"Transportation / Mass Transit" Essays

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Maglev Train Magnetic Levitation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Magnetic-Levitation Trains

Today, innovations in transportation technologies have significantly improved the energy efficiency, CO2 emission rates and safety of aircraft, the railroad and trucking industries as well as automobiles. Although these innovations have provided some improvements compared to the past, there remains a desperate need to identify ways to improve these technologies even further to reduce carbon emissions, improve performance… [read more]

Understanding Travel Behavior Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,062 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Travel Behaviour

"The concept of 'mobilities' encompasses both the large-scale movements of people, objects, capital, and information across the world, as well as the more local processes of daily transportation, movement through public space, and the travel of material things within everyday life"

Howard Rheingold (2004, ¶ 5).


For a person to work; to socialize; to live,… [read more]

Luggage Transportation Curbside Check-In: If the Passenger Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Luggage Transportation

Curbside Check-in:

If the passenger opts for curbside check-in (and it is permitted under applicable security rules in effect at the time), the process begins even before the passenger enters the airport departure terminal. Curbside check-in facilities include computers capable of printing out boarding passes and luggage tags complete with barcodes to identify baggage electronically if necessary. The bags are weighed to determine whether they conform to the maximum size and weight restrictions of the airline and additional fees collected if necessary. Once the curbside attendant places the baggage on the conveyor belt, the baggage continues through the same general process as other passenger luggage destined for the plane's cargo hold.

Ticket Counter Baggage Check-in:

If the passenger opts for ticket counter, the attendant conducts the same general process as the curbside attendant and also issues a boarding pass. Different color tags and number codes corresponding to flight numbers are used to distinguish different destinations to help baggage handlers direct luggage to the appropriate internal conveyor belts. Depending on the security measures in place at a particular time, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) may conduct random inspections of passenger baggage by hand as they approach the ticket counter, in connection with which they may use an explosive detection device to identify any residual traces of explosives. Passenger luggage that is screened in this manner is then taped with special TSA security tape and secured by official seals to indicate that the bags have already been screened by hand and to ensure that the intact seals will prevent subsequent tampering until the passenger takes possession of it at the destination airport.

Currently, major U.S. airports are equipped with X-ray equipment and explosive detectors through which luggage conveyed to the cargo hold is automatically screened in the baggage handling areas. The TSA suggests that passengers leave luggage unlocked to avoid damaging locks in the event a cursory screening necessitates internal inspection of luggage contents by hand. Many passengers lock their luggage anyway, because they are more worried about thievery at the hands of baggage handlers after numerous news reports over the years implicating them in property theft from checked passenger luggage.

Baggage Handling Operations:

Whether luggage is checked at the curb or at the ticket counter, the agent normally inquires into whether any of the contents requires special handling of any kind and luggage with delicate or unusual contents are tagged with indicators signifying special handling requirements. In the baggage…… [read more]

Airport Operations KMIA Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,754 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Airport Operations: Analysis of Miami International Airport KMIA

The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of Miami International Airport from a business and operational point-of-view. This work will analyze the operating and business environment of Miami International Airport as well as analyzing the major issues and challenges faced by the airport and finally state conclusions and make… [read more]

Digital Signage System of Public Transportation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Digital Signage System of Public Transportation

Digital signage article report

As the economy worsens, more and more people are turning to public transportation as a means of commuting to work, or for leisure-time travel. However, as the 2008 article from Business Wire "Omnivex wins DIGI Award for digital signage on bus system in Norway" makes clear, America lags behind many European countries in the sophistication of its travel technology, specifically regarding digital signage system in public transportation. Norway has made a massive investment in improving information technology throughout its transportation infrastructure. One of the primary transportation companies in Norway, Fjord1, currently uses Omnivex software to manage GPS-triggered digital signage on Norway's expansive bus system. Omnivex is a Toronto-based company and the world leader in software development for digital signage networks and electronic displays managing content management, real-time data acquisition and distribution, and remote device monitoring and management of all aspects of digital signage networks.

Ironically, although the DIGI Awards are given in New York, and the company winning the award is Canadian, it is Europe, specifically the Scandinavian countries, that have made the greatest investment in digital signage systems in public transport. Gas is more expensive in these nations, and has been for many years. The sharp upturn in fuel costs in 2008 was not a surprise to Northern Europe, as gas had been prohibitively expensive for some time, turning many people into regular users of public transportation. The digital signage technology adds a unique component to every passenger's experience, making the system more user-friendly and informative for the many users of public transportation in Norway.

The digital signage installation is in four hundred of Fjord's buses as well as bus terminals. The installation for the bus system that uses GPS data to trigger which content the software shows, based on the location of the bus, highlights points of interest in the area, and also provides information about connecting buses on the schedule. The system also keeps real-time track of…… [read more]

Denver Climate Action Planning Project Carbon Dioxide Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,470 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Denver Climate Action Planning Project

Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. One recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between 2000 and 2020 will contribute to an array of environmental crises not only in the U.S., but also in countries… [read more]

New Technology- Digital Signage &amp Way Finding Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (719 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … new technology- digital signage & way finding for public transportation. Digital signage is a relatively new phenomenon used to advertise to the public in just about any arena, from airport waiting areas to the backseats of taxis. It is especially helpful in public transportation arenas, such as buses and subways.

Just what is digital signage? One expert defines it as, "Digital signage is any form of business communication where a dynamic messaging device is used to take the place of, or supplement, other forms of messaging" (Yackey 5). Digital signage is the wave of the future for public transportation, because it can provide necessary information, such as GPS signage that indicates when the next bus is coming to a bus stop and how long passengers have left to wait for that bus. In addition, digital signage can provide income for public transportation entities because they can sell advertising about local businesses located near the bus stops, adding advertising revenue to their income, which can be especially attractive during these dire economic times. An information Web site notes, "In some cases, advertising time is sold to marketers who want to reach travelers. For example, a restaurant in New York might advertise in airports nationwide, but only at the gates that have flights heading to New York" (Editors). This brings a new depth of advertising strategies to businesses and new income to public transportation entities.

The social aspect of digital signage deals with the social effects of the signage on public transportation riders. Usually, the people who ride the bus or the subway do not have much money, and they rely on public transportation to get them to their jobs, their homes, and wherever they need to travel. Everyone knows what a big role transportation plays in our society. Enjoying a useful transportation system lets us move freely around the city. As a public transportation rider, I often feel that the signs in the subway stations are not appealing and instead are confusing. It would be nicer to have digital signage system that can notify us of the next bus/subway arrival time, and it would be more efficient, too.…… [read more]

Amendment One in Florida Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (444 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Even the owners of a Florida reality company admitted that the plan had flaws: "there is always some downside to tax cutting. Somebody has to pay to continue Florida's growth...More cars are driving on Florida's roads so new and wider streets and highways are needed. These and other much needed infrastructure projects will be postponed or cut due to the reduced tax base....The overburden police forces will continue to be stretched thin," limiting their ability to effectively police Florida's highways, and Floridians will "likely have to wait a little bit longer on lines at the Department of Transportation" (Belloise & Belloise, 2008). The immediate pleasures of quick tax relief will be enjoyed by Florida's residents, of course -- but what will these cuts mean in the long run for the health and safety of the state?

Works Cited

Belloise, Chris & Beth Belloise. "Amendment One." Belloise Reality.

19 Jan 2008. 13 Feb 2008. http://belloiserealty.blogspot.com/2008/01/amendment-one.html

Florida Tax Watch: Amendment One will do more harm than good."

Jacksonville Business Journal. 11 Jan 2008. 13 Feb 2008. http://www.bizjournals.com/jacksonville/stories/2008/01/07/daily28.html?ana=from_rss

NFIB cheers passage of Amendment One." Jacksonville Business

Journal. 30 Jan 2008. 13 Feb 2008. http://memphis.bizjournals.com/jacksonville/stories/2008/01/28/daily17.html… [read more]

Daimler Divestiture of Chrysler Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,098 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Daimler-Chrysler Financial Debacle

In The Merger And Dissolution Of Daimler-Benz And Chrysler

History of the Participants: Differences and Similarities


Chrysler History

Prior to the Merger Discussions

Daimler-Benz becoming a global conglomerate

Chrysler's growth and success in the 1990s

First error: from-the-top decisions

The early merger announcements: opportunities missed

Chrysler: What Eaton could have done better

Shortcomings on Daimler-Benz's side… [read more]

Toll Roads Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,937 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Privatization of America's Highway Infrastructure

Brief History of Public Roads

The Role of States

Federal Efforts to Build Our Highway System

What is the Answer?

Increased corporate taxes and revenue for localities

Fears of price gouging

Competition leads to better management

Managing downside risk

Examples of privatization at work

Chicago Skyway

Considerations for future Pennsylvania projects

The future of New… [read more]

Mechanized World as the World Is Getting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,064 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Mechanized World

As the world is getting smaller and smaller each day, people have become more of a commuter than a pedestrian. With man's fast paced lifestyle people from all over the globe have been very dependent on different means of transportation whether your driving your way to work or taking a trip abroad across international seas. One could only wonder what life could have been without these mechanized utilities that man employs to transport himself from one place to the other in a matter of days, hours, minutes. Futuristic movies of the 20th century even depict an instant transport from a place, space or from a time dimension to another in just one blink of an eye. Truly the era of a long walk along the countryside as the basic means of travel have been long surpassed by bullet trains, low fast cars and airplanes. It is in this era where travel has its own facet and space while traversing the phases of speed and time.

Driving a car or taking any means of public transport like the train or a bus is in itself a different experience. Each of these represents two different occurrences that are in the inner perception of any traveler. In going to work or taking an inter-city trip in a car gives the driver a feeling of privacy. Either traveling alone or with a companion, driving endows unto the driver that sense of control. He is the master of his own world while his vehicle is in motion. He can very well dictate the speed and what route he has to take. Hence, this kind of traveler, the driver, is completely responsible on all of his actions and decisions. The time of travel, the space and distance that he has to cover is his choice.

Riding a train or a bus affects a regular commuter in a very different manner compared to a driving traveler. Upon entering the doors of a train, a regular commuter can have this feeling of entering another dimension of time and space. Time in a train is programmed and much predictable than driving your car. Here you can either relax while time passes or be at the mercy of boredom despite the fact that the train is already covering miles and miles of distance.

Meanwhile you are discretely observing the other actions of your fellow traveler. The train has been a convergence of all known social and emotional actions of the commuting traveler. Here privacy is deficient because everything is in the public eye. Some would resort to read the morning paper. Others would try to huddle up and think of a topic for some chit chat. Others would try to amuse themselves in watching all of the other activities that was just mentioned. These things are quite typical to a commuting traveler. Nevertheless, both travelers have opted to take this means of transport in order to cover more space and distance in a much lesser time… [read more]

Air Cargo Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


History Of Air Cargo Industry

The history of the air cargo industry in a very real way mirrors the history of air transportation. This paper reviews the history of air transportation and how those visionaries that pre-dated the emergence of air transport helped the industry grow and spread. Moreover, the paper will include the advancement of air transport in World… [read more]

New Trucking Hours of Service Rule Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … new trucking hours of service rule will take effect in the United States that will have important implications for over-the-road trucking companies and their professional drivers. To gain some fresh insights into these implications, the purpose of this paper was to use the three value system comprised of law, morality, and social responsibility in the application of different… [read more]

Commuting for Clean Air Commuter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The average household has 1.75 drivers but 1.90 personal vehicles, proving how much the automobile is a part of the American culture. This reliance on cars may be difficult to break and would, therefore, point to a need to concentrate additional efforts on air pollution reduction techniques such as cleaner fuels, more stringent fuel and emission standards, alternative fuels and better vehicle technologies.

As mentioned in the introduction, commuting policies are only a small part of the solution. If all measures were taken to shift individual from automobiles to alternatives means of transportation, experts estimate that only between ten and fifteen percent of the passenger problem would be addressed and none of the freight problem would be solved (Pisarski, 2001). Thus, there remains a residual eighty-five percent to ninety percent of the problem that must be addressed by additional measures.

In summary, commuter choice programs are viable options for improving air quality and reducing congestion. But, they are not a panacea for solving the complete range of challenges presented by widespread automobile use. While cynics may charge that the programs are a diversion from more meaningful policies, the truth lies somewhere in the middle. Much more is needed to reduce overall automobile travel demand and the pollution that automobiles cause.


Commuter Choice Primer. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from U.S. Department of Transportation Highway Administration Web site: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_PR/ccp/section08.htm

Pisarski, A.E. Life in the not-so-fast lane. Blueprint Magazine. Retrieved November 23, 2004 from Sacramento Transportation and Air Quality Collaborative Web site: http://www.sactaqc.org/resources/literature/transportation/Not_So_Fast_Lane.htm

Wald, M. (2003, August 29). One vehicle on the road, two others in the garage. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/30/business/30TRAF.html?th… [read more]

South This Report Is About the Automobile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



This report is about the automobile industry migrating south and thus leaving northern and eastern states reeling. Corporate America and especially the automobile industry have become very competitive as the world has become more of a global economy. Companies are constantly on the lookout for new ways to strategically reduce overhead and still increase market share and profitability. In the past, Northern states like New Jersey, Detroit and New York offered the automobile industry high salary and unionized employees often forcing the manufactures to consider moving abroad.

When moving was not an option, the automobile industry was constantly closing plants and laying off employees to help balance the books. As recently as 1990's, companies needed to use solutions like labor force reduction to cut the associated cost of labor. This strategy was an always a resource nightmare as 'getting laid off' or 'getting downsized' became all too common buzz words. The automobile industry has found a viable alternative to moving abroad or shutting down facilities.

There has been a steady migration by the entire auto industry from states like Michigan and other Midwest states to Southern states. "The relocation of automotive manufacturing is threatening the economic future of East Coast and Midwestern states and creating a whirlwind of investment from Mississippi to South Carolina." (Corbett, 2002) Cities like Detroit are holding on for dear life and can only forecast mild levels of prosperity for about ten more years or so according to many industry experts.

Moves from places like Michigan, New Jersey and New York entail hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs lost and will also be a boon for the southern states that have become the new emerging production market for the automobile industry in the United States. "However, it's North America's East Coast that is getting hit the hardest. A number of auto factories have closed there since the 1980s. General Motors Corp. facilities in Tarrytown (now called Sleepy Hollow), NY, Clark, NJ; and Framingham, MA, are just a few." (Corbett, 2002) the real advantage the south has is that both Asian and European automakers are also expanding or opening new plants in southern states. This report therefore aims to answer the question of why the southern United States has become such an attractive location for the automobile industry.

The automobile industry has tried many new strategies such as decreasing its dependence on suppliers and making remaining suppliers utilize new quality measures and also providing products with just-in-time delivery systems. These requirements have added benefits of elevating the communication process between suppliers and the industry for both data and verbal processes. The business strategy is focused on the company's use of more economical materials that can be delivered with effective prices and on time. The auto industry has also been experimenting with new marketing strategies that utilize the internet and have been touted as an opportunity to offer 'internet ordered personalized cars.' Imagine buying a car made specifically for you as the technology has made this a… [read more]

Air Transportation in Regards to Security Global Sourcing Shipments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Airline Security

Air security has changed and has impacted shipments and has been impacted since increased security since 9/11 the attacks of September 11, 2001, on the United States (9/11) wereintended to cause harm in several ways: fatalities and casualties among innocent, disturbance of the air transport system, and negative economic impacts. Aviation plays an important role in the economic prosperity of the U.S.: it links communities and countries together for business and leisuretravelers, is a means for shipping goods, and it employs millions ofAmericans.Unfortunately, the aviation industry was already in a difficult condition before 9/11. Many airlines have recently faced bankruptcy and almost all eported net losses in the billions. Layoffs have become a means to reducethe operating costs of airlines. High fuel prices, rising insurance costs, and the added costs of ensuring security have all contributed to the troubledcondition of the aviation industry.The paper provides a perspective on the effect of the increased airline security and costs on the logistics of shipping.

Shipping and:Logistics

In the transportation and logistics sector, competition is tough, and customers are getting pickier. However, the costs will get higher with the new increased airline security. But cargo was not given the same level of scrutiny, and lawmakers such as Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchinson, R-Tex., and Rep. Ed Markey, D-Mass., have repeatedly remarked that passengers wait in long security lines only to board aircraft which contain belly cargo that has not been screened. Markey has proposed legislation calling for widespread screening of belly cargo. The TSA outlined a new cargo security plan late last year, and is weeks away from issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking on new cargo security rules. (Karp, 2004)

But even with permanent regulations still contemplated, the agency has issued a number of interim directives and airlines have already started taking action. Northwest Airlines, for example, warned forwarders that it will be spot-checking cargo and will open packages it deems suspicious.Instead, airlines, shippers and forwarders will be given a great deal of responsibility for various screening functions and the TSA will conduct regular audits to ensure rules are being followed. and, as long as Congress passes no new laws, the TSA is not aiming to screen…… [read more]

Attack of 911 Has Posed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


TWIC involves an assimilation of the standard background screenings and biometrics in order that a worker can be securely matched to his or her credential. With complete adoption of the program The TWIC card will emerge as the standard credential for airport workers and will accepted by all modes of transportation. Besides, TSA has been developing the next-generation Computer Assisted… [read more]

German Transportation Technology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


German Transportation Technology

Germany's History Behind the Railroad

On December 7,1835, the first English manufactured train ran from Nurnberg to Furth, Germany. The locomotive was built by Robert Stephenson and Co in Newcastle England, and was first driven by an English engineer, Mr. Willam Wilson. Like the U.S. And English countries the railway system connects all corners of Germany from the east towards the west. With the onwards policies of the German Government to continue building their own railways system, on October 4, 1840, Germany launched its first train on the Munchen Augsburg Eisenbahn Gesellschaft. In 1875, history signaled the unification of the whole of Germany. This time served as the starting point wherein all of the state connected in the country were all interconnected and continuous progress were developed in Germany's railway system until the creation of Deutsche Reischbahn and Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft on 1924.

The railways system in Germany was nationalized on April 1, 1920, establishing the State Raliways of Germany (Die Reichseisenbahn) unifying the state railways companies of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wurttemburg, Baden, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hesse and Oldenburg under the sovereignty of the German Reich. The unification was due to new constitution of the Weimar Republic promulgated on the 1st of August 1919. This era was the time of civil conflict in Germany with its loss from World War I and the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party towards the year 1933.

In 1924, the Dawes Plan, authored by Charles G. Dawes and other European Countries and the United States included the transportation system of Germany, also the railway system, to be part and a source of reparation money to be paid as imposed in the Treaty of Versailles. On the 12th of February of the same year, from Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, the government issued the regulation for the creation of the German State Railway (Deutsche Reichsbahn) as a state enterprise. As this did not go far enough for the reparations creditor on 30th August 1924 a law was enacted for the establishment of a privately owned German State Railway Company (Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft) to operate the state railways

The existence of new rolling stocks was during the establishment and the beginning of Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG), with the new single type of steam engine initiated the harmonization of existing heterogeneous stocks. During 1933, the Flying Hamburg, a high speed diesel train on the high speed tracks developed in Germany ran with the speed that reaches 200km/hr. From an article on the history of German Railways, the following was indicated on the important date of May 11, 1936.

The steam locomotive 05-002 sets a world record of 200.4 kmh (125.25 mph). (The English locomotive 'Mallard' broke this on 3rd July 1938 with 202.4 kmh (126.5 mph))

With the coming of the following year the DRG became plainly DR, Deutsche Reichsbahn, along with the introduction…… [read more]

Crash Investigation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Bush Crash Investigations

Whether they are school-age children or senior citizens, passengers riding in busses naturally assume that the driver is performing his or her duties carefully and safely, and passengers also believe that the bus would not be on the highways if it were unsafe in any way. Those assumptions turn out to be faulty on certain occasions, and… [read more]

Polluted, Emphasis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,498 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Other bicycle retailers include Century Cicles, Freewheel Bike, Gregg Cycle or Free-Flite Bicycles.

The average bicycle retailer sells an estimated 650 bicycles per year, but it also sells equipments, parts, accessories and provides complementary services (The NBDA Statpak, 2011). The very provision of these complementary services, combined with competitive prices, represents the means by which the bicycle retailers create points… [read more]

Air Transportation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Air Transportation

The exam proposal covered within this brief report is meant to illustrate and otherwise show the proper and full comprehension of all relevant program outcomes of the Master of Aeronautical Science Degree with a specialization in the area of Aviation Aerospace Operations. The main topics covered include the transportation and other handling of airline passengers in public airports around the United States. This includes security handlings, proper corralling and handling of passengers during the boarding process, during the flight and disembarking when the flight is done as well as handling ad hoc emergency and/or unusual situations such as disruptive passengers, medical emergencies and technical issues with the plan.

Comprehensive Exam Project Proposal

Comprehensive Exam

Statement of the Question

Airport security has always been a touchy subject with very disparate points-of-view. Some push the importance of effectively screening and clearing passengers before they take off while others say that the tactics used by the TSA are over-the-top, invasive or even ineffectual. There was a definite swing to the safety/security side of the spectrum after the horrific and tragic events of 9/11 in the United States but not all of the libertarian and other concerns relative to airport security have been quelled even after those terrible acts (TSA, 2013).

One major point of contention has been the use of "naked body" scanners that basically digitally undress a person, which brews major privacy concerns, and then there is the question of whether the scanners are even effective at what they are supposed to do. Another major point of problems is the use of actual pat-down searches for people that, for whatever reason, do not pass security through the usual means and/or are otherwise picked out for advanced search techniques (TSA, 2013).

A major wrinkle that clouds all of the above is the fact that many terrorists are Muslim males from 18 to 34 years old and yet while some countries, like Israel, unapologetically profile passengers, the United States government and the TSA in particular has roundly rejected this tactic as being punitive and unfair to Muslims. However, while that is a valid point it is perhaps is a bit maddening to some to see people that are disabled, very young, very old, or otherwise completely absent of the profile that even an advanced security expert would expect from someone with nefarious intentions is being frisked, detained or otherwise hassled at an airport when they have done nothing wrong (TSA, 2013).

Finding a middle ground that appeases all sides is quite elusive and there is little expectation that this will change anytime soon. Even so, the news is not all bad. For example, the naked body scanners referenced before are being steadily replaced with ones that do much the same thing but without the graphic detail of the early machines. Similarly, other softer techniques like no-fly lists and other pre-screening tactics are often quite effective at keeping people off planes due to the greatly enhanced security of state drivers licenses… [read more]

U.S. Statistics Indicate That 80 Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  25 pages (8,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


The key thrust for performance excellence is to establish a culture of continuous improvement and innovation that builds upon a strong foundation of quality, professionalism and team excellence always.

Researcher's Work Setting and Role

The researcher has been an officer of the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF)

for 10 years. The researcher has held the equivalent rank of Major… [read more]

Individual Automobile Safety Technology Engineering Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Both of these provisions point to the important of after sales activity with regard to attracting and retaining customers ("KPMG," 2012). Retailer profitability is substantively impacted by after sales service of automobiles, but the possibility of differentiation in this arena is difficult and remote ("KPMG," 2012). However, the evolving technology trends in the industry may provide a boon to retailers… [read more]

Electric Car Manual Instruction Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,931 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


The Nissan Leaf will even locate with GPS the closest electric refilling stations.

Figure 5 - Electric Charging Station (Singh, 2010)

Driving the electric vehicle has two primary differences when compared to traditional vehicles as well. Again the lack of engine noise is noticeable. Many people are somewhat disoriented when they do not hear the car accelerate as they would in gasoline powered vehicle. Another difference is that the source of power is more immediate in an electric vehicle because this power supply does not dependent on the engine reeving up for it to supply its power. In fact, some of the electric sports cars are among the fastest cars in the world in regards to initial acceleration. In an electric vehicle the battery gives the car its power instantaneously and without any delay. Although companies regulate this power so that it simulates a gas powered car, many drivers will notice a different feel in acceleration since the power supply is constant.

Another substantial difference in owning an electrical vehicle will be refueling the car. In a gasoline powered car it takes minutes to refuel the vehicle and there is an infrastructure currently already in existence to support drivers. People often take the availability of this power source for granted. An electric vehicle on the other hand requires four to twenty hours to reach a full charge, depending on the power supply available. For most people on daily commutes, this will not provide any inconvenience. However, for longer trips, the electric vehicle will be more complicated and require substantial planning or may not be possible at all. Once an infrastructure is built to support the electric vehicle, there will be more options for long distance travel. However, such a trip will still undoubtedly require substantially longer timeframes for refueling compared to traditional technology.

Figure 6 - Electric Refueling Station in a Private Garage (Krisher, 2011)

Works Cited

Hybrid Cars. (2012). Electric Cars: A Definitive Guide. Retrieved from Hybrid Cars: http://www.hybridcars.com/electric-car

Krisher, T. (2011, March 31). Thinking of an electric car? Get your garage ready. Retrieved from Fuel Fix: http://fuelfix.com/blog/2011/03/31/thinking-of-an-electric-car-get-your-garage-ready/

Silicon Prairies Social. (2012, March 29). Naperville Embraces Electric Vehicles with Charging Stations. Retrieved from The Top Suburban Tech Stories and Events: http://www.siliconprairiesocial.com/tag/electric-car/

Singh, T. (2010, October 08). Massachusetts Set To Install 100 EV Charging Stations! Retrieved from Inhabitat: http://inhabitat.com/Massachusetts-set-to-install-100-ev-charging-stations/

The Auto Channel. (2008, May 11). Overview of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology and the impacts that PHEVs will have on Load, Generation Costs and Emissions. Retrieved from The Auto Channel: http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2008/05/12/086616.html… [read more]

Transportation Security in Airports Evaluation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The most common factors include the complications that security guards face when tuning the detector, as elements such as depth, width, height and general proximity to the ordnance will surely affect how the detector will function. The person operating the device might also develop health related issues, due to the length of time used for attention and listening to hear if the detector produces the beeping sound.

In addition, the detectors give many false alarm sounds. Almost all the metallic objects, including those close to the target will trigger the detector to produce the sound of the alarm. This happens mostly due to the strong signals designed within the metal detector. Because the detector will react differently according to the levels of detection set by the operator, it is upon the operator to ensure the machine is well set to reduce the amounts of false detections, hence increasing functionality of the gadget. If the operator sets the metal detector differently from the intended position, then it is most likely to cause interference (MacDonald & Mendez, 2005).

Different screening measure for the security team

The security team could conduct their screening process using diverse measures, many of which have been successful previously. Some of the measures include conducting passenger checks just to determine identification, following criminal records that are provided in the airports database. Detection in case of criminal records will be conducted through finger print procedures. It is advisable that all the airport operators get coordinators who will train the security team on the particulars of insecurity detection (Elias, 2009). The team responsible for security will use both large body scanners, and detection machines for explosive material tracing. If instituted well, then these strategies and measures could curb the present cases of insecurity.


Elias, B. (2009) Securing General Aviation. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishers.

MacDonald, J. & Mendez, C. (2005) Unexploded Ordnance Cleanup Costs: implications of alternative protocols. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation Publishers.

Tiebert, L. (2009) Frommer's Chicago with Kids.…… [read more]

Transportation Motor Carriers Have Populated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Onboard cameras can also video record any unusual occurrences, a detriment to thieves and nefarious characters who wish to abscond with ill-gotten gains.

The final two considerations that trucking companies in the future will attempt to fulfill include capacity and flexibility. With the earlier consolidations and mergers, many of today's carriers have a much greater capacity to haul loads across the United States. Large corporations who are in need of that capacity will likely contract with carriers who can give them a fair price, reliable shipping, and the capacity to handle large shipments. Carriers who are flexible with regard to those factors will also be the most successful, while those carriers who do not adapt to the more competitive environment will likely find themselves on the outside looking in.


Archetti, C. & Savelsbergh, M.; (2009) The trip scheduling problem, Transportation Science, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 417-431

Dobie, K.; (2005) The core shipper concept: A proactive strategy for motor freight carriers, Transportation Journal, Vol. 44, Issue 2, pp. 37 -- 53

Lang, A.B.; (2011) Transportation technology: Rail transport and logistics, Technology and Engineering Teacher, Vol. 70, Issue 8, pp. 12 -- 17

Murphy, P. & Wood, D.; (2008) Contemporary logistics, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

New rules regulate work and sleep schedules for commercial truck drivers; (2006) Public Roads, Vol. 69, issue 4, p. 12

Randall, W.S.; Defee, C.C.; Brady,…… [read more]

Electric Car Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The price and demand for oil will also impact the alternative fuel industry, and just like the gulf oil spill, these are factors that are difficult to predict.

Global Influences

One unpredictable aspect of the 2020 outlook is how markets would be affected if more stringent and consistent legislation is adopted that supports specific technologies ("J.D. Power"). In particular, China… [read more]

Bike-Sharing in New York City Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Mike Nuttle: Be alert and aware and make noise. Have a bell, have lights on your bike. You know New York is a busy place, so the more you're talking and alert to your surroundings the safer you'll be.u

Host: However, not all New Yorkers are happy with the new program, like this seasoned bike messenger. Messenger: They don't know what they are doing. They're reckless.

Host: And because of the risk, some people are not persuaded that biking is a viable alternative means of transportation.

Scared lady: I'm afraid I'm going to be hit by a bus. I don't have a helmet available; I won't rent them until I get on that at the very least.u

Host: However, Nuttle says she shouldn't be afraid.

Mike Nuttle: Now biking is safer than ever. Bicycling has quintupled over the last decade or so with the number of people riding bikes. But the number of crashes has actually gone down over the same time.

Host: Nuttle hopes that the more people bike, the safer it will be.

Mike Nuttle: There's the safety in numbers effect that we talk a lot about here. That the more people you have riding bikes the more aware drivers are of our existence on the street and less likely crashes become.u

Host: Lawyer Flanzig agrees.

Dan Flanzig: My philosophy is that this is a shared street.

Host: Just remember: no riding on the sidewalk, cyclists! Keep your eyes open…and perhaps a good lawyer on your speed dial. (Sound of a bike bell in the distance).… [read more]

Magnetic Levitation Propulsion Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,552 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Probably the biggest disadvantage of the Maglev technology is its complete incompatibility with the existing system -- train tracks for conventional trains etc. This results in the need for massive investment. (The cost factor will be discussed later in this paper).

Environmental Concerns

Some environmentalists have also expressed concern about the adverse health-effects of the magnetic fields, while supporters… [read more]

Financial Funding System for Amtrak Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,269 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They may build rider-ship but that's at the cost of creating revenue. The Inspector General of the Department of Transportation (March 2001) warned:

Amtrak's overall financial results have been improved significantly since 1999.

Our assessment of Amtrak's 2000 business plan identified a number of elements that Are unlikely to perform as Amtrak had expected. If no short action were taken to compensate for them, Amtrak's cash loss would be almost $1.4 billion more than it projected over the four-year period 2001 through 2004."

So what can be done and why? It's important to remember single that rail service is still a strong mode of transportation in this country. According to Senator Patrick Leahy, "The administration fails to recognize the reason Amtrak was formed in the first place: to fill a void for national passenger rail transportation left because a variety of private railroad companies went bankrupt in the middle of the last century." It is also a known fact that there isn't a national passenger rails service that operates without subsidy funding. The airline, highway and other transit systems also require government funding and Amtrak needs to continue to receive that long-term financial commitment.

Some critics suggest privatizing Amtrak but others voice their concern for that solution based on Britain's failure to make that a success. Accidents, chronic delays and system failures resulted in the great breakdown of Great Britain's passenger rail system. Congress and the President reject proposals that would turn back the clock to an era in America when rail service was on the brink of total collapse and eventual elimination.

Rail service should be supported and encouraged. As a country that is still facing terrorist threats, having a defunct rail system would leave the United States in a precarious position.

Rail service is safer and often easier. It can be quicker than air, bus and car travel for some routes. The government needs to partner with Amtrak officials and find a way to turn the tide and create a revenue-producing company.. Congress needs to conduct a review of Amtrak. What worked and what didn't and why.

Several initiatives can be implemented that would help foster potential revenue growth for Amtrak and not just boost rider-ship. First, improvements need to be made. High-speed service must become a reality. New passenger cars must be added to the fleet and older ones retired. Amtrak needs to add new routes and create city-to-city routes that would make them competitive with bus companies and airlines. Finally, Amtrak needs to look at expand it's business offerings, by adding and express package service or food shipping services. The key is to make the public aware of what rail service can mean to them personally and possibly to their business.

Senator Leahy believes a strong rail system can add important security and economic benefits to the nation. He also supported the National Defense Interstate Rail Act, can give Amtrak the tools and funding needed to promote operational efficiency and allow Amtrak to provide nationwide service… [read more]

Railroad Policy Analysis the National Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (6,495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


At that time, many in the trucking industry invested heavily in piggyback's promise, including less-than-truckload haulers, truckload carriers like J.B. Hunt Transport and Schneider National, and package express giant United Parcel Service. Rail inter-modal transport was more cost effective for long-haul traffic. It also seemed to be a viable answer to the dwindling supply of truck drivers willing to spend… [read more]

Japan Major Cities and Transportation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


("Transportation," 2004)

The remaining thirty percent of the trains belong to several dozens of private railway companies, especially in and around metropolitan areas, and all are famed for their speed, convenience, and well-packed nature, especially during rush hour. Even local trains, which stop at every major commuter stop, are world-renown for their speed. However, the speediest of trains in Japan are government owned. The most famous of these is the Tokaido Shinkansen line of bullet trains, connecting the major metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka. It was inaugurated in the year 1964 as the first shinkansen line and the world's first high speed train. As early as 1964 it ran up to speeds of about 200 km/h and now reaches speeds of over 300 km/h. ("Transportation," 2004)

Works Cited

Transportation." Japanguide.com. Retrieved on June 11, 2004 at http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2018.html… [read more]

Iconography of Los Angeles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The facilities that make up the infrastructure of normal life, from boutiques to food outlets, churches to dry cleaners, department stores to universities, have taken shapes influenced by the presence of the universal network of roads and the universal assumption that all that matters is centered on the car. The automobile is an icon of freedom, perhaps the perfect embodiment of all the reasons why people opened up the West of the United States in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - to find space, liberty, individual expression. Los Angeles, the freeway city, is the sum of these ideas.


Banham, Rayner, Los Angeles: the Architecture of the Four Ecologies (London: Allen Lane, 1971).

Crouch, Winstan W. & Beatrice Dinerman, Southern California Metropolis: A Study in Development of Government for a Metropolitan Area (Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1963).

Davis, Mike, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New York: Verso, 1990).

Fogelson, Robert M., The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967).

Dear, Michael J., H. Eric Schockman & Greg Hise (eds.), Rethinking Los Angeles (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996).

Foster, Mark, Streetcar to Superhighway: American City Planners and Urban Transportation, 1900-1940 (Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 1981).

Hall, Peter, Cities in Civilization: Culture, Innovation and Urban Order (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998).

Klein, Norman, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (London: Verso, 1997).

Longstreth, Richard, City Center to Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, and Retailing in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997).

Rubin, Barbara, 'A chronology of architecture in Los Angeles', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 67, no. 4 (December 1977).

Soja, A.J. & Edward W. Scott (eds.), The City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1998).

Robert M. Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), pp. 5, 7; Winstan W. Crouch & Beatrice Dinerman, Southern California Metropolis: A Study in Development of Government for a Metropolitan Area (Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1963), p. 3.

Genevieve Giuliano, 'Transporting Los Angeles', in Michael J. Dear, H. Eric Schockman & Greg Hise (eds.), Rethinking Los Angeles (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996), p. 231.

Richard Longstreth, City Center to Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, and Retailing in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), p. xv.

Barbara Rubin, 'A chronology of architecture in Los Angeles', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 67, no. 4 (December 1977), p. 522.

Rayner Banham, Los Angeles: the Architecture of the Four Ecologies (London: Allen Lane, 1971), p. 31.

Banham, Los Angeles, pp. 88-9.

Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization: Culture, Innovation and Urban Order (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), pp. 830-1.

Banham, Los Angeles, p. 23.

Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New York: Verso, 1990), p. 6.

A.J. Soja & Edward W. Scott, 'Introduction',… [read more]

Consumer Behavior: Segmentation, Targeting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These optional upgrades are a major catalyst for targeted marketing, particularly through the airlines' own credit cards. Generally, though, some differences between the flight class segments are relatively stable. For instance, when an airline creates a customer persona for First Class travelers, one attribute is a lack of price sensitivity. First Class travelers value convenience, special treatment, exclusivity, and traveler status over price. Business Class travelers must often meet corporate requirements for flying and so are forced to be price sensitive; but Business Class travelers are also quite likely to hold annual passes for flight clubs, like Red Carpet rooms. Economy Class travelers do tend to be price sensitive, but they will upgrade to gain additional legroom and a roomier seat, and are often on the lookout for opportunities to avail themselves of perks in Business Class.

Compare and Contrast - JetBlue and Southwest. While American Airlines and U.S. Airways were required by the Justice Department to sell their takeoff and landing rights at Ronald Reagan National Airport in Washington DC as a condition of their merger, Southwest and JetBlue took their place (Mouawad, 2014). Airports, such as Reagan National and La Guardia, have only so many slots for takeoffs and landings each day because of air traffic congestion, so these scarce slots are a valuable competitive edge (Mouawad, 2014). Moreover, January 2014 finds Southwest making plans to fly to the Caribbean and internationally, apparently closing the gap between the national airline company and international carriers, such as JetBlue.

Contrast JetBlue and Southwest Airlines in terms of the following two aspects:

1.Compare and explain the impact of key external factors on each company (e.g., economic conditions and the growing consumer interest in leisure travel).


Low cost carriers like Southwest and JetBlue started out with a domestic flight agenda, focusing on shorter routes with no frills (Stellin, 2012). But the carriers grew, the airlines industry changed, and the low cost airlines began eyeing the market south of the border (Stellin, 2012). JetBlue now flies as far south as Columbia, and Southwest has expanded into international air through its acquisition of AirTran Airways, which makes flights to several Caribbean countries and Mexico (Stellin, 2012). Airlines are vigorous consumers of market research -- they know what their customers want and they know what customer preferences they can ignore -- at least for a time. Business travel may be down a notch or two, but leisure travel is very big business, seeming only to have tapered off in the short run because of global disruptions and catastrophe.


Mouawad, J. (2104, January 30). Southwest and JetBlue buy Washington airport rights. Business Day. New York, NY: The New York Times. Accessed http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/31/business/southwest-and-jetblue-add-flights-at-reagan-national-and-la-guardia.html?ref=southwestairlinescompany

Rothman, A., & Jasper, C. (2011). The unbearable heaviness of business class. Business Week (December 19)1. Available 5/4/12 through EBSCO database. Structure of the airline industry (n.d.). Littleton, CO: Avjobs. Available 5/4/12 at: http://www.avjobs.com/history/structure-of-the-airline-industry.asp

Stellin, S. (2012, September 12). Budget airlines fly south. Travel -- The Getaway. New York, NY: The New… [read more]

Traffic Congestion in Cities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,285 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


They are still content that the traffic problem does not involve cars and the number of motor vehicles in the city has significantly decreased in recent years.

While population density plays an important role in creating traffic jams, it is not the only thing that matters when considering this topic. Infrastructure is also extremely important, taking into account that streets specially designed to deal with traffic jams can be effective in reducing congestion levels and enabling people to travel with less stress. When considering London, congestion is a significant problem. The fact that the city was not initially designed to fit motorists is among the main reasons why this problem occurs. Even with the fact that authorities have struggled to create roads that are as wide as possible in order for motorists to experience little to no problems, conditions are still problematic in the city with narrow streets being too difficult to deal with by the constantly growing number of drivers.

Sao Paolo is yet another city with a density much lower in comparison to Paris. This does not stop traffic jams from actually being comparable to the ones in the French capital. Some jams in the city have been reported to be as long as 180km. This paints a vivid picture of the gravity of the situation there, with drivers struggling to make it in a system that is not exactly driver-friendly.


The people in the metropolitan area are geographically located in proportion to the city in a way that advantage it. The economical and cultural value of France largely relates on Paris and it thus need to function perfectly. The fact that the city is located in an area where it rarely happens for people to experience extremely high or extremely low temperature makes it possible for the environment to be somewhat welcoming. The Ocean is largely responsible for this, as it affects its climate, this meaning that it is largely invulnerable to the more critical meteorological conditions that can sometimes be experienced by areas that are more inland.


The numerous canals in Amsterdam make it a city where driving a boat is an intriguing opportunity. The two rivers flowing in its vicinity, Ij and Amstel, contribute to making water a particularly usual thing. "Amsterdam's main canals -- such as Singel, Prinsen, Keizers, and Heren -- are intersected by numerous short waterways, dividing the city into about 90 islands that are linked by more than 1,200 bridges." (Geography of Amsterdam) People often relate to the city as being the Venice of the north.

The increase in the number of bicycles is certainly among the main reasons why the traffic problem in Amsterdam has been reduced significantly during recent decades. With the authorities encouraging bicyclists through building more and more roads specially designed for this means of transport, conditions are constantly improving in this regard. The city's numerous canals make it quieter, this working perfectly along with bikes in turning the city into a location where one… [read more]

NTSB Party and Investigative Process Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The National Transport Safety Board is a federal agency that was established in 1967 to carry out independent investigations of civil aviation accidents in America and major disasters in other transportation modes in the country. Since NTSB is not part of the Department of Transportation nor associated with any of the department's modal agencies, it has no enforcement or regulatory powers. In essence, this organization is an independent federal accident investigation body, whose main work is to determine probable causes of accidents in the transportation sector, especially aviation industry. Upon completion of its investigation, NTSB creates safety recommendations to enhance transportation safety. However, factual information obtained from NTSB's investigations cannot be used as evidence in a court of law since its focus is on enhancing transportation safety.

The National Transport Safety Board conducts investigations of nearly 2,000 aviation accidents and events annually as well as 500 accidents in other transportation modes such as pipeline, rail, marine, and highway. The organization comprises approximately 400 employees, which has contributed to its leveraging resources in order to accomplish its responsibilities and tasks. One of the major ways through which NTSB leverages its resources to accomplish its tasks is through the party process, which involves designating other companies or organizations as parties to its investigations ("The Investigative Process at NTSB," n.d.).

The main parties in NTSB party process include the FAA, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Nonetheless, NTSB also designates other federal and state agencies as well as law enforcement agencies to carry out additional investigations for enforcement purposes. Generally, the organization has full discretion in deciding the agency or corporation to enlist as parties to the investigation. In most cases, organizations or corporations that are enlisted and granted party status are those that can offer expertise to the investigation. On the other hand, NTSB also permits agencies or…… [read more]

US v. Europe Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Transportation in Europe

Based on our prior discussions, are the topics in this article surprising? Why or why not?

Yes and no. What make it surprising are the drastic actions many European countries are taking to reduce the total amounts of carbon emissions. In a host of different cities, there are restrictions or outright bans on vehicles. This is something that never happened inside these locations before. The fact that this is occurring now, is showing how various governments want to restrict access to these places by automobile. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

This signals a growing trend that will become more extreme in the future. When this happens, there is a very realistic possibility of European cities becoming pedestrian and eco friendly transportation centers. The result is that there will be lifestyle changes from what was traditionally embraced in the past. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

These actions are not considered to be too surprising from a certain perspective. This is because many cities were built before the automobile was invented. As a result, transportation has often become very limited inside these locations. In the past, there was an emphasis on driving smaller vehicles which could fit inside tight places. The recent changes, are illustrating how the scope of the problem has become much worse. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

Moreover, the Kyoto Protocol is requiring European countries to reduce their total amounts of carbon emissions. Inside many cities, certain vehicles are allowed, which are considered to be environmentally friendly. To meet the new provisions, more drastic action has to be taken. In this case, the changes in transportation are showing how there is a focus on decreasing CO2 output. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

Contrast the European policies with U.S. policies on transportation as described. Add any perspectives you wish to this contrast. Also add any additional information about transportation systems in the two areas you think.

Inside many European countries, there…… [read more]

Trucking vs. Railways in Supply Chain Context Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Main findings of this study are:

• A premium money back guarantee may be offered for the domestic intermodal shipments to diversify clientele. Although it is merely on the lanes but it is felt by BNSF that it can perform quite well, a signal is sent by it to the customers that the firm is very thoughtful about being punctual.… [read more]

Transportation in the Supply Chain Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Around 14% of the bulk movement of commerce within the United States moves throughbarge. Three major types of barge are used on the inland as well as intracoasatal waterways. These are an open hopper, one covered by dry cargo and tank barge. In Brinkmann two types of barge are used which are the tank barge and thecovered dry cargo barge.

This mode of transport is quite effective since its manatainance cost is less compared to corresponding costs of road or rail. The most important factor about this mode of transport is the fact that it provides service that is environmentally friendly.

Ocean transportation

This is a method of transport that involves carrying of people or goods using large boats, ships or snail boats across water bodies like oceans and seas.The main purpose of this means of transport can be commercial or leisure. Large cargo ships and barges are what are mostly used by Brinkmans grill industry. The raw materials are mostly got from all over the world and since they are heavy, they are easily transported in containers over the ocean. The finished products after assembly are also very heavy hence, they are transported to other countries through the ocean. This mode of transport is relatively cheaper as compared to other modes of transport.


This consists of picking freight up from one place and delivering it to another mainly across several states. All the goods that are to be sold will be on the truck at one point hence the OTR trucking companies always ensure that the goods are available to the consumer and in time. Unlike other modes of transport, OTR has so much flexibility since it can be able to deliver products to an inner city location or even a rural facility. Other modes of transport therefore depend on OTR top deliver products to these inner locations for pick up and final delivery.OTR is therefore very efficient in Brinkmann Grill since it is used to deliver the product to retail outlets where they will be sold to final consumers.

For a distribution company, forecasting is important because the company wants to minimize inventory, as inventory is costly. Furthermore, any unsold inventory might have to be liquidated at a loss or severely reduced profit. Specifically, forecasting is to ensure that 100% of inventory is sold at a full price, and that there is a no excess inventory that is unsold. Forecasting is also used to reduce the inventory turnover. The more accurate the forecast, the better the company's performance on these two metrics will be. Proper forecast will help in choosing an appropriate means of transport that will be useful when it comes to delivering particular goods at a particular time.… [read more]

Transportation Economic Stimulus Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Transportation Considerations Across America

The current White House economic stimulus plan for transportation should have a considerable impact on a number of different facets of transportation in the United States. The generous stimulus plan should significantly affect aspects of transportation from infrastructure changes to policy, business and commerce to the people's lives that depend on various transportation systems for both… [read more]

Chicago O'Hare International Airport ORD Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


O'Hare International Airport

Chicago, Illinois

O'Hare International Airport

The bustling Chicago airport -- O'Hare International Airport -- is one of the busiest in the world -- the second busiest behind Atlanta -- and it has an interesting contemporary profile as well as a fascinating history. This paper will report on O'Hare's history, finances, marketing, services, noise abatement, redevelopment program, and… [read more]

Economic Impact of Government Interaction and Laws Within the Airline Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Airline Industry

Over the years the airline industry in the United States has experienced a great deal of success. However, in recent years a confluence of events has led to a decrease in profitability for companies within the airline industry. The purpose of the research was to examine the ways in which government interventions in the airline industry have led… [read more]

Effect of NAFTA in Shipping Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


NAFTA -- Maritime Policy

Maritime Shipping within the NAFTA Trading Partners

Alternatives to Waterways

Maritime Environmental Issues

NAFTA: The Effects on Shipping

Since the inception of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993 there have been notable changes in the movement of goods from the trilateral trading block formed by the United States, Canada and Mexico. This agreement represents the largest trade block in the world by some economic measures and has consequently increased the strain on the infrastructure of the three countries. New ideas are under consideration for how to best alleviate the increasing amount of congestion on the infrastructure that the trade agreement has caused.

In Europe nearly ninety percent of all external freight trade is seaborne and also accounts for nearly forty percent of the EU's intra-continental trade mechanisms (Kallas, 2009). However, the Americas have yet to establish such utilization of maritime highways. One report states that the United States only moves about two percent (1.4 billion tons) of its domestic freight through the countries waterways (Solomon, 2009).

This paper will examine the inequalities of maritime uses by various counties and consider whether or not investment in this transportation method will be able to facilitate goods between the triad of trading partners operating under the agreements of NAFTA. Considerations will include environmental factors, alternative transportation methods, as well as governmental planning agencies. This exploratory investigation aims to discover all of the advantages and disadvantages associated with short sea shipping.

Maritime Shipping within the NAFTA Trading Partners

A research paper published in 2005 provides valuable insights as to why the seas have not received as much attention as the rail, road, and air during the course of the NAFTA transactions (Brooks, 2005). This paper states that from the United States perspective going into the NAFTA agreement, maritime routes were never a consideration. Furthermore, it has never been considered, fully investigated or understood by the trading partners. It was assumed that the potential of this delivery method would be marginalized by the slower delivery transit time.

Alternatives to Waterways

The use of an international trucking route between the United States and Mexico is currently complicated by political pressure to control the boarder. In the wake of the terrorism event in 2001, many U.S. citizens are reluctant to tolerate any chances that illegal immigrants can enter the country. The anti-illegal immigration fervor can be illustrated by the recent developments in the State of Arizona. Arizona has passed a law that allows police to question anyone suspected of being an illegal immigrant.

Though the anti-illegal immigration sentiments held by many in the U.S. (apparently a majority in Arizona) do not directly affect maritime shipping policies, it definitely illustrates some of the complexities that are involved in the cultural aspects of popular support and consequentially makes it extremely difficult for a legislator to make trucking routes a more viable option for trade.

The next avenue of trade considered, railways, also has many issues associated with it that prevent it from… [read more]

Comparison on Boeing 777 and 787 Programme Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Boeing 777 and 787 Programs

Over the last several years, Boeing has a faced a number of different challenges surrounding the launch of the 787. As the construction of the plane and its management, has contributed to a number of problems. This has led to a host of delays and slowdowns, which has forced the company to address… [read more]

Jim O-Brien Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Jim O-Brien seems to be facing a fundamental conflict among his customers, driver employees, and sales team. This is a significantly difficult management issue, because all the parties involved are vital to the survival of Hardee Transportation. Therefore, Jim's solution should be constructed in such as way as to create the best possible solution for all involved. The best way to accomplish this is to examine the issues and information at hand and arrive at a suitable compromise to satisfy everybody involved. The best way to accomplish this is to consider each point-of-view.

From the truckers' point-of-view, the new driving regulations reduce actual driving time, because these include non-driving duties such as pickup and delivery (PUD). For customers with long PUD times, this creates less wages for truck drivers who spend longer hours on these duties, because they tend to be paid only per mile. Non-driving work is generally non-paid work. According to Jim, truck drivers with long PUD times are therefore likely to increase their driving hours in order to make ends meet. This creates a dangerous situation, in which truck drivers could suffer from fatigue and therefore be involved in accidents, which would in turn harm the reputation of the company.

This is not a groundless concern. According to Hokey (2009), HOS rule violations are on the rise. In this way, inadequate driver compensation resulting from fewer regulated hours on the road could, paradoxically, create a situations where drivers are more likely to fall asleep at the wheel.

Jim's task in this regard would therefore be to create a platform of communication with drivers to determine their needs for compensation in terms of non-driving time.

As for the point-of-view of customers, it is important to recognize that meeting customer demand in any industry is generally the best way to construct a sound reputation for the company, and to ensure repeat customers. The Sales team seems to have a good point in this regard. If customers were required to…… [read more]

International Bridge Between Detroit and Windsor Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


International Bridge Between Detroit and Windsor

The Ambassador Bridge between Detroit and Windsor is one of the busiest border crossings in North America. Where, it handles over 9 thousand cars and trucks daily. However, the age of the structure (82 years old) means that a number of challenges are being faced. As the bridge must carry increasing amounts of traffic and is facing continued deterioration. At the same time, there have been complaints that the different routes to Canadian highways (from the bridge) are disrupting several local neighborhoods in Windsor. To address these challenges the Canadian government has introduced an ambitious project, to build another bridge down river called: the Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC). This is a joint effort between: Canada and the United States to build another structure that can address the current, along with future challenges affecting commerce throughout the region. Where, the project will provide a number of distinct benefits, while addressing the different concerns of numerous parties. (Dennis, 2010)


Politically, the project has a tremendous amounts of support from the different agencies in the U.S. And Canadian governments. Recent evidence of this can be seen with the State of Michigan receiving $500 million in matching funds from the U.S. government (for their part of the project). (Dennis, 2010)


From the social standpoint, the new bridge would help to address the concerns surrounding many of the neighborhoods in Windsor. This is because the increasing amounts of traffic have caused several communities to experience excessive amounts of noise. Once another structure is built, this will reduce the negative impact of: the traffic from the Ambassador Bridge on these neighborhoods (helping to improve their quality of life). (Dennis, 2010)


The different environmental concerns about the project are unfounded. This is because a study was conducted by the LGL Limited. They found that the negative environmental impact of the project was limited (especially since it provides a number of design features that will protect the Ojibway Prairie Grasslands). ("Protection of…… [read more]

Airports Globalization Has Impacted the Airport Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Globalization has impacted the airport industry in two key ways. The first is that airports are now in global competition with one another, and this has spurred significant expansion of the industry. Airports compete on a regional basis -- the different airports along the Persian Gulf compete with each other for Europe-Asia transit passengers for example. As a result,… [read more]

Bike Hire Program a Major Boost Article

Article  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Bike Hire Program a Major Boost to Public Transportation in London

Commuters in the U.K. may want to include helmets with their briefcases as they set out for their morning commute, as biking may become the most convenient way to get around in the U.K. Bike hire programs, already popular in Spain and France, have become quite popular in London as of late.

Recent Tube delays in London have created chaotic commutes for Tube users, forcing many to look for other ways to get to work. One angry commuter, Graham Patterson, related through his twitter: "Travel chaos, Jubilee line being broke. Only just arrived at work, about 45 mins late."

Most of the Tube delays can be traced to London Tube employees' discontent over expected staffing cuts by Transport for London. Transport for London, however, has few alternatives to the staffing cuts. The department had its funding from the Department of Transportation cut by £2.2bn over the next four years.

Some even consider this generous, considering the Department of Transportation had its own spending cut by 21% during the latest U.K. Spending Review.

Transport for London angered many employees by ordering the staffing cuts, but the alternatives were equally grim for tube users. It could have either raised fares significantly or it could have reduced service. Both would have hurt tube users permanently, while the strikes are expected to be only temporary.

In a city so dependent on public transportation, and where it is so expensive to drive, commuter options seem to have been exhausted by the recent tube delays. Fortunately, London Mayor Boris Johnson introduced a new city transportation initiative called Boris' Bikes last July.

The bike hire program has received a largely positive response since its introduction, with usage disproportionately heavy during rush hour.

Simon May, a London contractor, gushes "My team use the tube to get between sites but actually it would be much more efficient to nip everywhere on one of these bikes."

Considering London's…… [read more]

Border Crossing Rules and Regulations Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Border crossing rules and regulations are essential in freight movement, since they can either facilitate or obstruct the traffic of cargo. Freight has to go complete a series of procedures before it can safely cross into a particular jurisdiction. In order for freight to be allowed to enter a territory, it has to be documented properly. Also, the tariffs have to be paid and everything must be done in order to the regulations imposed by the territory the respective cargo enters.

When the package in a shipment is inconsistent with the rules of the jurisdiction it enters, it is not given permission to enter the respective jurisdiction. Its inconsistency can be owed to a series of motives, either related to the nature of its materials or to its weight. Pandemics are often the reason for which a particular cargo can come across thorough inspection before given permission to enter a territory. Because freight normally interacts with people, merchandise, and territories that are likely to be contaminated with certain viruses, they have to pass an inspection meant to determine whether or not it presents a risk for the territory it is destined to enter.

When communication between freight operators and border controls are inconsistent, it is likely for the freight's movement to be delayed or even forbidden. Data exchange software can also be responsible for freight congestion, given that the cargo can be prevented from entering the country if it is not in accordance with the jurisdiction's requirements.

Question 2:

Coordination is vital in order for freight to be moved according to its schedule and in order for any delays to be avoided. Shippers, carriers, and governmental agencies need to be aware of any alterations that might have intervened to the initial schedule, so as for none of them to stop the safe movement of the freight. Communication is essential in this matter, since only through constant contact can each of these groups assist freight across borders with little to no impediments in the way. The customers of the freight being transported also have to keep contact with shippers, carriers, and governmental agencies, as this is the only method of making sure that there will be no problems with the freight's transport.

Data exchange has to be done according to regulations and it software systems have to be constantly updated in order for data exchange to take place with no setbacks. Freight has more chances of being transported safely and according to schedule if everyone in charge of its transport cooperates properly.

Question 3:

In some circumstances, regulations can be beneficial for freight…… [read more]

Airport and Port Security Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Airport and Port Security

The national security presidential command of June 20 of the year 2006 was aimed at the expansion of the national plan for aviation security. This plan established the overarching structure for a complete and incorporated national approach to the security aviation transport system, building on present thriving schemes and directing extra security improvements where essential. The Department of Homeland security, Department of Defense and Department of Transportation should carry on with the advancement of technical and stepwise measures to discover, avoid, react to and recover from physical and cyber-based assails against aviation the critical air transportation system infrastructure and must strive augment harmonization between the government and the private sector. This is so as to attain an incorporated defensive system for all infrastructure fundamentals of the aviation transport system. The Department of Homeland security, Department of Justice and Department of Transportation and other stakeholders must expand procedures and tactics for synchronizing inter-agency initiatives to expand, launch, sustain and authenticate steady state security measures. This will enable protection against MANPAD (Man-Portable Air Defense System) and other stand-off weaponry. These procedures and plans should control ongoing MVAs (MANPADS Vulnerability Assessments) and MANPADS improvement plan efforts by department of homeland security and should be synchronized with operational reply plan developed under Aviation Operational Threat Response. The effective implementation of the effectual realization of the security measures in the aviation transportation system security plane needs collaboration and information allotment amongst Federal states. It also requires collaboration and information allotment amongst, local and tribal agencies as well as industry and foreign partners (Aviation Transportation System Security Plan., 2007).

The September eleven attacks were sequences of synchronized homicidal attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. The assault created extensive disorder amongst news organizations and air traffic controllers across the United States and other airports of the world. The events of these attacks have really impacted both the international and national commercial aviation and airport operations. First and fore most, security operations had to be beefed up in all major airports of USA and other nations. Passengers had to be screened in order for them to board an airplane. Furthermore, passenger screening machines have been invented and are now in use in many airports all over the world. Secondly, these attacks led to passengers spending a lot of time at the airport. This is because they are subjected to numerous security checks at the airports. Thirdly, many airports all over…… [read more]

Influence of Pan American World Airways on the International Airline Industry Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Pan American World Airways on the International Airline Industry

Before it went out of business in December 1991, Pan American World Airways was an airline titan. It began as a Florida seaplane service in 1927, rapidly grew in size and status and for more than 60 years it bestrode the airline world like a colossus. -- Frank Barrett,… [read more]

Substitution and Income Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Income and Substitution Effects

Substitution and Income Effects

Income and substitution effects: An increase in gasoline prices

Income and substitution effects: An increase in gasoline prices

According to the basic principles of economics, when an individual's income increases, their marginal propensity to consume (MPC) also increases (Income effect, 2010, Investopedia). Quite simply, when an individual has more money, they tend to buy more goods and services, even if they also save a percentage of their income as well. Assuming that gasoline prices 'at the pump' rise 100%, or double, this will result in a loss of available income to spend on other goods and services. Income is not simply determined by pay raises and pay cuts, but by the availability a consumer has of funds to spend on his or her necessities and luxuries.

Gas is a necessary good for most people -- it is what they use to get to work to make a salary. They must drive to work in a car to pay for their other expenses, including food and housing. The price of gasoline is largely inelastic in terms of available substitutions and demand, although some do exist, depending on the location and needs of the consumer.

When a necessary good, such as gas, increases in price, consumers will often try to work more, to maintain their level of income. If they cannot work more, they will try other ways to conserve funds, such as substituting cheaper goods and services for more expensive goods and services in other areas of their budget. The substitution effect suggests that "households always substitute away from a relative expansive good and consume more of a relative cheap good when prices change" (Zhao 2010). Households will do their 'best' to avoid using gas, but because of the difficulty inherent in this situation, in many regions of the country, they may cut other parts of their budget instead, focusing on more elastic goods. This might be called the 'Starbucks' effect -- when the price of an inelastic necessity increases and takes up a larger proportion of an individual's budget, he or she will eliminate that extraneous cup of coffee in the morning.

The effects of the income and substitution effects are often depicted as follows:

(Source: Schneck, 2010)

As income increases, people work less, and as income decreases (because of an increase in a necessary good or service) leisure becomes more expensive. People must work more, or try to make the costs of living cheaper through budget cuts or substitutions.

Coping strategy one: You driving less and purchasing less gasoline

Driving less and purchasing less gasoline gives an individual 'more income,' without substituting other goods or services. However, because of the rise in gas prices, an individual would have to drive half as much to simply 'break even.'

Coping strategy two: Eating out less

Eating out less means more money to spend on other goods and services given that eating at home tends to cost less than eating out, where one is… [read more]

Legality of TSA Pat Down Procedures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Legality of TSA Pat Down Procedures

Security screening has become a nightmare to most passengers. It was Duncan, the Republican representative who pointed out the lucrative government contracts in TSA's new naked body scanning machines. The body scanners at the airports are a source of high doses of radiation. This coupled with inappropriate search by adults of children and exposures… [read more]

Union Pacific Railroad Logistics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


UP has a large communications facility that could not have existed when the company first began, and it has changed the way railroads manage their trains, haul their freight, and manage their logistics.

Railroads are more efficient than trucks, and UP and engine manufacturers like GE are working to create even more energy-efficient models. Author Greenburg continues, "Manufacturers have taken note that, based on gross ton miles, trains can carry a ton of freight 830 miles on a single gallon of fuel; trucks stretch a gallon only 200 miles" (Greenburg, 2009). Many people are asking for changes in America's intermodal system today, which is largely based on long haul and short-haul trucking rather than railroad logistics in many areas. Trucks clog many busy highways and are far more inefficient than rail shipment. One of the problems is the deteriorating conditions of many of America's railways, and people are asking for an investment in the rail infrastructure to help create logistics that are more efficient. Author Longman continues on a study on this subject. He writes, "It found that such an investment would get 85% of all long-haul trucks off the nation's highways by 2030, while also delivering ample capacity for high-speed passenger rail" (Longman, 2009). In turn, that would certainly lead to even more innovations and efficiency in the nation's railroads, including the Union Pacific.

In conclusion, Union Pacific has been an innovator in logistics and intermodal shipping throughout its history. It began as one of the first railroads in the West, and has grown to become the nation's largest railroad. It has faced challenges throughout its history, but it has met those challenges, and it will certainly meet the challenges of the future. Logistically, it has grown to be a leader in intermodal shipment and storage, and it continues to combine a sense of environmental awareness with corporate responsibility for continued profit and growth.


Arbona, J. (2005). Union Pacific railroad opens new $100 million international container facility to handle future growth. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site:


Berman, J. (2009). Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific launch intermodal reefer service. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Logistics Management Web site:


Bromley, J. (2009). Union Pacific Railroad Museum: Highlighting technology through America's locomotive history. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the YouTube.com Web site:


Burns, J.B. (1998). Railroad mergers and the language of unification. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Editors. (2010). Fact sheet. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site:


Greenburg, Z. (2009). Saving the Union (Pacific). Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Forbes.com Web site: http://www.forbes.com/2009/10/11/union-pacific-railroad-business-logistics-union-pacific.html.

Longman, P. (2009, January/February). Back on tracks: A nineteenth-century technology could be the solution to our twenty-first-century problems. Washington Monthly,…… [read more]

Business Trend Proposal -- Correspondence Dear Associates Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Business Trend Proposal -- Correspondence

Dear Associates:

In the last decade, there had been explosive growth in information technology and the miniaturization and sophistication of global positioning systems (GPS) and equipment. Today, the growing trend among manufacturers, shippers, wholesalers and retailers is to routinely track their products and monitor inventory remotely and in real time through radio frequency identification devices (RFID) that provide instantaneous information relating to the position of products and vehicles. The GPS systems available today now provide various capabilities that have specific applications in the automobile insurance industry that must be considered to maintain competitive positioning and profitability.

Already, many companies employing commercial fleets of trucks, busses, and other company vehicles have incorporated this technology to better manage and track their vehicles as well as to monitor the behavior of their drivers. The capabilities of the GPS-type systems that are now available for such commercial uses provide many of the same types of information that have been used for decades in the so-called "black box" systems installed in aircraft. In this application, those systems automatically record pertinent information of aircraft and pilot performance intended to enable incident investigators to identify the precise circumstances and causes of significant occurrences during flight.

The recent advances in digital and information processing technology combined with the development of reliable GPS systems has now allowed the production of commercially available GPS-based systems that perform the same types of functions for commercial and passenger vehicles that were previously only available in the sophisticated and costly systems used in the black boxes in the aviation industry. Commercial transportation and shipping companies have successfully incorporated these types…… [read more]

Bicycle Helmet in NYC Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,968 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bicycles and Bicycle Safety on the Streets of New York City

Many people wish to ride a bicycle in New York City as a fast, reliable, time convenient, sustainable, and money-saving mode of transportation. But some negative concerns, difficulties, predictable dangers block those potential bicycle riders to give up this wonderful mode of transportation. According to research regarding this fast… [read more]

US Environment of Internationalization of Oasis Bicycle Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Oasis Bicycle

The theoretical company "Oasis Bicycles" is one of the biggest manufacturers of bicycles in the world, so it can reasonably be assumed that they are a firm operating on a mass market strategy, likely cost leadership. When Oasis seeks to move into the U.S. market, it will need to analyze the market from the perspective of entering the market in this segment. This analysis will take the form of a Porter's Five Forces analysis, which seeks to identify the attractiveness of a given market by analyzing a set of competitive variables -- buyer power, supplier power, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes and intensity of rivalry (Porter, 1980).

Buyer Power

There are a variety of buyers in the industry. For a new market entrant with no brand equity, the key buyers are the retailers who will get the bikes to the public. Mass market retailers make up the largest component of the channel, accounting for 74% of bicycles sold (approximately 13.6 million bikes based on 2008 statistics). The low average selling price of $80 results this channel representing just 35% of dollar sales, and correspondingly tight margins (National Bicycle Dealers Association (NBDA, 2008). Sales were split across a wide range of bicycle types, the largest being mountain bikes with a 28.5% share. Other channels include specialty bike shops (17%), chain sporting goods stores (6%) and other (3%) (NBDA, 2008).

Oasis is likely to target the mass market retailers for its bicycles. These retailers have strong buying power for several reasons. Their buying volume is vital to Oasis' ability to penetrate the market. These buyers, including Wal-Mart and Target, have strong information about the products they purchase and this combined with their high volume allows them to drive prices from their suppliers to very low levels (Fishman, 2007). The Oasis brand has no identity, which reduces its buying power. Also, there is high buyer concentration relative to the number of bicycle producers.

Supplier power is relatively low for Oasis. As one of the world's largest bicycle manufacturers, Oasis does high volumes, giving them some power of their suppliers. Moreover, the inputs are not sufficiently differentiated at the low end to lend suppliers power, and there is an ample supply of inputs available from producers around the world. Oasis may need to move production out of the EU, however, where local bike part suppliers are protected. Access to Chinese parts, for example, will require a facility outside of the EU (Bike Europe, 2007).

The threat of new entrants is high, as barriers to entry are relatively low. While there are absolute cost advantages, it is not difficult to build market size in the bicycle industry, since there are many strong markets around the world in which to operate. There is a low proprietary learning curve, very little adverse government policy, relatively low capital requirements, little threat of retaliation and ample access to distribution. Moreover, the U.S. market has become much more open since a series of decisions by market… [read more]

Airport Security Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,849 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Airport Security

Re-Imagining Airport Security

In the near-decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in the United States using hijacked commercial airliners, the various aspects of airport security have undergone almost constant revision and examination in an effort to keep airline passengers and the population at large safe and secure from any such future incidents.… [read more]

Operations and Materials Management Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Operations and Materials Management

For the most part, production can be increase if the difficulties involving the drill and tap can be removed or be just even trim down. The following action can be prepared to improve the production. First is to fine-tune and change parts of the drill presses to ensure that the machine is working at its optimal performance for most of the time. Also, adopting the Kanban system will be a great deal of help since it will make the supplier or the warehouse only deliver components to the production line as and when they are needed, so that there is no storage in the production area. Within this system, workstations located along production lines only produce/deliver desired components when they receive a card and an empty container, indicating that more parts will be needed in production. In case of line interruptions, each workstation will only produce enough components to fill the container and then stop. In addition, Kanban limits the amount of inventory in the process by acting as an authorization to produce more inventories. Since Kanban is a chain process in which orders flow from one process to another, the production or deliveries of components are pulled to the production line. In contrast to the traditional forecast oriented method where parts are pushed to the line.

To minimize the cost of quality, adopting a preventative and predictive methods for manufacturing quality control will be a good thing. Implementing real time SPC software is a proven, fundamental tool used to detect, and ultimately prevent, process errors that lead to defects, scrap or waste. Using SPC control charts that graphically display real time, actionable information to operators and managers is one of the features if this software is put into practice. This empowers personnel to detect and correct out of control situations, minimize variation, and continuously improve the manufacturing process resulting to higher quality products and a more…… [read more]

Accident Investigation Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,478 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Aircraft Accidents involving fires are quite commonplace and destructive. For this reason there must be special care given to the manner in which these accidents are investigated. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the ways in which fires make the reporting an investigating of accidents problematic in incidents involving aircraft. Indeed, Fire is a deadly factor in… [read more]

Toyota Organizational Assessment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Toyota Organizational Assessment

Company Overview

As a Japanese-based company Toyota is a major international car retailer and automotive specialist. The company offers a wide variety of vehicles, from small sedans to trucks. It also has a line of luxury vehicles under the Land Rover and Lexus brand names. For generations the company has been competing well against American-based companies within… [read more]

Western Society 1850-1914 Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Western Civilization 1850-1914

The Second Industrial Revolution:

The Second Industrial Revolution refers to the rapid development of various technologies during the 19th century that radically improved modern civilizations. They included the widespread introduction of electricity that increased the amount of productive time available for work and also made city streets much safer after dark. The steam engine and later, the first internal combustions engines followed shortly and new processes for making paper and for printing that produced the first widely circulated newspapers and new telegraph communications technologies enabled transcontinental transmission of information that dramatically decreased the time for news to travel great distances.

New processes for producing better quality construction materials like Bessemer

steel revolutionized the construction of buildings, roads, and bridges, while new mass production methods such as the assembly line introduced by Henry Ford increased the availability of all kinds of consumer goods to the middle classes. In fact, the evolution of the middle class was itself largely a product of the Second Industrial Revolution.

The New Urban Landscape and Modern Life:

As industrialization took hold in the United States and the major Western

European cities, populations shifted in large numbers to the cities where semi-skilled labor was in ever-increasing demand. While the new vocational opportunities offered many the chance to improve their position in life, the new urban transplants also had to endure various hardships unique to modern industrial city life, including filthy city sidewalks plagued by the comparatively slow development of municipal sanitation, and the ever-present industrial smog and airborne soot that was part and parcel of many industrial processes such as coal-burning furnaces.

Science and Culture:

Science played a major role in the new technologies that fueled the modern advancements in society. Electricity in particular made possible numerous industrial processes and the impact…… [read more]

Honda Motor Company Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (3,864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Honda Motor Company (NYSE: HMC) is a worldwide producer of motorcycles, automobiles and power products. They are the #6 automobile manufacturer in the world, the #1 motorcycle manufacturer and the #1 engine maker. Based out of Tokyo, Honda trades on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and as an ADR on the New York Stock Exchange. The firm employs approximately 185,000 workers.… [read more]

Digital Signage by Jeffrey Schaeffler This Book Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (302 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Digital Signage by Jeffrey Schaeffler

This book presents a broad an engaging overview of the current and possible future developments in the world of digital signage. Though not devoted strictly to transportation applications of digital signage technology, the book does probe public receptivity to the advent of digital signage in many different areas, making a compelling argument for its implementation in transportation applications. Specifcally, Schaeffler notes how communication has become more effective due to digital signage, and the improvements that this enhanced communication leads to. His enthusiasm for the technology is catching; I found myself deeply engaged in what could easily have been a dry and technical discussion of new technologies.

That being said, Schaeffler does present a lot of very well researched and pertinent information in relation to the development of digital signage technology and its many uses in filling various communication needs, from management-employee relations to producer-consumer…… [read more]

Big Dig Boston Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,229 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Big Dig or Big Bust?

Boston traffic was once considered to be one of the worst cities in which to drive due to intense traffic problems. They Central Artery opened in 1959, designed to carry approximately 75,000 cars per day. As time went on, the highway had to support nearly 200,000 cars per day (Massachusetts Turnpike Authority). This created a… [read more]

Big Dig Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,444 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Big Dig Project -- a Major Transportation Issue

Boston's Big Dig project is best known as the most expensive and possibly the most controversial highway project in the United States. Big Dig describes the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a large project that that rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the main highway running through Boston, into a 3.5-mile tunnel under… [read more]

Success of Airline Brand Emirates Airlines Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  26 pages (7,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 65


¶ … Emirates Airlines

The purpose of this study is to assist in the identification of the key concepts of brand image and development utilized by industries and to examine the issues of how the brand image of Emirates Airlines might be changed based on performance and scope of operations. The research issues will result in the provision of new… [read more]

History and Importance of Airmail in the United States Thesis

Thesis  |  18 pages (5,981 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Airmail in the United States

In the Age of Information, many observers suggest that email, instant and text messaging have virtually replaced the need for a national postal service in the United States, but the fact remains the U.S. Postal Service continues to deliver billions of pieces of mail each year and represents the largest service of its… [read more]

Impact of High Fuel Costs on the Aviation Industry Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  14 pages (4,320 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … High Fuel Costs on the Aviation Industry

Rising Fuel Prices: a global problem on the ground and in the air.

The rising costs of fuel today has become a global crisis for both industries and households. Being heavily dependent upon fuel for its continuing operations, airlines have been heavily burdened by such fuel prices. Indeed, some have gone… [read more]

Rising Prices of Gasoline Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,680 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Rising Price of Gasoline

Gas prices have risen steadily over the spring, with the national average approaching the $4.00/gallon mark. The price of crude oil sits at $134 as of the close of trading June 17th, just nine months after breaking the $80 mark and less than six months since the first trade over $100 on January 2nd of this… [read more]

Unfunded Infrastructure of Canadian Municipalities and the Risk it Poses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  33 pages (9,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Unfunded Infrastructure of Canadian Municipalities and the Risk it Poses

Canadian infrastructure has fallen into a terrible state of disrepair due to lack of funding for such projects in municipalities in Canada. The resulting problems are great and diverse ranging from insurance liabilities for the municipalities in Canada due to health and safety risk posed by lack of funding to… [read more]

Knowledge Management in Automotive Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,818 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Knowledge Management in Automotive Industry

The automotive industry is one where the overall success is dependent on the interplay of a lot of factors each having its own set of dynamics in the overall scheme of things. These factors are use of appropriate technologies for constant innovation, better cost control through innovation management, the key role that suppliers play in… [read more]

New York City Congestion Pricing Plan Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … New York City Congestion Pricing Plan

Recently, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg had provided strong support for the city's congestion pricing plan that would have unfairly burdened working class New Yorkers, particularly those residing in the outer boroughs who commuted by car to Manhattan daily for work. Congestion pricing was intended to reduce automobile exhaust emission rates into the environment and would have triggered $500 million in federal public transportation funding and increased public transportation fees generated by those who switched from driving to mass transportation to avoid the fees (Diaz 2008).

The idea was initially suggested by the relative success of similar plans in other cities plagued by significant traffic congestion, most notably, in London, England. The pricing plan would have imposed an $8 fee to enter midtown Manhattan, amounting to as much as $2,000 annually for the very segment of the working middle class least able to afford such an expense. In principle, the idea was to "disincentivize" the use of personal vehicles for daily transportation and motivate greater compliance with suggestions to use mass transportation instead. The plan would not have effected the most affluent of the city's residents, most of whom reside within the fee zone.

Furthermore, while the burden would have fallen on the shoulders of New Yorkers, it unfairly benefited commuters from New Jersey who would not have been affected by the toll (Diaz 2008).

Critics pointed out that fewer than one-quarter of New Yorkers living in Manhattan owned vehicles, precisely because public transportation is so widely available in New York City, as opposed to cities like Los Angeles, where no comparable option exists for daily commuters. For that reason, most of those commuting to the city instead of availing themselves of public transportation do so because their jobs require them to do so, such as in the case of commercially licensed skilled workers like plumbers, electricians, and office workers with toddlers whose companies provide…… [read more]

Atlanta International Airport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,520 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Hartsfield-Jackson Airport

The advent of aviation has changed the way the world operates. Movement of people, goods and products has, as a result, become more convenient and easy. Quick, safe, easy and efficient air transportation has also helped spawn a whole range of global trade and commerce. This has helped in creating a global environment that is separated by mere… [read more]

Kkc Computers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


KC Computers

KKC Computers - Alternative Distribution System Strategies

KKC Computers produces two types of high vale and high technology computers (a and B) within two facilities located in San Francisco (SFO) and Los Angeles (LAX) to distribute them to seven U.S. markets: Denver (DEN), Houston (HOU), Minneapolis (MSP), Little Rock (LIT), Terre Haute (HUF), Detroit (DTW) and Atlanta (ATL). Since the company is in charge of all transportations and adherent costs, and also the timely delivery is a major objective, it is imperative for them to have an efficient logistics system. The best alternative strategy is given by the lowest total daily, a cost derived form the sum of the consolidation costs, air transports, truck transport and the cost of lost sales.


Looking at the map for the locations of the plants and the markets, it can easily be observed that the distances between them are large, state which imposes the need to air transport. The map also shows how Little Rock is somewhat at the center of the markets. This settlement offers the first logistics alternative: air transport from Los Angeles to San Francisco and then from San Francisco to Little Rock, from where the computers will be loaded into five trucks and then sent to the destinations: Denver, Minneapolis, Terre Haute and Detroit, Atlanta, and finally, Huston, as revealed in the map below:

The air transportation is necessary between LAX and SFO as a sole shipment will supply all markets; therefore half of the entire demand (228 total, 114 half) will come from LAX and the other half will come from SFO.

Air transit time: 2 (LAX to SFO and SFO to LIT)

Consolidation: 1 day for all

Transit time:

LIT to LIT: 0 days transit truck, total of 3 days

LIT to HUF: 1 day transit truck, total of 4 day

LIT to DTW: 2 days transit truck, total of 5 days

LIT to ATL: 1 day transit truck, total of 4 days

LIT to HOU: 1 day transit truck, total of 4 days

LIT to DEN: 2 days transit truck, total of 5 days

LIT to MSP: 3 days transit…… [read more]

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