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General Motors Was Founded Term Paper

… Smith says that they will be safe and fun to drive. GM will capitalize on their size, expertise and global resources in response to the lessons of the past. It is particularly proud of EV1, which is lightweight in structure and has the world's most advanced electric drive system and regenerative braking system, laying the foundation for electric, hybrid and fuel-cell products. Marketing plans for the vehicles, he says, depend on global transportation infrastructure, affordability and customer acceptance of new technology. He maintains the need to blend and balance sound science and sound economics. Referring to the recent Kyoto global climate agreement, Smith clarifies that GM will pursue options that provide the greatest promise of increasing fuel economy and lowering emissions, emphasizing that innovation and not regulation is the correct response to emissions. Global R. And D. VP Ken Baker adds that combining advanced propulsion systems with EV1's high-efficiency vehicle structure makes possible the tapping of the full potential of emerging technologies. He continues that they must not only be environmentally sound but also come up to customer value. GM, he says, must collaborate with the petroleum industry in maintaining the viability of these new vehicles. What is really needed now, he says, are a low-sulfur, cleaner burning gasoline and a new formulation of diesel fuels that reduce particulate and nitrous oxide emissions. For the purpose, Amoco already agreed to collaborate with GM, he continues. In pioneering this new line of vehicles under the aegis of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), the Company will develop up to 80 miles-per-gallon performance without sacrificing affordability, utility, safety and comfrot of modern mid-sized cars.

President and Chief Executive Officer Rick Wagoner also appointed Gary Couger, who was Vice President of Manufacturing, General Motors Europe since 1998 and in charge of the overall coordination of all Opel/Vauxhall multi-phased operations in Europe, comprising 14 plants in 10 countries.

In reasserting its leadership in the industry, General Motors reaffirms its commitment, vision and strategy in the pursuit of technology, innovation and partnerships. (General Motors) Environmental and social issues are essentially integrated into such commitment, vision and strategy as well as into its daily businesses. It aims at accelerating the development and deployment of new technology while improving existing ones, keeping in mind that technology is the most efficient way to address current issues involving fuel efficiency and climate change (General Motors)

Innovation, on the other hand, is GM's most critical tool in response to excess capacity and strong global competition and in developing new concepts of mobility and new ways of working as a company. Partnerships too are an essential part of its business, realizing that it must continue building strong and diverse global links. And in its dealings with its own people who work within, GM pledges innovativeness and progressiveness, guided by its strong core values, in turn drawn from its Winning with Integrity guidelines. Its core values are continuous improvement, customer enthusiasm, innovation, integrity, teamwork and individual respect and responsibility.… [read more]

Seatbelt Laws: Matter of Choice Term Paper

… The risk to black children ages five to 12 dying in a crash are almost three times as great as that of white children." The same study also revealed that Hispanic children aged 12 and under is twice as likely… [read more]

Cell Phone Use Term Paper

… Thus, although cell phones allow individuals to report emergencies or telephone family members, friends, loved ones, and employers, the use of cell phones while driving should be either banned or restricted in order to minimize the hazards associated with cell phone use while driving.


Alston, H. "A Risky Call: Employer Limitation of Employee Cell Phone Use." Ford & Harrison LLP Management Update. Dec. 1999.

Buris, M. And A. Cain. "Investigation of Mobile Phones While Driving." Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, April 1999.

Garrett, Jerry. "Driving Distracted: How Many Tasks Do You Tackle While at the Wheel?" The San Diego Union-Tribune. Oct. 26, 2001.

Hahn, Robert, Tetlock, Paul, and Burnett, Jason. "Ban Cell Phones in Cars?" December 29, 2000.

Moore, Larry R. And Moore, Greggory S. "The Impact of Cell Phones on Driver Safety." June 2001.

Redelmeier, D. And R.J. Tibshiran1. "Association Between Cellular Telephone Calls and Motor Vehicle Collisions." The New England Journal of Medicine. Feb. 13,1997.

Cell Phones Divert Drivers' Focus." Knoxville News-Sentinel. Aug. 30,1999: H5.

"Cell Phone Law May be Nation's First." USA Today. Sept. 2,1999: A3.

Cellular Phones Disrupt Dispatchers with Accidental 911 Calls." Knoxville News-Sentinel. June 30, 2000: A6.

Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Assn. (CTIA). "Annualized Wireless Industry Survey Results." Washington, DC: CTIA, 2000.

"Cellular Telephone Technology." NBC Dateline. April 1, 2000.

Cellular Telephones." CNN Talkback Live. Dec. 29, 1999.

Cellular Phone Users." Knoxville News-Sentinel. (Gallup Poll.) June 11, 2000: D2.

Communities Put the Brakes on Cell Phones." USA Today. Oct. 19,2000: 25A.

Expert Advice: Hang Up the Phone." Knoxville News-Sentinel. Aug. 30,1999: A4.

"Firms Crack Down: Don't Dial and Drive." USA Today. Sept. 26, 2000: ZA.

In-Flight Cellular Ban is Debated." USA Today. July 21, 2000: 6A.

Information Overload Distracts Drivers." Knoxville News-Sentinel. Jan. 25, 2001: D2.

"Just How Dangerous Is the Use of Cellular Technology on the Highways?" USA Today. Dec. 5,1999: Hi, H2.

National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). "Cell Phones and Highway Safety: 2000 Legislative Update." Denver: NCSL, 2000.

New York County Prohibits Motorists' Phone Use." USA Today. Oct. 27,2000: 3A. Peter…… [read more]

Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Term Paper

… Some filter-feeder organisms like mussels and crab may accumulate metal in their tissue and dangerous to harvest. When the water condition is deteriorating enough, it may disturb the local fish and other seafood product quality, risking safety to people's health.… [read more]

Price Safety? Term Paper

… What is known, is that airports, the public and especially the government are not going to forget the events of September 11. Even if it requires additional legislation, inconvenience or cost, everything that can be done will be done to avoid a repeat of that terrible day or other similar terrorist attcks.

We believe it is important to listen to our guests and we are extremely pleased with what they are telling us as we continuously strive to improve the security processes to make travelers feel safe and secure. Airports and airlines are working very hard to help passengers be safe and feel safe. In light of these heightened security measures, everyone has also worked hard to make air travel as friendly and convenient as possible." ~Jeff Fegan, CEO of DFW Airport

Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport. 2000 Annual Report (2001) p. 6

DFW Gears Up For Summer Travel With New Service" DFW Flyer Online Magazine (2002) cited on April 4, 2002.

DFW Airport Implements Security Measures Above FAA Mandates; Urges Legislative Initiatives to Fund Enhanced Security Measures" DFW Press Release September 18, 2001.

DFW Growth continues to Fuel Local Economy" DFW Flyer Online Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

International Terminal D" Capital Development Program (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

DFW Growth continues to Fuel Local Economy" DFW Flyer Online Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

Phillips, Don. "FAA, Air Traffic Controllers at Odds over Security" The Washington Post February 22, 2002. p. A05.

DFW Answers FAQs on Airport Security" DFW Online Flyer Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

Marta, Suzzane. "Police to Replace Guard at D/FW: Troops' Last Day at Airport Checkpoints will Be May 31" The Dallas Morning News March 8, 2002. p. 37A

Woodyard, Chris. "Airports Struggle to Pay Bills" USA Today January 7, 2002 p.B01

Sarche, Jon. "Airports Installing Bomb Detection" AP Online January 30, 2002

DFW Answers FAQs on Airport Security" DFW Online Flyer Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

Sarche, Jon. "Airports Installing Bomb Detection" AP Online January 30, 2002

DFW Gears Up For Summer Travel With New Service" DFW Flyer Online Magazine (2002) cited on April 4, 2002.

DFW Welcomes Regional Jet Service Expansion" DFW Flyer Online Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002

DFW Growth continues to Fuel Local Economy" DFW Flyer Online Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

Automated People Mover System" Capital Development Program (2002) cited April 4, 2002.

Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport. 2000 Annual Report (2001) p. 10

DFW Answers FAQs on Airport Security" DFW Online Flyer Magazine (2002) cited April 4, 2002.…… [read more]

Greyhound Case Study

… Alternative 1 - General Marketing Program

One option is to begin a thorough marketing plan with the aim of informing potential customers of the benefits of bus travel. It is recognized that there may be many potential customers that have… [read more]

Airports and Their Effects Term Paper

… The primary concern is for sulphur dioxide emissions and particulate matter. Sulphur dioxide is a key factor in the production on of acid rain, a key environmental concern. The EPA determined that sulphur dioxide emissions near an airport cannot rise… [read more]

Leadership of Henry Ford-Ford Motor Term Paper

… The company became so integrated by the late 1920's that it was completely self-sufficient. Ford controlled rubber plantations in Brazil, a fleet of ships, a railroad, sixteen coal mines, and thousands of acres of timberland and iron-ore mines (Iacocca 76). But, his control eventually led to tunnel vision that kept his workers producing only one model. He didn't bring out a new design until 1927. General Motors was making a variety of models and prices to suit all tastes and moreover, had made peace with the labor unions, which Ford violently opposed (Iacocca 76). If World War II had not turned the company's manufacturing prowess to making B-24 bombers and jeeps, it's possible that the 1932 V-8 engine might have been Ford's last innovation (Iacocca 76). By the end of the war though, the company was a monolithic dictatorship. Balance sheets were kept on back of envelopes and purchasing invoices had to be weighed to count them (Iacocca 76). Ford spent most of his time roaming the factory floor and little time in his office (Stewart 108). He distrusted bankers, disdained organization charts, and virtually ignored balance sheets and operating statements (Stewart 108). But in 1945, Henry Ford II took over the presidency of Ford Motor Company, and rescued the legacy (Iacocca 76). He modernized management, thus putting the company back on track. After the war, Ford was the first company to turn out a car, and it was the only company that had a real base overseas (Iacocca 76).

One of the reasons that Ford Motor Company is so competitive today is that Henry Ford believed in going anywhere there was a road. At his peak, the company was in thirty-three countries (Iacocca 76). He not only transformed the land we live on, but was the first to create a mass market as well as the means to satisfy it (Stewart 108). Moreover, if it had not been for this drive to create a mass market for cars, there would be no middle class in America today (Iacocca 76). Furthermore, his 'just-in-time' system of production and inventory handling, planning and coordinating the receipt of raw materials until finished goods, is still inspiring manufacturers today (Kelly 104). The creator of Toyota's assembly 'just-in-time' system acknowledged that the idea came from reading about Henry Ford's experiences (Kelly 104).

Leadership in any business is subject to criticism. In Henry Ford's day business was done by virtual dictators, men laden with riches and so much power they could take over a country if they wanted to (Iacocca 76). Today, business is collegial, dictatorships are not acceptable anymore (Iacocca 76). Businesses are so high-tech today that the thought of weighing invoices is unthinkable. Management is generally streamlined and efficient. Time saving programs are at the forefront on any management plan. However, the bottom line of any business is profit, and few companies can compare with Ford's (Stewart 108).

Today the Ford Motor Company ranks as the world's second-largest industrial company. Henry Ford's descendants own… [read more]

Boeing Is Considered the Leader Term Paper

… Counseling and referral services are provided.

Commuting Assistance Program - Boeing offers financial assistance to encourage employees to use a bus or van pool.


Boeing has a well-developed graduate opportunity program with opportunities in all fields.

Boeing lists career options in the following categories: aeronautical and astronautical engineering; chemical engineering and chemistry; civil engineering; electrical and electronics engineering; industrial engineering; mathematics and statistics; mechanical engineering; metallurgical engineering; physics; psychology, physiology, biology, medicine; business administration, economic, law, marketing.

As can be seen, there are opportunities for almost every type of graduate, though there is a major focus on engineering graduates.

Boeing looks for employees with an understanding of their discipline and also with teamwork skills, the ability to think critically and creatively, the ability to work independently and cooperatively. Boeing also looks for people who are able to adapt to change, have a desire for lifelong learning, have high ethical standards and excellent communication skills.


As well as graduate opportunities in the engineering area Boeing offers employment in many other areas. At their world headquarters they ask for employees in the legal, finance, human resources and communications areas. At their other departments they ask for a range of employees.


To contact Boeing about internship and graduate opportunities a system is in place to receive graduate resumes. These are preferred to be received online and this can be completed by opening a resume account at the following web site,

There is also a job search function at this site which can be used to search by either Boeing site or work category. This service then lists all current available positions. Currently, Boeing has over 600 available positions listed. There is also the option of setting up automated job searches so you can be contacted by e-mail when suitable positions arise.


It is also beneficial for potential employees to be aware of the core principles Boeing operates upon. This list of principles helps define what Boeing would look for in an employee.

Boeing's core competencies are:

Detailed customer knowledge and focus.

Large scale systems integration

Lean enterprise - efficient use of all assets.

The values that Boeing is committed to are:




Customer satisfaction

People working together

A diverse and involved team

Good corporate citizenship

Enhanced shareholder value


One of the concerns with Boeing is how the general downturn in the commercial flight industry, after the September 11 incident, may affect it. However an article in the Chicago Tribune (Diamond) reports that this downturn will be offset by a growth in the defense sector. The article also reports that 30,000 layoffs are expected at Boeing and that employment growth will be in the defense sector.

In response also to the September 11 incident, Boeing has in increased focus on air safety. A press release in October 2001 described an agreement with El Al Israel Airlines which will study the feasibility of creating a… [read more]

Muscle Cars Term Paper

… Muscle Car Culture Outline

Car culture has been around as long as the automobile -- over 100 years now.

The Industry

Early model automobiles were perfect candidates for hot rodders. And soon enough, they became perfect models for the muscle… [read more]

History of the Air Line Term Paper

… It should make us all feel secure to know that ALPA will continue to make air travel the safest mode of transportation. The Air Line Pilots Association's dedication to safety can only be praised.


Air Line Pilots Association:

Delta Airlines:

Trans World Airlines:

United Airlines:… [read more]

Analyzing the Project Management Research Paper

… Project Management

Stross, Randall. Billion-Dollar Flop: Air Force Stumbles on Software Plan. New York Times, 2012.

A very interesting project that became unsuccessful due to lack of project management principles is one that was worth $1billion. The United States Air Force was forced to cancel a major project that aimed to install a new software system. In particular, the software enterprise was referred to as the Expeditionary Combat Support System and was purposed to undertake the management of logistics through the utilization of software from Oracle. The project had already been in operation for six years and had cost more than $1 billion. This project was stopped when the Air Force realized that it would need an additional $1 billion simply to accomplish a quarter of the capabilities originally scheduled. This indicates the massive failure in the project that eventually necessitated its termination. The following paper will briefly outline the failures of the project through the perspective of project management.

Management Perspective

One of the principles of project management is planning, purposed to establish the scope of the project, sharpen up the goals, and delineate the course of action necessitated to achieve the goals that the project is undertaken to realize. In this case, the air force project had a scope together with timelines that were ill managed in addition to several aspects of ignorance. This can be perceived by the fact that in six years' time, the project had not been in line with its projected timeline as it had not yet gotten even to its quarter phase. Another project management principle learnt is the aspect of monitoring and controlling the process group. This encompasses undertaking the processes necessitated to follow, assess and regulate the progress as well as performance of the project. Further, there is an identified lack of monitoring and controlling…… [read more]

Yahoo Inc Essay


In the 2009 case, it is clear that Yahoo has to master several problems in the presentation. First, there is a problem with the leadership and its strategic management at the top of the management of Yahoo. The company has not looked beyond single operational services it offers to its customers as most of them are running out of competition with no immediate actions being taken, in this case, long-term remedy measures. The company lacks credible remedy measures in place that will offer long-term solutions to its challenges. There is a high stage of fall in revenues and growth within the company. The company is experiencing a challenge to deal with the pressure of competing with its competitors in the market. The company lacks partnership advances as this has led to a stagnating performance, leading it to cut short the number of its employees. Furthermore, there is no immediate show of innovative growth within the company, something has become a bad culture and damaged the sustenance of the incorporation.

Conduct Strategic Analysis:

Yahoo Company lacks cooperation and integration with other pertinent companies. The company is facing massive challenges regarding creating more opportunities for its growth, together with sustaining a competitive market. The company does not have to rely simply on its specific strategies without seeking consent and support from the others like Microsoft and Google. In this case, Yahoo appears to be exhausting its strengths with no immediate member of the conglomerate joining them. The company has no innovative remedy for its short- and long-term challenges. Yahoo Inc. has insufficient leadership that is capable of lifting up the falling strategic measures of the corporation. Moreover, Yahoo Company seems to have a poor culture in its strategic progress. As such, the corporation needs to create mergers, change its managerial structures, establish a culture of continued innovativeness and change, and develop a body that is concerned with checking on the state of the corporation in the market (Ireland et al., 2012).

Porter's Six Forces


Yahoo has done a lot in fostering its presence through technological innovations. Nonetheless, it needs to focus on innovations and adopting new marketing options and platforms for its customers.

Threat of New Entrants

It is not long ago when Yahoo was the main force in the market. Nonetheless, with the entry of Google and Snapchat, among other entrants, Yahoo has diminished in its initial growth. Such is likely to happen even with this state of the company, and hence something has to be done.

Bargaining power of buyers

The bargaining power of the company has been good. Nonetheless, the recent befalls, as indicated by the case, lowers this power, which should not be the case (Hitt et al., 2015).

Bargaining power of competitors

Competitors are present, but their management raises the stature of the company internally and externally.

Threat of…… [read more]

Financial Acts and Cios Research Paper

… ¶ … Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 and discusses the law in brief. This paper also provides a background to the need and the enactment of the law. Further, while providing a definition of IT, OMB and CIO, this paper goes… [read more]

Executive Summary Management of Employee Communication Thesis

… Management of Employee Communication

In any business organization, communication is a critical factor to be considered by the organization to succeed in achieving its targets and goals. This research study is assessing the effects of interaction between employees and managers on the attitudes of the employees in an organization. Passing information from the top management through a supervisor or subordinate managers to the other employees and back are very important. It is very difficult for most of the managers to pursue the interests of the stakeholders and those of the employees at the same time. Such problem can be solved through smooth communication between the staff in the entire organization.

The organization should focus on creating a mutual relationship between the employees and the managers and production, sales, profits and general performances will be improved. Both the management and the employees should cooperate in their respective activities in an organization, and this is achieved through effective communication. The management should portray positive attitudes towards the employees, and the employees should be committed to their respective responsibilities. In most of the research studies, the main objective is to the employee commitment of attitudes towards the organization failing to address the effects of organization interaction towards such commitments or attitudes.

The research method used in this research is qualitative research method where the existing data and survey questions were used to collect data. The questionnaires were channeled to the respondents through various social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and many others. The respondents were the employees from different job fields or departments in the organization. The selected sample of respondents consisted of junior and senior employees for a better understanding of management-employee interaction in the organization. The analysis of the data involved the use of both inferential and descriptive methods where the statistical methods were used to assess the effects of interaction between employees and managements on the employee attitudes.

The findings indicated that more than…… [read more]

Communication Diversity and a Hostile Work Environment Research Paper

… Organizational success depends on effective communication, as well as the ability to adapt organizational culture and environment to a changing workforce. The establishment of values that support diversity can be challenging in large organizations with entrenched cultures resistant to change.… [read more]

Group Dynamics and Performance Term Paper

… Team Performance

One type of team that I have been a member of on regular occasions is a team that is tasked with some academic group assignment. Such teams can vary widely in their functioning and be tasked with everything… [read more]

How an Aging Population Changes the Workplace Article Critique

… Academy of Management (2014). Aging populations and management. Academy of Management Journal 57(4): 929-935.

Increase in life expectancy and decline in birthrates worldwide is dramatically altering the demographics of the labor force, according to the Academy of Management (2014). An older labor force changes multiple dynamics in the workplace, including how to best relate to, manage, and motivate an older, more predominantly female demographic. In "Aging Populations and Management," the Academy of Management (2014) outlines research trends and theories, and offers suggestions for future policy. The research focuses on developed countries with a strong public social safety net and specific policies in place for addressing the needs of seniors because of the implications of those policies on managers and their organizations. Specific challenges the authors identify include the age of mandatory retirement and related legislation, community infrastructure, workplace design, organizational culture, and age-related discrimination. The authors divide their discussion into three main components: societal challenges, organizational challenges, and individual challenges. Societal challenges refer to the larger-scale issues such as cultural norms related to aging and the policies and institutions that support elders in the society. The official retirement age is discussed here, as well as its implications. Immigration policies and their relationship to the aging phenomenon are also addressed. Organizational challenges range from workplace design and ergonomics to community infrastructure, organizational culture, and human resources policies and procedures. Individual challenges include issues related to personal identity and its link to career, and the redefinition of retirement.


This editorial provides a cogent overview of a relevant topic for human resources managers, policymakers, and executives. Because it is well-written, well-researched, and well-organized, the article flows and is easy to read. The title succinctly and clearly identifies the authors' core concerns in the field of aging and management. With an absence of jargon, the authors appeal to a wide audience in multiple fields of interest.

An editorial note replaces an abstract, which is appropriate for a piece of this type because it is not a research article. Moreover, the editorial is short and does not warrant an abstract due to its brevity. The purpose of the article is clearly stated at the onset and introduction: to draw attention to the "importance of the phenomenon," and its implications on "societal, organizational, and individual levels," (Academy of Management, 2014, p. 929). A brief but catchy introduction lists the startling statistics related to aging around the world. By celebrating the tremendous opportunities and challenges of an aging population, the authors remain positive and proactive in tone. No factual errors are detected, as all descriptive statistics can be verified and are cited appropriately. The authors alert their readers about their explicit focus on the developed world, and yet they do mention trends in developing nations when appropriate. For example, the authors point out the differences between countries that rely on immigrant personnel versus those that have traditionally and continue to eschew liberal immigration policies. Immigration policies tie in with policies and practices related to retaining an… [read more]

Guarding Against Employee Protectionism Essay

… ¶ … Organizational Change

Change management within any organization can be a hard thing to facilitate and otherwise pull off. Indeed, there has to be strong buy-in from the entire organization and this requires a guiding coalition of people that help put that into place. Shifts in information technology or even method can be one of the harder times of change to pull off. However, the technology sphere in industry and broader society is every changing and standing still for too long with either can lead to people for firms falling behind the curve. While getting everyone to embrace change and how it has to keep happening can be difficult but any forward-thinking and well-performing organization is going to be a master at it.


At issue is Pfizer and how they are intending to make their document management system more modern and much more effective in terms of saving money, streamlining workflows and so forth. There is a dual "case" to be made when it comes to all of this. On one hand, the stakeholders and investors in the company will have to be sold on the idea that the money to be spent is worth it in terms of increase efficiency and cost savings. However, there will certainly be a loss of staff or at least a shift of staff to other endeavors given that the amount of overall work needed given the new system will be less, if done correctly. As it pertains to the latter, there are indeed workers that are rather protectionist and will actively resist the change for that reason as they feel that their current work situation is just fine and that a new model will only infringe upon their "turf." Beyond that, there are actually people that resent the use of automation and better technology as they don't want to be replaced by a machine. A very similar idea exists when it comes to outsourcing processes outside of the company or even outside of the country. However, Pfizer is wise to make things as efficient and streamlined as possible. Indeed, spending money on jobs or workflows that can easily be pared down is just silly and should not be done. At the same time, the stakeholders need to be sold on the idea that the upgrades and changes will work and that the needed buy-in and cooperation from the rank and file is necessary. As for loss of work, it is entirely possible that the people that are "replaced" by what is lost in terms of workload and tasks can be shifted to things that advance the business even further. However, if the money and facets of the revised model dictate that some people not be retained or hired, then Pfizer will need to make the proper choices (Rau-Foster, 2016).

As far as the risks that are involved, the above description lays out two of the huge things that can go wrong, those being resistance of change and resistance of buy-in from… [read more]

Nigera and South Africa TV on Demand Research Paper

… TV on Demand in Africa

TV on Demand models in Africa as well as the rest of the world are competing for market share via a number of avenues, whether by offering online streaming, original content, or unique content. This… [read more]

Revolt and Revolution at Darden Research Paper

… Olive Garden's Recovery

Olive Garden has certainly gone through its issues and travails over the recent years. As part of its parent company Darden, there has been some very valid concerns about the longevity and long-term success of Olive Garden… [read more]

Proper Skills Needed for CEO Term Paper

… Leadership

Four major questions have been posed when it comes to business, leadership and the skill sets required to excel in both. The first question centres on the role of Chief Executive Office. The role itself will be defined. There… [read more]

My Ideal Leadership Style Research Paper

… Personal Leadership Styles

Eight different Leadership Styles

My Leadership Styles

My Desired Style of Leadership Style

Research in recent times has established that organizations operate in more and more complex and dynamic environments and as such for organizations to do… [read more]

Analyzing Diversity in Modern Business and the Accruing Benefits in Their Daily Operations Essay

… Diversity in Modern Business and the Accruing Benefits in Their Daily Operations


American International Group, Inc. (AIG) is an insurance corporation operating in 130 countries, with over 88 million customers. The American multinational has over 64,000… [read more]

Analyzing Statistic Word Problems Data Analysis Chapter

… Statistic Word Problems

Null Hypothesis: H0 = Online gambling is more prevalent among individuals who are under the age of 30.

Alternative Hypothesis: Online gambling is not more prevalent among individuals who are under the age of 30.

Alpha is set at

Collect Data

Online Gambling

Public Gambling

Calculate Test Statistic

F-Test Two-Sample for Variances

Online Gambling

Public Gambling






P (F<=f) one-tail

F Critical one-tail

Acceptance Zones



Do not reject null hypothesis (Lehmann and Romano, 1986).








Alpha is

To begin with, convert to frequencies observed and this is done by multiplying by N (150), and thereafter calculating the expected frequencies.

The formula used is fe = (fc x fr) / N

The observed frequencies















The expected frequencies















The statistic is computed as follows:

Therefore, do not reject H0.

There is no significant difference between the opinions in the city compared to the suburbs.


The correlation between the opinion on the funding proposal and the home location is weak and low.

The correlation constitutes for roughly 2% of the variance in the data (Larson, 2008).

Question 2


















































































































Null Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference in the self-esteem scores of males and females.

Alternate Hypothesis: H1: There is a significant difference in the self-esteem scores of males and females.

Level of Significance = 0.01

Test Statistic is= t

Anova: Single Factor







Males Difference




Females Difference…… [read more]

Plan for New Accounting Firm Chapter

… ¶ … accounting sphere and industry around the civilized world is large and it is only going to get larger. Due to things such as rising populations, increasingly complex personal and business tax laws, increasingly complex personal and business ethical… [read more]

Fostering Employee Safety and Workplace Diversity Term Paper

… Employment Laws in Human Resource Management


In most cases, female employees do not enjoy their rights in the workplaces especially during maternity leave. During maternity leave, women should receive their normal cash benefits and be guaranteed to continue with their employment after the maternity. In this case, United States does not offer any cash benefits to a woman when on maternity leave. For this specific request, the client should be allowed to have a maternity leave of four months and be guaranteed to continue working after maternity (Wilcox & Youngsmith, 2015). My recommendation is within the provision of law where a woman should be allowed a maternity leave of four months without any payment. It is important for the woman to be allowed a maternity leave, as she cannot work while nursing the baby. Besides, the woman has other dependents. She must be guaranteed that she will continue working after the maternity leave. Maternity leave is unpaid because the position will not be left vacant, as someone else will take the position during the leave period and he/she will be paid. It is because the company should maintain its reputation by offering its services continuously without interruption when an employee is on leave.

Scenario 3

All the employees working in an organization should be guaranteed of all possible workplace safety. The management provides all safety materials and equipment to employees to protect them from any harm in the workplace. Employees have the right to boycott their duties until the company procures the required protective materials and equipment (Dowling Jr., 2016). The company should buy the necessary protective equipment such that the employees are guaranteed their safety while working in the company. My response is within the law because every employee working in a company handling dangerous machines should be guaranteed their safety. This is done by making sure that the employees have the protective equipment while handling the machines. A part of legal compliance, the company should respect the right of safety to the employees in the workplace without being reminded or forced. When the employee is…… [read more]

Analyzing the Project Management Essay

… Project Management

The term "project portfolio management" implies controlled and coordinated management of project portfolios for accomplishing a group of business aims. This paper begins by citing the number of website hits for the search terms "project management," "project portfolio management," "project management careers," and "IT project management." This is followed by brief descriptions of four major project management websites, including the Project Management Institute's website.

Project Management: 301,000,000 results

Project management careers: 48,600,000 results

Project portfolio management: 7,800,000 results

IT project management: 244,000,000 results

Project Portfolio Management Websites

The resource -- Project Smart -- aids managers at every level in improving personal performance. The website offers a key knowledge base that can be availed by individuals involved in the management of different kinds of projects. Site personnel keep clients updated on new project management tactics, practices, etc., through exclusive updates provided on a weekly basis. Project Smart, which launched in the year 2000, intends to provide easy information access, in connection with the profession of project management. The website's philosophy is providing free, ethical, superior-quality, accessible content whilst encouraging open discussion. Functionality and content of the website is improving constantly, providing website visitors access to new project management theories, principles and practices, from a vast pool of experts in the subject matter. The site incorporates a number of articles on the aspect of leadership, planning, execution, management, etc., all of which are topics valuable to project management, helping form successful careers. Moreover, the site offers numerous templates and tools for creating project portfolios and project management books (, 2000).


This website also offers easy accessibility to project management-related information. It also provides ethical, free, superior-quality content and encourages open discussion, with a large number of experts in project management providing recent project management content in the form of practices, principles, etc. It may be quite a challenge to understand the entire breadth of project portfolios and information technology projects in organizations. Legacy portfolio and project management systems are able to add considerable overhead to the tracking of resources, planning, and time sheets. Typically, dedicated project managers have to retype information from separate systems, and the process of knowledge-sharing often becomes hard for individual contributors. The site also provides management programs, services, products, and solutions, together with articles on client success (, n.d.).


The holistic cloud software for Portfolio Management -- Innotas -- offers solutions for information technology management, agile development, and project management offices. Founded in 2006, the website's vision is enhancing the information technology management process through adding increased accountability, transparency, and visibility to it. Equipped with considerable experience in IT management, founders of the site were aware of the fact that, having on-premise Portfolio Management and IT Governance solutions is highly expensive, took several months to implement, and required costly service engagements. On the basis of industry experience and this vision, Innotas saw Cloud (or SaaS (Software as a Service) or cloud computing) as the way to take in order for an… [read more]

Poignant and Important Issues in Procurement and Purchasing Essay

… ¶ … theoretical situation. The situation given is that a manager is aware of the fact that the author of this report has completed a purchasing and materials management. What specifically is asked for by this manager and the exam… [read more]

Reflections on Leadership Strengths and Weaknesses Essay

… Business Management -- Self-Assessment

My PAMS self-assessment and reflections on it lead me to conclude that I am a strong natural leader with some work to do. I have natural abilities and am developing those abilities in all key areas of effective management. Simultaneously, I detect a few possible weaknesses that can also use some work in order to make me an increasingly effective leader. I am a strong manager in the making but am also human and need some work to improve my skills.


My academic and professional lives illustrate my strong management skills. My planning skills (Whetten & Cameron, 2011) are solid because I have considerable experience in successfully crafting and performing my own tasks, maintain a healthy balance between my work and personal lives (Williams, Bertsch, Van der Wiele, Van Iwaarden, & Dale, 2006), actively contribute to team and organizational preparation, readily relate my responsibilities and jobs to the organization's important goals and can clearly communicate the worth of my personal contributions to the team's and organization's objectives. My organizational skills (Whetten & Cameron, 2011) are also very strong because I can understand and communicate the logic underlying the organization's infrastructure (Williams, Bertsch, Van der Wiele, Van Iwaarden, & Dale, 2006), propose structural changes due to new situations, can distinguish and communicate my team's combined abilities, understand the internal and external needs of customers and maintain healthy communication with the organization's decision-makers. I am certainly a leader (Whetten & Cameron, 2011) because I can persuade, stimulate, and guide coworkers according to their subjective necessities and situations, communicate plainly and succinctly what must be done, when, and how, enthusiastically work to enable others by allocating work and rewarding resourcefulness and input (Williams, Bertsch, Van der Wiele, Van Iwaarden, & Dale, 2006), retain a high standard of personal honor and integrity, and show assurance and tact when dealing with individuals and conflict. My academic and work experiences have also taught me to effectively control a situation (Whetten & Cameron, 2011) by examining challenges and aptly pursuing guidance/advice to help make judgments, using the suitable implements, technology and procedures to manage and communicate results, openly share information and embolden coworkers to contribute, begin needed modification and helpful action based on observing and monitoring tasks, and track challenges and address them with my team and with key collaborators in the organization. Finally, my cross-functional skills (Whetten & Cameron, 2011) are strong in that I think "outside the box" and create new answers, concepts, and methods (Williams, Bertsch, Van der Wiele, Van Iwaarden, & Dale, 2006), am self-aware in that I know my own effect on individuals and circumstances and can quickly alter my style if necessary, have considerable confidence in my own talents and capability and work very well under stress, am a self-starter who takes firm and constructive charge for my own goals and for team goals, and have robust interpersonal skills that enable me to create and maintain valuable relationships with coworkers, organizational leaders, consumers and suppliers.

b.… [read more]

Build a Brand Image Term Paper

… ¶ … learning progress as a writer, but also my personal growth and experience throughout the course. I will be discussing what I believe are the two most important course outcomes and how I learned to apply them. Thinking back to the beginning of this class I was terrify and intimidated by the simple thought of writing an academic paper. After all, previous to this course, I did not have a strong writing background. The only experienced I had coming into this class was the one I acquired from my EN105 course, which I considered very basic knowledge. Because of this limited exposure to writing, as well as the fact I have little to no practice what so ever before college, I found the class to be extremely challenging. Yet, at the same time, this challenge motivated me to learn quickly and try to catch up as quickly as possible. Although I believe I still have a long way to go before I achieve a level of competence in writing that I would perceive as adequate, because of this class and the challenges that it presented have moved me much closer to that goal by leaps and bounds.

Reflections on Learning to Write

One of the first things that I had to learn when I was in the class was that the audience in which any piece of writing is directed towards is a critical part of the equation. I always thought that when you write it just kind of comes from within you and you can write down whatever you feel is appropriate. However, considering who the reader is and trying to consider their perspective before writing anything definitely makes sense on many different levels. For example, a business paper requires that the language be suited to someone who is in the business world and would expect a minimum level of professionalism in the writing style.

The paper on education that I worked on and is represented in my portfolio was also a paper in which determining the audience that would be reading the paper was also an important aspect to writing the paper. On one hand, I knew that the paper would likely just me read by the instructor and the people in my class, but on the other hand, as I was working on it, I was trying to imagine what a more professional version of the paper might look like. To me personally, I found it to really define who my audience would be. For instance, although I knew who would actually be reading, I kept trying to picture a wider audience that included people at different levels who might be reading it. Therefore, by reflection, the concept of defining the audience was one of the more challenging aspects of writing that affected my approach from the very beginning.

Beyond trying to get a frame together before I actually began writing, writing itself was a struggle for many different reasons. Another issue that I faced was… [read more]

Facilitating a Culture of Diversity A-Level Outline Answer

… Actions for Cultural Diversity Principles and Policies

From your understanding of the module materials and optional external literature concerning the importance of policy and guiding principles in cultural diversity, fully describe three significant principles, policies, and/or guidelines that you feel have been least effective in the educational setting, organizational setting, or society as a whole.

While the benefits of an effective diversity program are fairly clear, many programs fail to meet their objectives. For example, one review covering over thirty years of data from over eight hundred of the some of the larger U.S. workplaces found that the kind of standardized diversity training programs were actually counterproductive and these firms actually saw a significant decrease in the number of women in management (Vedantam, 2008). Although the counterproductive results are hard to explain, from my experience many of these programs seem like that they are superficial and administered without any sincere regard for outcomes.

If a program is administered for compliance or simply as a perceived requirement, then it is reasonable that most of these would be ineffective in actually promoting tolerance. Both the organization and the participants may feel that it is simply something to be gotten out of the way without any real substance or transformation involved. In fact, the research showed that mandatory programs are ineffective. According to Alexandra Kalev, who led the study, "When attendance is voluntary, diversity training is followed by an increase in managerial diversity (Vedantam, 2008)." This is problematic since most of the programs are created for mandatory compliance to federal rules. Therefore, many companies simply implement the cheapest programs and least time consuming programs available to meet the standards that are required and such policies are at least ineffective, possibly counterproductive to promoting tolerance and diversity. Furthermore, the fact that too much focus was placed on discrete legal requirements has been well understood for almost a decade (Richards, 2007).

2. Fully describe the principle, policy, and/or guideline concerning cultural diversity in the educational setting, organizational setting, or society as a whole that you feel has been…… [read more]

Analyzing the Electrical Safety Essay

… High Likelihood of an Accident

Three simple measurements that tell a great deal

When doubts arise with regard to a structure's electrical supply reliability, the foremost step prior to breaking any panel or 3-phase monitor open is, taking measurements using a digital multimeter, at the electrical outlet situated closest to the problematic load. This is the most vulnerable part of the electrical project and one that is prone to causing short- and long-term accidents. Three simple measurements: hot-to-neutral voltage, hot-to-ground voltage, and neutral-to-ground voltage will help answer the following questions:

Is there any mis-wiring in the outlet?

Has branch circuit been very heavily loaded?

Are sensitive electrical loads having the voltage needed?

Overview of the Project

Testing 3-slot receptacles for polarity and grounding: why can mis-wired sockets lead to accidents

A mis-wired electric socket isn't an uncommon occurrence. Three-slot sockets have hot (short), grounding (U-shaped) and neutral (long) slots. Are the neutral (white) and hot (black) wires reversed? Or are the ground (green) and neutral wires shorted or reversed? Such conditions typically go unnoticed for long. Several loads aren't polarity-sensitive. That is, reversal of neutral and hot doesn't matter. Electrical loads are usually indifferent to alternating current (AC) polarity, as they simply convert AC to direct current (DC) within internal power supply. This can lead to an oversight of correct wiring and is the primary reason why mis-wiring can lead to accidents. Meanwhile, sensitive electrical loads like instrumentation and computer equipment care about clean ground (without voltage and load currents). The whole ground system may be compromised by a single reversal of ground and neutral.

Some important questions that need to be answered for why mis-wiring led to an accident include: When voltage measurements are made under conditions of normal load and during work hours, were hot-to-neutral voltage, hot-to-ground voltage, and neutral-to-ground voltage readings normal? Has the outlet been wired properly? The most widely-occurring mis-wiring happens by switching of neutral and hot, or switching/shorting of ground and neutral.

To detect these conditions:

Firstly, hot-to-ground voltage must be higher than the other two (i.e., hot-to-neutral voltage and neutral-to-ground voltage). Under non-fault, normal conditions, ground circuit mustn't have any current or IR drop. The ground wire may be regarded as one that runs back to source (transformer/main panel), where it is linked to neutral. Assuming no fault exists, the ground isn't linked to voltage sources on the electrical socket end of its path, where measurements are being made. Therefore, the ground resembles a long test that leads back to source voltage. If a load is connected, hot-to-ground socket source voltage must be the aggregate of neutral-to-ground voltage (i.e., drop in voltage on neutral back to its link to ground circuit) and hot-neutral voltage (load voltage).

Possible solutions for corrections

Testing for voltage drop

On the ideal electrical circuit, voltage drop must be absent: with decreased voltage drop, source becomes more reliable or "stiff." This decreases the possibility of accidents due to mis-wiring.…… [read more]

Analyzing the Dupont Analysis Case Study

… DuPont technique is a drawn-out and comprehensive analysis of the return on equity (ROE) of a company. Conferring to this financial technique, it is deemed that a business can attain a high ROE if it generates a high net profit margin, employs its assets in an effective manner so as to create more revenue and also, if the company has a high level of financial leverage. The following essay undertakes a DuPont analysis of Amazon and its competitor Walmart in the 2014 financial year.


Return on Equity is financial ratio that measures how well a company makes profit out of every dollar that is invested in by investors and stakeholders.

ROE = Net Income / Total Equity

Amazon = 596,000 / 13,384,000 = 0.04453

Walmart = 16,363 / 85,937 = 0.1904


Return on Equity is financial ratio that measures how well a company makes profit out of every dollar that is invested in its assets.

ROA = Net Income / Total Assets

Amazon = 596,000 / 65,444,000 = 0.0091

Walmart = 16,363 / 203,706 = 0.08032

Profit Margin

This net profit margin ratio is attained by dividing the net income by revenue. This ratio is indicative of the profitability levels of the company with regards to the net income in comparison to the revenues of the firm.

Profit Margin = Net Income / Revenue

Amazon = 596,000 / 107,006,000 = 0.00557

Walmart = 16,363 / 485,651 = 0.0337

Total Asset Turnover

This financial ratio measures a company's ability to generate revenue from its assets.

Total Asset Turnover = Net Sales / Average Total Assets

Amazon = 107,006,000 / ((65,444,000 + 54,505,000) / 2) = 1.7842

Walmart = 485,651 / ((203,706 + 204,751) / 2) = 2.378

Equity Multiplier

The equity multiplier is a financial ratio that gives a measure of the financial leverage of a company. The purchasing of assets by a company is financed by means of either debt or equity. Therefore, the greater…… [read more]

Analyzing the Comprehensive Security Plan Term Paper

… ¶ … Security Plan

Budgeting for: The Veterans Home of California, Chula Vista

In essence, a budget is a systematic plan or stratagem for utilizing scarce resources, for instance time. From an organizational standpoint, The Veterans Home of California considers budgeting to be key to the management of its resources. The following budget will help the organization in its process of planning and also the management of its finances. The budgeting for the Veterans Home of California will make use of the line-item budget, which is also referred to as the incremental budget or the traditional budget (Johnson, 2005).

Justification for Using Line Item Budgeting

The simple, interactive and mangeable interacface of the line-item budgeting system makes it a very popular choice for numerous organizations. This structure is popularly known to be the "historical" approach as majority administrators and chief executives of organizations use the historical expenditure and revenue data structures to lay the foundation of the expenditure requests calculated. The biggest advantage of line-item budgeting is the variety that it provides for managing control of the raw material and resources; this control however is dependent upon the degree of expenditure extensions that are included in the final document (e.g., fund, function, object) (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

The extent of pros for line-item budget approach are the reason for its popularity, primarily it's simple and easy process of preparation. It's familiarity for the implementors of the budget development process also makes it a very practical choice. This approach improves the organizational controls by funding through different organizational sectors and objects. It is also parallel and fluid with the different lines of management and accountability within organizations. This further permits the collection of expenditure data across the functional units. Finally, line-item budgeting also permits the collection of expenditure data for the utilisation in patterned or historical assessments (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

Nevertheless, some aspects of this method are not advantageous for certain company structures which is what makes many critics apprehensive of its use. The critics highlight that this approach provides impractical insight on the processes or actions of organizational units which is its biggest drawback. The critics highlight that due to the fact this budgetary methods only provides possible expenditure funds in specific categories, it thus makes the justifications implicit and mostly unintelligent (U.S. Department of Education, 2003).

However, the main reason why the organization will employ this budget is for the reason that it overtly details all the items that are to be purchased or spent. In addition, it is comparatively simple and easy to understand for all and sundry (Johnson, 2005). Most of all, it will enable The Veterans Home of California to have a centralized control over all of its financial resources, as it is not only unvarying but also comprehensive in its own nature.…… [read more]

Symbiosis Between Workers and Employers Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior

The author of this report has been asked to take a past or present organizational experience and analyze it using a number of defined steps. These steps include a justification of the problem, the use of organizational behavior theory to analyze the problem, the types of culture that are in play, how employee motivation factors into the situation and employee satisfaction issues that should be considered. The issue hand would be a general distrust that exists between the employees and the employer. While employees may perceive things correctly when there is a lack of information, so much of perception is not real but the reactions tendered as a result of these perceptions are absolutely tangible and palpable.


As noted above, the problem is that employees have an active mistrust for the employer. They feel that the employer is just about making profits and milking the employees and their efforts as much as is possible without having to pay extra for it. However, the managers and executives of the firm are behaving under the auspices of keeping costs down and efficiency at its peak. There is, however, a disconnect in that there are some rather high demands being made of some people within the company and the company is not extending the proper amount of resources, assistance and overtime to handle what needs to be done. In short, there is the perception that there is not enough staff (or at least overtime) in play to get the job done at a level that is acceptable to management. Some employees have voiced concerns and asked for more overtime or headcount to deal with the problem but management has mostly pushed back and asserted that the job can and should be done better so as to keep payroll costs where they are while at the same time getting things done (BKS, 2016).

Both sides and their perceived problems are justified and real. The employees do not deserve to be punished if what they are being asked to do is not consistent with the amount of people they have on hand and/or the time they are being given to do the job. At the same time, the employees must understand that they should avoid any appearance, real or not, that employees are dragging their feet and asking for something that is not really needed. Just to use a general example, many union outfits encounter artificial slowdowns because employees at these outfits will be peeved about something and they will intentionally do their work slower as a form of protest. However, the employees are not allowed to do this as this is not allowable union behavior and the employer may very well have a valid reason to be concerned (BKS, 2016).

The best way to bring about constructive and complete change is to have an open dialog with the employees. First off, the employer should be directly connected to what they are trying to control. They should assess how the work is… [read more]

Right Way to Do Purchasing Essay

… Purchase Operations

The author of this report has been asked to describe how to effectively conduct purchasing operations. The source material for the answers to be delivered in this report will come from the Monczka text. The second part of the class text elucidates greatly and adeptly when it comes to this subject. While some may be apt to over-complicate and over-analyze purchasing operations, there are absolutely things that should not be missed. These run the gamut from overall goals to strategic and tactical roles and responsibilities. This report shall explain the basics and the important things that one needs to know about conducting purchasing operations. While there are only three overall dimensions to be aware of, they are all complex and important to know.


The Monczka text, as noted in the introduction, breaks down purchasing operations into three main dimensions, those being overall goals, strategic roles and tactical responsibilities. Overall goals would include supply continuity, the management of the purchasing process, supply base management, the engagement of stockholders and the developing of sourcing strategies. Strategic roles would include demand management, commodity strategies, contract management, cost management, procure-to-pay improvement and supplier relationship management. Lastly, tactical responsibilities would include forecasting and plan requirements, requisitioning, supplier identification and selection, contract/PO preparation, receipt and inspection, invoice settlement/payment, records maintenance, the measurement of supplier performance and the improving of the P2P process (Monczka et al., 2015).

To clarify, the P2P process refers to procure-to-pay. Typical things that are managed and must be corrected if they are lacking include response time from suppliers, service levels from suppliers, problems being held as "Customer of Choice," delivery times, price hikes, the amount of personnel used for non-value-added activities, and higher internal costs. To do purchasing the right way, there must be the…… [read more]

Lessons Learned for HR Development From the Compensation Handbook Book Review

… Berger, L., Berger, D. (2008). The Compensation Handbook. NY: McGraw-Hill.

The Compensation Handbook by Berger and Berger (2008) is a detailed analysis of the strategy that employers can use when considering compensation of all-level of workers. It breaks down the… [read more]

Global Ethics and Development Essay

… Global Ethics

Rights theory for global ethics:

Define human person and Human Rights, briefly present the history of rights.

Human rights are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being (Sepulveda, et al., 2004). The interpretation of what constitutes human rights can vary considerably between different sources, however they are basically the rights that each and every human on the planet should be automatically awarded.

There are two main categories of human rights included in the UDHR (United Nations, 2012). The first category is composed of civil and political rights; which are included in articles three to twenty-one in the declaration and include freedom from slavery, the right to a fair trial, freedom of speech, and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Other categories of human rights included in the second category are composed of economic, social, and cultural rights.

b. Briefly present and comment on the development of rights, the three generations. Which generation should be prioritized? Explain

There are three overarching types of human rights norms: civil-political, socio-economic, and collective-developmental. The appreciation of these rights between the generations seem to be somewhat culturally based and have to do with how collective or individualistic a society is. For example:

"During the period of the cold war, "first generation" rights were prioritized in Western democracies, while second generation rights were resisted as socialist notions. In the developing world, economic growth and development were often regarded as goals able to trump "civil and political" rights. The discrepancy between the two sets of rights was also emphasized: "civil and political" rights were said to be of immediate application, while "second generation" rights were understood to be implemented only in the long-term or progressively." (UN Chronicle, N.d.).

In my personal opinion, the application of human rights should be based off some form of basic sets of rights that are included from each of the categories in a prioritized fashion that would mirror something like Maslow's hierarchy of needs. If you accept Maslow's proposition, or any of the different versions that come afterwards, that human needs can be prioritized based on human need and development (Ife, 2012). For example, the need to have fair nutrition, clothing, and shelter would most likely trump any civil or political rights. If you can't feed yourself and your family, then the only political concerns that will be relevant are the ones that attributed to finding food. It should also be noted that even though there is probably some form of order in which human rights are achieved it does not necessarily imply that one is more important than the other rather that some just have to be achieved first. For example, free speech may be as equally important as all other rights, but having food and clean water would precede these rights in a more immediate fashion than other rights based on human needs (Ife, 2012).

c. Types of Right: positive vs. negative; intrinsic… [read more]

Analyzing Corporate Governance Case Study

… ¶ … organizational governance case study of former energy company, Enron Corporation.


Interstate pipeline corporation, Enron was engaged in the business of supplying power to utilities ever since its establishment in the year 1985. An InterNorth-Houston Natural Gas merger… [read more]

Manufacturing Business Essay

… LJ Summers Case Study

The author of this report has been ask to review and assess a case study involving LJ Summers company and the issues they are having with their employees. In reading the case study, the problems are… [read more]

Ratings and Trait Based Assessments vs Behavior Essay

… Performance Measurement

• Identify and describe the different rating formats that are available for performance measurement

The different rating formats that are available for performance measurement are graphic ratings formats (the most popular) taken from hands-on performance measures in which… [read more]

Stakeholder Theory and Systems Thinking Discussion Chapter

… Systems thinking applies to organizational culture in a couple of ways. First, organizational culture is part of any management system. Culture is where the norms and standards of behavior are embedded, and these norms can dictate a wide range of individual and organizational behaviors. Companies need to understand that the culture affects the ability of the different systems to perform. There are many examples of failed organizational change efforts, scuttled by the reality that an organization's culture is not congruent with the change effort. For example, Eastman Kodak suffered substantially when technology threatened its core photography businesses. But decades of being a relatively unchallenged industry leader had created a culture that was built more around maintaining a business than innovating. It looks the leaders of Kodak a long time to accept that they needed to innovate to survive, and even when they reached this realization they were unable to get the rest of the organization on board, because the culture knew nothing of innovation -- Kodak was not even able to attract innovative people when it tried, because the culture was so deeply embedded in organizational behaviors and systems that inhibited innovative behavior.

Senge (2012) has noted that organizations rely on culture to help them learn and innovate, but that when the culture is not conducive to this, the organization's other systems will not matter. In systems thinking, all of the systems within an organization need to be aligned in order to achieve the strategic objectives, so when the culture is misaligned with the other systems, it is then much more difficult to drive strategy forward.

Systems thinking seeks to align structures and culture with goals -- these are interrelated components that require a high degree of congruence in order for the goals to be met. Thus, managers need to ensure that this alignment exists. Goals should reflect what the organization wants to achieve, but only if it can align the systems and culture. Changing long-time systems and culture can be difficult, and take…… [read more]

CEO Proposal for Rewards Professional Writing

… Email to the CEO --Request for benefits

To the CEO,


I would take this opportunity to request you to strongly consider the case of awarding rewards for the employees apart from the benefits. I suggest that thus reward be given in the form of gift vouchers to the employees. I strongly believe that this reward would go a long way in providing recognition for the good work done by the employees and act as a means to encouragement for them to motivate them to work harder.

Generation of new ideas and contribution of the employees to put in their best efforts to work is possible through the system of rewards. Better performance by employees would lead to better business functionality which would ultimately help to further improve the company performance in both the aspects - financial and non-financially (Nujjoo & Meyer, 2012).

I also urge you to consider giving rewards in a manner that is other than financial compensation. While verbal praise and recognition are advisable from managers and team leaders is desirable, a non-financial reward has been found to be associated with employee task performance, satisfaction, productivity, organizational citizenship behaviors, turnover and satisfaction (Okojie, 2011). A feeling of trust in their efforts would lead employees to better their efforts. The motivation for employees that comes along with rewards is one of the primary factors that improve employee performance at work.

This strategy has been effectively used by almost all the top companies in business. At Procter & Gamble, the Short-Term Achievement Reward or the STAR program is a form of an annual bonus that is given to motivate and reward the employees who have been outstanding in achieving short-term business results. Though this is a financial incentive it is apart from the general monthly and yearly financial benefits. Achievers in the company are provided an amount that is calculated by multiplying the base salary and the STAR target percent ("Short-Term Achievement Reward Program - Procter & Gamble Co. - FindLaw," 2016).

At Volvo Car UK had used a motivation initiative for employees to boost the sales of its SE Lux brand and the executive level vehicles. Termed the Volvo's Hub program, the rewards ranged from spending…… [read more]

African Business Ethical Theory Research Paper

… African Approaches to Ethics and Ethical Theory

The evolution of the modern business environment has led to the rapid development of the concept of leadership as well as the expectations that are placed on contemporary for-profit and not-for-profit organizational leadership. This has prompted many academic disciplines to study leadership from many different perspectives and there have been countless leadership models and theories that have arisen to attempt to account for the factors that inherent in effective leadership. However, at the same time, it seems to be the case that some leadership styles are more or less effective in certain circumstances and there can be multiple paths to being an effective leader. Furthermore, to add another layer of complexity to the role of modern leadership, today's leaders must also factor in extended sets of stakeholders into much of their decision making as well as a greater consideration of environmental impacts that a company's operations may have on a local, or even global, level. This analysis will consider another level of investigation that is relevant to leadership which can be thought of as the cultural context that leaders operate within and the role that ethics play within this context. Furthermore, the corporate governance and corporate social responsibility (CSR) trends will be compared and contrasted between Western firms and African organizations.

Literature Review

Leadership is abstract and difficult to define concept that has prompted virtually countless theories from both within and outside the academic community. Some of the more popular models that have been produced within academia include models such as the charismatic, transformational, authentic, servant and spiritual leadership models and there are also six common leadership development practices that include 360-degree feedback, mentoring, coaching, networks, job assignment and action learning (Pinnington, 2011). Although mainstream leadership development has attempted to standardize as much of the leadership role as possible, although many believe that leadership is as much as art as it is a science and is difficult to standardize. Furthermore, the primary objectives of leadership can also vary with the context and some researchers have proposed that an argument can readily be advanced in favor of a different approach to leadership and its development, whenever the 'primary aim is civic and social change rather than performance' (Pinnington, 2011).

Yet, even within this trajectory, there are also many subtle differences in what can be considered appropriate drivers of civic and social change. For example, some have argued that the mainstream corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda was largely driven by the concerns and priorities of western countries and therefore tends to be insensitive to local priorities (Idemudia, 2011). As a…… [read more]

Jp Morgan S Organization Analysis Essay

… Organization Analysis of JP Morgan

Analysis of organization, its development and change, can be understood better by looking at the Bolman and Deal's four-frame model (2003). From the insights acquired in the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology and political science,… [read more]

Industry Analysis for Aviation SWOT

… SWOT Analysis - American Airlines






Strategic location of airports and hubs through a well thought out strategy

Strong Hub positions in Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami and Chicago

Strong presence in major business hubs all around the U.S. to cater to business fliers

Identified and recognized to have the best customer loyalty program and customer amenities and services

Strong brand image that boasts of many new routes since 2010

Great image about the onboard entertainment content

Has a strong fleet of more than 600 carriers and a wide reach of over 250 destinations

Among the oldest carriers in the industry, well established brand name and recognized as the only old and legacy carrier that have not filed for bankruptcy.

Confidence of the investor in the company is high due to excellent cash flow in the company

Returns on investments are highly rated

Advantages of enrollment of more than 50 million customers along with a high proportion of the seating level among legacy carriers

Equipped with the highest proportion of redeemable seating capacity and which is amongst the highest in the category of legacy airlines (Forbes & Lederman, 2009)


The Financial position of the company over the years is a cause for concern

The company has lost some market share to the LCCs and the other competitive players in the segment

Inability of staying in competition for long international flights when compared to other foreign carriers and rivals which tend to dominate the industry with their quality services

Fuel hedging contracts and agreements are not possible due to the weak financial position of the company

Financial analysts continue to forecast not so good profit margins for the company

Union and labor issues in the company have been pulling back the company and are stumbling blocks in the path success and economical gains

Over dependence in the resurgence in demand and not taking enough steps boost demand and growth

Along with the weakness o the West Coast, the airline is plagued by its inability to reach the Asian markets due to this factor (Mudde & Sopariwala, n.d.)

Low credit ratings have disabled the company from entering into lease agreements and forming parts of alliances.

Profits drained due to internal flight amenities

Lack of competitive pricing strategy to attract the casual traveler


Can gain economically and financially by leveraging on code share agreement with a number of airlines through alliances

Take advantage of low fuel costs globally which is favorable to offer long haul flights

Growth of HDTV…… [read more]

Future Case Study

… American Airline

Overview of Company & its external environment

Industry analysis

Financial Analysis

Position of the company in 5 years at present Strategy and Objectives

Strategies recommend as CEO

Competitive Strategies used by the Main Competitors

Overview of Company & its external environment

About American Airline

American Airlines operates around 3400 daily flights and provides services to 250 cities in 40 countries. The company has around 700 aircraft. Even though the parent company -- AMR, was founded in 1982 and has a major airline in the U.S. for over a quarters of a century.

American Airlines acquired the near bankrupt Transworld Airlines in early 2001 even as the airline flights were the target of the September 11, 2001, attacks. The company was hard hit by the incident -- perhaps more than the incident had over the rest of the industry and the world as a whole. The financials of the company had not been good since 2001 till about the next seven years. it has however managed to claw back into the realm of profits since then. It is recognized as a legacy airline (, 2016).

Industry analysis

As in other parts of the world, the U.S. airline industry is very competitive. The industry is distinctly divided into the majors and discount carriers. Low pricing strategies are employed by discount carriers which are cutting profit margins of majors to a significant degree (Ben-Yosef, 2005). For example, American Airlines was ranked the world's largest airline in terms of passenger miles carried in 2004 and yet the company did drastically in terms of operational profits. Political instability in certain parts of the world as in the Middle East and Western Africa have hampered the international flight operations for international carriers like American Airlines. One the other hand several economic factors are also tending to impede sector growth. With the slowing down of the Chinese economy, a shadow of the global economic slowdown has been cast. This has reduced air traffic and investments to a certain extent. On the other hand, however, the very low fuel costs due to lowering of crude oil costs globally has given an opportunity to the airline to enhance profits. Stricter emission standards and environment regulations all around the world means that the airline now has to induct more environmentally friendly technologies on the aircraft and replace old fleets which are cost-intensive propositions (Augustine, n.d.).

Financial Analysis

The latest and the critical financial ratios of American airlines can give a good idea of not only the financial health of the company but also the manner in which the company is being run and would provide a base for predicting the future prospects of the company.

The current ratio, the quick ratio and the cash of the company have been very steady for the company at around 80%, 75% and 60% respectively over the last four years. this indicates that the company has a comfortable cash reserve and liquidity position and enough resources to serve its short-term debts (,… [read more]

Analysis of Two Oil Companies Research Paper

… Exxon and Chevron Comparison

Analysis of the Accounting Years of 2012 and 2013

Single-step Vs. Multi-step Income Statements

The single-step and multi-step income statements differ significantly and each form of the financial statement has a set of advantages and disadvantages associated with it. An income statement is basically the financial summary of the company's performance over a specific period of time. Different sizes and different types of companies with different filing statuses are often required to submit different forms of income statements. Typically, smaller companies are allowed to file a single-step income statement which allow the accountants to prepare the entire company's performance into a single statement and which is condensed at appears at the top of the statement.

The advantage of this type of filing statement is that relatively simple and straightforward. Investors, or any other stakeholders, can quickly and easily get a brief glimpse of the overall company performance without any need for further analysis. However, since the information is condensed, there is not much insight into the areas of operations that were the sources of the profitability (or loss) that was reported. By contrast, a multi-step income statement offers more detailed information about gross profit and operating profit as well as include information about indirect gains and losses that affect the income statement (Investopedia, N.d.). Therefore, investors and analysts can have access to more detailed information about the performance and financial health of a company.

Exxon vs. Chevron

Exxon (Google Finance, N.d.)

2013 (Millions)

2012 (Millions)

Gross Profit



Operating Profit



Net Income



Chevron (Google Finance, N.d.)

Gross Profit



Operating Profit



Net Income



Both Chevron and Exxon saw a drop in both their total revenue and gross profits between 2012 and 2013. Each company also experienced a shrinking profit margin over these two years. This trend could likely be explained by the increase in the cost of goods sold, which in this case would be petroleum products. As oil becomes more difficult to extract from the ground, the associated costs with extraction also increase. Although would explain the reduced profit margins that the companies reported, it would not explain the total revenue decrease since production costs would not be illustrated in these figures. Therefore, there must have been either decreased consumer demand for oil (which is probably not the case since global demand continues to rise) or that competitors have been gaining market share. In fact, a quick search revealed that Exxon has production problems in the last few years and more recently OPEC companies have also been flooding the market with cheap oil (Tracz, 2013).

Financial Ratios

Price to earnings ratio (P/E)

The P/E ratio tells analyst how much an investor in common stock pays per dollar of current earnings (Stock Analysis on Net, N.d.).

Exxon - Price to earnings (P/E)

Dec 31, 2013 10.27

Dec 31, 2012 8.04

Chevron - Price to earnings (P/E)

Dec 31, 2013 10.2

Dec 31, 2012 8.1

PSR Ratio… [read more]

Four Frames of Leadership Essay

… Leadership

The author of this report has been asked to write a report regarding leadership and ethics in organizations. The author has been asked to choose between a non-profit situation or public organization and the author went for the latter.… [read more]

Cost Benefit Analysis of Technology Essay

… ¶ … confines of this document focuses on the question of how cost benefit analysis should figure into technology decisions and what other factors might exist. There is also the question of whether world-class organizations always spend top dollar and go for the highest technology solution available. The author of this response will answer those questions and will give rationales for each answer. While having the best technology is a good thing, there are other factors that are as important or more important depending on the situation.

Before going any further, it should be stated by the author that spending big money on a technology solution is less than wise unless the benefits truly are there and there is supreme confidence that the solution will be implemented properly and correctly. Just as one example, there is a software solution known as enterprise resource planning that is often touted as a one-stop solution by the vendors that offer it. However, enterprise resource planning software solutions are far from easy to implement and they are even further from being cookie-cutter in nature. Due to this and due to a minor or major lack of due diligence when planning and implementing enterprise resource planning solutions, so many implementations stutter or fail outright (Wailgum, 2009). The same principle can and should be applied to technology solutions in general. First off, any cost-benefit analysis needs to be based on real data and realistic expectations. There can be no lofty presumptions and/or data that is clearly not supported by the facts. The best facts are those that pertain to the organization in question but any software solution is going to have its success and failure stories. Hopefully, the solution chosen is more the former than the latter.

With that being said, going cheap on technology is unforgivable and can lead to major problems. Just as one example, the fact that the Internal Revenue Service ostensibly has Windows XP still running on its workstations is abysmal and extremely sad all at the same time. Not only is that operating system nearly a generation old, it is no longer actively supported and Microsoft did support it a lot longer than they really should have given that Windows 7 was doing just fine (Keizer, 2015). Windows 8 sputtered a bit but Windows 10 is also doing pretty well in light of the fact that Microsoft is not really charging for it (yet). Saving and scrimping when it comes to technology is all well and good but it can quickly be done to excess. Using outmoded and out of date software will eventually be a drag on productivity, network performance and the ability to give timely and proper support to customers.

Another lesson that should be learned without personally going through it is that incremental updates are always better than huge jumps, and for more than one reason. First, making bigger leaps is more expensive. Second, a big shift all at once can lead to growing pains and a sharper… [read more]

Retail Sales Essay

… Denver Department Stores

The author of this report has been asked to look at a test case situation where the management of Denver Department Stores has unsuccessfully launched and used a tally card system as a means to hopefully increase department sales. The results, however, have been quite poor and the author of this report has been asked to evaluate the system and perhaps figure out what could or should have been differently. The parts of the analysis will be presented in four stages, those being the definition of the problem, the solution, the actions that can be done and an evaluation of those actions as they are implemented. While Denver Department Stores surely had good motives when they implemented the tally card system, things have gone horribly wrong and there needs to be an adjustment.



The initial problem with Denver Department Stores was that sales were declining. This was attributed to the fledgling local and national economy. It was further deemed that there was not enough foot traffic in the store for there to be enough sales given current patterns and buyer versus browser rates when people came into the store. It was assessed that some of the salespeople would have to be let go as employees due to the decline. So as to help fetter out the "dead wood," as they called it, they went to a tally card system so that people could add up their sales for the day. There was a very rough start to this as the full-time people would lose their cards and/or do an incomplete job of filling out the cards completely. Further, it was made clear to the people in the sales department that they would be cut loose if they were unable or unwilling to both tally up their sales accurately and get the sales they needed to justify their presence in the store. It was clear pretty early on that the tally card system and the associated firing axe that would come to those that did not measure up had an effect as salespeople became super-aggressive and harassing of customers. This manifested in customers being approached multiple times to the point of being excessive. This surely came off as rude and off-putting to the customer. As this wore on, the condition and patterns of the store clearly deteriorated and the situation was just made worse.


The precise thing that the management was trying to do is not beyond the pale. Indeed, if there is not enough business to justify employees being on the payroll (sales or non-sales) and/or if a salesperson is not performing at the necessary level (assuming that level is realistic), then something has to be done. However, going to a tally card system and making it crystal clear that the salespeople who do not perform will be cut loose is the entirely wrong way to go about this. First of all, there are ways to measure how many sales a person gets without… [read more]

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