Study "Theatre / Opera / Play" Essays 56-110

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Classical and Contemporary Dancing Term Paper

… Likewise, both Kabuki and traditional ballet have certain stock characters or types, such as the main hero or heroine, and many members of the company specialize in such stock types, such as the prince of ballet theater, the older characters danced by members past their prime, or in the case of Kabuki, men who specialize in female roles.

Yet, as delineated in Chapter 7 of Jonas, changes in contemporary culture demanded that ballet theater change with the times. Classical dance gradually shifted from storied productions to less standard tales, from fairy princes and princesses to more symbolic works of fiction and nonfiction. The classical motions to tell the stories thus also, by necessity, became less pantomime-like and more expressive, even while retaining the continuity of the essential art of ballet. Chapter 7 of Jonas on Contemporary Dance tells of how modern dance created a new art form in response to ballet, yet was still contiguous with much of the evolving ballet tradition. Ballet itself responded to the evolution of modern dance with a freer and more expressive style.

Likewise, Kabuki theater was able to remain within the same tradition and retain the tradition's essential forms yet change its significance and modes of expression -- for example, to this day, all female parts are played by male impersonators in Kabuki theater, and there is a standard repertoire as there is in many classical ballet companies. But Kabuki Theater is no longer a purely popular art -- it too has changed, even as it has remained stylized, because the audience, as with all performance-based art, has changed.

Kabuki has become a vestige of Japanese culture, where before it was a popular art form.

Ballet is not regarded as a cultural relic like Kabuki. But it is no longer popular in the sense that it is performed in popular dance halls and theaters. Thus classical ballet has also changed -- changed with what the audience has come to expect, after the rise of modern dance, and changed, to include more popular means of representing dance through its parallel dialogue with modern dance forms.

Works Cited

Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry…… [read more]

Mercy of Social Forces: Beggar Term Paper

… That our nobility to this date maintains the same morals and value that are appropriate to maintain the status quo and serve to their advantage.

A world in which the custodians of public trust turn a blind eye to the pilferages committed by minor thieves to serve as greasing to their grand design. The characters of The Beggar's Opera employ methods of profit making, just as every kind of position holder and scoundrel employed in the 18th century and still do. One can draw distinct parallels between the mischievous behaviors of the 18th century statesmen who had access to other people's money and trust, with the corporate raiders of today.

Then, as now, the misuse of public funds and the belief that money can buy everything transformed a society into two classes, the ones who take and he ones who take by force each certain to be doing the right thing and accusing the other of doing the wrong. False class divisions were set up based on monetary worth rather than praiseworthy attributes.

John Gay uses the hilarious parallel of Peachum, a 'fence' or disposer of stolen goods; Lockit, the chief Jailer and a collection of thieves and prostitutes, to make fun of a society set up by the greedy, the corrupt and the powerful. Only the poor man may believe in his own virtue, but if he doesn't have the cash to buy justice he must suffer for his crimes.

Love and sex are heavily ridiculed through out the play. Those of us who shake our heads in bewilderment at the adulterous ways of present day politicians and the aristocrats will find much to identify in this opera. The hilarious results of the Highwayman MacHeath's inability to restrict himself to one woman at a time are immediately familiar to the modern viewers. Marriage is seen as a hindrance, husbands and wives are there for convenience and comfortable living and once they have out lived their use are done away with. Money is the standard for measuring love. Sex in The Beggar's Opera is merely a business.

The Beggar's opera in the end delivers only this message. That man is not basically unscrupulous, but rather he is a victim of sadistic social forces and has only learned to be evil so as to conform to the social order to survive, and only the poor are made to suffer for their inadequacies. As the Beggar, the author of the piece states at the end of the opera that he would have shown that the poorer people have their vices to a degree as well as the rich; but they alone are punished for them. Alas, nothing…… [read more]

Shakespeare and the Manner Term Paper

… In contrast we have all also seen that Shakespeare has written about the role of women who were of strong influence. But yet we still see that there is a hint of the way that women are looked upon as sex things. An example of this is seen in 'Twelfth Night', where Sir Andrew Aguecheek tries to court the wealthy and strong character, Lady Olivia. (2)

Compared to the technical theaters of today, the London public theaters in the time of Queen Elizabeth I seem to be terribly limited. The plays had to be performed during daylight hours only and the stage scenery had to be kept very simple with just a table, a chair, a throne, and maybe a tree to symbolize a forest. This made the playwright have to write in a vivid language so the audience could understand the play. Shakespeare's theater was far from being bare, the playwright did have some valuable technical sources that he used to the best of his ability.

A theatrical company in which Shakespeare belonged built the Globe Theater. The Globe Theater, was the most popular of all the Elizabethan theaters, it was not in the city itself but on the south bank of the Thames River. This location had been chosen because, in 1574, public plays had been banished from the city by an ordinance that blamed them for corrupting the youth and promoting prostitution. A playwright had to please all members of the audience. This explains the wide range of topics in Elizabethan plays.


The initial part of Shakespeare's life was indeed very shaky even though he had a reasonably good education. He had some problems regarding his personal relationships that might have inhibited his approach to writing and acting. After he had three children, he left his home and went to London where his career blossomed in quick time. Though he faced criticism he still prospered a great deal and died a wealthy man. This is the biggest contrast to his simpler, younger days. (1)

Bibliography… [read more]

Choreography of Dreamgirls and a Chorus Line Movie Review

… Others suffer mishaps like Paul, who tragically re-injures his knee. One of the most interesting stories is that of Cassie, a former soloist who struggles to blend in with the rest of the cast. Cassie also has a personal history with the director Zach, who largely stands aloof during the production, passing cold judgment on the dancers as he ruthlessly eliminates those he doesn't approve of, one by one. Each dancer has a different physical style which then becomes subsumed in the final production number where everyone dances alike and loses their individuality in the eyes of the audience.

Bennett also tackled a show about backstage drama in the form of Dreamgirls, which tells the story of a girl group called 'the Dreamettes.' The Dreamettes are a girl group begun by Effie White that uses the group's success at a local talent show to garner worldwide acclaim. As the group's money and fame increases, so do its members' personal conflicts. Effie's role in the group is eclipsed by a prettier backup singer who eventually assumes her lead role. Effie is relegated to the background despite the fact she is clearly the best singer of the group. Because she is not conventionally attractive, she is cast out and replaced with another, prettier girl. Bennett uses the conventions of 1960s girl group singing, with their stylized and coordinated movements, to help reflect the conflicts going on between the Dreamettes (later renamed the Dreams) and to reflect the changing fortunes of the group. Their performances grow showier, more elaborate, and obviously sexual as Effie is gradually edged out of the group and they are put under the wing of professional management. One of the most poignant moments is when 'the Dreams' with their new replacement for Effie suddenly take over the stage after Effie sings her heart-wrenching solo "And I'm telling you." The glitter, glamor, and carefully coordinated mannerisms of their slim bodies writhing under their costumes are a stark contrast to Effie's raw power, honesty, and solidity.

A subtheme to Dreamgirls is the replacement of a traditionally 'black' style of R&B with a smoother, more commercial-sounding Motown quality, and this is also reflected in the dancing of the male groups and singers who are cultivated by their handlers to become more palatable to white audiences. Their dancing becomes showier, more presentational, and theatrical over the course of the show. Like A Chorus Line, once again a central theme of Bennett's philosophy as a choreographer shines through: dance reveals character and must tell a story (particularly stories about showbiz) versus merely be entertaining in and of itself.

Works Cited

A Chorus Line. Directed by Richard Attenborough, 1985.

Dreamgirls. Directed by Bill Condon, 2006.… [read more]

Andrea Chenier Though Umberto Giordano Essay

… 152). In this way, one may claim that Andrea Chenier sets a revolutionary standard for itself that nonetheless allows for different interpretations and enactments, as this revolutionary standard is in each production "realized in a unique combination of dramaturgy, musical… [read more]

Dramatic Performance Andrea Chenier Essay

… Andrea Chenier

An Analysis of Umberto Giordano's Andrea Chenier in Geneva, 2011

Umberto Giordano's verismo opera Andrea Chenier was first performed a century after the French poet's death during the Reign of Terror. An exercise in Italian realism, Giordano's Andrea… [read more]

Irish Writings Identify, Then Compare and Contrast Essay

… ¶ … Irish Writings

Identify, then compare and contrast, the Irish nationalist ideal as manifested in the Irish Yankee and the Shaughraun. Be sure to be specific regarding each play's action, characters and themes (as well as the other elements… [read more]

Private Elizabethan Theatre Research Paper

… Greek and Roman

The Private Elizabethan Theatre

In 1558, when Elizabeth I came into power there were no specifically designed theatres in England. Collections of performers moved throughout the kingdom and acted in a broad variety of temporary performing places.… [read more]

Gioachino Antonio Rossini Term Paper

… Rossini

Gioachino Antonio Rossini

The Italian composer, Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) wrote thirty six operas, many of which are still performed and enjoyed today. These include the well-known the Barber of Seville (1816), La Cenerentola (1817), Semiramis (1823) and William Tell… [read more]

Shakespeare's Success as a Playwright While Playwrights Research Proposal

… ¶ … Shakespeare's Success as a Playwright

While playwrights have come and gone over the centuries, perhaps the most famous has been William Shakespeare. Although some modern authorities attribute his works to others, most agree that the Bard of Avon… [read more]

Pinter, Theatre of the Absurd, and Aristotelian Conventions Thesis

… Pinter Pt.

Finding Aristotle -- and Pinter -- in the Twentieth Century's Theatre of the Absurd

Aristotle's Poetics laid the groundwork for much Western drama for the next two millennia. Like as flowed forth from ancient Greeks in many other areas of the arts and sciences, and indeed in a wide range of human endeavors, theatre and dramatic literature have traveled in a distinct and identifiable arc from the time Aristotle first codified the precepts of Greek tragedy (and comedy, to a lesser degree) to the present day, to the point that even deviations and rejections of Aristotelian drama must be seen in the context of this rejection. There is no simple avoiding of Aristotle Poetics in the work of the theatre, that is; his conventions are the conventions of Western theatre, at least insofar as the construction of drama, and any rejection or controversion of these conventions must be seen as precisely that.

The twentieth century saw more radical departures from the Aristotelian model of effective Western drama than any century since this model was established, and many of the various stylistic and political movements that he century saw were quite conscious rejections of the precepts of the Poetics. Other movements were less rigidly defined themselves, and thus less purposeful rejections of Aristotelian drama and more explorations of other possibilities in dramatic construction and presentation. The theatre of the absurd, though consciously used as a form of political and aesthetic disruption by many of it's practitioners -- Ionesco and Beckett, especially -- can be more firmly placed in this latter camp of exploration than in any explicit analysis and rejections of Aristotle's theories.

The degree to which conventions are broken in the absurdist genre, however, is still somewhat extreme. William Spanos, writing in the final decade of absurdist theatre's decline and twenty to thirty years after its heyday, observed a fundamental and yet incredibly profound departure from the concept of time and sequentialism as it exists in Aristotelian drama (and therefore the bulk of Western drama) by the writers of absurdist theatre. Reaching its height in the nineteenth-century's "well-made play," the plot that unfolds inevitably and organically as a product of previous action and time was seen by the practitioners of the theatre of the absurd as simply a (mis)appropriation of "the illusory teleological perspective of Western essentialist philosophy, which perceives and interprets human life from the end (in the senses of both termination and goal" [emphasis Spanos'] (346).

This undoubtedly places the theatre of the absurd in opposition to contemporary philosophical and aesthetic trends, but more importantly it laces the theatre of the absurd in opposition to the traditions that led to the modern philosophy of essentialism. That is, essentialism itself is a uniquely modern development according to Spanos, but one that extends in a direct line from the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle and through the Enlightenment and the rest of Western thought. Though there are new ideas and perspectives, there is no questioning or doubt of… [read more]

Lilian Baylis Birth of the Royal Ballet Thesis

… Lilian Baylis: Birth of the Royal Ballet

Lilian Mary Baylis

The Order of the Companions of Honour is a United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations Order. It was founded by George V of the United Kingdom in June 1917, as… [read more]

Midsummer Nights Dream Britten Term Paper

… Britten's Midsummer's Night

Midsummer Night's Dream by Benjamin Britten

Benjamin Britten got the plot for this opera from Shakespeare's play by the same name. In 1960 he, along with his companion, Peter Pears, presented it as a showpiece for his friends and for a wide variety of talents. It contains a largely spoken, theatrical part (Puck's), a boy's soprano choir, a large fairy who sings coloratura, a simple country bumpkin named Bottom whose head is turned into an ass' head by Puck, and romantic subplots. It is humorous and lyrical and a treat for the musical ear.

Throughout the opera, one is entranced by the many layers of not only plots, but musical activity. While one is amused by the fairy world, which is announced with harps, keyboards and percussion for atmosphere, the rustics being accompanied by a comical trombone, one is taken aback at the mechanicals, illustrated with brass and woodwinds, the regal court of Theseus which is announced with horns, then swooning with a love story accompanied by strings and wind instruments and flute music accompanying a man by the same name (Britten 1990).

Britten starts the opera in what was the second act of Shakespeare's play, but refers to what happened, so the audience does not feel anything is missing. The rustic folk, the fairies and the lovers are first presented in the woods around Athens and from there on the action never stops. The lead role of Oberon is sung by a countertenor, which is very rare, as leads are usually sung by tenors or basses. As the fairies appear, the well-known song, "Over hill, over dale" is heard, sung by Tytania's young boys' fairy choir. The strange relationship of Tytania and Bottom is the central romantic story that Britten chose to make the centerpiece of the opera. The dominating female fairy has a very difficult role to play, as she is attracted to Bottom, but is subject to Oberon and his accomplice, Puck, who make her life very difficult and her music hard to sing.

Oberon and Puck put the juice of an herb on her eyes that "will make or man or woman madly dote upon the next live creature that it sees. Be it on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull, on meddling monkey, or on busy ape" (Britten 2007). And this is the beginning of the mischief portrayed in the opera (Karadar 1). Needless to say, when Tytania awakes, she sees the rustic Bottom first, who has been given an ass' head, and falls madly in love with him, to his already aggravated consternation.

Throughout the play, the gods, demi-gods, and Greek heroes such as Helena and Demetrius, play and chase each other. Lysander, Helena, Hermia and Demetrius have received the juice on their eyelids while asleep, which makes them fall in love with the wrong person. And the last act is the most important, of course, where all of the intrigues are sorted out. Oberon takes the spell off of Tytania.… [read more]

Amadeus Mozart Term Paper

… Mozart

In 1786, the neoclassical characteristics of balance, discipline, restraint, unity and order were being replaced by the newer concepts of nature and the individuality of man, who took the form of the romantic hero appearing at the end of the 1700s. With revolutions about to begin, fueled by Rousseau, Montesquieu and Locke's writings about the rule of and by the people and about overthrowing monarchies, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, as a personality and as a composer, appeared in contrast to the rigid tradition previous to this era.

For example, in his masterpiece, "The Marriage of Figaro," Mozart brings the conflicts of his age into the musical arena as an opera. Figaro was created as an opera buffa, a comic opera popular during this time, a short, humorous entertainment inserted between acts of serious plays or operas. Stock players in these short operas were the clever servant, the miser and the fool. In "The Marriage of Figaro," Mozart used these stock players to pointedly attack the decadence of the aristocracy, usually successful in banning any comment on their extravagances. However, "The Marriage of Figaro" was so popular throughout Europe, that they could not squelch this searing critique.

Napoleon had called the…… [read more]

Fannie Brice Term Paper

… ¶ … Life of comedienne Fanny Brice [...] her life and career. Barbra Streisand made Fanny Brice's life on stage famous in the film Funny Girl. Brice was a legendary performer in the 1920s and 30s, and performed on Broadway, in burlesque, and in the famous Ziegfeld Follies. She was one of the first successful Jewish comediennes, and she worked in the business for over forty years. People still remember Brice today for her wit and her outrageous characters. Her success is still a model of learning to change with the entertainment business as it changes through time.

Fanny Brice was born in New York City in 1891. Her parents were immigrants who owned saloons, and her real name was Fania Borach. She began performing early in her life, and aspired to be a serious actress, but her Semitic looks always forced her into character parts. In fact, while she often sang humorous songs with a Yiddish accent, in reality she did not even speak Yiddish (Editors, 2006). She was also tall and skinny, which made her stand out from most of the chorus girls of the time, who were more statuesque (Sorel, 1986, p. 81). In 1906, she won an amateur night contest at a famous vaudeville theater at the age of fourteen, and her career in the theater got its start. She dropped out of school after the eighth grade to concentrate on her career.

She worked as a chorus girl and in several productions throughout burlesque, and changed her name to Brice. Her first memorable role came in 1909 when she starred in "The College Girls" and sang a song by Irving Berlin called "Sadie Salome, Go Home," while parodying a famous dance from a Strauss opera. She sang the song in a Yiddish accent because that is how Berlin sang the song when he taught it to her, and her career as a Jewish comedienne was born. The number was a big hit in the show, and Brice learned how to make the audience laugh. She would capitalize on that for the rest of her life (Grossman, 1991, p. 27-28). Her biographer, Barbara Grossman continues, "Nevertheless, 'Sadie Salome' was more important in the long run. With Sadie, Brice created the first of her many memorable characters and discovered the performance style that would eventually become her signature, a style based on parody, dialect, and physical humor" (Grossman, 1991, p. 32). Florence Ziegfeld heard her performance, and hired her to work in his famous Ziegfield Follies, where she worked in the 1910s through the 1930s. Another writer states, "In 1910, she appeared in the Ziegfeld Follies and spent more than a decade in each of the annual Follies, which she supplemented with vaudeville and other work. Hers was a face that could traverse the range of emotions that vaudeville audiences found so enticing" (Epstein, 2001, p. 48). Fanny found a method of performing that worked for her and pleased her audiences. Whenever she deviated from that method,… [read more]

Balanchine to Petipa George Term Paper

… His themes would be very simple and easy to comprehend, and these he would combine well with the modern music of his time, and each of his ballet performances would be unique and known for their innovation and originality and… [read more]

Brodie the Broadsword Term Paper

… Brodie the Broadsword' is a play written by Alan Richardson, who is well-known for his numerous publications on various topics related to gender issues and issues of race, colonialism, and topics related to children. (Alan Richardson) Alan Richardson was born… [read more]

Farewell My Concubine Kaige Chen Term Paper

… Duan Xialou supports the modernization of the opera, to Dieyi's dismay. When Dieyi becomes a teacher of young students, Duan accuses his old-school methods as being no longer efficacious in the new society. "Go with the times!" he cries out to Dieyi.

On the eve of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966, which was designed to "reconstruct people's mind," fire becomes a key symbol for transformation, destruction, and change. Dieyi burns the costumes he despises, as Duan and Juxian burn jade relics of the old society. Later he, Duan Xialou, and Juxian are ridiculed in public in front of a great bonfire, their lives at stake. Figures like Na Kun slander and rat out Dieyi, calling the three of them "reactionary" and "anti-party." Like the opera "Farewell My Concubine," the King, played by Duan Xialou, is being defeated by the Han invaders, played by the Communists. In spite of his being "bold and resourceful," he cannot escape his fate.

Farewell my Concubine ends and begins in 1977, ten years after the Cultural Revolution. Dieyi and Duan Xialou are reunited after more than a decade of being apart and are set to perform "Farewell My Concubine" in front of an unseen audience. As his final moment of retribution, Dieyi kills himself on the sword that the pair had been performing with since their early days in the Beijing Opera. Now all of the events of the classical Chinese opera have came to pass, as Duan screams his final farewell to Concubines Yu and Dieyi.

The film captures decades of cultural, political, and social turmoil in China and juxtaposes several layers of characters in play-within-a-play format. The Cultural Revolution eliminated the appearance of the old social stratification, but the lives of actors and prostitutes remain substandard. When Duan, Dieyi, and Juxian stand before their communist accusers, all three of them are ridiculed for being low life actors and prostitutes, a bold assessment of the failure of the proletarian revolution to instill social equity on top…… [read more]

Dance Term Paper

… Ideally, after watching such a living performance of innovation, one would take the alien back into a performance-based context, perhaps of the Alvin Ailey Dance theater or a Martha Graham modern dance company, to show that innovation in performance art is possible. The life of the people and the street and traditional and classical forms are in dialogue, rather than two strains of dance existing separately. Again, the main connection between the two forms is that movement creates meaning, both with the music, and adds meaning to the music. Composers create music for specific dance styles, although dancers match their motions, usually, to music in performance. In performance, there is more emphasis on replication and technical prowess, in play emotion and physical spontaneity come to the forefront -- but the two are always in balance, in motion, these elements can never disappear from any form of dance

Are these examples what make dance, then, the visitor would say? Not quite -- next, this alien would be taken to a wedding or another social occasion. There the alien would see people of all ages, some very technically unaccomplished, but all engaging in the social rite of dancing. Again, movement is important -- but the motions are less about proficiency or fun and spontaneity than what they say about an individual's participation in a culture and in a family. When the bride at a wedding dances with her father, it does not matter if the two people are perfect or even enthusiastic dancers, but it does matter that they do dance together -- and the fact that the bridge selects her father to be the first person to be her partner is revelatory about our culture and the institutions of marriage that still often conspire to imply that a girl is 'given away' by her father to a new life when she switches her allegiances from father to husband.

Thus, in dance, motion speaks the meaning -- but that meaning may be conveyed through a technically taught tradition, through emotional and social spontaneity, or through conforming to religious and cultural practices and institutions.

Works Cited

Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry N.…… [read more]

Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment Term Paper

… Women were seen mostly as objects of beauty and desire, or ugly ducklings that could only make people laugh. There were female singers and musicians, but the main purpose of women in the theater was to make people laugh and show a little skin. This also helped give vaudeville a lurid reputation among many Americans (many found it far from the "legitimate" stage) (Bordman 159), and helped lead to its' eventual demise. Vaudeville simply outlasted itself, and failed to grow and change with the times. The material was broad and unsophisticated, and audiences moved on to other forms of entertainment, such as musicals, films, and plays. Vaudeville reached its peak between 1890 and 1910 (Mintz 19), when this form of entertainment was new, unique, and filled with a little mystique. After a while, the same type of entertainment each week grew old and unexciting, and the audiences moved on to other forms of entertainment. Vaudeville filled a void in theatrical entertainment during its' hey day, because few forms of entertainment catered to the working class in America. As motion pictures became more popular, they pushed out vaudeville as America's choice for entertainment. Vaudeville became predictable, while motion pictures were new, exciting, and always different.

In conclusion, vaudeville rose in popularity at a time when Americans had more free time and were looking for new forms of entertainment. It often utilized gross and obvious humor at the expense of an ethnic minority to get people to laugh. It also exploited women as sex objects with little else to recommend them. It began to lose its popularity as motion pictures became more popular, and audiences became more sophisticated.


Bordman, Gerald. American Musical Theatre: A Chronicle. New York: Oxford U.S., 1992.

Mintz, Lawrence E. "Humor and Ethnic Stereotypes in Vaudeville and Burlesque." MELUS 21.4 (1996): 19+.

Musser, C. "Edison Motion Pictures 1890-1900," 1997, p. 329; Niver, K.R. "Early Motion Pictures, 1985; F.Z. Maguire & Co. Catalogue, March 1898, p. 42.

Niver, K.R. "Early Motion Pictures, 1985." Edison Films Catalog, no. 105, July 1901, p. 49; AFI cat.: film beginnings, 1893-1910, 1995.

Early Motion…… [read more]

Drama How Drama Can Capture Term Paper

… However, these staged dramas also incorporate some of the basest emotions, but they use them for motivation rather than education. Thus, the viewer of modern reality television shows may not be learning the moral message people like Shakespeare and Sophocles had in mind when they wrote their own dramas.

One constant in drama throughout the ages is the presence of women in drama, no matter the time or place. There are usually women players in drama, and they serve a variety of functions, from romantic interest to tense advocate to betrayer. Think of almost any great play, and at its center is a woman, either confusing the plot or helping to move it along. Where would Romeo be without his Juliet? Where would Hamlet be without his mother? Where would Anthony be without Cleopatra? Where would The Bachelor be without his Bachelorettes? Where would Punch be without Judy, and Tramp be without Lady? All these dramas have many common themes and elements, but they all have women at the center of the plot, and often they are the center of the dramatic situation, too. Audiences can usually empathize and identify with women, and so, they make the drama softer around the edges, unless they are as shrewish and demanding as Kate in "Taming of the Shrew." In addition, some of the greatest struggles of all time are between men and women, and certainly, modern life often boils down to disagreements and interactions between man and woman. Therefore, women serve a vital purpose in drama. They help the audience empathize with the characters, and they also exist often as a foil or an impediment to the males in the drama, creating real-life man/woman situations the audience can understand and learn from. While there are some plays that do not revolve around tensions and relationships between the sexes, most drama contains opposites, and the male/female relationship is certainly one of the most opposite and confusing in life. From mother and son to father and daughter, these relationships form the core of people's lives, and they usually form the core of the most popular and compelling dramas. Women are an integral part of life, and an integral portion of any truly successful drama.

Throughout history, dramas have been engaging, entertaining, and imminently popular. They show people at their very best, and at their very worst, and they involve the audience because they speak to the problems, concerns, and difficulties of the audience. Of course, not all plays are successful drama, but as one critic noted, "All the instrumentalities of the theater, including an audience, may be necessary to make a play a vital, living thing" (Hartley and Ladu 20). Drama lives, breathes, and grows in the minds of the audience, who take away new ideas and thoughts from great dramatic moments. When an audience walks away from the theater, or from their television set, they could be walking on air, or sobbing uncontrollably. They could be happier, wiser, or terrified, but they are… [read more]

Serbian Culture Theatre Among Serbs Term Paper

… Even today Popovic's comedies preserve their dramatic vitality and satirical topicality (Library of Serbian Culture, par. 78).

In 1850s and 1860s Laza Kostic (1841-1910) and Djura Jaksic (1832- 1878) gave Serbian Romanticist drama and theatre new poetic expression and a new type of drama hero, characterized by psychological dualism. The stagings of Kostic's tragedies Maksim Crnojevic (1869), in which the worlds of Serbian national epics and Shakespeare's tragedy were interwoven, and Pera Segedinac (1882), in which a tragedy from the history of Serbian people was interconnected with the burning problems of Kostic's time, were theatre landmarks (Library of Serbian Culture, par. 17).

At the end of the nineteenth century, the influence of French theatre strengthened. Before the World War I, this was the influence of Comedie-Francaise and Paris Boulevard theatres, rather than new theatre trends in France. Recent styles of European dramaturgy and theatre (Naturalism, Symbolism, Expressionism) - and not only French - were sensed in Serbian dramaturgy and theatre. Borisav Stankovic introduced new sensitivity and new poetic tones in the Realist approach into the already worn-out genre of popular folk plays "with singing," with his work Kostana (first performed in 1900), which has a cult following among Serbian theatres and audiences (Library of Serbian Culture, par. 86).

Physical Landmarks of Serb Culture

Prince Mihajlo Street in Belgrade with its neighboring blocks has been a subject of architects' interest for almost three centuries. During the Baroque urban renewal of Belgrade, between 1718 and 1739, the present main street of Prince Mihajlo was set up by the Austrians as a monumental architectonic border between German and Serbian towns. In the very proximity of this street, parallel to the watershed, they established the Great Square. On two facing sides of the square they constructed two representative buildings, Alexander's and Mauer's barracks. However, this square did not preserve its function for long. With the return of Turks in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century, the Great Square was reduced to the Little Market. The orthogonal block scheme found itself in the clutches of an uncontrolled building of town sections. The third urban reconstruction of the most significant part of Belgrade, from 1867 to 1887, which was carried out according to the ideas of Emilijan Joksimovic, the first Serbian town-planner, finally strengthened the domination of symmetrical blocks, in the European way. Along with the Great Square, or Little Market, or King's Square, or Student's Square today, Prince Mihajlo Street, backed up against the Belgrade fortress, has been the dominant motif in the vista of the macro-environment of all of Belgrade (Library of Serbian Culture, par. 91).


Sculpture practically did not exist until the middle of the nineteenth century. Before that, it lived in the form of ecclesiastic ornamental and folk plastic art, but not as sculpture in the narrower sense. The reason for its late appearance lies in the fact that the Orthodox church, unlike the Catholic church, was intolerant of it. Thus, it… [read more]

Art Is "The Creation Term Paper

… It cannot be denied that such a production is art. Theatre is art.

The theatre doesn't have to be a musical in order for it to be art. Take Shakespeare, for instance. He was clearly one of the most talented playwrights of all time. His stories were works of genius, and the stage productions of his plays were very popular during the rebirth of the theatre in the Renaissance. Shakespeare took writing to another level with his couplings, monologues, and other literary devices. You cannot say that his writing is art unless you also include the production of these writings on the stage.

Referring back to the original definition of art as something beautiful or thought provoking, theatre is quite decidedly so. Just the mention of a few plays conjures up thoughts, images and memories for many who have witnessed them. But in conclusion, the one undisputed piece of evidence that clearly includes theatre as an art is the fact that the National Endowment for the Arts, which is federally funded by the U.S. Government, provides funding in the form of grants for theatres, and performing arts study programs throughout the U.S.

15 Feb 2002… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Shakespeare and Tennessee Williams Essay

… ¶ … Shakespeare's Hamlet and Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire are both commonly thought of as tragic dramas. Each play is dominated by its protagonist -- the title character in Shakespeare's play, and Blanche du Bois in Williams's play --… [read more]

Common Themes in Tragedy Plays Research Proposal

… Romeo & Juliet vs. Antigone

The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast two major plays from the history of literature. Those two plays are Romeo and Juliet and Antigone. Indeed, they are quite alike in… [read more]

Tis Pity She's a Whore Essay

… 4. Character: How did the playwright draw the characters? Were they three-dimensional? If so, did you find any of them identifiable with your own life and feelings?

The characters are not three-dimensional. They are cardboard beings who are controlled by baser instincts such as love and lust without thinking through their actions. The characters need to tell others of their emotions because they are not visible to the viewer. No one in the real world is as uncomplicated as these people who think only of satisfaction of desires and the need for revenge.

5. Thought: What themes did the play pursue? In what ways did the playwright or production make you aware of the point-of-view being presented?

The play pursues themes of incest, of lust, and of the desire for vengeance and revenge. In the story, everyone is consumed by desire, either sexual desire for a man or woman or for a desire to meet out revenge to someone who has defrauded them through the first form of desire. Hippolita wants revenge against the man who supposedly killed her husband but is more angry at his abandonment. Soranzo wants revenge because his wife has been impregnated by another man. Giovanni wants revenge against the death of his sister even though he's the one who killed her.

6. Language: How did the playwright's language and the actor's speech create meaning for you?

The language choices that Ford uses are very clear. He does not use a lot of imagery or symbolism but instead makes his point quite clear. Some of the language is actually very coarse, particularly for the time period in which the play was written, such as the final line when Anabella is called a whore. It is interesting that she is classified in such a way, but the man who leads her astray is not given such a rude title.

Works Cited:

Ford, John. 'Tis Pity She's a Whore.…… [read more]

Dance Gender and Sexuality Essay

… Ballet and Gender

Girly Boys

For at least the past century and a half, the performance of ballet has also been a performance of gender and sexuality. That this should be true is hardly surprising: Ballet presents dancers in a… [read more]

Royal Tyler the Contrast Term Paper

… Royal Tyler the CONTRAST

Royal Tyler's background makes it possible for individuals to understand that this particular playwright is different from more modern playwrights as a result of his life experience and as a consequence of the eccentric attitudes that he employed throughout his existence. Even from an early age Tyler was recognized for his ability to trigger laughter in his companions, as he was unhesitant about coming up with clever and sarcastic remarks about individuals or concepts that he considered intriguing. Tyler is generally recognized for being one of the most significant individuals in American playwright history because he wrote "the first comedy written by an American to be produced by a professional company" (ROYALL TYLER (1757-1826) and the Contrast).

Tyler was an atypical playwright because he did not perceive writing plays as a form of earning a living and only considered that this practice was a hobby. In spite of his intelect, Tyler influenced many individuals in expressing lack of interest in his personae because he had the tendecy to be too high-spirited. Even with this, he managed to inspire a great deal of people as a result of his inclination to address problems from a head-on perspective.

While Tyler acknowledged that it was very difficult for him to balance his professional life with his focus on writing plays, he focused on performing both practices as much as possible. The fact that he witnessed a great deal of problems with society because of his legal profession made it possible for him to use ideas that he came across as inspiration for his plays. This is why many of his works put across a satirical view of…… [read more]

Accessibility in the Performing Arts Thesis

… Accessibility in the Performing Arts

This study attempts to address the recent decline in arts patronage with an eye towards its underlying factors. While recent research has focused on the mix of economic pressures which have resulted in decreased funding… [read more]

Concert Unlv Wind Orchestra and Chamber Ensemble Term Paper

… Concert UNLV Wind Orchestra and Chamber Ensemble

Conductor(s): Tara Krysa and Rachel Waddell

Cost: $10, $8/senior-military, Free to UNLV Faculty, Staff and UNLV and CCSD students with ID

Mozart, "The Impresario Overture:

Haydn, "La Canterina" with the UNLV Opera Theater Divas

Music - This was a first for me, and wow -- was I surprised. The first work, Mozart's Impresario Overture, was from an opera in which Mozart entered in a musical competition in 1765 when he was only 9 years old. Unbelievable that someone so young could compose such a vibrant, whimsical and rousing piece of music that has stood the test of time. I was also surprised that the entire opera, including the overture, lasts only 30 minutes and has only four vocal numbers. Instead, as was typical of the time, it was "filled" in with spoken dialog or dialog sung as a recitativo. The music was rousing -- almost like something one would wake up to in the morning. You can hear the theme in the woodwind and upper strings; bouncing lively back and forth in conversation. The orchestra was larger than the previous concert I attended; more brass and a larger number of strings, which only increased the vibrancy of this music for me.

The main portion of the program was a concert version of an opera by Josef Haydn. Haydn, it seems, was one of the grand composers of the classical symphony, many people came to study with him, and his attention to form and detail were imitated by a number of composers after his death (Shubert, Schuman, even Brahms and Mahler). Haydn wrote this comic opera in 1877 for Price Esterhazy, one of the patrons of the arts at the time. The title means "The Songstress" or "The Diva," and has only four major roles, 2 tenors and 2 sopranos. Like many comic operas of the time, this one revolves…… [read more]

Leporello Don Giovanni's Servant Term Paper

… Leporello in Don Giovanni

Background- Don Juan, or Don Giovanni in Italian, is a fictional character that begins to appear in poetry and literature in the early 1600s. The legend, though, is both timeless and archetypal. Don Juan is the… [read more]

Keyword in Two Gentlemen of Verona Essay

… ¶ … Gentlemen of Verona

The concept of metamorphosis in the Two Gentlemen of Verona

William Shakespeare's 1590 play The Two Gentlemen of Verona deals with a series of concepts that later came to be characteristic to the playwright and… [read more]

Gilded Age and Two Identifications Essay

… ¶ … Rise of Entertainment during the Gilded Age

The Gilded Age marked a time of industrial revolution, growth, and prosperity. The Gilded Age sprung out of post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction and is defined by the rapid economic and population growth. Marked by the creation of the modern industrial economy, the Gilded Age saw the rapid rise of industrialists such as John D. Rockefeller, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt. It was also during this time that America saw the rise of expositions, amusement parks, and other entertainment outlets.

Expositions of the Gilded Age included the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, the World's Fair (World's Colombian Exposition) held in Chicago, the St. Louis World's Fair, and the Panama Pacific International Exposition. These expositions featured vast exhibition halls and were intended to display the latest technological marvels of the time. Many times, amusement parks were situated on the periphery of these expositions, and utilized new technologies to amuse and entertain the public (an Introduction to American Cultural Expression during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era). Of the first and most memorable amusement parks is Coney Island. Amusement parks encouraged innovations in the entertainment and industrial field and saw the development of rides featuring extreme drops and high speed rides meant to thrill passengers (Rutherford, 2000).

The Gilded Age also saw a rise in live entertainment, specifically in vaudeville. Prior to the Civil War, "American audiences boisterously voiced their approval or disapproval at theatrical performances by screaming, hollering, stomping, throwing vegetables and other missiles, or in certain instances even rushing the stage to attack performers or plead for encores" (About Vaudeville, 1999). Vaudeville grew out of the "culture of incorporation" of post-Civil War America,

and rose to prominence through organizational efforts, savvy business marketing, spending power, and an increase of leisure time among the white-collar worker. Vaudeville combined centuries-old traditions including the English Music hall, minstrel shows of pre-Civil War America, and Yiddish Theatre (About Vaudeville, 1999). Additionally, traveling entertainment became popular during this period. One of the most popular, and most enduring traveling shows was Barnum & Bailey Circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth," which featured both animals and performers (About Vaudeville, 1999).

The Gilded Age also so an increase in popular music as sheet music grew in demand among pianists. One of the venues in which sheet music was used was in traveling minstrel shows. Music was written and sold by both black and white musicians. The influence of black musicians was also heard in a new style of music called ragtime, which rose to prominence in the late 1890s (Ohl, 1996). Ragtime helped to establish a new genre of music which would later develop into jazz.

An increase…… [read more]

Ballet History Thesis

… Ballet History

Ballet is a form of dancing that is performed for audiences in a theater. Just like many other forms of dance, ballet may tell a story, express a mood, or simply be a sign of the music. A… [read more]

El Teatro Olympia in Miami Thesis

… ¶ … Olympia Theater -- or El teatro Olympia, as it's Spanish-inspired architecture and design might lead it to be called -- is a Miami, Florida landmark and a rich emblem of the city's history. It was designed by John Eberson, a master architect when it came to theaters; he was especially known for creating distinct "atmospheres" within his theatres, and the Olympia was no different. Eberson added to the mystique and majesty of the Moorish/Spanish architecture and design work of the building by creating a realistic image of the night sky on the ceiling of the auditorium, creating a full experience for the audience that went beyond simply the entertainment they were witnessing.

Though the Olympia first opened in 1926 as a silent movie theatre, and adapted easily to the "talkies" when they arrived, it also quickly became a popular venue for live performances. In the waning days of Vaudeville, the Olympia…… [read more]

World Heritage Site Report Thesis

… ¶ … Heritage Site Report

The Sydney Opera House: A Monument of Both Architectural and Cultural Grandeur modern architectural wonder, the Sydney Opera House was inaugurated in 1973 and continues to maintain its position as one of Australia's most important cultural and architectural sites. Architectural features of significance include the well-known three shells that interlock on the top of the structure and contain different areas of interest -- including restaurants and a theater -- and the pedestrian platforms that lead to ground level. it's architectural significance results not only from the beauty and uniqueness of its impressive design, but also from the engineering feats that resulted in its construction. Designed by Jorn Utozon, a Danish architect, the opera house is lauded for its glorification of the Sydney harbor as well as its modern technology and feel. Furthermore, the building was constructed with an eye on environmentalism and conservation.

In addition to its innovative structural design, however, the opera house lends additional cultural gems to the city of Sydney. An operational performing arts center, the Sydney Opera House offers a variety of cultural entertainment. In fact, the 2008 season lists performances from modern Rock and Roll wonder Sting to Mozart's classical opera Don Giovanni. Additionally, the area offers a variety of tours, restaurants, and…… [read more]

Tragedy and Comedy Term Paper

… Comedy and Drama

Tragedy and Comedy

Fiction," says Jean Anouilh, gives life its form." Shakespeare derived his Comedy of Errors from Plautus' Menaechmi and many of Shakespeare's dramas are retellings of the ancient fictions of Greek myths, both tragedies and… [read more]

Boston: Paving the Way for the Future Term Paper

… Boston: Paving the Way for the Future

Boston is a city with deeps ties to its historical roots, but one that constantly evolves with the times as it sees fit. It was one of the leading cities to begin the fight for the freedom of the colonies and the abolition of slavery. It is a city that has survived economic decline by transitioning from manufacturing to high technology and defense and, most recently, to healthcare and biotechnology. and, Boston has the educational and cultural foundations to inspire continued evolution for success. For all these reasons, Boston is a great place to live.

Boston was first named Shawmet by the local Algonquin tribes. William Blackstone, an English immigrant, settled in the area in 1629 and invited his friend John Winthrop and his Puritan settlers to join him a year later. Winthrop renamed Shawmut Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England.

Citizenship in Massachusetts was restricted to church members until 1664. Boston became the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a major New England seaport and the largest British settlement on the continent. As a major colonial center, Boston led the way in opening the nation's older school, the Boston Latin School in 1635 and the first post office in 1639 as well as chartering the colonie's first bank in 1674 and the publishing to the nation's first long-running newspaper, the Boston News-Letter in 1704.

Boston was also a pioneer in opposing British rule. Protests over the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767 led to the Boston Massacre in 1770. In 1773, Samuel Adams and supporters participated in the Boston Tea Party to protest the Tea Act of 1773. Later in 1775, the Minutemen fought British troops who were intent on seizing weapons stockpiled in Concord, just west of Boston. With warnings from Paul Revere and William Dawes, the Minutemen were well prepared to win what would become the first battle of the American Revolutionary War.

Following the Revolution, Boston became more ethnically and religiously diverse. Most notably, in the mid-1880s when Boston manufacturing expanded, the city saw an influx of Irish peasants seeking refuge from the potato famines in Ireland who sought work in Boston's factories and on the wharves. Boston was the home of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, founded in 1832 and, by the Civil War, Boston was the center of the Abolitionist Movement and a stop on the Underground Railroad, which aided escaping slaves.

Boston's manufacturing declined during the first decade of the 20th century, but was replaced with the development of service industries, banking and finance, and retailing and wholesaling. As early as the 1950's, Boston was emerging as a leader in the nacent computer and high-tech industries. The city enjoyed success in these industries until the late 1980s when these industries would also begin to falter. Even so, Boston reinvented itself again, this time leading the way in healthcare and biotechnology.

Boston and its surrounding suburbs make it the leading center of… [read more]

Mounting Effort for Educators, Researchers Term Paper

… This is particularly appealing as it encourages mutual professional respect. In addition, it may prove a fertile ground for professional development. As teachers from various backgrounds interact, they will inevitably share their experiences and teaching techniques, strategies, and methodologies with their colleagues. This rich exchange can foster educators to take risks and try new activities and practices in their classrooms. What's more, with a spirit of collaboration, faculty members may experience an increased commitment to their schools, students, and careers. Obviously, this translates into more dynamic and positive classroom atmospheres. Students are likely to indirectly benefit from a more cohesive faculty body.

To summarize, education is increasingly becoming a collective and incorporated experience. Art education, in particular, is enjoying an expanded scope. Science, mathematics, and the performing arts are not only applicable to the art studio but the reverse practice is valid. 'Core' subject teachers are gradually, and many times emphatically, embracing art in their respective classrooms. This curricular overlapping has been stimulated by research. However, it is also a response to budget crises. Regardless of the reasons, an interwoven approach to curriculum provides learners with a more rewarding and enduring educational experience.


Armstrong, Thomas (1996). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Virginia:

Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

Prince, Eileen S. (2002). Art Matters: Strategies, Ideas, and Activities to Strengthen

Learning Across the Curriculum. Chicago: Zephyr Press.

Schubert, Marie B., Melnick, Steven A. (1997). The Arts in Curriculum Integration.

Hilton Head, SC: Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational Research

Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 424151)

Stapleton, Philomena (1999). Schooling Through the…… [read more]

Mozart's Don Giovanni a Group Term Paper

… Meanwhile, "Elvira never lets Don Giovanni out of her sight."

Leporello, attempting to help Giovanni, forcibly takes Masetto and makes him dance without Zerlina. This trickery allows the Don to take Zerlina away and persuades her to join in the "German Dance," which is a lively measure popular among the villagers. "Giovanni dances with Zerlina and drags her into another room while Leporello distracts Masetto,"

but when Zerlina's screams are heard by the partygoers, Masetto, alarmed, hurries to find her. However, when Giovanni reappear he tries to pass Leporello off as the wrongdoer. The masked trio then removes their disguises and makes threats to Don Giovanni. The Don manages to hold them off with his sword, cowardly uses Leporello as a human shield to their attacks, and makes his escape.

Among Mozart's opera's Don Giovanni is truly a unique character. Rather than the deeply distressed lovers that fill many of his other operas, in Don Giovanni the audience is presented an almost demonic hero, who behaves appallingly throughout the entirety of the opera, until he is finally cast down to hell. Despite the observations that much of the play is designed to be comical, the driving energy of it comes through Mozart's musical score, which is powerfully animalistic. In fact, George Bernard Shaw wrote of the score, "The music sounds like ghostly echoes from another world. . . . The roots of my hair stirred; and I recoiled as from the actual presence of Hell."

Additionally, there appear to be two competing pulls throughout the opera: supernaturalism and realism. Yet, though realism is striven for, there is never any depreciation of the musical expression. "So he succeeds in raising everything to an extraordinary level, intensifying every passion to breaking point, even summoning transcendental powers with whom he may well have communicated at this time in many a quiet hour."

It should not be surprising, therefore, that at the time the opera was first performed it seemed destructive and immoral to many who saw it. This feeling is reflected in the dynamics of the composition, which swings between the most extreme limits of expression with virtually no transitions. Still, the fusion that occurs fundamentally surrounds the competing pulls of the characters; they represent different worlds, and the contrasts in the music reflect the contrasts in their natures.

Works Cited:

1. Abert, Hermann. 1976, Mozart's Don Giovanni, Eulernburg Books, London.

2. Lenton Sarah. 2004, Don Giovanni Mozart, London Coliseum, London.

3. Martin, Nicholas Ivor. 1997, The Da Capo Opera Manual, Da Capo Press, New York.

4. Mozart, W.A. 1948, Don Giovanni, G. Schirmer Inc., New York.

Mozart, W.A. 1948, Don Giovanni, G. Schirmer Inc., New York. Page, 7.

Abert, Hermann. 1976, Mozart's Don Giovanni, Eulernburg Books, London. Page, 44.

Abert, 45.

Martin, Nicholas Ivor. 1997, The Da Capo Opera…… [read more]

Paul Taylor Since His First Term Paper

… " (Paul Taylor Dance Company)


Taylor has not been actively dancing for the past two decades but has been deeply involved in the running of his company and encouraging new talent. His main inspiration is still to be found on the streets and in everyday life. His work continues to act as artistic inspiration for many. In 2004 The Taylor Foundation launched a 50 state tour of America in celebration of the company's 50th anniversary. Paul Taylor is the recipient of over forty awards and six Honorary Doctorates. He has also written his autobiography, Private Domain which was published to popular acclaim.


Barnes, Clive. "Exquisitely Taylor-Made." Dance Magazine July 2000: 82. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Barnes, Clive. "Paul Taylor Dance Company." Dance Magazine June 1999: 81. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Cox, Gail. "Open to Joy." Dance Magazine Mar. 1999: 84. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

BIOGRAPHY OF PAUL TAYLOR. John F, Keenedy Centre for the Performing Arts. Febraury7, 2005. entitY_id=3518& source_type=A

Emerson, Isabelle, ed. Twentieth-Century American Music for the Dance: A Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

Greskovic, Robert. "Field of Dreams." Dance Magazine Feb. 1994: 138+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Hardy, Camille. "Quality Comes First in Second Companies." Dance Magazine Nov. 1995: 70+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Jacobs, Laura. "Taylor's Domain." New Criterion May 2001: 47. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Kaufman, S. Paul Taylor's Marvelous Melting Pot. Washington Post. December 18, 2004; Page C01. Accessed February 8, 2005.


Paul Taylor Dance Company. February 9, 2005.


Paul Taylor: PBS. February 9, 2005. .

Reinhart, Charles L. "Paul Taylor 70th A Birthday Remembrance." Dance Magazine July 2000: 40. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Reiter, Susan. "Kate Johnson: All the Right Moves; a Leading Interpreter of Paul Taylor Changes Troupes and Shifts into High Gear." Dance Magazine Mar. 1994: 44+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Samuels, Shayna. "Paul Taylor On-Screen and Onstage." Dance Magazine Mar. 1999: 46. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Sandler, Irving. From the Late 1960s to the Early 1990s. New York: Icon Editions, 1996.

Teck, Katherine. Music for the Dance: Reflections on a Collaborative Art. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Tobias, Anne. "Rachel Berman: Tayor Made." Dance Magazine Mar. 1997: 64+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005

Tomalonis, Alexandra.…… [read more]

Martha Graham Dancing Appears Glamorous Term Paper

… That is the essential -- that the audience should enter in and feel what the dancer is trying to express. (Daily Worker).

Between 1935 and 1945, Graham evolved almost as much as she had during the first decade of her company. Her work contained humor, satire and brilliance along with the seriousness and sobriety of earlier years. She was always surprising her audience by coming up with something new and willing to take risks. Looking back on her previous years, she said, "I'm afraid I used to hit audiences over the head with a sledgehammer because I was so determined that they see and feel what I was trying to do" (Gardner 286).

In 1944, Graham produced one of her best known works, "Appalachian Spring" composed by Aaron Copland. "Appalachian Spring" relates the story of a young married couple who takes possession of their newly built homestead during the American frontier of the early nineteenth century. The source of stability and support in the small community is represented by an older pioneer woman. The focus is directed toward the moods and emotions of the main characters, their strengths, religious spirit, hopes, fears, and expectations for the future in the newly settled land. The work features solitary dances as well as ensemble square dances -- from fun to seriousness and back again. Graham appears as many different characters. The play "confirms the central, celebratory role that America plays in Martha Graham's work ....But the power of the work derives equally from its most universal aspects: the feelings surrounding both religious and secular life, homestead and open space, isolation and intimacy..." It was a panorama of life (Gardner 290).

Adds De Mille: "The treatment of the lovers and their taking over of a new house and a new farm is superbly simple and moving" (261)

Putting the art form of dance into words is nearly impossible. It is better to look at the photographs and films of Graham and her dancers to truly understand what they successfully attempted while she was in her prime. Even if she had stopped dancing in the 1940s, she still would have been recognized as one of the greatest American artists.

Artists often exist on a tightrope, notes Gardner in his book about Graham, and this dancer was no different. She had to be fully engaged, continually. To perform was to be alive, to realize her full persona. However, the stress took its toll. Depression, drinking and mood swings in the later years became a part of her daily repertoire. She stopped dancing for a couple of years, then returned when this became unbearable. She continued to dance into her seventies. Because her mind and body remained relatively young, Graham was able to create to her last days.

To me, this acquirement of nervous, physical, and emotional concentration is the one element possessed to the highest degree by the truly great dancers of the world. Its acquirement is the result of discipline, of energy in the deep… [read more]

Eugene O'neill -1953) Term Paper

… But the style in which this element has been used differs dramatically so much so that the two plays appear as if they were written by two different authors.

ALDJN is a beautiful play, which almost every reader can relate.… [read more]

Tennessee Williams Biography Term Paper

… Williams' mother was a controlling woman, like Amanda in the play. Laura, the protagonist's disabled sister, is often compared to Williams' own sister, Rose, for whom he cared for much of her life as an adult. His mother in fact approved a frontal lobotomy on his sister, which was greatly disturbing to the playwright. Despite the wide acclaim of this play, some critics have been negative. One reviewer for example mentions a deficiency in humor (Evans in Devlin 14). However, despite the grimness of the plot, Williams insists that there is a subtle humor that runs along with the plot. The strength of his characters for example precludes humor of the frivolous, slap-stick kind.

Streetcar Named Desire

This play concerns Blanche, a lonely, unhappy and weak woman. Sometimes during the play it becomes possible to think of her as slightly unstable. "Desire" appears to be the operative word in the title. There is much that Blanche desires, but that she just didn't get. This is then all she has left as a buffer between her and total despair. Reviewers are favorably inclined towards the play. Clive Barnes for example mentions the humor of the contrast in pretension between the refined Blanche and the oafish Stan (Falk 61).

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

Williams here attempts to universalize his themes. He attempts to write into his characters recognizable human qualities that all of his audience can identify with (Waters in Devlin 37). A particular issue addressed by reviewers is Brick and homosexuality (Falk 87). Williams' work is of course influenced by the fact of his own homosexuality.


Cash, E.W. "Tennessee Williams." 16 May, 2003.

Evans, J. "The Life and Ideas of Tennessee Williams."

In Conversations with Tennessee Williams edited by Albert J. Devlin, London: University Press of Mississippi, 1985.

Falk, S.L. Tennessee Williams. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985.

Waters, A.B. "Tennessee Williams: Ten Years Later." In Conversations with Tennessee Williams edited by…… [read more]

Serge Diaghilev and the Ballets Term Paper

… Diaghilev's ballets are some of the most important works ever created. Numbering more than 60, the most well-known include Les Sylphides (1909), The Firebird (1910), Le Spectre de la Rose (1911), Petroushka (1911), Afternoon of a Faun (1912), The Rite of Spring (1913), The Song of the Nightingale (1920), Apollo (1928), and Prodigal Son (1929). The life and death of an individual ballet is often as short as that of the phoenix, but many of Diaghilev's ballets are still performed even to this day.

In order to ensure that his tradition would survive him, Diaghilev trained his regisseur Serge Grigoriev to follow in his footsteps. Grigoriev was the rehearsal director for the Ballets Russes and the only one of Diaghilev's colleagues to remain with the company until it was disbanded in 1929, after Diaghilev's death in Venice, Italy. After that Grigoriev's career included many notable productions: he was the producer of the revivals of Fokine ballets for Sadler's Wells Ballet, which later became the Royal Ballet, the rehearsal director of Massine ballets, and he staged ballets for the London Festival Ballet, and La Scala, Milan (Fowler and Atkinson "A Tribute to Serge Grigoriev"). His most famous and influential productions are The Firebird (1954), Les Sylphides (1954), and Petrushka (1954).

After Diaghilev died, creditors claimed the company and its properties and the company members scattered. But the tradition founded by Diaghilev lived on as the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo and the Original Ballet Russe (Souche). These offshoots of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes had an impact that reached all over the world. Anna Pavlova formed her own company and toured all over the world. Fokine went on to work with many companies, such as the American Ballet Theatre. Two former members of the Ballets Russes, Dame Marie Rambert and Dame Ninette de Valois became the founders of British ballet. Balanchine went to work in the United States, and Lifar worked at the Paris Opra and dominated French ballet for many years (Tsiounis).

It's easy to see that through Diaghilev, the influence of Russian ballet continues even today. In 1956, the Russian ballet companies the Bolshoi and Kirov performed in the West for the first time. This paved the way for the defection of such great Soviet dancers as Rudolf Nureyev and Mikhail Baryshnikov, who later became the director of the American Ballet Theatre in New York City from 1980 to 1989 (Tsiounis).

Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes had an incredible impact on the world of ballet thanks to his great ability to bring out the creative gifts of those with whom he worked. If not for Diaghilev, the world might never have realized the genius of such artists as Nijinsky, Balanchine, and Stravinsky and certainly, the world of ballet would be different from what it has become today.

Works Cited

Cochran, Alex. "Serge Pavlovich Diaghilev." An Interdisciplinary Study of St. Petersburg, 1855-1928 22 July 2002's%20Page.

Fowler, Jim and Caz Atkinson. "A Tribute to Serge Diaghilev." De MontFort University 27 October 1997.… [read more]

Why Winston Comes to Love Big Brother Essay

… Winston's arrest and torture change the direction of his quest for truth and resistance to Big Brother. His spirit from the beginning is one that questions and reacts and looks for meaning -- but with the realization that O'Brien is a fraud and that there is no savior (even in the form of a razorblade -- "they would send the razorblade if they could"), his hope and spirit are crushed (Orwell 289). This paper will discuss how Winston is changed in prison from being a resister to being a genuine supporter of Big Brother -- how, in a totalitarian, authoritative system of government, cultivating loyalty is simply a matter of stomping out any trace of one's will that seeks a higher purpose, value, good, or truth, and crushing it into oblivion.

Winston's conversion into a suppliant servant of Big Brother is essentially like a lobotomy -- a part of him is cut out through the torture process -- and what is left is a shell of the former self. But, of course, that is all Big Brother really wants in a citizen -- an empty husk of a person that it can control like a programmed robot. Thus, in this sense, Winston's love for Big Brother is not really a question of sincerity since the mere capability of sincerity has been removed from him through fear and torture: Winston, thanks to O'Brien's beatings and Big Brother's dominance (and his own lack of faith in anything higher), becomes an automaton and simply agrees to do as he is told. He is told to love Big Brother, so he will.

Winston did not know that O'Brien was a part of the Party. He trusted him and threw himself into his arms, caught up in the emotion of the moment, of the transgression -- ready to fight and follow. However, it is here that one might question Winston's sincerity: what motivates him to resist Big Brother and join O'Brien initially? His motives are still vague, though oriented towards truth and justice. They are not grounded, however. Julia is a weak anchor -- which is shown when she later betrays Winston (as he does to her, indicating that neither really had a strong mooring in the first place). Sincerity is, moreover, a weak indicator of moral good: one can…… [read more]

Analyzing the Don Quixote Book Report

… Don Quixote

Miguel de Cervantes' novel, Don Quixote, follows the notion that a common objective of honor is what drives an individual's thoughts and actions, which acquire depth through duty (McGuire, n.d.) Don Quixote's enduring spirit may be evidenced by… [read more]

Charlotte Bronte S Jane Eyre Romance Research Paper

… Jane Eyre

Of Jane's character, one learns in her resistance to Rochester's demands and expectations that she is master of herself -- a quality that does her well throughout the novel. From the beginning, she avoids being crushed by bullies, endures the sorrows of school, and manages to find employment -- all on her own and all because she possesses strength of character and of self-determination. By the time she takes up residence at Rochester's Jane is an educated woman, capable of educating others; she has dignity because she values what is right and conforms her will to right principles; she does not yield to anyone who attempts to impose himself upon her or to cast her and her principles under foot. She is a woman who has transcended her surroundings to reach a higher plane, and from that plane no one -- not even Rochester -- can tear her down.

In terms of Bronte's theme throughout the novel, Jane's resistance to Rochester elaborates on the concept of men and women in society engaging in an inauthentic manner. Jane is for authenticity -- but also for respect, manners, dignity and truthfulness. At the same time, she has a romantic soul and yearns for love (it has been absent much of her life, and aside from a few instances, such as when she befriends Helen Burns and Miss Temple at Lowood), and she is naturally attracted to Rochester, whose masculine, brooding but witty and blunt character prods at something deep within Jane. She is drawn to him just as he is drawn to her, as his dressing up as the gypsy in chapter 19 to probe more deeply into Jane's heart shows.

Jane senses that she is being probed and with the arrival of Lady Ingram, she senses competition -- or at least that Rochester may marry a girl who is beneath him -- and surely beneath her, though their stations in life would not indicate it. Jane is a noble soul, if not of the noble classes -- and this is why Rochester secretly admires her: she is intelligent, sharp, talented (can read, draw, perceive and argue very well -- and, best of all, she shows no real fear of him). Indeed, even if Jane repulses Rochester and resists him, she still calls him "my master" in a way that suggests that Jane is more willing to submit to him than she lets on (Bronte 394).

This implication, which Bronte allows the reader to draw, suggests that one of Bronte's themes is the way in which men and women are to be united. The mysterious and dark secret hinted at in chapter 20 indicates that Rochester is hiding something at his dwellings -- but there is no hint of judgment on Jane's part, only a desire to support her "master," and this after her interaction with Rochester "the gypsy." Jane may resist Rochester, but she is for him -- in the sense that she supports him, serves him, and attempts… [read more]

Angelica Kauffmann Cornelia Presenting Her Children or Mother of the Gracchi Chapter

… Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures or Mother of the Gracchi, 1785

Initial Reaction to the Work

Initial thoughts and/or feelings about the work

This work is subtly colored and deeply filled with felt sentiment. Most neoclassical works are known for their coldness and lack of emotional vitality, but here we have a picture that has a touch of simple humanity. The expression worn by the anonymous matron is probably the picture's most priceless element. She seems to ask if you mean that the pearls are not any better (Abbott, 2013).

Aspect of the work that most interests you

I believe this painting is an elegant and classy one with a very sweet message for all. The painting has a rather simple composition, two columns and four figures. Yet, it seems to contain a whole lot of details. The folds and the ruffles found in the clothes are naturally draped round the figures and the curls, and fluffiness found in the hair of the children almost seems tangible. I'm also thrilled by the color combination of yellows, pinks, a tan grey, oranges, gentle, light, so soft, and sweet. I believe all these work together to pass the artwork's ultimate message to art lovers (Art History & the Art of History, 2014).


Historical context of the period in which the work was written

The Enlightenment can be said to be an association of 18th Europe intellectuals, and with everyone of the then religious unrest its major goal of advancing knowledge by refining science was upheld.

It was quite opposed to intolerant, abusive practices that happened in the state and the church. It had its headquarters in France, and philosophers like John Locke and Pierre Locke set the ball rolling. The political ethics backing it influenced the creation of the American declaration of Independence. Monarchy's divine right reason and democratic values originated from here; this would later result in religious tolerance and capitalism. Natural philosophy and science would always replace religion as the most efficient way to understand nature, with most people subscribing to secular views in the society.

The general public had more access to printed materials: the prices of books fell and were quite cheap, and were mostly sold during fairs. The number of newspapers rose and periodicals got more popular, and so did essay writing. The latest editions of scholar's books had digests and indexes summarize them and make them more popular to a larger audience. The level of education among the public was at its all time high as knowledge had become broader and more accessible, not just for the members of the upper classes anymore. More than 50% of all men were basically educated, which was seen as a very dramatic rise. There were a lot of written sermons, prophecies and religious controversy dissertations circulating everywhere. It was easy for almost everyone to become a published author. The conventionally village lifestyle was replaced by a fenced land enclosure, which made farming unpopular and… [read more]

Frontier Pioneer Genre and Willa Cather Chapter

… ¶ … Wagner Matinee - By: Willa Cather

Willa Cather wrote "A Wagner Matinee" in the pioneer-realist genre, combining depictions of two sides of American society and contrasting them -- the civilized "European" side of American society (Boston in this story) and the pioneer front (Nebraska in this story) and displaying the effects of each on the characters in the story. Cather, here, attempts to accurately and realistically represent two aspects of American life and provoke empathy and sympathy in the reader by depicting the hardships and the sacrifices and the deep passion and love that relate to the difficult choices one must make. For example, Cather describes Georgiana's love for music, which she tells her nephew Clark that he should pray he never has to give up (even though it is a sacrifice that she will make by eloping and moving away from Boston to Nebraska).

The overall theme of this story is the concept that classical music is powerful and has a sustaining character to it: people need it -- Georgiana needs it and her life on the frontier is incomplete and very hard without it. It gives something back to one's humanity, rejuvenates the soul, makes life bearable, and uplifts the spirit. It is the reason Georgiana cries, "I don't want to go, Clark, I don't want to go!" at the end of the story -- she does not want to leave the world of Wagner and return to the stale, tired hardships that await her in Nebraska.

Even though the setting of the story is Boston, the frontier life of Nebraska is described in detail in order to give backstory to Georgiana's character and Clark's assessment of her.

Clark picks Georgiana up from the train station upon her arrival in Boston and takes her to his lodgings where she spends a day resting and recuperating from her long journey. He then arranges for them to attend a symphony performance of selections from the works of Wagner. He regrets doing this because he thinks it may be hard on…… [read more]

Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury S Idea of Censoship and Its Effects Research Paper

… ¶ … Harmful Concept

The Product of Conformity

Censorship as a Tool to Control the Population

Censorship's effect on society

Ray Bradbury's dystopian novel "Fahrenheit 451" provides readers with a view into a future where books are considered illegal and… [read more]

Hawthorne and the Curse of Fate Essay

… ¶ … Ambitious Guest

What do you think Hawthorne is saying about the concept of ambition in this story?

Ambition is not something which is good in and of itself. The ambitious guest is meant to strike the reader as extremely arrogant and focused on the unimportant things of life. While the family is interested in supporting one another in their close-knit little community, the guest only cares about what other people will think of him after he dies. He does not seem to have any particular ambition to improve society or create something like great art, he simply wishes to be famous. Being ambitious is not necessarily bad in and of itself, according to the story. But that ambition must have a purpose. It must be designed to serve a greater good, not simply to have a monument after one is dead.

Q2. What do you think he is saying about fate?

Another foolish aspect of ambition and worrying about one's future death is that no human being can control fate. It may be possible that inadvertently one gains renown after one has died. This is the case with the family, who are famous because of their tragic death and the objects they leave behind when they are fleeing the rockslide. But this is due to fate, not something that they consciously calculate and achieve. Fate, more than the individual's own will, is ultimately more important in one's final destiny. Also, the idea of being famous is not necessarily particularly desirable given that the family becomes famous for dying in a tragic fashion, not necessarily in a way that they could enjoy.

Q3. Are these concepts opposed to each other in this story?

The concepts of fate and ambition are juxtaposed in the story, at least the type of ambition articulated by the guest. The ambitious guest clearly wishes to control his fate, including how he is perceived after he will die. However, Hawthorne's narrative suggests that such control is ultimately impossible. Fate, more so than an individual's will determines fame. In resisting fate, the guest shows hubris, which was considered to be the worst of all flaws: "The secret of the young man's character was a high and abstracted ambition. He could have borne to live an undistinguished life, but not to be forgotten in the grave" (Hawthorne 300). The young man thinks he can control external reality, an idea which is mocked by the rockslide.


Q4, Hawthorne's narrator asks, "What sort of a man is Wakefield?" -- and so will I -- describe his character and cite evidence from the story to back up your claims about him.

Rather than cruel, Wakefield seems more like a passive and timid man who is afraid of life and prefers to watch it going by than participating in it. He is without significant empathy for his wife, however, and makes excuses about why he cannot return. His wife seems to have the greatest insight about his character. "She, without… [read more]

Family Interactions in the Watsons Go to Birmingham 1963 Essay

… ¶ … Watsons Go to Birmingham-1963

The family dynamics of the Watson Family are "weird" as the main character and narrator of the novel says (Curtis 1). At the beginning of the story, the family is huddled up together on the couch trying to stay warm under a blanket. They live in Michigan so it is very cold there and the mother of the family is from Alabama so she hates this weather and says so be shooting evil looks at her husband. The husband/father of Kenny (the narrator) tries not to pay attention to these looks -- but they represent some unpleasant relationship. For example, Kenny tells the reader that "she always blamed him for bringing her all the way from Alabama to Michigan" (Curtis 2). This suggests that there is some bitterness and resentment on the mother's part. This resentment explodes in an outburst when Momma yells at her husband, "Daniel Watson, you are one lying man! Only thing you said that was true was that being in Flint was like living in an igloo" (Curtis 4).

However, when Kenny's brother Byron gets in trouble, it seems to make sense that the family go south to Birmingham where it is warmer and where it is believed that Byron will get in less trouble. Byron is a practical joker who likes to pull pranks on Kenny, who is his little brother, so Kenny is suspicious of Byron's motives, as he has learned to be on his guard. Yet by the end of the story, Kenny has to rely on By in order to understand what happens in the church, when it is blown up. By may like to play tricks on his little brother but it is all in good fun. When it comes to reality and understanding the real world, By wants to help his little brother to see how things really are, to see that racism really exists and that they have to be careful as a result.

The mother and father, however, don't…… [read more]

Analyzing Crime in Literature and Film Essay

… ¶ … totality of the experience of reading and watching these works, and given that crime in some form lies at the heart of each story, what do these works tell us, explicitly or implicitly, about human nature?

"The Great… [read more]

Wonderful Horrible Life of POCAHONTAS1 Term Paper

… Pocohontas


A thorough summary of the event, including the incidents that took place and the key individuals involved

Supposedly the beloved daughter of the Algonquin chief Powhatan, Pocahontas donated knowingly to the early existence of the Jamestown colony and participated in a brief but melodramatic role in English imperial publicity. Her premature death in 1617 cut short her successful mediation among the Powhatan Indians and the settlement. Both before her intervention and long after her demise, Jamestown -- the first lasting English settlement in North America -- was unwarranted, mainly for the reason that of Indian aggression to the colony and its development.

Right after Smith's homecoming to England, Pocahontas vanishes for more than a few years from the historical record. Pocahontas may have married an Indian, restarted her appropriate name of Matoaka and avoided the English, who, up under Sir Thomas Dale, were at battling with the Powhatan (Rountree, 2009). In 1613, in order to force Powhatan's offer, Capt. Samuel enticed Pocahontas to come on board a ship and at that point held her hostage. All through a lengthy imprisonment, she was transformed to Christianity by the Reverend Alexander Whitaker and then they baptized her with the new name of "Rebecca." In 1614, Pocahontas wedded John Rolfe, a projecting colonist and recent widower. Powhatan reluctantly settled to a truce with the society that continued until 1622.

The importance of the event in the larger scope of U.S. history

This event was important because The Virginia Company of London rapidly acknowledged Pocahontas's huge propaganda assessment as an example of Anglo-Indian accord, of missionary achievement among the aboriginals, and of the view that Indians could be convinced to accept English customs. To fascinate new settlers and fresh reserves, the corporation in 1616 transported the Rolfes, their son, named Thomas, and a support of a dozen or so Native Americans to England (POCAHONTAS, 2016). Pocahontas was able to meet numerous of the era's major people, was offered at court, and had her picture decorated. She likewise took ill, perhaps from sicknesses that had no American matching part. However, Pocahontas died in 1617, after boarding ship for to come all the way back to Virginia, and was then buried some place in England. This event was important because with the death of Pocahontas and, not long after, of Powhatan, the delicate peace among settlers and Indians worn. Oddly, the Indians' major complaint was the settlers' voracious demand for land, activated mainly by windfall incomes from the tobacco classes presented by John Rolfe.

How the event changed the daily life of the person from whose perspective you are writing

Pocahontas life changed dramatically because she more than likely saw white men for the first time in May of 1607. This took place right when Englishmen made it to Jamestown. The one she discovered to be most pleasant was Captain John Smith. The first meeting of Pocahontas and John Smith changed the events of her life because today, it is known as a legendary… [read more]

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