"Transportation / Mass Transit" Essays

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Trip of a Lifetime Bon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


4. Sightseeing:

Though we are reserving our right to laziness, we intend to use: Walks of Italy, which the one we will likely visit and provides a private boat for a tour of Venice for 484 Euros ($645.40 USD) (Walks of Italy); Chiesa Santa Maria dei Miracoli; Collezione Peggy Guggenheim; Galleria dell'Accademia; Isola San Michele; The Fenice.

c. San Marino… [read more]

Financial Analysis of International Airlines Group Thesis

Thesis  |  19 pages (5,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Financial Analysis of International Airlines Group


Contact Details

Confidentiality Restrictions

Today, the aviation industry is faced with skyrocketing energy costs, the lingering aftereffects of the Great Recession of 2008 and the looming threat of ongoing terrorist activities in many regions of the world. In this environment, identifying opportunities for air carriers to achieve a competitive advantage through improved administrative… [read more]

2007 Economic Crisis on American Thesis

Thesis  |  88 pages (24,230 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 50



One of the main factors which incremented this crisis even more was the expensive cost of automobile fuel, this was linked to the global oil crisis which occurred before the automobile crisis. The rise in fuel prices caused the general consumer to shift in their demand and they now opted to buy except for the large vehicles such as… [read more]

Packaging Material There Are Various Packaging Materials Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Packaging Material

There are various packaging materials that are used in the daily transport of goods across the globe. There is always a pursuit to get the most efficient packaging and one that is most efficient in getting the goods safely to the destination. These packaging material always come with varied advantages that make transporters to go for them, on the other hand, they also have various disadvantages that accompany them.

There is the paper-based shipping container that is widely used in moving goods. The advantage of such a transport mode is that is environment friendly as it can be recycled or re-used 100%, it is also noted to be light hence does not add unnecessary weight to the carriers. The paper-based containers are also noted to be easy to manipulate since they can be stapled together during packaging or even just glued together and the packaging is complete. This then allows the packaging to take various shapes and sizes without much problems and it is worth noting that it gives as easy printability (Food Communications Information Services, 2012).

This method has its disadvantages as well since it does not provide any protection against moisture or water to the goods that are on transit. The paper packaging cannot as well accommodate a heavy load and may easily disintegrate upon bearing heavy weights.

The other category is the wood-based shipping containers which apparently is widely used due to its features despite the disadvantages that it has. Wood-based containers will provide adequate protection to the items that are under transport if they happen to be fragile, with a foam lining, wood-based containers are the best. Wood is also reusable as the demolished containers can easily be used to make other pieces of furniture hence reducing the wastage of the material. Wood can also be custom cut into crates of the required sizes and the items to be transported fitted into it without needing much effort or resources…… [read more]

Hong Kong Financial Market Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (6,345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … financial market of Hong Kong in the airline transportation arena. Our central question is whether or not this a good time for an airline based in Hong Kong to issue its IPO. While the Hong Kong and market has just went for a downturn, it is turning around have weathered nicely and is turning around.. Major Hong Kong… [read more]

HS2, or High Speed Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,388 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


HS2, or High Speed 2, is a proposed high-speed railway expansion between London, the Midlands, and the North of England, with a later potential expansion into Scotland. High Speed Railways, as a concept, have been growing all over the EU since the 1980s. Germany, France and Spain have been aggressive leaders in this field, believing that for Europe to be truly united economically, the transportation system must be robust enough to encourage travel between countries and between longer distances within countries. In Britain, the first High Speed Line ran from London through the Channel Tunnel, a 108 km distance. In fact, Britain's railway infrastructure dates primarily from the Victorian era, which does not permit operating speeds above 201 km/h. Movement within Britain and the need to move to France increased over 50 per cent since the 1970s, thus requiring new solutions to transport and commute issues (Atkins 2009).

While the concept of High Speed railways is endorsed by Britain's three main political parties, there remains controversy and disagreement over which cities should be placed on the rout, the environmental impact of HS2, the actual performance of the railway, the affordability of the project, and even whether it reduces carbon emissions, as it states (Millward 2010). However, most of the country agrees something must be done to improve inner-city links and shrink the time it takes to traverse the country. The solution is simple, according to Transportation Secretary Lord Adonis -- it is either high-speed or more motorways and planes (Cheap fast trains "are transport future" 2009).

Hypothesis- The HS2 project, while laudable in some areas of the EU, is not a viable option for the London to central and north Britain because the business case is based on unrealistic assumptions, the environmental impact remains unassessed, and the strategic benefits are questionable.

Summary of Articles- The arguments regarding the HS2 fall into three major categories: fiscal, environmental, and strategic. On one hand, the government's figures showed a fairly reasonable construction cost, based on many previous smaller scale projects with quick paybacks. The economic reality, according to some, is that with a flattening economy, taxpayers are being asked to fund a project that may or may not see paybacks by 2026. In addition, many of the reports fail to adequately acknowledge that there are some clear difficult geographic features between London and Birmingham; even more so at the split between Birmingham and Manchester and Birmingham and Leeds (Wendover Technology 2010). The government also believes that there is a considerable value of time that should be noted in view of increasing commute demands. In fact, according to a government survey, 70 per cent of those surveyed think that their time is valuable enough to justify the cost of a High Speed railway. Indeed, it is not just the time spent in route, but waiting for the next transportation service, that must be factored into any equation. Robust routes and fast trains alleviate this problem for most individuals, the government says (Valuing the Benefits… [read more]

Flight Data Recorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,362 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


The FDPs were interconnected so that data on flights leaving a center's area would be passed automatically to the next center or terminal facility in line. FDPs also generated data for aircraft "tags" on controller plan view displays (PVD). Sector controllers continued to store the flight strips, annotate and move them to remind them of their flights' progress and requirements.… [read more]

Maintenance of Road Pavements Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,507 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


As stated, not always can they be repaired, in which case patching needs to be performed or a new and stronger HMA layer applied.

Fixing pavements is more challenging and complex than may seem possible, but as the 5th International RILEM Conference on Cracking in Pavements noted, fixing the road network is an important task for modern societies and is a major requirement nowadays. There is a growing interest in the topic as new techniques are coming out all on the time on how to better improve the shape of our pavements and fix them when cracked.


5th International RILEM Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mitigation, Risk Assessment and Prevention


Cornell Local Roads Program. 2003. Asphalt Paving Principles. http://www.clrp.cornell.edu/workshops/pdf/asphalt_paving_principles-web.pdf.

Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Pavement Management Primer.


Flexible pavement distress.


Mobilizing the Region (April 30, 2001 ) Groups Call on Governor, Lawmakers: Hold NJ DOT to Repair Promises


Conclusion… [read more]

Future Low Cost Terminal at London South Article

Article  |  5 pages (2,210 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Future Low Cost Terminal at London South End

London is considered to be one of the most congested air spaces in the world. To effectively deal with these issues, we will examine if the construction of a new low cost terminal at Southend Airport will address the problems. Once this occurs, is when we can determine the economic viability of… [read more]

Learning Journal Weekly Research Article Review

Article Review  |  11 pages (5,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 27


SIA and Virgin Australia will start interlining in Aug-2011. Codesharing, frequent flyer links, schedule coordination and joint pricing will follow once approval for the partnership is secured, expected by the end of 2011. Both carriers do not expect any major problems in securing the required approvals.

Big changes in Southeast Asia

The agreement is the next step in a rapidly… [read more]

Plants Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … plants; let I be the number of plants on location. Thus, i=1,2,3,4,5,6

There are three (3) waste disposable sites; let j be the number of waste disposable sites. Thus, j = 1, 2, 3

Now, there is going to be a shipping schedule to transport wastes from plant I to disposable site j depending on the total cost of transportation. The goal is to minimize this cost.

Total cost of transportation can be denoted by Z. As the objective function to be minimized and let X the amount of waste to be transported from I to j.

Thus we have X11, X12, X13, X21, X22, X23, X31, X32, X33, X41, X42, X43, X51, X52, X53, X61, X62 and X63.

Given the cost of shipping from each plant to each waste disposable site, Z can be defined as:

Z = 12 X11 + 15 X12 + 17 X13 + 14 X21 + 9 X22 + 10 X23 + 13 X31 + 20 X32 + 11 X33 + 17 X41+ 16 X42 + 19 X43 + 7 X51 + 14 X52+ 12 X53 + 22 X61 + 16 X62 + 18 X63.

Give the total amount of waste generated each week at each site, we set constraints on Z. as:

X11 + X12 + X13 = 35

X21 + X22 + X23 = 26

X31 + X32 + X33 = 42

X41 + X42 + X43 = 53

X51 + X52 + X53 = 29

X61 + X62 + X63 = 38

9) The maximum amount of waste each site can contain each is given as:

X11 + X21+ X31+X41 + X51 + X61 ? 65

X12 + X22+ X32+X42 + X52 + X62 ? 80

X13 + X23+ X33+X43 + X53 +…… [read more]

Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  5 pages (1,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … collects data to test the hypotheses. The quantitative technique is used for data collection, and data analysis. The quantitative analysis is appropriate for this research because the study aims to present and interpret the data in the numerical form. The study uses descriptive statistics for data analysis. The advantage of using descriptive statistics for data analysis is that… [read more]

Sustainable Management Futures for Toyota Motors Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,151 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Toyota Motors is a worldwide company that has grown to be one of the most successful in the world. In the United States, the company started as Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. On October 31, 1957. When sales began in 1958, the company sold only 288 vehicles. With the arrival of the Land Cruiser, American sales gained momentum, which culminated in… [read more]

Technology Energy Efficiency Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,859 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The Environmental Protection Agency hasn't yet figured out how to correctly measure range, so those numbers are even vaguer. This vagueness strengthens what has become known as range anxiety, which is the fear of being stranded miles from a charging station with a dead battery (The future of the electric car, 2010).

The Chevy Volt, for instance, receives 93 miles-per-gallon… [read more]

Macroeconomics Cases Study New Sports Stadium Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Macroeconomics Cases Study

New Sports Stadium

The claims by backers of this project may not be objective or accurate. That is because most of the "quality" jobs the project creates will be transitory in nature, such as the construction jobs during its construction. Thereafter, most of the types of jobs necessary to run the new stadium will be unskilled, semi-skilled, and minimum-wage jobs such as ticket booth workers, private security, maintenance and grounds cleanup, parking attendants, and refreshment stand workers. Those are not the type of "quality" jobs that will help the community. Furthermore, there are significant quality-of-life costs associated with the new stadium. For example, high-profile professional sports events almost always cause traffic congestion in their vicinity. Likewise, they absorb community resources such as law enforcement and sanitation workers and add to overtime costs associated with those extra demands.

Education for the Future

This approach to using public funds would be a valuable means of contributing positively to society. In the modern age, unskilled jobs are rapidly disappearing and it is becoming even more important for young people to develop intellectual skills that will enable them to qualify for skilled jobs. Increasing the compensation for teachers would be one of the most sensible ways of improving the quality of public education. Establishing objective standards designed to improve educational programs would also be very beneficial. However, the experience with the failed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policies of the Bush administration demonstrated that standardized testing cannot be relied upon excessively and that "teaching to test" must be avoided at all costs.

Transportation Express

In principle improving transportation systems is a good idea for the community. However, it is doubtful that expending more money on…… [read more]

Robert Fulton the Most Lucrative Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Called an "atmospheric engine," it was "the first practical devise to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work" (Wikipedia). James Watt Later improved on the steam engine, and it was this device with which James Rumsey and John Fitch began experimenting around 1786 (Woods 44). Rumsey was a brilliant mechanical engineer and had been appointed by George Washington to serve as Superintendent of the Potamac River Project (Woods 45). Fitch was a colorful character who lived among the Indians for part of his adult life and worked variously as a surveyor, metal worker, and clock repairman. The men were not partners but competititors, and because patent law was so new in the U.S. At the time of their work, they were both able to lay claim to the invention of steam propulsion. It was their ideas Fulton seized upon and today his is the name associated with the invention of the steam engine.

In the colonial and early national eras of the United States, commerce was primarily international. The country was small and not well established; many goods had to be transported. Most freight moved by water; the rivers and estuaries of the East Coast were vital for commerce. Most people lived near tidewater and could be served by oceangoing ships (Gordon).

The Louisiana Purchase effectively doubled the size of the country and opened up the use of the Mississippi River. Access to the Mississippi changed everything. Barriers to westward expansion and internal commercial development were effectively lifted (Sylla 46). The country began to expand rapidly and reliable, efficient means of transportation were needed to bring goods to people who pushed west. As people moved west, so too did commerce and industry. The expansion coincided with the wars between France and England, where the United States often found itself in the middle. It became important to be more self-sufficient as a nation and rely less on trading partners, who could be fickle. The U.S. needed to produce more of its own goods and needed transportation to move them. Successful transport meant that commerce expanded, requiring that transportation continue to expand as well. Ultimately, this resulted in new and better roads, railroads, canals and the use of Fulton's steamboat (Sylla 51).

Works Cited

Gordon, John Steele. "The Steamboat Monopoly." American Heritage 44.7 (1993): 20-21.

Online. 2 May 2011.

"Newcomen Steam Engine." Wikipedia. 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.

"Robert Fulton's Paddlesteamer: August 17th, 1807." History Today 57.8 (2007): 58-59. Online.

2 May 2011.

Sylla, Richard. "…the patent in comtemplation will be the most lucrative that ever was obtained': Robert Fulton to [Robert R. Livingston] on the Profit Potential of Steamboat…… [read more]

Legality of TSA Pat Down Procedures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Legality of TSA Pat Down Procedures

Security screening has become a nightmare to most passengers. It was Duncan, the Republican representative who pointed out the lucrative government contracts in TSA's new naked body scanning machines. The body scanners at the airports are a source of high doses of radiation. This coupled with inappropriate search by adults of children and exposures… [read more]

School Transporation Time Management Problem Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In addition, a specific protocol for determining seniority and making assignments will be provided to dispatchers and management. Any deviations from the protocol must be communicated to Human Resources.

The Director of School Transportation has established the following standards related to the tracking hours worked by employees:

1. Arrivals and departures from the central bus barn of the District's Department of Transportation shall be recorded by punching a time clock. The rationale for this practice is the difficulty of oversight and the location of the bus barn in relation to other school district facilities. Because of the early hours associated with high school and middle school bus runs, office employees are generally not in place. The dispatcher is located in the central office on another campus, and so dispatch staff cannot provide oversight to bus drivers.

2. Drivers are also required to punch out at the end of a regular run and at the beginning of all runs. Drivers are able to access the interior of the bus barn at all times. Access to phones, restrooms, lockers, the lunchroom, and the punch clock can occur 24/7.

3. Drivers assigned to special activity runs, particularly those that encompass overnight stays, will be required to sign in and out, recording their actual working hours on a time sheet retained in the bus. The time sheet shall be turned in to the Director of Transportation's administrative staff on the next regular school day following the special activity bus run.

Evaluation of GPS/system or MDT/system tracking.

Functioning of tracking systems.

Anticipated savings attributed to tracking systems.


Maintenance…… [read more]

Body Imaging Integrating the Transportation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In keeping within the topic of public health, many suspect that this technology, when utilized consistently, can expose travelers to potential radiation poisoning. (Jones, 2009). Several experts believe that full-body scanning machines can deliver heavy doses of the extremely harmful "ionic radiation" (Jones, 2009, p. 1). Therefore, this makes women more vulnerable to subsequent long-term risks of breast cancer (Moore, 2010). Also, customers with thyroid glandular issues run the increased risk of future health problems (Moore, 2010).

Knowing the various health risks and other variables surrounding full-body screening, the need for the TSA to develop an integrated information system encompassing this technology becomes all the more profound. Updated and reliable passenger data must be maintained at the IT level in order for repeated exposure and potential health risks to be averted. Accurate systematic passenger information is essential in order to ensure that no one is misrepresented or mistreated (TSA, 2010). Software and hardware upgrade schedules should also be made available to TSA leadership through information systems' channels. By developing a dependable information system, the TSA can better manage the risks and downsides of this controversial practice, while also poising itself for the receptive and swift response to innovation.


Laskey, M. (2010). An Assessment of Checkpoint Security: Are Our Airports Keeping Passengers Safe? House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Transportation Security & Infrastructure Protection. Washington, DC: United States Department of Homeland Security.

Brenner, D.J., & Elliston, C.D. (2004). Estimated Radiation Risks Potentially Associated with Full-Body Screening. Journal of Radiology (232), 735-738.

Daanen, H.A., & Water, G.J. (1999, March). Whole Body Scanners. Human Factors Research Institute .

Electronic Privacy Information Center. (2010). Whole Body Imaging Technology and Body Scanners. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://epic.org/privacy/airtravel/backscatter/

Jones, A. (2009, December). Full-Body Scanners to Fry Travelers With Radiation. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.prisonplanet.com/full-body-scanners-to-fry-travelers-with-radiation.html

McCullagh, D. (2010, November). Transcript: Senate Hearing on TSA, Full-body Scanners. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20023038-281.html

Moore, E.A. (2010, January). Can Full-body Airport Scanners Harm You? Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://news.cnet.com/8301-27083_3-10423199-247.html

Smith, S. (2009). Body Scanner. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.tek84.com/bodyscanner.html

Tessler, J. (2009). Airport Full-body Scanners have Benefits, and Limits. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The Denver Post: http://www.denverpost.com/nationalpolitics/ci_14097796

Transportation Security Administration. (2010). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/secureflight/faqs.shtm

Weisblott, M. (2011). Are Full-body Scanners at Canadian Airports Really Just a Marketing Stunt? Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://ca.news.yahoo.com/blogs/dailybrew/full-body-scanners-canadian-airports-really-just-marketing-20110117-113012-227.html… [read more]

Comparison on Boeing 777 and 787 Programme Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Boeing 777 and 787 Programs

Over the last several years, Boeing has a faced a number of different challenges surrounding the launch of the 787. As the construction of the plane and its management, has contributed to a number of problems. This has led to a host of delays and slowdowns, which has forced the company to address… [read more]

Airport Security Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The section on the aircraft movement area should provide a description of any area that may be potentially used for landing, take-off and surface maneuvering of aircraft. This includes all intermediate unpaved sections of the airfield on the airport property. A map or diagram should be attached. This section should provide a description for perimeter barriers or access controls including:… [read more]

Jim O-Brien Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Jim O-Brien seems to be facing a fundamental conflict among his customers, driver employees, and sales team. This is a significantly difficult management issue, because all the parties involved are vital to the survival of Hardee Transportation. Therefore, Jim's solution should be constructed in such as way as to create the best possible solution for all involved. The best way to accomplish this is to examine the issues and information at hand and arrive at a suitable compromise to satisfy everybody involved. The best way to accomplish this is to consider each point-of-view.

From the truckers' point-of-view, the new driving regulations reduce actual driving time, because these include non-driving duties such as pickup and delivery (PUD). For customers with long PUD times, this creates less wages for truck drivers who spend longer hours on these duties, because they tend to be paid only per mile. Non-driving work is generally non-paid work. According to Jim, truck drivers with long PUD times are therefore likely to increase their driving hours in order to make ends meet. This creates a dangerous situation, in which truck drivers could suffer from fatigue and therefore be involved in accidents, which would in turn harm the reputation of the company.

This is not a groundless concern. According to Hokey (2009), HOS rule violations are on the rise. In this way, inadequate driver compensation resulting from fewer regulated hours on the road could, paradoxically, create a situations where drivers are more likely to fall asleep at the wheel.

Jim's task in this regard would therefore be to create a platform of communication with drivers to determine their needs for compensation in terms of non-driving time.

As for the point-of-view of customers, it is important to recognize that meeting customer demand in any industry is generally the best way to construct a sound reputation for the company, and to ensure repeat customers. The Sales team seems to have a good point in this regard. If customers were required to…… [read more]

International Bridge Between Detroit and Windsor Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


International Bridge Between Detroit and Windsor

The Ambassador Bridge between Detroit and Windsor is one of the busiest border crossings in North America. Where, it handles over 9 thousand cars and trucks daily. However, the age of the structure (82 years old) means that a number of challenges are being faced. As the bridge must carry increasing amounts of traffic and is facing continued deterioration. At the same time, there have been complaints that the different routes to Canadian highways (from the bridge) are disrupting several local neighborhoods in Windsor. To address these challenges the Canadian government has introduced an ambitious project, to build another bridge down river called: the Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC). This is a joint effort between: Canada and the United States to build another structure that can address the current, along with future challenges affecting commerce throughout the region. Where, the project will provide a number of distinct benefits, while addressing the different concerns of numerous parties. (Dennis, 2010)


Politically, the project has a tremendous amounts of support from the different agencies in the U.S. And Canadian governments. Recent evidence of this can be seen with the State of Michigan receiving $500 million in matching funds from the U.S. government (for their part of the project). (Dennis, 2010)


From the social standpoint, the new bridge would help to address the concerns surrounding many of the neighborhoods in Windsor. This is because the increasing amounts of traffic have caused several communities to experience excessive amounts of noise. Once another structure is built, this will reduce the negative impact of: the traffic from the Ambassador Bridge on these neighborhoods (helping to improve their quality of life). (Dennis, 2010)


The different environmental concerns about the project are unfounded. This is because a study was conducted by the LGL Limited. They found that the negative environmental impact of the project was limited (especially since it provides a number of design features that will protect the Ojibway Prairie Grasslands). ("Protection of…… [read more]

Influence of Pan American World Airways on the International Airline Industry Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Pan American World Airways on the International Airline Industry

Before it went out of business in December 1991, Pan American World Airways was an airline titan. It began as a Florida seaplane service in 1927, rapidly grew in size and status and for more than 60 years it bestrode the airline world like a colossus. -- Frank Barrett,… [read more]

Practicing Safe Driving Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


d.). The Motor Accident Authority encourages one to take a break from driving every two hours if on a longer trip and whenever possible, drivers should share operating responsibilities. A person should be certain to acquire a good night of sleep before operating any vehicle. If not possible, they should pull over when feeling drowsy (SmartMotorist.com, n.d.). A New Zealand study found that taking a nap for twenty minutes could greatly improve energy levels, driving skills, and alertness (SmartMotorist.com, n.d.).

A third driving safety issue is the lack in the use of mirrors. Different cars have different blind spots, but blind spots can be made safe through the use of mirrors or checking blind spots physically. Not checking blind spots before changing lanes causes thousands of accidents a year (Pardilla, 2009). One should adjust their mirrors before driving, look directly in the mirrors, or look in blind spots before changing lanes. This will allow one to avoid hitting another car or a pedestrian.

Before this paper, I was aware of the risks that distractions such as texting had on the driving process, but I did not realize that they caused such a high percentage of accidents. Also, the research proved to be a great reminder not to drive while fatigued; drivers run the risk of being pulled over for suspected drunk driving, or worse, hitting something or someone. Lastly, I intend on using my mirrors in order to avoid collision with objects or persons in my blind spots. The use of each of these will protect me, other drivers, and other passengers on the road.


Pardilla, C. (2009). Top 10 Editors' Tips to Prevent a Car Accident. Retrieved November 14,

2010 from http://www.edmunds.com/reviews/list/top10/107098/article.html.

Public Health. (2010, August 12). In-Car Driving Coach To Prevent Driver Distraction.

Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/197542.php.

SmartMotorist.com. (n.d.). Driver Fatigue is an Important Cause of Road Crashes. Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.smartmotorist.com/traffic-and-safety-guideline/driver-fatigue-is-an-important-cause-of-road-crashes.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). The 2010 Statistical Abstract. Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/transportation/motor_vehicle_accidents_an d_fatalities.html.… [read more]

Airports Globalization Has Impacted the Airport Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Globalization has impacted the airport industry in two key ways. The first is that airports are now in global competition with one another, and this has spurred significant expansion of the industry. Airports compete on a regional basis -- the different airports along the Persian Gulf compete with each other for Europe-Asia transit passengers for example. As a result,… [read more]

Bike Hire Program a Major Boost Article

Article  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Bike Hire Program a Major Boost to Public Transportation in London

Commuters in the U.K. may want to include helmets with their briefcases as they set out for their morning commute, as biking may become the most convenient way to get around in the U.K. Bike hire programs, already popular in Spain and France, have become quite popular in London as of late.

Recent Tube delays in London have created chaotic commutes for Tube users, forcing many to look for other ways to get to work. One angry commuter, Graham Patterson, related through his twitter: "Travel chaos, Jubilee line being broke. Only just arrived at work, about 45 mins late."

Most of the Tube delays can be traced to London Tube employees' discontent over expected staffing cuts by Transport for London. Transport for London, however, has few alternatives to the staffing cuts. The department had its funding from the Department of Transportation cut by £2.2bn over the next four years.

Some even consider this generous, considering the Department of Transportation had its own spending cut by 21% during the latest U.K. Spending Review.

Transport for London angered many employees by ordering the staffing cuts, but the alternatives were equally grim for tube users. It could have either raised fares significantly or it could have reduced service. Both would have hurt tube users permanently, while the strikes are expected to be only temporary.

In a city so dependent on public transportation, and where it is so expensive to drive, commuter options seem to have been exhausted by the recent tube delays. Fortunately, London Mayor Boris Johnson introduced a new city transportation initiative called Boris' Bikes last July.

The bike hire program has received a largely positive response since its introduction, with usage disproportionately heavy during rush hour.

Simon May, a London contractor, gushes "My team use the tube to get between sites but actually it would be much more efficient to nip everywhere on one of these bikes."

Considering London's…… [read more]

Border Crossing Rules and Regulations Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Border crossing rules and regulations are essential in freight movement, since they can either facilitate or obstruct the traffic of cargo. Freight has to go complete a series of procedures before it can safely cross into a particular jurisdiction. In order for freight to be allowed to enter a territory, it has to be documented properly. Also, the tariffs have to be paid and everything must be done in order to the regulations imposed by the territory the respective cargo enters.

When the package in a shipment is inconsistent with the rules of the jurisdiction it enters, it is not given permission to enter the respective jurisdiction. Its inconsistency can be owed to a series of motives, either related to the nature of its materials or to its weight. Pandemics are often the reason for which a particular cargo can come across thorough inspection before given permission to enter a territory. Because freight normally interacts with people, merchandise, and territories that are likely to be contaminated with certain viruses, they have to pass an inspection meant to determine whether or not it presents a risk for the territory it is destined to enter.

When communication between freight operators and border controls are inconsistent, it is likely for the freight's movement to be delayed or even forbidden. Data exchange software can also be responsible for freight congestion, given that the cargo can be prevented from entering the country if it is not in accordance with the jurisdiction's requirements.

Question 2:

Coordination is vital in order for freight to be moved according to its schedule and in order for any delays to be avoided. Shippers, carriers, and governmental agencies need to be aware of any alterations that might have intervened to the initial schedule, so as for none of them to stop the safe movement of the freight. Communication is essential in this matter, since only through constant contact can each of these groups assist freight across borders with little to no impediments in the way. The customers of the freight being transported also have to keep contact with shippers, carriers, and governmental agencies, as this is the only method of making sure that there will be no problems with the freight's transport.

Data exchange has to be done according to regulations and it software systems have to be constantly updated in order for data exchange to take place with no setbacks. Freight has more chances of being transported safely and according to schedule if everyone in charge of its transport cooperates properly.

Question 3:

In some circumstances, regulations can be beneficial for freight…… [read more]

Rail and Water or Maritime Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15



Rodrigue, Jean-Paul; Comtois, Claude and Brian Slack. (2009). The Goegraphy of Transportation Systems,

2nd Ed.. New York: Routledge.

Case Study (3 pages with 6 references)

As a government auditor, you determine a port has cargo handling issues. It takes too long to clear cargo through the terminal. What would you propose to the terminal manager to correct this problem… [read more]

Airport and Port Security Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Airport and Port Security

The national security presidential command of June 20 of the year 2006 was aimed at the expansion of the national plan for aviation security. This plan established the overarching structure for a complete and incorporated national approach to the security aviation transport system, building on present thriving schemes and directing extra security improvements where essential. The Department of Homeland security, Department of Defense and Department of Transportation should carry on with the advancement of technical and stepwise measures to discover, avoid, react to and recover from physical and cyber-based assails against aviation the critical air transportation system infrastructure and must strive augment harmonization between the government and the private sector. This is so as to attain an incorporated defensive system for all infrastructure fundamentals of the aviation transport system. The Department of Homeland security, Department of Justice and Department of Transportation and other stakeholders must expand procedures and tactics for synchronizing inter-agency initiatives to expand, launch, sustain and authenticate steady state security measures. This will enable protection against MANPAD (Man-Portable Air Defense System) and other stand-off weaponry. These procedures and plans should control ongoing MVAs (MANPADS Vulnerability Assessments) and MANPADS improvement plan efforts by department of homeland security and should be synchronized with operational reply plan developed under Aviation Operational Threat Response. The effective implementation of the effectual realization of the security measures in the aviation transportation system security plane needs collaboration and information allotment amongst Federal states. It also requires collaboration and information allotment amongst, local and tribal agencies as well as industry and foreign partners (Aviation Transportation System Security Plan., 2007).

The September eleven attacks were sequences of synchronized homicidal attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. The assault created extensive disorder amongst news organizations and air traffic controllers across the United States and other airports of the world. The events of these attacks have really impacted both the international and national commercial aviation and airport operations. First and fore most, security operations had to be beefed up in all major airports of USA and other nations. Passengers had to be screened in order for them to board an airplane. Furthermore, passenger screening machines have been invented and are now in use in many airports all over the world. Secondly, these attacks led to passengers spending a lot of time at the airport. This is because they are subjected to numerous security checks at the airports. Thirdly, many airports all over…… [read more]

Effect of NAFTA in Shipping Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


NAFTA -- Maritime Policy

Maritime Shipping within the NAFTA Trading Partners

Alternatives to Waterways

Maritime Environmental Issues

NAFTA: The Effects on Shipping

Since the inception of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993 there have been notable changes in the movement of goods from the trilateral trading block formed by the United States, Canada and Mexico. This agreement represents the largest trade block in the world by some economic measures and has consequently increased the strain on the infrastructure of the three countries. New ideas are under consideration for how to best alleviate the increasing amount of congestion on the infrastructure that the trade agreement has caused.

In Europe nearly ninety percent of all external freight trade is seaborne and also accounts for nearly forty percent of the EU's intra-continental trade mechanisms (Kallas, 2009). However, the Americas have yet to establish such utilization of maritime highways. One report states that the United States only moves about two percent (1.4 billion tons) of its domestic freight through the countries waterways (Solomon, 2009).

This paper will examine the inequalities of maritime uses by various counties and consider whether or not investment in this transportation method will be able to facilitate goods between the triad of trading partners operating under the agreements of NAFTA. Considerations will include environmental factors, alternative transportation methods, as well as governmental planning agencies. This exploratory investigation aims to discover all of the advantages and disadvantages associated with short sea shipping.

Maritime Shipping within the NAFTA Trading Partners

A research paper published in 2005 provides valuable insights as to why the seas have not received as much attention as the rail, road, and air during the course of the NAFTA transactions (Brooks, 2005). This paper states that from the United States perspective going into the NAFTA agreement, maritime routes were never a consideration. Furthermore, it has never been considered, fully investigated or understood by the trading partners. It was assumed that the potential of this delivery method would be marginalized by the slower delivery transit time.

Alternatives to Waterways

The use of an international trucking route between the United States and Mexico is currently complicated by political pressure to control the boarder. In the wake of the terrorism event in 2001, many U.S. citizens are reluctant to tolerate any chances that illegal immigrants can enter the country. The anti-illegal immigration fervor can be illustrated by the recent developments in the State of Arizona. Arizona has passed a law that allows police to question anyone suspected of being an illegal immigrant.

Though the anti-illegal immigration sentiments held by many in the U.S. (apparently a majority in Arizona) do not directly affect maritime shipping policies, it definitely illustrates some of the complexities that are involved in the cultural aspects of popular support and consequentially makes it extremely difficult for a legislator to make trucking routes a more viable option for trade.

The next avenue of trade considered, railways, also has many issues associated with it that prevent it from… [read more]

Economic Impact of Government Interaction and Laws Within the Airline Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Airline Industry

Over the years the airline industry in the United States has experienced a great deal of success. However, in recent years a confluence of events has led to a decrease in profitability for companies within the airline industry. The purpose of the research was to examine the ways in which government interventions in the airline industry have led… [read more]

Chicago O'Hare International Airport ORD Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


O'Hare International Airport

Chicago, Illinois

O'Hare International Airport

The bustling Chicago airport -- O'Hare International Airport -- is one of the busiest in the world -- the second busiest behind Atlanta -- and it has an interesting contemporary profile as well as a fascinating history. This paper will report on O'Hare's history, finances, marketing, services, noise abatement, redevelopment program, and… [read more]

Substitution and Income Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Income and Substitution Effects

Substitution and Income Effects

Income and substitution effects: An increase in gasoline prices

Income and substitution effects: An increase in gasoline prices

According to the basic principles of economics, when an individual's income increases, their marginal propensity to consume (MPC) also increases (Income effect, 2010, Investopedia). Quite simply, when an individual has more money, they tend to buy more goods and services, even if they also save a percentage of their income as well. Assuming that gasoline prices 'at the pump' rise 100%, or double, this will result in a loss of available income to spend on other goods and services. Income is not simply determined by pay raises and pay cuts, but by the availability a consumer has of funds to spend on his or her necessities and luxuries.

Gas is a necessary good for most people -- it is what they use to get to work to make a salary. They must drive to work in a car to pay for their other expenses, including food and housing. The price of gasoline is largely inelastic in terms of available substitutions and demand, although some do exist, depending on the location and needs of the consumer.

When a necessary good, such as gas, increases in price, consumers will often try to work more, to maintain their level of income. If they cannot work more, they will try other ways to conserve funds, such as substituting cheaper goods and services for more expensive goods and services in other areas of their budget. The substitution effect suggests that "households always substitute away from a relative expansive good and consume more of a relative cheap good when prices change" (Zhao 2010). Households will do their 'best' to avoid using gas, but because of the difficulty inherent in this situation, in many regions of the country, they may cut other parts of their budget instead, focusing on more elastic goods. This might be called the 'Starbucks' effect -- when the price of an inelastic necessity increases and takes up a larger proportion of an individual's budget, he or she will eliminate that extraneous cup of coffee in the morning.

The effects of the income and substitution effects are often depicted as follows:

(Source: Schneck, 2010)

As income increases, people work less, and as income decreases (because of an increase in a necessary good or service) leisure becomes more expensive. People must work more, or try to make the costs of living cheaper through budget cuts or substitutions.

Coping strategy one: You driving less and purchasing less gasoline

Driving less and purchasing less gasoline gives an individual 'more income,' without substituting other goods or services. However, because of the rise in gas prices, an individual would have to drive half as much to simply 'break even.'

Coping strategy two: Eating out less

Eating out less means more money to spend on other goods and services given that eating at home tends to cost less than eating out, where one is… [read more]

Union Pacific Railroad Logistics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


UP has a large communications facility that could not have existed when the company first began, and it has changed the way railroads manage their trains, haul their freight, and manage their logistics.

Railroads are more efficient than trucks, and UP and engine manufacturers like GE are working to create even more energy-efficient models. Author Greenburg continues, "Manufacturers have taken note that, based on gross ton miles, trains can carry a ton of freight 830 miles on a single gallon of fuel; trucks stretch a gallon only 200 miles" (Greenburg, 2009). Many people are asking for changes in America's intermodal system today, which is largely based on long haul and short-haul trucking rather than railroad logistics in many areas. Trucks clog many busy highways and are far more inefficient than rail shipment. One of the problems is the deteriorating conditions of many of America's railways, and people are asking for an investment in the rail infrastructure to help create logistics that are more efficient. Author Longman continues on a study on this subject. He writes, "It found that such an investment would get 85% of all long-haul trucks off the nation's highways by 2030, while also delivering ample capacity for high-speed passenger rail" (Longman, 2009). In turn, that would certainly lead to even more innovations and efficiency in the nation's railroads, including the Union Pacific.

In conclusion, Union Pacific has been an innovator in logistics and intermodal shipping throughout its history. It began as one of the first railroads in the West, and has grown to become the nation's largest railroad. It has faced challenges throughout its history, but it has met those challenges, and it will certainly meet the challenges of the future. Logistically, it has grown to be a leader in intermodal shipment and storage, and it continues to combine a sense of environmental awareness with corporate responsibility for continued profit and growth.


Arbona, J. (2005). Union Pacific railroad opens new $100 million international container facility to handle future growth. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site:


Berman, J. (2009). Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific launch intermodal reefer service. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Logistics Management Web site:


Bromley, J. (2009). Union Pacific Railroad Museum: Highlighting technology through America's locomotive history. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the YouTube.com Web site:


Burns, J.B. (1998). Railroad mergers and the language of unification. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Editors. (2010). Fact sheet. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site:


Greenburg, Z. (2009). Saving the Union (Pacific). Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Forbes.com Web site: http://www.forbes.com/2009/10/11/union-pacific-railroad-business-logistics-union-pacific.html.

Longman, P. (2009, January/February). Back on tracks: A nineteenth-century technology could be the solution to our twenty-first-century problems. Washington Monthly,…… [read more]

Business Trend Proposal -- Correspondence Dear Associates Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Business Trend Proposal -- Correspondence

Dear Associates:

In the last decade, there had been explosive growth in information technology and the miniaturization and sophistication of global positioning systems (GPS) and equipment. Today, the growing trend among manufacturers, shippers, wholesalers and retailers is to routinely track their products and monitor inventory remotely and in real time through radio frequency identification devices (RFID) that provide instantaneous information relating to the position of products and vehicles. The GPS systems available today now provide various capabilities that have specific applications in the automobile insurance industry that must be considered to maintain competitive positioning and profitability.

Already, many companies employing commercial fleets of trucks, busses, and other company vehicles have incorporated this technology to better manage and track their vehicles as well as to monitor the behavior of their drivers. The capabilities of the GPS-type systems that are now available for such commercial uses provide many of the same types of information that have been used for decades in the so-called "black box" systems installed in aircraft. In this application, those systems automatically record pertinent information of aircraft and pilot performance intended to enable incident investigators to identify the precise circumstances and causes of significant occurrences during flight.

The recent advances in digital and information processing technology combined with the development of reliable GPS systems has now allowed the production of commercially available GPS-based systems that perform the same types of functions for commercial and passenger vehicles that were previously only available in the sophisticated and costly systems used in the black boxes in the aviation industry. Commercial transportation and shipping companies have successfully incorporated these types…… [read more]

Bicycle Helmet in NYC Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,968 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bicycles and Bicycle Safety on the Streets of New York City

Many people wish to ride a bicycle in New York City as a fast, reliable, time convenient, sustainable, and money-saving mode of transportation. But some negative concerns, difficulties, predictable dangers block those potential bicycle riders to give up this wonderful mode of transportation. According to research regarding this fast… [read more]

US Environment of Internationalization of Oasis Bicycle Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Oasis Bicycle

The theoretical company "Oasis Bicycles" is one of the biggest manufacturers of bicycles in the world, so it can reasonably be assumed that they are a firm operating on a mass market strategy, likely cost leadership. When Oasis seeks to move into the U.S. market, it will need to analyze the market from the perspective of entering the market in this segment. This analysis will take the form of a Porter's Five Forces analysis, which seeks to identify the attractiveness of a given market by analyzing a set of competitive variables -- buyer power, supplier power, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes and intensity of rivalry (Porter, 1980).

Buyer Power

There are a variety of buyers in the industry. For a new market entrant with no brand equity, the key buyers are the retailers who will get the bikes to the public. Mass market retailers make up the largest component of the channel, accounting for 74% of bicycles sold (approximately 13.6 million bikes based on 2008 statistics). The low average selling price of $80 results this channel representing just 35% of dollar sales, and correspondingly tight margins (National Bicycle Dealers Association (NBDA, 2008). Sales were split across a wide range of bicycle types, the largest being mountain bikes with a 28.5% share. Other channels include specialty bike shops (17%), chain sporting goods stores (6%) and other (3%) (NBDA, 2008).

Oasis is likely to target the mass market retailers for its bicycles. These retailers have strong buying power for several reasons. Their buying volume is vital to Oasis' ability to penetrate the market. These buyers, including Wal-Mart and Target, have strong information about the products they purchase and this combined with their high volume allows them to drive prices from their suppliers to very low levels (Fishman, 2007). The Oasis brand has no identity, which reduces its buying power. Also, there is high buyer concentration relative to the number of bicycle producers.

Supplier power is relatively low for Oasis. As one of the world's largest bicycle manufacturers, Oasis does high volumes, giving them some power of their suppliers. Moreover, the inputs are not sufficiently differentiated at the low end to lend suppliers power, and there is an ample supply of inputs available from producers around the world. Oasis may need to move production out of the EU, however, where local bike part suppliers are protected. Access to Chinese parts, for example, will require a facility outside of the EU (Bike Europe, 2007).

The threat of new entrants is high, as barriers to entry are relatively low. While there are absolute cost advantages, it is not difficult to build market size in the bicycle industry, since there are many strong markets around the world in which to operate. There is a low proprietary learning curve, very little adverse government policy, relatively low capital requirements, little threat of retaliation and ample access to distribution. Moreover, the U.S. market has become much more open since a series of decisions by market… [read more]

Airport Security Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,849 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Airport Security

Re-Imagining Airport Security

In the near-decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in the United States using hijacked commercial airliners, the various aspects of airport security have undergone almost constant revision and examination in an effort to keep airline passengers and the population at large safe and secure from any such future incidents.… [read more]

Operations and Materials Management Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Operations and Materials Management

For the most part, production can be increase if the difficulties involving the drill and tap can be removed or be just even trim down. The following action can be prepared to improve the production. First is to fine-tune and change parts of the drill presses to ensure that the machine is working at its optimal performance for most of the time. Also, adopting the Kanban system will be a great deal of help since it will make the supplier or the warehouse only deliver components to the production line as and when they are needed, so that there is no storage in the production area. Within this system, workstations located along production lines only produce/deliver desired components when they receive a card and an empty container, indicating that more parts will be needed in production. In case of line interruptions, each workstation will only produce enough components to fill the container and then stop. In addition, Kanban limits the amount of inventory in the process by acting as an authorization to produce more inventories. Since Kanban is a chain process in which orders flow from one process to another, the production or deliveries of components are pulled to the production line. In contrast to the traditional forecast oriented method where parts are pushed to the line.

To minimize the cost of quality, adopting a preventative and predictive methods for manufacturing quality control will be a good thing. Implementing real time SPC software is a proven, fundamental tool used to detect, and ultimately prevent, process errors that lead to defects, scrap or waste. Using SPC control charts that graphically display real time, actionable information to operators and managers is one of the features if this software is put into practice. This empowers personnel to detect and correct out of control situations, minimize variation, and continuously improve the manufacturing process resulting to higher quality products and a more…… [read more]

Accident Investigation Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,478 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Aircraft Accidents involving fires are quite commonplace and destructive. For this reason there must be special care given to the manner in which these accidents are investigated. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the ways in which fires make the reporting an investigating of accidents problematic in incidents involving aircraft. Indeed, Fire is a deadly factor in… [read more]

Toyota Organizational Assessment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Toyota Organizational Assessment

Company Overview

As a Japanese-based company Toyota is a major international car retailer and automotive specialist. The company offers a wide variety of vehicles, from small sedans to trucks. It also has a line of luxury vehicles under the Land Rover and Lexus brand names. For generations the company has been competing well against American-based companies within… [read more]

Western Society 1850-1914 Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Western Civilization 1850-1914

The Second Industrial Revolution:

The Second Industrial Revolution refers to the rapid development of various technologies during the 19th century that radically improved modern civilizations. They included the widespread introduction of electricity that increased the amount of productive time available for work and also made city streets much safer after dark. The steam engine and later, the first internal combustions engines followed shortly and new processes for making paper and for printing that produced the first widely circulated newspapers and new telegraph communications technologies enabled transcontinental transmission of information that dramatically decreased the time for news to travel great distances.

New processes for producing better quality construction materials like Bessemer

steel revolutionized the construction of buildings, roads, and bridges, while new mass production methods such as the assembly line introduced by Henry Ford increased the availability of all kinds of consumer goods to the middle classes. In fact, the evolution of the middle class was itself largely a product of the Second Industrial Revolution.

The New Urban Landscape and Modern Life:

As industrialization took hold in the United States and the major Western

European cities, populations shifted in large numbers to the cities where semi-skilled labor was in ever-increasing demand. While the new vocational opportunities offered many the chance to improve their position in life, the new urban transplants also had to endure various hardships unique to modern industrial city life, including filthy city sidewalks plagued by the comparatively slow development of municipal sanitation, and the ever-present industrial smog and airborne soot that was part and parcel of many industrial processes such as coal-burning furnaces.

Science and Culture:

Science played a major role in the new technologies that fueled the modern advancements in society. Electricity in particular made possible numerous industrial processes and the impact…… [read more]

Honda Motor Company Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (3,864 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Honda Motor Company (NYSE: HMC) is a worldwide producer of motorcycles, automobiles and power products. They are the #6 automobile manufacturer in the world, the #1 motorcycle manufacturer and the #1 engine maker. Based out of Tokyo, Honda trades on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and as an ADR on the New York Stock Exchange. The firm employs approximately 185,000 workers.… [read more]

Digital Signage by Jeffrey Schaeffler This Book Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (302 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Digital Signage by Jeffrey Schaeffler

This book presents a broad an engaging overview of the current and possible future developments in the world of digital signage. Though not devoted strictly to transportation applications of digital signage technology, the book does probe public receptivity to the advent of digital signage in many different areas, making a compelling argument for its implementation in transportation applications. Specifcally, Schaeffler notes how communication has become more effective due to digital signage, and the improvements that this enhanced communication leads to. His enthusiasm for the technology is catching; I found myself deeply engaged in what could easily have been a dry and technical discussion of new technologies.

That being said, Schaeffler does present a lot of very well researched and pertinent information in relation to the development of digital signage technology and its many uses in filling various communication needs, from management-employee relations to producer-consumer…… [read more]

Big Dig Boston Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,229 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Big Dig or Big Bust?

Boston traffic was once considered to be one of the worst cities in which to drive due to intense traffic problems. They Central Artery opened in 1959, designed to carry approximately 75,000 cars per day. As time went on, the highway had to support nearly 200,000 cars per day (Massachusetts Turnpike Authority). This created a… [read more]

Big Dig Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,444 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Big Dig Project -- a Major Transportation Issue

Boston's Big Dig project is best known as the most expensive and possibly the most controversial highway project in the United States. Big Dig describes the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a large project that that rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the main highway running through Boston, into a 3.5-mile tunnel under… [read more]

Success of Airline Brand Emirates Airlines Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  26 pages (7,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 65


¶ … Emirates Airlines

The purpose of this study is to assist in the identification of the key concepts of brand image and development utilized by industries and to examine the issues of how the brand image of Emirates Airlines might be changed based on performance and scope of operations. The research issues will result in the provision of new… [read more]

History and Importance of Airmail in the United States Thesis

Thesis  |  18 pages (5,981 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Airmail in the United States

In the Age of Information, many observers suggest that email, instant and text messaging have virtually replaced the need for a national postal service in the United States, but the fact remains the U.S. Postal Service continues to deliver billions of pieces of mail each year and represents the largest service of its… [read more]

Impact of High Fuel Costs on the Aviation Industry Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  14 pages (4,320 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … High Fuel Costs on the Aviation Industry

Rising Fuel Prices: a global problem on the ground and in the air.

The rising costs of fuel today has become a global crisis for both industries and households. Being heavily dependent upon fuel for its continuing operations, airlines have been heavily burdened by such fuel prices. Indeed, some have gone… [read more]

Rising Prices of Gasoline Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,680 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Rising Price of Gasoline

Gas prices have risen steadily over the spring, with the national average approaching the $4.00/gallon mark. The price of crude oil sits at $134 as of the close of trading June 17th, just nine months after breaking the $80 mark and less than six months since the first trade over $100 on January 2nd of this… [read more]

Unfunded Infrastructure of Canadian Municipalities and the Risk it Poses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  33 pages (9,168 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Unfunded Infrastructure of Canadian Municipalities and the Risk it Poses

Canadian infrastructure has fallen into a terrible state of disrepair due to lack of funding for such projects in municipalities in Canada. The resulting problems are great and diverse ranging from insurance liabilities for the municipalities in Canada due to health and safety risk posed by lack of funding to… [read more]

Knowledge Management in Automotive Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,818 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Knowledge Management in Automotive Industry

The automotive industry is one where the overall success is dependent on the interplay of a lot of factors each having its own set of dynamics in the overall scheme of things. These factors are use of appropriate technologies for constant innovation, better cost control through innovation management, the key role that suppliers play in… [read more]

New York City Congestion Pricing Plan Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … New York City Congestion Pricing Plan

Recently, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg had provided strong support for the city's congestion pricing plan that would have unfairly burdened working class New Yorkers, particularly those residing in the outer boroughs who commuted by car to Manhattan daily for work. Congestion pricing was intended to reduce automobile exhaust emission rates into the environment and would have triggered $500 million in federal public transportation funding and increased public transportation fees generated by those who switched from driving to mass transportation to avoid the fees (Diaz 2008).

The idea was initially suggested by the relative success of similar plans in other cities plagued by significant traffic congestion, most notably, in London, England. The pricing plan would have imposed an $8 fee to enter midtown Manhattan, amounting to as much as $2,000 annually for the very segment of the working middle class least able to afford such an expense. In principle, the idea was to "disincentivize" the use of personal vehicles for daily transportation and motivate greater compliance with suggestions to use mass transportation instead. The plan would not have effected the most affluent of the city's residents, most of whom reside within the fee zone.

Furthermore, while the burden would have fallen on the shoulders of New Yorkers, it unfairly benefited commuters from New Jersey who would not have been affected by the toll (Diaz 2008).

Critics pointed out that fewer than one-quarter of New Yorkers living in Manhattan owned vehicles, precisely because public transportation is so widely available in New York City, as opposed to cities like Los Angeles, where no comparable option exists for daily commuters. For that reason, most of those commuting to the city instead of availing themselves of public transportation do so because their jobs require them to do so, such as in the case of commercially licensed skilled workers like plumbers, electricians, and office workers with toddlers whose companies provide…… [read more]

Atlanta International Airport Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,520 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Hartsfield-Jackson Airport

The advent of aviation has changed the way the world operates. Movement of people, goods and products has, as a result, become more convenient and easy. Quick, safe, easy and efficient air transportation has also helped spawn a whole range of global trade and commerce. This has helped in creating a global environment that is separated by mere… [read more]

Kkc Computers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


KC Computers

KKC Computers - Alternative Distribution System Strategies

KKC Computers produces two types of high vale and high technology computers (a and B) within two facilities located in San Francisco (SFO) and Los Angeles (LAX) to distribute them to seven U.S. markets: Denver (DEN), Houston (HOU), Minneapolis (MSP), Little Rock (LIT), Terre Haute (HUF), Detroit (DTW) and Atlanta (ATL). Since the company is in charge of all transportations and adherent costs, and also the timely delivery is a major objective, it is imperative for them to have an efficient logistics system. The best alternative strategy is given by the lowest total daily, a cost derived form the sum of the consolidation costs, air transports, truck transport and the cost of lost sales.


Looking at the map for the locations of the plants and the markets, it can easily be observed that the distances between them are large, state which imposes the need to air transport. The map also shows how Little Rock is somewhat at the center of the markets. This settlement offers the first logistics alternative: air transport from Los Angeles to San Francisco and then from San Francisco to Little Rock, from where the computers will be loaded into five trucks and then sent to the destinations: Denver, Minneapolis, Terre Haute and Detroit, Atlanta, and finally, Huston, as revealed in the map below:

The air transportation is necessary between LAX and SFO as a sole shipment will supply all markets; therefore half of the entire demand (228 total, 114 half) will come from LAX and the other half will come from SFO.

Air transit time: 2 (LAX to SFO and SFO to LIT)

Consolidation: 1 day for all

Transit time:

LIT to LIT: 0 days transit truck, total of 3 days

LIT to HUF: 1 day transit truck, total of 4 day

LIT to DTW: 2 days transit truck, total of 5 days

LIT to ATL: 1 day transit truck, total of 4 days

LIT to HOU: 1 day transit truck, total of 4 days

LIT to DEN: 2 days transit truck, total of 5 days

LIT to MSP: 3 days transit…… [read more]

Southwest Airlines Company 2004 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Southwest airline is one of the major airlines operating these days. Starting from the scratch Rollin King and Herb Kelleher joined hands to build an airline company which would be a totally different from then airlines. They started the company with one simple thing in mind which was to get the customers to their desired places on time and at… [read more]

Flight Attendant Fatigue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,969 words)
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Flight attendant fatigue and working conditions is one that has a fairly long and controversial history in the aviation industry. It is only recently that any real advances have been made towards some solutions to this issue, even though the unions and other bodies stated serious concerns about fatigue and its effects on aviation staff as early as 2004. In… [read more]

Sustainability of Low Cost Carriers in Europe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,333 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Sustainability of Low Cost Carriers in Europe

Low Cost Carriers: Characteristics

The purpose of this study is to examine whether low cost carriers in Europe will still be profitable in the future or if upcoming new trends, laws or other restrictions will make the demand for low cost carriers decrease. The objectives of this study are to: (1) present significant… [read more]

Problems With Cockpit Automation the Impact of Very Light Jets on Fbo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (8,023 words)
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¶ … cockpit automation / the impact of very light jets on FBOs


Problems with cockpit automation / the impact of very light jets on FBOs

Paper-1 Problems with cockpit automation

This paper analyzes the pitfalls of automation within the cockpit. Today automation has become more widespread than ever before, especially within the aviation industry, and automation as such… [read more]

Manufacturing Process of a Bicycle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,680 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Manufacturing Process of a Bicycle

Manufacturing Process of the Bicycle

In the past few decades, emerging new technologies have threatened the existence of the traditional bicycle. However, even with such threats, the bicycle has survived and has even grown in numbers, sales and use. Many poorer countries whose citizens do not have widespread access to cars or buses utilize the… [read more]

Risk Management Crew Resource Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,595 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Aviation Safety & Risk Management

Safety is of paramount importance in aviation, especially commercial aviation.

Technical malfunction, equipment failure, and human error in complex technological fields can result in catastrophic failure. In commercial aviation, the implications of catastrophic failure are exceptionally devastating, because they almost always entail great risk to human life and limb. The nature of aviation equipment, facilities,… [read more]

Why Corporations Exist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,266 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Corporations Exist

Corporations and Organizations

Corporations are legal entities with different personalities from its members. They are juristic persons with rights and obligations, such as:

the right to hold assets;

the right to hire employees/the obligation to remunerate employees;

the right to sign contracts/the obligation to respect its contracts;

the right to make by-laws that help them coordinate… [read more]

Project Management the 2010 Winter Olympics Represent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
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Project Management

The 2010 Winter Olympics represent the biggest project in British Columbia since Expo 86. Identify some key risks in any one part of the Olympic project (facilities or infrastructure) and the measures that project managers and politicians are taking to deal with the risks. Will they be effective? Why? Or Why not?

Readying British Columbia for the 2010 Winter Olympics is forcing project managers and politicians to confront the realities of the current state of their existing infrastructure in addition to the necessary improvements to make Vancouver and the surrounding British Columbia area ready in time for the Olympics. The it infrastructure specifically is going to be critical for capturing the results of the athletes' competitions, the revenues generated both for tickets and concessions, and managing both crowds and the intensive level of security being put into place. All of these considerations with regard ot the it infrastructure need to be put into place, all within a limited and relatively tight budget. The constraint of the budget forces the CIO for the it infrastructure of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games to seek out partnerships to alleviate the high costs of creating, sustaining and optimizing the systems architectures that together form the it infrastructure (Sutton 2007). The heavy reliance on partnerships and alliances also ensures that there will be integration across various, and often significantly different, systems to accomplish the many objectives of this aspect of the Olympics' infrastructure. To date, the it Infrastructure Committee has been able to attract Atos Origin, General Electric, Lenovo, Omega, Panasonic, and Samsung.

Given the many internal and external customers for it infrastructure support (Chapin 2007) the need for having a highly synchronized it architectural structure is a very high priority. Figure 1 provides an overview of the proposed it architecture that the 2010 Winter Olympics Committee's CIO is working towards today.

Figure 1: The 2010 Winter Olympics it Architecture

Source: (Chapin 2007)

From the set of assumptions as defined (Chapin 2007) and the approaches taken to mitigate it risks based on using mature, proven and highly adaptable and agile infrastructure technologies, it appears this part of the Winter Olympics project plans are working to both disperse risks through partnerships and make prudent, conservative technological decisions. As a result, there is a relatively high level of probability the it infrastructure and resulting systems and processes based on it will be successful. The combination of anticipating risks and providing a high level of stability with proven, exiting technologies to a well defined set of internal customers greatly increases the probability of success of this project.

Q2. The release of the final Harry Potter book is only a few days away. This project required the coordination of scores of publishers, hundreds of shipping firms and thousands of bookstores. As you might expect with so many parties involved, problems have occurred. (See the article (http://www.news.com.au/entertainment/story/0,23663,22,00.html) What approaches have the publishers and the author taken to the project risks that accompany such an eagerly awaited book? Do… [read more]

Industrial and Post Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Urban Industrialization

During the 19th Century, the application of science to invention started the Industrial Revolution -- the mass production of material goods by machines. Although population growth had reached new highs, the first step in this revolution happened in mid-eighteenth-century England, with the development of the steam engine and machines for spinning and weaving textiles. Increased production of coal, iron, and steel fueled expansion of industry and commerce meant production of goods shifting from homes and small shops to manufactured goods being produced "in factories, mills and mines. It demanded enormous investments of capital and the efforts of a large labor force; it stimulated growth." (Fiero 1)

Industrialism was the reason for the West's economic and military dominance over the rest of the world. This process is illustrated in the history of the railroad, "the most important technological phenomenon of the early nineteenth century and one made possible by the combined technologies of steam power, coal, and iron." The first all-iron rails were forged in Britain in 1789, but it was not until 1804 that the first steam railway locomotive was built, and several more decades until "iron horses" became a major mode of transportation. The rails throughout Europe and the United States provided the means through which industry spread their factories and goods. Industrialism was the basis of the West's spread of their control over the rest of the world. Industrialization polarized nations into the strong and the weak. With the ability to produce mechanized automatic weapons, such as the machine gun, and enormous amounts of ammunition, Western imperialism spread throughout the world. The factory and mill workers worked long, hard hours, even children worked, without much compensation or care about their physical conditions. In the 1830's…… [read more]

Hybrid vs. Gas Car Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,041 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hybrid Car

The Pros and Cons of a Hybrid Car

The intent of this paper is to evaluate the pros and cons of having a hybrid car vs. one that is powered by gasoline. With the price of gasoline globally escalating upward, the debate between hybrid and gasoline-powered is also becoming more prevalent, especially in the United States where Toyota Motor Company, Ford, GM, Chrysler, and other manufacturers are aggressively launching hybrid vehicles at an unprecedented pace.

With all the efforts of auto manufacturers to deliver hybrid vehicles, the questions remain if these automobiles are worth the higher price when lower-priced and smaller gasoline-powered vehicles get just as good of mileage and are thousands of dollars less. Hybrid vehicles do deliver efficiency in larger metro areas where state and local governments allow drivers traveling alone to use the High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes. The State of California has recently decided to retract the offer to hybrid vehicle owners to use HOV lanes due to the slowness of hybrid vehicle sales in the state and the cost of administering the program. With this benefit no longer available and the wide variety of low cost and high mileage cars in California, hybrid cars are being increasingly seen as a social statement of environmental awareness over the economics of operating them. Toyota's positioning of the Prius as a socially responsible vehicle is working, while Ford positioning hybrids for their fuel saving capability is failing. Positioning is the marketing strategies that manufacturers use to communicate the value of their automobiles. As Leonardo DiCaprio, Tom Hanks, Cheryl Crow, Prince Charles of England, Will Farrell, Harrison Ford and many other celebrities drive the Prius, the car has become a symbol of the young and environmental conscious. These celebrities are making a statement about their concern for the environment, and each is definitely not concerned about the economics of hybrid saving on gasoline. So what is happening is a paradox. Originally designed to save on fuel costs, the environmentally friendly features of the car has become a social statement.

Demographics from Strategic Vision (2006) bear out the strength of branding on hybrid auto sales, with 34.13% having a post-graduate degree, the majority being professors or instructors (21.97%), and the majority over 50 (58%) and three quarters of them owning a Toyota (75.73%) followed by Lexus with the 440h (9.92% with Honda being 7.64% of total sales. Please see the references for an Excel spreadsheet with additional information.

Pros of Owning Hybrid Cars

With all the hype surrounding hybrid cars it's a good idea to list the pros and cons of the technology. The pros include the following, and come from Greenhybrid.com (2006):

By design, hybrid vehicles run cleaner. While manufacturers claim up to 80% cleaner emissions and have lower emissions.

There are on average eight different warranties on hybrid cars mainly due to the many systems that comprise the entire car.

There are generous federal tax credits for buying a hybrid vehicle, as the Federal Government considers… [read more]

Environmental Politics in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Canada



The objective of this research is to answer the question of: "What kind of impact does globalization have on Canadian policies concerning air pollution, specifically concerning motor vehicle air pollution?


The argument presented in this work is that Canada's tendency to follow the… [read more]

Henry Ford Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Henry Ford may be the most famous American innovator. From his development of the Ford Model T, to the introduction of assembly lines, Ford helped usher in a technological revolution. Ford's impact was not limited to technology; he was widely renowned as a champion of his workers, and was the first major manufacturer to ensure that his workers were paid… [read more]

Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 182 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,262 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) Flight 182

The mid-air collision between a Boeing 727 commercial airliner (the ill-fated Pacific Southwest Airlines flight 182) and a Cessna training aircraft over a San Diego neighborhood on September 25, 1978 remains one of the biggest air disasters in the U.S. aviation history to date. All 135 people on board the PSA flight including seven… [read more]

Ford Moto Company Sample Marketing Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ford Motor Company, Sample Marketing Plan

Marketing Objectives a) Environmental analysis:

Ford Motors completed 100 years in 2003 to become one of the world's biggest corporations. Few companies are considered synonymous with the history and development of industry to which it represents and society throughout the 20th century as the Ford Motor Company. The most remarkable contribution of the company… [read more]

Crash of American Airlines Flight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


("Aircraft Accident Brief," 1998, p. 15)

The two main landing gears and parts of the airplane's left and right wings were found along a 2,670-foot debris path, in the area between the point of the plane's impact short of the runway threshold and where the airplane came to rest. The pneumatic start connection door and the lower tailskid assembly were found 180 feet from the runway threshold. The debris also included other parts of the plane such as airstairs, airstairs door, right spoiler panels, flap surfaces and control assemblies. The bottom of the fuselage sustained substantial damage and was torn, dented and scratched. (Ibid.)

In short, the aircraft was damaged beyond repairs and was later declared a total hull loss by the airplane's insurer. It was valued at $2.3 million. (Ibid, p.5)

Aftermath of the Crash


Soon after the airplane came to a stop after the crash landing, an emergency evacuation procedure was initiated. A ceiling stowage compartment door had been unhinged by the impact and blocked the forward entry and forward galley doors, preventing passengers and crewmembers from exiting the airplane through the forward left exit. Passengers and the crew, therefore, evacuated the airplane through the remaining exits, i.e., the forward right, aft right, and aft left exit doors and the four overwing exits. Twenty-two passengers and one flight attendant received minor injuries during the accident and the emergency evacuation. (Ibid, p. 16)


Although no one was killed or suffered serious injury in the flight 1340 crash, most passengers suffered psychologically. As a result, a class action was filed by a law firm in Chicago, Illinois, which was later turned into mass tort litigation representing 44 individual passengers. The litigants alleged that the American Airlines' landing protocol was dangerous that left the control of the plane in the hands of the autopilot until the plane was just 100 feet above ground. After a lengthy and protracted litigation, a confidential out-of-court settlement was negotiated between the passengers and American Airlines. ("Airplane Crashes," 2005)

Probable Causes of the Crash

A subsequent inquiry by the National Transportation Safety Board into the accident established that "the probable cause of this accident was the failure of the flight crew to maintain a proper pitch altitude for a successful landing or go-around." It also noted that "the divergent pitch oscillations of the airplane, which occurred during the final approach were the result of an improper autopilot desensitization rate" and it contributed to the accident. ("Aircraft Accident Brief," 1998, p.26)

More specifically, in the most critical phase of the landing approach at the decision height, the flight crew "did not react in a proper and timely manner to excessive pitch deviations and descent rates by either initiating a go-around or adjusting the pitch attitude and thrust to ensure a successful landing." (Ibid, p. 24)

As for the "contributing cause": the autopilot was programmed to be desensitized in a 150-second period after passing through 1,500 feet radio altitude on the approach. This time setting was… [read more]

Automobile on American Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Unfortunately, an engine is the main source responsible for the large amount of hazardous emissions, thus the usage of any vehicle, even a small car, contaminates the environment.

During the combustion process, numerous chemical reactions create hazardous compounds produced in the engine that are expulsed into the environment, for example, large amounts of 'nitrogen oxides are formed when oxygen… [read more]

Exxon Valdez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,207 words)
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Exxon Valdez

The oil tanker Exxon Valdez hit at a reef in the Prince William Sound of Alaska on March 24, 1989 and it was considered as a nightmare that not only brought revolutionary change in Prince William Sound but made the world to think twice about the belief of the assurances from corporations that their operations are safe. (The… [read more]

Hybrid Car Engine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (710 words)
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Hybrid Car Engines

How exactly does a hybrid car engine work? We all know these engines use less gasoline and are more economical than conventional internal combustion engines, but how exactly to they do it? They do it not with smoke and mirrors, but with new and exciting technologies!

The hybrid car engine is a relatively new development in automobile technology that is really beginning to catch on as gas prices continue to climb. The word "hybrid" actually means a combination of two engines or power supplies, which is why these cars are called hybrids. For example, the big diesel-electric engines you see pulling trains are actually considered hybrid engines.

Two of the hybrids on the market for several years are the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight, although there are some new models hitting showroom floors, including SUVs from Lexus, Ford, and Mercury, and upcoming hybrid entries from other companies, including Nissan. Honda is also introducing a hybrid Civic 4-door model. Hybrids are the wave of the future because of rising gasoline prices and because they are much less harmful to the environment than traditional gasoline engines. In fact, they reduce pollution up to 90% (Bamber).

Hybrids blend the best of two technologies to come out ahead in gas mileage. They use an electric engine combined with a gasoline engine. Why? Because it's more efficient that using only one or the other. Gasoline engines provide more power but are most costly to run and cause more pollution. Electric engines use a bank of batteries that must be recharged after a certain number of miles, (usually between 50 to 100 miles), and they are notoriously underpowered - they can reach perhaps a maximum of 60 mph. By blending the two technologies, engineers have come up with a more effective engine that has the power most people want and the fuel economy the country needs.

Here's how the thing actually works. The car runs mainly on the electric engine that runs off a bank of batteries. When the electric engine is accelerating and cruising, the gasoline engine shuts down and does not run. When the car…… [read more]

Fleet Safety Accident Prevention - Four Elements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fleet Safety

Accident Prevention - Four Elements of a Small Fleet Safety Program

The objective of this work is to discuss the purpose for accident prevention in fleet safety and to explain all of the expenses associated with injuries and illnesses in fleet safety. Further this work will identify and explain the four elements of a small fleet safety program as well as list the consideration when selecting employees. Finally the role of management in a successful safety program will be discussed.

According to Della-Guistina (2005) "Losses from transportation incidents are significant and include death, injury, wage losses, hiring and training expenses, higher insurance premiums, property damage and business losses...." According to Della-Guistina's (2005) wok the primary cause of accidental death in the United States can be attributed to motor vehicle incidents. Della-Guistina (2005) states that approximately 50,000 people die and more than 2 million receive disabling injuries each year [with the] overall death rate [being approximately] "22 per 100,00 motor vehicle incidents." Studies state that approximately 25 to 35% of all death that are job-related can be attributed to incidents involving motor vehicles.

The Purpose for Accident Prevention in Fleet Safety

Safety directors of motor fleets should focus on both "direct and indirect costs associated with their vehicular operations." A motor fleet safety program can do for fleet operations what similar safety and loss control programs do for an organization - that is, employ a competent, well-trained workforce; recognize hazards along with past losses; and take the appropriate action to prevent potential losses from occurring." (Della-Guistina, 2005) According to Della-Guistina (2005) the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) 'have ensured the adoption of uniform safe practices and policies by the motor fleet and bus transit industries." It is required that all new drivers are trained, accident reports developed, follow-up with corrective measures is taken and vehicle inspections be performed daily. Further implementations are safety equipment/devices, side/rear lights and reflectors and hydraulic and air brakes. Safe driving practices are further required with limitations on the amount of hours a driver can drive. Meetings are held in which training and discussion occurs as well as competition programs among drivers and fleets to motivate the drivers to keep clean records. Further motivations are provided through incentives of bonuses and other rewards for clean driving records.

The purpose for prevention is quite clearly revealed in the statistics taken from an Australia study which states: "Workers compensation, compulsory third party (CTP) and damage-only insurance data, all illustrate the extent of the problem; "Queensland Workers Compensation figures provided by Robinson (2001) for 1997-2000 show that vehicle accident payments from 10,195 claims (5% of total claims) cost over $52.5 million (10% of total costs) and resulted in 233,013 workdays absent (9% of total days). Vehicles were involved in 99 (43%) of the fatal claim. Further revealed was that in 2000/2001 heavy truck drivers made up 33% of total payments, 26% of lost time and 11% of vehicle claims." (Murray, et… [read more]

Fleet Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fleet Safety - 11 elements

Fleet Safety

Strategic Goals

The purpose of this work is to discuss how a great safety record for fleet safety has been improved and why. Discuss what the transportation industry is doing to ensure a viable security program. Explain each of the 11 main elements of a fleet safety program.

According to reports driving of the workplace variety is very much an organizational risk and occupational safety issue." It is reported that "fleet crashes, even minor" in nature may cost the organization greatly affecting the bottom line as well. It is not only the smaller organizations but even those considered to be the "most profitable" may suffer costs that are not necessary if the "optimal fleet safety management systems" are "in place."

According to one report the following statistics are stated:

Between 20-30% of fleet vehicles crash each year

Fleet crash costs are equal to 13-15% of fleet spending

Drivers of company vehicles have 50% more crashes that private drivers

Road crashes is the most common form of work-related death

Companies with active road safety programs have achieved 30-65%

Reductions in work-related traffic accidents and associated costs. (Accident Research Centre, Monash University)

Fleet Safety solutions are realized through:

1) Commitment to tailored organization-wide occupational driving safety solutions; practical policies and processes for managers and staff; a driving management safety system that works; and sustainable good driver safety management practices.

2) Benefits realized are:

a) Quality System inclusive of policy, human resource management; fleet and risk management systems;

b) Supportive practices inclusive of safe work management, fleet selection and maintenance processes;

Accurate and up-to-date information inclusive of crash reporting, analysis of causes, and risk resolution;

d) Sustainable motivators inclusive of incentives, disincentives, driver education and training;

3) Services include a) Policy gap analysis;

b) Occupational driving safety strategy development;

Fleet safety education; training and seminars;

d) Driver safety risk identification and resolution programs; and e) Fleet safety project evaluation.

4) Results are:

a) Substantial savings in both human and dollar costs; and b) Higher staff morale, productivity and increased profitability.

According to a NHTSA Case Study entitled "Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement" it is stated that the NHTSA or the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has been engaged in strategic planning since 1992 and was designated as a Government Performance and Results Act pilot agency." The Strategic Planning activities began in earnest at NHTSA in January 1992 and the Strategic Planning Division was formed which previously had fallen on the Department of Transportation under the National Transportation Policy (NTP).

The process at NHTSA begin with the development process with discussions in series with individuals who had experience in the development of future scenarios which allowed for strategic plan development capable of dealing with several future scenarios. Accordingly, "the investment in NHTSA's highway safety data systems over several years produces reliable outcome data for fatality and injury rates, crash involvement and crash consequence rates, alcohol involvement and safety belt use, among other indicators." Tracking systems which have… [read more]

Ethics in Southwest Airlines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (7,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ethics in Southwest Airlines

An Overview of the Business Ethics of Southwest airlines

How Southwest Airlines handle the various crises?

The ethical responsibility of southwest today and for the future

Ethics in South West Airlines

How can one single company enjoy so much success in its chosen field of operations? What is the business ethics of the company that has… [read more]

Linear Programming as a Method for Solving Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Linear Programming as a Method for Solving Transportation Problems

Linear programming is described as a mathematical technique designed to determine the best use of scarce resources (Schermerhorn 1989, p. 685). Each problem is solved based on an objective function, which is what the organizations wants to achieve, and the constraints, which refers to the factors that limit the decision that can be made. One of the types of problems that linear programming can solve is transportation problems. Linear programming is a method that can be used to optimize transportation and reduce the costs of transportation.

Transportation problems are important to manufacturing firms that have to organize for the distribution and storage of their created products. For these organizations, the costs of distribution are part of the overall costs of producing the product and supplying it to the customer. This means that reducing the costs of transportation will increase the profits that can be made for the product. For these organizations, the transportation problem that exists is how to most cost effectively transport products to any number of locations.

Linear programming is a useful tool to optimize distribution because the number of options possible often makes it impossible for the best decision to be reached by human decision alone. For example, consider the case where an organization creates products and has to ensure that they are always available to meet demand at several locations. Is it better to ship large amounts infrequently and store them at the individual locations? Is it better to ship small amounts infrequently from a single storage area? Is it better to send shipments to individual locations or to send shipments to many locations via certain locations? Cheung, Cheung, and Powell (1996, p. 52) also show how the most cost-effective solution can even include having one location serviced by several storage locations. This shows just some of the possibilities that may need…… [read more]

Guard Services Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Guard Services Industry

Guards are also called security officers and their job is to patrol areas and inspect the condition of the property where they have been assigned. Their job is to ensure protection against fire, theft, vandalism, terrorism and other illegal activity. These workers are to save the investment made by their employers, ensure that laws are observed on… [read more]

Driving Age Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Driver Licensing and Young Adults: The Case for Young Drivers

Of late there have been numerous complaints regarding young drivers. Many authorities have suggested that the licensing age be raised to 18 instead of 16. However, youths aged 16 and older should be provided the benefit of acquiring a driver's license provided they meet certain driver competencies at a young age. Allowing young drivers to acquire their driver license will help bolster the economy in a number of ways, in part by generating more revenue by licensing authorities and in part by providing young adults the independence necessary to acquire jobs at a young age.

There are several reasons the minimum driving age should be kept at 16 and not raised to 18. For a number of economic factors it is vital that young drivers are afforded the opportunity to use motor vehicles. Many youths rely on independent transportation to get to and from work (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1996). Young adults in fact make up a large portion of the current workforce. Not all young adults have access to reasonable public transportation. If those jobs remained unfilled, not only will youth's financial burden increase but the economy in general will suffer as more burden is placed on businesses trying to succeed in today's harsh economy.

Those opposed to youth licensing requirements argue that young drivers are much less safe drivers than older drivers with more experience on the road. Though a number of studies suggest that the risk of a motor vehicle crash is greater for young people, that is largely due to a lack of adequate experience driving rather than reckless driving (Williams, 1997). There is adequate evidence that suggests that requirements for driver education and proper training can help alleviate such statistics (William, 1997). Lack of experience is a factor that is just as likely to impact an older adult or elderly person as it…… [read more]

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