Study "Transportation / Mass Transit" Essays 56-105

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Consumption and Mass Media Case Study

… Q4. What is the hidden text? What is unstated or implied in the message?

Drive this car and people will think you are 'hip' and cool for driving a BMW sports car.

Q5. What values are expressed?

The values of… [read more]

LA Pollution Transportation and Sustainability Multiple Chapters

… For instance, a hybrid car is 25-35% more efficient than a car that runs on fossil fuel. Hence, we believe if we were able to increase the utilization of green technology such as hybrid and electric powered vehicles, we could effectively reduce carbon emission, even with the same volume of traffic. We researched the feasibility of green technology in the following type of transportation:

Using hybrid technology to modernize bus fleet

Phasing into the era of hybrid/electrical cars

To compare conventional vehicles with hybrid and electrical cars, we must first understand how each engine operates. Conventional engines rely on the combustion of gasoline to provide energy to propel the car forward. However the transfer of energy is extremely inefficient in conventional engines. A gallon of gasoline contains about 115,000 British Thermal Units (Btu) worth of energy. One Btu contains the energy to raise the temperature of one cubic foot air to 55 degrees F. During the combustion of fuel, most of the energy is actually being converted to heat instead of motion. Even the most efficient gasoline engines available in the market provide only 30-35 efficiency during peak times. In addition, automatic transmissions are another energy consuming component of conventional cars. As a result, conventional cars are not very aerodynamic and their engines are inefficient in utilizing energy stored in fuel.

In comparison, electrical cars use electric motors instead of gasoline engines, which can be 90% more efficient at conserving energy. Electric motors are turned off during when they are idle and don't consume energy. They also use less energy during low speed driving. This means that during rush hour where vehicles need to make frequent stops amidst heavy traffic, electrical motors are much more efficient than gasoline engines. Since electric cars are completely gas-free, the average commute cost is $1.50 per day. Some hybrid vehicles use continuous variable transmission, which is much more efficient than automatic transmission and may even compare to the efficiency of manual transmission.

Despite the potential of electrical vehicles, there are a couple limitations worth mentioning. The typical electric is estimated to cover 100 miles between each charge. However these are estimates based on optimistic conditions and if we include other factors such as air temperature, speed and other electrical devices in the car, the number will likely drop by 20-30%. Although this might still be enough the cover day-to-day commuting basis, it's very inconvenient for drivers who need to commute long distances. Unlike conventional vehicles where you could find gas stations almost every other mile on the freeway, charging stations for electric cars is very limited. Even with recent developments, where some electric cars can be charged using residential 110V outlets, the charging time is as long as 10 hours for normal models and 3.5 hours for the most premium Tesla models. This makes it impractical to recharge on the road. Drivers must spend extra time to calculate the distance to be covered unless they want to be stuck on the road for a… [read more]

Transportation Importance of Transportation Motor Carriers Railroads Research Paper

… Transportation

Importance of Transportation

Motor Carriers



Water carriers


Transportation is manner of carrying goods and people from one point to another either over ground, across the water or through the air. It can be by the way… [read more]

Transportation Improvements Essay

… Transportation Improvements

What were the most important improvements in transportation during the first half of the nineteenth century?

Explain how these changes were important to the growth of the United States both physically and economically.

During the first half of the 19th century, there were dramatic changes that were taking place in a number of different countries around the world. This would have an effect upon transportation, as the technological changes were having an impact upon daily life. The most significant improvements include: the development of railroads, canals and roads. Railroads were a major improvement in transportation, as the steam engine became the first machine that could operate under its own power. This would have an impact upon the way various goods were transported and it allowed for commerce to improve, in many areas that were once considered to be uninhabitable (due to vast distances). Over the course of time, this would contribute to the growth of the United States economically, by allowing key industries to develop in many Northern areas of the country. At the same time, it would help to fuel the continuing westward expansion that was taking place. When you put these two factors together, they are signifying how the railroad would help to support these changes, by providing a way of transporting various goods across vast distances (over short periods of time). ("Transportation in the 19th Century," 2009)

Canals would have an effect upon the U.S., by providing a way that different goods can be transported over distances (that maybe in accessible to roads and rail lines). Through the steamship, commerce increased among a number of different inland areas. The way that this was accomplished was using canals that were interconnected with rivers. This would help to increase trade, by providing businesses with an alternative form of transporting various goods to market (which would increase economic growth). At the same time, it would help to support the westward expansion of the country, by providing a way to go to areas that may not be accessible to railroads (such as: locations west of the Mississippi River). This is important, because it… [read more]

Transportation Strategic Intermodal Essay

… Transportation (general)

Strategic Intermodal Transportation

The Last Mile

Port and Terminal Operations

How has the railroad industry changed from its monopoly position in the 19th century due to the Staggers Act?

The construction of an intercontinental railroad is one of… [read more]

Transportation IT Modernization Effects Research Paper

… Modernization of Internet Technology and Its Effects on the Transportation Industry

SITA a dominating leader in the sphere of IT consultancy and 'air transport communication' concluded lately a 5-year period of agreement involving services of applications that… [read more]

Sea Cargo Transportation Term Paper

… Aeronautics

Sea Cargo Transportation

Ocean freight companies have been transporting goods across the seas, from continent to continent, as cost effectively as possible for many years. Ocean freight shipping can help a company's bottom line if their product is non-perishable… [read more]

Policy Analysis on the United States Transportation Research Paper

… ¶ … Privatizing China's Transportation Infrastructure

The 21st century has been called the "Century of Asia" and China is clearly leading the way. Over the past 30 years, China has increasingly shaken off its state-controlled economic model in favor of… [read more]

Women Friendly Transportation System Term Paper

… ¶ … Public Transportation for Women

Women Friendly Transportation System

Many cities throughout the world are making efforts to make taxi services more women-friendly. Both men and women utilize taxi services in many large cities, especially in areas they are… [read more]

Effects of Aircraft Engine Fuel on Our Ozone Thesis

… ¶ … Aircraft Engine Fuel on our Ozone

This is an examination of the harm the aviation industry has in the context of the earth's natural environment. It explores how aviation fuel affects ozone production based on introducing high levels… [read more]

New Paradigm for Transportation Thesis

… Transportation Paradigm Changes


Changes in technology have led to the need for a new paradigm when it comes to transportation on several levels, and the existing transportation and logistical infrastructure has also been heavily affected by the recent economic… [read more]

Transportation Benefits of Increasing Parking Thesis

… Engineering


Every trip that is taken by car requires parking at its destination. This makes parking facilities a very important component of the roadway system. Parking is one of the first things that people must deal with when traveling… [read more]

Transportation Security in the United States Research Proposal

… Transportation - Security


The Historical Evolution of Contemporary Transportation Security Issues

Airline Hijacking and Attacks on Transportation as Political Terrorism:

The first hijacking of a passenger airliner for the express purpose of influencing… [read more]

Transportation and Technology Have Chosen Term Paper

… Transportation and Technology have chosen transportation and my area of research for the SL

Science and technology have had dramatic influence on so many areas history in the modern period that it is difficult to choose just one area of concentration. However, transportation is one area that has shown dramatic, even unbelievable advances in a relatively short period of time. In less than one hundred years, man first flew at Kitty Hawk, and walked on the moon, and that is an amazing leap of technology in less than a century.

In addition, transportation has become one of the most important aspects of modern life. The type of car a person drives is supposed to reveal their personality and interests. For example, a young, single executive might drive a convertible BMW, which says he or she is successful, fun loving, and discerning at the same time. A mother might drive a mini-van or SUV to show she is family oriented and settled down, while a young male might drive a tricked out Honda to show he is young, carefree, and into motor sports. Transportation has come to mean more than simply traveling from point a to point B; it has become something of a status symbol and necessity. All of this evolved from technology, and has become an essential part of the American lifestyle.

It is interesting to think about how different our lives might be if technology had not taken the twists and turns it did. We might all still be riding trains or bicycles. We might still be dependent on sailing and steam ships, rather than aircraft and automobiles. Technology and scientific discovery led to some of the best transportation innovations we know today, but they… [read more]

Hazmat Regulations and Transportation School Term Paper

… HAZMAT Regulations and Transportation

School Transportation

Currently state and federal governments recognize that students are most safely transported by commercial vehicles. Any commercial vehicle used to transport students from point A to point B. qualifies as a school bus. At… [read more]

Transportation Improvements and Accountability Term Paper

… Based on their study of transportation initiatives across the country, including San Francisco's BART system, Buhl et al. found that the error of underestimating costs was significantly much more common and much larger than the error of overestimating costs. "Underestimation… [read more]

Transportation Revolution Term Paper

… As infrastructure development in the United States was hampered by constitutional scruples about the proper role of the federal government, the bulk of the canal projects were initiated by state governments (Way 53). Most of the investment capital came from… [read more]

Transportation Economic Stimulus Plan Research Paper

… Transportation Considerations Across America

The current White House economic stimulus plan for transportation should have a considerable impact on a number of different facets of transportation in the United States. The generous stimulus plan should significantly affect aspects of transportation… [read more]

Transportation in the Supply Chain Case Study

… Around 14% of the bulk movement of commerce within the United States moves throughbarge. Three major types of barge are used on the inland as well as intracoasatal waterways. These are an open hopper, one covered by dry cargo and tank barge. In Brinkmann two types of barge are used which are the tank barge and thecovered dry cargo barge.

This mode of transport is quite effective since its manatainance cost is less compared to corresponding costs of road or rail. The most important factor about this mode of transport is the fact that it provides service that is environmentally friendly.

Ocean transportation

This is a method of transport that involves carrying of people or goods using large boats, ships or snail boats across water bodies like oceans and seas.The main purpose of this means of transport can be commercial or leisure. Large cargo ships and barges are what are mostly used by Brinkmans grill industry. The raw materials are mostly got from all over the world and since they are heavy, they are easily transported in containers over the ocean. The finished products after assembly are also very heavy hence, they are transported to other countries through the ocean. This mode of transport is relatively cheaper as compared to other modes of transport.


This consists of picking freight up from one place and delivering it to another mainly across several states. All the goods that are to be sold will be on the truck at one point hence the OTR trucking companies always ensure that the goods are available to the consumer and in time. Unlike other modes of transport, OTR has so much flexibility since it can be able to deliver products to an inner city location or even a rural facility. Other modes of transport therefore depend on OTR top deliver products to these inner locations for pick up and final delivery.OTR is therefore very efficient in Brinkmann Grill since it is used to deliver the product to retail outlets where they will be sold to final consumers.

For a distribution company, forecasting is important because the company wants to minimize inventory, as inventory is costly. Furthermore, any unsold inventory might have to be liquidated at a loss or severely reduced profit. Specifically, forecasting is to ensure that 100% of inventory is sold at a full price, and that there is a no excess inventory that is unsold. Forecasting is also used to reduce the inventory turnover. The more accurate the forecast, the better the company's performance on these two metrics will be. Proper forecast will help in choosing an appropriate means of transport that will be useful when it comes to delivering particular goods at a particular time. [read more]

Trucking vs. Railways in Supply Chain Context Term Paper

… Main findings of this study are:

• A premium money back guarantee may be offered for the domestic intermodal shipments to diversify clientele. Although it is merely on the lanes but it is felt by BNSF that it can perform… [read more]

US v. Europe Essay

… Transportation in Europe

Based on our prior discussions, are the topics in this article surprising? Why or why not?

Yes and no. What make it surprising are the drastic actions many European countries are taking to reduce the total amounts of carbon emissions. In a host of different cities, there are restrictions or outright bans on vehicles. This is something that never happened inside these locations before. The fact that this is occurring now, is showing how various governments want to restrict access to these places by automobile. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

This signals a growing trend that will become more extreme in the future. When this happens, there is a very realistic possibility of European cities becoming pedestrian and eco friendly transportation centers. The result is that there will be lifestyle changes from what was traditionally embraced in the past. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

These actions are not considered to be too surprising from a certain perspective. This is because many cities were built before the automobile was invented. As a result, transportation has often become very limited inside these locations. In the past, there was an emphasis on driving smaller vehicles which could fit inside tight places. The recent changes, are illustrating how the scope of the problem has become much worse. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

Moreover, the Kyoto Protocol is requiring European countries to reduce their total amounts of carbon emissions. Inside many cities, certain vehicles are allowed, which are considered to be environmentally friendly. To meet the new provisions, more drastic action has to be taken. In this case, the changes in transportation are showing how there is a focus on decreasing CO2 output. (Davenport) (Rosenthal)

Contrast the European policies with U.S. policies on transportation as described. Add any perspectives you wish to this contrast. Also add any additional information about transportation systems in the two areas you think.

Inside many European countries, there… [read more]

NTSB Party and Investigative Process Essay


The National Transport Safety Board is a federal agency that was established in 1967 to carry out independent investigations of civil aviation accidents in America and major disasters in other transportation modes in the country. Since NTSB is not part of the Department of Transportation nor associated with any of the department's modal agencies, it has no enforcement or regulatory powers. In essence, this organization is an independent federal accident investigation body, whose main work is to determine probable causes of accidents in the transportation sector, especially aviation industry. Upon completion of its investigation, NTSB creates safety recommendations to enhance transportation safety. However, factual information obtained from NTSB's investigations cannot be used as evidence in a court of law since its focus is on enhancing transportation safety.

The National Transport Safety Board conducts investigations of nearly 2,000 aviation accidents and events annually as well as 500 accidents in other transportation modes such as pipeline, rail, marine, and highway. The organization comprises approximately 400 employees, which has contributed to its leveraging resources in order to accomplish its responsibilities and tasks. One of the major ways through which NTSB leverages its resources to accomplish its tasks is through the party process, which involves designating other companies or organizations as parties to its investigations ("The Investigative Process at NTSB," n.d.).

The main parties in NTSB party process include the FAA, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Nonetheless, NTSB also designates other federal and state agencies as well as law enforcement agencies to carry out additional investigations for enforcement purposes. Generally, the organization has full discretion in deciding the agency or corporation to enlist as parties to the investigation. In most cases, organizations or corporations that are enlisted and granted party status are those that can offer expertise to the investigation. On the other hand, NTSB also permits agencies or… [read more]

Traffic Congestion in Cities Research Paper

… They are still content that the traffic problem does not involve cars and the number of motor vehicles in the city has significantly decreased in recent years.

While population density plays an important role in creating traffic jams, it is not the only thing that matters when considering this topic. Infrastructure is also extremely important, taking into account that streets specially designed to deal with traffic jams can be effective in reducing congestion levels and enabling people to travel with less stress. When considering London, congestion is a significant problem. The fact that the city was not initially designed to fit motorists is among the main reasons why this problem occurs. Even with the fact that authorities have struggled to create roads that are as wide as possible in order for motorists to experience little to no problems, conditions are still problematic in the city with narrow streets being too difficult to deal with by the constantly growing number of drivers.

Sao Paolo is yet another city with a density much lower in comparison to Paris. This does not stop traffic jams from actually being comparable to the ones in the French capital. Some jams in the city have been reported to be as long as 180km. This paints a vivid picture of the gravity of the situation there, with drivers struggling to make it in a system that is not exactly driver-friendly.


The people in the metropolitan area are geographically located in proportion to the city in a way that advantage it. The economical and cultural value of France largely relates on Paris and it thus need to function perfectly. The fact that the city is located in an area where it rarely happens for people to experience extremely high or extremely low temperature makes it possible for the environment to be somewhat welcoming. The Ocean is largely responsible for this, as it affects its climate, this meaning that it is largely invulnerable to the more critical meteorological conditions that can sometimes be experienced by areas that are more inland.


The numerous canals in Amsterdam make it a city where driving a boat is an intriguing opportunity. The two rivers flowing in its vicinity, Ij and Amstel, contribute to making water a particularly usual thing. "Amsterdam's main canals -- such as Singel, Prinsen, Keizers, and Heren -- are intersected by numerous short waterways, dividing the city into about 90 islands that are linked by more than 1,200 bridges." (Geography of Amsterdam) People often relate to the city as being the Venice of the north.

The increase in the number of bicycles is certainly among the main reasons why the traffic problem in Amsterdam has been reduced significantly during recent decades. With the authorities encouraging bicyclists through building more and more roads specially designed for this means of transport, conditions are constantly improving in this regard. The city's numerous canals make it quieter, this working perfectly along with bikes in turning the city into a location where one… [read more]

Consumer Behavior: Segmentation, Targeting Term Paper

… These optional upgrades are a major catalyst for targeted marketing, particularly through the airlines' own credit cards. Generally, though, some differences between the flight class segments are relatively stable. For instance, when an airline creates a customer persona for First Class travelers, one attribute is a lack of price sensitivity. First Class travelers value convenience, special treatment, exclusivity, and traveler status over price. Business Class travelers must often meet corporate requirements for flying and so are forced to be price sensitive; but Business Class travelers are also quite likely to hold annual passes for flight clubs, like Red Carpet rooms. Economy Class travelers do tend to be price sensitive, but they will upgrade to gain additional legroom and a roomier seat, and are often on the lookout for opportunities to avail themselves of perks in Business Class.

Compare and Contrast - JetBlue and Southwest. While American Airlines and U.S. Airways were required by the Justice Department to sell their takeoff and landing rights at Ronald Reagan National Airport in Washington DC as a condition of their merger, Southwest and JetBlue took their place (Mouawad, 2014). Airports, such as Reagan National and La Guardia, have only so many slots for takeoffs and landings each day because of air traffic congestion, so these scarce slots are a valuable competitive edge (Mouawad, 2014). Moreover, January 2014 finds Southwest making plans to fly to the Caribbean and internationally, apparently closing the gap between the national airline company and international carriers, such as JetBlue.

Contrast JetBlue and Southwest Airlines in terms of the following two aspects:

1.Compare and explain the impact of key external factors on each company (e.g., economic conditions and the growing consumer interest in leisure travel).


Low cost carriers like Southwest and JetBlue started out with a domestic flight agenda, focusing on shorter routes with no frills (Stellin, 2012). But the carriers grew, the airlines industry changed, and the low cost airlines began eyeing the market south of the border (Stellin, 2012). JetBlue now flies as far south as Columbia, and Southwest has expanded into international air through its acquisition of AirTran Airways, which makes flights to several Caribbean countries and Mexico (Stellin, 2012). Airlines are vigorous consumers of market research -- they know what their customers want and they know what customer preferences they can ignore -- at least for a time. Business travel may be down a notch or two, but leisure travel is very big business, seeming only to have tapered off in the short run because of global disruptions and catastrophe.


Mouawad, J. (2104, January 30). Southwest and JetBlue buy Washington airport rights. Business Day. New York, NY: The New York Times. Accessed

Rothman, A., & Jasper, C. (2011). The unbearable heaviness of business class. Business Week (December 19)1. Available 5/4/12 through EBSCO database. Structure of the airline industry (n.d.). Littleton, CO: Avjobs. Available 5/4/12 at:

Stellin, S. (2012, September 12). Budget airlines fly south. Travel -- The Getaway. New York, NY: The New… [read more]

Bike-Sharing in New York City Essay

… Mike Nuttle: Be alert and aware and make noise. Have a bell, have lights on your bike. You know New York is a busy place, so the more you're talking and alert to your surroundings the safer you'll be.u

Host: However, not all New Yorkers are happy with the new program, like this seasoned bike messenger. Messenger: They don't know what they are doing. They're reckless.

Host: And because of the risk, some people are not persuaded that biking is a viable alternative means of transportation.

Scared lady: I'm afraid I'm going to be hit by a bus. I don't have a helmet available; I won't rent them until I get on that at the very least.u

Host: However, Nuttle says she shouldn't be afraid.

Mike Nuttle: Now biking is safer than ever. Bicycling has quintupled over the last decade or so with the number of people riding bikes. But the number of crashes has actually gone down over the same time.

Host: Nuttle hopes that the more people bike, the safer it will be.

Mike Nuttle: There's the safety in numbers effect that we talk a lot about here. That the more people you have riding bikes the more aware drivers are of our existence on the street and less likely crashes become.u

Host: Lawyer Flanzig agrees.

Dan Flanzig: My philosophy is that this is a shared street.

Host: Just remember: no riding on the sidewalk, cyclists! Keep your eyes open…and perhaps a good lawyer on your speed dial. (Sound of a bike bell in the distance). [read more]

Air Transportation Research Proposal

… ¶ … Air Transportation

The exam proposal covered within this brief report is meant to illustrate and otherwise show the proper and full comprehension of all relevant program outcomes of the Master of Aeronautical Science Degree with a specialization in… [read more]

U.S. Statistics Indicate That 80 Capstone Project

… The key thrust for performance excellence is to establish a culture of continuous improvement and innovation that builds upon a strong foundation of quality, professionalism and team excellence always.

Researcher's Work Setting and Role

The researcher has been an officer… [read more]

Individual Automobile Safety Technology Engineering Term Paper

… Both of these provisions point to the important of after sales activity with regard to attracting and retaining customers ("KPMG," 2012). Retailer profitability is substantively impacted by after sales service of automobiles, but the possibility of differentiation in this arena… [read more]

Polluted, Emphasis Essay

… Other bicycle retailers include Century Cicles, Freewheel Bike, Gregg Cycle or Free-Flite Bicycles.

The average bicycle retailer sells an estimated 650 bicycles per year, but it also sells equipments, parts, accessories and provides complementary services (The NBDA Statpak, 2011). The… [read more]

Electric Car Manual Instruction Essay

… The Nissan Leaf will even locate with GPS the closest electric refilling stations.

Figure 5 - Electric Charging Station (Singh, 2010)

Driving the electric vehicle has two primary differences when compared to traditional vehicles as well. Again the lack of engine noise is noticeable. Many people are somewhat disoriented when they do not hear the car accelerate as they would in gasoline powered vehicle. Another difference is that the source of power is more immediate in an electric vehicle because this power supply does not dependent on the engine reeving up for it to supply its power. In fact, some of the electric sports cars are among the fastest cars in the world in regards to initial acceleration. In an electric vehicle the battery gives the car its power instantaneously and without any delay. Although companies regulate this power so that it simulates a gas powered car, many drivers will notice a different feel in acceleration since the power supply is constant.

Another substantial difference in owning an electrical vehicle will be refueling the car. In a gasoline powered car it takes minutes to refuel the vehicle and there is an infrastructure currently already in existence to support drivers. People often take the availability of this power source for granted. An electric vehicle on the other hand requires four to twenty hours to reach a full charge, depending on the power supply available. For most people on daily commutes, this will not provide any inconvenience. However, for longer trips, the electric vehicle will be more complicated and require substantial planning or may not be possible at all. Once an infrastructure is built to support the electric vehicle, there will be more options for long distance travel. However, such a trip will still undoubtedly require substantially longer timeframes for refueling compared to traditional technology.

Figure 6 - Electric Refueling Station in a Private Garage (Krisher, 2011)

Works Cited

Hybrid Cars. (2012). Electric Cars: A Definitive Guide. Retrieved from Hybrid Cars:

Krisher, T. (2011, March 31). Thinking of an electric car? Get your garage ready. Retrieved from Fuel Fix:

Silicon Prairies Social. (2012, March 29). Naperville Embraces Electric Vehicles with Charging Stations. Retrieved from The Top Suburban Tech Stories and Events:

Singh, T. (2010, October 08). Massachusetts Set To Install 100 EV Charging Stations! Retrieved from Inhabitat:

The Auto Channel. (2008, May 11). Overview of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology and the impacts that PHEVs will have on Load, Generation Costs and Emissions. Retrieved from The Auto Channel: [read more]

Crash Investigation Research Paper

… Bush Crash Investigations

Whether they are school-age children or senior citizens, passengers riding in busses naturally assume that the driver is performing his or her duties carefully and safely, and passengers also believe that the bus would not be on… [read more]

Transportation Security in Airports Evaluation Research Paper

… The most common factors include the complications that security guards face when tuning the detector, as elements such as depth, width, height and general proximity to the ordnance will surely affect how the detector will function. The person operating the device might also develop health related issues, due to the length of time used for attention and listening to hear if the detector produces the beeping sound.

In addition, the detectors give many false alarm sounds. Almost all the metallic objects, including those close to the target will trigger the detector to produce the sound of the alarm. This happens mostly due to the strong signals designed within the metal detector. Because the detector will react differently according to the levels of detection set by the operator, it is upon the operator to ensure the machine is well set to reduce the amounts of false detections, hence increasing functionality of the gadget. If the operator sets the metal detector differently from the intended position, then it is most likely to cause interference (MacDonald & Mendez, 2005).

Different screening measure for the security team

The security team could conduct their screening process using diverse measures, many of which have been successful previously. Some of the measures include conducting passenger checks just to determine identification, following criminal records that are provided in the airports database. Detection in case of criminal records will be conducted through finger print procedures. It is advisable that all the airport operators get coordinators who will train the security team on the particulars of insecurity detection (Elias, 2009). The team responsible for security will use both large body scanners, and detection machines for explosive material tracing. If instituted well, then these strategies and measures could curb the present cases of insecurity.


Elias, B. (2009) Securing General Aviation. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishers.

MacDonald, J. & Mendez, C. (2005) Unexploded Ordnance Cleanup Costs: implications of alternative protocols. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation Publishers.

Tiebert, L. (2009) Frommer's Chicago with Kids.… [read more]

New Trucking Hours of Service Rule Research Paper

… ¶ … new trucking hours of service rule will take effect in the United States that will have important implications for over-the-road trucking companies and their professional drivers. To gain some fresh insights into these implications, the purpose of this… [read more]

Air Cargo Industry Term Paper

… History Of Air Cargo Industry

The history of the air cargo industry in a very real way mirrors the history of air transportation. This paper reviews the history of air transportation and how those visionaries that pre-dated the emergence of… [read more]

Transportation Motor Carriers Have Populated Term Paper

… Onboard cameras can also video record any unusual occurrences, a detriment to thieves and nefarious characters who wish to abscond with ill-gotten gains.

The final two considerations that trucking companies in the future will attempt to fulfill include capacity and flexibility. With the earlier consolidations and mergers, many of today's carriers have a much greater capacity to haul loads across the United States. Large corporations who are in need of that capacity will likely contract with carriers who can give them a fair price, reliable shipping, and the capacity to handle large shipments. Carriers who are flexible with regard to those factors will also be the most successful, while those carriers who do not adapt to the more competitive environment will likely find themselves on the outside looking in.


Archetti, C. & Savelsbergh, M.; (2009) The trip scheduling problem, Transportation Science, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 417-431

Dobie, K.; (2005) The core shipper concept: A proactive strategy for motor freight carriers, Transportation Journal, Vol. 44, Issue 2, pp. 37 -- 53

Lang, A.B.; (2011) Transportation technology: Rail transport and logistics, Technology and Engineering Teacher, Vol. 70, Issue 8, pp. 12 -- 17

Murphy, P. & Wood, D.; (2008) Contemporary logistics, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

New rules regulate work and sleep schedules for commercial truck drivers; (2006) Public Roads, Vol. 69, issue 4, p. 12

Randall, W.S.; Defee, C.C.; Brady,… [read more]

Land Use and Traffic Characteristics Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … land use and traffic characteristics of the current situation and uses these relationships to estimate future traffic dynamics given proposed or estimated future land use and proposed transportation network developments (Patriksson, 1994, p. 9). In this way, model analysis is similar to scenario planning, by which stakeholders develop alternative concepts of a community's future and the implementation plans to realize those visions (Weiner, 2008).

Model analysis is more conceptual in nature than cost-benefit analysis. While cost-benefit analysis has some conceptual elements, it is fundamentally a financial analysis. Cost-benefit analysis aims to establish a few key understandings. One is to discover what are the long-term funding needs for proposed projects. Another is to make plain the financial consequences and implications of different transportation improvement alternatives. Through cost-benefit analysis, one estimates project costs, predicts yearly funding needs, and helps spur thinking about appropriate financing options. These considerations compose the cost portion of the analysis (Benz, 1999, p. 305). Benefits include such variables as savings in travel time, safety enhancements, reduced vehicle repair costs. Each of these elements can be represented in financial terms (Benz, 1999, pp. 310-311).

This author advocates using a combination of analysis methods. Model analysis is a kind of brainstorming that can help expand the range of options, alternatives, and possibilities for solving a problem or improving a situation. The cost-benefit approach is necessary for making sure that all the stakeholders know what is feasible and what may not be affordable. Together, they complement one another, providing a kind of right brain, left brain completeness. Moreover, employing a combination of methods serves to gather a more comprehensive body of information that takes into consideration more perspectives, which in most cases should have a positive impact on decision-making outcomes.

Including many perspectives in one's analyses is important when considering the array of political elements involved in urban transportation planning. Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels play vital roles in city transportation planning, decision-making, and funding. Non-governmental interest groups such as environmentalism groups, chambers of commerce, neighborhood associations, bicycling advocacy clubs, and historic preservation societies… [read more]

Department of Transportation and Airport Landing Slots Essay

… FAA Airline Slots Marketing

The United States government itself should not only allow the slots to be marketed, it should employ a person without formal ties to any of the airlines to market the slots at a profit to generate revenue for the government during a time of severe recession (or any time for that matter). While the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been accused of favoring regulatory approaches over non-regulatory approaches Alfred F. Kahn's "special kind of idiocy" can be applied here as well when government creates the market and is not allowed to control the sale of the product or service it produces ("Case Studies on Public Management," p. 2).

The following arguments support my recommendation:


While there may have been too much regulation at the beginning of the Reagan administration, the pendulum has certainly swung the other way by now.


If the FAA to relinquish control over such an important part of the nation's transportation system, why not do so over the road system as well? This is simply because the system is too diverse to allow multiple companies to be calling the shots overall. If taxpayer money is used in the buildup of the network, then it must also be allowed a commanding presence in the distribution of slots in the system it helped to build. This would address Representative Norm Mineta's concern (ibid, p. 1).


This author's position is a compromise between the previous slot allocation system and an all out free market auction. It accommodates both ends of the spectrum. It employs the free market and yet keeps the government fully in the loop with regard to regulating the slot allocations. The ancillary benefit is a source of revenue for the case strapped Federal government during a long recession.

The counter-arguments are as follows:


The market is the best way to regulate supply and demand disparities in any case.

artificial action will… [read more]

Electric Car Essay

… The price and demand for oil will also impact the alternative fuel industry, and just like the gulf oil spill, these are factors that are difficult to predict.

Global Influences

One unpredictable aspect of the 2020 outlook is how markets… [read more]

Maglev Train Magnetic Levitation Term Paper

… Magnetic-Levitation Trains

Today, innovations in transportation technologies have significantly improved the energy efficiency, CO2 emission rates and safety of aircraft, the railroad and trucking industries as well as automobiles. Although these innovations have provided some improvements compared to the past,… [read more]

Importing From Asia/Europe to the United States Essay

… ¶ … Importing from Asia/Europe to the United States

There are a variety of issues that logistics managers and other individuals involved with the international shipping of freight, including practical differences in the types of shipping containers used in certain… [read more]

Port and Terminal Operations Different Essay

… Port and Terminal Operations

Different types of ports are discussed starting on page 7 of the textbook. After reviewing the Week 1 course materials, go to the Internet and find a port to use as an example in this assignment.… [read more]

Organizing Processing for Effectiveness the Effective Organization Essay

… ¶ … Organizing Processing for Effectiveness

The effective organization of transportation processes is one of the most complex and challenging tasks that any planner can undertake. A system that is well planned and well organized will run both smoothly and… [read more]

Global Supply Chain Essay

… Supply Chain

The rapid growth of premium package services can be seen as the direct result of fairly basic economic forces at work in the supply chain and retail sector worldwide. Increasing self-service as technology progresses. Especially given the new technologies that allow for increased ordering form home and other more self-service oriented retail scenarios, retailer costs can be significantly reduced by encouraging such self-service. This reduces retailer costs, which both increases profits and reduces price to the consumers, and given the basic laws of supply and demand this creates a greater volume of sales (Regan 1960). at-home shopping depends on premium package services from a variety of international and domestic carriers, and as at-home self-service sales volume increases as a result of these economic forces, the use of such services necessarily increases as well.


Motor carriers generally have higher revenue rates than rail carriers not because they have a larger share in the percentage of freight-ton miles -- the opposite is in fact the case -- but actually because they are generally less efficient at moving goods, especially in high volumes and over long distances (Lawyer 2006). Though there is greater energy and economic efficiency for small commodity levels traveling over shorter distances when shipped by motor carriers, it is still more expensive per freight-ton mile, and hugely more so for larger commodity levels over large distances (Lawyer 2006). This cost differential is the cause for higher revenues for motor carriers than for railroad transporters; motor carriers do not necessarily post higher profits, as a larger percentage of shipment cost goes directly to the carrier's own costs than they do for rail transporters, but revenues must be higher to meet motor carrier needs (Lawyer 2006).


The primary difference between trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (TOFC) intermodal transport is the level of modality that is available for each of these types of transport. Container on flatcar transport allows for standardized shipping containers used by marine and rail transport to be stacked directly onto railway flatcars, with up to four containers per standard flatcar if they are double stacked (Thompson 1996). Trailer on flatcar transport allowed for a similar configuration, though there are greater variations in trailer sizes and thus in the amount of freight that can be shipped using this method; the lessened standardization of these trailers and their ability to roll when not on these specialized flatcars makes them less able to be utilized on different modes of transport during the overall shipping process, and thus TOFC transport is becoming more obsolete (Thompson 1996). Double stacking cane be seen as a major innovation… [read more]

Transportation Security Administration Research Paper

… Transportation Security Administration

Airport Security (A Sweeping Change)

Whole Body Scanning

Innovative Technologies

Sterile Area Access (Employee Screening)

Higher Standards For Hiring

Transport Security Administration

Security concerns are adding to the woes of the airline industry already hit by high… [read more]

Gender Sexual Orientation and the City Essay

… Gender and the City

S.F.'s Castro district faces an identity crisis and What would a nonsexist city be like

Both of these articles look at problems in urban planning combined with how different areas attract and support certain genders. The Castro article is a look at a long-standing gay neighborhood in San Francisco that is attracting heterosexual residents because of its safety, security, and convenience. The other article shows how suburban neighborhoods have few of these same features. The article about how suburbs and American housing standards do not favor women really made me think about how we live today. The author feels that American housing standards promote consumerism and a way of life that does not support women, and after reading this article, it seems that she is right. Women "buy in" to the American dream of a family owning its own home, but they are the ones that have to do most of the work to support that dream, especially if they have children. The design plan for a housing area with a restaurant and children's area is really interesting, but it seems that kind of living arrangement would never work here in this country. People want their own place, and the Castro article brings that home.

The gay community wants to keep Castro "their own," but they won't try to stop straight couples from moving in. When they move in, they will change the face of the community, and that will probably cause the Castro district to change. It is one of the largest gay communities in the world, and that is history making, so it is easy to see why they don't want to lose that. However, that being said, why can't gays and straights live together in harmony? They do in many other areas that don't have different areas, and they should be willing to share their area with others. Castro is kind of like the German, Polish, Irish, Asian, and other areas of big cities that grew up as immigrants came to this country. Today, those areas are not so standard, and they have opened up to many other… [read more]

Understanding Travel Behavior Essay

… ¶ … Travel Behaviour

"The concept of 'mobilities' encompasses both the large-scale movements of people, objects, capital, and information across the world, as well as the more local processes of daily transportation, movement through public space, and the travel of… [read more]

Luggage Transportation Curbside Check-In: If the Passenger Essay

… Luggage Transportation

Curbside Check-in:

If the passenger opts for curbside check-in (and it is permitted under applicable security rules in effect at the time), the process begins even before the passenger enters the airport departure terminal. Curbside check-in facilities include computers capable of printing out boarding passes and luggage tags complete with barcodes to identify baggage electronically if necessary. The bags are weighed to determine whether they conform to the maximum size and weight restrictions of the airline and additional fees collected if necessary. Once the curbside attendant places the baggage on the conveyor belt, the baggage continues through the same general process as other passenger luggage destined for the plane's cargo hold.

Ticket Counter Baggage Check-in:

If the passenger opts for ticket counter, the attendant conducts the same general process as the curbside attendant and also issues a boarding pass. Different color tags and number codes corresponding to flight numbers are used to distinguish different destinations to help baggage handlers direct luggage to the appropriate internal conveyor belts. Depending on the security measures in place at a particular time, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) may conduct random inspections of passenger baggage by hand as they approach the ticket counter, in connection with which they may use an explosive detection device to identify any residual traces of explosives. Passenger luggage that is screened in this manner is then taped with special TSA security tape and secured by official seals to indicate that the bags have already been screened by hand and to ensure that the intact seals will prevent subsequent tampering until the passenger takes possession of it at the destination airport.

Currently, major U.S. airports are equipped with X-ray equipment and explosive detectors through which luggage conveyed to the cargo hold is automatically screened in the baggage handling areas. The TSA suggests that passengers leave luggage unlocked to avoid damaging locks in the event a cursory screening necessitates internal inspection of luggage contents by hand. Many passengers lock their luggage anyway, because they are more worried about thievery at the hands of baggage handlers after numerous news reports over the years implicating them in property theft from checked passenger luggage.

Baggage Handling Operations:

Whether luggage is checked at the curb or at the ticket counter, the agent normally inquires into whether any of the contents requires special handling of any kind and luggage with delicate or unusual contents are tagged with indicators signifying special handling requirements. In the baggage… [read more]

Airport Operations KMIA Thesis

… Airport Operations: Analysis of Miami International Airport KMIA

The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of Miami International Airport from a business and operational point-of-view. This work will analyze the operating and business environment of Miami International… [read more]

Digital Signage System of Public Transportation Research Paper

… Digital Signage System of Public Transportation

Digital signage article report

As the economy worsens, more and more people are turning to public transportation as a means of commuting to work, or for leisure-time travel. However, as the 2008 article from Business Wire "Omnivex wins DIGI Award for digital signage on bus system in Norway" makes clear, America lags behind many European countries in the sophistication of its travel technology, specifically regarding digital signage system in public transportation. Norway has made a massive investment in improving information technology throughout its transportation infrastructure. One of the primary transportation companies in Norway, Fjord1, currently uses Omnivex software to manage GPS-triggered digital signage on Norway's expansive bus system. Omnivex is a Toronto-based company and the world leader in software development for digital signage networks and electronic displays managing content management, real-time data acquisition and distribution, and remote device monitoring and management of all aspects of digital signage networks.

Ironically, although the DIGI Awards are given in New York, and the company winning the award is Canadian, it is Europe, specifically the Scandinavian countries, that have made the greatest investment in digital signage systems in public transport. Gas is more expensive in these nations, and has been for many years. The sharp upturn in fuel costs in 2008 was not a surprise to Northern Europe, as gas had been prohibitively expensive for some time, turning many people into regular users of public transportation. The digital signage technology adds a unique component to every passenger's experience, making the system more user-friendly and informative for the many users of public transportation in Norway.

The digital signage installation is in four hundred of Fjord's buses as well as bus terminals. The installation for the bus system that uses GPS data to trigger which content the software shows, based on the location of the bus, highlights points of interest in the area, and also provides information about connecting buses on the schedule. The system also keeps real-time track of… [read more]

Denver Climate Action Planning Project Carbon Dioxide Research Paper

… Denver Climate Action Planning Project

Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. One recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between… [read more]

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