"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays

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Rotten Apples Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Terrorism

Rotten Apples and Terrorism

This is a difficult moral, ethical, and political dilemma. How does a country impose oversight on covert operations, and should a country impose oversight, especially during war times. After all, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end World War II was also an act of mass murder, but it has always been justified by the fact it "saved lives" by ending the war early, rather than dragging it on for months or years.

Therefore, this is a difficult question. Who oversees the covert operations, and how do they remain impartial and removed from the agencies and operations themselves? How do they judge what is a necessary use of force to save lives, and what is unnecessary? All of these questions must be answered in this debate, and many more besides. Covert actions become something else of they are scrutinized so closely they give up their secretive nature. Thus, before you can oversee covert operations, definitions, guidelines, and rules must be established.

First, one must remember this particular assassination attempt took place in 1985, before the current technological advances in weaponry and guidance systems. Today, a targeted missile would probably be used, such as the missiles used in several attempts to assassinated Saddam Hussein and other dissidents in Iraq after the Iraq war began in 2002. These missiles are much more accurate than car bombs, and much more selective in their destruction. That does not condone assassination as a political tool, it simply notes that today, there probably would have been far fewer casualties, and the missile might have found its target.

According to the National Security Act of 1947, the Central Intelligence Agency is the federal agency responsible for covert operations.

This means that oversight would have to be accomplished by another agency, or by a new agency created by the government simply for that purpose. This agency could be responsible for general oversight of government policies, particularly overseas and internal covert operations, or it could be specifically responsible for only covert operations. The agency would have to report to a neutral board or group,…… [read more]


Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,050 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East

When individuals inhabit the same space, conflicts often occur. But it's only when conflicts degenerate into harsh violence of any sort that the issue truly becomes a problem, threatening the stability of a peaceful cohabitation. A conflict often has its origin in a dispute over resources, over something of great interest for more… [read more]


Terrorism and Osama Bin Laden History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (995 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Terrorism and Osama bin Laden [...] history and structure of Osama bin Laden's organization, explain his connections to fundamentalism, and his links with other known terrorist groups. Osama bin Laden may be one of the world's most infamous terrorists. He formed the terrorist organization Al Qaeda, which has been responsible for terrorist attacks around the world, and has issued an open jihad against the United States. Much of the history of his organization is shrouded in mystery, as is much of his life, and therefore, there are differing accounts of his organization and his life. He is revered in much of the Arab world, and is one of the most hunted terrorists in American history. His organization is dangerous and extremely difficult to destroy, as the inability to locate him in Pakistan has shown. Osama bin Laden may be one of America's most deadly enemies, and most experts believe it is only a matter of time before Al Qaeda strikes the U.S. again.

Osama bin Laden was born in 1957 in Saudi Arabia. His family raised him in the strict Islamic tradition; he is a Sunni Muslim. He attended Abdul Ariz University in Jeddah, where he graduated with a degree in Civil Engineering. His father amassed a fortune in the construction industry; in fact, it was the largest construction company in Saudi Arabia and had close ties to the Saudi royal family. When his father died, Bin Laden became independently wealthy (Piszkiewicz 107). After he became disenchanted with western influence in Saudi Arabia and began organizing resistance, his family disowned him in 1994, and Saudi Arabia revoked his citizenship (Thackrah 189-190).

Bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan in the 1980s and worked to support the Mujaheddin resistance against Russia's invasion and occupation in Afghanistan from 1979 through 1988. In 1988, (some say 1985), he then organized his own group, al Qaeda, (which means "the base" or "the military base") in an attempt to control the membership and documentation of members. It was partially funded by his own wealth, and by the donations of other wealthy Arab merchants. He recruited members in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt (Thackrah 9). He became increasingly defiant of the adoption of western practices in Saudi Arabia, and set up a resistance movement that earned money through many phony engineering companies in the Sudan that funneled money to his resistance efforts. Bin Laden has an extreme hatred of the west and globalization, and has issued a "jihad" (holy war) against the west for his and other terrorist organizations. Al Qaeda has been found responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, from the 1993 World Trade Center bombing to the attack on the U.S.S. Cole and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States (Piszkiewicz 107-108) and (Thackrah 189-190).

Few if any Americans have not heard of Al Qaeda after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Bin Laden began the organization in Afghanistan after they successfully expelled the Russians, and it has grown since…… [read more]


Terrorism Coady Notes That it Is Important Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,793 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Terrorism

Coady notes that it is important to define terrorism because it is necessary to properly address the moral issues surrounding it. He defined terrorism as "the organized use of violence to attack noncombatants or their property for political purposes" (Halwani 2006). Igor Primoratz defines terrorism as "the deliberate use of violence, or threat of its use, against innocent people,… [read more]


American Media Representation of Islam &amp Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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AMERICAN MEDIA REPRESENTATION of ISLAM & TERRORISM POST-9-11 in AMERICA: ARE THEY the ONE and the SAME?

The objective of this work is to prepare a research proposal that will reflect how the American media (print, broadcast and online) portrays Islam's connection to terrorism post 9/11 in research focusing on "When an average American audience picks up the morning paper… [read more]


Regional Studies Islam in Europe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,555 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

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¶ … European Muslims in the Aftermath of 911

The impact of the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 and subsequent terrorist related events have had a profound and far - reaching impact on the situation of Muslims in Europe. The very structure of Muslim life as well as the way that they are perceived in Europe has undergone a… [read more]


Terrorism Has Been in Existence Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (374 words)
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In order to be effective on a large scale the common method of terrorism is by bombing. Perhaps the most remembered in recent history is what is now known simply as 9-11. This was an unusual mode of terrorism where planes were simultaneously flown into public buildings in crowded cities. The deadliest was at the World Trade Center in New York city where more than 3,000 lives were lost. But that was not the first time that the World trade Center was the target of terrorism. In February 1993, a truck bomb exploded there, killing six people, and displacing business in the complex for six months. Terrorists acts are not always carried out by groups. Timothy McVeigh killed 168 people by bombing a federal office building in Oklahoma City in 1995.

Despite the war against terrorism which has been intensified since the 9/11 attacks, some think that as long as there is greed and hatred in the world there will continue to be this deliberate use of violence against civilians…… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism the Rise and Fall Weather Underground AKA Weatherman Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,058 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Weather Underground

Background and evolution of the organization

The Weather Underground Organization also referred to as 'the Weathermen' were a radical group in the United States who used violent tactics in their desire to overthrow the government and change society. The organization was responsible for various terrorist attacks against the United States. The membership of the organization was… [read more]


Counter-Terrorism Takes Up a Good Deal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Counter-Terrorism

Terrorism takes up a good deal of our foreign policy apparatus today, not only in dealing directly with terrorist threats but with the need to develop and implement measure for counter-terrorism. Such programs are also much in view domestically through actions by the Homeland Security Agency and other government agencies dedicated to protecting the citizenry. This emphasis has been… [read more]


Terrorism Is Serious Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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McCauley adds: "terrorism would be a trivial problem if only those with some kind of psychopathology could be terrorists. Rather we have to face the fact that normal people can be terrorists, that we ourselves are capable of terrorist acts under some circumstances." The one thing that research agrees upon is that most terrorists have some ideological or systemic value that they are aggressively adhere to. It is also established that terrorist psyche development is a gradual process- no one would want to go out one day and kill a hindered thousand people for a cause. There is training and brainwashing involved which is supported by terrorist's adherence to a certain ideology. This obsession is further nurtured by terrorist organizations. Terrorists are also believed to have low self-esteem that drives them to take actions that would attract attention. Championing a cause gives them sense of self-worth and this leads to obsession with a group or organization that is engaged in violent activities. Research shows that terrorists "tend to place unrealistically high demands on themselves and, when confronted with failure, [tend] to raise rather than lower their aspirations" (Long, 1990) Inactivity and slow paced life is not acceptable to terrorists and they generally crave excitement which turns them into "stimulus hunters who are attracted to situations involving stress and who quickly become bored with inactivity" (Long, 1990) We must however understand that terrorist psyche is a combination of complex factors and according to Khachig Tololyan, terrorists' "behavior cannot be understood by the crude - or even by the careful - application of pseudo-scientific laws of general behavior" (Rapoport, 2001). He feels that "we need to examine the specific meditating factors that lead some societies under pressure, among many, to produce the kinds of violent accts that we call terrorism" (Rapoport, 2001).

References

1. Long, David E. The Anatomy of Terrorism. New York: The Free Press, 1990.

2. Rapoport, David C. Inside Terrorist Organizations. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001

3. Stohl, Michael, and George Lopez. 1988. Terrible Beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism. Westport: Greenwood Press.

4. United Kingdom. Parliament. 2000. The Terrorism Act 2000.

5. United States Department of State. 1999. Patterns of Global Terrorism. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State,

6. Walzer, Michael.…… [read more]


Just and Unjust USA War Against Afghanistan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (9,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Terrorism

There are a number of ways to interpret terrorist attacks in the modern world. The Bush administration has chosen a particular perspective that is intended to justify the employment of the United States military as a tool for rooting out terrorism in general. However, there are many difficulties with the logical backing for such a position; the way terrorism… [read more]


Terrorism Has a Long Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Whatever the justification of a separate homeland for the Jews, there is a deep sense of outrage among Muslims that such a country (Israel) was created on the land in which Palestinians (mostly Muslims) had resided for centuries.

The sense of injustice has been further enhanced by the harsh and brutal treatment of the Palestinians by the Israelis. The United… [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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6. All types of hazard planning have similar core concepts. At its core, hazard planning utilizes mitigation techniques to "alleviate or eliminate risks to life and property from natural or man-made hazard events." Different methods may include land use regulations (to prevent flooding and other natural disasters), building codes, eventuality planning (especially with regard to key infrastructure facilities), as well as taking steps to "reduce exposure to liabilities, and minimize disruptions to the community."http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=60

7. Two considerations that should be considered in biological incidents include the assessment of the event (determining just what occurred and what biological agent is involved), and scene control (establishing a perimeter to prevent the spread of the contamination as well as determining a point from which decontamination and/or treatment can occur).

8. Blister Agents are chemical substances that are used militarily to cause medical casualties, and slow the activities of the enemy unit/s. In Homeland Security terms, they are used as a possible terrorist weapon. Physically, they affect the eyes, lungs and skin -- causing a kind of burning or blistering reaction. Three examples of blister agents are sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite. http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/cia/19960626/062596_cia_73926_73926_01.html

9. The scope of the Federal Response Plan spans across all of the major "infrastructure" points of the nation. It covers areas from transportation, communications, public works and utilities, mass health care, hazardous materials, food issues (contamination/supply), as well as police, EMS, and medical response. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA

10. Five ESF's are:

ESF #1 -- Transportation

ESF #2 -- Communications

ESF #3 -- Public Works and Engineering

ESF #4 -- Firefighting

ESF #5 -- Information and Planning Energyhttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA… [read more]


Iraq the American Public Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,313 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Don't we have an obligation to ensure that such a thing never happens again. To this, I answer Yes. We should do whatever we can to prevent another attack like the one that brought down the World Trade Center. However, you don't vacuum the living room carpet when the kitchen floor needs a good scrubbing. Sure, the carpet might look nicer after, but your kitchen floor will still be dirty. So, too, Iraq might seem a bit "cleaner" sans Saddam...but what of our kitchen -- have we fixed that?

The terrible truth is that we have fixed close to nothing when one considers the supposed goals of the war with Iraq -- for, with the exception of the overthrow of Sadaam, the United States is neither safer from terrorism or WMD's, nor is it more secure in its "freedom." To say otherwise is a bold faced lie.

According to The Brookings Institute policy brief, "Implementing a Bush," "the likely costs and risks of a commitment of American military forces to a regime-change campaign in Iraq would outweigh the benefits."(Gordon). Further:

U.S. overthrow campaign would entail a large-scale military operation that the United States would probably have to undertake essentially alone; the increased risk of triggering terrorist attacks against American or allied targets...and the likely need for a long-term American military presence in Iraq to avoid regional destabilization. While these costs and risks are not so high as to rule out a possible overthrow policy under certain circumstances, they should be sobering to any advocate of sending U.S. troops to war to change the Iraqi regime. The central assumption behind this argument is that Saddam -- unlike the religiously motivated Taliban/al Qaeda network -- is more interested in preserving his power, his regime, and his life than in carrying out acts of terror against American interests. (Gordon)

Unfortunately, as the war plays out, it becomes increasingly apparent that the prediction of the nature of the Iraqi war by the Brookings Institution was correct. The United States is essentially alone, under increased risk of terrorist attacks (especially from the al Qaeda members left unchallenged), and it seems that American troops are in for a long, messy haul in the country -- and for what? Apart from the occasional empty sound bite, it is not exactly clear.

Instead, much as Muslims in America are currently singled out for harassment simply because they are Muslim, it seems that the American public will accept a war on a nation just because it, too, is Muslim and Arab. Hey, it's all the same, right? Unfortunately, however, both for the people of Iraq, as well as the people under threat in the United States due to the neglect of the real problem, it is not all the same. Iraq, and even Sadaam is not al Qaeda. Far from it. Until the American people begin to accept that and cry for change, the "war on terrorism," will continue to be in recess.

Bibliography

Fletcher, Douglas. (2004). Where are… [read more]


Terrorist Organizations and the Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  19 pages (6,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Two Italian anarchists, Malatesta and Cafiero declared in 1876 that the fact of rebellion would make the socialist principles of their organizations accepted by means of violent acts. To this end, it is of significant importance to terror groups to engage in at least one sensational violent act for which they are remembered. Following are the reasons given for armed… [read more]


Threat -Domestic or International Terrorism? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Another trump card is safeguarding the infrastructure. These trump cards take precedence over all other government activities. More attacks on the United States keep the congress engrossed on these trump cards. If the industry does not evolve its own policies, the government creates new laws in order to achieve these goals.

The huge threat to the business is not the… [read more]


Terrorist Groups Are Aligning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,841 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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This information will be useful in helping to protect citizens of the world.

Scope of Study

This study will encompass the years 1992 through 2002 and will contain information from as many sources as possible. The sources must be in English or an English translation. The study will utilize as much information from as many countries as possible in order… [read more]


Terrorism Is a Global Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Moslem business men with a vested interest, either economically or spiritually, in the destruction of western influence, as well as public officials in hostile governing bodies such as the rightist Pakistani parties that are constantly increasing in power. The heroin trafficking that has thrived in Afghanistan since the legal proliferation of the Taliban's expulsion has also provided a great deal of finance to groups like the Al Qaeda. And such underworld ties are quite common in the field given the many shared goals of resistance to American policy that terrorist groups, organized crime families and drug cartels.

Another factor that has made terrorist groups difficult to dismantle is the networking coordination. The massacre of two-hundred young night-clubbers on the Indonesian resort island of Bali, a bombing primarily attributed to the Jemaah Islamiyah group. This clandestine organization, alleged heavily to be involved with Al Qaeda and bin Laden, illustrates the incestuous nature of the Islamic fundamentalist world. Al Qaeda's larger mission of a Moslem planet provides it with an interest in the many smaller Islamic front movements around the world. Jemaah Islamiyah's mission is centered around the creation of a sovereign Islamic southern Asia, comprised of Indonesia, the Phillipines Thailand and Malaysia. As such, Qaeda will often help to bankroll some of its activities, as it is alleged to have done in Bali just a few months ago.

Islamiyah's profile has risen substantially since that attack.

But perhaps more alarming the inevitable emergence of yet another dangerous group is the implication that the war on terror may be too big to fight in the fashion with which we have thus far pursued it. Islamiyah's founders, like those of most other Islamic fundamentalist groups, are clerics with many well-financed contacts in the religious charity business. Of course, the most troubling trend has been that of open governmental support for terrorist activities such as that supposed to be coming from the Iranian authority presently.

As a reaction to Israeli Palestinian policy, which has been decidedly more aggressive toward West Bank and Gaza settlements than during administrations passed, the Iranian government further ingratiated itself to Hezbollah, the pioneering suicide bomber group. Their viciously anti-Zionist perspective has inclined them to commit shopping district and public transportation attacks quite regularly as the current strife in Israel will attest to. And as America continues to pursue its commitment to eliminating terrorism, it runs the continual risk of spreading itself thin militarily and intelligence-wise. With assets to freeze, private charities and business to pursue, post-war containment and occupation in Afghanistan, pre-war preparation in Iraq and a heavy-handed involvement in Israeli-Palestinian affairs, there may not be any time to consider a response to Iran's declared intention of hostility. And even were it to do so, Hezbollah's existence of over thirty years makes it one of the oldest, most unabatedly active and dangerously pervasive groups around. So it's operations, which are constant from both Lebanon and Syria, have enough support to provide them at least with asylum from American policy.… [read more]


Media and Terrorism Contemporary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Nacos's analysis brings up some important issues of media self-censorship, and government control of media coverage of terrorist incidents. Certainly, it is tempting to argue that media coverage of terrorist activities should be curbed in order to reduce the terrorist's manipulation of the media. However, this brings up important freedom of speech issues, which are far beyond the scope of… [read more]


Understanding the Objectives and Motivations of Terror Groups Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Cyber Security and Terrorism: Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, and Tamil Tigers

The Internet has become the latest frontier of crime and war. Governments and terror organizations are all beneficiaries of cyber-based warfare. This means that it is important to have an elaborate cyber security program that will safeguard the people from harm. The Internet is a platform and an avenue through which both security and crime can be enhanced and propagated respectively. The world's leading terrorist networks have resorted to the use of cyberspace as a platform on which to perpetrate their security agendas. In this paper, three terrorist groups are going to be discussed with the view of discussing their cyber-based wars. This will also touch on the issues of government response to quell the terrorist activities on the Internet platform.

The Al-Qaida

This is ranked as the world's leading terrorist organizations. It originated from Afghanistan as a religious group that was founded by Osama Bin Laden. The principles behind the formation of this organization were to fight the leadership of the United States of America as well as its interests in the global arena. This shows their ground of participation in the war. For their war have some meaning, they tagged in the agenda of religion in it. The terror network is founded on the principles of Islam, and anyone who is not a Muslim is an enemy of this terror group. This has seen them fight the Christian states with a serious verbosity while rallying the Muslim world to back their cause. They have made the Muslims in the world to believe that the Christians are their enemies (Saikia, 2010). Eventually, they end up winning sympathy backing from the large populations of Muslims in the world.

Cyberspace has been one of the key avenues through which the terror network has been launching attacks. This has seen it grow to become a serious group in terms of executing the terror agenda. The Internet is a platform through which they express their terror agenda and bring the focus of their antics to the people. They use the Internet to spread fearful messages through scary photos to the people. This makes them feared and will have succeeded in their agenda of bringing people under control. They also use the Internet platform to hack information systems of other countries and launch informed offensives from it. The Internet gives them access to what they would otherwise not access in the physical world.

Boko Haram

This is an emerging terrorist network in Africa, home-based in Nigeria. Their activities have however spread to other parts of the continent, largely in central Africa. Just like Al-Qaida, the foundation of this terror group is on a religious basis. These fighters use Islam as their basis for launching attacks on the residents of the countries they operate in, who are mainly Christians. They spread falsified information about Islam making its followers fall for the bait. Currently, many voluntary fighters have joined the fight on the side of the… [read more]


Different Types of Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … terrorists are considered the most dangerous and why?

Many terrorism experts consider so-called lone wolf terrorists to be the most dangerous terrorist threat of all because of their unpredictability. While it is possible to some extent to monitor the behavior and actions of organized terrorist groups and to infiltrate them, lone wolves by definition act alone and cannot really be traced or anticipated until they do actual harm. "The individual terrorist has proven to be among the most innovative, creative, and dangerous in terrorism history" (Thompson 2013). Examples of lone wolves include the Boston Marathon bombers, Timothy McVeigh, and the Unabomber. While groups such as Al Qaida have been carefully monitored by various law enforcement agencies due to their substantial organizational outreach, which includes training camps and even online communication, lone wolves operate outside of the sphere of international monitoring. There are no potential informants that might turn on the larger organization because the only organization is the individual or one or two trusted confederates. Technology makes it fairly easy to construct crude and effective mechanisms of destruction. The Internet gives lone wolves access to "access to information on tactics, targets and weapons, ideology, causes" (Thompson 2013). Bioterrorism as the anthrax scare of recent date illustrates, is a new and more pervasive threat than in previous decades because of the ease of contacting and ordering from illicit sources.

In contrast to other types of organized terrorists, lone wolves "have little or no constraints on their level of violence. They are not concerned with alienating supporters (as would some terrorist groups), nor are they concerned with a potential government crackdown following an attack" (Thompson 2013). A terrorist group often has a specific, articulate objective that it wishes to accomplish, such as gaining publicity for its cause or striking fear into the heart of a legitimate government such as that of Israel or the United States. A lone wolf may have a vague objective or simply wish to vent fury out on a world that has wronged him. He has no specific interest in allowing his group to perpetuate itself after the attack. Although "some lone wolves combine personal grievances and problems with a political or religious cause in order to justify their violence" it is not necessarily easy to anticipate how this will take form and be used against various targets, since the terrorist may not have an obvious purpose and objective, versus support for the Palestinian cause in Israel or the desire to attack the U.S. government and economic structure as in the case of 9/11 (Thompson 2013). The choice of bombing the Boston Marathon, other than being the location of a large number of individuals, was not shaped by a coherent, outside ideology evident to anyone besides the two brothers orchestrating the attacks.

Perhaps the most dangerous lone wolves of all, however, are those that arise from within the organizations they strike back at. For example, as Maj. Nidal Maljik Hasan shot "fellow soldiers and others at… [read more]


Protection Profession Disciplines Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Protection Profession Disciplines

Strategic security is a completely new disciplinary area in the protection profession; as such, it has not yet been fully accepted as a necessary requirement for National Security. In part, this may be because the area is also not yet fully defined in a detailed manner. When it comes to the usefulness or validity of any discipline… [read more]


Who Controls Social Media? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,011 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Role of social media in terrorism is one that is unclear for many researchers who recognize both the power of social media to disseminate unverified information widely and quickly and the power of the term "terrorism" to convey an "us vs. them" paradigm (Herzberg, Steinberg, 2012; Scanlon, 2005; Britton, 2005; Dombrowsky, 2005). Social media usage helped spread instantaneously around the… [read more]


Information and Reactions to Media Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Media

While terrorism is a significant issue in and of itself, there is more to it than the events that actually take place. One of the largest problems that are seen when it comes to terrorist threats is that the media tends to continue to report them and talk about them over and over again. Some people like this coverage because they feel as though they need to understand what is taking place in the world. Others are more traumatized by the repetitive nature of these broadcasts, and they focus on how the information makes them feel as though terrorism is happening everywhere all the time. In other words, they are terrorized more by the media's portrayal and overemphasis of what took place than the actual terrorist event itself. The media also contributes to terrorism concerns in other ways. Often terrorists use the media to get their message out to the masses, by releasing audio and video information meant to frighten people and ensure that the groups that are being targeted spend time concerned about their personal and societal safety.

The idea of getting their message of terroristic threats out to the masses is one reason terrorist organizations choose to release information to the media. By doing this, they can control what is known about them, and play up the propaganda that goes along with who they are and what they stand for. They may be weaker than they seem, or they may actually be stronger and are trying to downplay their strength until they get ready to strike. Additionally, they may have a further reach than expected, or be able to do more or less than what most people feel they are capable of, but they can manipulate all of that through the media. Some terrorists even allow themselves to be interviewed, because that allows them to plant some of their own language and nomenclature into the interview. In turn, the interviewer will likely pick up some of that, and it will be spread through the media, potentially furthering the cause.

The role of the media in the event of an actual terrorist attack is to get information…… [read more]


Fight Against Hurricane Katrina in a Political Environment Set on Fighting Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Governmental agencies were practically encouraged to take up arms against terrorism and they acknowledged the significance of doing this in a united front. "By creating this broader definition of homeland security, DHS is stressing the diversity of organizations and individuals who have responsibility for, and interest in, the safety and security of the United States -- from the President, as… [read more]


Role and Impact of Media in Coverage of Terror Attacks Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

243). This contributes to the assumption that media can act as one of the most effective tools for protection of the public from acts of terrorism.

There are three case studies that seem to develop a pattern that supports the opinion and assumption that the media does not promote terrorists' agenda through acting as a tool for protecting the public from acts of terrorism. First, the media's coverage of Timothy McVeigh's terrorist act of bombing the Murrah building contributed to reduction of the number of American terrorists. While McVeigh had only participated in few militia meetings, media coverage of this event helped many Americans to dissociate themselves from activities that would result in the death of fellow Americans (Mahan & Griset, 2008, p.225). Secondly, media coverage of 9/11 terror attacks was a demonstration of what it could do at its very best (McDonald & Lawrence, 2003, p.223). Since the event was covered as a crime story rather than political one, it enabled the public to understand terrorism and assume personal responsibility for the well-being of the country. Third, the 1983 terror attempt to destabilize Kuwait through attacking American and French embassies failed miserably due to media coverage that resulted in the arrest of several members of the Iranian-Shi'a group (Anderson, 1993, p.127).

References

Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and Censorship: The Media in Chains. Journal of International

Affairs, 47(1), 127.

Mahan, S. & Griset, P. (2008). Media Coverage of Terrorism. In Terrorism in perspective.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McDonald, I.R. & Lawrence, R.G. (2003, August 27). Filing the 24x7 News Hole. Television News Coverage Following September 11. Paper…… [read more]


National Incident Management System (NIMS) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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For instance, NIMS can mobilize two different communities with the purpose of preventing a terrorist threat. However, these respective communities might be inclined to believe that they should act on an individual level in order to experience best results. NIMS sometimes fails to address the needs of each institution it works with and this can lead to conflicts that (if they're not properly dealt with) can eventually prove to have a destructive effect on society as a whole. There have been numerous situations involving firefighters having trouble doing their jobs properly or police officers being unable to secure an area because of each-other's tendency to focus on their jobs. Police officers often ask firefighters to move their vehicles in order to have more control of a situation and in spite of the fact that this can make things easier for them, it can make it more difficult for firefighters to actually do their job (Hess, Orthmann, & Cho, p. 187)

Another issue that NIMS is dealing with is that it has to make decisions on the spot. In most cases such decisions can have a significant impact and thus need to be taken on by people who are especially experienced in their field of work. "Elected and appointed officials should be aware of how NIMS can work to ensure cooperative response efforts, thereby minimizing the potential implications of an accident." (United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency, p. 14)

Works cited:

Hess, K., Orthmann, C., & Cho, Henry, "Police Operations: Theory and Practice," (Cengage Learning, 1 Jan 2013)

United States. Federal Emergency Management…… [read more]


Motives of Terrorists Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (526 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Terrorists fall into that category of commitment, as they can be fanatically devoted to their particular cause. When people who are easily swayed and/or are seeking something in their lives fall into being friends or colleagues with those who have terrorist connections, they can want so much to be accepted that they go along with committing acts of terrorism, often just to be accepted by others.

It may seem surprising that people would do something as significant as terrorism simply because they wanted to be accepted, but it certainly happens -- and often frequently. Sociology is one of the main ways in which terrorism can be studied, because it is important to understand why a person does something. It is equally important to understand how groups create themselves and how they maintain their ideology. They "collect" members, many times without even trying, because people seek them out if they feel the group can provide something to them that they value or that they find to be important. With that in mind, terrorist groups can quickly collect a number of members who join for many different reasons. Acceptance, a desire for violence or vengeance, peer pressure, common ground, and a belief that "everyone does it" can all lead a person to join a terrorist group. Some people also get caught up in it, fearing that they will be terrorized, themselves, and that they may even be killed, if they do not join the terrorist group and protect themselves and their family.… [read more]


Terrorist Surveillance Techniques: Why it Is Important to Monitor Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Significant facts

Just as it is often stressed in the literature that 'everyone' can be a potential terrorist, any terrorist can also be a potential spy conducting surveillance. Suspicious activities in public places must be noted, but particularly in areas that have been identified by various intelligence agencies as likely targets of terrorists. Law enforcement must be cognizant of the fact that groups have a wide variety of tools to conduct surveillance, spanning from simple, on-the-ground observations to more sophisticated use of cameras and wiretapping devices purchased at 'spy shops.' Even apparently innocent evidence like public photographs or schedules of when the building is open that are available online can be potentially leveraged by terrorists for information.

However, as overwhelming as all this evidence may seem, it is important to remember that terrorists are usually not sophisticated in their surveillance techniques. Engaging in such obvious behaviors as ordering food at a cafe and leaving before consuming it; shadowing well-trafficked areas in suspicious clothing; and looking obviously out-of-place because of inappropriate bodily movements and attire are not atypical, versus the type of sophisticated surveillance carried out by foreign nations (Nance 2008: 190-192).

Conclusions

A final concern to keep in mind about spotting terrorism, however, is that law enforcement cannot engage in racial profiling when attempting to define what constitutes suspicious behavior. Law enforcement must obey constitutional dictates even when concerned with keeping the public as safe as possible. Behavior rather than identity is a key component of engaging in lawful efforts to apprehend individuals engaging in terrorist surveillance.

Being mindful of the variety of techniques used by terrorist groups is also important. Just as the nature of modern terrorism has changed with the ubiquity of the Internet, so has the available surveillance techniques available to its perpetrators. Tracing and 'keeping tabs' on so-called spy shops and websites that sell such materials may be an additional tool in tracking down terrorists. However, given that on-the-foot surveillance is still a vital component of terrorists' techniques in monitoring targets, general mindfulness and observation can never be minimized; nor can mobilizing the public to be watchful of suspicious behavior.

References

Nance. M. (2008). Terrorist recognition handbook. 2nd Ed.…… [read more]


Look at Terrorist Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

These types of terrorist actions usually require less preparatory acts and therefore less time to prepare for the attack. But on the other hand international terrorists will "engage in nearly three times as many preparatory acts per incident as their environmental counterparts." (Smith, 2008, pp. 4-5) And as a result will require much more time to carry out their preparations. In fact the study concluded that the average preparation time required for an international terrorist groups to carry out preparations for a terrorist attack was 92 days, while the average for environmental groups was just 14. Therefore one can conclude that international terrorists live closer to their targets and carry out most of their preparatory acts close to their targets over a long period of time while domestic terrorists carry out both their attacks and preparations further from their homes but in a shorter period of time.

Finally because of this information police now have a number of patterns to follow when investigating possible terrorist activities. For instance, terrorists will usually engage in at least some local preparations and while much of this will not be illegal, knowing it is going on can be beneficial to police. Also, knowing that terrorist groups are engaging in preparatory actions can be an indication of when they plan to carry out an attack. When environmental terrorists carry out preparatory actions this may be an indication that an attack is coming soon, possibly within a week or two and the police may be forced to act quickly to stop a possible terrorist attack. But if police determine that an international terrorist group is carrying out preparatory acts, because they take longer to prepare the police can take their time and investigate further to not only stop the attack but to discover all the people involved. The type of terrorist group is a major factor in the time and proximity of actual terrorist act and a tool the police can use to their benefit.

By studying the behavior of terrorist groups the NIJ has been able to make a number of conclusions about these groups. The study has found that both the proximity of the group to its intended target and the time needed for preparatory acts is related to the type of terrorist group carrying out the attack. With this information police can, through investigation, possibly predict the time and place of a potential terrorist attack.

References

Smith, Brent. (July 2008). "A Look At Terrorist Behavior: How They Prepare, Where

They Strike."…… [read more]


Boston Marathon Attack Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,138 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, their hostage from the carjacking escaped and called 911. He told them, the Tsarnaevs' had his cell phone and tracked their location to Watertown, Massachusetts. On April 19th, a firefight ensued between the brothers and police. Tamerlan was injured and taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (where he was pronounced dead from multiple gunshot wounds). However, Dzhokhar was wounded and managed to escape in the stolen Mercedes. A manhunt ensued throughout the area. This resulted in Dzhokhar being located in a boat and bleeding profusely from his wounds. The police raided the location and captured him. He was taken to the hospital and made a fully recovery. In the aftermath, Dzhokhar admitted his involvement in the attacks and was charged with 33 counts (to include: possessing / using weapons of mass destruction). (Bodden, 2014)

What Motivated the Tsarnaev Brothers?

The current position is Tsarnaev brothers were motivated by a desire to strike back and the United States. This is because they felt that the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were unjustified acts of aggression against Muslims. At the same time, Tamerlan had a propensity for violence and was influenced by the radical views of his mother in Chechnya. This and his inability to adapt to American society made him feel as if he was an outsider in a strange land. (Bodden, 2014)

His views had a major impact on his brother. Dzhokhar felt a sense of loyalty to him and wanted to support Tamerlan at any cost. The result is that the two began to share a hatred for America and everything it stood for. To strike back, they decided to use the Boston Marathon as a way of taking the fight to the society which allowed atrocities to occur in the Middle East. The victims were a part of the collateral damage in an effort to achieve these objectives. These insights are showing how a predisposition towards violence, alienation, family loyalty and radical views are what encouraged them. (Bodden, 2014)

However, there are different views surrounding what motivated the Tsarnaev brothers. For instance, Alvarez (2014) argues that they were impacted by the culture of violence in Russian and American societies. The combination of these factors creates a situation where they struck out at the establishment. (Alvarez, 2014) This is illustrating how there are alternative theories on why this occurred and the lasting impact. Feifer (2014) provides insights as to how they became radicalized and those factors that influenced their behavior in the years before the attack. This helps to corroborate and refute the different theories which are presented. (Feifer, 2014)

Conclusion

Clearly, the two brothers were motivated to conduct the Boston Marathon Bombings from anti-social behavior, radical Islam, loyalty and a desire to strike back at their adopted country. These areas are illustrating how they wanted to strike out at society and everything it stood for. The Boston Marathon was the perfect way of enabling them to achieve these objectives and it allowed them blend back into… [read more]


Pan Am Flight 103: Terrorism Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (1,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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There are several aspects to this happening. Some sources suggested at the time that the release was in the context of a massive arms deal between the British government and the Gaddafi regime which was negotiated during the Blair Administration but eventually did not happen (Sparrow, 2013). Others suggested that in fact the release was part of a prisoner exchange which the Scottish government did not agree. Ultimately, the official version was that the convict was released on a compassionate note given that he was suffering from terminal cancer. Abdelbaset al-Megrahi eventually died in 2012 (The New York Times, 2011)

As it is the case with any other attack, after it takes place, ideas on how that attack could have been avoided spurred to mind in order for lessons to be learned and such events never to take place. Unfortunately, after the Lockerby attack, the 9/11 events pointed out that more would have been needed to happen in order to prevent terrorist attacks on both American or other territories. Following the Lockerby attack however, increased security measures were taken at airports to ensure that proper controls at check in would be conducted. To this day, it is still unknown the way in which the explosive came to be carried aboard the Boing 747 that crashed in Scotland. Despite analysis and investigations, the fact that the bomb had been with a timer made it difficult for agencies to determine how the Semtex explosive came to be carried aboard and who carried it.

There were massive reactions after the incident throughout the world. Perhaps the most important though is the increased attention given to terrorism as a global threat, to the increased measures of security at the airports or any other vulnerable areas of transit and most importantly a change in the attitude towards countries that favor terrorism such as Libya or Iran.

References

CIA. "Terrorist Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103," n.d., available online at https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/cia-museum/experience-the-collection/text-version/stories/terrorist-bombing-of-pan-am-flight-103.html

Greenspan, Jesse. "Remembering the 1988 Lockerbie Bombing," History in the Headlines, 20 December 2013, available online at http://www.history.com/news/remembering-the-1988-lockerbie-bombing

Rayner, Gordon. "Lockerbie bombing: are these the men who really brought down Pan Am 103?," The Telegraph, 10 march 2014, available online at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/10688179/Lockerbie-bombing-are-these-the-men-who-really-brought-down-Pan-Am-103.html

Sparrow, Andrew. "Email links Lockerbie bomber's prison transfer to £400m Libyan arms deal," The Guardian, 28 July 2013, available online at http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/jul/28/lockerbie-bomber-libyan-arms-deal

The New York Times. "Pan Am Flight 103," The New York Times, 29 August 2011, available online at http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/a/airplane_accidents_and_incidents/pan_am_flight_103/

Zalman, Amy. "1988: Pan Am Flight 103 Bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland," About.com, n.d., available online at http://terrorism.about.com/od/originshistory/p/PanAmBombing.htm… [read more]


John I Respectfully Disagree Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  4 pages (1,157 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Keep it local, I agree.

Terrence

Terrence you bring up some important facts when dealing with abstract issues dealing with the terrorism issue. Winning hearts and minds is indeed integral in the process of establishing peace and order. This is indeed an emotional-psychological battle that can be won without violence or struggle if the proper ideals are put into the right place. Your ideas on partnership and cooperation resonate strongly with my own ideals and I really appreciate your attitude towards the civil rights aspects that are not being properly addressed in many ways, in my opinion. By understanding that this war is mostly a war of minds and invisible forces a better approach may be taken to address the problems of failure in the past.

Brandon

Brandon, I appreciate your comments on the subject of local law enforcement being used to fight terrorism but I do not understand how you example of Afghanistan applies to the domestic issues of your case. Afghanistan is not domestic terrorism and our military operations over there have been a failure of massive proportions. In the world's eyes, and according to international law, American military forces are terrorists to many. What is lost in this argument is the sense of empathy and letting locals truly take care of their own problems. The threat of Islamic terrorism is not much of a threat, nor has it ever been. The histrionics displayed by the media suggesting that military forces are needed to lesson collective fear ignores the issues of self-preservation and independence. International law has been rudimentary and categorically ignored by the American Military forces in the War On Terror, and to use it to support this argument demonstrates a bias that is typically American and emotionally charged.

Valerie

Valerie I tend to agree with your ideas on training and policies as effective safeguards against failure in the War on Terror. By commenting on the disconnect between intelligence forces and military forces underscores the larger issue of the lack of leadership on the issue. Policy and standardized training have improved over the years, but the counterterrorism forces are a scattered group of federal forces with little to no oversight. I also agree that technology can be used in a very attractive manner and should be exploited to its highest purpose. Eventually a new paradigm is needed that synthesizes the issues you bring up between the intelligence community and the forces that execute the operations that derive from those policies.

Brandon

I appreciate your agreement and echo the sentiments that you wrote in your response to my essay. By bringing up The Posse Comitatus Act you revealed in important part of this discussion in that many of the federal, state and local combined efforts are indeed illegal under this act. It has no doubt been ignored and sets a precedent that limits the ability of any new laws to have any real bite to them. To me many of the crimes such as prostitution and illegal drug… [read more]


Terrorist Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Candidates who appear to be potentially dangerous to the terrorist group's survival are screened out. Candidates with unpredictable or uncontrolled behavior lack the personal attributes that the terrorist recruiter is looking for" which is a methodical commitment (Hudson 1999).

References

Hudson, R. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved from: https://www.fas.org/irp/threat/frd.html

M6D2: Warning signs of 9/11

For many, the fact that there had already been an attack on the Twin Towers is the most potent symbol of the failure of U.S. intelligence before their destruction on 9/11. Al-Qaida had clearly shown its determination to end the existence of these symbols of American power and dominance. The fact that the authorities were not on high alert to the possibility of another attack seems surprising in the extreme. Al-Qaida was clearly determined to finish what it had started.

The Bush Administration received warnings that another attack was likely. "The direct warnings to Mr. Bush about the possibility of a Qaeda attack began in the spring of 2001. By May 1, the Central Intelligence Agency told the White House of a report that 'a group presently in the United States' was planning a terrorist operation. Weeks later, on June 22, the daily brief reported that Qaeda strikes could be 'imminent'" (Eichenwald 2012). As another brief in August was being issued to the Administration, "a Saudi believed to have been assigned a role in the 9/11 attacks, was stopped at an airport in Orlando, Fla., by a suspicious customs agent and sent back overseas on Aug. 4. Two weeks later, another co-conspirator, Zacarias Moussaoui, was arrested on immigration… [read more]


Message for Eric Holder Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Terror Memo

Eric Holder, Attorney General U.S. Department of Justice

Re: Impact on Terrorism on National Security

The current state of the union suggests that the United States Department of Justice has many important and relevant tasks related to the safeguarding of the nation. The purpose of this memorandum is detail the impact of terrorism on national security and suggests methods and corrections to help align the department towards a more sustainable and practical goal.

The word 'terrorism' represents too many things to too many different people to have any sustained value or quality. The U.S. Department of Justice is about maintaining and keeping the peace so that justice can be served. The War on Terror, the over hyped media's usage of the word and the associated qualities, and the clear failures of the past from this department all point towards the idea that something needs to be changed in relation to how this organization operates in maintaining its mission.

The Mission

In times of trouble and despair, which many would suggest this department is experiencing, the fundamentals and basics are there to help restore confidence and guidance. The U.S. Department of Justice's mission is "To enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. " in this mission statement terrorism does not appear.

Terrorism is Meaningless

The massive and confusing piles of laws that are placed in the jurisdiction of this organization is quite intimidating and there is always plenty of tasks that need to be accomplished. Terrorism is more of a political catch word that has overtaken the more rational aspects of this organization in its inclusion in the discussion. Terror is an emotion, not an enemy. Terror is like happiness, sadness, elation, depression, anxiousness or any other of the many emotions contained within the psyche of man. By admitting terror is an enemy, it appears that Justice Department has overstepped its bounds.

What scares one person may be a comfort for others. So one's man terrorist is another man's freedom fighter. Terrorism in itself has not real meaning because there is nothing wrong or unjust about being scared. This department cannot and should not be responsible for placating the sensitive emotions of the entire American population. It can be guaranteed that at any time millions of people are experiencing fear and terror in their lives. To equivocate this to a crime does not align itself with the strategic mission of this organization, and reveals the problems of politics, emotions and word play as they intermix with our standard operating procedures.

Impractical Demands

Besides the philosophical differences, there are also important signs to show that this concentration on counterterrorism operations that this organization began to focus on in the last decade has… [read more]


"Winning" a Struggle Against a Terrorist Organization Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

"Terrorist activity by the Real IRA and other paramilitary groups continues and, as of the summer of 2006, is on the rise" (Zalman 2006). Still, despite the dissatisfaction of some members of the IRA with the peace agreement, overall this could be a considered a 'win' given the British concession to withdraw from Ireland, the legitimization of Sinn Fein as a political party, and the fact that IRA activities (however much the British might wish to deny this) had an influence upon bringing this major power to the negotiating table.

References

The Good Friday agreement. (1998). BBC. Retrieved from:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/good_friday.stm

Zalman, A. (2006). Understanding the IRA. Retrieved from:

http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/IRA.htm

M5D2: Combating International Terrorism Do international terrorist organizations or movements, such as Al-Qaeda, that operate across international borders require an international agency to track and combat them? If so, which international agency or body should be responsible for combating cross-border terrorism? If not, how should nations fight these cross-border organizations?

"No state, however powerful, can defend itself unilaterally against transnational terrorism. Terrorist networks move operatives, money and material across borders and through the crevices of the global economy. Only through extensive cooperation on financial flows, intelligence, and police action can the risk of terrorism be reduced" (Policy brief on combatting international terrorism, 2008, The Brookings Institute: 1). Even if international agencies are not the only means by which to police international terrorism, they are surely some of the most effective. Terrorism is so difficult to contain and detect because it is a borderless crime. Increasingly terrorist organizations are non-state actors with relatively vague, undefined missions. Their outreach is international and so are their ambitions. While nations can and… [read more]


Attack Causality in Internet-Connected Cellular Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. information infrastructure for intelligence collection, intellectual property theft, or disruption" because "terrorist groups and their sympathizers have expressed interest in using cyber means to target the United States and its citizens" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security 16).

While the calamitous conflicts still simmering throughout the Middle East provide conclusive proof that predicting future events is an untenable approach to counterterrorism intelligence, there are many circumstances which dictate the adoption of preventative strategy. The advent of the internet has enabled likeminded individuals across the planet to connect and exchange ideas on an instantaneous basis, allowing the once isolated realm of jihadist ideology to flourish under the cover of online anonymity. By monitoring suspicious activity through the use of wiretapping technology and other clandestine means, the intelligence community has gathered a voluminous amount of data concerning potential threats to national security, identifying key leadership figures and their proxies, and foiling several dozen attacks during the planning phase. Indeed, according to the Heritage Foundation "in 2009 alone, U.S. authorities foiled at least six terrorist plots against the United States (and) since September 11, 2001, at least 30 planned terrorist attacks have been foiled, all but two of them prevented by law enforcement" (McNeill, Carafano & Zuckerman, 2010). When a potential terrorist attack is prevented, however, it is essential that the reasons for this success be accurately identified before a false sense of security becomes firmly established. A consensus has emerged among intelligence experts that "with distributed terrorism threats such as homegrown jihadism, there is no key leadership cell and no key lines of command and communication" (Quiggin, 2006), and it is the ambiguous structure of terrorist networks which necessitates an anticipatory approach to combating threats.

References

Traynor, P., McDaniel, P., & La Porta, T. (2007, August). On attack causality in internet-

connected cellular networks. In Proceedings of 16th USENIX Security Symposium on USENIX Security Symposium (pp. 1-16). USENIX Association. Retrieved from https://www.usenix.org/legacy/event/sec07/tech/full_papers/traynor/traynor_html/

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis. Homeland security threat assessment: Evaluating threats 2008-2013. Washington, DC: Government Printing

Office, 2008. Retrieved from http://info.publicintelligence.net/DHS- Threats2008-

2013.pdf

York, D. & Zar, J. (2008, October). Blue Box Podcast #85: Internet phone calls and terrorism,

Georgia Tech report on Emerging Cyber Security Threats, phone jamming, 802.1X-REV,

802.1AE, VoIP security news and more. Retrieved from http://www.mefeedia.com/entry/blue-box-85-internet-phone-calls-and-terrorism-georgia-tech-report-on-emerging-cyber-security-threat/11995446… [read more]


Terrorist and Youtube Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

The impact of disruptive technologies such as internet, social media and communication application can be gauged from the fact that London was a rather safe and quite cosmopolitan area. The use of internet and its potential to facilitate instigation in the future in most developed countries even is not out of bounds.

The internet moderated terrorism

The internet moderated terrorism… [read more]


Terrorism and Counterterrorism Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  3 pages (829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

If you are trying to explain that fear has no benefit I would suggest otherwise. Fear is the greatest control mechanism of the human psyche. Fear is a weapon and can be used to seriously harm and hurt. John F. Kennedy suggested it's the greatest evil known to man and it itself should be the only thing to fear. I believe that the threat of terrorism is using fear to control and undermine the populations it targets. I also find your comments on asymmetric warfare to reveal and important idea in developing a secure defense: bigger is not always better.

Terrence Priest

Terrence I am confused about what you have written. It seems to me that you are explaining that monetary gain and profit is not related to ideology, politics or religion. In my humble experiences I have found these ideas to be significantly intermeshed. I find it impossible to find any real use in discerning between criminals, terrorists and insurgents. The argument just leads to more questions and does not address the real problem: the elusiveness of peace and stability. This is nothing more than childish name calling dressed in the obscene defense of a tyrannical empire that offers nothing to the world but war and domination. To suggest that America now subscribes to the Geneva Convention is laughable, war crimes attributed to this standard are carried out daily by American military forces and have been for the last 13 years.

Brandon

Brandon, I strongly align myself with some of your comments regarding the impossibility of a war on terror, much less winning one. By highlighting the irrationality, or the inability to measure, such an abstract notion as terror is quite refreshing to read. A war on terror would is like declaring a war on the number 9, it makes no sense. Terror is not a material and takes the shape of whatever the individual supplying the feat decides to give it. Some people fear clowns, does that mean we start invading circuses around the world to eliminate this threat? What is unfortunate about this revelation you point out is that people are truly afraid of things that are irrational and do not make sense. Perhaps the whole concept of the war on terror should be embraced and thought as a macro-level psychoanalysis that can hopefully bring a catharsis to a very damaged and…… [read more]


Patriot Act After the attacks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

During a time of extreme emotional distress by the American public, the government declared that the only way to prevent the possibility of more attacksx was to given back ultimate authority to the government. Since the start of the War on Terror, the American people have turned against the legislation, but the government has not amended the Patriot Act to reflect this attitude. On the contrary, in 2011 President Barack Obama signed an extension to the act, which permits wire-tapping and observation of terrorism suspects. The NSA scandal of 2013 illustrated the ease with which these surveillance measures can be abused.

One of the most worrisome aspects of the act has to do with the First Amendment rights of citizens. News reporters and other members of the media have been prevented from attending proceedings in court which leads to a worry that the conduct at these proceedings are not above board. There have been cases where reporters and their associated newspapers have been prosecuted by the government for thinks like "featuring a link to Osama bin Laden's latest taped statement in connection with a story about the statement" on the basis that they are spreading the message of the enemy (Baker 2005,-page 145). Further, the government can give a subpoena to news organizations, or anyone else for that matter, forcing these investigators to give over documents or names of anyone who might be connected to suspected terrorism. This is all done under Title V of the act. If reporting or investigation would constitute a form of obstruction according to the government, then they can effectively silence these organizations, violating the First Amendment to the Constitution. The Patriot Act is thereby giving government agencies the means to punish citizens for being educated about what is going on in their country and around their world.

After the September 11th attacks, the citizens of the United States of America were all grieving. They were gripped in a terror, fearing that more violence was coming and were unsure where or when such an attack might come. In this atmosphere of terror, the federal government utilized the chance to increase their power over the citizenry. Under some of the provisions of the Patriot Act, the federal government now can detain individuals without due process. They have the power to tap phones, monitor finances, and perform many other unethical and formerly illegal acts. Although the original intentions of the act may indeed have been concern for the safety of Americans, the legislation has since proven to allow for extreme levels of corruption and abuse and it needs to be seriously reformed if not wholly abolished.

Works Cited:

Baker, S. (2005). Patriot Debates: Experts Debate the U.S.A. Patriot Act. American Bar

Association.

De Londras, F. (2011). Detention in the 'War on Terror': Can Human Rights Fight Back?

Cambridge: Cambridge, UK.

MacDonald, H. (2003). Straight talk on homeland security. City Journal. Retrieved from http://www.city-journal.org/html/13_3_straight_talk.html

Ramasastry, A. (2001). Indefinite detention based upon suspicion: how the patriot act will disrupt… [read more]


Budget Practices That Are Destroying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Budget Practices that are destroying America's defenses." The article appeared in the Forbes Magazine. The article identified four budgetary practices of the U.S. federal government that were creating severe issues in the defense management, specifically for the Pentagon. The author identified that sequestration provisions of the 2011 Budget Control Act are flawed in many ways. It is pertinent… [read more]


Uniting and Strengthening America Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,150 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. upon whom no existing evidence of terrorist ties is available. The controversial elements surrounding the three sections have sprung due to explicit beliefs that the Patriot Act inhibits most peoples' constitutional liberties in regards to privacy. Whereas in the past, intercept orders were required to establish surveillance, the three expiring sections lead to the evident conclusion that the U.S. government has enforced law agencies with legal rights over any individuals' data storage. Furthermore, law agencies are not required to present evidence in supporting allegations but can establish electronic surveillance more freely than ever before. Indeed, criticism has arisen because the Patriot Act ?makes it easier for the government to skirt what are supposed to be limitations on permissible domestic surveillance. (Henderson, 2002, p. 195) Moreover, it is believed that ?the seizure of electronic communications and private records under the Patriot Act today is no less an assault on the ideas they contain than seizure of books during a less technologically advanced era. (American Civil Liberties Union, 2009 p. 9) From such perspectives, the American nation is believed to return to a state of censorship and strain embedded in a cloth of democratic concern due to the enactment of the 2001 law. However, law officials claim that applying provisions is ?essential, given the technology and the growth of technology that we've had. (as cited in Democratic Policy Committee, 2011, ?Roving Wiretaps?) Also, as the three expiring provision are said to be a violation of the rights included in the Fourth Amendment, there are opinions that the latter does not in fact guarantee or address privacy issues. As such, ?Fourth Amendment limits on government authority are most likely not exceeded, because the threat to privacy…appears to be outweighed by the government's duty to protect national security. (Henderson, 2002, p. 198). Nevertheless, the Act continues to stir debates and nurture opposition which makes it difficult to asses whether or not it has been beneficial. And with abuses by various law agencies being revealed, it would appear that, while it might serve law enforcement, the Patriot Act is in the detriments of regular citizens. On the other hand, as many as 310 defenses were made in merely 2004 (U.S. Department of Justice, 2004, p. 4) as a result of Patriot Act enforcement which goes to show more benefits exist.

Reference List

American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Reclaiming patriotism: A call to reconsider the Patriot Act. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/safefree/patriot_report_20090310.pdf

Democratic Policy Committee. (2011). H.R. 514, Patriot Act extension. Legislative Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/docs/lb-112-1-14.pdf

Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot's Act impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52, 179-209. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1168&context=dlj

Roundy, M.D. (2006). The Wiretap Act -- Reconcilable differences: A framework for determining the "interception" of electronic communications following United States v. Councilman's rejection of the storage/transit dichotomy. Western New England Law Review, 28, 403-438. Retrieved from http://assets.wne.edu/164/19_note_Wiretap_.pdf

Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot… [read more]


Preventing Terrorist Attacks Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

This is one of the reasons for which precautionary measures have been taken in order to limit the capacity of terrorists from infecting the drinkable water. These measures include the replacement of "chlorine gas as disinfection to alternatives which are believed to be safer, such as sodium hypochlorite or ultraviolet light. However, some consumer groups remain concerned that many wastewater… [read more]


Terrorist Incident Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

The first hour is one of the most critical timeframes for saving lives and these individuals have one of the most important roles out of all the agencies involved. Sometimes it can be hours if not days before they relinquish their commands to federal authorities.

Overlap and Conflicts

Because all of the agencies that respond to a terrorist event do not arrive on the scene at the same time, there is the potential for conflicts. Though there is a chain of command that eventually becomes clear to the parties involved, much of the command will evolve as the response progresses. Firefighters and EMS professionals have one of the most important roles in saving victims lives since most of the potential to do so is found in the first hours of the response. After this initial period and when other agencies have been mobilized the priorities and leadership structure will evolve. Depending of the type of terrorism attack, different organizations might have different roles as well.

Although conflicts will undoubtedly arise as agencies carve out their specific duties in the wake of an event, it is generally not as intense as many people believe or that is portrayed in movies. Most citizens and response agencies respond constructively to environmental threats by bringing as much information and as many resources as they can to bear on the problem of how to cope with an incident (Perry & Lindell, 2003). However, there may still exist a great deal of confusion that surrounds the situation. One of the best ways to mitigate such confusion is to plan for it ahead of time. Many of the training and the drills performed on terrorist attacks will include information on the chain of the command that will ensue after an event. This allows the responders to understand the networks of responses beforehand so that they are free to perform their roles more effectively.

Works Cited

American Red Cross. (N.d.). Disaster Relief. Retrieved from American Red Cross: http://www.redcross.org/what-we-do/disaster-relief

Grabianowski, E. (N.d.). How FEMA Works. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: http://people.howstuffworks.com/fema1.htm

Perry, R., & Lindell, M. (2003). Understanding Citizen Response to Disasters with Implications for Terrorism. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 49-60.

Sanderford, D. (N.d.). WMD Terrorism and the Role of First Responders. Retrieved from Asanltr: http://www.asanltr.com/ASANews-99/993FirstResp.htm… [read more]


Counterterrorism Counter-Terrorism Framework Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,548 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

This is not to say that they should make a profit, which is the alpha goal of a business, but the other parts of running a business including training people timely and fully, spending money wisely, making upgrades to equipment and resources only when necessary but not in a way that is too over the top and commits resources that… [read more]


Terrorist Attack Efforts Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Contrasting motives included suggesting whether the group participates in attacks for money or political motives.

Contrasting motives lead the suspect to choose one motive in which the interrogation could proceed. Choosing one motive between the two offered confirms the suspect's participation in the group terrorist activities. The interrogation did not involve any torture or coercion to obtain the required information… [read more]


Patriot Act This Study Seeks to Investigate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Patriot Act

This study seeks to investigate whether the Patriot Act has lived up to its goals of identifying and stopping terrorist attacks. The Patriot Act was put in place after the September 11th terrorist attacks by the former president George Bush and his government. The Act was designed to regulate all financial transactions dealing with anyone who had a… [read more]


Pop Culture Cultural Elements of a Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Pop Culture

Cultural elements of a society reveal a lot about it. Historically, culture aesthetics have been revealed by various forms of knowledge and learning, architecture, religion, and artwork. Whereas during previous eras art typically encompassed various facets of music, visual art, painting, sculpture, and literature, in contemporary times art is often reflected via technological means. Thus, it is extremely important to analyze popular culture, especially television, to understand what such culture reveals about a particular society. In that respect, an examination of N.C.I.S. For its sociological ramifications is in order, especially when one pauses to consider the length of time it has been airing (for over 10 years) and the various accolades it has won during its tenure -- which is still ongoing. Therefore, an analysis of the various aspects of this show that resonate with audiences and enable it to pave the way for popular culture in one of its most accessible forms will inevitably demonstrate a number of key aspects about the society that creates and supports such a show.

One of the most salient aspects of N.C.I.S (which is an acronym for Naval Criminal Investigative Service) is the fact that it depicts the government agency operating in the general field of law enforcement (albeit with a decidedly military slant). From a sociological standpoint, then there is a strict adherence to moral virtues that are both demonstrated by the show and which reflect those of the surrounding society. The show essentially depicts military officers in their pursuit of virtue. There are cut and obvious 'good guys', and a never-ending supply of 'bad guys'. Audiences, therefore, are spared the decision of having to actually, say, think about any sort of moral ambiguity, and can successfully root for the heroes, who just so happen to be playing heroes in this popular television show. Virtually all of the actions that Supervisory Special Agent Leroy Gibbs, aside from his womanizing tendencies, a point which is underscored by the fact that he has been married four times and is currently single on the show) conform to a traditional view of ethics and morality with which people can easily identify. Gibbs and the vast majority of his teammates do not engage in socially deviant behavior, which encompasses a variety of different factors (Giddens, 2001, p. 151) and would result in their engaging in criminal behavior. As such, the clear cut distinctions and lines of morality, particularly as exemplified by the behavior of Gibbs' team and the criminal they pursue, more than likely explains this show's popularity.

Another fairly eminent aspect about N.C.I.S. which is intrinsically related to the fact that the show depicts morally defensible military personnel who engage in law enforcement is that doing so involves a good deal of gun play. The issue of gun control is certainly at the forefront of contemporary American society (Zakaria, 2012). This particular aspect of N.C.I.S. (that there is frequent exchanges of gun fire and plots revolving around firearms, shooting, and the eventual wounding and… [read more]


Grand Strategy and Theory Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Grand Strategy and Theory

There are three different theories involved in international politics and relations. These theories are realism, liberalism, and constructivism. The theories are used in the grand strategy of the war on terror by the United States. Each theory has its own approach, which differs greatly from the others. Analyzing the different theories and relating them to the… [read more]


National Security Implications of Transnational Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. banks. China is trying to steal patents and U.S. technology that companies keep in their sites and in their computers, and the attack on Government increased almost nine fold, to "48,562 in fiscal 2012 from 5,503 in 2006.

Thus Afghanistan, Pakistan, or the region in terms of stability and U.S. concerns, and from Afghanistan the post-withdrawal relationship with the… [read more]


Intelligence Pathologies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Intelligence Pathologies

The Church Committee Investigations which began in 1974 after the Watershed Scandal in President Nixon's administration found that intelligence agencies had unlimited executive power. The committee found that intelligence agencies abused this power and harassed and disrupted targeted groups and individuals, spied on citizens, assassination plots, manipulation and infiltration of businesses and media. Recommendations made by the Church… [read more]


Just War? Throughout History Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … just war"?

Throughout history, factions have gone to war over many issues, usually claiming that they were justified in entering and engaging in those wars despite what other people argued in regard to their actions. The concept of a just war is a military theory wherein the actions of the perpetrator or defending nation believed themselves justified in… [read more]


Contemporary Maritime Issues in the Asia Pacific Region Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Maritime Issues in the Asia Pacific region

The security in International maritime terrorism is changing due to the need to counter the threats with different countries getting involved in these strategies by the major seaborne trading countries. These terrorist threats are within the extent on this paper possible attack on a ship or port within the Asia-Pacific area.… [read more]


War in Afghanistan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

War in Afghanistan

Following the unprecedented 9 / 11 terrorist attacks on American soil, an atmosphere of fear and hysteria swept through the world. U.S. reprisal came in the form of fully blown war against terrorism as they assured the world that America would use all resources at its disposal to wage war on terror. Even as the demise of… [read more]


Drones Preliminary Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  22 pages (6,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Brooks has been assigned the committee assignments of Armed Forces, Space and Technology and Aeronautics so it is very much likely that he would raise questions about the technicalities that are involved in the operation of drones. He might ask as to how the operations of these drones can be improved and other questions regarding the mechanics of drones.

Paul… [read more]


Hezbollah the Formation and Perpetuation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Though Hezbollah's basic goals did not change following the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, its self-positioning and certain of its actions have undergone significant changes in the past decade that have given the organization even greater legitimacy and political power within Lebanon and the larger region of the Middle East -- and even in the West, to some degree.… [read more]


Terrorist Tactics Are Continually Evolving and Changing A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … terrorist tactics are continually evolving and changing. This is troubling, as these kinds of shifts make it more difficult to target someone who may be carrying a WMD. Moreover, most of these organizations are looking for individuals who can blend within the general population. This allows them to conduct different activities without being detected by law enforcement or intelligence officials.

A good example of this can be seen with Faisal Shahzad. On May 1, 2010; he parked an SUV filled with explosives in the middle of Times Square and attempted to detonate it. The primary objectives were to kill as many people as possible and bring the fight to the streets of America.

What makes this situation so troubling is he is a naturalized American citizen. This is problematic, as law enforcement had no idea that an attack was about to occur. Prior to these events, he was considered to be an ordinary person who worked as an account analyst (making a salary of $50 thousand a year). He lived in the suburbs of Connecticut and was known for mowing the lawn on the weekends and playing with his family outside.

What pushed him to become radicalized are the financial challenges he was facing in the wake of the recession and stagnant recovery. This is because his home was foreclosed on. These actions are the result of him no longer being able to afford the payments and he was seeing declining levels of income in the tough economic conditions. This is point that he felt, the U.S. was being manipulated by the Jews (who controlled the financial system). As time went by, these views became more fundamentalist with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. He believed that this was an indirect approach for the Jews (i.e. Israel) to dominate the Middle East. This is being accomplished by using the War on Terrorism to push the U.S. To become more involved in the region militarily.

Furthermore, law enforcement was not able arrest Shahzad until two days later. This is when they had to pull him off of an airplane at JFK (which was about to take off for Yemen). What gave them the clues they needed to apprehend Shahzad, is he left the keys to…… [read more]


Briefing on Security Board Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

An additional major risk to commercial airlines is the increase in conspiracies and attacks directing airports rather than airplanes. Assaults touching airports have been planned and executed using multiple techniques. All such facts are usually ignored by the security system. Although airports are also increasingly endangered but this does not necessarily reduce the risk of damage suffered by airlines. For instance, an attack on the airport can result in delay of flights which in turn results in obligation to the airline to accommodate their passengers and provide additional services. This can badly affect the budget of the airline itself and can incur it heavy losses. Thus, necessary measures must be taken to avoid the financial risks. Relying solely on airport authorities is not enough in monetary matters as well. On the whole, terrorism can affect the commercial airlines indirectly as well and would leave a severely disastrous result.

Necessary Steps to Improve Aviation Security

Several measures can be taken to deal with security issues mentioned above:

Advancement and progress of risks in aviation security system can be properly monitored by establishing a strong link with the airline industry. This link can play a vital role in reducing the risk of terrorism because airlines are much more conscious and prepared of the susceptibilities exposed to commercial aviation (Price & Forrest, 2009).

On the part of government and other airport authorities, instead of increasing budget on screening equipment and employees organized other regulators should in its place deliver financial backing for airlines. It can be a useful measure in making an effort to improve the security system for overseas processes and procedures.

The financial backing can be provided by airlines itself by funding on airlines' international employees and dealers' providing extra funds for the distribution of screening equipment.

Similarly, another important service that can be implemented by the government is to exert to advance the value of threat information shared with airlines. It has been noticed that outdated, imprecise and inappropriate information is being shared which is not doing any good anyway.

All these measures are necessary to be taken. Government support is necessary to achieve these targets and to implement these necessary security measures. On the whole, a joint effort by government bodies, high level authorities and the airlines themselves is the basic requirement of setting up this improved system.

References

Dyson, W.E. (2012). Terrorism: An Investigator's Handbook. New York: Anderson Publishing.

Friedman, D.M., & Mitchell, C. (2009). Security Measures in the Commercial Trucking and Bus Industries. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Jain, A. (2013, January 1). Addressing The Insider Threat. Retrieved from Security-today: http://security-today.com/Articles/2013/01/01/Addressing-The-Insider-Threat.aspx

Parr, A. (2009). Hijacking Sustainability. New York: MIT Press.

Hofmann, D. (2012). Perspective on Terrorism. Terrorism Research Initiative, 61-74.

Price, J., & Forrest, J. (2009). Practical Aviation Security: Predicting and Preventing Future Threats. New York: Elsevier.

Quarles, C.L. (2000). Terrorism: Avoidance and Survival. Boston: University Press of America.

Raman, B. (2008). Terrorism: Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow. New Delhi: Lancer Publications.

Simon, J.D. (2001). The Terrorist… [read more]


Bioterrorism Biological Weapons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

The psychological aspect of both biological weaponry and terrorism is overlooked in this argument.

Preparedness is the one defense of biological weapons that can substantially neutralize the effects when this tactic is employed. The growing trend of fusing military interests with domestic interests are becoming more pronounced. As the U.S. moves to integrate biological weapons into its defense arsenal, it… [read more]


Balance Between Emergency Powers Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Many have argued in favor of the sanctions imposed on the citizens and suspects alike and their adverse effect on human rights. Furthermore, some have pointed at the abuse of law by the government in light of the situation at the Guantanamo Bay based upon the Nationality Act and the Immigration and Nationality Act as well as the U.S.A. Patriot Act. With this the nation is more likely to take drastic measures as a defense mechanism against security threats. It should therefore be the responsibility of the state to ensure that the application of these measures is restricted in a way that gives value to human rights issues.

Works Cited

A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] UKHL 56 .

Feingold, Russell. "On Opposing the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 14 April 2002. 8 December 2012 .

Gearty, Conor. Terror. London: Faber & Faber, 1991.

Greenhouse, Linda. "A Nation Challanged: The Supreme Court." The New York Times 29 September 2001.

Kennedy v. Mendoza-Martinez, 372 U.S. 144 (1963).

Langer, Gary and Dalia Sussman . "Public Opposes Terms of Gitmo Detainment." ABC News 26 June 2006.

Leone, Richard C. "The Quiet Republic: The Missing Debate About Civil Liberties After 9/11." Anrig, Leone and. The War on Our Freedoms -- Civil Liberties in An Age of Terrorism. New York: Public Affairs, 2003. 6.

Rasul v. Bush (03-334) 542 U.S. 466 (2004).

Schulhofer, Stephen J. "No Checks, No Balances: Discarding Bedrock Constitutional Principles."…… [read more]


Disrupting Terror Group Finances to Exploit Weaknesses in Terrorist Organizations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

Disrupting Terror Group Finances to Exploit Weaknesses in Terrorist Organizations

Global war on terrorism has been executed in many different fronts. This followed the 2001 terrorist attack on the United States that marked the beginning of targeting the financial networks of terrorists (Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism, 2008). Terrorists depend on financial networks in order to succeed in executing… [read more]


USA Patriot Act on Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

The overall prevalence of possible violations was between 7 and 10%, with 90% of the suspected violations representing improper collection of telephone and internet records. The error rate increased substantially to 71.5% when it was discovered that close to 50% of a representative sample of NSLs were issued for non-active investigations.

The original purpose of NSL authority was to be… [read more]


Terrorist Is Created: Terrorist Acts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

This program was implemented by the National Security Agency to intercept al Qaeda communications abroad in which one of the parties is not an individual from the United States. In this case, the wiretapping program seeks to intercept communications where one party is outside America where there are reasonable grounds that at least one of the parties has links with al Qaeda. Therefore, the NSA Terrorist Surveillance Program does not seek to intercept domestic calls in the United States. While the program was implemented after the 9/11 terror attacks, it was made public in 2005 and additional details were released in May 2006.

However, the NSA Terrorist Surveillance Program has raised numerous concerns in the recent past, especially after an anonymous source confirmed that there are some instances where purely domestic calls were intercepted. The concerns have been mainly exacerbated by questions on whether such interceptions violate the provisions of the Fourth Amendment regarding search tactics for criminal investigations. As a result, the program has been considered as illegal, as a technique for spying on innocent Americans, and violation of the 4th Amendment.

Nonetheless, there are clear differences between the program and the Fourth Amendment since the NSA program is narrowly focused as it aims to intercept international calls and targets al Qaeda and affiliated groups ("The NSA Program," 2006). Moreover, there are various safeguards that have been established to protect the civil liberties of ordinary Americans. In addition to applying to communications where one party is outside America, the program is consistent with protections of civil liberties as entrenched in the Constitution.

References:

"The NSA Program to Detect and Prevent Terrorist Attacks -- Myth v. Reality." (2006, January

27). Office of Public Affairs. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.justice.gov/opa/documents/nsa_myth_v_reality.pdf

Zalman, A. (n.d.). The Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://terrorism.about.com/od/causes/a/causes_terror.htm… [read more]


International Terrorism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Another aim is to end the planning of terrorist activities through impending the communication and dissemination of their technical knowledge especially through the internet.

Methods used to combat organized crime

There are methods that can be used to combat organized crime these include the use of electronic surveillance which will provide evidence that is objective. It also enables law enforcement to learn about the crime before it is executed. There can also be carrying out of undercover operations which go hand in hand with surveillance. Confidential informants are also important when it comes to combating organized crime. These are individuals who are willing to give information on condition that they do not testify (Ohr, 2004).

Risk assessment

Threat and risk assessment are used to make valid decision support tools to establish and prioritize counter terrorism attacks. Risk assessment is done through evaluation of the threat on basis of factors such as the capability and intent of attack, likelihood of a successful attack and its lethality. Through risk assessment the target can also be established this is from looking at the nature of operations of the terrorist group. In this case we see the terrorist group hate western culture and capitalism and the fact that their target location is a high profile one then it can be concluded that the target for these attack are capitalists.

Proposed counter terrorism strategy

An effective counter terrorist strategy to be proposed is the placement of surveillance cameras and metal detectors, taking random patrols of bomb sniffing dogs in high profile place where there might be likelihood of attacks being made from the risk assessment. These will ensure that the people in those areas are always alert at all times. This is the best prevention strategy for the terrorism attack that is anticipated since the location is known to be high profile. So that there is prevention of attack the surveillance cameras should be put up in these areas throughout to monitor who comes in and goes out. If anyone who is suspicious is seen then immediate action should be taken. The metal detectors are useful for searching people who enter and leave these places just incase they are carrying things that can be used for the attack.

References

Albercht, H.J. (2008). Concepts of Terrorism and Organized Crime. Retrieved November 8,

2012 from http://www.etc.-graz.at/cms/fileadmin/user_upload/humsec/SAc_08_PPP/PPP_Hans_J_rg_Albrecht.pdf

Ohr, G.B. (2004). Effective methods to combat transnational Organized crime in criminal justice processes. Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no58/58-05.pdf (pg40-57)

Kolodkin, B. (2012).What is Counter terrorism? Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/defense/a/what-is-counterterrorism.htm… [read more]


War on Terror Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Thus, even thought their stated enemy is the state, they attack innocent civilians. The mentality is that fear will motivate an extreme militaristic response, which can then be used as a self-fulfilling prophecy.

With regards to drug cartels, they are also trans-national, trans-governmental groups. Fueled by a thriving black market economy, drug cartels can only be squelched by legalizing the production of recreational drugs and regulating their trade worldwide. Until then, drug cartels will continue to make local and state governments more corrupt, crippling local economies and preventing long-term growth in their respective regions. Thus, the future of the War on Terror involves a careful look at what has worked in the past, and what has failed. Clearly, the War on Terror must take into account the diversity and complexity of terrorism. Not all terrorist organizations can be treated equally. The situational variables need to be understood before developing a strategic course of action. The future of the War on Terror must also be fought with clever rhetoric that avoids feeding the fear machine. The terrorist have won any time an act of terror is met with a response the likes of the Bush administration.

Reference

Coaty, P.…… [read more]


Sar Teams That Responded to the Oklahoma Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,135 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … SAR teams that responded to the Oklahoma City attack perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh. The second question pertains to Hurricane Katrina and the NRP/NRF responses. The final question deals with key players relative to the NIMS process.

OKC SAR Response

The official report issued by Oklahoma had a "lessons learned" section and part of that section related directly to the response and recovery operations that ensued after the bombing. Issue 1 of that section was very striking. Due to the chaos and the overloading of networks such as those from cell phones, the overall communication abilities of the SAR teams was very limited to nothing. The fact that these teams were ostensibly relying on civilian communication arrays is fairly jaw-dropping but not surprising given other events in U.S. history that have been botched.

This leads to two issues the author of this paper would identify regarding that fact. First, OKC SAR's should have their own communication channels along the same lines as fire and police operations. It is true that it will likely never be used extensively, but not having it in a time like the OKC bombing is nuts. If a tornado hit OKC like it did Joplin, this would happen all over again. The second issue is that the communication problem persisted for more than half a day and that is equally appalling. To imagine if the World Trade Center attack, which was an attack on a much wider scale, would be sobering to consider.

Lastly, per the request of the instructor, the catastrophic event annex is to be looked at. As far as FEMA and their CEA framework, one major tenet is that federal intervention and assistance is required to effectively deal with such an event, but the state really needs to be as self-sufficient as they can be. The destruction of a town would most certainly need to involve FEMA, but this was just one building and immediate surrounding area. Even so, the USAR was dispatched by FEMA just before 9 am on the day of the attack (Ghilarducci, 1995). The communications that did occur were all to go through the Rescue Command (RC) center, which is a good idea (Edmonson et al., 1995). Medical contingencies should be addressed when handling such an event, as was proven by a USAR member from FEMA that got a 106 degree temperature en route to the blast radius (Barbera, DeAtley & MacIntyre, 1995).

Katrina NRP/NRF Response

The Hurricane Katrina response was a darn mess. Federal, state and local response and the coordination thereof was a complete debacle. It is obvious that Louisiana did not implement or embrace the Catastrophic Incident Annex as state/federal coordination was abysmal and entirely too many people were still in the hurricane damage area, which is especially appalling since much of the New Orleans urban area is under sea level.

A report by the GAO noted that Red Cross coordination with FEMA must be improved as it fell way short after both Hurricanes Rita… [read more]


Terrorist Organization That Affects National Security Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … terrorist phenomenon has changed the perspective through which security, both homeland and international, is perceived. The complex nature of terrorism that spans across borders, nations, and territories had impacted the way in which security strategies are drafted and implemented and has given rise to new meanings of security projected in terms of human, social, economic, and most importantly… [read more]


Pat Proctor of Kansas State Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (2,038 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Moreover Proctor suggests that salafist jihadism is an "economic problem" because it "impedes investment" in the areas where radicalism has taken hold and violence is up; and because the attacks that it "inspires" creates economic damage into the millions of dollars (55). Proctor presents variables and counter arguments to the salafist jihadism ideas but he warns that the U.S. does not have to "…engineer these arguments" because they are already being made by "prominent personalities in the Arab world" (57).

TEN: The findings that Proctor puts forward match up very well to his original thesis: that is, the U.S. And the West are wasting their resources trying to kill all the insurgents coming into Afghanistan and the al-Qaeda militants in other countries. It would be smarter and better to win the so-called war on terror with actions that show allegiance to the people who brought down dictatorships in Egypt, Tunisia and Libya, Proctor proclaims, and emphasizes that message throughout his piece.

ELEVEN: the conclusion to Proctor's article is profoundly succinct and sensible. The real challenge for the west, the author explains in the conclusion, is to "…inoculate the region against the insidious disease of salafist jihadism"; the reason this is important, Proctor continues, is because salafist jihadism has "…hijacked Western strategic thinking for the past decade" (61). I am persuaded that Proctor has the right philosophy and theory, when he says that the U.S. And its allies "…must extricate themselves from the remaining military engagements of the war on terrorism" (61). It is a losing cause to deploy soldiers and equipment into Muslim countries to fight wars, and Proctor knows what he is talking about.

TWELVE: The implications are very clearly understood in this piece; he put together a very comprehensive and scholarly article and one can only hope people in high position in the U.S. government read it and heed it.

THIRTEEN: Among the strengths of this report is that it comes from a writer who has been in the thick of the war on terror. Proctor is not an intellectual sitting in a comfortable office making observations about the war on terror.

Indeed, in conclusion, it is important to note that Proctor is a lieutenant colonel with 17 years active service under his belt. He has worked as a member of the team led by General David Petraeus, who led the NATO forces in Afghanistan for several years. He has seen the violence and the bloodshed from the perspective of a superpower like the U.S. not gaining any ground notwithstanding the loss of live and the spending of millions of dollars on the effort to push back the insurgents. Fortunately, President Obama has set a timetable for the U.S. To extricate itself from the morass of war and loathing in Afghanistan; whatever happens there is going to happen with or without Americans, so it is high time to bring those troops home.

Works Cited

Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology… [read more]


Drone Strikes Target Drone Legality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,572 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25

SAMPLE TEXT:

The use of drone attacks for target killings is weakening the rule of law and can also be manipulating the international law in their own favor. Killings can be a lawful act in an armed conflict (a place like Afghanistan) but many of the target killings are taken in places where people are unarmed and cannot be recognized as an… [read more]


Al Qaeda's Next Major Domestic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

"

Given the high-profile nature of the New Year's Eve celebration in New York's Times Square, it is reasonable to suggest that Homeland Security authorities and local, regional and state agencies are actively involved in developing contingency plans for a wide range of potential scenarios. In this regard, Davis and his associates add that, "For the scenarios to be useful… [read more]


Commission's Recommendations on Reforming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. intelligence community served as a wake-up call that prompted a system-wide evaluation of communication issues and the need for an integrated approach to collecting and analyzing real-time intelligence from far-flung sources that were codified in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention Act. Because these sources exist along a continuum ranging from dubious to completely reliable, the analysis of this real-time data frequently requires the subjective perspective that only humans can bring to bear on identifying real threats vs. gibberish or benign transmissions. Unfortunately, even the best experts in the field are limited by their ability to sift through the mountains of intelligence data that are routinely collected every day, making the need for ongoing review to identify opportunities for improvement an essential component in the global war on terrorism. In the final analysis, the 9/11 Commission's recommendations were not only unprecedented in their scope, they were presented in such a way that the intelligence community was compelled by public opinion to make the needed reforms identified by the Commission, even if only in superficial ways that could satisfy Congress and the American public. Whether these reforms and changes will provide the desired outcome can only be judged by the historical record which to date indicates that the intelligence community has not only improved, it has succeeded in protecting the United States and its interests abroad from many terrorist attacks, and some of these are likely not even known because of the security practices that were involved.

References

Divoli, V. (2011). The 'full access doctrine': Congress's constitutional entitlement to national security information from the Executive. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 34(2),

493-495.

Intelligence CIO seeks to consolidate authority. (2006, April). National Defense, 90(629), 9.

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. (2004). U.S. government printing office. Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-108publ458/html/PLAW-

108 publ458.html.

The 9/11 commission report. (2004). 9/11 Commission. Retrieved from http://www.9-11

commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf.

Simon, J. (2005). Parrhesiastic accountability: Investigatory commissions and executive power in an age of terror. Yale Law Journal, 114(6), 1419-1423.

Sims, J.E. (2009). Vaults, mirrors, and masks:…… [read more]


Role of Specific Air Monitoring Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (781 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Tucker (1997) reports about HAZMAT publicity operations shortly after they were founded (in 1996 following the Atlanta Olympic Games ) and testing their outcome and efficacy found them disappointing.

Tucker (1997) wrties that the government formed HAZMAT educational courses and instructional booklets in order to instruct responders and the public on how to deal with terrorist attacks should they occur. "In the event of a chemical or biological terrorist incident that exceeded local and state-level response capabilities, federal agencies would provide specialized teams and equipment to help manage the consequences of the attack and treat, decontaminate, and evacuate casualties" and HAZMAT preparedness would help them in this instance.

The U.S. Congress also instituted a HAZMAT implemented Domestic Preparedness Program that trains local first-responders in ll states. Unfortunately, "While these national response capabilities are promising, their implementation to date has been problematic and their ultimate effectiveness is uncertain." Given the terrorist attacks that happened since publication of this article, particularly the attack of 2011, HAZMAT's capabilities and resources have been intensified. Nonetheless, they still run into difficulties as a perusal of various of the websites related to their endeavors on terrorism, and as my interviews with them, demonstrated.

Conclusion

Hazardous material and terrorism are closely intertwined since most terrorist attacks obviously involve some form of hazardous material and therefore the HAZMAT team is inextricably involved in investigating, identifying, and dissembling this hazardous material. Their work, in fact, makes the HAZMAT member a crucial and invaluable part of our modern day lives, but more needs to be done to fill in the gaps and make them even more effective particularly in light of the fact that terrorism, and the toxic materials that it uses, becomes more sophisticated from day-to-day.

Source

CDC Hazardous Materials.

http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/ETP/hazardous.htm

Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/IS317/hazmat/hazmat/ic_03_01_0070.htm

Terrorism/Hazardous Materials Awareness

for First Responders in Ontario: Self-Study

http://www.ofm.gov.on.ca/en/Multi-Agency%20Emergency%20Response/Terror%20Hazmat/Introduction.asp

FEMA. NMT-ERTC / DHS?"WMD/TERRORISM" First Responder Training http://www.nrlo.net/Page10.html

LARA Emergency Response to Terrorism: HazMat

http://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-28077_42271_42325-17441 -- ,00.html

Tucker, JB. (1997) National Health and Medical Services Response to Incidents of Chemical and Biological Terrorism, JAMA, 278, 362-368… [read more]


Are Emic Perspectives More Valid Than Etic Ones? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (895 words)
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Emic vs. Etic

Emic or Etic

Emic vs. etic perspective

Social phenomena are examined from different methodological perspectives. The quantitative perspective assumes that data can be measured in numerical ways and employ statistical analysis to make sense of the data. Statistical analysis allows the researcher to identify patterns and relationships in the data. The other approach to social research is the use of a qualitative methodology. A qualitative methodology is anchored in the early work of Weber who believed that meaning was important in understanding human behavior. In this regard there are basically two views that can be provided for any phenomenon. The emic perspective and the etic perspective are two possible views of phenomenon. Both views of reality provide a window of understanding for the phenomenon under examination. While both views are valid the most accurate view of the phenomenon is the emic view.

The words emic and etic were developed by Kenneth Pike in 1954. Pike a linguist, used the terms to describe behaviors that could be modified to aid in explaining the actions of other social actors. The central discussion from that pertains to the emic or etic position is whether knowledge is an objective or a subjective element. This epistemological question was reshaped by Pike and resolved using a methodological tool that provides a useful resolution.

The issue is essentially, whether the view of an observer can be objective. The observer brings to their observation, their history and prior understandings of the world. This history and understandings influences what the observer sees and how they understand what they see. In research the observer is often the researcher. There is a possibility that in exploring social phenomenon the researchers view influences their interpretation of the meaning of behaviors. This is therefore a subjective understanding, and it can change if the researcher changes. The question of subjectivity also influences what is observed so that constantly what is determined as important or valuable is highly subjective.

As noted earlier quantitative research is purportedly high in objectivity. This objectivity is achieved through the use of various instruments to measure the phenomenon. The idea of measurement alludes to a deductive framework. Qualitative work lacks this type of objectivity; however, it is possible to create credible work by merging the emic and etic perspectives. Thus these views can be used to create a more accurate picture of reality.

The emic view or approach is an understanding of the world based on the point-of-view of the participant. The individual who is living the experiences has a unique understanding of the experience. This understanding is important because it provides the researcher with information that they could not otherwise collect. Thus the…… [read more]


Ethics and the War on Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Ethics and the War on Terrorism

In the wake of 911, the citizens of the United States faced an ethical challenge that was reminiscent of ones that it had faced in the past, but also unprecedented in American history. A faceless, amorphous enemy had attacked mainland America and the nation struggled to determine how to respond to that threat. There… [read more]


Policy Efficacy: Terrorist Activity Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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(Sandler, 2005, 77)

Transnational terrorism is a greater threat than domestic terrorism because transnational terrorists understand human nature and the great diversity of cultures on Earth. Every country and every culture handles defense and safety matters in different ways. Therefore, when citizens from multiple countries are in some way involved in a transnational terrorist activity, it is unlikely that the… [read more]


Al-Qaeda Developing a Coherent Strategy Article

Article  |  15 pages (4,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25

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S. And European nations. These attacks have resulted in the loss of thousands of lives (Post, 2002), and the number continues to grow. Keeping in mind the aforementioned description of Al-Qaeda's background, power structure, operation methods and ideology, one can easily conduct an examination of the strengths and weakness of the group and determine how best to achieve victory over… [read more]


Critical Thinking on Included Editorial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Buchanan Op-Ed

An Analysis of Buchanan's Op-Ed

The neo-conservative agenda has never been more apparent than it is today, and Pat Buchanan's op-ed from 23 August 2011 plainly exposes it in no uncertain terms. Buchanan quotes Lindsey Graham, the Senator from South Carolina who recently likened America to a "battlefield" in his support of the National Defense Authorization Act (Anders),… [read more]