"Transportation / Mass Transit" Essays

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NTSB Party and Investigative Process Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The National Transport Safety Board is a federal agency that was established in 1967 to carry out independent investigations of civil aviation accidents in America and major disasters in other transportation modes in the country. Since NTSB is not part of the Department of Transportation nor associated with any of the department's modal agencies, it has no enforcement or regulatory powers. In essence, this organization is an independent federal accident investigation body, whose main work is to determine probable causes of accidents in the transportation sector, especially aviation industry. Upon completion of its investigation, NTSB creates safety recommendations to enhance transportation safety. However, factual information obtained from NTSB's investigations cannot be used as evidence in a court of law since its focus is on enhancing transportation safety.

The National Transport Safety Board conducts investigations of nearly 2,000 aviation accidents and events annually as well as 500 accidents in other transportation modes such as pipeline, rail, marine, and highway. The organization comprises approximately 400 employees, which has contributed to its leveraging resources in order to accomplish its responsibilities and tasks. One of the major ways through which NTSB leverages its resources to accomplish its tasks is through the party process, which involves designating other companies or organizations as parties to its investigations ("The Investigative Process at NTSB," n.d.).

The main parties in NTSB party process include the FAA, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Nonetheless, NTSB also designates other federal and state agencies as well as law enforcement agencies to carry out additional investigations for enforcement purposes. Generally, the organization has full discretion in deciding the agency or corporation to enlist as parties to the investigation. In most cases, organizations or corporations that are enlisted and granted party status are those that can offer expertise to the investigation. On the other hand, NTSB also permits agencies or…… [read more]

Traffic Congestion in Cities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,285 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


They are still content that the traffic problem does not involve cars and the number of motor vehicles in the city has significantly decreased in recent years.

While population density plays an important role in creating traffic jams, it is not the only thing that matters when considering this topic. Infrastructure is also extremely important, taking into account that streets specially designed to deal with traffic jams can be effective in reducing congestion levels and enabling people to travel with less stress. When considering London, congestion is a significant problem. The fact that the city was not initially designed to fit motorists is among the main reasons why this problem occurs. Even with the fact that authorities have struggled to create roads that are as wide as possible in order for motorists to experience little to no problems, conditions are still problematic in the city with narrow streets being too difficult to deal with by the constantly growing number of drivers.

Sao Paolo is yet another city with a density much lower in comparison to Paris. This does not stop traffic jams from actually being comparable to the ones in the French capital. Some jams in the city have been reported to be as long as 180km. This paints a vivid picture of the gravity of the situation there, with drivers struggling to make it in a system that is not exactly driver-friendly.


The people in the metropolitan area are geographically located in proportion to the city in a way that advantage it. The economical and cultural value of France largely relates on Paris and it thus need to function perfectly. The fact that the city is located in an area where it rarely happens for people to experience extremely high or extremely low temperature makes it possible for the environment to be somewhat welcoming. The Ocean is largely responsible for this, as it affects its climate, this meaning that it is largely invulnerable to the more critical meteorological conditions that can sometimes be experienced by areas that are more inland.


The numerous canals in Amsterdam make it a city where driving a boat is an intriguing opportunity. The two rivers flowing in its vicinity, Ij and Amstel, contribute to making water a particularly usual thing. "Amsterdam's main canals -- such as Singel, Prinsen, Keizers, and Heren -- are intersected by numerous short waterways, dividing the city into about 90 islands that are linked by more than 1,200 bridges." (Geography of Amsterdam) People often relate to the city as being the Venice of the north.

The increase in the number of bicycles is certainly among the main reasons why the traffic problem in Amsterdam has been reduced significantly during recent decades. With the authorities encouraging bicyclists through building more and more roads specially designed for this means of transport, conditions are constantly improving in this regard. The city's numerous canals make it quieter, this working perfectly along with bikes in turning the city into a location where one… [read more]

Consumer Behavior: Segmentation, Targeting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These optional upgrades are a major catalyst for targeted marketing, particularly through the airlines' own credit cards. Generally, though, some differences between the flight class segments are relatively stable. For instance, when an airline creates a customer persona for First Class travelers, one attribute is a lack of price sensitivity. First Class travelers value convenience, special treatment, exclusivity, and traveler status over price. Business Class travelers must often meet corporate requirements for flying and so are forced to be price sensitive; but Business Class travelers are also quite likely to hold annual passes for flight clubs, like Red Carpet rooms. Economy Class travelers do tend to be price sensitive, but they will upgrade to gain additional legroom and a roomier seat, and are often on the lookout for opportunities to avail themselves of perks in Business Class.

Compare and Contrast - JetBlue and Southwest. While American Airlines and U.S. Airways were required by the Justice Department to sell their takeoff and landing rights at Ronald Reagan National Airport in Washington DC as a condition of their merger, Southwest and JetBlue took their place (Mouawad, 2014). Airports, such as Reagan National and La Guardia, have only so many slots for takeoffs and landings each day because of air traffic congestion, so these scarce slots are a valuable competitive edge (Mouawad, 2014). Moreover, January 2014 finds Southwest making plans to fly to the Caribbean and internationally, apparently closing the gap between the national airline company and international carriers, such as JetBlue.

Contrast JetBlue and Southwest Airlines in terms of the following two aspects:

1.Compare and explain the impact of key external factors on each company (e.g., economic conditions and the growing consumer interest in leisure travel).


Low cost carriers like Southwest and JetBlue started out with a domestic flight agenda, focusing on shorter routes with no frills (Stellin, 2012). But the carriers grew, the airlines industry changed, and the low cost airlines began eyeing the market south of the border (Stellin, 2012). JetBlue now flies as far south as Columbia, and Southwest has expanded into international air through its acquisition of AirTran Airways, which makes flights to several Caribbean countries and Mexico (Stellin, 2012). Airlines are vigorous consumers of market research -- they know what their customers want and they know what customer preferences they can ignore -- at least for a time. Business travel may be down a notch or two, but leisure travel is very big business, seeming only to have tapered off in the short run because of global disruptions and catastrophe.


Mouawad, J. (2104, January 30). Southwest and JetBlue buy Washington airport rights. Business Day. New York, NY: The New York Times. Accessed http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/31/business/southwest-and-jetblue-add-flights-at-reagan-national-and-la-guardia.html?ref=southwestairlinescompany

Rothman, A., & Jasper, C. (2011). The unbearable heaviness of business class. Business Week (December 19)1. Available 5/4/12 through EBSCO database. Structure of the airline industry (n.d.). Littleton, CO: Avjobs. Available 5/4/12 at: http://www.avjobs.com/history/structure-of-the-airline-industry.asp

Stellin, S. (2012, September 12). Budget airlines fly south. Travel -- The Getaway. New York, NY: The New… [read more]

Bike-Sharing in New York City Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mike Nuttle: Be alert and aware and make noise. Have a bell, have lights on your bike. You know New York is a busy place, so the more you're talking and alert to your surroundings the safer you'll be.u

Host: However, not all New Yorkers are happy with the new program, like this seasoned bike messenger. Messenger: They don't know what they are doing. They're reckless.

Host: And because of the risk, some people are not persuaded that biking is a viable alternative means of transportation.

Scared lady: I'm afraid I'm going to be hit by a bus. I don't have a helmet available; I won't rent them until I get on that at the very least.u

Host: However, Nuttle says she shouldn't be afraid.

Mike Nuttle: Now biking is safer than ever. Bicycling has quintupled over the last decade or so with the number of people riding bikes. But the number of crashes has actually gone down over the same time.

Host: Nuttle hopes that the more people bike, the safer it will be.

Mike Nuttle: There's the safety in numbers effect that we talk a lot about here. That the more people you have riding bikes the more aware drivers are of our existence on the street and less likely crashes become.u

Host: Lawyer Flanzig agrees.

Dan Flanzig: My philosophy is that this is a shared street.

Host: Just remember: no riding on the sidewalk, cyclists! Keep your eyes open…and perhaps a good lawyer on your speed dial. (Sound of a bike bell in the distance).… [read more]

Air Transportation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Air Transportation

The exam proposal covered within this brief report is meant to illustrate and otherwise show the proper and full comprehension of all relevant program outcomes of the Master of Aeronautical Science Degree with a specialization in the area of Aviation Aerospace Operations. The main topics covered include the transportation and other handling of airline passengers in public airports around the United States. This includes security handlings, proper corralling and handling of passengers during the boarding process, during the flight and disembarking when the flight is done as well as handling ad hoc emergency and/or unusual situations such as disruptive passengers, medical emergencies and technical issues with the plan.

Comprehensive Exam Project Proposal

Comprehensive Exam

Statement of the Question

Airport security has always been a touchy subject with very disparate points-of-view. Some push the importance of effectively screening and clearing passengers before they take off while others say that the tactics used by the TSA are over-the-top, invasive or even ineffectual. There was a definite swing to the safety/security side of the spectrum after the horrific and tragic events of 9/11 in the United States but not all of the libertarian and other concerns relative to airport security have been quelled even after those terrible acts (TSA, 2013).

One major point of contention has been the use of "naked body" scanners that basically digitally undress a person, which brews major privacy concerns, and then there is the question of whether the scanners are even effective at what they are supposed to do. Another major point of problems is the use of actual pat-down searches for people that, for whatever reason, do not pass security through the usual means and/or are otherwise picked out for advanced search techniques (TSA, 2013).

A major wrinkle that clouds all of the above is the fact that many terrorists are Muslim males from 18 to 34 years old and yet while some countries, like Israel, unapologetically profile passengers, the United States government and the TSA in particular has roundly rejected this tactic as being punitive and unfair to Muslims. However, while that is a valid point it is perhaps is a bit maddening to some to see people that are disabled, very young, very old, or otherwise completely absent of the profile that even an advanced security expert would expect from someone with nefarious intentions is being frisked, detained or otherwise hassled at an airport when they have done nothing wrong (TSA, 2013).

Finding a middle ground that appeases all sides is quite elusive and there is little expectation that this will change anytime soon. Even so, the news is not all bad. For example, the naked body scanners referenced before are being steadily replaced with ones that do much the same thing but without the graphic detail of the early machines. Similarly, other softer techniques like no-fly lists and other pre-screening tactics are often quite effective at keeping people off planes due to the greatly enhanced security of state drivers licenses… [read more]

U.S. Statistics Indicate That 80 Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  25 pages (8,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


The key thrust for performance excellence is to establish a culture of continuous improvement and innovation that builds upon a strong foundation of quality, professionalism and team excellence always.

Researcher's Work Setting and Role

The researcher has been an officer of the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF)

for 10 years. The researcher has held the equivalent rank of Major… [read more]

Individual Automobile Safety Technology Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Both of these provisions point to the important of after sales activity with regard to attracting and retaining customers ("KPMG," 2012). Retailer profitability is substantively impacted by after sales service of automobiles, but the possibility of differentiation in this arena is difficult and remote ("KPMG," 2012). However, the evolving technology trends in the industry may provide a boon to retailers… [read more]

Polluted, Emphasis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Other bicycle retailers include Century Cicles, Freewheel Bike, Gregg Cycle or Free-Flite Bicycles.

The average bicycle retailer sells an estimated 650 bicycles per year, but it also sells equipments, parts, accessories and provides complementary services (The NBDA Statpak, 2011). The very provision of these complementary services, combined with competitive prices, represents the means by which the bicycle retailers create points… [read more]

Electric Car Manual Instruction Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,931 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


The Nissan Leaf will even locate with GPS the closest electric refilling stations.

Figure 5 - Electric Charging Station (Singh, 2010)

Driving the electric vehicle has two primary differences when compared to traditional vehicles as well. Again the lack of engine noise is noticeable. Many people are somewhat disoriented when they do not hear the car accelerate as they would in gasoline powered vehicle. Another difference is that the source of power is more immediate in an electric vehicle because this power supply does not dependent on the engine reeving up for it to supply its power. In fact, some of the electric sports cars are among the fastest cars in the world in regards to initial acceleration. In an electric vehicle the battery gives the car its power instantaneously and without any delay. Although companies regulate this power so that it simulates a gas powered car, many drivers will notice a different feel in acceleration since the power supply is constant.

Another substantial difference in owning an electrical vehicle will be refueling the car. In a gasoline powered car it takes minutes to refuel the vehicle and there is an infrastructure currently already in existence to support drivers. People often take the availability of this power source for granted. An electric vehicle on the other hand requires four to twenty hours to reach a full charge, depending on the power supply available. For most people on daily commutes, this will not provide any inconvenience. However, for longer trips, the electric vehicle will be more complicated and require substantial planning or may not be possible at all. Once an infrastructure is built to support the electric vehicle, there will be more options for long distance travel. However, such a trip will still undoubtedly require substantially longer timeframes for refueling compared to traditional technology.

Figure 6 - Electric Refueling Station in a Private Garage (Krisher, 2011)

Works Cited

Hybrid Cars. (2012). Electric Cars: A Definitive Guide. Retrieved from Hybrid Cars: http://www.hybridcars.com/electric-car

Krisher, T. (2011, March 31). Thinking of an electric car? Get your garage ready. Retrieved from Fuel Fix: http://fuelfix.com/blog/2011/03/31/thinking-of-an-electric-car-get-your-garage-ready/

Silicon Prairies Social. (2012, March 29). Naperville Embraces Electric Vehicles with Charging Stations. Retrieved from The Top Suburban Tech Stories and Events: http://www.siliconprairiesocial.com/tag/electric-car/

Singh, T. (2010, October 08). Massachusetts Set To Install 100 EV Charging Stations! Retrieved from Inhabitat: http://inhabitat.com/Massachusetts-set-to-install-100-ev-charging-stations/

The Auto Channel. (2008, May 11). Overview of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology and the impacts that PHEVs will have on Load, Generation Costs and Emissions. Retrieved from The Auto Channel: http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2008/05/12/086616.html… [read more]

Crash Investigation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Bush Crash Investigations

Whether they are school-age children or senior citizens, passengers riding in busses naturally assume that the driver is performing his or her duties carefully and safely, and passengers also believe that the bus would not be on the highways if it were unsafe in any way. Those assumptions turn out to be faulty on certain occasions, and… [read more]

Transportation Security in Airports Evaluation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The most common factors include the complications that security guards face when tuning the detector, as elements such as depth, width, height and general proximity to the ordnance will surely affect how the detector will function. The person operating the device might also develop health related issues, due to the length of time used for attention and listening to hear if the detector produces the beeping sound.

In addition, the detectors give many false alarm sounds. Almost all the metallic objects, including those close to the target will trigger the detector to produce the sound of the alarm. This happens mostly due to the strong signals designed within the metal detector. Because the detector will react differently according to the levels of detection set by the operator, it is upon the operator to ensure the machine is well set to reduce the amounts of false detections, hence increasing functionality of the gadget. If the operator sets the metal detector differently from the intended position, then it is most likely to cause interference (MacDonald & Mendez, 2005).

Different screening measure for the security team

The security team could conduct their screening process using diverse measures, many of which have been successful previously. Some of the measures include conducting passenger checks just to determine identification, following criminal records that are provided in the airports database. Detection in case of criminal records will be conducted through finger print procedures. It is advisable that all the airport operators get coordinators who will train the security team on the particulars of insecurity detection (Elias, 2009). The team responsible for security will use both large body scanners, and detection machines for explosive material tracing. If instituted well, then these strategies and measures could curb the present cases of insecurity.


Elias, B. (2009) Securing General Aviation. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishers.

MacDonald, J. & Mendez, C. (2005) Unexploded Ordnance Cleanup Costs: implications of alternative protocols. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation Publishers.

Tiebert, L. (2009) Frommer's Chicago with Kids.…… [read more]

New Trucking Hours of Service Rule Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … new trucking hours of service rule will take effect in the United States that will have important implications for over-the-road trucking companies and their professional drivers. To gain some fresh insights into these implications, the purpose of this paper was to use the three value system comprised of law, morality, and social responsibility in the application of different… [read more]

Air Cargo Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


History Of Air Cargo Industry

The history of the air cargo industry in a very real way mirrors the history of air transportation. This paper reviews the history of air transportation and how those visionaries that pre-dated the emergence of air transport helped the industry grow and spread. Moreover, the paper will include the advancement of air transport in World… [read more]

Transportation Motor Carriers Have Populated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Onboard cameras can also video record any unusual occurrences, a detriment to thieves and nefarious characters who wish to abscond with ill-gotten gains.

The final two considerations that trucking companies in the future will attempt to fulfill include capacity and flexibility. With the earlier consolidations and mergers, many of today's carriers have a much greater capacity to haul loads across the United States. Large corporations who are in need of that capacity will likely contract with carriers who can give them a fair price, reliable shipping, and the capacity to handle large shipments. Carriers who are flexible with regard to those factors will also be the most successful, while those carriers who do not adapt to the more competitive environment will likely find themselves on the outside looking in.


Archetti, C. & Savelsbergh, M.; (2009) The trip scheduling problem, Transportation Science, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 417-431

Dobie, K.; (2005) The core shipper concept: A proactive strategy for motor freight carriers, Transportation Journal, Vol. 44, Issue 2, pp. 37 -- 53

Lang, A.B.; (2011) Transportation technology: Rail transport and logistics, Technology and Engineering Teacher, Vol. 70, Issue 8, pp. 12 -- 17

Murphy, P. & Wood, D.; (2008) Contemporary logistics, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

New rules regulate work and sleep schedules for commercial truck drivers; (2006) Public Roads, Vol. 69, issue 4, p. 12

Randall, W.S.; Defee, C.C.; Brady,…… [read more]

Land Use and Traffic Characteristics Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … land use and traffic characteristics of the current situation and uses these relationships to estimate future traffic dynamics given proposed or estimated future land use and proposed transportation network developments (Patriksson, 1994, p. 9). In this way, model analysis is similar to scenario planning, by which stakeholders develop alternative concepts of a community's future and the implementation plans to realize those visions (Weiner, 2008).

Model analysis is more conceptual in nature than cost-benefit analysis. While cost-benefit analysis has some conceptual elements, it is fundamentally a financial analysis. Cost-benefit analysis aims to establish a few key understandings. One is to discover what are the long-term funding needs for proposed projects. Another is to make plain the financial consequences and implications of different transportation improvement alternatives. Through cost-benefit analysis, one estimates project costs, predicts yearly funding needs, and helps spur thinking about appropriate financing options. These considerations compose the cost portion of the analysis (Benz, 1999, p. 305). Benefits include such variables as savings in travel time, safety enhancements, reduced vehicle repair costs. Each of these elements can be represented in financial terms (Benz, 1999, pp. 310-311).

This author advocates using a combination of analysis methods. Model analysis is a kind of brainstorming that can help expand the range of options, alternatives, and possibilities for solving a problem or improving a situation. The cost-benefit approach is necessary for making sure that all the stakeholders know what is feasible and what may not be affordable. Together, they complement one another, providing a kind of right brain, left brain completeness. Moreover, employing a combination of methods serves to gather a more comprehensive body of information that takes into consideration more perspectives, which in most cases should have a positive impact on decision-making outcomes.

Including many perspectives in one's analyses is important when considering the array of political elements involved in urban transportation planning. Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels play vital roles in city transportation planning, decision-making, and funding. Non-governmental interest groups such as environmentalism groups, chambers of commerce, neighborhood associations, bicycling advocacy clubs, and historic preservation societies…… [read more]

Department of Transportation and Airport Landing Slots Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


FAA Airline Slots Marketing

The United States government itself should not only allow the slots to be marketed, it should employ a person without formal ties to any of the airlines to market the slots at a profit to generate revenue for the government during a time of severe recession (or any time for that matter). While the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been accused of favoring regulatory approaches over non-regulatory approaches Alfred F. Kahn's "special kind of idiocy" can be applied here as well when government creates the market and is not allowed to control the sale of the product or service it produces ("Case Studies on Public Management," p. 2).

The following arguments support my recommendation:


While there may have been too much regulation at the beginning of the Reagan administration, the pendulum has certainly swung the other way by now.


If the FAA to relinquish control over such an important part of the nation's transportation system, why not do so over the road system as well? This is simply because the system is too diverse to allow multiple companies to be calling the shots overall. If taxpayer money is used in the buildup of the network, then it must also be allowed a commanding presence in the distribution of slots in the system it helped to build. This would address Representative Norm Mineta's concern (ibid, p. 1).


This author's position is a compromise between the previous slot allocation system and an all out free market auction. It accommodates both ends of the spectrum. It employs the free market and yet keeps the government fully in the loop with regard to regulating the slot allocations. The ancillary benefit is a source of revenue for the case strapped Federal government during a long recession.

The counter-arguments are as follows:


The market is the best way to regulate supply and demand disparities in any case.

artificial action will…… [read more]

Electric Car Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The price and demand for oil will also impact the alternative fuel industry, and just like the gulf oil spill, these are factors that are difficult to predict.

Global Influences

One unpredictable aspect of the 2020 outlook is how markets would be affected if more stringent and consistent legislation is adopted that supports specific technologies ("J.D. Power"). In particular, China… [read more]

Maglev Train Magnetic Levitation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Magnetic-Levitation Trains

Today, innovations in transportation technologies have significantly improved the energy efficiency, CO2 emission rates and safety of aircraft, the railroad and trucking industries as well as automobiles. Although these innovations have provided some improvements compared to the past, there remains a desperate need to identify ways to improve these technologies even further to reduce carbon emissions, improve performance… [read more]

Importing From Asia/Europe to the United States Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Importing from Asia/Europe to the United States

There are a variety of issues that logistics managers and other individuals involved with the international shipping of freight, including practical differences in the types of shipping containers used in certain instances, differences in the use of terminology and the standardization of agreements, as well as United States' laws and regulations concerning imports. Though intermodal transport containers for rail and maritime shipping have largely been standardized, European agencies have noted a lessened degree of use of these intermodal containers by many European shippers. Rail shipping in the United States can utilize the standard shipping containers, but European goods may need to be repacked into such containers at some point, either in European ports or upon arrival into the United States. There are also certain differences in the exact specifications for some containers used in Asia and Europe and those used in the United States, and ensuring compatibility with existing rail and truck transport options in the United States would be necessary for those overseeing such transport.

There can also be differences in terminology used in trade in the United States/North America and that used in Europe, and exact definitions of responsibility and expectations needs to be clarified by freight managers. Finally, the various environmental and security regulations of the United States're not really aligned with those in use by the larger international community. Goods arriving through United States' ports must all meet the criteria of packing and container strength, with emissions records intact, in order to meet with U.S. regulations.

The Use of New Container Tracking Devices

There are several ways in which the use of new container tracking devices will improve the shipment of goods. Essentially, of course, all benefits derived from these tracking devices will stem from the ability to remotely, instantly, and continuously track shipping containers and even palettes and smaller shipments, which is itself dependent on radio and Internet technologies and the global satellite network that powers telecommunications. By incorporating these tracking devices into standard shipping containers and other packaging, companies (and governments, when and where necessary) can track packages to improve efficiency in both shipping times and the utilization of transport equipment, provide more accurate information to customers, and increase security through a greater certainty and control over the placement and volume of goods coming through any one port or traveling along a specific route both generally and at specific times.

Radio frequency identification, or RFID, employs the use of radio-signal emitting tags that can be tracked by readers often miles away, thus tracking containers and there contents (when the tags have been coded to provide such information as they pass through ports, along certain rail lines, or even past certain checkpoints in truck transport. Several international bodies have already developed standardizations for RFID tags and systems, making the use of these identification and tracking devices far more seamless. As these systems become more sophisticated, there will be a greater amount of information that can be… [read more]

Port and Terminal Operations Different Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Port and Terminal Operations

Different types of ports are discussed starting on page 7 of the textbook. After reviewing the Week 1 course materials, go to the Internet and find a port to use as an example in this assignment.

Describe the port you selected to include the type of port as well as the various services, features, terminal operations,… [read more]

Modernization in it and Its Effects Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … modernization in IT and its effects on the transportation industry

SITA a dominating leader in the sphere of IT consultancy and 'air transport communication' concluded lately a 5-year period of agreement involving services of applications that assist in addition of new competence a well as value to the prevailing product line of SITA. SITA provides and maintains business… [read more]

Organizing Processing for Effectiveness the Effective Organization Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,140 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Organizing Processing for Effectiveness

The effective organization of transportation processes is one of the most complex and challenging tasks that any planner can undertake. A system that is well planned and well organized will run both smoothly and effectively as well as be able to successfully adapt to any changes that come along. Some of the most common considerations in planning a transportation system effectively are load maximization and optimization, inventory systems, support infrastructure and resources, and the ability to adapt to real-time situations and problems that will ultimately arise from human error. All of these considerations combined help to give a transportation planner a macro view of the system, and help to give the planner an accurate inventory of the requirements necessary in planning and building an effective transportation system.

The ability to direct shipments of cargo to their required destinations sounds easier than the task often is. When a port grows to be large enough to accommodate multi-modal forms of transportation, it is often difficult to direct all the cargo. Software solutions allow managers and planners track shipments from warehouse to warehouse as well as in transit (Pinedo, 2009). All of the different stops along the way help to increase to complexity of the task. Since many trucks and ships deliver shipments to multiple ports in one trip, it is often necessary to optimize the loading of these shipments on the vehicles (Krajewska and Kopfer, 2009). If the loading is done correctly, and the shipments can be delivered in order with less time spent sorting or sifting, then the processing of freight can occur much more smoothly.

Proper loading also helps to ensure that the supply chain is utilizing optimal capacity. If the freight load increases in certain parts of the year or month, the system needs to be robust and adaptable enough to deal with these ebbs and floods (Stadtler and Kilger, 2005). Optimal capacity is not about maximizing capacity, rather it is ensuring that the shipments are sent in the most efficient, cost-effective manner (Krajewska and Kopfer, 2009). And in planning a transportation system, these considerations must be taken seriously for the supply chain to function properly. Load maximization is dependent on route maximization as well. A transportation planner who can create a supply chain and delivery system that maximizes loads both coming and going from destination to destination will also be more efficient.

All well-planned transportation systems have a traceable inventory system as well (Crainic, Ricciardi, and Storchi, 2009). This type of system allows people to see where shipments are in transit as well as once they are delivered. The accuracy of these systems is critical in being able to create solutions for delays and missed shipments. Delays and missed shipments are going to occur no matter how well organized a transportation process or system is. But being able to effectively deal with these missed shipments and delays sets apart a well-organized process from one that is not. It is very important for… [read more]

Global Supply Chain Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Supply Chain

The rapid growth of premium package services can be seen as the direct result of fairly basic economic forces at work in the supply chain and retail sector worldwide. Increasing self-service as technology progresses. Especially given the new technologies that allow for increased ordering form home and other more self-service oriented retail scenarios, retailer costs can be significantly reduced by encouraging such self-service. This reduces retailer costs, which both increases profits and reduces price to the consumers, and given the basic laws of supply and demand this creates a greater volume of sales (Regan 1960). at-home shopping depends on premium package services from a variety of international and domestic carriers, and as at-home self-service sales volume increases as a result of these economic forces, the use of such services necessarily increases as well.


Motor carriers generally have higher revenue rates than rail carriers not because they have a larger share in the percentage of freight-ton miles -- the opposite is in fact the case -- but actually because they are generally less efficient at moving goods, especially in high volumes and over long distances (Lawyer 2006). Though there is greater energy and economic efficiency for small commodity levels traveling over shorter distances when shipped by motor carriers, it is still more expensive per freight-ton mile, and hugely more so for larger commodity levels over large distances (Lawyer 2006). This cost differential is the cause for higher revenues for motor carriers than for railroad transporters; motor carriers do not necessarily post higher profits, as a larger percentage of shipment cost goes directly to the carrier's own costs than they do for rail transporters, but revenues must be higher to meet motor carrier needs (Lawyer 2006).


The primary difference between trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (TOFC) intermodal transport is the level of modality that is available for each of these types of transport. Container on flatcar transport allows for standardized shipping containers used by marine and rail transport to be stacked directly onto railway flatcars, with up to four containers per standard flatcar if they are double stacked (Thompson 1996). Trailer on flatcar transport allowed for a similar configuration, though there are greater variations in trailer sizes and thus in the amount of freight that can be shipped using this method; the lessened standardization of these trailers and their ability to roll when not on these specialized flatcars makes them less able to be utilized on different modes of transport during the overall shipping process, and thus TOFC transport is becoming more obsolete (Thompson 1996). Double stacking cane be seen as a major innovation…… [read more]

Transportation Security Administration Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Transportation Security Administration

Airport Security (A Sweeping Change)

Whole Body Scanning

Innovative Technologies

Sterile Area Access (Employee Screening)

Higher Standards For Hiring

Transport Security Administration

Security concerns are adding to the woes of the airline industry already hit by high oil prices and labor union problems. Terrorists are becoming increasingly adept in evading the conventional screening techniques. In the wake… [read more]

Gender Sexual Orientation and the City Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Gender and the City

S.F.'s Castro district faces an identity crisis and What would a nonsexist city be like

Both of these articles look at problems in urban planning combined with how different areas attract and support certain genders. The Castro article is a look at a long-standing gay neighborhood in San Francisco that is attracting heterosexual residents because of its safety, security, and convenience. The other article shows how suburban neighborhoods have few of these same features. The article about how suburbs and American housing standards do not favor women really made me think about how we live today. The author feels that American housing standards promote consumerism and a way of life that does not support women, and after reading this article, it seems that she is right. Women "buy in" to the American dream of a family owning its own home, but they are the ones that have to do most of the work to support that dream, especially if they have children. The design plan for a housing area with a restaurant and children's area is really interesting, but it seems that kind of living arrangement would never work here in this country. People want their own place, and the Castro article brings that home.

The gay community wants to keep Castro "their own," but they won't try to stop straight couples from moving in. When they move in, they will change the face of the community, and that will probably cause the Castro district to change. It is one of the largest gay communities in the world, and that is history making, so it is easy to see why they don't want to lose that. However, that being said, why can't gays and straights live together in harmony? They do in many other areas that don't have different areas, and they should be willing to share their area with others. Castro is kind of like the German, Polish, Irish, Asian, and other areas of big cities that grew up as immigrants came to this country. Today, those areas are not so standard, and they have opened up to many other…… [read more]

Understanding Travel Behavior Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,062 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Travel Behaviour

"The concept of 'mobilities' encompasses both the large-scale movements of people, objects, capital, and information across the world, as well as the more local processes of daily transportation, movement through public space, and the travel of material things within everyday life"

Howard Rheingold (2004, ¶ 5).


For a person to work; to socialize; to live,… [read more]

Luggage Transportation Curbside Check-In: If the Passenger Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Luggage Transportation

Curbside Check-in:

If the passenger opts for curbside check-in (and it is permitted under applicable security rules in effect at the time), the process begins even before the passenger enters the airport departure terminal. Curbside check-in facilities include computers capable of printing out boarding passes and luggage tags complete with barcodes to identify baggage electronically if necessary. The bags are weighed to determine whether they conform to the maximum size and weight restrictions of the airline and additional fees collected if necessary. Once the curbside attendant places the baggage on the conveyor belt, the baggage continues through the same general process as other passenger luggage destined for the plane's cargo hold.

Ticket Counter Baggage Check-in:

If the passenger opts for ticket counter, the attendant conducts the same general process as the curbside attendant and also issues a boarding pass. Different color tags and number codes corresponding to flight numbers are used to distinguish different destinations to help baggage handlers direct luggage to the appropriate internal conveyor belts. Depending on the security measures in place at a particular time, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) may conduct random inspections of passenger baggage by hand as they approach the ticket counter, in connection with which they may use an explosive detection device to identify any residual traces of explosives. Passenger luggage that is screened in this manner is then taped with special TSA security tape and secured by official seals to indicate that the bags have already been screened by hand and to ensure that the intact seals will prevent subsequent tampering until the passenger takes possession of it at the destination airport.

Currently, major U.S. airports are equipped with X-ray equipment and explosive detectors through which luggage conveyed to the cargo hold is automatically screened in the baggage handling areas. The TSA suggests that passengers leave luggage unlocked to avoid damaging locks in the event a cursory screening necessitates internal inspection of luggage contents by hand. Many passengers lock their luggage anyway, because they are more worried about thievery at the hands of baggage handlers after numerous news reports over the years implicating them in property theft from checked passenger luggage.

Baggage Handling Operations:

Whether luggage is checked at the curb or at the ticket counter, the agent normally inquires into whether any of the contents requires special handling of any kind and luggage with delicate or unusual contents are tagged with indicators signifying special handling requirements. In the baggage…… [read more]

Airport Operations KMIA Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,754 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Airport Operations: Analysis of Miami International Airport KMIA

The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of Miami International Airport from a business and operational point-of-view. This work will analyze the operating and business environment of Miami International Airport as well as analyzing the major issues and challenges faced by the airport and finally state conclusions and make… [read more]

Digital Signage System of Public Transportation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Digital Signage System of Public Transportation

Digital signage article report

As the economy worsens, more and more people are turning to public transportation as a means of commuting to work, or for leisure-time travel. However, as the 2008 article from Business Wire "Omnivex wins DIGI Award for digital signage on bus system in Norway" makes clear, America lags behind many European countries in the sophistication of its travel technology, specifically regarding digital signage system in public transportation. Norway has made a massive investment in improving information technology throughout its transportation infrastructure. One of the primary transportation companies in Norway, Fjord1, currently uses Omnivex software to manage GPS-triggered digital signage on Norway's expansive bus system. Omnivex is a Toronto-based company and the world leader in software development for digital signage networks and electronic displays managing content management, real-time data acquisition and distribution, and remote device monitoring and management of all aspects of digital signage networks.

Ironically, although the DIGI Awards are given in New York, and the company winning the award is Canadian, it is Europe, specifically the Scandinavian countries, that have made the greatest investment in digital signage systems in public transport. Gas is more expensive in these nations, and has been for many years. The sharp upturn in fuel costs in 2008 was not a surprise to Northern Europe, as gas had been prohibitively expensive for some time, turning many people into regular users of public transportation. The digital signage technology adds a unique component to every passenger's experience, making the system more user-friendly and informative for the many users of public transportation in Norway.

The digital signage installation is in four hundred of Fjord's buses as well as bus terminals. The installation for the bus system that uses GPS data to trigger which content the software shows, based on the location of the bus, highlights points of interest in the area, and also provides information about connecting buses on the schedule. The system also keeps real-time track of…… [read more]

Denver Climate Action Planning Project Carbon Dioxide Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,470 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Denver Climate Action Planning Project

Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. One recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between 2000 and 2020 will contribute to an array of environmental crises not only in the U.S., but also in countries… [read more]

New Technology- Digital Signage &amp Way Finding Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (719 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … new technology- digital signage & way finding for public transportation. Digital signage is a relatively new phenomenon used to advertise to the public in just about any arena, from airport waiting areas to the backseats of taxis. It is especially helpful in public transportation arenas, such as buses and subways.

Just what is digital signage? One expert defines it as, "Digital signage is any form of business communication where a dynamic messaging device is used to take the place of, or supplement, other forms of messaging" (Yackey 5). Digital signage is the wave of the future for public transportation, because it can provide necessary information, such as GPS signage that indicates when the next bus is coming to a bus stop and how long passengers have left to wait for that bus. In addition, digital signage can provide income for public transportation entities because they can sell advertising about local businesses located near the bus stops, adding advertising revenue to their income, which can be especially attractive during these dire economic times. An information Web site notes, "In some cases, advertising time is sold to marketers who want to reach travelers. For example, a restaurant in New York might advertise in airports nationwide, but only at the gates that have flights heading to New York" (Editors). This brings a new depth of advertising strategies to businesses and new income to public transportation entities.

The social aspect of digital signage deals with the social effects of the signage on public transportation riders. Usually, the people who ride the bus or the subway do not have much money, and they rely on public transportation to get them to their jobs, their homes, and wherever they need to travel. Everyone knows what a big role transportation plays in our society. Enjoying a useful transportation system lets us move freely around the city. As a public transportation rider, I often feel that the signs in the subway stations are not appealing and instead are confusing. It would be nicer to have digital signage system that can notify us of the next bus/subway arrival time, and it would be more efficient, too.…… [read more]

Amendment One in Florida Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (444 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Even the owners of a Florida reality company admitted that the plan had flaws: "there is always some downside to tax cutting. Somebody has to pay to continue Florida's growth...More cars are driving on Florida's roads so new and wider streets and highways are needed. These and other much needed infrastructure projects will be postponed or cut due to the reduced tax base....The overburden police forces will continue to be stretched thin," limiting their ability to effectively police Florida's highways, and Floridians will "likely have to wait a little bit longer on lines at the Department of Transportation" (Belloise & Belloise, 2008). The immediate pleasures of quick tax relief will be enjoyed by Florida's residents, of course -- but what will these cuts mean in the long run for the health and safety of the state?

Works Cited

Belloise, Chris & Beth Belloise. "Amendment One." Belloise Reality.

19 Jan 2008. 13 Feb 2008. http://belloiserealty.blogspot.com/2008/01/amendment-one.html

Florida Tax Watch: Amendment One will do more harm than good."

Jacksonville Business Journal. 11 Jan 2008. 13 Feb 2008. http://www.bizjournals.com/jacksonville/stories/2008/01/07/daily28.html?ana=from_rss

NFIB cheers passage of Amendment One." Jacksonville Business

Journal. 30 Jan 2008. 13 Feb 2008. http://memphis.bizjournals.com/jacksonville/stories/2008/01/28/daily17.html… [read more]

Daimler Divestiture of Chrysler Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,098 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Daimler-Chrysler Financial Debacle

In The Merger And Dissolution Of Daimler-Benz And Chrysler

History of the Participants: Differences and Similarities


Chrysler History

Prior to the Merger Discussions

Daimler-Benz becoming a global conglomerate

Chrysler's growth and success in the 1990s

First error: from-the-top decisions

The early merger announcements: opportunities missed

Chrysler: What Eaton could have done better

Shortcomings on Daimler-Benz's side… [read more]

Toll Roads Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,937 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Privatization of America's Highway Infrastructure

Brief History of Public Roads

The Role of States

Federal Efforts to Build Our Highway System

What is the Answer?

Increased corporate taxes and revenue for localities

Fears of price gouging

Competition leads to better management

Managing downside risk

Examples of privatization at work

Chicago Skyway

Considerations for future Pennsylvania projects

The future of New… [read more]

Mechanized World as the World Is Getting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,064 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Mechanized World

As the world is getting smaller and smaller each day, people have become more of a commuter than a pedestrian. With man's fast paced lifestyle people from all over the globe have been very dependent on different means of transportation whether your driving your way to work or taking a trip abroad across international seas. One could only wonder what life could have been without these mechanized utilities that man employs to transport himself from one place to the other in a matter of days, hours, minutes. Futuristic movies of the 20th century even depict an instant transport from a place, space or from a time dimension to another in just one blink of an eye. Truly the era of a long walk along the countryside as the basic means of travel have been long surpassed by bullet trains, low fast cars and airplanes. It is in this era where travel has its own facet and space while traversing the phases of speed and time.

Driving a car or taking any means of public transport like the train or a bus is in itself a different experience. Each of these represents two different occurrences that are in the inner perception of any traveler. In going to work or taking an inter-city trip in a car gives the driver a feeling of privacy. Either traveling alone or with a companion, driving endows unto the driver that sense of control. He is the master of his own world while his vehicle is in motion. He can very well dictate the speed and what route he has to take. Hence, this kind of traveler, the driver, is completely responsible on all of his actions and decisions. The time of travel, the space and distance that he has to cover is his choice.

Riding a train or a bus affects a regular commuter in a very different manner compared to a driving traveler. Upon entering the doors of a train, a regular commuter can have this feeling of entering another dimension of time and space. Time in a train is programmed and much predictable than driving your car. Here you can either relax while time passes or be at the mercy of boredom despite the fact that the train is already covering miles and miles of distance.

Meanwhile you are discretely observing the other actions of your fellow traveler. The train has been a convergence of all known social and emotional actions of the commuting traveler. Here privacy is deficient because everything is in the public eye. Some would resort to read the morning paper. Others would try to huddle up and think of a topic for some chit chat. Others would try to amuse themselves in watching all of the other activities that was just mentioned. These things are quite typical to a commuting traveler. Nevertheless, both travelers have opted to take this means of transport in order to cover more space and distance in a much lesser time… [read more]

Attack of 911 Has Posed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


TWIC involves an assimilation of the standard background screenings and biometrics in order that a worker can be securely matched to his or her credential. With complete adoption of the program The TWIC card will emerge as the standard credential for airport workers and will accepted by all modes of transportation. Besides, TSA has been developing the next-generation Computer Assisted… [read more]

German Transportation Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


German Transportation Technology

Germany's History Behind the Railroad

On December 7,1835, the first English manufactured train ran from Nurnberg to Furth, Germany. The locomotive was built by Robert Stephenson and Co in Newcastle England, and was first driven by an English engineer, Mr. Willam Wilson. Like the U.S. And English countries the railway system connects all corners of Germany from the east towards the west. With the onwards policies of the German Government to continue building their own railways system, on October 4, 1840, Germany launched its first train on the Munchen Augsburg Eisenbahn Gesellschaft. In 1875, history signaled the unification of the whole of Germany. This time served as the starting point wherein all of the state connected in the country were all interconnected and continuous progress were developed in Germany's railway system until the creation of Deutsche Reischbahn and Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft on 1924.

The railways system in Germany was nationalized on April 1, 1920, establishing the State Raliways of Germany (Die Reichseisenbahn) unifying the state railways companies of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wurttemburg, Baden, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hesse and Oldenburg under the sovereignty of the German Reich. The unification was due to new constitution of the Weimar Republic promulgated on the 1st of August 1919. This era was the time of civil conflict in Germany with its loss from World War I and the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party towards the year 1933.

In 1924, the Dawes Plan, authored by Charles G. Dawes and other European Countries and the United States included the transportation system of Germany, also the railway system, to be part and a source of reparation money to be paid as imposed in the Treaty of Versailles. On the 12th of February of the same year, from Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, the government issued the regulation for the creation of the German State Railway (Deutsche Reichsbahn) as a state enterprise. As this did not go far enough for the reparations creditor on 30th August 1924 a law was enacted for the establishment of a privately owned German State Railway Company (Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft) to operate the state railways

The existence of new rolling stocks was during the establishment and the beginning of Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG), with the new single type of steam engine initiated the harmonization of existing heterogeneous stocks. During 1933, the Flying Hamburg, a high speed diesel train on the high speed tracks developed in Germany ran with the speed that reaches 200km/hr. From an article on the history of German Railways, the following was indicated on the important date of May 11, 1936.

The steam locomotive 05-002 sets a world record of 200.4 kmh (125.25 mph). (The English locomotive 'Mallard' broke this on 3rd July 1938 with 202.4 kmh (126.5 mph))

With the coming of the following year the DRG became plainly DR, Deutsche Reichsbahn, along with the introduction…… [read more]

Air Transportation in Regards to Security Global Sourcing Shipments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Airline Security

Air security has changed and has impacted shipments and has been impacted since increased security since 9/11 the attacks of September 11, 2001, on the United States (9/11) wereintended to cause harm in several ways: fatalities and casualties among innocent, disturbance of the air transport system, and negative economic impacts. Aviation plays an important role in the economic prosperity of the U.S.: it links communities and countries together for business and leisuretravelers, is a means for shipping goods, and it employs millions ofAmericans.Unfortunately, the aviation industry was already in a difficult condition before 9/11. Many airlines have recently faced bankruptcy and almost all eported net losses in the billions. Layoffs have become a means to reducethe operating costs of airlines. High fuel prices, rising insurance costs, and the added costs of ensuring security have all contributed to the troubledcondition of the aviation industry.The paper provides a perspective on the effect of the increased airline security and costs on the logistics of shipping.

Shipping and:Logistics

In the transportation and logistics sector, competition is tough, and customers are getting pickier. However, the costs will get higher with the new increased airline security. But cargo was not given the same level of scrutiny, and lawmakers such as Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchinson, R-Tex., and Rep. Ed Markey, D-Mass., have repeatedly remarked that passengers wait in long security lines only to board aircraft which contain belly cargo that has not been screened. Markey has proposed legislation calling for widespread screening of belly cargo. The TSA outlined a new cargo security plan late last year, and is weeks away from issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking on new cargo security rules. (Karp, 2004)

But even with permanent regulations still contemplated, the agency has issued a number of interim directives and airlines have already started taking action. Northwest Airlines, for example, warned forwarders that it will be spot-checking cargo and will open packages it deems suspicious.Instead, airlines, shippers and forwarders will be given a great deal of responsibility for various screening functions and the TSA will conduct regular audits to ensure rules are being followed. and, as long as Congress passes no new laws, the TSA is not aiming to screen…… [read more]

South This Report Is About the Automobile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



This report is about the automobile industry migrating south and thus leaving northern and eastern states reeling. Corporate America and especially the automobile industry have become very competitive as the world has become more of a global economy. Companies are constantly on the lookout for new ways to strategically reduce overhead and still increase market share and profitability. In the past, Northern states like New Jersey, Detroit and New York offered the automobile industry high salary and unionized employees often forcing the manufactures to consider moving abroad.

When moving was not an option, the automobile industry was constantly closing plants and laying off employees to help balance the books. As recently as 1990's, companies needed to use solutions like labor force reduction to cut the associated cost of labor. This strategy was an always a resource nightmare as 'getting laid off' or 'getting downsized' became all too common buzz words. The automobile industry has found a viable alternative to moving abroad or shutting down facilities.

There has been a steady migration by the entire auto industry from states like Michigan and other Midwest states to Southern states. "The relocation of automotive manufacturing is threatening the economic future of East Coast and Midwestern states and creating a whirlwind of investment from Mississippi to South Carolina." (Corbett, 2002) Cities like Detroit are holding on for dear life and can only forecast mild levels of prosperity for about ten more years or so according to many industry experts.

Moves from places like Michigan, New Jersey and New York entail hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs lost and will also be a boon for the southern states that have become the new emerging production market for the automobile industry in the United States. "However, it's North America's East Coast that is getting hit the hardest. A number of auto factories have closed there since the 1980s. General Motors Corp. facilities in Tarrytown (now called Sleepy Hollow), NY, Clark, NJ; and Framingham, MA, are just a few." (Corbett, 2002) the real advantage the south has is that both Asian and European automakers are also expanding or opening new plants in southern states. This report therefore aims to answer the question of why the southern United States has become such an attractive location for the automobile industry.

The automobile industry has tried many new strategies such as decreasing its dependence on suppliers and making remaining suppliers utilize new quality measures and also providing products with just-in-time delivery systems. These requirements have added benefits of elevating the communication process between suppliers and the industry for both data and verbal processes. The business strategy is focused on the company's use of more economical materials that can be delivered with effective prices and on time. The auto industry has also been experimenting with new marketing strategies that utilize the internet and have been touted as an opportunity to offer 'internet ordered personalized cars.' Imagine buying a car made specifically for you as the technology has made this a… [read more]

Commuting for Clean Air Commuter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The average household has 1.75 drivers but 1.90 personal vehicles, proving how much the automobile is a part of the American culture. This reliance on cars may be difficult to break and would, therefore, point to a need to concentrate additional efforts on air pollution reduction techniques such as cleaner fuels, more stringent fuel and emission standards, alternative fuels and better vehicle technologies.

As mentioned in the introduction, commuting policies are only a small part of the solution. If all measures were taken to shift individual from automobiles to alternatives means of transportation, experts estimate that only between ten and fifteen percent of the passenger problem would be addressed and none of the freight problem would be solved (Pisarski, 2001). Thus, there remains a residual eighty-five percent to ninety percent of the problem that must be addressed by additional measures.

In summary, commuter choice programs are viable options for improving air quality and reducing congestion. But, they are not a panacea for solving the complete range of challenges presented by widespread automobile use. While cynics may charge that the programs are a diversion from more meaningful policies, the truth lies somewhere in the middle. Much more is needed to reduce overall automobile travel demand and the pollution that automobiles cause.


Commuter Choice Primer. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from U.S. Department of Transportation Highway Administration Web site: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_PR/ccp/section08.htm

Pisarski, A.E. Life in the not-so-fast lane. Blueprint Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from Sacramento Transportation and Air Quality Collaborative Web site: http://www.sactaqc.org/resources/literature/transportation/Not_So_Fast_Lane.htm

Wald, M. (2003, August 29). One vehicle on the road, two others in the garage. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/30/business/30TRAF.html?th… [read more]

Iconography of Los Angeles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The facilities that make up the infrastructure of normal life, from boutiques to food outlets, churches to dry cleaners, department stores to universities, have taken shapes influenced by the presence of the universal network of roads and the universal assumption that all that matters is centered on the car. The automobile is an icon of freedom, perhaps the perfect embodiment of all the reasons why people opened up the West of the United States in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - to find space, liberty, individual expression. Los Angeles, the freeway city, is the sum of these ideas.


Banham, Rayner, Los Angeles: the Architecture of the Four Ecologies (London: Allen Lane, 1971).

Crouch, Winstan W. & Beatrice Dinerman, Southern California Metropolis: A Study in Development of Government for a Metropolitan Area (Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1963).

Davis, Mike, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New York: Verso, 1990).

Fogelson, Robert M., The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967).

Dear, Michael J., H. Eric Schockman & Greg Hise (eds.), Rethinking Los Angeles (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996).

Foster, Mark, Streetcar to Superhighway: American City Planners and Urban Transportation, 1900-1940 (Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 1981).

Hall, Peter, Cities in Civilization: Culture, Innovation and Urban Order (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998).

Klein, Norman, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (London: Verso, 1997).

Longstreth, Richard, City Center to Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, and Retailing in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997).

Rubin, Barbara, 'A chronology of architecture in Los Angeles', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 67, no. 4 (December 1977).

Soja, A.J. & Edward W. Scott (eds.), The City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1998).

Robert M. Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), pp. 5, 7; Winstan W. Crouch & Beatrice Dinerman, Southern California Metropolis: A Study in Development of Government for a Metropolitan Area (Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1963), p. 3.

Genevieve Giuliano, 'Transporting Los Angeles', in Michael J. Dear, H. Eric Schockman & Greg Hise (eds.), Rethinking Los Angeles (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996), p. 231.

Richard Longstreth, City Center to Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, and Retailing in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), p. xv.

Barbara Rubin, 'A chronology of architecture in Los Angeles', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 67, no. 4 (December 1977), p. 522.

Rayner Banham, Los Angeles: the Architecture of the Four Ecologies (London: Allen Lane, 1971), p. 31.

Banham, Los Angeles, pp. 88-9.

Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization: Culture, Innovation and Urban Order (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), pp. 830-1.

Banham, Los Angeles, p. 23.

Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New York: Verso, 1990), p. 6.

A.J. Soja & Edward W. Scott, 'Introduction',… [read more]

Japan Major Cities and Transportation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


("Transportation," 2004)

The remaining thirty percent of the trains belong to several dozens of private railway companies, especially in and around metropolitan areas, and all are famed for their speed, convenience, and well-packed nature, especially during rush hour. Even local trains, which stop at every major commuter stop, are world-renown for their speed. However, the speediest of trains in Japan are government owned. The most famous of these is the Tokaido Shinkansen line of bullet trains, connecting the major metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka. It was inaugurated in the year 1964 as the first shinkansen line and the world's first high speed train. As early as 1964 it ran up to speeds of about 200 km/h and now reaches speeds of over 300 km/h. ("Transportation," 2004)

Works Cited

Transportation." Japanguide.com. Retrieved on June 11, 2004 at http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2018.html… [read more]

Railroad Policy Analysis the National Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (6,495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


At that time, many in the trucking industry invested heavily in piggyback's promise, including less-than-truckload haulers, truckload carriers like J.B. Hunt Transport and Schneider National, and package express giant United Parcel Service. Rail inter-modal transport was more cost effective for long-haul traffic. It also seemed to be a viable answer to the dwindling supply of truck drivers willing to spend… [read more]

Financial Funding System for Amtrak Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,269 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They may build rider-ship but that's at the cost of creating revenue. The Inspector General of the Department of Transportation (March 2001) warned:

Amtrak's overall financial results have been improved significantly since 1999.

Our assessment of Amtrak's 2000 business plan identified a number of elements that Are unlikely to perform as Amtrak had expected. If no short action were taken to compensate for them, Amtrak's cash loss would be almost $1.4 billion more than it projected over the four-year period 2001 through 2004."

So what can be done and why? It's important to remember single that rail service is still a strong mode of transportation in this country. According to Senator Patrick Leahy, "The administration fails to recognize the reason Amtrak was formed in the first place: to fill a void for national passenger rail transportation left because a variety of private railroad companies went bankrupt in the middle of the last century." It is also a known fact that there isn't a national passenger rails service that operates without subsidy funding. The airline, highway and other transit systems also require government funding and Amtrak needs to continue to receive that long-term financial commitment.

Some critics suggest privatizing Amtrak but others voice their concern for that solution based on Britain's failure to make that a success. Accidents, chronic delays and system failures resulted in the great breakdown of Great Britain's passenger rail system. Congress and the President reject proposals that would turn back the clock to an era in America when rail service was on the brink of total collapse and eventual elimination.

Rail service should be supported and encouraged. As a country that is still facing terrorist threats, having a defunct rail system would leave the United States in a precarious position.

Rail service is safer and often easier. It can be quicker than air, bus and car travel for some routes. The government needs to partner with Amtrak officials and find a way to turn the tide and create a revenue-producing company.. Congress needs to conduct a review of Amtrak. What worked and what didn't and why.

Several initiatives can be implemented that would help foster potential revenue growth for Amtrak and not just boost rider-ship. First, improvements need to be made. High-speed service must become a reality. New passenger cars must be added to the fleet and older ones retired. Amtrak needs to add new routes and create city-to-city routes that would make them competitive with bus companies and airlines. Finally, Amtrak needs to look at expand it's business offerings, by adding and express package service or food shipping services. The key is to make the public aware of what rail service can mean to them personally and possibly to their business.

Senator Leahy believes a strong rail system can add important security and economic benefits to the nation. He also supported the National Defense Interstate Rail Act, can give Amtrak the tools and funding needed to promote operational efficiency and allow Amtrak to provide nationwide service… [read more]

Magnetic Levitation Propulsion Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Probably the biggest disadvantage of the Maglev technology is its complete incompatibility with the existing system -- train tracks for conventional trains etc. This results in the need for massive investment. (The cost factor will be discussed later in this paper).

Environmental Concerns

Some environmentalists have also expressed concern about the adverse health-effects of the magnetic fields, while supporters… [read more]

How Prepared Are American for Disaster Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Personal Preparedness in America

Each day, some or other individual(s), somewhere in America, is recuperating from a calamity. Though a decline has been observed in the past year in declared disasters to 6 national emergencies and 45 declarations by the President (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2104), manmade or natural catastrophes, for numerous American citizens, occur almost once every year.… [read more]

Economics &amp Environment, MIA Airport Expansion Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Miami International Airport is in the process of expanding its operations over the long run. Having just completed two new terminals in succession, plans are presently in the works to replace the original terminal, which is quite dated. Replacing this terminal will be the final piece of the puzzle to allow MIA to be the leading transportation hub for South Florida, and a critical infrastructure link between the United States and Latin America, and the Caribbean. The economic case for this expansion is fairly easy to understand, but the economic benefits of such an expansion need to be weighed against the environmental issues that such an expansion will bring about.

Pros to Expansion

The expansion of MIA to this date has allowed the airport to have modern facilities. The airport's website notes the enhanced security and customs clearance facilities at the new terminal, and promotes the wider range of retail options that the newer terminals have. The original terminal was simply not built with commerce in mind -- it was built as a transport facility before airports were known as major retail hubs. Thus, there is considerable incremental revenue to be gained simply from improving retail at MIA. But the airport will also benefit substantially from the expansion, because the renovation will allow for MIA to maximize its capacity in a way that the current, dated facility cannot achieve.

The main economic benefit lies with the increased traffic and transportation. If there is to be an expansion of trade between the U.S. And Latin America, in particular through the lowering of trade barriers, Miami is uniquely positioned both geographically and culturally to take advantage of this. The airport is run by the county, which means that Miami-Dade County has an imperative to ensure that the airport is capable of being the hub airport of the region, and drawing trade to the county. There are competing major airports in both Broward (FLL) and Palm Beach counties (PBI). Miami also competes for port facilities with Fort Lauderdale, and the airport/port combination is a major infrastructure investment that can continue to make Miami the hub. There are more distant threats from Atlanta, Houston, LAX, DFW, and the New York airports, all of which also have many connections in the Americas and can draw trade away from MIA. Thus, MIA has to ensure that it takes advantage of the competitive advantage that it currently enjoys over those other airports, by having the most modern facilities. The economic benefit of MIA to the county is $33.7 billion, so the value of the airport expansion is going to be measured in the billions, if not tens of billions, in terms of its worth to the county and city of Miami (Miami Airport, 2015). A new terminal replacing the old one can provide for better service both for passengers and freight, and make MIA the major transit point for people and goods traveling throughout the Americas.

Another pro-to the expansion is that it puts a modern face… [read more]

Advantages and Disadvantages of Intermodal Logistics Parks Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is necessary to have logistics parks to enhance freight forwarding and assembly and warehousing.

Intermodal logistics parks also provide employment opportunities to the people of a given country. Therefore, they contribute to the improvement of the living standards of the people. For instance, people are employed as forklift and train drivers, supervisors, and inspection officers. In addition to the creation of jobs, these parks also make it easy for the customs and immigration services at the border. Goods will move smoothly and swiftly with little losses to the government. The parks will also restrict the movement of illegal goods across borders. The inspection done in the park will enhance the detection of illegal goods fast and easily before they move across the borders. The thought of the inspection at the business parks will also discourage potential dealers in illegal goods to go ahead and engage in search business. Such dealers will need a lot of skimming and strategizing before bypassing the inspections.

However, besides the advantages that come with logistics parks, there are also some disadvantages. For instance, the activities in the park increase the risks of loss of goods to fraudsters at the borders. A businessperson may easily lose his/her goods if he/she is not very carefully. It is very easy to interchange containers in an intermodal logistics park. In addition, much business time can be lost in the park due to the delays involved at the park. The sorting and arranging of containers can waste time for business executives, which would have rather been used in doing business. The products held up would have been quickly moved to the various business destinations. These delays can also cause great losses especially when dealing with perishable goods. Perishable goods can expire while at the intermodal parks awaiting loading to the means of transport, which leads to significant losses.

Nevertheless, despite the disadvantages of the intermodal parks, it is necessary that these parks be set up to enhance intermodal logistics. One should not be scared by the disadvantages but be cautious to strategize on how to deal with any eventualities of setting up such parks.… [read more]

Urban Development Through Infilling and Transit-Centering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This relationship is known as the paradox of intensification, as follows:

Ceteris paribus, urban intensification which increases population density will reduce per capita car use, with benefits to the global environment, but will also increase concentrations of motor traffic, worsening the local environment in those locations where it occurs (Melia, et al., 2011).

What are the variables that influence developers' perceptions of red tape in the planning and approval processes?

What is the political will of the planning commission with respect to infilling?

What efforts have been made to inform local residents and businesses about the tenets and successes of smart growth?

How applicable is urban intensification to the city?

To what degree do transit operations appear capable of supporting smart growth?

To what extent is the planning commission receptive to compact neighborhoods, pedestrian and bicycle friendly design, and transit-oriented development?

Methodology and Approach

The research will employ qualitative primary research methods in the form of surveys and in-depth interviews. Secondary research will be conducted prior to the primary research in order to guide the survey questionnaire development and to ensue that robust examples of smart city strategies are utilized in the research.

Data Sources

Type of Data


Primary -- surveys research

Responses on survey questionnaire conducted with town hall participants of neighborhood organizations, members of the planning commission, city planning department staff,

Primary - interviews

Responses to in-depth interviews with transit authorities, public officials in local government, and developers,

Secondary -- document review

Extant research and reports on cities using a smart growth or urban intensification approach.

Work Breakdown Schedule




(from start)


Kick-off meeting

Meet with client to discuss research objectives and timeline. Discuss sampling frame and other methodologies of approach.


Consultant / Researcher

Conduct secondary research

Obtain, review, and synthesize existing research & outcome reports on cities successfully implementing smart growth.

2 weeks


Develop questions

Write survey questions and interview protocols



Prepare panel (participants)

Establish sample and contact participants for primary research (surveys, interviews)

2 weeks

Consultant / Researcher

Conduct primary research

Conduct surveys

2 weeks


Analyze survey responses



Conduct interviews

4 weeks


Analyze interview responses



Synthesis & Analysis

Write final report. Meeting for researcher to discuss findings with consultant



Final report

Meet with client to discuss findings. Submit report to client and relevant stakeholders.

16 weeks

Consultant / Researcher


Melia, S., Parkhurst, G. And Barton, H. (2011). The paradox of intensification.…… [read more]

Types of Airline Marketing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Failing to concentrate on the wants of the consumer, this approach demanded that the airlines advertised their products and services. There was reinforcement for the sales teams, and additional incentives provided based on the sales made. This is not a long-term approach since an airline can only run a promotion for limited time. An example of this approach is providing promotional fares during off-peak seasons. This would be an effective way of filling up the seats in an airline. Sales-oriented approach does not focus on the needs of the consumer, but rather it is concerned with ensuring that the airline has enough consumers. Failing to concentrate on the wants of the consumers makes the airlines to develop promotions, and advertisements that increase sales.

The consumer-oriented approach focuses on satisfying the needs of the passengers. Focusing on the needs of the consumer ensures that the airline is able to cater for its different consumers and provide satisfactory services to them. This approach is concerned with ensuring that it satisfies its customers. Each business decision will reflect the airline's desire to satisfy its customers. Using the consumer-oriented approach the airline is able to retain more consumers and attract new ones. The airline is able to categorize its customers based on their preferences. This way it targets its different advertisements to specific customer categories. For example, conducting a survey on passenger demographics would provide an airline with information regarding the different kinds of passengers it attracts. This information would allow the airline to understand and develop promotions geared towards them.

c) From your opinion, which is the best concept of airline marketing approach would you adopt for your airline company and state your reasons

The best approach for an airline company would be the consumer-oriented approach. This approach is not only concerned with product development and making sales, but it is also focused with the wants and needs of the passengers. Passengers have vast information, and they know what they want. Failing to concentrate on their needs will result in a reduction in passenger for the airline. An airline that improves on its products based on passenger feedback and develops new products that are focused on passenger satisfaction will definitely be successful (Airline Trends, 2013). Different consumers have different needs and understanding their different needs would allow the airline to develop intensive marketing strategies. These strategies would increase passenger numbers, as they would cater for different passenger groups. Satisfied passengers are more likely to recommend the airline to their friends, and they will prefer to use that airline again. Once an airline is able to identify its different group of classes and their demographics, it is able to link its products with the different consumers. Using the consumer-oriented approach, an airline could discover that most of its passengers prefer travelling in business or third class. To attract passengers on their first class it could offer them opportunity to upgrade their ticket at a minimal fee. This way the airline would be able to… [read more]

Main Street USA Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Theme Park

A staple of Disney theme parks is the Main Street USA zone. This section features prominently in all of the parks, usually coming right after the entrance. Key services like Guest Relations are located in this section, in the case of guest relations inside the "City Hall" (HK Disney Source, 2014). There are a number of elements to… [read more]

Privatization of Air Traffic Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


This allows the respective ANSP to focus on its core function of air traffic control (Dillingham, 2005).

New Public Management Orientation in the U.S. Air Traffic Control

The new public management (NPM) approach also supports the provision of public services through alternative institutional arrangements. NPM approach supports the privatization and outsourcing of government functions. Lewis (2004) argues that due to… [read more]

1920S / Automobile &amp Modern Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


What he had begun by working for the government -- and establishing public relations as a discipline -- he now put at the service of commerce. This is worth considering when we look again at the parallels that exist between the 1920s and the present day -- in some sense, the Internet-based economy permits a corporation like Facebook to attain an astonishing value, when in reality Facebook is a more sophisticated way of delivering advertising (targeted advertising, in fact). It's value is not in what it offers, but in the perceived ways in which it can be used to start selling ideas or political movements. If the car in the 1920s occupied the niche that the computer occupies today, then it is worth noting that something like Facebook -- which is, in financial terms, really just a newfangled advertising platform -- plays a similar role to Edward Bernays. In short, we can learn a lot about how the strange new economy of the 21st century may work, by returning to the remarkable economic history of the 1920s.


Norton, MB; Kamensky, J; Sherriff, C; et al. (2014). A people…… [read more]

Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Research Paper

Research Paper  |  62 pages (20,526 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 63


The main technique for controlling stormwater releases is the application of best administration practices (BMPs) that stop or diminish the release of contaminants into a water body (e.g., building of a stormwater holding pond to stop stormwater drainage straight into getting waters). best administration practices appropriate for one airport are not necessarily appropriate for another. Issues that may have some… [read more]

Eisenhower Creation of Interstate Highway System Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Eisenhower Creation of Interstate Highway System

Dwight Eisenhower was the United States of America's 34th president. He ranks as one of the best presidents in the country's history due to many development projects that he initiated and complete during his era. One of the biggest and most remarkable projects of his times is the "National system of interstate and defense… [read more]

School Parking Hello, Mr. Martinez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


School Parking

Hello, Mr. Martinez. As you are well aware, the overall student population at Florida International University has become very disgruntled over the apparent lack of decision making regarding student parking. The campus, to my delight, has been very vocal in their assertions regarding parking and its overall availability. In addition, faculty, staff, and visitors are all united in their concerns over the lack of parking availability. These negative sentiments can affect the campus and its overall reputation irrefutability is this problem continues unabated. As such, this document provides plausible solutions to the Universities parking epidemic that mitigates harm to the university while also adding convenience to all patrons. Furthermore, the document provides valuable insight as to how to prevent this problem from occurring in the future. Through the use of this document, my aim is to provide a financial atoneable solution that is both relevant and timely.

To begin, I would first like to present figure 1, highlighted the number of parking spaces to the number of students enrolled in the university. As you can infer, the campus has grown enormously throughout its three-decade history. Students are now recognizing the value proposition of the university in regards to academics and overall quality. However, the available parking spaces have not grown at a rate anywhere near that of the students. This creates massive inconvenience in the form of transportation, timeliness, and overall traffic. There are now roughly 6 students for every 1 available parking space. This corresponds with a ratio of roughly 1 to 1 in 1970 and 2 to one in 1980.

Figure 1: Comparison of Student Body Increase to Decrease in Availability of Student Parking




















In addition, the university conducted a survey regarding parking and the…… [read more]

Porter's Five Force in Auto Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Porter's Five Forces In Auto Industry

Industry definition

Industry profile

Industry structure

Future outlook

Porter's Five Forces Strategy Analysis as it applies to the Auto Industry

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Threat of New Entrants

Bargaining Power of Buyers

Threat of Substitutes

Competitive Rivalry in the Industry

The American Auto industry is about to lose some of its key players; Detroit.… [read more]

South Africa's Public Transportation Needs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (523 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


The first and foremost is the need for improved and ongoing maintenance of road conditions, road signs, barriers and other traffic constructions designed to maintained orderly use of the roads.

But beyond that, an article in BBC News (1999) reports, "Paul Swart, a spokesman for the opposition Democratic Party, called for improved policing, more frequent roadworthy tests and limiting the number of hours bus drivers spend at the wheel." These recommendations would be highlighted by a high number of bus accidents and subsequent fatalities. These would demonstrate the need for more traffic safety officers on the road. Lax enforcement of traffic safety rules leads to unsafe driving and, in the case of the bus drivers that are essential to South Africa's public transportation landscape, also leads to inappropriately long hours behind the wheel. Tired bus drivers represent a danger to everybody on the road.

Therefore, a key component to improving the way that land is used for public transportation is to improve the numbers and distribution of enforcement officers and roadwork or maintenance teams. With its roads so heavily traveled both by locals and visitors, it is incumbent upon South Africa to make them safe and desirable.

South Africa is a nation on the cusp of greater recognition as an internationally appealing destination. Improvement of these above-noted dimensions of public transportation could help it to take that next step forward on the world stage.

Works Cited:

BBC News. (1999). South Africa's Deadly Roads. BBC.co.uk.

CIA. (2013). South Africa. The World Factbook.

Move, Inc. (2012).…… [read more]

Environmental Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Pollution

Phoenix, Arizona's growing population exerts pressure on infrastructure and natural resources. This has ultimately impacted the environment. City's expansion initiatives have cut deeper into rural areas leading to loss of wetlands and biological habitats. It has also led to air and water pollution. The high density of automobiles, factories, and commercial enterprises within the vicinity of the city has accelerated airborne emission of particulate matter, various types of oxides, and toxic volatile compounds. The city authorities are bothered that the population trends could have negative impact on the environment, economy, and the general social welfare of the city residents. The authorities are particularly concerned that the population growth could possible lead to infrastructure deterioration, increase traffic congestion, and loss of open space. The population increase could also compromise air and water quality. This report seeks to come up with recommendations that can help fix Phoenix pollution scares that lies within the $18 million allocated for tackling environmental issues.

The City Council of Phoenix should seriously consider establishing green spaces or even embark on urban forestry to address pollution debacle that it is currently faced with. This costs a total of $4.2 million. Trees influence local air quality because they remove air pollutants (Escobedo, 2010). They also indirectly modify microclimates by lowering temperature and altering wind patterns. Trees minimize air pollution in three major ways: deposition, precipitation, and wind (Nowak, Crane & Stevens, 2006). Care should however be taken because trees can also modify ambient temperature and solar radiation, wind patterns, and relative humidity (Scott, Simpson & McPherson, 1999). Trees remove particulate matters, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide (Smith, 1990). Trees also reduce topsoil erosion as well as stopping the washing of pollutants into the water sources (Kuo, 2003).

The City Council of Phoenix should encourage alternative transportation. The authorities should beef up security to ensure that those walking or cycling to work are safe. This will substantially reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. This will significantly reduce emission of compounds like carbon monoxide and lead…… [read more]

Alliance Why Would Large Airlines Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

So you think the government should have a role in overseeing these alliances? Is it good for competition for the government to keep intervening?

The government plays a central role in regulating the industry. This is because the standards they impose will ensure that consumers are treated fairly. Moreover, they can ensure that everyone is following the highest safety practices. This improves reliability and the experience for everyone. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

It is beneficial for the government to intervene up to a certain extent. This means that officials can determine if certain practices are hurting consumers or if any kind of regulations are being ignored. This ensures that there is a focus on promoting competition and maintaining the highest standards for improving safety. When this happens, the public will have more confidence about utilizing this form of transportation more frequently. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

Does it make sense to have several government departments involved in antitrust regulations?

Yes. This is because each department has the ability to determine if a particular problem will result from a possible merger. These insights can help to focus the discussion by looking at contrasting aspects of the issue. When this happens, the government can create a policy that is taking these different views into account. This will ensure that the interests of the general public are always at the forefront. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

For instance, the Department of Transportation will look at the impact of a deal on the industry. While the Justice Department, is concerned about anti-trust regulations and possible breaches. Each agency is providing unique insights about the overall challenges of a potential merger and how they will impact stakeholders. It is at this point when officials can make an informed decision by examining contrasting opinions and views. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)…… [read more]

Comair Flight 5191 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This pattern of behavior is consistent with perseveration. In other words, the air traffic controller was more comfortable engaging in routine tasks than ensuring that planes were taking off properly or handling the emergency once it occurred.

Based on the flight crew's behavior, they too were experiencing perseveration. As Pruchnicki and colleagues (2011) mention, with the flight crew went to a plane without checking to be sure it was the right one. After the right plane was located they went through the motions of pre-flight preparations, rather than going over the details with enough attention to generate concern about where the runway was located. This suggests the flight crew was feeling pressured to perform tasks in a shorter period of time, thus the omissions and mistakes when performing checklists and briefings. With the pressure of rushed preflight checks and briefings, the increased workload would have aggravated perseveration.


Based on the analysis by Pruchnicki and colleagues (2011), the SAFTE/FAST model could have only been useful for predicting whether the air traffic controller was too fatigued to be on duty. To try and correct this deficiency, they recommended that flight crew members wear actigraphs when sleeping to generate a record of the amount and timing of sleep periods. The data from the past several days could be uploaded into the onboard recorder before the flight, thereby preserving the data in case of a fatal accident. The data thus gathered could also be used to develop shift schedules that would protect the sleep/wake rhythms of the flight crews and air traffic controllers.

In her speech before National Sleep Foundation in 2010, NTSB chairman Hersman described the difficulty accident investigators experience when trying to determine if fatigue played a role. She also mentioned that fatigue was being documented in an "… alarming" number of transportation accidents, including aviation. In an effort to describe the NTSB's view of the effects of fatigue, she compared it to the severity of alcohol inebriation. This comparison was used because so much more is known about the effects of alcohol consumption on motor and cognitive performance and the NTSB has responded accordingly by routinely testing for alcohol and drugs in the immediate aftermath of an accident. Achieving the same goal for fatigue is at the top of the NTSB's Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements.

The fatigue-related safety goals the NTSB is working towards includes a methodology for forensically determining whether fatigue played a role, establishing employee work schedules that would foster rest and circadian uniformity, pushing employers to establish policies that permit employees to call in fatigued, and encouraging professional standards that include reporting for work only when rested (Hersman, 2010).


Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.

Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. NTSB.gov. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from…… [read more]

Demand for Suvs, Hybrids Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For drivers who need large utility vehicles like trucks for works, hybrid technology has proved to be disappointing. Overall, the "the hybrid has a greatly-reduced towing capacity and payload, which is most likely due to the addition of the electric motor and batteries" ("Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid trucks," Cars Direct, 2009). Given the higher initial purchase cost with reduced… [read more]

Estimation of Road Traffic Emissions in Jakarta Indonesia and Development of Strategies for Reducing Dissertation

Dissertation  |  25 pages (6,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … prosperity in the developing nations of Asia such as Indonesia is exacting a toll on the health of people and the environment through increased vehicular travel and concomitant increases in harmful emissions. This aim of this case study is to estimate and to quantify road traffic emissions and determine how they could have a bearing on the transportation… [read more]

Cmv Cellular Phones Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Most truck drivers who responded to the agency's new rule did not wholly object to the idea that it is safer to drive without holding a cellular phone. One driver was quoted as stating "They should expand it to everybody…If you're going to operate a cellphone in a motor vehicle, you should be wearing a Bluetooth… [but] why limit it to truckers?" (Leiser 2011) The most common complaint was that the new rule did not go far enough, that drivers of ordinary cars, vans, and all other vehicles should also be included.

It is not entirely fair that truckers have been chosen to be the ones who get the ban on mobile phone use since the majority of accidents and fatalities seem to be caused by regular drivers in regular vehicles. And while the FMSCA seems to unfairly impose a rule on one group of drivers while not do the same to all the others, this should be seen more as a first step than a finished product. The ban on hand-held devices in CMV's should only be the gateway toward a complete ban on hand-held phone use in all vehicles. It will not be until all drivers are completely focused on their driving, and not on the phone in their hands, that the roads will be safe for all.

Works Cited

"Cell Phone Use Banned for Commercial Motor Vehicles." Local CBS St. Louis. 13

Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.


"Drivers of CMV's: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones." Federal Register. 2

Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.


Leiser, Ken. "Interstate truck drivers face cellphone ban on Jan. 3." SLTtoday.com.

10 Dec. 2011. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.

http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/interstate-truck-drivers-face-cellphone-ban-on-jan/article_c2e61739-c27c-5f8f-ac54-0b5adf902a9f.html… [read more]

Session Long Project Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


economy class?

First class targets passengers can afford to pay more money for greater amenities such as more comfortable seats (or seats that totally recline on long flights), food, and bonuses like specialty drinks. Comfort, luxury, and privacy are prioritized by first class travelers. Business class is often a second-tier class and its name implies it is populated by businesspeople traveling on the company dime. These travelers fly frequently and want additional amenities, particularly those that speed their travel time and waiting in line. "International airlines are locked in a technology-led competition to provide the best business class seats and win the largest share of big-spending corporate travelers" (Rothman & Jasper 2011). Economy class is the cheapest of all three, and is populated by travelers who are at least somewhat budget-conscious.

Contrast Jet Blue vs. Southwest Airlines in terms of the following two aspects:

(1) Compare and explain the impact of key external factors on each company, e.g., economic conditions and the growing consumer interest in leisure travel.

Both Jet Blue and Southwest are regional carriers who offer budget services. Given that travelers are growing increasingly price-conscious, both carriers have capitalized upon the misfortunes of the major carriers to some degree, as even the nationals are forced to offer fewer services such as meals but have not slashed prices. Jet Blue and Southwest have never offered many amenities but always offer cheaper prices.

(2) Describe each company's target market and positioning. Give some examples of how these strategies are implemented for each company.

"Veteran Southwest built its reputation on 33 years of stake-your-claim seating, wisecracking flight attendants and plentiful peanuts. Upstart JetBlue emerged from nowhere...with new planes, free seatback boob tubes and baskets of junk food. [However] They're two very different creations, especially when it comes to size. Southwest flew seven times as many passengers as JetBlue...it serves twice as many cities and has more than 10 times the number of daily flights" (Woodyard 2004). Southwest is also better known for its quirky marketing, including singing flight attendants and wisecracking pilots. Customer service is a priority. There is also a rough democracy in its attitudes -- until recently there was no assigned seating at Southwest, in contrast to Jet Blue. However, Jet Blue has been praised for having better food and more in-flight amenities like televisions.


Rothman, A., & Jasper, C. (2011). The unbearable heaviness of business class. Business Week



Structure of the airline industry (n.d.). Avjobs. Retrieved:


Wen, C.-H., & Yeh, W.-Y. (2010). Positioning of international air passenger carriers using multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis. Transportation Journal,… [read more]

City Corridor I Rode Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


4. I also felt like the neighborhoods were generally quite vibrant, with a lot of street life. The transit line goes through a lot of high-density urban areas, and it seems that is why the line was built here.. Looking at the route, it connects downtown with many inner city neighborhoods, but ones that are mixed in income. Thus, there are going to be people traveling from these areas to downtown during the week. The line has fairly high ridership during rush hours, compared with the weekends. That said, there are few areas along the route that are economically depressed or that would not have a good reason for one to get out and walk around. Thus, the line also serves as a means to explore these areas, or to live in one part and shop in others. On the way back downtown, there were more people with shopping bags, presumably because it is later in the day.

The route also serves as a connecting route. From the Red Line, there are connections downtown with other lines, and at North Hollywood there is a further connection to the orange line bus. So the route serves to connect these major hubs. This also gives access to the different neighborhoods in the Hollywood/Wiltshire area to the people who work downtown, or who live in further suburbs to come to the city. I think the city planners felt like building this line here was both a means to get a lot of cars off the road during rush hour, but also to revitalize some areas in Hollywood and connect Koreatown with downtown.

5. From what I know of this route, it is much busier during rush hours than on the weekend. During weekdays, I think it is the most traveled line in the network. So as far as I am aware, the choice to ride on a Saturday had a significant impact on the number of other riders that were on the train.

I also am certain that the types of riders is affected. It may be that the number of non-professional riders is roughly the same, or maybe a little bit higher during the week. People still go shopping mid-week as far as I know. But the number of professionals, people in suits, especially downtown, is going to be much higher. I also feel that during the week, especially during the rush hour, a lot of these will be riding all the way to North Hollywood so that they can connect with suburban services beyond the metro line. On the weekend, there were a few of these people exiting the train at the end of the line. I feel that the "feeder" nature of the route clearly exists for downtown.

This means that the other major group of people using the line are those who live, work and shop in the immediate area. They might use the line to go two or three stops away, and I saw a lot of evidence… [read more]

Global Position System (GPS) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This creates a lot impact in the business travel buyers and their travelers (Sheridan & Corker, 2006). According to Next Generation Air Transport System (NGATS) blue print, which ask funding to the aviation security system and to the entire sector so it can be re-established to meet the surging demands.

The market is expected to develop quickly therefore most travel… [read more]

United States Automotive Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The automobile industry of the United States is saturated by a large number of well-established local and international brands. General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are the local automobile giants whereas Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Suzuki, and Hyundai; the big five international brands have more than 80% share in this industry. All these local and international brands are competing with each other… [read more]

TSA Is TSA Crossing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Another major policy that TSA implemented is TSA VIPR's Program (Visual Intermodel Prevention and Response). This program involved teams of Federal Air Marshals, Surface Transportation Security Inspectors, Transportation Security Officers, Behavior Detection Officers and Explosive Detection Canine teams screening every individual on train stations, airports and bus stations. The measure was a complete violation of the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution that states that the government cannot carry out any sort of search without any probable/solid reason (Stanley, 2011). The policy crosses the boundaries of ACLU terms laid down.

The current measure introduced by TSA is TSA Pre-check Program. Pre-check / Trusted Traveler Program is an expedited screening program where travelers eligible for this screening (Global Entry/GE, NEXUS, SENTRI members, Delta Skymiles and American Advantage frequent flyer program members (U.S. Department of Homeland Security)) would need to provide nine digit Trusted Traveler Member number (PASS ID) when booking for travelling. A complete detail of the program will be a part of this thesis. The one important claim that comes out of the analysis of this program is that this security measure is running in the right direction, with no violation against ACLU principles. TSA Pre-check has expanded in numerous airports of the nation and this pre-screening process has been successful so far.

Moreover, the transition of TSA towards less invasive silhouette outline body scanner images instead of SPOT and VIPR has been appreciated due to the fact that these scanners are millimeter wave body scanners which replace the nude images of bodies with just generic outlines of the human form… [read more]

Network Design Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Network Design

Network engineers together with the users develop the ability to deal with network design challenges that prove difficult compared to a similar level they were created. The predicament can lead to network that is complex and challenging to trouble shoot. The situation can also lead to networks that do not function well as required as the significant of scale growth arises hence not matching the requirements of the customer. A solution to such a problem is usage of an organized, top-down network design methodology that concentrates on fulfilling the requirements of a customer, limitations, and goals.

Top-down network design

Top-down network design is a method for planning networks that start at the top layer of the OSI reference model prior to moving to the bottom layers. It concentrates on applications, phases, and data transport done before choosing routers, switches together with media that function at the bottom layers. The top-down network design procedurecomprise exploring divisional as well as group structuresto get the people whom the network offers services and also to get valued information to make the project succeed (O'Kelly, & Miller 1994).Top-down network design is considered interactive and recognizes that the consistent model and the physical strategy change as more data is gathered.Understanding the business goals of a customer and constraints is a serious element of network design.

As network expectations changes network engineers come up with design principles. Many Enterprises do not depend on one vendor, technology inventions or protocol. The design tactic has improved dramatically and comprise of safety and scalability as main criteria. Security has an immense influence on network design.There is larger redundancy in many network designs since the events that took place in September in the year 2001. This has made business continuity a priority. Organizations are concentrating on increased stages of redundancy as well as disaster-recovery initiatives becoming a requirement (Nes, 2003).Redundancy is defined in many forms comprising of different power sources, several WAN carriers, substitute cable routes coupled with redundant hardware. Network connectivity and other services are perilous components of enterprise functions.

The rate of downtime is aggregating at a remarkable rate.Enterprises do not focus on usingone vendor and protocol as many technologies are now consistent. Designing a network is not an insignificant factor. Evaluating the design standards enables a person to understand the network and the functions of the network. Network designs have to adapt easily in implementation of the next generation of technological invention. Many network designers plan to have IP telephony.These network design initiatives are for new networks and helpful in enhancing the existing ones.Proper planning on networks is often based on sound architecture hence makes redesigning of the designs in the future easy.

Stages of the Network

Design is one elementassociated with a network life cycle. Planning, design, implementation, operation, and optimization (PDIOO) are the phasesinvolved in network life cycle. Every stagecreates its precursor to establish a sound network that preserves its efficiencynotwithstandingthe changing business wants. A person can use the PDIOO methodology…… [read more]

Government Agencies Post 911 September 11, 2001 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Government Agencies Post 911

September 11, 2001 changed the lives of all Americans. It was a terrible attack on American soil that forever changed the nature of the modern American consciousness. However, it had much more practical implications as well in terms of how it impacted government agencies and their role in protecting American citizens from future attacks. Today, old agencies have readjusted their roles along with the formation of new agencies to step up the level of protection for American citizens, especially in terms of global transportation security.

Both old and new agencies have had to revamp their agendas in accordance with new policies adopted after the 9/11 attack shocked the nation. Many government agencies that were already in place were revamped in order to take on new responsibilities and to ensure an increase in security measures. For example, the Federal Aviation Administration was restructured in order to address the new threats in a post 9/11 world. Originally set up in the mid 20th century, the agency predominately dealt with air traffic. However, after the attack on 9/11, the agency then became responsible for increased security measures. In addition to readjusting the roles of already established agencies, new ones were established as well. For example, the Department of Homeland Security was established in order to increase protection of citizens from terrorist attacks, which differentiated its activities from the Department of Defense which works in a military context only.

In this post 9/11 world, the nature of aviation security has dramatically changed. The Federal Aviation Administration has increased its own role in global transportation security. Funding to the organization has been crucial in developing and implementing more innovative global positioning software that tracks planes all over the world. Their efforts have not only streamlined flight…… [read more]

Designing a Procedural Security System-Wk4-Writ Oakland International Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Designing a Procedural Security System-wk4-Writ

Oakland International Security

The particular asset within the global transportation system that this document will discuss is Oakland International airport, which is approximately the third largest airport within the San Francisco Bay Area. Before describing the security system and the different measures employed to maintain the safety of passengers and employees utilizing this airport, it is essential to describe the security threats that Oakland International regularly faces. Essentially, there are both external and internal threats. External threats are those that come from outside the airport and threaten to breach its perimeter defenses. Internal threats are those that are found within the airport itself -- typically in the form of passengers or those posing as passengers or possibly as employees.

External threats to Oakland International include objects, vehicles, and people attempting to penetrate its perimeter to damage the airport and those inside of it. For this specific reason, the primary security measures for this airport include fortifying its exterior. There are a couple of ways to efficaciously accomplish this objective, such as erecting barricades like walls and tall fences around the perimeter of the building. Access to areas that are considered sensitive -- such as terminals, fuel depots, and baggage area handling areas -- should be especially guarded. Additionally, it is important to employ a large force of a security team -- members of which should ideally include representatives from the Federal Aviation Authority -- on the outside of the airport to project a vigilant presence that can detect any external threats before they have breached the airport's perimeter. Vehicular access to the airport should be restricted and includes implementing measures of parking in which people are not allowed to be in stationary vehicles for an extended length of time near sensitive areas (Tyson & Grabianowski, no date).

In terms of attempting to counteract internal threats to Oakland International Airport, there are a number of prudent measures that can help secure the airport. Again, it is necessary to enumerate…… [read more]

Southwest Airlines Originally Began Operation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The main concerns of any HR department are: improving performance, lowering costs plus motivating and satisfying employees.

Human Resource is responsible for recruiting, promoting and training employees. The company itself aims to provide the best quality service with a warm, friendly attitude. Southwest's company philosophy is that customers come second to employees- the most important members. They believe that if the firm takes care of the employees will take care of the company and in Southwest employees introduce creative, innovative ideas and a 'fun culture' that has helped increase profitability. The aim of the airline was to maximize profits and they have their own pocket in the market that is affordable air travel to people who did not afford it in the past. The airline flies short, domestic flights and smaller airports, to save costs. Southwest management has strived to engender employee loyalty. Their introduction of Ticketless travel, they had a limited fleet of technicians -- which saved on training costs. They also introduced computerization, they have other tradeoffs that are made in favor of low fare. The company has a wonderful employee satisfaction record, in this respect it is one of top Fortune 100 companies and has remained continuously profitable for over 50 years (Hall, A. 2007).

Diversification: Southwest must implement related diversification, it should start its own booking offices, a training centre for security and other related airport personnel. With its great profits it can invest in manufacturing of plane seats or other parts. The airline can also start its own catering company, which provides simple, healthy food. This is because an airline needs the support of agents, managers, catering companies to ensure effective cost management. Southwest began by flying such short distances that food was not a requirement, but since it is now flying in many cities, it should add these complements to improve service while keeping cost under control.

First it results in an increase in costs, as now the business has to coordinate between the airline and production division. This means greater transportation, communication costs. They in this way might exhaust important resources in the working of the extended division. The sole decision making posts become unimportant and more interdepartmental coordination is required (Zhou, Y. M, 2007).


Southwest is the leading airline in the U.S. And it's a model of excellent human resource management as well as strategic implementation. However, the company should consider expanding its horizon's through diversification.


Bunz, U.K & Maes, J. D, (1998). Case Studies. Learning Excellence: Southwest Airlines Approach. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://bunz.comm.fsu.edu/southwest.pdf

Dirk, T. (2012). Travel and Leisure Services Outsourcing. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://www.wns.com/Resources/Articles/Article-Details/45/Five-trends-for-the-airline-industry-in-2010.aspx

Hall, A. (2007). Southwest Airlines: The Role of Human Resources in Implementing Business Strategy and Hiring Practices. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://www.arichall.com/academic/papers/om5210-hrm.pdf

The Official Board (2012). Southwest Airlines. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/southwest-airlines

Zhou, Y.M. (2007). University of Michigan: Related Diversification and Structural Complexity. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=… [read more]

Smith Electric Vehicles - Kc Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, with increasing utilization of renewable energies, electric powered vehicles could represent a sustainable solution to transportation related environmental issues.

Companies such as this represent a private sector solution to the quest for sustainability. Although a comprehensive industry solution is still many years away from being feasible, it takes companies like Smith Electric Vehicles many years to acquire the capabilities to be able to mass produce their products. Though there are still a plethora of obstacles that must be overcome before this technology can become mainstream, the company is making great strides towards this end.

One way this company benefits the local community is that it is training local citizens in the technologies that will most likely be employed in the future. Not only does it employ many people and train them in these technologies but it also fosters a sense of awareness about environmental issues. The company also definitely adds a positive contribution to the local culture which adds sustainable issues to the discussion. All and all, the company is a good member of the Kansas City community and it should receive as much local support as feasibly possible.

Works Cited

Colgrass, N. (2012, April 15). The Coal-Powered Secret of Some Electric Cars. Retrieved from Newser: http://www.newser.com/story/144094/are-electric-cars-so-green-depends-where-you-live.html

Smith. (2012). Overview. Retrieved from Smith Electric Vehicles: http://smithelectric.com/about-smith/overview/

Smith. (2012). Zero Emissions. Retrieved from Smith Electric Vehicles: http://smithelectric.com/go-electric/zero-emissions/… [read more]

Aviation Demands and Capacity Constraints at SFO Airport Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


San Francisco Airport -- Solutions

In business, it is sometimes necessary to make decisions regarding the long-term future in terms of survival. This often means that there are few choices, some or most of which might be unpleasant. Airports face many difficult decisions in both the long and short-term. In the short-term, challenges are to maintain a business that can sustain itself in spite of the recent economic downturn and the continuing struggle that former clients face to make ends meet. Fewer people therefore tend to use airports and flights for non-essential purposes such as vacations and the like. On the other hand, in the long-term, airports have the need to maintain adequate capacity to continue serving a projected growth in customer base. This is the case at San Francisco Airport. Although the company's current approach does address some of the long-term issues they face, this is not adequate to truly be able to face capacity growth concerns in the future. A more proactive step is necessary to handle this. It is therefore necessary for airport managers to focus not only upon current capacity and delay concerns, but also on potential long-term growth and concomitant capacity needs. Technologies such as NextGen offer some potential solutions for the situation at San Francisco Airport, while incorporating other airports in its operations may also be a viable alternative to actually expanding the space at the facility.

Eads, Kiefer, and Mehndiratte (n.d., p. 44) acknowledge that the greatest challenge the airport is currently facing in terms of delays is its local weather conditions. This causes more delays than any other factor at the airport. According to the authors, one long-term solution to this is the reconfiguration of its runway space, which would take a long time, but would ultimately provide a solution to most of the airport's delay challenges. While the majority of the paper focuses on short-term policies that could be used for the airport's current delay problems, the reader is left wondering if the true capacity needs for the future have been taken into account in the reconfiguration process. It appears that there has been a somewhat myopic assessment of current needs in terms of delays and capacity. However, the growth of the passenger base and long-term future capacity needs have not been so much ignored as blindly avoided in the light of the current need to avoid weather-related delays. After the reconfiguration of its runways, San Francisco Airport may therefore face capacity concerns related to the growth of its customer base, which would all but negate its efforts to mitigate the weather problem.

One major problem in the concern for capacity is that San Francisco Airport in fact lacks the space to increase its physical size. It would therefore be difficult to build additional runways. The space is simply not there. This is a factor that Butler (2008) takes into account. The author suggests that NextGen technologies can potentially offer solutions to the challenges faced by San Francisco Airport, where the… [read more]

Hot Rod Car Enthusiasts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


These regulations are generally geared at number of other related issues on the surface. For example, a noisy muffler may be regulated on the grounds of pollution standards and environmental concerns. Other restrictions may also be geared at certain safety concerns such as the having the proper safety restraint equipment in place or barring certain performance enhancements that are legal to use on the street, such as tires for example. Older customized vehicles may also not pass a state required inspection if some of the vehicles features are not modernized to meet standards introduced after the cars production.

Although many of these regulations and restrictions are arguably well intentioned, many others are not. Some are clearly driven by contempt for the emerging countercultures' that are centered around the aesthetic and performance enhancements of automobiles. Furthermore, this contempt is based upon a stereotype that is one actual reality. While some members of such counter-cultures are undoubtedly of a criminal nature, the vast majority are completely law abiding. This is actually the same within any cultural group that you can imagine whether it be based on religion, national identity, hobbies, ext. However, given the formation of the stereotypes is already in existence, instances of indiscretions by any of the members are quick to be picked up by the media which only acts to further perpetuate the stereotype.

There is some evidence of groups fighting back against both the stereotype in general as well as the unfounded instances of restrictions and regulations. The Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) has formed an action network known as SAN (SEMA Action Network) (SAN). While the action network is focused mainly on legislative issues regarding the specialty equipment modifications performed on cars, the broader organization also works to mitigate the negative stereotype by holding car rallies and other events for charitable causes through another branch of the organization known as SEMA cares (SEMA). As a result of this groups efforts, as well as the efforts of individuals all over the nation, it is unlikely that legislative measures will ever be able to break the collective spirit of automotive enthusiast in this country and the spirit of the hot rod will live on indefinitely.

Works Cited

Hardin, D. "Can They Outlaw Hot Rodding?" 10 December 2010. Hot Rod Magazine. Web. 1 May 2012.

IBIS World. "Auto Customization Shops in the U.S. - Industry Market Research Report." 1 February 2012. Market Research. Web. 1 May 2012.

SAN. "Promoting Legislative Solutions for the Automotive Hobby." 2012. SEMA Action Network. Web. 1 May 2012.

SEMA. "Leading Manufactures Pitch in Parts for Charity Mustang GT." 2010. SEMA. Web. 1 May 2012.

Zaragoza, S. "Alta Mere…… [read more]

New Payment System for Parking Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The proposed fees for the website necessary for the project are within the MBTA's budget and will be subject to quality assurance beta-testing.

The detriments from the city's point-of-view are that the proposed plan may not recoup the additional revenue it must outlay to construct the system. Even if the system is not unduly costly, there will still be some cost to install scanners, mail stickers to participants, and to screen for those who attempt to circumvent the system. The new system must also be marketed in a compelling fashion, and the different aspects of participation must be clearly explained. There is no guarantee that increased numbers of commuters will avail themselves of the opportunity to pay in advance because of the increased ease of using the system. Secondly, if more people elect to use public transportation, this can result in higher costs, greater stressors upon the system, and a demand for new routes and more subway cars and buses to accommodate traffic. Finally, there may be complaints of favoritism towards those who buy the passes. More casual drivers may feel excluded and angry when they cannot find places to park near MBTA stations if there is an increase of commuters using the parking lots, thanks to the greater ease of the new system. Tourists that take their cars to the city may feel irritated when they cannot find easy, convenient parking near an MBTA station.

A final charge might be that the system does not convey much additional value, since commuters can already buy a monthly permit and display this on the dashboard or pay via mobile phone technology. The primary added value is that the 'scanned' payment system is less cumbersome and the payments are automatic, reducing the chance a commuter will forget it is the first of the month and needs to renew the pass: the detriment from a consumer's point-of-view is a loss of control and flexibility day-by-day and month-by-month, in terms…… [read more]

Bikeways: A New Jersey State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It is also something of an obviation that the most important stakeholder at the end of this program is the cycling enthusiast or the potential cycling enthusiast. The degree to which the resultant bike paths are used, enjoyed and contributing to a reduction in automobile usage, traffic and related emissions will be a substantial gauge to their success in satisfying stakeholder demands.


The immediate goals of the program are to accept applications and award grants for the construction of the recently approved 1000 new miles of bike path space throughout the State of New Jersey and, consequently, "to establish regionally connected bicycle networks" that produce an interconnectedness between all New Jersey counties and municipalities. (NJDOT, p. 1) Additional goals of the program are outlined by the Handbook, which calls for the prioritization of safety, the improvement of access through paths to local community centers, parks, commercial and residential areas, expedient production from the time of grant allotment, the fomenting of community support and the pairing of reputable applicants with meaningful funding. (LTPA, p. 1)


The major objectives to be achieved as the outcome of these goals will be the increase in usage of conserved public space, increased interest in cycling as a mode of transportation, reduced traffic congestion and improved compliance with statewide emissions standards. These objectives are supported by a boon in state funding. According to Copeland (2011), "the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) has announced the award of 33 grants worth a total of $7.6 million to municipal and county recipients through four Local Aid programs, including nearly $3 million for bikeways."

Evaluation of Goals and Objectives:

This funding brings great promise but also calls for the objective evaluation of the program's ability to achieve its stated goals. The article by Andy (2009), for instance, describes a project in New Brunswick in which poor routing decisions seem to impede a constructed path from providing improved access or safety. This highlights the need to engage in survey evaluations amongst path users for every newly constructed bikeway, with bi-annual improvements to be made at those sites found wanting.

Works Cited:

Andy, B. (2009). New Brunswick Bikeway Fatally Flawed. Walk Bike Jersey Blog.

Copeland, D. (2011). NJDOT announces grants of nearly $3 million for bikeway development around New Jersey. NJ.com.

Local Transportation Planning Assistance (LTPA). (2011). Bikeways Grant Program Handbook. New Jersey Department of…… [read more]

Commercial Helicopter Industry Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  6 pages (1,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Speculation of Findings

The proposed research will likely be similar to trend analysis from trade materials, but will provide a much more detailed look at the trend notification in public material. The researcher expects to see data that indicates that these smaller companies struggle to recruit pilots in a timely manner and find this trend to be increasingly prevalent. The work will also seek to provide a better understanding of the kinds and types of training that might be needed to respond to mass pilot loss and how the training organizations might better serve future students. Challenges to the industry are clearly many and finding qualified pilots would seem to be at the top of the list of possible shortcomings in this almost golden industry of growth. The work might also better indicate to future students what type of experience smaller providers are seeking and how to get it through larger industry involvement. There is a clear sense that with the diversity of the industry pilots need to be skilled in a variety of areas and given the task there is little margin for error. For this reason I believe this work will be highly informative regarding small business trends in the commercial helicopter industry.

Austin, N. (2008, June 21). Business with lots of highs. Advertiser, The (Adelaide).

Denham, S. (2007, June 10). Ireland is flying high? Not if you own a chopper. Sunday Times, The.

Garvey, W. (2006). B/CA Fast Five. Business & Commercial Aviation, 98(1), 20.

Moore, A. (2008, January 13). With predicted pilot shortage in mind, Oregon college touts aviation program. Bulletin, The (Bend, OR).

Phillips, E.H. (2000). Genav Feeling Pinch of Tight Pilot Market. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 153(15), 106.

Rimmer, D. (2000). Sierra Adds Career Helicopter Training. Business…… [read more]

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