New York Times Business Section article, "Counting the Hidden Costs of War," on terror calculating the net effect of a continuing war without a real, projected end date, is almost impossible in a simple and precise fashion. Economists must calculate what is lost as well as what is spent to fight terrorism. Although open to debate, two economists, suggested the war on terror may have already cost the United States $150 billion in lost gross domestic product. "That is close to one percentage point of growth lost over the past year and a half. If that figure is correct, the nation's annual economic growth rate, which has been 3.7% during this period, could have been nearly 4.7% without the war." The study took into account factors like higher oil prices, increased budget deficits and greater consumer uncertainty. "When analyzing the effects of uncertainty, the authors estimated the impact of the war on financial markets, business investment and consumer…… [read more]

State Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … terrorism is "defined by some as violence upon a national population committed by national governments or their proxies." Additionally, states can "terrorize their own populations, to secure rule and suppress dissent, or foreign citizens, to support favored or… [read more]

Terrorism Is a Major Threat Term Paper

… This has effectively deterred the country from harboring those terrorists, and has enticed them to fully cooperate with the United States (NCT, 5)

In addition, the allied forces have used military force within Afghanistan, attacking key elements within terrorist networks within the country. By eliminating certain areas within the network, the military is effectively deterring terrorism by showing dire consequences for any association with a terrorist group. However, since the groups are relatively small, and difficult to find, other deterrents are also needed (Pillar, 11).

The recent attempt to capture Osama Bin Laden within Afghanistan and other countries, and the attempts to capture his allies, uses the deterrent of the intelligence networks. Using international law enforcement and intelligence, terrorists are deterred from traveling internationally in an attempt to gain access to countries they are attempting to attack (Pillar, 12).

The United States has a vast arsenal of anti-terrorism techniques in use. By using those components together, it is possible to produce a cohesive deterrent that is far more effective than the use of a single component alone. If not used in conjunction with one another, but instead used as separate entities, they can actually work against one another. The use of military force can, for example, interfere with the gathering intelligence, effectively negating the use of each component (Pillar, 13).

To effectively deter terrorism, the United States, and its allies, should always attempt the most effective means that causes the least amount of damage to all countries involved. Economic sanctions, social sanctions, and diplomacy must be attempted first, in an attempt to protect the lives of those within the country, and those at home. Policies must be in place to allow the fair, yet firm enforcement of all deterrent methods in use, and to coordinate those efforts in the most effective way. It is only through organized, uniform deployment of all deterrent methods possible that terrorism can truly be restricted and prevented.


Encarta. "Sanctions." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

Friedman, Benjamin. "Mini-Nukes, Bunker Busters, and Deterrence: Framing the Debate." Center for Defense Information: Terrorism. 26 Apr 2002. Center for Defense Information. 21 Apr 2004.

Glasstone, Samuel. "Nuclear Weapons." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

Keller, Bill. "Missile Defense Is Not About Defense - It's About Offense." New York Times. 31 Dec 2003: C6.

LaFeber, Walter. "Cold War." Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation.

National Commission on Terrorism (NCT). Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism: Report of the National Commission on Terrorism. Oklahoma City, OK: National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism,…… [read more]

Bio-terrorism Term Paper


While the nation continues to ready itself for a possible bio-terrorist attack in the present, it is also preparing for how to handle the possibility in the future (Smolkin, 2003). Future plans are more about proactive actions than reactive actions (Neil, 2003). One of the things that is being done is the education of the public about the possibility of attacks on crops. The world is aware that crippling the ability to grow crops would place a serious financial and human burden on the nation's residents as well as the American government. Therefore, any concerns about future bio-terrorist attacks must include the possibility of crop attacks and steps being taken to prevent that from happening.

Biological weapons programs around the world have focused on developing wheat stem rust, Madden said. Other diseases that could be used in crop bio-terrorism are soybean rust and rice blast." The focus is currently on determining what the most serious risks are to the states.

Many states have taken measures to prepare for the future when it comes to the threat of bio-terrorist attacks (All, 2003). Ohio has implemented a homeland security program that has a multi-stepped approach to the future. "The state has spent $32 million in federal money to update its communications, laboratory and emergency systems so that it can respond efficiently and effectively should smallpox, anthrax or any other disease be used as a weapon of mass destruction. By August 2004, the federal government will make another $16 million available for Ohio (All, 2003)."

The state, which is representative of many states in its actions regarding bio-terrorism has taken several steps to prepare. Some of the things that have been done are:

Identified sites for mass vaccination and distribution of antibiotics and developed a smallpox vaccination plan for public health and response teams. The state has immunized 1,759 health care workers for smallpox so far.

Established contracts with local partners in seven regions to create regional bio-terrorism plans, and developed regional response plans among hospitals to include rural and Appalachian Ohio;

Increased the number of epidemiologists or people trained to investigate diseases;

Upgraded software and communications lines for the state's disease reporting system;

Renovated lab space to handle samples of agents identified as being used for bio-terrorism (All, 2003). "


Bio-terrorism has always been a concern, but the events of 9-11 brought it to the forefront of the nation. The possibility of being attacked through the use of bio-terrorist agents is no longer considered a science fiction impossibility, and is instead a future probability according to experts. The nation has spent the past three years stepping up the pace in preparation and agencies are working together to know how to handle any attack that may come. With the cooperation of all states, and the federal government, any group that decides to use bio-terrorism to attack America may be surprised and the response.


Closer to home: Long relegated to the margins, foreign news has experienced a modest resurgence since… [read more]

Terrorism Seems to Have Taken Term Paper

… We will see what the proportion of violence is and what is the proportion of faith and religious values that Muslim["s" should be deleted"] societies consider in an attempt to create a different model of being.

From an occidental point-of-view,… [read more]

Media on Terrorism Acts Term Paper

… Even more adults were tuning into the media coverage surrounding this incident.

Many adult studies revealed further information regarding the effect of media on terrorism, including the following studies (Hamblem, 2002):

Two hundred thirty-seven Israeli adults were divided into two… [read more]

Terrorism and Democracy Term Paper

… (Quoted by Hoffmann) This was followed by another resolution that called for international crackdown on financing for terrorism and greater exchange information between countries to fight terrorism. All of this proves that international co-operation and perhaps an International Committee on Prevention of Terrorism under the auspices of the UN would prove more effective in combating terrorism than say, the U.S. attack on Iraq.


Terrorism, as we have seen in this paper, undermines democracy in more than one way. Its effect on democracy becomes more pronounced when democratic countries such as the United States react by curtailing such cherished democratic traditions such as civil rights, liberties, freedom of expression, and the free flow of information in their own societies. It is also clear that terrorism can be more effectively countered through international co-operation rather than by solitary efforts by countries such as the U.S.

Works Cited

Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003.

Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97

Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003

Prados, John. "Democracy 0, Terrorism 1: The Bush Administration's Secrecy Policies." The American Prospect. November 6, 2001. April 6, 2003.

Democracy… [read more]

War on Terrorism Term Paper

… The actions and policies of the INS are strikingly draconian. Immigrants and visitors crossing the border into the United States are and will continue to be harangued unnecessarily because Ashcroft gives carte blanche to immigration officials. This reeks of Big… [read more]

War on Terrorism Term Paper

… In World War II we had a ready-made figure in Hitler. Stephen (2001) makes the point that we still tend to pick individuals on which to focus our anger: "a couple of decades ago, the man every American loved to… [read more]

People Commit Acts of Terrorism? Term Paper

… In these nations, conservative and violent forces (some defined by Islam, others by other religions, still others by ethnicity or other attributes) see the United States as an evil power (Scheer 2002; Schemann 2001). And while the rhetoric against Western… [read more]

International Peace and Terrorism Literature Review

… International Peace and Terrorism

What changes to existing legal regimes may reduce the incentive and make the law more effective in preserving peace

In an attempt to enhance global peace and suppress terrorism, various stakeholders have in the past suggested… [read more]

Threat of Non-Conventional Terror Essay

… According to Lowther (2008), the greatest security danger facing the United States is the likelihood of Weapons of Mass Destruction (p.95). The United States is increasingly susceptible to the likelihood of detonation of a nuclear weapon in one of its major cities. The attack is likely to be politically motivated and occur because of the increase development of Weapons of Mass Destruction by terrorist groups and some countries in Asia. The probability of a WMD terror attack on the United States in the foreseeable future is also fueled by increased technological advancements that enable terrorists to develop sophisticated tools and measures of carrying out their activities.

There are two assumptions or theoretical viewpoints that have been used in exploring non-conventional terrorism. The first assumption is the belief that terrorists would not use these non-conventional weapons because of the potential of counter attacks on a sponsor state. This assumption is based on the premise that these individuals are rational actors who are unwilling to destroy relationships between states through using such weapons (Combs, 2012, p.328). The second assumption is that terrorists do not necessarily care about such relationships, though they may be sponsored by some states as demonstrated by 9/11 attacks. This assumption supports the likelihood of a WMD attack since terrorists are willing to undertake extreme measures to achieve their objectives.


Combs, C.C. (2012). The New Terrorist Threat: Weapons of Mass Destruction. In Terrorism in the twenty-first century (7th ed., Chapter 14). London, UK: Longman.

Lowther, A.B. (2008). Terrorism and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat to the United

States. Midsouth Political Science Review, 9, 95-118. Retrieved from… [read more]

Terrorism-Related Disaster Preparation Exercises Research Paper

… Media houses should be trained on what to air and what not to air in a terrorist attack as a disaster preparation exercise. Such news broadcasted in the media may enhance disaster management or work against disaster management efforts.

The two areas that I believe are significant media related issues within the conduct of terrorism-related disaster preparation exercises are the healthcare of the casualties, and comprehensive coverage on terror activities (Vasterman, Yzermans, & Dirkzwager, 2004). After a fatal terrorist attack, focus should be given to the recovery of the victims' health. However, the healthcare givers have always struggled with the media in ensuring full recovery of these victims. The media seem not to consider the traumatic effects that remain within victims after a terrorist attack. Therefore, they continually air terrorist attack incidences and show traumatic pictures way after the attack. This trend usually brings up the traumatic experience to most victims, which jeopardizes their recovery process.

Oftentimes, terrorists have used the media platform to flourish. They have hinged on the extensive coverage of their activities, to further their terrorism activities and recruit other potential terrorists. The media have failed to filter their content on terrorism attacks, which has not only served the purpose of briefing the public but enhancing further terrorism-related disaster.

In order to avoid the failure of the media, disaster preparation exercises needs to be extensively done to media houses. They need to be thanked for the good work of relaying information on terrorism, but also warned of the disservice that they cause to disaster management efforts. They need to be informed during the terrorism-related disaster preparation exercise of the content of their coverage and the amount of airtime to give to terrorism-related matters.


Bloomberg, M.R., Scoppetta, N., & Cassano, S.J. (2007). Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness Strategy. Fire Department City of New York, 21-39.

Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C.J., & Dirkzwager, A.J. (2004). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Oxford Journals,…… [read more]

How Narco-Terrorism Affects International Relations Research Paper

… The lack of political will, poor border policies and regional issues enhance these threats.

These two global threats complement each other (Sanderson 2004). The sale of narcotics remains the most solid and reliable source of funds for terrorism and criminal activity. One solid evidence presented by the Drug Enforcement Administration is methamphetamine production and distribution in Hezbollah initiatives. It revealed the existence of Hezbollah-operated methamphetamine laboratories in the rural areas. One more glaring and frightening proof of their strong link is the increased opium production in Afghanistan a decade ago. Reports disclosed that these labs turned out 3,500 metric tons of opium from 225,000 acres. These represented 76% of the global supply of heroin and opium in 2001 alone. The volume increased to 5,500 tons in 2003.

Schmid (2004) writes that the "in-house" organized crime activities by terrorist groups are more formidable. They are a greater problem than just a close alliance or union of organized crime and terrorist organizations. The Palermo Convention against Transnational Organized Crime could deflect money from falling into terrorist hands. The money is intended for the launching and maintenance of terrorist campaigns.

In addition to globalization, other conditions provided the suitable environment for the narcotics, terrorism and organized crime to flourish worldwide (Cilluffo 2000). These include the end of the Cold War the evolution of world economy. These trends benefited the nations of the world positively as they did these threats. The trouble lies in the oversight and the lack of uniformity with which the nations of the world has been responding to these transnational threats.


Cilluffo, F. (2000). The Threat Posed from the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug

Trafficking, and Terrorism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10-17.

Sanderson, T. (2004). Transnational Terror and Organized Crime. SAIS Review,…… [read more]

Community Outreach and Counterterrorism Research Paper

… While programs directed at raising public awareness concerning terrorism were largely successful, there were also cases of individuals feeling that they were discriminated on account of their background. Canada's "National Security Community Outreach Program was created to respond to issues… [read more]

United Kingdom Government Response to Post-9/11 Attacks of Islamic Terrorism Essay

… S. Governments.

Moreover, the United Kingdom responded to the post-September 11 terrorist attacks by doubling its resources devoted to preventing terrorism, including strategies such as transferring some of the personnel back to the London to work with the MI5 in… [read more]

Psychological Process Research Paper

… General provisions of FISA establish procedures for the authorization of electronic surveillance, the use of pen registers, trap, and trace devices, conducting physical searches and business records for purposes of gathering foreign intelligence. I support use of extraordinary rendition by the government against foreign individuals suspected of acts of terrorism against the United States because they are not U.S. citizens hence not supported by law. Secondly, this can help deter any foreign terrorist who intends to carry out terrorism activity with the United States.

The statute regarding a material witness permits the government under circumstances that are not limited to detain people who will be required as witnesses' in future judicial proceedings and they cannot be relied upon to appear for those proceedings. Enemy combatant are subject to capture and detention but they are also subject to be tried and punished by military tribunal acts that render their belligerency unlawful. This means that they have a right to a due process and the ability of challenging their enemy combatant status before an impartial authority. On the other hand, an alien who is engaged in an activity, which endangered the security of United States, have to be detained for several days before any charges against them are brought forward. Immigration detention and removal policies apply to the investigation of terrorist activity since they help in getting a hold of suspected terrorist. These suspects can help in giving useful information on terrorist groups and lead to arrests of other terrorists.

Unlawful combatants normally qualify for some protection under the Fourth Geneva convection while the Geneva Convention does not cover the enemy combatants. Therefore, the enemy combatants are subject to prosecution for charges of international terrorism. Civilian prosecution of terrorism and supporters of terrorism are different. Civilian prosecution of terrorists involves civilians taking action against terrorists while supporters of terrorism are civilians who support terrorism activities. The exposure of classified information risks civilians taking law into the own hands and prosecuting the terrorists. The military commission has frameworks in place that are specifically meant to execute the terrorist cases as opposed to civil or federal court. Furthermore, the military commission has more experience in dealing with terrorist related cases unlike the federal or civilian courts.

The federal bureau of investigation is the primary federal investigative service within the United States. Its mission is to uphold and enforce federal criminal laws, assist international, state and local police and investigative services when required in order to protect the United States against any terrorism and threats that are against the nations interest. This agency relies on domestic as well as foreign information to assist in the anti-terror operations that it carries out.

Posse comitatus is a loosely organized, and far-right social movement which spreads a conspiracy-minded as well as anti-Semitic message using the name of white males Christians in order to counter what they believe is an attack on their rights. The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, 18 U.S.C. § 1385 was intended to limit the… [read more]

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