"Transportation / Mass Transit" Essays

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Mass Transit Transportation Is Important for Long-Run Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,613 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Mass transit transportation is important for long-run economic growth. For example, in many cities, the economic cost of the commuting time is huge. By lifting this issue, it would bring a significant improvement in the economy's efficiency.

From there, it is apparent that the economic and military power of a nation has been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation.… [read more]

Mass Transit in Atlanta Georgia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Mass Transit in Atlanta, GA

Mass transit in Atlanta, Georgia is not without its limitations; however, on the whole it is convenient, affordable, and progressive, and valuable to the population.

The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority puts out an annual report on metro Atlanta's transportation systems. It is a comprehensive and detailed accounting of the condition of transit in the state… [read more]

Walking City Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,418 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Walking City

This work will discuss the makeup of the Walking City and how the development of modern transportation caused that type of city to disappear and helped created the Industrial City including aspects such as mass transit, urban sprawl, spatial segregation and how the rise of industrialization changed the face of the city forever. Finally, this work will describe… [read more]

Public and Mass Transit Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


The background offered by the DfT and others stress that the HS 2 would be in high demand and would serve areas not currently served, especially with regard to long distance transportation at rapid rates. Though of course this affirmation does not come without controversy, as several community action organizations have openly come out against the HS 2 plan. Yet it is clear that any mass expenditure on infrastructure will obviously garner debate.

Literature Review

The debate over the particular rail line locations seems to be at the root of the controversy as some argue that certain parts of the new line proposed in HS 2 are redundant and will cause harm rather than help the nation. Savin and Wendover HS 2 argue that the benefits to cost ratio provided by the DfT and the organization in charge of planning for HS2 (HS 2 ltd.) overestimated new ridership and therefore skewed the Benefits Cost Ratio and that certain areas of the HS 2 line namely Chiltern routes are redundant and would cause environmental harm and land use harm (2010, p. 2-39). Another organization Bluespace Thinking Ltd. Argues that HS2 will create greater CO2 emissions than expected and reviews economic benefits offered by the DfT (2010). Greengauge21 argues that the existing rail lines need to be analyzed to see what their purpose and use will be after the HS 2 builds are complete (2011). Finally, BetterthanHS2 says that land use issues will be crucial on a social and economic level and have not been addressed by the official reports (Betterthanhs2.org, 2011)Yet, again all of this speculation and debate is answered by HS 2 ltd., and the DfT in several documents with substantial statistical data, including documents addressing the benefits cost ratio, analysis of ridership projections, stress on the increased demand for rapid long distance travel and the many potential social and physical benefits of the HS 2 lines. (DfT, 2009, 2011, 2011) From the collection of documents reviewed for this work the DfT and HS 2 ltd. Are clearly demonstrative of the most thorough as well as foundational infrastructural elements and do seem to be planning for the HS 2 line in a manner that considers both primary and secondary costs and benefits. DfT and HS 2 are set to a very high standard that stresses the need to be accountable and transparent in ways that other organizations are simply not and though each detractor provides compelling and important considerations the HS 2 project is clearly one that should continue to go forward.



This work describes some interesting and valuable findings including the development of HS 2 data both in and outside the official literature. The findings suggest that overall HS 2 and the official line on it is the most thorough and detailed of the materials offered and supports well the HS 2 project plans.


As an important aspect of this work a brief description of the secondary benefits and costs to the environment offered by HS… [read more]

Regulation of Transportation Industries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Regulation of Transportation Industries

Aviation Industry

Aviation industry is large connecting different parts of the world which has been the reason business can be conducted from one place to another within the shortest time possible. It is the airline industry that has enabled globalization to take effect in other industries. The airline industry has enabled people to operate at an international level due to the interconnectivity of the markets which changed the nature of how business is conducted. The rise in the number of travelers across the globe for both business and leisure and the choice of air as the mode of transport saw the industry grow bigger. Different carriers have emerged making the industry one of the most competitive in the transport industry.

The industry has however been affected by various issues including recession in the early 1990's, the economic crisis and to a larger extent terrorism which saw a decrease in the number of travelers across the world. Most airline companies as a result made losses and had to look for alternative ways to restore customer confidence in the use of air transport and improve on profitability. The terrorist attacks which targeted planes shook the industry and as a result certain routes had to be abolished by the carriers as a security measure to ensure safety standards and at the same time they increased security in the industry to gain back the public's confidence. Technology has been used and screening measures for both cargo and passengers have been enhanced which has seen the industry's profitability increase over the years (Department of Homeland Security, 2012).

For many years the industry was regulated and the government closely monitored the industry. It was the duty of the U.S. government to determine the rates and routes which were to be followed by the carriers. The industry was however, deregulated in the year 1978 with the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act. There were several factors that led to the deregulation of the industry; the rise in the fuel price contributed immensely to the government's decision to deregulate the industry. It became very expensive to travel by air which led to fall in businesses and at the same time it became costly to maintain the airlines and remain profitable. The industry was therefore left to be controlled by the market where by the rates were market driven. Several restrictions were lifted and the industry has since become a free market where the rates and the routes are controlled…… [read more]

Death of Public Transportation in L Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Death of Public Transportation in L.A

The Pacific Electric Railway was at its apogee the biggest trolley system in the world, as it served fifty-six cities and an approximate of eight million individuals per year. Most people find it bewildering that it came to an end shortly after it seemed to be the most advanced urban travel structure, especially given… [read more]

American Transportation Policy Robert Jay Dilger Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


American Transportation Policy

Robert Jay Dilger

Transportation is recognized for the indispensable role it has and in hope that it will become more effective, certain people have produced debates regarding whether it is the private sector or the public sector that should be given total authority over the business. Governments were often criticized for intervening in certain industries, given that in most cases they failed to competently manage the segment they were leading. It is difficult to determine whether governments would do a good job at taking care of transportation, since there are numerous variables involved in this matter.

While governments in particular countries have successfully managed to administer fields that are typically run by the private sector, others have failed severely at doing such a thing. For the time being (that is, until a proper model of government leadership will be devised) it is not advisable for the public sector to take on duties managed by the private sector.

Governments have reportedly expressed more interest in particular domains concomitantly to ignoring others. When taking into consideration the fact that the American government has had a tendency to build and improve highways while mass transit was paid little attention to, one is unlikely to support the government in interfering in other domains (Dilger 2). Because of its character, the government is involuntary engaging in performing actions that ignore segments of the public.

Question 2:

The U.S. is presently considered to be world leader because of the positive features it proved to have all across the twentieth century. However, its position is undermined by the slow progress it experienced in the recent years. Civilian air transport has been one of the main topics the transportation system has dealt with in the last period. Mostly because of the 9/11 events, the U.S. government has intervened in this field of transport and has installed a structure meant to facilitate safe travel by plane concomitantly with reducing the risk of terrorist threats. Everything appeared to be going well consequent to the implementation of this system.

Matters are presently different and U.S. air transport has come to be inefficient, as it cannot match air transport controlled by other countries. With the U.S. gradually losing its position as world leader, it seems that all of its problems are emerging, waiting to be discussed.

It is unlikely that the country will be able to restructure its air transport system in the…… [read more]

Transportation Economics Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,460 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Transportation Economics

Despite the fact that NAFTA was passed under the leadership of a Democratic president, it became a contentious issue in the race for the Democratic primary of 2010: Barak Obama said he opposed the basic principles of NAFTA, while Hillary Clinton supported them. NAFTA has been one of the most controversial trade treaties in recent memory, despite the… [read more]

Public Transit Has a Serious Image Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,083 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Public transit has a serious image, what can be done to improve this and attract choice riders a) Extent to which transit suffers from a negative image:

With the constant upsurge in population, roads and highways become more overcrowded, and national resources become more valuable, it will come to be more and more important to realize the overall economic and… [read more]

Effects of the Americans With Disabilities Act in Regards to Transportation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,069 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Transportation and the Effects of the Americans With Disabilities Act

In a society concerned, above all, with inclusiveness, the Americans with Disabilities Act is designed to improve the lives of those with physical or mental impairments. Passed in 1990, the act was intended as yet another step in the fulfillment of the promise of civil rights for all that was… [read more]

Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1976 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,093 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Public Transportation Policy

The United States is considered to be one of the most modern states in the world. It represents a symbol of democracy, technology, and innovation. At the same time however, it has often been envied by more traditional societies and nations with a longer history for its sense of evolution and the rapid growth of the nation,… [read more]

Transit Fleet Safety Identifying Important Components Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Transit Fleet Safety

Identifying Important Components of a Transit Fleet Safety Program

Over the past several decades, transit managers across the country have been able to maintain and manage capital assets worth several hundred billion dollars that provide transportation services to tens of millions of large-city riders and compel several millions of others from turning the highways into the type… [read more]

Air Traffic Thesis

Thesis  |  110 pages (28,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 110


S. And Hong Kong (Brigantic et al., 2009).

However, it can easily be estimated from these above given scenarios that if an influenza pandemic did occur and stay for 12 to 36 months what would be the amount of damage that it would cause in the world (Brigantic et al., 2009).

Continuity of Freight Distribution

It is an established fact… [read more]

Transportation Systems Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (4,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Transportation Systems

These two questions are a written paper 2 pages each or combine them together and 4 pages.

After reading the ?Transit projects a guide for practitioners? chapters 1 -2 provide and explain some general steps that the state of New Jersey, in our discussion post, must have taken in order to obtain an idea of benefits… [read more]

Compare San Diego and Tokyo Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,040 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … urban sociology at academies such as the University of Chicago has focused largely upon such theoretical factors as the development of urban areas, the functioning of human community within cities, the flow of capital in urban economies, and the like. In a recent reader on urban sociology edited by Lin and Mele (2005), for example, the essays are… [read more]

Private Security Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,921 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Private Security After 911

The terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001 forever changed American transportation. As the country reeled from the attacks, plans were quickly made to alter the way the United States would screen airport passengers and their property. With the formation of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), private screeners were removed from all but five commercial airports in… [read more]

International Marketing the Future Automotive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Scott (2002) said, "Americans also seem to want the car that can do it all - a station wagon, sports sedan, minivan, pickup, even convertible all rolled into one." This is what they price they pay for, and in fact it is a very practical, and good choice. This means that manufacturers required their designers to make the most with… [read more]

Rezoning of Hudson Yard Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,840 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Proper development of the MTA rail yards.

More than 10 acres of public open spaces and new parks.

That level of rezoning would take time to adjust to, and had to also be planned around making sure people could get access to the various areas that had been rezoned. Without proper mass transit access, the project could become a colossal… [read more]

NYC and California Post-Ww2 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



California is on the western Pacific Ocean coast of the continental United States. The southern border of the state touches Mexico, and the desert climate of the American southwest. The northern border of California stretches into the rainy redwood forests of the Pacific Northwest, with Oregon to the north. The length of the California coastline was estimated by the U.S. Department of Commerce in 1975 to be roughly 840 miles: by purpose of comparison, the distance from the southernmost to northernmost points on the island of Great Britain (Lands End to John O'Groats) is about 874 miles. In other words, California is almost precisely as long, north to south, as the island of Great Britain. But California (with approx. 164,000 square miles) takes up nearly twice as much space as the island of Great Britain (with approx. 81,000 square miles).

A plane ride from New York City to Los Angeles currently takes about 5 hours and 45 minutes. (Of course, there is a time zone difference of 3 hours between the two, so flying to LA from NYC "lasts" for 2 hours 45 minutes, but flying to NYC from LA "lasts" for 8 hours 45 minutes.) The driving distance is estimated at somewhere between 2400 to 2800 miles: it would take something like 45 hours to drive without stopping.

The growth of Los Angeles is a 20th century phenomenon, according to U.S. Census data. In 1910 it is not even one of the top ten most populous cities in the U.S.A. In 1920, it is the tenth most populous city. In 1930, it has jumped to being the fifth largest city, and remains at fifth in 1940. In 1950 it is America's fourth largest city. In 1960, 1970 and 1980 it stands as the third largest city. Only in 1990 does it come in second place to NYC, where it has remained until the present day. It is no accident that these dates correspond with the rapid growth of Hollywood and the entertainment and mass communication industries in the 20th century. Los Angeles is a particularly good location for outdoor filming, though: it seldom rains (only a few days a year) and by and large the climate is warm, sunny, and pleasant (as Angelenos never stop reminding New Yorkers). It has the benefit of being essentially a desert climate, while still situated on the Pacific ocean which softens the harsher effects of a desert clime: this means that the air remains largely cloudless (although not smogless) while temperatures become chilly at night. Nonetheless, the susceptibility of Los Angeles to wildfires, mudslides and earthquakes indicates that there are some tradeoffs for having nice weather all the time.

But there is more to California than Hollywood: San Diego, the second most populous area in the state, has a large military and defense presence. San Jose and San Francisco are third and fourth in terms of size. San Francisco was a major shipping port throughout the 19th century, and the two… [read more]

Public Budgeting Comparisons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  22 pages (6,131 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


In the FY 2011 it was mentioned that the St. Lawrence Seaway remained open for 99% of the time during the shipping season. Continuous efforts are also being made to ensure that the flow of traffic on the roadways is improved as well. Although decrease in delay was noticed in many areas but these results were not very clear due… [read more]

Colgan Air Flight 3407 Accident Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,090 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Colgan Air Flight 3407 Accident

"These people knew what they were supposed to do, and they did it"

Kathryn O'Leary Higgins (as cited in Buffington, 2009, p. 351).

The Accident

On the night of February 12, 2009, Colgan Air Flight 3407, a 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 scheduled passenger flight, flying from Newark, New Jersey to Buffalo-Niagara… [read more]

Internal Theft Shrinkage at Subways in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Internal Theft Subways

Internal Theft/Shrinkage at Subways in the United States

Description of Internal Theft/Shrinkage at Subways in the U.S.:

Internal theft/shrinkage refers to the incidents of thefts and burglary in the American subways. Among the latest chain of guides prepared by the Justice Department's office of Community Oriented Policing Services unveils the masks from the retail burglary. It is… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Roadway Congestion Pricing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,087 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Public Policy

Variable Pricing as a Means for Controlling Urban Congestion: An Analysis of Data from London, Stockholm, and New York City

The Problem of Congestion

The myriad negative effects of persistent congestion


Fuel waste

Increased transit times

Added costs to goods and services

Why congestion continues despite increased expenditures on highway infrastructure

Traditional mitigation schemes are ineffective

More… [read more]

Electric Hybrid Cars vs. Gas Powered Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,618 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Electronic/Hybrid Cars vs. Gas PCs

One of the most profound social questions of the modern day is the nature of the market addition on fossil fuel usage. Within the global economy the fossil fuel industry, and the worlds dependence on it has driven prices of fuel to enormous levels contributing to a global market situation where a very few hold… [read more]

Engineering Materials: High Strength Steel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A Canadian study found that by using magnesium in the chair design results in a "weight reduction of approximately 475 kilograms per 50-passenger motor coach" (Guerette 2004). Also magnesium chairs can be less expensive to product than the standard steel frame. A cost benefit analysis suggests that using a lighter weight material such as magnesium results in direct savings in… [read more]

Edge Cities by Joel Garreau Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Buses and automobiles were also responsible for the suburban expansion of residential and commercial areas. This led to the development of the commercial shopping malls of different sizes in the suburban locations. Also, metropolitan cities are undergoing the spread of Edge Cities because of continuous sub-urbanization.

Far before the systems of few highways in and around major metropolitan areas, the expansion of non-manufacturing activities in these areas was mainly because of the tall buildings controlling the central business districts and also because of the development of the commercial areas along major access routes. The success of commercial strips led to the opening of the shopping centers to cater to the increasing suburban populations in various malls and regional shopping complexes. The malls and other shopping outlets were also appreciated because of the great distances to the main city due to the limited access highway systems.

The highway systems played an important role in the new location of manufacturing activities, because they could now use highways for transport since such activities had been constrained by their locations due to non-availability of railways, or water transport.

Suburb expansion is the way to utilizing more space for both residence and business in today's fast-paced world.…… [read more]

Americans Are in Love Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In his book, Auto Safety: Assessing America's Performance, John Graham summarizes his assessment of road safety, "the benefits of auto safety regulation are more tangible, compelling, and susceptible to scientific documentation that is the case for many other forms of health, safety, and environmental regulations.

In summation, the love of the automobile, despite its many dangers, is only growing. In a country where every household averages two cars, the availability of personal, motorized vehicle is not a luxury, but rather a necessity. We often take for granted the opportunities afforded by our motorized society. Instead of relying on mass transit, those with automobiles have the luxury and convenience of traveling on their own time, and of their own means.

The dangers of automobile, however, are significant. Pollution and traffic congestion are concerns, but the greatest problems associated with automobiles are their safety, or lack thereof. Car accidents are one of the leading killers in the country each year, accounting for about 40,000 deaths in the year 2001 alone (DriveHomeSafely website). Further exploration of traffic safety in the United States reveals that the primary group responsible for traffic accidents and fatalities (relatively speaking) are teenagers. While the cause of this can somewhat be contributed to drowsiness or lack of sleep, the primary reason why teenagers are so prone to accidents is their lack of experience.

While many efforts have been made to remedy this problem, none have been significantly effective in increasing the safety of teenage drivers. It is my contention that maturity, above all else, is the key to facilitating experience. Teenagers need those years normally reserved for licensing today (ages 15, 16, 17) to practice driving and clock in as many hours as possible on the road. It is only after they gain experience and maturity in age (18) that they should qualify for a license.

Works Cited

Direnfeld, Gary. "Reducing Injury and Death in Teen Drivers. Journal of Trauma

Nursing. Vol. 8. Jan-March. 2001.

Dys, Andrew. "Officials Hope to Curb Accidents by Raising Driving Age."

Herald Online website. 21 January 2002. Accessed 4 August 2003. http://www.ipromiseprogram.com/links/Officials%20hope%20to%20curb%20accidents%20-%20Herald%20-%20SC.htm

Graduated Driver's License." DriveHomeSafe website. Acessed 4 August 2003. www.drivehomesafe.com/teen_driving_sample_graduated_driver_license_california.htm.

Graham, John. Assessing America's Performance. Dover: Auburn House. 1989.

Lechliter, "Raise the Driving Age." Garden City Telegram. 15 May 1998.

Beginning Teenage Drivers." National Transportation Safety Board: Insurance

Institute for Highway Safety, 2000.

Harfst, David and Jerry Marshaw. The Struggle for Auto Safety. Cambridge:

Harvard UP. 1990.

Teens Human Factors…… [read more]

Nation on Wheels: The Automobile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


For example, Foster blames part of the inward movement of people from outdoors to indoors in suburbia on the automobile, citing "As numbers of vehicles rapidly expanded, so did levels of noise and air pollution. Porch sitting simply became less pleasant. For children, playing in the street became for (sic) more dangerous" (Foster 60). While he does acknowledge other factors in this hypothesis, including the television, he fails to recognize many other arguments, including the "porch sitting" of the past, when horse drawn wagons and buggies churned up unending dust on unpaved roads, and children playing in the street faced danger from runaway horses and fast-moving wagons. Therefore, as the book continued, I began to question some of Foster's suppositions along with his proofreading. I also really disliked his basic ignoring of the dangers of the automobile, except for a few paragraphs here and there, until the last chapter of the book that looks forward into auto safety of the future. Driving a car is not simply a joyride, it can be extremely dangerous, and automobiles kill thousands more people than air crashes every year. It seems rather irresponsible of the author to continually show the positive sides of driving, from his analogies on vacations to drive-in movies, while not mentioning the dangers of autos, and how many happy teenagers they kill every year. The subject of drunk driving, another unwelcome addition to our society by the auto is also completely ignored. The author spends more time on the environmental concerns of cars today and in the future than on safety issues, and this seems to be a major oversight on his part.

This lack of some backup in his thinking did not totally take away from the book, and some sections were absolutely delightful. One of my favorites was the author's discussion of automobiles and the freedom they offer to teenagers. Remembering my own first car, and how proud I was to drive it to high school every day brought back many memories of young freedom. I felt like I was the "king of the world" driving my first car, and that nothing bad could ever happen to me. The very American drive-in theatre played heavily in my young driving days, and the section on drive-in movies dredged up many happy memories of summer nights, popcorn, and young love.

The history of Michigan is secondary in this book to the national history of the automobile. While it is clear the auto's production and development created and made Detroit, that is not the author's purpose for writing the book. His purpose is to show how our lives would be drastically different if the car had never developed, or had developed into mass transit and urban transportation only.

The history of Michigan is certainly interwoven with the history of the automobile, but an entire culture and belief system is also interwoven with the auto, and that is more important in this study.

In conclusion, this is a sometimes delightful and sometimes… [read more]

Emergency Planning: Washington Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There is no template, per se, that we can work from.

Another threat in Washington, DC is a transportation strike: Sounds simplistic, but a such a move would cripple the city's economy. Emergency planners have to be ready in case mass transit workers do ever strike and shut down the metro and the buses in Washington.

Just this week, Washington declared a state of emergency for snow. Although Washington is not as affected by weather as other cities - there are not tornados, hurricanes, etc. - snow and ice can still pose serious hazards that emergency planners will have to contend with.

In any emergency, though, urban search and rescue, law enforcement, medical assistance and government will have to operate in completely different contexts. That is why the emergency planners in Washington have come up with several contingency plans for each type of emergency.

Will martial law have to be declared? That is one of the most important questions in emergency management. At what point are our court systems rendered useless by the events around us? As a democracy, this is of course a very dangerous question to ask, but one that must be asked.

At what point are law enforcement and government officials accorded more power because of the emergency situation? Legally, the army cannot be used to police the citizens because of Posse Comitatus, so the burden will fall on the police, both federal and local, and arguably on the National Guard.

A serious emergency might call for activation of the National Guard to enforce peace and continuity of government. But still, the most important step for emergency planners to take is to anticipate every possible emergency. To that end, the DC city government has listed those possibilities: severe weather, urban fires, transportation accidents, special events - demonstrations, urban floods, utility and power failures, hurricanes, radiological and HAZMAT incidents, terrorism, civil disorders, water supply failures, critical resource shortages, explosions, earthquakes and tornadoes.

The challenge for emergency planners is to take that list and develop coherent plans to respond to each disaster, that can be modified as time progresses and as needs merit.

But with the resources of the federal and local government, emergency planning in Washington, DC could…… [read more]

Urbanization of Californian Suburban City Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is amazing that by 1930s, there were literally no medical clinics in the area. Lyle Sadler in his early recollections of Palmdale and Lancaster confirms the lack of medical facilities in this area. He writes, "For many years there were no doctors in Palmdale and a good part of the time none in Lancaster either -- people took care of themselves and each other or went for Mom Everett, a midwife who delivered most of the babies, scarcely ever lost one either. She was a pretty good substitute for a doctor." (See reference 2) Therefore the opening of its first big hospital in 1963 was a grand occasion for people here. Ronald Reagan also visited this city in 1969 when he was the governor of California. By 1970, the population has increased to 40,000 and people began pressurizing the government for official incorporation of the city. Stan Kleiner was the first elected mayor of Lancaster and since then the place has never looked back.

The city is designed keeping in mind the modern needs of Californians and all areas are carefully planned. It is interesting that most of the locations in this city easily lead to the famous Lancaster Boulevard and one is unlikely to get lost in this area. The city has its own theatres, schools, commercial center, and library and in short all modern amenities are available for its close-knit community. We must however not forget that transportation is still a major problem for new visitors because of the fact that there is no proper bus or train service available. Metro link started its operations in Lancaster a few years back but it is still in its infancy and visitors are likely to find commuting a major problem. For a city, which was discovered by a railroad company, it is rather strange that it has no mass transit system. It is important to understand that like other Los Angeles cities, Lancaster also suffers from frequent traffic jams especially during early morning hours. For this reason, people need a well-planned underground train system, which would make commuting easier.

Lancaster is a highly urbanized city and it boasts of a very well educated community. With a land area of close to 229.975 square kilometers, this city is quite self-sufficient as people have easy access to all modern facilities and well-known supermarket chains. Being a modern suburb, it is quite peaceful and serene compared to some old Los Angeles cities. It no longer falls under the political jurisdiction of Los Angeles because it has its own governance rights, which have added to the significance of the place, brining new businesses to this area. Almost all major chains such as Wal-Mart, former K-Mart, Target, Costco, Circuit city etc. have appeared on the landscape of Lancaster within a short period of time.

References…… [read more]

Interdisciplinary Studies Personal Metaphor Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (538 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Each line is necessary to compose Times Square. Without each distinctive line, with its own history, types of people, even types of train cars, Times Square would not exist as such. This is the same when considering converging modes of thought and various fields of study that compose Interdisciplinary Studies. Each field is distinctive, and each field is necessary because without each part, I.S. would not exist as such.

My metaphor helps me understand Interdisciplinary Studies from a broader perspective. The trains of New York City traverse the entire metropolitan area, and even lead to upstate and out of state. All of these trains are present and commuters may connect to them via Times Square. Interdisciplinary Studies may seem confusing, like the NYC MTA subway system, but there are places in the city, such as Times Square, where most, if not all the lines converge in one place and in such a way that many mike think is not possible, yet, there it is, famous and glorious.

Some people may not think there is a rhyme or reason or logic to I.S. People may consider it confusing and cluttered or lacking focus. Yet with the use of this metaphor, visitors to Interdisciplinary Studies, just as visitors of New York City, see the sense it makes once we make it there to experience it for ourselves. We see how all the parts, or all the trains come together to create something new that is not possible without all those brilliant differences and distinctions.… [read more]

Actions &amp Reactions in Extreme Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Their yelling is so loud and goes on for so long that even people with headphones and earbuds on cannot hear the music blasting centimeters away from their eardrums. At one moment during the argument, the driver of the train taps on the brakes abruptly, causing passengers to jerk and shift into each other as well as the items they have with them on the train such as strollers, shopping bags, food, and bicycles.

The arguing commuters slam into each other as a result of the abrupt tap on the brakes, and now because they are already angry, the unexpected and rough physical contact incites rage. A physical altercation erupts on the car, in the express train, full of people, that will not be stopping for tens of blocks, which could be anywhere from two to five minutes. The intoxication man pulls out a large, serrated knife, and the other man pulls out a switchblade. What will I do?

I would be very scared initially because of the intense violence in a confined, yet mobile space, but my survival instinct is very strong, I would stay outwardly calm despite my fear. I believe I would engage in psychological removal to help me stay a little detached and relinquish some of my fear. I would get as far away from them as possible. I would covertly motion to other people to move and to stay calm. I would be prepared to pull the emergency cord on the train if one of the men stabbed the other brutally. I would also engage in mobilization of hope. By now, any undercover or off duty law enforcement officer would reveal him or herself by or before this point. If there were no law enforcement or anyone willing or brave enough to engage the brawl, I would have to wait it out, position myself close to an exit, and flee as soon as the doors opened.… [read more]

Physical Science Andrew Cuomo Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


That is not all. Under his guise, Cuomo intends to further uphold the Environmental Justice Community Impact Grant Program, and he also wants to add more provisions to the New York State Environmental Quality Review Act among which includes more participation from grassroots communities. These communities would also be partnered up with the Department of Environmental Conservation in helping to keep townships clean and pollutant free. Governor Cuomo also believes in automobiles and mass transit systems that are environmentally conservative, and promotes the installation of high-speed railway systems, alternative types of fuel, hybrid vehicles and buses, and bicycle lanes.

It is clear to see that Gov. Andrew Cuomo sees a New York State, and hopefully the entire United States, as a 21st century nation with a green future. There are currently two issues within New York State that Cuomo is tackling that could have larger implications throughout the country. One is preventing the drilling for natural gas under NYC's water supply, which could poison it for over 8 million New Yorkers (Cohen, 2011). Drilling is typically not environmentally safe, and Cuomo wants that to change now with the Marcellus Shale. The other issue stems from concerns over the Indian Point nuclear power plant just north of NYC (WCBS, 2011). Since the Japanese earthquakes and tsunami damaging a nuclear reactor, there is a major concern over whether something like that could happen in the U.S. particularly at Indian Point. With someone like Cuomo as NY state governor, hopefully something like that can be prevented.

Works Cited:

Cleaner Greener N.Y. "Andrew Cuomo." http://www.andrewcuomo.com/greenNY

Cohen, Steven. "Andrew Cuomo's Visionary Energy Policy." http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steven-cohen/andrew-cuomos-visionary-e_b_672524.html Huffington Post 2011.

Miller, Ashley S. "Governor-Elect Andrew Cuomo Outlines Environmental Agenda for New York." http://blog.sprlaw.com/2010/11/governor-elect-andrew-cuomo-outlines-environmental-agenda-for-new-york / Sive, Paget, and Riesel, P.C. 2009-2011.

WCBS 880/AP. "NY State to Discuss Indian Point with Nuclear Agency." http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2011/03/19/ny-state-to-talk-indian-point-with-nuclear-agency / CBS Radio Inc. 2011.… [read more]

Challenges in a Hybridized World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,118 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 16


¶ … Hybridized World

Annotated Bibliography

Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits, Oil Pricing, Nitrogen Tire Inflation (2007) CarBuyingTips.com Online available at http://www.carbuyingtips.com/hybrid-cars.htm

This report explains precisely what a hybrid vehicle actually is and explains the different modes of operation of a hybrid vehicle, of which there are five. The hybrid… [read more]

Immigrants to Obtain a Driving Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Allowing illegal immigrants to obtain driving licenses provides record keeping information, the opportunity for car sales and related sales, insurance attainment and other things that are otherwise not something that can be done. There are no down sides to allowing illegal immigrants to obtain driving licenses. There are only positive things that can come from it. If illegal immigrants are allowed to get driving licenses the roads will be safer because they have to pass a test of ability, in many states they will have to maintain car insurance and they will be one step closer to becoming legal here which is the goal of the opposition to begin with.


IMMIGRATION CORNER; Gov. vetoes bill allowing driver's licenses for illegals

Filipino Reporter; 10/7/2004; Gurfinkel, Michael J.

Filipino Reporter


Analysis: Issue of granting driver's licenses to undocumented aliens remains a hot issue around the nation

All Things Considered (NPR); 12/10/2004; MICHELE NORRIS

All Things Considered (NPR)


Immigration Reform Is A Worthy Issue For Bush's 'Boldness'

Roll Call; 12/13/2004; Morton M. Kondracke

Roll Call


Immigration reform to top Congress agenda

Agence France Presse English; 12/9/2004

Agence France Presse English


Firestone, David. 2001. Some States Move to Issue…… [read more]

Technology, Transportation, and Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


All of the transportation methods consume fossil fuels, each linked directly to oil. The price of oil fluctuates, with oil prices capable of affecting all other areas of the economy. A rise in oil prices means businesses raise their prices to absorb the increased price of transporting their goods. This in turn means a higher price for the consumer. Transportation… [read more]

Group Has Chosen: Lil Wald Island Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (915 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Group has chosen:

Lil Wald Island -- " Henry House (Population 13, 069) FOUNDED IN 1893, OLDEST SETTLEMENT. 4-YEAR COLLAGE. 2.50% LIVES IN POVERTY. 7.8% IS 65+ MEDIAN AGE IS 28.

Sister City -- " Canyon, Texas (Population 13,303).


Canyon Texas has a rich transit system with private SUVs (starting from $79), buses, the Citibus, a Transit System, and the Greyhound bus line (Canyon Public transportation http://www.yellowpages.com/canyon-tx/public-transportation).

The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) is also in charge of ensuring that all services and roads are working effectively and are safe. They also make sure that every mile of highway and road is kept in good repair. Their research, development, and technology transfer goes to keeping Canyon (one region in Texas) in modern conditions (Texas Transportation Industry).

The Top 5 Local and Suburban Transit near Canyon, Texas are:

Canyon Transit

Panhandle Transit

Texas State

Caprock Transport Inc.

5. Beaver Express (Manta http://www.manta.com/c/mmgsmwk/canyon-transit)

Canyon too has an airport (the Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport) which is within 30 miles of the city center. Road conditions are smooth to the extent that the average one way commutes to and from city center is 22 minutes. The city does not have an Amtrak train. 11.4% of its citizen's carpool compared to 15.4% in Texas as a whole. 0.3% of the workers in Canyon take public transportation compared to 0.4% in Texas as a whole. 4.0% walk to work (double the amount of workers who do so within Texas in general).

Put another way, the statistics also show that average travel time to work in Canyon is 15.4% less than the Texas average and 15.4% less than the National average. The number of people who take public transportation in Canyon is 34.3% less than the Texas average and 85.4% less than the National average. The number of people who carpool to work in Canyon is 25.6% less than the Texas average and 10.1% less than the National average. (Area Vibes. Canyon transportation information. )

Modes of transportation: 80% of the citizen's drive; 11% carpool; 4% walk or bicycle; and 3% travel by other routes. (ibid.)

Communication and Recreation,

There are lake parks. The city too has a community resource and recreation center. There are various parks and lakes.

Canyon's Park and Recreation Department is constantly busy with designing new program that would provide recreation for the entire family.

Recreation facilities include:

Swimming pools

9 softball / baseball field

30 acre soccer complex

6 acre lake

Rental facilities for boats (all kinds). (Canyon Texas)


Canyon cost of living index





Cost of living index



Goods & Services index



Groceries index



Health care index



Housing index


Transportation index

99…… [read more]

Transportation of Hazardous Chemicals Institution of Learning Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,997 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Transportation of Hazardous Chemicals

Institution of Learning

Course Code / Title

Hazardous chemicals can be defined as any chemical that causes health or physical effects when exposed to humans. Due to the negative effects of these chemicals on man, these chemicals should be transported safely to minimize their contact with humans (Office of Technology Assessment, n.d). There are several methods… [read more]

Stimulus Plan's Affect on Transportation Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,047 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Transportation Infrastructure Implications of the Federal Stimulus Plan

The White House's economic stimulus plan has potentially far-reaching implications for all Americans. The plan has set up a means for local and region governments to request funds for transportation infrastructure projects. Part of the plan also includes an innovation investment, where firms and individuals are encouraged to develop new technologies and… [read more]

1920s Transportation Changes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (972 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


However, probably the biggest change in the cities was traffic congestion. Author Sandler continues, "Combined with the trolleys that still moved along in great numbers over city streets, these vehicles created horrendous congestion" (Sandler 34). Many cities and communities still struggle with that congestion today. They also contributed greatly to the growing problem of air pollution in American cities.

Another surprising thing they accomplished was making people safer. Most people might not think about it, but fire departments and police departments used trucks and cars to respond quicker to emergencies, so people's safety actually improved in the 1920s as more departments acquired automobiles and used them effectively. People's insurance costs often went down as a result of their greater public safety.

Automaking became the nation's biggest employer by this time, too. Sandler states, "By the late 1920s- with more than 23 million cars on American roads and with about 85% of the world's motor vehicles being built in the United States-automaking became the nation's largest industry" (Sandler 35). This was a brand new industry, so it brought great change throughout the country, creating thousands of jobs and mushrooming into the giant car corporations of today.

All of this new technology created a new sense of freedom and movement that was hard to resist. All sorts of businesses sprang up as roads crisscrossed the country. Motor hotels sprang up along the highways, food stands and restaurants put down roots, and people began to take family vacations across the country because they could find a place to stay and a place to feed the kids while they were on the road. It made the country seem much "smaller," because it was easier to travel and it gave American families the ability to travel widely and discover the freedom of the open road.

In conclusion, the 1920s were a time of great social and cultural change in America. The lure of the automobile really grew in the 1920s. It changed everything from rural education to public safety, and it gave people a new sense of freedom and openness in their lives. They could travel greater distances, they could live in more desirable areas, and they just enjoyed a richer lifestyle with the automobile. Of course, there were some undesirable characteristics, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, and of course, the growing number of auto accidents and deaths associated with them. For the most part, however, the automobile had a very positive effect on society, and that relationship continues today.


Drowne, Kathleen Morgan and Huber, Patrick The 1920's. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.

Editors. "1920s Automobiles." 1920-30.com. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.


Editors. "America on the Move." Smithsonian Institution.edu. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.


Sandler, Martin W. Driving around the U.S.A.: Automobiles in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.… [read more]

Bombardier Transportation Switzerland Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Bombardier Transportation Switzerland

History of Bombardier Inc.

According to its website, Bombardier, Inc. is a Canadian-based global transportation company, mainly focused on airplanes and rail transportation. Bombardier, in contrast to its current speedy, dynamic, and high-flying image did not begin as a rail and plane production facility. Instead, according to the "About us: History" section of its website, it began with a humble snowmobile: "Born in 1907, Joseph-Armand Bombardier builds his first "snow vehicle" at the ripe age of 15. His motivation? To help people travel across the snow-covered roads of rural Quebec in Canada. In 1937, J.-Armand achieves his first major commercial success with the launch of the seven-passenger B7 snowmobile" ("History: 1930s," Bombardier, 2009).

Until the 1970s, the company named after its founder, Bombardier, emphasized its innovative snow transportation product, but then the oil crisis forced it to diversify because of the high cost of fuel and the new demand for greener, more efficient mass transportation. Soon, it secured first contract to design Montreal's subway system ("History: 1970s," Bombardier, 2009). The 1980s saw further encroachments by the company into the airplane and rail market. The company today proudly identifies itself as a 'world class,' or luxury brand name in commercial and business jets, as well as a provider of the most technically advanced rail transportation equipment, systems and services. The company's main branch remains headquartered in Montreal but has divisions worldwide, including Switzerland.

History of Bombardier Transportation

In 2001, Bombardier relocated its rail transportation operations from Montreal, Canada, to Berlin, Germany. This was in response to the demand in Europe for extensive, fast rail networks. The rail division of Bombardier, Inc. is known as Bombardier Transportation and has a presence in more than 35 countries. It identifies itself as the world's rail equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. It offers "ingenious" rail solutions, according to the company's website, to both private and public enterprises ("About us: History," Bombardier, 2009).

Overview of Bombardier Transportation Switzerland

Switzerland is a small but centrally located nation. This makes it a vital hub of rail transport, as well as a popular destination for skiers. It also is a very diverse nation, despite its small size, encompassing individuals of French, German, and even Italian origins. The company has stations in Villeneuve, Winterthur, and of course Zurich ("Switzerland," Bombardier, 2009).

External analysis

What current PESTEL issues impact Bombardier Transportation?

Political: The emphasis on 'going green' has created a new interest in mass transportation.

Economic: the credit crisis has limited both private and public funding for transportation and major structural efforts, although some governments may invest in infrastructure as a method of job-creation and economic stimulus (following the lead of the United States).But Switzerland has been specifically affected in a negative fashion because of increased scrutiny about its highly secretive banking system. This could reduce interest in investing in the nation, although not necessarily throughout Europe, and the company's Swiss branch could still benefit from overall increases in profits.

Socio-Cultural: While public transportation is looked upon favorable,… [read more]

NY Railroads Improve Transportation? The Varied Communities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … NY railroads improve transportation?

The varied communities that existed in the state of New York demonstrated a frontier existence, excluding the states largest city, New York itself. The economic growth the entire state experienced as a result of railroad infrastructure can be seen in the exponential growth of the relatively rural cities in its borders that went from… [read more]

Environmental Regulations in Public Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For a minimum of one of the criteria air pollutants, many urban areas are categorized as 'non-attainment areas'. "In-attainment" refers to those areas that fulfill the standards. The second cluster of pollutants includes hundreds of pollutants and these pollutants are called dangerous air pollutants or air toxics. These pollutants are linked with specific sources and are straight away dangerous to… [read more]

Evolution of Transportation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A traveler could depart New York City in a steamboat, go ashore at Albany to rise up a canal boat, drift to Niagara Falls and there grab a steamboat on the Great Lakes that mixed all the way to Chicago.

An exchange Grand Tour route crossed the Ohio, as well as Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans. Happiness journeys for people by way of wealth and spare time came into fashion (Solomon, 1971).

The Use Of Transportation Technology

To the exact end of greater productivity, capitalism, Protestantism, and industrialism have brought in relation to a division of the rich from all those who are not rich which is considerably sharper and more fashionable than ever in the past.

As this gap has developed into more vigorous, that is, more severely restricted by its purposes, better organized, it has pressed leisure out of the forefront as of a common man's life and twisted it into the negative instead of positive complement of itself. Furthermore, the advantages of this great revolution have been restricted to an elite that accounts for less that 1% of the total population (Beesley and Michael, 1987).


Technology is the livelihood of the economic system, as bureaucracy is its nervous system. Transportation technology, taken to denote organized information and methods, is impartial; that is, it is value-free, and its products can be used for all-purpose good as for all-purpose ill. However, rapid change has now left the majority of the Americans a little out of breath (Beesley and Michael, 1987).

So multifaceted are effects of changing technology that they have passed mankind as troubles rather than as prospects. If men are to make use of technology for the good life, they will have to discover an alternate for time, which in the past allowed the human organism, as well as the community, to fiddle with the pace of history (Beesley and Michael, 1987).


H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.

Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.

William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.

Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department…… [read more]

Intermodal Transportation: Global vs. Domestic Supply Chains Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Global Supply Chains

Dewitt and Clinger (n.d.) express that supply chain management is more complex in the case of international trade, compared to domestic trade. This, according to Yevdokimov (n.d.) is particularly because of the differences that exist between the trade requirements and rules of different destination countries. Moreover, a number of export compliance regulations that are non-existent in the case of domestic trade have to be taken into account in the management of global supply chains. The key ones include FTR (Foreign Trade Regulations), EAR (Export Administration Regulations), and ITARs (International Traffic Arms Regulations). A 2009 report by Thomson Reuters indicates that violation of such export control regulations attracts heavy fines and penalties.

The FTR governs the procedures involved in the reporting of shipments. The FTR regulations provide guidelines on among other things, the reporting of exemptions and the requirements of the Automated Export System (AES) (Weigel & Schwartz, 2009). Further, it provides a substantive definition of export valuation, as well as information on the individual responsibilities of both the exporter and the foreign buyer. For instance, it provides guidelines on the kind of records that ought to be kept; whose responsibility it is to obtain licenses; how export commodities are classified, controlled, and regulated by the regulating agency; who makes entries to the AES, etc. (Weigel & Schwartz, 2009).

The EAR, on the other hand, deals with the statistical reporting of export shipments. It focuses on regulating goods that are not under the coverage of regulatory agencies and those that are of a dual-use nature -- goods that besides their commercial function can also be used in destinations or applications that the U.S. deems "unfit." These include nuclear materials, propulsion systems, marine, sensors and lasers, toxins, and chemicals (MIT, 2014).

The ITAR regulations govern the shipment of arms. They require "exporters to obtain authorization (e.g. licenses) from DDTC for exports of defense articles" (Weigel & Schwartz, 2009, p. 2). Shipments covered under this regulation include military equipment and weaponry. The regulations, however, are not so clear when it comes to companies that deliver munitions to the defense industry. Towards this end, companies within the defense industry are required to review the ITAR regulations before engaging in any kind of exporting or outsourcing procedures.

Originally, tariffs were charged on shipments being transferred to foreign destinations; the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), however, did away with such barriers in trade between the three member countries (the U.S., Mexico, and Canada), making the supply chain easier to manage.


Intermodal transportation is a key development in the transportation industry. It facilitates efficiency and productivity, particularly in freight shipment. Globalization has, however, brought to light a number of key concerns, one of them being that countries have different trade regulations. Challenges are deemed to arise, particularly if the regulations of the exporter's country are in conflict with those of the buyer's.


Dewitt, W. & Clinger, J. (n.d.). Intermodal Freight Transportation. Committee on Intermodal Freight Transport. Retrieved 15th October 2014 from… [read more]

At the Turn Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


For instance, in New York City train stations functioned as public spaces due to the fact that they provided a degree of parity in how people traveled. Other public spaces such as restaurants and cafes truly emerged in the early part of the 20th century in the U.S., which was influenced in this regard by the popularity of cafe culture in Europe. Additionally, the creation of public spaces such as parks and Central Park in particular solidified this concept as one of the ones that is central to modernity and modern urban practices.

New forms of technology helped to influence modern practices, especially those that became pervasive at the turn of the 20th century. Perhaps the most prominent of these was related to the creation of the automobile. Virtually all technology goes through phases in which it is initially considered a luxury before time passes and it becomes more widespread and specialized. This was certainly the case with private motor cars or motor trucks (3) as they were initially known. First they were merely toys for the wealthy which the middle and working classes could only gaze at, later on in the century they were eagerly embraced by these two classes. Most importantly, automobiles and the technology that produced them shaped modernity as they are still in use today.

In summary, the confluence of mass transportation, technology and public spaces altered urban environments at the turn of the 20th century because they paved the way for modern living. Most of the advancements in these areas during this epoch have yet to be surmounted today.


Tarr, Joel. 1971. "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago." American Heritage. 22 (6).

Wharton, Edith. 1905. The House of Mirth. New York: Barnes and Noble Classic.

End Notes

1. Wharton, Edith, The House of Mirth (New York: Barnes and Noble Classic), 57

2. Ibid, 20

3.…… [read more]

Distribution Centers: Relevance of a Good Transportation System Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Wal-Mart, one of the world's largest retailers, has a highly efficient distribution system -- with numerous distribution centers spread across the nation. Currently, Wal-Mart has a total of 158 distribution centers in the U.S., which are fully serviced by the retailer's fleet of trucks (MWPVL, 2014). As a matter of fact, it is the location and management of these distribution centers that is the basis of the retailer's supply network and growth strategy. Given that each distribution center is primed to service a minimum of 75 stores, the efficient transportation system has been at the core of Wal-Mart's distribution network. The strategy the retailer adopts in seeking to maintain and further reinforce an efficient distribution system is simple: a center is first built, after which the company proceeds with the establishment of stores. Trucks, in such an arrangement, do not have to be driven to far off locations to make deliveries. In this case, transportation costs are reduced by the shorter distances which also significantly reduce the lead time. Replenishments can also be done swiftly when shortages occur. The fact that the retailer's highly responsive transportation operations remain the bedrock of its logistics system is indicative of the relevance of a good transportation system.


The most efficient transportation strategy is not only cost effective but also efficient and secure. In the final analysis, a good transportation system and a well-crafted transportation strategy come in handy as an entity seeks to work around congestion and cut costs.


MWPVL. (2014). The Wal-Mart Distribution Center in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.mwpvl.com/html/walmart.html

Wang, B.X. & Adams, T.M. (2010). Warehousing and Distribution Centers. Retrieved from https://ceprofs.civil.tamu.edu/bwang/CVEN672/Warehousing-DC-Chapter-Wang-Adams.pdf… [read more]

September 11th and Transportation Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


R. 3110, 2001). Written hastily in the collective rush to respond to 9/11's devastation, the Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001 failed to unite both Democrats and Republicans on certain critical provisions, including the mandate that all checked baggage be screened for explosive devices within one month of passage. While both American citizens and aviation companies like American Airlines were united in their desire to shore up security within the transportation industry, the fact that this bill was voted down pointed to the growing divide between balancing security and privacy concerns.

Members of both parties within the House of Representatives and the Senate eventually shepherded The Aviation and Transportation Security Act through Congressional passage, as the overwhelming urgency of America's precarious security situation demanded federal action be taken. This new law established the Bush Administration's publically desired Transportation Security Administration (TSA), a new government agency which would "(1) be responsible for day-to-day Federal security screening operations for passenger air transportation and intrastate air transportation (2) develop standards for the hiring and retention of security screening personnel; (3) train and test security screening personnel; and (4) be responsible for hiring and training personnel to provide security screening at all airports in the United States ("Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov.," 2001). With a month's time to haggle over the detailed language of the bill, both houses of Congress were able to reach a consensus, and The Aviation and Transportation Security Act represents a compromised position between imposing massive regulation on the aviation industry and stripping it of the responsibility to screen and secure flights.


H.R. 3110 -- 107th Congress: Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001. (2001). In GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation). Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3110

107th United States Congress, (2001). Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov. 19, 2001: The aviation and transportation security act. Retrieved June 25…… [read more]

Bike Lanes vs. Car Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


" (Transportation Alternatives, 2009)

Bicycling is good for the environment and serves as well as "an active agent of motor-traffic restraint." (Byme, 2010) It is reported in the work of Byme (2010) that Enrique Penalosa, the individual who "instituted bike and pedestrian streets and rapid transit in Bogota when he was mayor" that the lane that wasn't safe for an 8-year-old to ride in could not be considered as a bike lane whatsoever.

III. Bicycle Lane Design and Configuration

Designs such as those by Penalosa are reported to bring about a reduction in traffic congestion, gird the economy, and transform suburban areas into nicer places to reside. Another designer is Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba, a city in Brazil that instituted recent changes in traffic configuration for the city, which is experiencing rapid expansion and growth and seeking urban planning that is low in cost. Although Lerner originally designed a transit system that is bus-based, his concepts could be applied in New York City for its bicycling lane configuration and involves dedicating roads to bicycles akin to train tracks and "tube-shaped stations, where riders prepay for lane access is accomplished quickly such as in a subway transit system. Bike parking design that has been considered for use in New York City is like that created by Penelosa and for the city of Tokyo in a double-deck fashion and one originally used in Williamsburg in a parking area located near the Bedford Avenue L-train station. The parking facility is one that is of a good design holding a great number of bikes. The facility is free and is considered as one that is highly functional and practical reducing bottlenecking due to scattered and disorganized bike parking in the area. (Furness, 2010, paraphrased) Penalosa is stated to have written the following in the work entitled "The Politics of Happiness":

"One common measures of how clean a mountain stream is to look for trout. If you find the trout, the habitat is healthy. It's the same way with children in a city. Children are a kind of indicator species. If we can build a successful city for children, we will have a successful city for all people." (Furness, 2010)

Byme reports that Penalosa held that pedestrian infrastructure that is well planned, functional, useful, and safe "shows respect for human dignity." (2010) This is reported to result in the creation of a "different kind of society." (Byme, 2010)

Summary and Conclusion

Bike lanes do not seem to be a subject in which public interest is waning in New York City but instead bike lanes are at the forefront of discussion and planning for the city that has a critical need to reduce traffic congestions and whose bike rider population appears to have met a 'critical mass' demanding that bike lane planning and construction be in earnest in the busy New York transit system.


Byme, David (2010) Bicycle Diaries. Penguin 29 Sept, 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=5Ar9V-4z9PwC&dq=Bike+lanes+versus+car+lanes+in+New+York+City&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Forester, John (1994) Bicycle Transportation: A Handbook… [read more]

Transportation Security: Transportation Activities Account Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Transportation Security:

Transportation activities account for a significant portion of the country's gross domestic product and more than 10 million jobs. Despite of the critical importance of this trade activity, the global transportation system and industry has continued to be inherently fragile. The global transportation industry is still vulnerable to considerable terrorist activities to extent that many people think that such activities will have destructive and long-lasting impacts on the entire global trade system. The recent terrorist events like the 9/11 attacks have contributed to the recognition of the need to enhance the security of the transportation industry, which has become a critical element of many transportation agencies (Ritter, Barrett & Wilson, 2006). As these events and activities are increasing, enhancing transportation security in a global transportation industry is a national priority.

One of the major goals of the measures towards promoting transportation security is lessening the risk of disruptions of trade in reaction to global security threats. As the world continues to be effectively interdependent and interconnected, security threats through the transportation industry have also become standardized. The maintenance of transportation security has become an important face of the global transportation industry since links to security threats usually span over large distances. Consequently, these threats have become relatively difficult to control because they are organized across several different environments. The enhancement of transportation security not only helps in developing global transportation capabilities but it's also beneficial in dealing with these tactics.

While several portions of the global transportation network have been heavily inspected, various governmental and regulatory policies and initiatives have been implemented. Regardless of these measures, analysts and experts in the transportation industry still concur that this system remains susceptible to significant terrorist events. The vulnerability has in turn increased the need enhancing…… [read more]

Airport Safety Has TSA Gone Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Trust is the very essence of a society which is the reason why open-government laws have significant importance, as they reflect transparency. Due to the secrecy of aviation security authorities, public finds it difficult to believe that these measures are taken in their best interest (Muller and Stewart, 2011).

Along with these social concerns, let's not forget the harmful effects of the scanners used. These scanners are said to have a rate of radiation which can lead to various forms of cancer. Every year, millions of passengers are subjected to this risk; even TSA guards are not safe as they are operators of these machines. And those who disagree of getting essential nude images of their bodies from these scanners have to go through enhanced 'pat-down' which is a sign of dehumanization and privacy violation. In addition to this, the remarks of the TSA security guards as they pat down their passengers during examination, are equally disturbing (Brown, 2011).

In 2004, the average extra waiting time due to TSA procedures was 19.5 minutes per person. That's a total economic loss -- in America -- of $10 billion per year, more than the TSA's entire budget. The increased automobile deaths due to people deciding to drive instead of fly are 500 per year. Both of these numbers are for America only, and by themselves demonstrate that post-9/11 airport security has done more harm than good (Keefer, Loayza, 2008). Statistics are enough to prove that total costs incurred by the new measures taken by TSA are way above the benefits that it has offered. And with passing time, this deficit is going to increase greatly.

Today, general public views current TSA policies as source of liberty loss where airports have turned into jungles where TSA security guards have been given optimum liberty of harassing passengers. Passengers have limited options of denying the search and they are always at the risk of losing their valuables; they cannot make a remark or use clothing which as per TSA regulation is inappropriate. Situation is worse for those who are on no fly list for the reason that they become part of Kafkaesque world. Here, they cannot be heard or seen; therefore they cannot complain to anybody and defend themselves.

Over all, it has been a general public opinion that strategies adopted by TSA have been doing more harm than good. Increased fear in public is making citizens mistrust the institutions as well as aviation service providers. Besides that, the effect of this increased fear is physical as well emotional. Where regular citizens are deprived of their basic rights such as privacy and respect for dignity, and are constantly made to believe that their lives are at the mercy of terrorists, society is scared, not from terrorists but from our protectors.

After nationalization of airport security, the reins have been handed over to Transportation Security Administration. Where it is highly claimed that due to strict policies of TSA and measures taken by its officials, it has… [read more]

Emergency Operations Plan Outline Authority Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


basic resource allocation prioritization schedule

Guidance For All Emergency Responders & Coordinators

i. prioritization codes and schedules

ii. coordinator hierarchies

Plan Development And Maintenance

i. biannual reviews of/updates to EOP

ii. intensive performance reviews/debriefings following events

Functional Appendices


Communications & Warning

i. overview of communications system

ii. public warning procedures and restraints


Emergency Public Information

i. importance of open and early communication

ii. need to refrain from creating panic; danger of misinformation



i. emergency evacuation routes and external meeting places

ii. reciprocal agreements with nearby communities


Fire & Rescue

i. list of departments, locations, and specific regions of responsibility

ii. coordination of all rescue operations via centralized authority


Health & Medical

i. list of medical facilities with capabilities

ii. prioritized plan of patient dispersal


Law Enforcement

i. list of precincts and specific areas of responsibility

ii. prioritized secured area directives


Reception & Mass Care

i. list of facilities for improvised care settings

ii. individualized plans for facility adjustment


Public Works

i. shut-off and rerouting procedures outlined

ii. emergency assessment procedures and prioritization

Transportation & Resources

i. plan for cessation of public transportation during/following event

ii. reorganization/prioritization plan for transportation redeployment… [read more]

Consumption and Mass Media Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,145 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Q4. What is the hidden text? What is unstated or implied in the message?

Drive this car and people will think you are 'hip' and cool for driving a BMW sports car.

Q5. What values are expressed?

The values of driving a powerful car; the values of having a car designed to impress; the values of driving in a (slightly) dangerous fashion.

Q6. What groups of people are empowered in this message? What groups are disempowered? How so?

People who place a high premium upon the type of car they drive and the importance of driving a fast sports car are empowered by this message. Because of ads like this, when someone pulls into a parking lot driving a sports car, people are more likely to be impressed because ads like this underline the fact that driving a flashy vehicle makes someone 'cool.' Individuals not able to afford this vehicle are disempowered. People whose lifestyles require that they do not drive sports cars and drive less idealized types of cars (such as moms in minivans, blue collar works in pickup trucks or people who must use public transportation in cities) are disempowered.

Q7. What part of the story is not being told? How and where could you get more information about the untold stories?

The gas mileage, maintenance record, and reliability of the car are all not referenced or discussed. Additionally, there is the fact that although BMW may be a premium brand, it may not even be the fastest and sleekest model of all the vehicles available to high-end purchasers.

Q8. Can these messages affect how you think or feel? Why or why not? Provide examples.

This advertisement provokes two emotions in me. The first is desire -- desire for the speed, power, and driving capability of a fast and impressive car. I can picture myself driving down a highway, running away from my cares -- or my friends being very impressed by my showy car. The advertisement annoys me, given that I cannot afford a BMW (and am therefore not in the target demographic of the advertisement). Ultimately, I do not feel as if I am a lesser person because I do not drive such an expensive sports car.

Q9. Can these messages affect your behavior? Why or why not? Provide two examples.

Yes. A number of my friends have bought cars they clearly cannot afford or are unsuitable for their needs based upon name brand. They did this to impress others, particularly people of the opposite sex. I have also seen people tailgate expensive cars on the highway because of obvious class resentment.

Q10. Can the messages affect the cultural values in society in general? Why or why not? Provide two examples.

America places a strong premium upon objects in terms of communicating social status because of the high level of social mobility that is assumed to exist in American society -- early on in life, children are judged by their peers based upon the cost of… [read more]

LA Pollution Transportation and Sustainability Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


For instance, a hybrid car is 25-35% more efficient than a car that runs on fossil fuel. Hence, we believe if we were able to increase the utilization of green technology such as hybrid and electric powered vehicles, we could effectively reduce carbon emission, even with the same volume of traffic. We researched the feasibility of green technology in the following type of transportation:

Using hybrid technology to modernize bus fleet

Phasing into the era of hybrid/electrical cars

To compare conventional vehicles with hybrid and electrical cars, we must first understand how each engine operates. Conventional engines rely on the combustion of gasoline to provide energy to propel the car forward. However the transfer of energy is extremely inefficient in conventional engines. A gallon of gasoline contains about 115,000 British Thermal Units (Btu) worth of energy. One Btu contains the energy to raise the temperature of one cubic foot air to 55 degrees F. During the combustion of fuel, most of the energy is actually being converted to heat instead of motion. Even the most efficient gasoline engines available in the market provide only 30-35 efficiency during peak times. In addition, automatic transmissions are another energy consuming component of conventional cars. As a result, conventional cars are not very aerodynamic and their engines are inefficient in utilizing energy stored in fuel.

In comparison, electrical cars use electric motors instead of gasoline engines, which can be 90% more efficient at conserving energy. Electric motors are turned off during when they are idle and don't consume energy. They also use less energy during low speed driving. This means that during rush hour where vehicles need to make frequent stops amidst heavy traffic, electrical motors are much more efficient than gasoline engines. Since electric cars are completely gas-free, the average commute cost is $1.50 per day. Some hybrid vehicles use continuous variable transmission, which is much more efficient than automatic transmission and may even compare to the efficiency of manual transmission.

Despite the potential of electrical vehicles, there are a couple limitations worth mentioning. The typical electric is estimated to cover 100 miles between each charge. However these are estimates based on optimistic conditions and if we include other factors such as air temperature, speed and other electrical devices in the car, the number will likely drop by 20-30%. Although this might still be enough the cover day-to-day commuting basis, it's very inconvenient for drivers who need to commute long distances. Unlike conventional vehicles where you could find gas stations almost every other mile on the freeway, charging stations for electric cars is very limited. Even with recent developments, where some electric cars can be charged using residential 110V outlets, the charging time is as long as 10 hours for normal models and 3.5 hours for the most premium Tesla models. This makes it impractical to recharge on the road. Drivers must spend extra time to calculate the distance to be covered unless they want to be stuck on the road for a… [read more]

Transportation Importance of Transportation Motor Carriers Railroads Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Importance of Transportation

Motor Carriers



Water carriers


Transportation is manner of carrying goods and people from one point to another either over ground, across the water or through the air. It can be by the way of automobiles, trains, ships, boats, ferries, or airplanes (Aboard Transportation, 2006). The current world would most likely be not possible… [read more]

Transportation Improvements Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Transportation Improvements

What were the most important improvements in transportation during the first half of the nineteenth century?

Explain how these changes were important to the growth of the United States both physically and economically.

During the first half of the 19th century, there were dramatic changes that were taking place in a number of different countries around the world. This would have an effect upon transportation, as the technological changes were having an impact upon daily life. The most significant improvements include: the development of railroads, canals and roads. Railroads were a major improvement in transportation, as the steam engine became the first machine that could operate under its own power. This would have an impact upon the way various goods were transported and it allowed for commerce to improve, in many areas that were once considered to be uninhabitable (due to vast distances). Over the course of time, this would contribute to the growth of the United States economically, by allowing key industries to develop in many Northern areas of the country. At the same time, it would help to fuel the continuing westward expansion that was taking place. When you put these two factors together, they are signifying how the railroad would help to support these changes, by providing a way of transporting various goods across vast distances (over short periods of time). ("Transportation in the 19th Century," 2009)

Canals would have an effect upon the U.S., by providing a way that different goods can be transported over distances (that maybe in accessible to roads and rail lines). Through the steamship, commerce increased among a number of different inland areas. The way that this was accomplished was using canals that were interconnected with rivers. This would help to increase trade, by providing businesses with an alternative form of transporting various goods to market (which would increase economic growth). At the same time, it would help to support the westward expansion of the country, by providing a way to go to areas that may not be accessible to railroads (such as: locations west of the Mississippi River). This is important, because it…… [read more]

Transportation Strategic Intermodal Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,890 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Transportation (general)

Strategic Intermodal Transportation

The Last Mile

Port and Terminal Operations

How has the railroad industry changed from its monopoly position in the 19th century due to the Staggers Act?

The construction of an intercontinental railroad is one of the industrial projects that is responsible, to a large extent, for America's greatness today. It allowed goods to be transported… [read more]

Sea Cargo Transportation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Sea Cargo Transportation

Ocean freight companies have been transporting goods across the seas, from continent to continent, as cost effectively as possible for many years. Ocean freight shipping can help a company's bottom line if their product is non-perishable and is not time sensitive. Ocean shipping can be used whether a business is looking to export its goods, or… [read more]

Policy Analysis on the United States Transportation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Privatizing China's Transportation Infrastructure

The 21st century has been called the "Century of Asia" and China is clearly leading the way. Over the past 30 years, China has increasingly shaken off its state-controlled economic model in favor of a free market approach. As a result, China has experienced an unprecedented period of economic growth that has been met… [read more]

Women Friendly Transportation System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Public Transportation for Women

Women Friendly Transportation System

Many cities throughout the world are making efforts to make taxi services more women-friendly. Both men and women utilize taxi services in many large cities, especially in areas they are not familiar with. In a sense, utilizing a taxi service can be scary, because the individual may not be familiar… [read more]

Effects of Aircraft Engine Fuel on Our Ozone Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Aircraft Engine Fuel on our Ozone

This is an examination of the harm the aviation industry has in the context of the earth's natural environment. It explores how aviation fuel affects ozone production based on introducing high levels of CO2, NOx, and Sulfur emissions into the vulnerable stratosphere. It then looks at the harmful chemicals used in airline… [read more]

New Paradigm for Transportation Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,541 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Transportation Paradigm Changes


Changes in technology have led to the need for a new paradigm when it comes to transportation on several levels, and the existing transportation and logistical infrastructure has also been heavily affected by the recent economic turbulence facing the nation and the world (PSBJ 2009). Specifically, fuel costs, reduced demand of many goods and products, and… [read more]

Transportation Benefits of Increasing Parking Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3




Every trip that is taken by car requires parking at its destination. This makes parking facilities a very important component of the roadway system. Parking is one of the first things that people must deal with when traveling to a destination. If the parking is convenient and affordable people feel welcome. Parking that is hard to find, inadequate, or is inconvenient and expensive will frustrate users and can contribute to problems in other areas. An inadequate parking supply can create problems for both users and nonusers (4.3 Management of Parking Lots, n.d.).

Parking Management includes a variety of ways to encourage a more efficient use of existing parking facilities, improve the quality of service that is provided to parking facility users and improve parking facility design. Parking management can help to address a wide range of transportation problem along with helping to achieve a variety of transportation, land use development, economic, and environmental objectives (4.3 Management of Parking Lots, n.d.).

Free parking encourages driving and helps to disperse automobile land use patterns. Many parking management strategies will significantly reduce automobile travel. Parking management can help to shift automobile travel to other modes. It will also improve access by creating more clustered multi-land use patterns and provide several types of benefits. These benefits include: efficiency and savings, reduced automobile use, improved design, business impacts, and reduced environmental impacts. On the other side increased management can increase transaction costs and spillover impacts, because parking charges and restrictions in one area may drive motorists to park in other areas where they create congestion problems (4.3 Management of Parking Lots, n.d.).

Some parking management strategies help to provide significant benefits to lower income and transportation needy people. Most strategies help to benefit people who are transportation disadvantaged by helping to create less automobile dependent land use patterns. The pricing of parking can be regressive, but overall equity impacts depend on how revenues are used and the quality of travel choices. If revenues are used to benefit lower-income households and there are good travel alternatives to driving, pricing and taxes can be progressive overall (4.3 Management of Parking Lots, n.d.).

There are many advantages to increasing the parking supply. Increasing the parking supply is often a very well accepted solution that is often supported by existing planning practices. It tends to be very politically popular. Free or lost cost parking helps to minimize transaction costs. Because free parking is usually income tax exempt, it is very financially attractive. It is also considered to be overall fair since the average consumer bears their share of parking facility costs (4.3 Management of Parking Lots, n.d.).

The highest value and most preferred parking in a downtown area is on-street, curb-side parking. This type of parking provides rapid, convenient ways for motorists to quickly dash into an office or shop. It also provides a substantial benefit for pedestrians, because it forms a protective buffering layer between moving traffic and the sidewalk. It also protects pedestrians from the… [read more]

Transportation Security in the United States Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  25 pages (6,826 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Transportation - Security


The Historical Evolution of Contemporary Transportation Security Issues

Airline Hijacking and Attacks on Transportation as Political Terrorism:

The first hijacking of a passenger airliner for the express purpose of influencing national or geopolitical events was the 1968 overtaking of an Israeli flight from Rome, Italy to Tel Aviv, Israel on… [read more]

Transportation and Technology Have Chosen Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (574 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Transportation and Technology have chosen transportation and my area of research for the SL

Science and technology have had dramatic influence on so many areas history in the modern period that it is difficult to choose just one area of concentration. However, transportation is one area that has shown dramatic, even unbelievable advances in a relatively short period of time. In less than one hundred years, man first flew at Kitty Hawk, and walked on the moon, and that is an amazing leap of technology in less than a century.

In addition, transportation has become one of the most important aspects of modern life. The type of car a person drives is supposed to reveal their personality and interests. For example, a young, single executive might drive a convertible BMW, which says he or she is successful, fun loving, and discerning at the same time. A mother might drive a mini-van or SUV to show she is family oriented and settled down, while a young male might drive a tricked out Honda to show he is young, carefree, and into motor sports. Transportation has come to mean more than simply traveling from point a to point B; it has become something of a status symbol and necessity. All of this evolved from technology, and has become an essential part of the American lifestyle.

It is interesting to think about how different our lives might be if technology had not taken the twists and turns it did. We might all still be riding trains or bicycles. We might still be dependent on sailing and steam ships, rather than aircraft and automobiles. Technology and scientific discovery led to some of the best transportation innovations we know today, but they…… [read more]

Hazmat Regulations and Transportation School Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


HAZMAT Regulations and Transportation

School Transportation

Currently state and federal governments recognize that students are most safely transported by commercial vehicles. Any commercial vehicle used to transport students from point A to point B. qualifies as a school bus. At this time it is not recommended that students travel in non-commercial vehicles that would not quality as a 'school bus' because such vehicles are not as stringently regulated by the government, thus student riding in these vehicles are more at risk (CDL, 2005).

School bus regulations for transporting pupils outside the school bus vary from state to state.

These regulations and requirements are often reviewed and updated on an annual basis. Federal regulations however require that schools recognize any commercial motor vehicle used to transport students from home to school and back or to school sponsored events as a school bus (CDL, 2005). The only vehicle falling outside of this category is a common "Carrier" (CDL, 2005).

The U.S. Congress passed the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act or MCSIA in 2002, which requires all states to meet federal standards that include "uniform testing and licensing" of any agents transporting students in a commercial vehicle (CDL, 2005).

This means anyone interested in driving a bus must pass licensing and testing requirements and renew these licenses on a consistent basis.

At any given time up to 50% of more of students traveling ride in what are considered official 'school' buses (CDL, 2005). These buses must be licensed and regulated as well. Hazardous materials may not be transported on commercial vehicles used to transport students.

Hazard Classes For Hazardous Materials

It is vital that any employee working with hazardous materials (HAZMAT) understand the dangers involved and safety precautions necessary to protect their health and well-being and that of their employer. The first step in this process is identifying hazmat safety hazards.

The Department of Transportation recognizes 9 separate hazard classes of transporting hazardous materials (OHMS, 2005). Hazardous materials are any substances that are or may be harmful to the public or those transporting substances. The Department of Defense lists 10 separate hazards contrarily. Below is a breakdown of the major hazard classes listed by the DOT as defined by the Office of HAZMAT Safety:

Explosives - Explosives include any substances that may explode or pose an explosion hazard during transportation. Minor blasts that may occur as a result of transport also fall into this category.

Compressed Gases - These are gasses that are compressed for safety and may be flammable or non-flammable. Poisonous gasses are included in this category.

Flammable Solids - This category includes any solids that are flammable or that may combust spontaneously. Also included are materials that may pose a hazard in wet conditions.

Flammable Liquids - This includes any liquid that has a flash point below 141 degrees Fahrenheit, which categorizes it as flammable, or any liquid that may combust between 141 and 200 degrees.

Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides - These include any substances that act as an oxidizer… [read more]

Transportation Improvements and Accountability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Based on their study of transportation initiatives across the country, including San Francisco's BART system, Buhl et al. found that the error of underestimating costs was significantly much more common and much larger than the error of overestimating costs. "Underestimation of costs at the time of decision to build is the rule rather than the exception for transportation infrastructure projects.… [read more]

Transportation Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As infrastructure development in the United States was hampered by constitutional scruples about the proper role of the federal government, the bulk of the canal projects were initiated by state governments (Way 53). Most of the investment capital came from Europe (Way 54). However, many of these later canals were unsuccessful. Some failed altogether, discouraging foreign investment thereafter (Cornog 168-69).… [read more]

Transportation Economic Stimulus Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Transportation Considerations Across America

The current White House economic stimulus plan for transportation should have a considerable impact on a number of different facets of transportation in the United States. The generous stimulus plan should significantly affect aspects of transportation from infrastructure changes to policy, business and commerce to the people's lives that depend on various transportation systems for both… [read more]

Transportation in the Supply Chain Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Around 14% of the bulk movement of commerce within the United States moves throughbarge. Three major types of barge are used on the inland as well as intracoasatal waterways. These are an open hopper, one covered by dry cargo and tank barge. In Brinkmann two types of barge are used which are the tank barge and thecovered dry cargo barge.

This mode of transport is quite effective since its manatainance cost is less compared to corresponding costs of road or rail. The most important factor about this mode of transport is the fact that it provides service that is environmentally friendly.

Ocean transportation

This is a method of transport that involves carrying of people or goods using large boats, ships or snail boats across water bodies like oceans and seas.The main purpose of this means of transport can be commercial or leisure. Large cargo ships and barges are what are mostly used by Brinkmans grill industry. The raw materials are mostly got from all over the world and since they are heavy, they are easily transported in containers over the ocean. The finished products after assembly are also very heavy hence, they are transported to other countries through the ocean. This mode of transport is relatively cheaper as compared to other modes of transport.


This consists of picking freight up from one place and delivering it to another mainly across several states. All the goods that are to be sold will be on the truck at one point hence the OTR trucking companies always ensure that the goods are available to the consumer and in time. Unlike other modes of transport, OTR has so much flexibility since it can be able to deliver products to an inner city location or even a rural facility. Other modes of transport therefore depend on OTR top deliver products to these inner locations for pick up and final delivery.OTR is therefore very efficient in Brinkmann Grill since it is used to deliver the product to retail outlets where they will be sold to final consumers.

For a distribution company, forecasting is important because the company wants to minimize inventory, as inventory is costly. Furthermore, any unsold inventory might have to be liquidated at a loss or severely reduced profit. Specifically, forecasting is to ensure that 100% of inventory is sold at a full price, and that there is a no excess inventory that is unsold. Forecasting is also used to reduce the inventory turnover. The more accurate the forecast, the better the company's performance on these two metrics will be. Proper forecast will help in choosing an appropriate means of transport that will be useful when it comes to delivering particular goods at a particular time.… [read more]

Trucking vs. Railways in Supply Chain Context Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Main findings of this study are:

• A premium money back guarantee may be offered for the domestic intermodal shipments to diversify clientele. Although it is merely on the lanes but it is felt by BNSF that it can perform quite well, a signal is sent by it to the customers that the firm is very thoughtful about being punctual.… [read more]

US v. Europe Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Transportation in Europe

Based on our prior discussions, are the topics in this article surprising? Why or why not?

Yes and no. What make it surprising are the drastic actions many European countries are taking to reduce the total amounts of carbon emissions. In a host of different cities, there are restrictions or outright bans on vehicles. This is something that never happened inside these locations before. The fact that this is occurring now, is showing how various governments want to restrict access to these places by automobile. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

This signals a growing trend that will become more extreme in the future. When this happens, there is a very realistic possibility of European cities becoming pedestrian and eco friendly transportation centers. The result is that there will be lifestyle changes from what was traditionally embraced in the past. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

These actions are not considered to be too surprising from a certain perspective. This is because many cities were built before the automobile was invented. As a result, transportation has often become very limited inside these locations. In the past, there was an emphasis on driving smaller vehicles which could fit inside tight places. The recent changes, are illustrating how the scope of the problem has become much worse. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

Moreover, the Kyoto Protocol is requiring European countries to reduce their total amounts of carbon emissions. Inside many cities, certain vehicles are allowed, which are considered to be environmentally friendly. To meet the new provisions, more drastic action has to be taken. In this case, the changes in transportation are showing how there is a focus on decreasing CO2 output. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

Contrast the European policies with U.S. policies on transportation as described. Add any perspectives you wish to this contrast. Also add any additional information about transportation systems in the two areas you think.

Inside many European countries, there…… [read more]

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