"Terrorism / Extremism / Radicalization" Essays 211-277

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Terrorism in Japan Thesis

… Japan Terrorism

Aum Shinrikyo: A Cult of Terror

Throughout its history, Japan's proclivity toward highly centralized forms of government has prompted no small amount of social resistance. As an imperial democracy with an extensive history of regional conflict, occupation and… [read more]


Criminal Justice and Terrorism Term Paper

… The United Nations has asked the group to disarm several times, and they have refused, and many countries, including the United States, view the group as a terrorist organization. The group has been accused of numerous suicide bombings and other attacks on U.S. And other targets (they have denied involvement), and they have been involved in several wars and other violence with Israel. While they have grown to be a political and social organization, their roots still remain in violence and terrorism, and that is why they should be considered a terrorist organization. Their goal is still to do away with Israel with whatever means they have, and that makes them dangerous and unpredictable. They also were behind the 2006 war that lasted for 34 days, and killed 158 Israelis, many of them civilians. They began the war by firing rockets on Israel and kidnapping Israeli soldiers. They are a terrorist organization,…… [read more]


Terrorism Causes Thesis

… Terrorism

Causes of Terrorism

It is clear that in recent years, terrorism has become a threat to global security. After 9/11, the entire world became aware of the pervasive threat posed by global terrorists from all corners. While a great deal of efforts have gone into fighting global terrorism, it is also important to identify the causes of terrorism in order to prevent it. Three causes terrorism that can be identified are poverty, nationalism, religious fanaticism.

Poverty has often been identified as a cause of terrorism, as impoverished people are more apt to join terrorists sects in order to support themselves and their families. Some argue that when a group is deprived of their basic needs, they are willing to rebel. In addition the conflict between East and West or impoverished and rich may be to blame ("Causes of Terrorism" 2005). Indeed, it makes sense that impoverished groups would turn to terrorism. Terrorists often have well-funded networks that can provide resources to their comrades in other countries and in many geographical locations. Because these terrorists can promise food and perhaps even survival, young and old members of impoverished society are likely to sign up. Thus, poverty can be designated as a global threat, causing terrorism.

In addition to poverty, nationalism often contributes to a person's decision to join a terrorist organization. Zalman says that all terrorist acts are either motivated by "social and political injustice" or "the belief that violence or its threat will be effective, and usher in change" (para. 1). While these motivations need not be tied to nationalism, they very well can be. Once again, the East-West class…… [read more]


Terrorism Technological Innovation as a Weapon Thesis

… Terrorism Tech

Technological Innovation as a Weapon Against Terrorism

The United States is regarded as among the world's most vaunted leaders in technology development. Simultaneously, its military denotes one of the most formidable fighting forces in the world, both with… [read more]


Terrorism Be Justified Term Paper

… Self-Defense Argument for Terrorism

The self-defense argument for terrorism has been supported by Wilkins and implies that terrorist acts can be used when these are directed towards the oppressing forces, not as tools to intimidate the population or against other terrorists. As a further development of this argument, economic sabotage is probably a good example of self-defense terrorism. Still perceived as terrorist acts, these are nevertheless acts that are directed towards the economic power of the oppressing forces rather than towards individuals or human populations.

Wilkins supports the argument according to which the Jews during the Second World War (but also the other occupied populations during the war) were entitled to use terrorist acts as a mean to fight the repression of the Germans. The problem with the self-defense argument is that all terrorist groups can interpret facts to imply that all their actions are in self-defense. The terrorist organizations like Hamas and Hezbollah have used this argument asserting that Israel unlawfully occupies land, but this can obviously not be accepted as a proper argument: international law recognizes Israel's rights, as do most of the countries around the world .

Collective Guilt

Collective guilt implies that all individuals in a community bear the responsibility of a certain act. The Second World War again comes in handy as a good example. In this case, the German people can be held accountable and marked with collective guilt because it had tacitly approved the acts against the Jews, as well as the general development in society of Nazi ideas (one needs to remember that Hitler was voted into power by the people).

The idea of collective guilt is when the wrong being done is so monstrous that the only means of fighting it is by using terrorism and self-defense. This is closely related to what has been discussed in the previous subchapter related to self-defense terrorism.

Conclusions

Terrorism has generally been judged as an unethical act, mainly because its impact and toll on human life is so great. Nevertheless, philosophical argumentation can be used to pass reasonable arguments of situations when terrorism can be used as a last remaining instrument in fighting oppression or repression. Utilitarian value can be found in the case of…… [read more]


Terrorism Hamas Is a Radical Islamic Thesis

… Terrorism

HAMAS

Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization which became active in the early stages of the intifada. It operates primarily in the Gaza District but also has some presence in Judea and Samaria. It was formed in late… [read more]


Emergency Response to Domestic Terrorism: Oklahoma City Thesis

… Emergency Response to Domestic Terrorism: Oklahoma City Alfred P. Murrah Building Attack

Impact of Terrorist Attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Building on Emergency Responses

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers suggested that "nothing would ever… [read more]


Terrorism Terrorist Organizations Have a Wide Range Thesis

… Terrorism

Terrorist organizations have a wide range of methods and materials at their disposal. First, terrorist organizations depend on technology for communications and organizational management. Terrorist networks are relatively loose because they operate in clandestine and unofficial ways, but the networks are also impressively well-organized partly because of their ability to use technology not just for violence but for operations and communications. Seemingly nonviolent technologies can also be used as weapons: such h as large-scale cyber-terrorism. Terrorist hackers can take down an entire company or even a market. Second, terrorist organizations do rely heavily on weapons technology. The advancements in weapons technology and the availability of weapons-related information both contribute the growing strength of terrorist networks. The main challenge in using advanced weapons technology is that terrorist networks must operate exclusively on a black market. Third, terrorist groups do have access to a number of low-tech weapons of mass destruction that are shockingly easy to execute. Poisoning a water supply with a biological agent is a sure way to kill large numbers of people relatively easily, and the act can be carried out…… [read more]


Intelligence Surveillance Policies and Procedures Thesis

… Intelligence/Surveillance Policies & Procedures

After the tragedy of September 11 attacks on Pentagon and World Trade Center, the National Security Agency (NSA) was given authority to listen to all kinds of communications between those U.S. residents who are suspected to… [read more]


Emasculation Leads to Terrorism Essay

… Emasculation Leads to Terrorism

Michal Kimmel attempts explain the criminal acts committed by those like Timothy McVeigh, the American GI, the author of the terrorist attack of a federal building in Oklahoma City, in 1995, Mohammed Atta, the Egyptian suicide bomber involved in the airplanes crashes in September 11, 2001, or Hitler.

Kimmel presents a sketchy portrait of these three, with psychological insights gathered from historical documents, testimonies of their families and peers and speculations and builds up a theory of emasculated low-middle class men who wanted to get even (Kimmel, 2008). Kimmel creates parallels between those white Americans enrolling in civil militia or other forms of paramilitary with the intention to regain "the white man's supremacy" in a flattening world from more than one point-of-view. Kimmel reduces the whole issue to a single sided point-of-view, thus oversimplifying the matter. He is partially successful in his attempt, since there might be some gender-related implications in the mass murder acts the three afore mentioned were involved, no doubt, but there are also various other aspects that are thus left unconsidered. Kimmel focuses on these three as examples to draw a conclusion for the majority of all those who ever thought of blowing up a building or an airplane in order to make a point.

Kimmel starts his analysis with a reminder of all those women who died or suffered along with the men in the unfortunate events of 9/11. He is almost blaming "our haste to lionize the heroes of the World Trade Center collapse" as the danger of unilateralism leading to all dangers. He compares this attitude to that of the Taliban people towards their women. The comparison seems exaggerated, but it may have some hyperbolic motivations.

Kimmel's main argument relies on his discovery made based on the similarities in Timothy McVeigh's letter addressed to an editor of a new York paper, two years prior to his terrorist act and some of the thinking patters the terrorists who blew up World Trade Center had. The author of the article Gender, Class, and Terrorism finds striking similarities in the frustrations the two young men have grown up with and were never able to shake off. Of course there are similarities like age and coming from middle-class families who might have put pressure on them at a young age in order for them to grow "strong" and cope with the demanding modern society. but, other common grounds in the lives of those two can be partially or entirely made up. McVeigh may have been unhappy because he saw globalization as an engulfing ocean that annihilated values he inherited from his father and grandfather and reduced his opportunities to raise above the masses of workers for industrial giants or in administrative offices, like thousands or millions of others in the whole world. On top of that, he may have been a repressed homosexual and in desperate need to find a scapegoat for his failure. Atta may also have been a potential repressed homosexual,…… [read more]


Terrorism and Policy Thesis

… Terrorism and Policy: An Examination of the Federal Policy Changes Since 9/11

The objective of this work is to summarize the federal policy changes that resulted from the tragic events of September 1, 2001. This work will examine Homeland Security… [read more]


Arab Americans Racism Before and After 9-11 Essay

… Arab-Americans: Racism Before and After September 11, 2001

Those

Throughout American history, civil liberties have ebbed and flowed in response to times of national crisis and threats to its survival. For example, Abraham Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and Franklin Roosevelt… [read more]


Nuclear Terrorism - Book Response Essay

… Nuclear Terrorism - Book Response

BOOK RESPONSE

Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. (2004) by Graham Allison

Graham Allison is a political scientist and terrorism expert whose past accomplishments include serving both President Reagan and President Bill Clinton as Special Advisor to the Secretary of Defense and as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Plans, respectively. In the Clinton administration, he coordinated DOD strategy and policy towards Russia, Ukraine, and the other states of the former Soviet Union. The current Director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and Douglas Dillon Professor of Government at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, Dr. Allison was twice awarded the Department of Defense's highest civilian award, the Distinguished Public Service Medal. In 2004, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe, was selected by the New York Times as one of its "100 most notable books of 2004."

According to Allison, the risk of nuclear terrorism on American soil is much more likely than commonly believed; in fact, Allison expects that such an attack is actually much more likely to be perpetrated sooner, (i.e. within the next decade) than later. That is primarily because the technology necessary to design and construct a crude nuclear device similar in explosive yield to the first weapons employed 1945 to end World War II is fully within the technical abilities of any graduate physics student.

Second, the chances of detecting and interdicting the amount of weapons-grade uranium before it crosses U.S. borders are infinitesimally small because the 25 pounds or so of fissile material required for such a device are easily shielded from radiation detectors. In that regard, Allison also reminds us that tons of marijuana are successfully smuggled across U.S. borders annually and that marijuana bales are much larger than the softball-sized mass of uranium necessary for a terrorist weapon more powerful than one of the bombs dropped over Hiroshima.

Acquiring fissile…… [read more]


Piracy Maritime Terrorism Term Paper

… Maritime Piracy and Terrorism in the Atlantic and Caribbean Oceans - a Methodology to Counteract

More than six years after the attacks of September 11th, 2001 showed the United States to be a nation deeply vulnerable to the type of… [read more]


Terrorism Profiling Term Paper

… Terrorist Profiling: The New Face of Islamic Terror

Since 9/11 the accepted profile of the 'typical' terrorist has undergone a seismic shift. Before, it was often assumed, even by experts, that most radical Islamic suicide bombers sought martyrdom because they had little to lose, personally and economically. Their average age was twenty-two, and they were recruited and indoctrinated for short, intense periods of time to minimize the chance that they would have second thoughts. Also, the perceived advantage of suicide bombing was its rough simplicity, from a technical point-of-view, in terms of its use of explosive detonation and minimal planning (Wilgoren 2001:1).

However, the oldest terrorist involved in the 9/11 attacks was forty-one. Richard Reid, the 'shoe bomber' was thirty-two (McGrory & Hussein 2005). Furthermore, the relatively educated men behind the Al Qaeda organization had "spent years studying and training in the United States, collecting valuable commercial skills and facing many opportunities to change their minds" (Wilgoren 2001:1). They also had a more flexible attitude to their religion, were often seen drinking alcohol with non-Muslims at sports bars and many had held professional jobs. This 'blending in' is still practiced as a technique today by terrorists. One terrorists training camp in Pakistan is staffed by radical Muslims still living in the UK, and a teacher is said to have instructed some British recruits: "don't go to well-known radical mosques in the UK, as they are under police surveillance. Don't wander into bookshops which sell violent videos and militant literature as they too are being watched' (McGrory & Hussein 2005).

The 9/11 attackers had strong societal ties characteristic of the middle-aged, and one of them behind a wife and young children. Perhaps the only 'obvious' indication that these men might be terrorists was their fascination with flight, and their fixation upon learning how to fly, rather than to land an airplane. Monitoring flight school enrollment and communications technology thus is important when profiling potential suspects, more so than an expressed ideological affinity with militant Islam. A key weapon for Islamic militants is new communications technology like the Internet that enables them to rally support and recruit from all over the world, at little expense, shift funds electronically and use the Internet to keep in contact with the rest of their deliberately dispersed organization, while they "gather information about their targets and publicize their threats" (Nicolson, 2004).

Many terrorists have lived in the countries they are targeting, or are natives, and may even be converts to Islam, as terrorist organizations have begun to put aside their usual resistance to recruiting from outside the faith. "The new terrorists are global citizens, resourceful and meticulous, skilled with technology and with the patience to wait years for the opportunity to attack" (Nicolson, 2004). Their disaffection with society is just as likely to be ideological as economic -- many, regardless of age and status, are still 'finding themselves' and militancy provides an easy answer and life's purpose. This may have been true…… [read more]


Social Conflict Theory Public Policy Towards Terrorism and Terroristic Acts Term Paper

… SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORY: PUBLIC POLICY TOWARDS TERRORISM & TERRORIST ACTS

In order for the present status quo to change from the perspective of social conflict theory there must be a conflict between two classes occur which has directly resulted because of the dominant administration in Washington. This domination, most specifically in the Middle East has resulted in terrorist activity as the al Qaeda seeks a venue to validate itself and its grievances which it feels have been ignored and unaddressed by the U.S. government or its citizens.

The United States has undergone many legal transformations since the occurrence of September 11, 2001, such as no-fly lists, and a general trampling of basic Constitutional rights of U.S. citizens. This compliance or passivity relating to many injustices of the U.S. government is much of what has driven terrorism in the United States in that the masses of U.S. citizens have ignored many acts of the U.S. government and military operations in the Middle East. Therefore, according to the social conflict theory the terrorist attacks in the United States were a way of reflecting negative attention on the U.S. Government for its actions in the Middle East by the terrorists committing the attacks. Social Conflict theory has as its basis the belief that the fundamental causes of crime are social and economic forces that operate within society. In this view, crimes of the street receive extreme and severe punishment while crimes, which are large scale financial, and business type crimes receive a greater amount of leniency in their treatment. Presently there is a movement in the United States, which threatens to rise up in indignation against the present ruling class. Within the framework of social conflict theory, the key to making these systems workable is the acceptance of authority and the legitimate use of power. Furthermore, the strength of the group in power determines their ability to make and enforce laws. Groups, which pose a threat to the ruling group, are the groups most likely to be controlled and generally are the weaker and poorer groups in society.

I. SINCE 9/11

The media has extensively covered terrorism since 9/11 with focuses on the 'how's' and 'why's' of the attack on New York City and yet it has barely been mentioned that terrorism has been in existence for a very long time. Terrorism is used as a weapon of those who are willing to use violence because they understand that a real power struggle cannot be won by them due to their weakness in power and authority. The work of Karen a. Feste entitled: "Intervention and Terrorism Conflict: Theory, Strategy and Resolution" (2004) writes that several theories exist which "explain the intervention-terrorism conflict link and account for its persistence. Some emphasize ideology, culture and values. The clash of civilizations implies the conflict is eternal and intractable. Goals of Arab fascism vs. goals of democratic liberalism point to distinct, non-complementary social order approaches as the two collide." (2004) in addition, Feste relates "Security designs of… [read more]


Since the 9/11 Attacks Research Paper

… The first step towards better and more targeted policies within the criminal justice system is therefore establishing the fundamental reasons behind terrorism. In order to do this, a thorough investigation of currently existing and past government and criminal justice policies need to be examined. These can then be scrutinized as establishing a basis for the nature of the current manifestations of terrorism in the United States.

There are several existing policies that I also feel should be either eliminated or replaced by better policies. Profiling possible terrorists for example often target people of Arabian origin, or those adhering to the Muslim religion. When one of these people is arrested for even a minor offense, the criminal justice system often treats them unfairly as compared to other ethnic groups. Ironically, while the system occupies itself with ineffective and time-consuming policies, terrorism thrives. In this, the criminal justice system has created for itself a decoy and for the terrorism network in the country an opportunity like never before.

To curb this problem, I would suggest a policy of more thorough investigation as a starting point for curbing the terrorism problem. Under-cover agents can for example be used in order to investigate suspicious persons, rather than arresting the suspected offenders without conclusive proof of their actions. Under cover agents could also uncover larger networks of terrorism rather than making a single arrest at a time and then possibly targeting citizens who are law-abiding in the first place.

Each arrest occupies valuable time and resources within the criminal justice system. A more targeted policy would focus these towards a more effective policy to curb terrorism. Targeted and multiple arrests via under cover work will also have the benefit of discouraging existing terrorists from their activities. While it is possible that this will also lead to more covert and hidden activities, a more targeted policy can at least make it more difficult for terrorists to conduct their activities with quite the same confidence as before.

The current system of policies in criminal justice focuses time, human, and financial resources into very ineffective practices. Changing the existing policy towards one that targets potential terrorists for investigation rather than summary arrest will initially require more resources in terms of time and finances. However, the ultimate result will be much more effective than the current policies.

The criminal justice system is the cornerstone of the freedoms and rights built up over centuries of life in the United States. It would be a shame to let these drown in a political quagmire of needing to prove innocence rather than guilt while power hungry leaders in the country pursue an agenda entirely of their own.

Sources

Thompson, Larry D. (2003, Oct 12). Terrorism and the U.S. Criminal Justice System. Brookings. http://www.brookings.edu/speeches/2003/1012terrorism_thompson.aspx

Weisbrot, Mark (2001, Sept 22). To Prevent Terrorism, U.S. Foreign Policy Must Change. Common Dreams News Center. http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0922-09.htm… [read more]


State Terrorism Term Paper

… Iraq Under Saddam

The country of Iraq has become a strong source of state terrorism in today's society. As show of proof, Iraq has many of the characteristics associated with enforcement terror. First, the acts inflicted on the population are done through men in uniform, rather than small bands of rebel forces. Iraq has, in the past, used violence for political ends, such as land control. The Iraqi government has harmed people not involved in the countries struggles. Their purpose is to spread panic and terror to ensure surrender of the people. Their attacks are spontaneous, yet well planned, and are clearly performed by governmental forces. Further, Saddam and his military use dualism to create the illusion of an "us vs. them" mentality (Galtung, 2002).

However, terrorism in the region did not start without warning. Saddam's rise to power left a trail of blood and death as he quickly rose through the ranks of the military. His presidency became legitimate only after killing many of the most prominent men in Iraq. As Saddam took power, he began quickly ridding the country of entire populations, committing genocide and mass destruction. It was this step that essentially created terrorism as a policy tool in Iraq. As Saddam grew in power, his use of terror persuaded many individuals to follow his lead,…… [read more]


Threat of Terrorism and WMD Term Paper

… ¶ … Threat of Terrorism and WMD

If you are person living in the isolation of the South American rain forest, you might answer the question: How realistic do you perceive the threat of terrorist use of weapons of mass destruct ion (WMD) to be? Your answer might be you do not perceive it to be realistic at all. However, if you were in New York City, or at the U.S. Pentagon, or standing in rural Pennsylvania field on September 11, 2001, you would probably say that the threat of a terrorist using WMD against a civilian population is very real. If you are a Sudanese national, in the Darfur region, you would say that terrorists have already resorted to the use of WMD against the civilian population. if, on the morning of July 7, 2005, you were on a particular bus on your way to work; you might answer, yes. The threat of terrorist use of WMD against a civilian population is not a question of will they use it; it is a question of when will they use it.

Unfortunately for the civilian populations of the world, whose own governments often sell and trade…… [read more]


Terrorism the Intelligence Community Does a Fairly Term Paper

… Terrorism

The intelligence community does a fairly good job in analyzing terrorist operations, but they have not been able to find Osama bin Laden, and they have not been able to control terrorism around the world, in fact, terrorism events are up this year, despite more analysis and control. There are so many tools available to help analyze terrorism that it is almost overwhelming, and terrorists can outwit most analysts because they are determined to do so, and they have the tools to help them outwit terrorist control and continue their activities. As soon as our country or another country puts one type of control in place, the terrorists attempt to override it, or find another way to resume their attacks of terror. For example, airline security is now extremely tight around the world, so terrorist strikes have been against other forms of transportation, such as busses, railways, and subways, and other forms or airport attacks have been devised, such as suicide bombing terminals.

There have been many unsuccessful terrorist plots uncovered in the past…… [read more]


Forecasting Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism

Forecasting Terrorism

One of the primary patters of terrorist operations than can indicate an attack and should concern intelligence services is weapons movement. Since large-scale attacks often necessitate a mass of weapons, this is a good indicator and intelligence services should pay close attention to this type of movement. Of course, as the September 11, 2001 attacks indicate, large-scale weapons movement is not always necessary in modern terrorist attacks. The recent arrests in Germany indicate, however, that large-scale massing of ingredients to create weapons is also a high indicator of upcoming terrorist activity.

Another key indicator is terrorist propaganda. While propaganda is not always an indicator of upcoming terrorist activity, it can be a good indicator that activity is going to increase in the near future, and often, propaganda includes threats against specific nations, which can be excellent indicators that an attack is going to occur. Combine propaganda with another indicator, increased terrorist movement and activity in certain areas, and the likelihood of a terrorist attack…… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism Term Paper

… Domestic Terrorism has been regarded in recent times to be one of the most important threats facing internal security in the U.S. In order to have a complex view on the terrorist phenomenon taking place inside the borders of the… [read more]


Forecasting Terrorism Americans Have Worried Term Paper

… Forecasting Terrorism

Americans have worried more about terrorism since the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001. In reality, 9-11 was not the start of major terrorist activity against the United States. Al-Qaeda and extremists groups allied with Osama bin Laden pledged to destroy American interests years before, and had already tried once before, in 1993, to destroy the World Trade Center, which they viewed as representation of American pride and power.

Forecasting terrorism is not very difficult in the Internet age, especially when those committed to perpetrate it against you are very vocal about their intentions, publicizing them throughout the Islamic world and broadcasting their intentions in public statements on video tapes disseminated over the Internet. According to the direct statements of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, and other terrorists intent on harming the U.S., they have every intention of launching subsequent attacks on this country whose…… [read more]


Forecasting Terrorism Ideology May Have an Impact Term Paper

… Forecasting Terrorism

Ideology may have an impact on the structure of organization which terrorist groups choose to adopt. The use of an organized network may make the organizing of operations easier due to the larger resources and expertise that are likely to be available to them than when operating as a small isolated group. The use of a network makes the may make the terrorists more proficient due to these extended resources and experience. The recruitment of younger members to the terrorist group is less problematic when using networked structures as it allows for tutelage of the newer recruits from experienced mentors. This lowers the risks associated with the operations which involve newer members and is likely to allow the unit to operate for a prolonged period of time.

Networks also provide an effective means for the terrorist organization to obtain intelligence, as there is only the requirement for one or two members of the organization…… [read more]


Psychological Approaches to Analyzing Terrorism Term Paper

… Psychological Approaches to Analyzing Terrorism

Ours is a high tech world, where mass communications has made possible the ability to connect with someone on the other side of the world in the time it takes to push a button on a computer keyboard (Thomas, Timothy, 2003). This has facilitated the goals of extremists, who must physically conceal themselves in order to perpetrate terrorism on the rest of the world populations who move about in the public sphere with never so much as a thought as to harming others on the basis of their religion, race, or cultural traditions. Psychology has taken on a new importance in analyzing terrorism in order to sort through the bogus messages that are sent via the internet and other means of mass communications containing encrypted messages of intent to harm others. Psychological analysis of these messages has become a new tool in the realm of intelligence gathering and forecasting terrorism.

Fortunately, the starting points as to where to begin an analysis are often times clear when it comes to forecasting terrorism. There are distinct and very public differences of opinion, philosophy, politics and religion about which certain groups are very vocal, because the intent is to win support for their cause amongst the masses; even if ultimately those masses are put in harm's way…… [read more]


International Terrorism it Is Difficult Term Paper

… International Terrorism

It is difficult to say that the United States has placed too much emphasis on the notion of jihad; given the very real, calculable effects that terrorism has had, not simply upon U.S. own soil, but on the safety other lands as well. However, to simplistically view all potential terror suspects as mindlessly following a fanatical religious doctrine, without any consideration of different motives of different groups or individuals is absurd, and ultimately unhelpful in fighting the war on terror. Political prisoners commit suicide for any number of reasons, some political, some personal, such as despair. "The suicides should surprise no one because the detainees believe they will be held indefinitely with no chance for justice, said Josh Colangelo-Bryan with the Center for Constitutional Rights, which represents about 200 of the detainees. 'They've been told that while at Guantanamo they have no rights as human beings' he told reporters" (Starr, 2006).

However, although the reasons the detainees at Gitmo committed suicide cannot be deduced after the fact, at very least, we can attempt to get past the mentality that the members of terrorist organizations act as a monolith, and that the action of every individual accused of terrorist actions is somehow in the service of a single concept of jihad. This conveniently ignores the human complexities of why individuals commit acts of terror, and also absolves their keepers of any…… [read more]


Terrorism and the Internet Modern Media Technologies Term Paper

… Terrorism and the Internet

Modern media technologies are revolutionizing the form of risk in the modern society. Internet has emerged as an important instrument for the massive distribution of news, hoaxes and rumors, as also portrayals of public anguish, in… [read more]


Internet and Terrorism Term Paper

… Internet and Terrorism by James a. Lewis of the Center for Strategic and International Studies published April, 1 2005, in the Proceedings of the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Society for International Law.

Lewis's article is a detailed opinion piece stressing the nature of the threat of the internet, as it is utilized as a tool by terrorists. The author stresses that the internet is above all a tool that has been utilized by terrorists to spread extremist doctrine and commit fraudulent acts that ensure funding, through means that are better and less risky than bank robberies and kidnappings. Lewis describes the need to assess the threat of the utilization of the internet by terrorists and take action that logically hinders its use for illegal means, such as identity theft or other means of obtaining resources. Lewis stresses that those who wish to limit access to terrorists of internet are not thinking logically but act impetuously in a manner that will likely hurt democratic society and free speech more than it will hurt terrorists. The answer according to Lewis is not to restrict access but to control illegal activity through aggressive logical law enforcement of the new field, win the debate with the ideology, and monitor activities rather than attempt to restrict access or force the addresses to constantly relocate, furthering their ideology through word of mouth which feeds the idea that they are in some way winning the war with the weapon of the enemy. The author stresses that the terrorist is not likely to use the internet as a weapon, as those with intent to do harm wish to do so in a way that is violent, public and bloody and strikes terror in the hearts of the "enemy." This work stresses that as the creators of the internet we should be able to use the home court advantage to better deal with the utilization of the internet by terrorists, rather than trying to eliminate such use, an illogical possibility given the structure and nature of the internet. The author makes clear that like in so many other things overreaction, that created restricted use for whole regions and/or many individuals, via restriction would create demonstrative problems for the majority, rather than the minority, being the terrorists.

The problem in this work is clearly stated. The author is stating that the gut reaction by many to attempt to restrict the use of the internet by terrorists is not only illogical but likely impossible and would do more harm than good. The purposes of the article are…… [read more]


Terrorism Self-Determination No Group or Individual Term Paper

… Terrorism

Self-Determination

No group or individual has the right to commit a wrong on another person, even in the right to self-determination, but that is not always how the world works. No person has the right to do wrong to another at all. In many countries, punishment is retribution, for example, in many Arab countries; thieves are punished by having a hand cut off. When one person commits a wrong on another, because of a perceived wrong or right, then it is retribution, and that is wrong. Often the fight for self-determination can turn into a fight of retribution, and that should never be the case. Again, the world is not perfect, and so retribution exists, just as violence during self-determination. A group can experience self-determination without committing offenses on another, but it can be difficult. If they do commit offenses, they may acting out of retribution, and this is never the right way to solve problems or differences.

Certainly, people have the right to decide their…… [read more]


Roots of International Terrorism Term Paper

… International Terrorism

Acts of international terrorism can be traced as far back as 1931, with the first documented hijacking of an airline passenger jet in Peru. However, depending upon how you define "international terrorism," international terrorism might be traced even… [read more]


Rotten Apples Term Paper

… Terrorism

Rotten Apples and Terrorism

This is a difficult moral, ethical, and political dilemma. How does a country impose oversight on covert operations, and should a country impose oversight, especially during war times. After all, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end World War II was also an act of mass murder, but it has always been justified by the fact it "saved lives" by ending the war early, rather than dragging it on for months or years.

Therefore, this is a difficult question. Who oversees the covert operations, and how do they remain impartial and removed from the agencies and operations themselves? How do they judge what is a necessary use of force to save lives, and what is unnecessary? All of these questions must be answered in this debate, and many more besides. Covert actions become something else of they are scrutinized so closely they give up their secretive nature. Thus, before you can oversee covert operations, definitions, guidelines, and rules must be established.

First, one must remember this particular assassination attempt took place in 1985, before the current technological advances in weaponry and guidance systems. Today, a targeted missile would probably be used, such as the missiles used in several attempts to assassinated Saddam Hussein and other dissidents in Iraq after the Iraq war began in 2002. These missiles are much more accurate than car bombs, and much more selective in their destruction. That does not condone assassination as a political tool, it simply notes that today, there probably would have been far fewer casualties, and the missile might have found its target.

According to the National Security Act of 1947, the Central Intelligence Agency is the federal agency responsible for covert operations.

This means that oversight would have to be accomplished by another agency, or by a new agency created by the government simply for that purpose. This agency could be responsible for general oversight of government policies, particularly overseas and internal covert operations, or it could be specifically responsible for only covert operations. The agency would have to report to a neutral board or group,…… [read more]


Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East Term Paper

… Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East

When individuals inhabit the same space, conflicts often occur. But it's only when conflicts degenerate into harsh violence of any sort that the issue truly becomes a problem, threatening the stability of a… [read more]


Terrorism and Osama Bin Laden History Term Paper

… ¶ … Terrorism and Osama bin Laden [...] history and structure of Osama bin Laden's organization, explain his connections to fundamentalism, and his links with other known terrorist groups. Osama bin Laden may be one of the world's most infamous terrorists. He formed the terrorist organization Al Qaeda, which has been responsible for terrorist attacks around the world, and has issued an open jihad against the United States. Much of the history of his organization is shrouded in mystery, as is much of his life, and therefore, there are differing accounts of his organization and his life. He is revered in much of the Arab world, and is one of the most hunted terrorists in American history. His organization is dangerous and extremely difficult to destroy, as the inability to locate him in Pakistan has shown. Osama bin Laden may be one of America's most deadly enemies, and most experts believe it is only a matter of time before Al Qaeda strikes the U.S. again.

Osama bin Laden was born in 1957 in Saudi Arabia. His family raised him in the strict Islamic tradition; he is a Sunni Muslim. He attended Abdul Ariz University in Jeddah, where he graduated with a degree in Civil Engineering. His father amassed a fortune in the construction industry; in fact, it was the largest construction company in Saudi Arabia and had close ties to the Saudi royal family. When his father died, Bin Laden became independently wealthy (Piszkiewicz 107). After he became disenchanted with western influence in Saudi Arabia and began organizing resistance, his family disowned him in 1994, and Saudi Arabia revoked his citizenship (Thackrah 189-190).

Bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan in the 1980s and worked to support the Mujaheddin resistance against Russia's invasion and occupation in Afghanistan from 1979 through 1988. In 1988, (some say 1985), he then organized his own group, al Qaeda, (which means "the base" or "the military base") in an attempt to control the membership and documentation of members. It was partially funded by his own wealth, and by the donations of other wealthy Arab merchants. He recruited members in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt (Thackrah 9). He became increasingly defiant of the adoption of western practices in Saudi Arabia, and set up a resistance movement that earned money through many phony engineering companies in the Sudan that funneled money to his resistance efforts. Bin Laden has an extreme hatred of the west and globalization, and has issued a "jihad" (holy war) against the west for his and other terrorist organizations. Al Qaeda has been found responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, from the 1993 World Trade Center bombing to the attack on the U.S.S. Cole and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States (Piszkiewicz 107-108) and (Thackrah 189-190).

Few if any Americans have not heard of Al Qaeda after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Bin Laden began the organization in Afghanistan after they successfully expelled the Russians, and it has grown since…… [read more]


Terrorism Coady Notes That it Is Important Term Paper

… Terrorism

Coady notes that it is important to define terrorism because it is necessary to properly address the moral issues surrounding it. He defined terrorism as "the organized use of violence to attack noncombatants or their property for political purposes"… [read more]


American Media Representation of Islam and Terrorism Term Paper

… AMERICAN MEDIA REPRESENTATION of ISLAM & TERRORISM POST-9-11 in AMERICA: ARE THEY the ONE and the SAME?

The objective of this work is to prepare a research proposal that will reflect how the American media (print, broadcast and online) portrays… [read more]


Regional Studies Islam in Europe Term Paper

… ¶ … European Muslims in the Aftermath of 911

The impact of the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 and subsequent terrorist related events have had a profound and far - reaching impact on the situation of Muslims in Europe.… [read more]


Terrorism Has Been in Existence Essay

… In order to be effective on a large scale the common method of terrorism is by bombing. Perhaps the most remembered in recent history is what is now known simply as 9-11. This was an unusual mode of terrorism where planes were simultaneously flown into public buildings in crowded cities. The deadliest was at the World Trade Center in New York city where more than 3,000 lives were lost. But that was not the first time that the World trade Center was the target of terrorism. In February 1993, a truck bomb exploded there, killing six people, and displacing business in the complex for six months. Terrorists acts are not always carried out by groups. Timothy McVeigh killed 168 people by bombing a federal office building in Oklahoma City in 1995.

Despite the war against terrorism which has been intensified since the 9/11 attacks, some think that as long as there is greed and hatred in the world there will continue to be this deliberate use of violence against civilians…… [read more]


Domestic Terrorism the Rise and Fall Weather Underground AKA Weatherman Term Paper

… ¶ … Weather Underground

Background and evolution of the organization

The Weather Underground Organization also referred to as 'the Weathermen' were a radical group in the United States who used violent tactics in their desire to overthrow the government and… [read more]


Counter-Terrorism Takes Up a Good Deal Term Paper

… Counter-Terrorism

Terrorism takes up a good deal of our foreign policy apparatus today, not only in dealing directly with terrorist threats but with the need to develop and implement measure for counter-terrorism. Such programs are also much in view domestically… [read more]


Terrorism Is Serious Issue Term Paper

… McCauley adds: "terrorism would be a trivial problem if only those with some kind of psychopathology could be terrorists. Rather we have to face the fact that normal people can be terrorists, that we ourselves are capable of terrorist acts under some circumstances." The one thing that research agrees upon is that most terrorists have some ideological or systemic value that they are aggressively adhere to. It is also established that terrorist psyche development is a gradual process- no one would want to go out one day and kill a hindered thousand people for a cause. There is training and brainwashing involved which is supported by terrorist's adherence to a certain ideology. This obsession is further nurtured by terrorist organizations. Terrorists are also believed to have low self-esteem that drives them to take actions that would attract attention. Championing a cause gives them sense of self-worth and this leads to obsession with a group or organization that is engaged in violent activities. Research shows that terrorists "tend to place unrealistically high demands on themselves and, when confronted with failure, [tend] to raise rather than lower their aspirations" (Long, 1990) Inactivity and slow paced life is not acceptable to terrorists and they generally crave excitement which turns them into "stimulus hunters who are attracted to situations involving stress and who quickly become bored with inactivity" (Long, 1990) We must however understand that terrorist psyche is a combination of complex factors and according to Khachig Tololyan, terrorists' "behavior cannot be understood by the crude - or even by the careful - application of pseudo-scientific laws of general behavior" (Rapoport, 2001). He feels that "we need to examine the specific meditating factors that lead some societies under pressure, among many, to produce the kinds of violent accts that we call terrorism" (Rapoport, 2001).

References

1. Long, David E. The Anatomy of Terrorism. New York: The Free Press, 1990.

2. Rapoport, David C. Inside Terrorist Organizations. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2001

3. Stohl, Michael, and George Lopez. 1988. Terrible Beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism. Westport: Greenwood Press.

4. United Kingdom. Parliament. 2000. The Terrorism Act 2000.

5. United States Department of State. 1999. Patterns of Global Terrorism. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State,

6. Walzer, Michael.…… [read more]


Just and Unjust USA War Against Afghanistan Term Paper

… Terrorism

There are a number of ways to interpret terrorist attacks in the modern world. The Bush administration has chosen a particular perspective that is intended to justify the employment of the United States military as a tool for rooting… [read more]


Terrorism Has a Long Term Paper

… Whatever the justification of a separate homeland for the Jews, there is a deep sense of outrage among Muslims that such a country (Israel) was created on the land in which Palestinians (mostly Muslims) had resided for centuries.

The sense… [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

… 6. All types of hazard planning have similar core concepts. At its core, hazard planning utilizes mitigation techniques to "alleviate or eliminate risks to life and property from natural or man-made hazard events." Different methods may include land use regulations (to prevent flooding and other natural disasters), building codes, eventuality planning (especially with regard to key infrastructure facilities), as well as taking steps to "reduce exposure to liabilities, and minimize disruptions to the community."http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=60

7. Two considerations that should be considered in biological incidents include the assessment of the event (determining just what occurred and what biological agent is involved), and scene control (establishing a perimeter to prevent the spread of the contamination as well as determining a point from which decontamination and/or treatment can occur).

8. Blister Agents are chemical substances that are used militarily to cause medical casualties, and slow the activities of the enemy unit/s. In Homeland Security terms, they are used as a possible terrorist weapon. Physically, they affect the eyes, lungs and skin -- causing a kind of burning or blistering reaction. Three examples of blister agents are sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, and lewisite. http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/cia/19960626/062596_cia_73926_73926_01.html

9. The scope of the Federal Response Plan spans across all of the major "infrastructure" points of the nation. It covers areas from transportation, communications, public works and utilities, mass health care, hazardous materials, food issues (contamination/supply), as well as police, EMS, and medical response. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA

10. Five ESF's are:

ESF #1 -- Transportation

ESF #2 -- Communications

ESF #3 -- Public Works and Engineering

ESF #4 -- Firefighting

ESF #5 -- Information and Planning Energyhttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA… [read more]


Iraq the American Public Term Paper

… Don't we have an obligation to ensure that such a thing never happens again. To this, I answer Yes. We should do whatever we can to prevent another attack like the one that brought down the World Trade Center. However, you don't vacuum the living room carpet when the kitchen floor needs a good scrubbing. Sure, the carpet might look nicer after, but your kitchen floor will still be dirty. So, too, Iraq might seem a bit "cleaner" sans Saddam...but what of our kitchen -- have we fixed that?

The terrible truth is that we have fixed close to nothing when one considers the supposed goals of the war with Iraq -- for, with the exception of the overthrow of Sadaam, the United States is neither safer from terrorism or WMD's, nor is it more secure in its "freedom." To say otherwise is a bold faced lie.

According to The Brookings Institute policy brief, "Implementing a Bush," "the likely costs and risks of a commitment of American military forces to a regime-change campaign in Iraq would outweigh the benefits."(Gordon). Further:

U.S. overthrow campaign would entail a large-scale military operation that the United States would probably have to undertake essentially alone; the increased risk of triggering terrorist attacks against American or allied targets...and the likely need for a long-term American military presence in Iraq to avoid regional destabilization. While these costs and risks are not so high as to rule out a possible overthrow policy under certain circumstances, they should be sobering to any advocate of sending U.S. troops to war to change the Iraqi regime. The central assumption behind this argument is that Saddam -- unlike the religiously motivated Taliban/al Qaeda network -- is more interested in preserving his power, his regime, and his life than in carrying out acts of terror against American interests. (Gordon)

Unfortunately, as the war plays out, it becomes increasingly apparent that the prediction of the nature of the Iraqi war by the Brookings Institution was correct. The United States is essentially alone, under increased risk of terrorist attacks (especially from the al Qaeda members left unchallenged), and it seems that American troops are in for a long, messy haul in the country -- and for what? Apart from the occasional empty sound bite, it is not exactly clear.

Instead, much as Muslims in America are currently singled out for harassment simply because they are Muslim, it seems that the American public will accept a war on a nation just because it, too, is Muslim and Arab. Hey, it's all the same, right? Unfortunately, however, both for the people of Iraq, as well as the people under threat in the United States due to the neglect of the real problem, it is not all the same. Iraq, and even Sadaam is not al Qaeda. Far from it. Until the American people begin to accept that and cry for change, the "war on terrorism," will continue to be in recess.

Bibliography

Fletcher, Douglas. (2004). Where are… [read more]


Terrorist Organizations and the Media Term Paper

… Two Italian anarchists, Malatesta and Cafiero declared in 1876 that the fact of rebellion would make the socialist principles of their organizations accepted by means of violent acts. To this end, it is of significant importance to terror groups to… [read more]


Threat -Domestic or International Terrorism? Term Paper

… Another trump card is safeguarding the infrastructure. These trump cards take precedence over all other government activities. More attacks on the United States keep the congress engrossed on these trump cards. If the industry does not evolve its own policies,… [read more]


Terrorist Groups Are Aligning Term Paper

… This information will be useful in helping to protect citizens of the world.

Scope of Study

This study will encompass the years 1992 through 2002 and will contain information from as many sources as possible. The sources must be in… [read more]


Terrorism Is a Global Problem Term Paper

… Moslem business men with a vested interest, either economically or spiritually, in the destruction of western influence, as well as public officials in hostile governing bodies such as the rightist Pakistani parties that are constantly increasing in power. The heroin trafficking that has thrived in Afghanistan since the legal proliferation of the Taliban's expulsion has also provided a great deal of finance to groups like the Al Qaeda. And such underworld ties are quite common in the field given the many shared goals of resistance to American policy that terrorist groups, organized crime families and drug cartels.

Another factor that has made terrorist groups difficult to dismantle is the networking coordination. The massacre of two-hundred young night-clubbers on the Indonesian resort island of Bali, a bombing primarily attributed to the Jemaah Islamiyah group. This clandestine organization, alleged heavily to be involved with Al Qaeda and bin Laden, illustrates the incestuous nature of the Islamic fundamentalist world. Al Qaeda's larger mission of a Moslem planet provides it with an interest in the many smaller Islamic front movements around the world. Jemaah Islamiyah's mission is centered around the creation of a sovereign Islamic southern Asia, comprised of Indonesia, the Phillipines Thailand and Malaysia. As such, Qaeda will often help to bankroll some of its activities, as it is alleged to have done in Bali just a few months ago.

Islamiyah's profile has risen substantially since that attack.

But perhaps more alarming the inevitable emergence of yet another dangerous group is the implication that the war on terror may be too big to fight in the fashion with which we have thus far pursued it. Islamiyah's founders, like those of most other Islamic fundamentalist groups, are clerics with many well-financed contacts in the religious charity business. Of course, the most troubling trend has been that of open governmental support for terrorist activities such as that supposed to be coming from the Iranian authority presently.

As a reaction to Israeli Palestinian policy, which has been decidedly more aggressive toward West Bank and Gaza settlements than during administrations passed, the Iranian government further ingratiated itself to Hezbollah, the pioneering suicide bomber group. Their viciously anti-Zionist perspective has inclined them to commit shopping district and public transportation attacks quite regularly as the current strife in Israel will attest to. And as America continues to pursue its commitment to eliminating terrorism, it runs the continual risk of spreading itself thin militarily and intelligence-wise. With assets to freeze, private charities and business to pursue, post-war containment and occupation in Afghanistan, pre-war preparation in Iraq and a heavy-handed involvement in Israeli-Palestinian affairs, there may not be any time to consider a response to Iran's declared intention of hostility. And even were it to do so, Hezbollah's existence of over thirty years makes it one of the oldest, most unabatedly active and dangerously pervasive groups around. So it's operations, which are constant from both Lebanon and Syria, have enough support to provide them at least with asylum from American policy.… [read more]


Media and Terrorism Contemporary Term Paper

… Nacos's analysis brings up some important issues of media self-censorship, and government control of media coverage of terrorist incidents. Certainly, it is tempting to argue that media coverage of terrorist activities should be curbed in order to reduce the terrorist's… [read more]


Understanding the Objectives and Motivations of Terror Groups Essay

… Cyber Security and Terrorism: Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, and Tamil Tigers

The Internet has become the latest frontier of crime and war. Governments and terror organizations are all beneficiaries of cyber-based warfare. This means that it is important to have an elaborate cyber security program that will safeguard the people from harm. The Internet is a platform and an avenue through which both security and crime can be enhanced and propagated respectively. The world's leading terrorist networks have resorted to the use of cyberspace as a platform on which to perpetrate their security agendas. In this paper, three terrorist groups are going to be discussed with the view of discussing their cyber-based wars. This will also touch on the issues of government response to quell the terrorist activities on the Internet platform.

The Al-Qaida

This is ranked as the world's leading terrorist organizations. It originated from Afghanistan as a religious group that was founded by Osama Bin Laden. The principles behind the formation of this organization were to fight the leadership of the United States of America as well as its interests in the global arena. This shows their ground of participation in the war. For their war have some meaning, they tagged in the agenda of religion in it. The terror network is founded on the principles of Islam, and anyone who is not a Muslim is an enemy of this terror group. This has seen them fight the Christian states with a serious verbosity while rallying the Muslim world to back their cause. They have made the Muslims in the world to believe that the Christians are their enemies (Saikia, 2010). Eventually, they end up winning sympathy backing from the large populations of Muslims in the world.

Cyberspace has been one of the key avenues through which the terror network has been launching attacks. This has seen it grow to become a serious group in terms of executing the terror agenda. The Internet is a platform through which they express their terror agenda and bring the focus of their antics to the people. They use the Internet to spread fearful messages through scary photos to the people. This makes them feared and will have succeeded in their agenda of bringing people under control. They also use the Internet platform to hack information systems of other countries and launch informed offensives from it. The Internet gives them access to what they would otherwise not access in the physical world.

Boko Haram

This is an emerging terrorist network in Africa, home-based in Nigeria. Their activities have however spread to other parts of the continent, largely in central Africa. Just like Al-Qaida, the foundation of this terror group is on a religious basis. These fighters use Islam as their basis for launching attacks on the residents of the countries they operate in, who are mainly Christians. They spread falsified information about Islam making its followers fall for the bait. Currently, many voluntary fighters have joined the fight on the side of the… [read more]


Different Types of Terrorism Essay

… ¶ … terrorists are considered the most dangerous and why?

Many terrorism experts consider so-called lone wolf terrorists to be the most dangerous terrorist threat of all because of their unpredictability. While it is possible to some extent to monitor the behavior and actions of organized terrorist groups and to infiltrate them, lone wolves by definition act alone and cannot really be traced or anticipated until they do actual harm. "The individual terrorist has proven to be among the most innovative, creative, and dangerous in terrorism history" (Thompson 2013). Examples of lone wolves include the Boston Marathon bombers, Timothy McVeigh, and the Unabomber. While groups such as Al Qaida have been carefully monitored by various law enforcement agencies due to their substantial organizational outreach, which includes training camps and even online communication, lone wolves operate outside of the sphere of international monitoring. There are no potential informants that might turn on the larger organization because the only organization is the individual or one or two trusted confederates. Technology makes it fairly easy to construct crude and effective mechanisms of destruction. The Internet gives lone wolves access to "access to information on tactics, targets and weapons, ideology, causes" (Thompson 2013). Bioterrorism as the anthrax scare of recent date illustrates, is a new and more pervasive threat than in previous decades because of the ease of contacting and ordering from illicit sources.

In contrast to other types of organized terrorists, lone wolves "have little or no constraints on their level of violence. They are not concerned with alienating supporters (as would some terrorist groups), nor are they concerned with a potential government crackdown following an attack" (Thompson 2013). A terrorist group often has a specific, articulate objective that it wishes to accomplish, such as gaining publicity for its cause or striking fear into the heart of a legitimate government such as that of Israel or the United States. A lone wolf may have a vague objective or simply wish to vent fury out on a world that has wronged him. He has no specific interest in allowing his group to perpetuate itself after the attack. Although "some lone wolves combine personal grievances and problems with a political or religious cause in order to justify their violence" it is not necessarily easy to anticipate how this will take form and be used against various targets, since the terrorist may not have an obvious purpose and objective, versus support for the Palestinian cause in Israel or the desire to attack the U.S. government and economic structure as in the case of 9/11 (Thompson 2013). The choice of bombing the Boston Marathon, other than being the location of a large number of individuals, was not shaped by a coherent, outside ideology evident to anyone besides the two brothers orchestrating the attacks.

Perhaps the most dangerous lone wolves of all, however, are those that arise from within the organizations they strike back at. For example, as Maj. Nidal Maljik Hasan shot "fellow soldiers and others at… [read more]


Protection Profession Disciplines Essay

… Protection Profession Disciplines

Strategic security is a completely new disciplinary area in the protection profession; as such, it has not yet been fully accepted as a necessary requirement for National Security. In part, this may be because the area is… [read more]


Who Controls Social Media? Research Paper

… Role of social media in terrorism is one that is unclear for many researchers who recognize both the power of social media to disseminate unverified information widely and quickly and the power of the term "terrorism" to convey an "us… [read more]


Information and Reactions to Media Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Media

While terrorism is a significant issue in and of itself, there is more to it than the events that actually take place. One of the largest problems that are seen when it comes to terrorist threats is that the media tends to continue to report them and talk about them over and over again. Some people like this coverage because they feel as though they need to understand what is taking place in the world. Others are more traumatized by the repetitive nature of these broadcasts, and they focus on how the information makes them feel as though terrorism is happening everywhere all the time. In other words, they are terrorized more by the media's portrayal and overemphasis of what took place than the actual terrorist event itself. The media also contributes to terrorism concerns in other ways. Often terrorists use the media to get their message out to the masses, by releasing audio and video information meant to frighten people and ensure that the groups that are being targeted spend time concerned about their personal and societal safety.

The idea of getting their message of terroristic threats out to the masses is one reason terrorist organizations choose to release information to the media. By doing this, they can control what is known about them, and play up the propaganda that goes along with who they are and what they stand for. They may be weaker than they seem, or they may actually be stronger and are trying to downplay their strength until they get ready to strike. Additionally, they may have a further reach than expected, or be able to do more or less than what most people feel they are capable of, but they can manipulate all of that through the media. Some terrorists even allow themselves to be interviewed, because that allows them to plant some of their own language and nomenclature into the interview. In turn, the interviewer will likely pick up some of that, and it will be spread through the media, potentially furthering the cause.

The role of the media in the event of an actual terrorist attack is to get information…… [read more]


Fight Against Hurricane Katrina in a Political Environment Set on Fighting Terrorism Term Paper

… Governmental agencies were practically encouraged to take up arms against terrorism and they acknowledged the significance of doing this in a united front. "By creating this broader definition of homeland security, DHS is stressing the diversity of organizations and individuals… [read more]


Role and Impact of Media in Coverage of Terror Attacks Essay

… 243). This contributes to the assumption that media can act as one of the most effective tools for protection of the public from acts of terrorism.

There are three case studies that seem to develop a pattern that supports the opinion and assumption that the media does not promote terrorists' agenda through acting as a tool for protecting the public from acts of terrorism. First, the media's coverage of Timothy McVeigh's terrorist act of bombing the Murrah building contributed to reduction of the number of American terrorists. While McVeigh had only participated in few militia meetings, media coverage of this event helped many Americans to dissociate themselves from activities that would result in the death of fellow Americans (Mahan & Griset, 2008, p.225). Secondly, media coverage of 9/11 terror attacks was a demonstration of what it could do at its very best (McDonald & Lawrence, 2003, p.223). Since the event was covered as a crime story rather than political one, it enabled the public to understand terrorism and assume personal responsibility for the well-being of the country. Third, the 1983 terror attempt to destabilize Kuwait through attacking American and French embassies failed miserably due to media coverage that resulted in the arrest of several members of the Iranian-Shi'a group (Anderson, 1993, p.127).

References

Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and Censorship: The Media in Chains. Journal of International

Affairs, 47(1), 127.

Mahan, S. & Griset, P. (2008). Media Coverage of Terrorism. In Terrorism in perspective.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McDonald, I.R. & Lawrence, R.G. (2003, August 27). Filing the 24x7 News Hole. Television News Coverage Following September 11. Paper…… [read more]


National Incident Management System (NIMS) Research Paper

… For instance, NIMS can mobilize two different communities with the purpose of preventing a terrorist threat. However, these respective communities might be inclined to believe that they should act on an individual level in order to experience best results. NIMS sometimes fails to address the needs of each institution it works with and this can lead to conflicts that (if they're not properly dealt with) can eventually prove to have a destructive effect on society as a whole. There have been numerous situations involving firefighters having trouble doing their jobs properly or police officers being unable to secure an area because of each-other's tendency to focus on their jobs. Police officers often ask firefighters to move their vehicles in order to have more control of a situation and in spite of the fact that this can make things easier for them, it can make it more difficult for firefighters to actually do their job (Hess, Orthmann, & Cho, p. 187)

Another issue that NIMS is dealing with is that it has to make decisions on the spot. In most cases such decisions can have a significant impact and thus need to be taken on by people who are especially experienced in their field of work. "Elected and appointed officials should be aware of how NIMS can work to ensure cooperative response efforts, thereby minimizing the potential implications of an accident." (United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency, p. 14)

Works cited:

Hess, K., Orthmann, C., & Cho, Henry, "Police Operations: Theory and Practice," (Cengage Learning, 1 Jan 2013)

United States. Federal Emergency Management…… [read more]


Motives of Terrorists Essay

… Terrorists fall into that category of commitment, as they can be fanatically devoted to their particular cause. When people who are easily swayed and/or are seeking something in their lives fall into being friends or colleagues with those who have terrorist connections, they can want so much to be accepted that they go along with committing acts of terrorism, often just to be accepted by others.

It may seem surprising that people would do something as significant as terrorism simply because they wanted to be accepted, but it certainly happens -- and often frequently. Sociology is one of the main ways in which terrorism can be studied, because it is important to understand why a person does something. It is equally important to understand how groups create themselves and how they maintain their ideology. They "collect" members, many times without even trying, because people seek them out if they feel the group can provide something to them that they value or that they find to be important. With that in mind, terrorist groups can quickly collect a number of members who join for many different reasons. Acceptance, a desire for violence or vengeance, peer pressure, common ground, and a belief that "everyone does it" can all lead a person to join a terrorist group. Some people also get caught up in it, fearing that they will be terrorized, themselves, and that they may even be killed, if they do not join the terrorist group and protect themselves and their family.… [read more]


Terrorist Surveillance Techniques: Why it Is Important to Monitor Research Paper

… Significant facts

Just as it is often stressed in the literature that 'everyone' can be a potential terrorist, any terrorist can also be a potential spy conducting surveillance. Suspicious activities in public places must be noted, but particularly in areas that have been identified by various intelligence agencies as likely targets of terrorists. Law enforcement must be cognizant of the fact that groups have a wide variety of tools to conduct surveillance, spanning from simple, on-the-ground observations to more sophisticated use of cameras and wiretapping devices purchased at 'spy shops.' Even apparently innocent evidence like public photographs or schedules of when the building is open that are available online can be potentially leveraged by terrorists for information.

However, as overwhelming as all this evidence may seem, it is important to remember that terrorists are usually not sophisticated in their surveillance techniques. Engaging in such obvious behaviors as ordering food at a cafe and leaving before consuming it; shadowing well-trafficked areas in suspicious clothing; and looking obviously out-of-place because of inappropriate bodily movements and attire are not atypical, versus the type of sophisticated surveillance carried out by foreign nations (Nance 2008: 190-192).

Conclusions

A final concern to keep in mind about spotting terrorism, however, is that law enforcement cannot engage in racial profiling when attempting to define what constitutes suspicious behavior. Law enforcement must obey constitutional dictates even when concerned with keeping the public as safe as possible. Behavior rather than identity is a key component of engaging in lawful efforts to apprehend individuals engaging in terrorist surveillance.

Being mindful of the variety of techniques used by terrorist groups is also important. Just as the nature of modern terrorism has changed with the ubiquity of the Internet, so has the available surveillance techniques available to its perpetrators. Tracing and 'keeping tabs' on so-called spy shops and websites that sell such materials may be an additional tool in tracking down terrorists. However, given that on-the-foot surveillance is still a vital component of terrorists' techniques in monitoring targets, general mindfulness and observation can never be minimized; nor can mobilizing the public to be watchful of suspicious behavior.

References

Nance. M. (2008). Terrorist recognition handbook. 2nd Ed.…… [read more]


Look at Terrorist Behavior Term Paper

… These types of terrorist actions usually require less preparatory acts and therefore less time to prepare for the attack. But on the other hand international terrorists will "engage in nearly three times as many preparatory acts per incident as their environmental counterparts." (Smith, 2008, pp. 4-5) And as a result will require much more time to carry out their preparations. In fact the study concluded that the average preparation time required for an international terrorist groups to carry out preparations for a terrorist attack was 92 days, while the average for environmental groups was just 14. Therefore one can conclude that international terrorists live closer to their targets and carry out most of their preparatory acts close to their targets over a long period of time while domestic terrorists carry out both their attacks and preparations further from their homes but in a shorter period of time.

Finally because of this information police now have a number of patterns to follow when investigating possible terrorist activities. For instance, terrorists will usually engage in at least some local preparations and while much of this will not be illegal, knowing it is going on can be beneficial to police. Also, knowing that terrorist groups are engaging in preparatory actions can be an indication of when they plan to carry out an attack. When environmental terrorists carry out preparatory actions this may be an indication that an attack is coming soon, possibly within a week or two and the police may be forced to act quickly to stop a possible terrorist attack. But if police determine that an international terrorist group is carrying out preparatory acts, because they take longer to prepare the police can take their time and investigate further to not only stop the attack but to discover all the people involved. The type of terrorist group is a major factor in the time and proximity of actual terrorist act and a tool the police can use to their benefit.

By studying the behavior of terrorist groups the NIJ has been able to make a number of conclusions about these groups. The study has found that both the proximity of the group to its intended target and the time needed for preparatory acts is related to the type of terrorist group carrying out the attack. With this information police can, through investigation, possibly predict the time and place of a potential terrorist attack.

References

Smith, Brent. (July 2008). "A Look At Terrorist Behavior: How They Prepare, Where

They Strike."…… [read more]


Boston Marathon Attack Essay

… However, their hostage from the carjacking escaped and called 911. He told them, the Tsarnaevs' had his cell phone and tracked their location to Watertown, Massachusetts. On April 19th, a firefight ensued between the brothers and police. Tamerlan was injured and taken to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (where he was pronounced dead from multiple gunshot wounds). However, Dzhokhar was wounded and managed to escape in the stolen Mercedes. A manhunt ensued throughout the area. This resulted in Dzhokhar being located in a boat and bleeding profusely from his wounds. The police raided the location and captured him. He was taken to the hospital and made a fully recovery. In the aftermath, Dzhokhar admitted his involvement in the attacks and was charged with 33 counts (to include: possessing / using weapons of mass destruction). (Bodden, 2014)

What Motivated the Tsarnaev Brothers?

The current position is Tsarnaev brothers were motivated by a desire to strike back and the United States. This is because they felt that the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were unjustified acts of aggression against Muslims. At the same time, Tamerlan had a propensity for violence and was influenced by the radical views of his mother in Chechnya. This and his inability to adapt to American society made him feel as if he was an outsider in a strange land. (Bodden, 2014)

His views had a major impact on his brother. Dzhokhar felt a sense of loyalty to him and wanted to support Tamerlan at any cost. The result is that the two began to share a hatred for America and everything it stood for. To strike back, they decided to use the Boston Marathon as a way of taking the fight to the society which allowed atrocities to occur in the Middle East. The victims were a part of the collateral damage in an effort to achieve these objectives. These insights are showing how a predisposition towards violence, alienation, family loyalty and radical views are what encouraged them. (Bodden, 2014)

However, there are different views surrounding what motivated the Tsarnaev brothers. For instance, Alvarez (2014) argues that they were impacted by the culture of violence in Russian and American societies. The combination of these factors creates a situation where they struck out at the establishment. (Alvarez, 2014) This is illustrating how there are alternative theories on why this occurred and the lasting impact. Feifer (2014) provides insights as to how they became radicalized and those factors that influenced their behavior in the years before the attack. This helps to corroborate and refute the different theories which are presented. (Feifer, 2014)

Conclusion

Clearly, the two brothers were motivated to conduct the Boston Marathon Bombings from anti-social behavior, radical Islam, loyalty and a desire to strike back at their adopted country. These areas are illustrating how they wanted to strike out at society and everything it stood for. The Boston Marathon was the perfect way of enabling them to achieve these objectives and it allowed them blend back into… [read more]


Pan Am Flight 103: Terrorism Case Study

… There are several aspects to this happening. Some sources suggested at the time that the release was in the context of a massive arms deal between the British government and the Gaddafi regime which was negotiated during the Blair Administration but eventually did not happen (Sparrow, 2013). Others suggested that in fact the release was part of a prisoner exchange which the Scottish government did not agree. Ultimately, the official version was that the convict was released on a compassionate note given that he was suffering from terminal cancer. Abdelbaset al-Megrahi eventually died in 2012 (The New York Times, 2011)

As it is the case with any other attack, after it takes place, ideas on how that attack could have been avoided spurred to mind in order for lessons to be learned and such events never to take place. Unfortunately, after the Lockerby attack, the 9/11 events pointed out that more would have been needed to happen in order to prevent terrorist attacks on both American or other territories. Following the Lockerby attack however, increased security measures were taken at airports to ensure that proper controls at check in would be conducted. To this day, it is still unknown the way in which the explosive came to be carried aboard the Boing 747 that crashed in Scotland. Despite analysis and investigations, the fact that the bomb had been with a timer made it difficult for agencies to determine how the Semtex explosive came to be carried aboard and who carried it.

There were massive reactions after the incident throughout the world. Perhaps the most important though is the increased attention given to terrorism as a global threat, to the increased measures of security at the airports or any other vulnerable areas of transit and most importantly a change in the attitude towards countries that favor terrorism such as Libya or Iran.

References

CIA. "Terrorist Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103," n.d., available online at https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/cia-museum/experience-the-collection/text-version/stories/terrorist-bombing-of-pan-am-flight-103.html

Greenspan, Jesse. "Remembering the 1988 Lockerbie Bombing," History in the Headlines, 20 December 2013, available online at http://www.history.com/news/remembering-the-1988-lockerbie-bombing

Rayner, Gordon. "Lockerbie bombing: are these the men who really brought down Pan Am 103?," The Telegraph, 10 march 2014, available online at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/10688179/Lockerbie-bombing-are-these-the-men-who-really-brought-down-Pan-Am-103.html

Sparrow, Andrew. "Email links Lockerbie bomber's prison transfer to £400m Libyan arms deal," The Guardian, 28 July 2013, available online at http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/jul/28/lockerbie-bomber-libyan-arms-deal

The New York Times. "Pan Am Flight 103," The New York Times, 29 August 2011, available online at http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/a/airplane_accidents_and_incidents/pan_am_flight_103/

Zalman, Amy. "1988: Pan Am Flight 103 Bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland," About.com, n.d., available online at http://terrorism.about.com/od/originshistory/p/PanAmBombing.htm… [read more]


John I Respectfully Disagree Discussion and Results Chapter

… Keep it local, I agree.

Terrence

Terrence you bring up some important facts when dealing with abstract issues dealing with the terrorism issue. Winning hearts and minds is indeed integral in the process of establishing peace and order. This is indeed an emotional-psychological battle that can be won without violence or struggle if the proper ideals are put into the right place. Your ideas on partnership and cooperation resonate strongly with my own ideals and I really appreciate your attitude towards the civil rights aspects that are not being properly addressed in many ways, in my opinion. By understanding that this war is mostly a war of minds and invisible forces a better approach may be taken to address the problems of failure in the past.

Brandon

Brandon, I appreciate your comments on the subject of local law enforcement being used to fight terrorism but I do not understand how you example of Afghanistan applies to the domestic issues of your case. Afghanistan is not domestic terrorism and our military operations over there have been a failure of massive proportions. In the world's eyes, and according to international law, American military forces are terrorists to many. What is lost in this argument is the sense of empathy and letting locals truly take care of their own problems. The threat of Islamic terrorism is not much of a threat, nor has it ever been. The histrionics displayed by the media suggesting that military forces are needed to lesson collective fear ignores the issues of self-preservation and independence. International law has been rudimentary and categorically ignored by the American Military forces in the War On Terror, and to use it to support this argument demonstrates a bias that is typically American and emotionally charged.

Valerie

Valerie I tend to agree with your ideas on training and policies as effective safeguards against failure in the War on Terror. By commenting on the disconnect between intelligence forces and military forces underscores the larger issue of the lack of leadership on the issue. Policy and standardized training have improved over the years, but the counterterrorism forces are a scattered group of federal forces with little to no oversight. I also agree that technology can be used in a very attractive manner and should be exploited to its highest purpose. Eventually a new paradigm is needed that synthesizes the issues you bring up between the intelligence community and the forces that execute the operations that derive from those policies.

Brandon

I appreciate your agreement and echo the sentiments that you wrote in your response to my essay. By bringing up The Posse Comitatus Act you revealed in important part of this discussion in that many of the federal, state and local combined efforts are indeed illegal under this act. It has no doubt been ignored and sets a precedent that limits the ability of any new laws to have any real bite to them. To me many of the crimes such as prostitution and illegal drug… [read more]


Terrorist Discussion and Results Chapter

… Candidates who appear to be potentially dangerous to the terrorist group's survival are screened out. Candidates with unpredictable or uncontrolled behavior lack the personal attributes that the terrorist recruiter is looking for" which is a methodical commitment (Hudson 1999).

References

Hudson, R. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved from: https://www.fas.org/irp/threat/frd.html

M6D2: Warning signs of 9/11

For many, the fact that there had already been an attack on the Twin Towers is the most potent symbol of the failure of U.S. intelligence before their destruction on 9/11. Al-Qaida had clearly shown its determination to end the existence of these symbols of American power and dominance. The fact that the authorities were not on high alert to the possibility of another attack seems surprising in the extreme. Al-Qaida was clearly determined to finish what it had started.

The Bush Administration received warnings that another attack was likely. "The direct warnings to Mr. Bush about the possibility of a Qaeda attack began in the spring of 2001. By May 1, the Central Intelligence Agency told the White House of a report that 'a group presently in the United States' was planning a terrorist operation. Weeks later, on June 22, the daily brief reported that Qaeda strikes could be 'imminent'" (Eichenwald 2012). As another brief in August was being issued to the Administration, "a Saudi believed to have been assigned a role in the 9/11 attacks, was stopped at an airport in Orlando, Fla., by a suspicious customs agent and sent back overseas on Aug. 4. Two weeks later, another co-conspirator, Zacarias Moussaoui, was arrested on immigration… [read more]


Message for Eric Holder Essay

… Terror Memo

Eric Holder, Attorney General U.S. Department of Justice

Re: Impact on Terrorism on National Security

The current state of the union suggests that the United States Department of Justice has many important and relevant tasks related to the safeguarding of the nation. The purpose of this memorandum is detail the impact of terrorism on national security and suggests methods and corrections to help align the department towards a more sustainable and practical goal.

The word 'terrorism' represents too many things to too many different people to have any sustained value or quality. The U.S. Department of Justice is about maintaining and keeping the peace so that justice can be served. The War on Terror, the over hyped media's usage of the word and the associated qualities, and the clear failures of the past from this department all point towards the idea that something needs to be changed in relation to how this organization operates in maintaining its mission.

The Mission

In times of trouble and despair, which many would suggest this department is experiencing, the fundamentals and basics are there to help restore confidence and guidance. The U.S. Department of Justice's mission is "To enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. " in this mission statement terrorism does not appear.

Terrorism is Meaningless

The massive and confusing piles of laws that are placed in the jurisdiction of this organization is quite intimidating and there is always plenty of tasks that need to be accomplished. Terrorism is more of a political catch word that has overtaken the more rational aspects of this organization in its inclusion in the discussion. Terror is an emotion, not an enemy. Terror is like happiness, sadness, elation, depression, anxiousness or any other of the many emotions contained within the psyche of man. By admitting terror is an enemy, it appears that Justice Department has overstepped its bounds.

What scares one person may be a comfort for others. So one's man terrorist is another man's freedom fighter. Terrorism in itself has not real meaning because there is nothing wrong or unjust about being scared. This department cannot and should not be responsible for placating the sensitive emotions of the entire American population. It can be guaranteed that at any time millions of people are experiencing fear and terror in their lives. To equivocate this to a crime does not align itself with the strategic mission of this organization, and reveals the problems of politics, emotions and word play as they intermix with our standard operating procedures.

Impractical Demands

Besides the philosophical differences, there are also important signs to show that this concentration on counterterrorism operations that this organization began to focus on in the last decade has… [read more]


"Winning" a Struggle Against a Terrorist Organization Discussion and Results Chapter

… "Terrorist activity by the Real IRA and other paramilitary groups continues and, as of the summer of 2006, is on the rise" (Zalman 2006). Still, despite the dissatisfaction of some members of the IRA with the peace agreement, overall this could be a considered a 'win' given the British concession to withdraw from Ireland, the legitimization of Sinn Fein as a political party, and the fact that IRA activities (however much the British might wish to deny this) had an influence upon bringing this major power to the negotiating table.

References

The Good Friday agreement. (1998). BBC. Retrieved from:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/good_friday.stm

Zalman, A. (2006). Understanding the IRA. Retrieved from:

http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/IRA.htm

M5D2: Combating International Terrorism Do international terrorist organizations or movements, such as Al-Qaeda, that operate across international borders require an international agency to track and combat them? If so, which international agency or body should be responsible for combating cross-border terrorism? If not, how should nations fight these cross-border organizations?

"No state, however powerful, can defend itself unilaterally against transnational terrorism. Terrorist networks move operatives, money and material across borders and through the crevices of the global economy. Only through extensive cooperation on financial flows, intelligence, and police action can the risk of terrorism be reduced" (Policy brief on combatting international terrorism, 2008, The Brookings Institute: 1). Even if international agencies are not the only means by which to police international terrorism, they are surely some of the most effective. Terrorism is so difficult to contain and detect because it is a borderless crime. Increasingly terrorist organizations are non-state actors with relatively vague, undefined missions. Their outreach is international and so are their ambitions. While nations can and… [read more]


Attack Causality in Internet-Connected Cellular Essay

… S. information infrastructure for intelligence collection, intellectual property theft, or disruption" because "terrorist groups and their sympathizers have expressed interest in using cyber means to target the United States and its citizens" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security 16).

While the calamitous conflicts still simmering throughout the Middle East provide conclusive proof that predicting future events is an untenable approach to counterterrorism intelligence, there are many circumstances which dictate the adoption of preventative strategy. The advent of the internet has enabled likeminded individuals across the planet to connect and exchange ideas on an instantaneous basis, allowing the once isolated realm of jihadist ideology to flourish under the cover of online anonymity. By monitoring suspicious activity through the use of wiretapping technology and other clandestine means, the intelligence community has gathered a voluminous amount of data concerning potential threats to national security, identifying key leadership figures and their proxies, and foiling several dozen attacks during the planning phase. Indeed, according to the Heritage Foundation "in 2009 alone, U.S. authorities foiled at least six terrorist plots against the United States (and) since September 11, 2001, at least 30 planned terrorist attacks have been foiled, all but two of them prevented by law enforcement" (McNeill, Carafano & Zuckerman, 2010). When a potential terrorist attack is prevented, however, it is essential that the reasons for this success be accurately identified before a false sense of security becomes firmly established. A consensus has emerged among intelligence experts that "with distributed terrorism threats such as homegrown jihadism, there is no key leadership cell and no key lines of command and communication" (Quiggin, 2006), and it is the ambiguous structure of terrorist networks which necessitates an anticipatory approach to combating threats.

References

Traynor, P., McDaniel, P., & La Porta, T. (2007, August). On attack causality in internet-

connected cellular networks. In Proceedings of 16th USENIX Security Symposium on USENIX Security Symposium (pp. 1-16). USENIX Association. Retrieved from https://www.usenix.org/legacy/event/sec07/tech/full_papers/traynor/traynor_html/

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis. Homeland security threat assessment: Evaluating threats 2008-2013. Washington, DC: Government Printing

Office, 2008. Retrieved from http://info.publicintelligence.net/DHS- Threats2008-

2013.pdf

York, D. & Zar, J. (2008, October). Blue Box Podcast #85: Internet phone calls and terrorism,

Georgia Tech report on Emerging Cyber Security Threats, phone jamming, 802.1X-REV,

802.1AE, VoIP security news and more. Retrieved from http://www.mefeedia.com/entry/blue-box-85-internet-phone-calls-and-terrorism-georgia-tech-report-on-emerging-cyber-security-threat/11995446… [read more]

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