"Transportation / Mass Transit" Essays

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Southwest Airlines Company 2004 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Southwest airline is one of the major airlines operating these days. Starting from the scratch Rollin King and Herb Kelleher joined hands to build an airline company which would be a totally different from then airlines. They started the company with one simple thing in mind which was to get the customers to their desired places on time and at… [read more]

Flight Attendant Fatigue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,969 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Flight attendant fatigue and working conditions is one that has a fairly long and controversial history in the aviation industry. It is only recently that any real advances have been made towards some solutions to this issue, even though the unions and other bodies stated serious concerns about fatigue and its effects on aviation staff as early as 2004. In… [read more]

Sustainability of Low Cost Carriers in Europe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,333 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Sustainability of Low Cost Carriers in Europe

Low Cost Carriers: Characteristics

The purpose of this study is to examine whether low cost carriers in Europe will still be profitable in the future or if upcoming new trends, laws or other restrictions will make the demand for low cost carriers decrease. The objectives of this study are to: (1) present significant… [read more]

Problems With Cockpit Automation the Impact of Very Light Jets on Fbo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (8,023 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … cockpit automation / the impact of very light jets on FBOs


Problems with cockpit automation / the impact of very light jets on FBOs

Paper-1 Problems with cockpit automation

This paper analyzes the pitfalls of automation within the cockpit. Today automation has become more widespread than ever before, especially within the aviation industry, and automation as such… [read more]

Manufacturing Process of a Bicycle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,680 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Manufacturing Process of a Bicycle

Manufacturing Process of the Bicycle

In the past few decades, emerging new technologies have threatened the existence of the traditional bicycle. However, even with such threats, the bicycle has survived and has even grown in numbers, sales and use. Many poorer countries whose citizens do not have widespread access to cars or buses utilize the… [read more]

Risk Management Crew Resource Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,595 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Aviation Safety & Risk Management

Safety is of paramount importance in aviation, especially commercial aviation.

Technical malfunction, equipment failure, and human error in complex technological fields can result in catastrophic failure. In commercial aviation, the implications of catastrophic failure are exceptionally devastating, because they almost always entail great risk to human life and limb. The nature of aviation equipment, facilities,… [read more]

Why Corporations Exist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,266 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Corporations Exist

Corporations and Organizations

Corporations are legal entities with different personalities from its members. They are juristic persons with rights and obligations, such as:

the right to hold assets;

the right to hire employees/the obligation to remunerate employees;

the right to sign contracts/the obligation to respect its contracts;

the right to make by-laws that help them coordinate… [read more]

Project Management the 2010 Winter Olympics Represent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Project Management

The 2010 Winter Olympics represent the biggest project in British Columbia since Expo 86. Identify some key risks in any one part of the Olympic project (facilities or infrastructure) and the measures that project managers and politicians are taking to deal with the risks. Will they be effective? Why? Or Why not?

Readying British Columbia for the 2010 Winter Olympics is forcing project managers and politicians to confront the realities of the current state of their existing infrastructure in addition to the necessary improvements to make Vancouver and the surrounding British Columbia area ready in time for the Olympics. The it infrastructure specifically is going to be critical for capturing the results of the athletes' competitions, the revenues generated both for tickets and concessions, and managing both crowds and the intensive level of security being put into place. All of these considerations with regard ot the it infrastructure need to be put into place, all within a limited and relatively tight budget. The constraint of the budget forces the CIO for the it infrastructure of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games to seek out partnerships to alleviate the high costs of creating, sustaining and optimizing the systems architectures that together form the it infrastructure (Sutton 2007). The heavy reliance on partnerships and alliances also ensures that there will be integration across various, and often significantly different, systems to accomplish the many objectives of this aspect of the Olympics' infrastructure. To date, the it Infrastructure Committee has been able to attract Atos Origin, General Electric, Lenovo, Omega, Panasonic, and Samsung.

Given the many internal and external customers for it infrastructure support (Chapin 2007) the need for having a highly synchronized it architectural structure is a very high priority. Figure 1 provides an overview of the proposed it architecture that the 2010 Winter Olympics Committee's CIO is working towards today.

Figure 1: The 2010 Winter Olympics it Architecture

Source: (Chapin 2007)

From the set of assumptions as defined (Chapin 2007) and the approaches taken to mitigate it risks based on using mature, proven and highly adaptable and agile infrastructure technologies, it appears this part of the Winter Olympics project plans are working to both disperse risks through partnerships and make prudent, conservative technological decisions. As a result, there is a relatively high level of probability the it infrastructure and resulting systems and processes based on it will be successful. The combination of anticipating risks and providing a high level of stability with proven, exiting technologies to a well defined set of internal customers greatly increases the probability of success of this project.

Q2. The release of the final Harry Potter book is only a few days away. This project required the coordination of scores of publishers, hundreds of shipping firms and thousands of bookstores. As you might expect with so many parties involved, problems have occurred. (See the article (http://www.news.com.au/entertainment/story/0,23663,22,00.html) What approaches have the publishers and the author taken to the project risks that accompany such an eagerly awaited book? Do… [read more]

Robert Fulton the Most Lucrative Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Called an "atmospheric engine," it was "the first practical devise to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work" (Wikipedia). James Watt Later improved on the steam engine, and it was this device with which James Rumsey and John Fitch began experimenting around 1786 (Woods 44). Rumsey was a brilliant mechanical engineer and had been appointed by George Washington to serve as Superintendent of the Potamac River Project (Woods 45). Fitch was a colorful character who lived among the Indians for part of his adult life and worked variously as a surveyor, metal worker, and clock repairman. The men were not partners but competititors, and because patent law was so new in the U.S. At the time of their work, they were both able to lay claim to the invention of steam propulsion. It was their ideas Fulton seized upon and today his is the name associated with the invention of the steam engine.

In the colonial and early national eras of the United States, commerce was primarily international. The country was small and not well established; many goods had to be transported. Most freight moved by water; the rivers and estuaries of the East Coast were vital for commerce. Most people lived near tidewater and could be served by oceangoing ships (Gordon).

The Louisiana Purchase effectively doubled the size of the country and opened up the use of the Mississippi River. Access to the Mississippi changed everything. Barriers to westward expansion and internal commercial development were effectively lifted (Sylla 46). The country began to expand rapidly and reliable, efficient means of transportation were needed to bring goods to people who pushed west. As people moved west, so too did commerce and industry. The expansion coincided with the wars between France and England, where the United States often found itself in the middle. It became important to be more self-sufficient as a nation and rely less on trading partners, who could be fickle. The U.S. needed to produce more of its own goods and needed transportation to move them. Successful transport meant that commerce expanded, requiring that transportation continue to expand as well. Ultimately, this resulted in new and better roads, railroads, canals and the use of Fulton's steamboat (Sylla 51).

Works Cited

Gordon, John Steele. "The Steamboat Monopoly." American Heritage 44.7 (1993): 20-21.

Online. 2 May 2011.

"Newcomen Steam Engine." Wikipedia. 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.

"Robert Fulton's Paddlesteamer: August 17th, 1807." History Today 57.8 (2007): 58-59. Online.

2 May 2011.

Sylla, Richard. "…the patent in comtemplation will be the most lucrative that ever was obtained': Robert Fulton to [Robert R. Livingston] on the Profit Potential of Steamboat…… [read more]

Sustainable Management Futures for Toyota Motors Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,151 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Toyota Motors is a worldwide company that has grown to be one of the most successful in the world. In the United States, the company started as Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. On October 31, 1957. When sales began in 1958, the company sold only 288 vehicles. With the arrival of the Land Cruiser, American sales gained momentum, which culminated in… [read more]

Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  5 pages (1,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … collects data to test the hypotheses. The quantitative technique is used for data collection, and data analysis. The quantitative analysis is appropriate for this research because the study aims to present and interpret the data in the numerical form. The study uses descriptive statistics for data analysis. The advantage of using descriptive statistics for data analysis is that… [read more]

Macroeconomics Cases Study New Sports Stadium Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Macroeconomics Cases Study

New Sports Stadium

The claims by backers of this project may not be objective or accurate. That is because most of the "quality" jobs the project creates will be transitory in nature, such as the construction jobs during its construction. Thereafter, most of the types of jobs necessary to run the new stadium will be unskilled, semi-skilled, and minimum-wage jobs such as ticket booth workers, private security, maintenance and grounds cleanup, parking attendants, and refreshment stand workers. Those are not the type of "quality" jobs that will help the community. Furthermore, there are significant quality-of-life costs associated with the new stadium. For example, high-profile professional sports events almost always cause traffic congestion in their vicinity. Likewise, they absorb community resources such as law enforcement and sanitation workers and add to overtime costs associated with those extra demands.

Education for the Future

This approach to using public funds would be a valuable means of contributing positively to society. In the modern age, unskilled jobs are rapidly disappearing and it is becoming even more important for young people to develop intellectual skills that will enable them to qualify for skilled jobs. Increasing the compensation for teachers would be one of the most sensible ways of improving the quality of public education. Establishing objective standards designed to improve educational programs would also be very beneficial. However, the experience with the failed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policies of the Bush administration demonstrated that standardized testing cannot be relied upon excessively and that "teaching to test" must be avoided at all costs.

Transportation Express

In principle improving transportation systems is a good idea for the community. However, it is doubtful that expending more money on…… [read more]

Technology Energy Efficiency Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,859 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The Environmental Protection Agency hasn't yet figured out how to correctly measure range, so those numbers are even vaguer. This vagueness strengthens what has become known as range anxiety, which is the fear of being stranded miles from a charging station with a dead battery (The future of the electric car, 2010).

The Chevy Volt, for instance, receives 93 miles-per-gallon… [read more]

Plants Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … plants; let I be the number of plants on location. Thus, i=1,2,3,4,5,6

There are three (3) waste disposable sites; let j be the number of waste disposable sites. Thus, j = 1, 2, 3

Now, there is going to be a shipping schedule to transport wastes from plant I to disposable site j depending on the total cost of transportation. The goal is to minimize this cost.

Total cost of transportation can be denoted by Z. As the objective function to be minimized and let X the amount of waste to be transported from I to j.

Thus we have X11, X12, X13, X21, X22, X23, X31, X32, X33, X41, X42, X43, X51, X52, X53, X61, X62 and X63.

Given the cost of shipping from each plant to each waste disposable site, Z can be defined as:

Z = 12 X11 + 15 X12 + 17 X13 + 14 X21 + 9 X22 + 10 X23 + 13 X31 + 20 X32 + 11 X33 + 17 X41+ 16 X42 + 19 X43 + 7 X51 + 14 X52+ 12 X53 + 22 X61 + 16 X62 + 18 X63.

Give the total amount of waste generated each week at each site, we set constraints on Z. as:

X11 + X12 + X13 = 35

X21 + X22 + X23 = 26

X31 + X32 + X33 = 42

X41 + X42 + X43 = 53

X51 + X52 + X53 = 29

X61 + X62 + X63 = 38

9) The maximum amount of waste each site can contain each is given as:

X11 + X21+ X31+X41 + X51 + X61 ? 65

X12 + X22+ X32+X42 + X52 + X62 ? 80

X13 + X23+ X33+X43 + X53 +…… [read more]

Future Low Cost Terminal at London South Article

Article  |  5 pages (2,210 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Future Low Cost Terminal at London South End

London is considered to be one of the most congested air spaces in the world. To effectively deal with these issues, we will examine if the construction of a new low cost terminal at Southend Airport will address the problems. Once this occurs, is when we can determine the economic viability of… [read more]

Maintenance of Road Pavements Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,507 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


As stated, not always can they be repaired, in which case patching needs to be performed or a new and stronger HMA layer applied.

Fixing pavements is more challenging and complex than may seem possible, but as the 5th International RILEM Conference on Cracking in Pavements noted, fixing the road network is an important task for modern societies and is a major requirement nowadays. There is a growing interest in the topic as new techniques are coming out all on the time on how to better improve the shape of our pavements and fix them when cracked.


5th International RILEM Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mitigation, Risk Assessment and Prevention


Cornell Local Roads Program. 2003. Asphalt Paving Principles. http://www.clrp.cornell.edu/workshops/pdf/asphalt_paving_principles-web.pdf.

Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Pavement Management Primer.


Flexible pavement distress.


Mobilizing the Region (April 30, 2001 ) Groups Call on Governor, Lawmakers: Hold NJ DOT to Repair Promises


Conclusion… [read more]

Flight Data Recorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,362 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


The FDPs were interconnected so that data on flights leaving a center's area would be passed automatically to the next center or terminal facility in line. FDPs also generated data for aircraft "tags" on controller plan view displays (PVD). Sector controllers continued to store the flight strips, annotate and move them to remind them of their flights' progress and requirements.… [read more]

HS2, or High Speed Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,388 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


HS2, or High Speed 2, is a proposed high-speed railway expansion between London, the Midlands, and the North of England, with a later potential expansion into Scotland. High Speed Railways, as a concept, have been growing all over the EU since the 1980s. Germany, France and Spain have been aggressive leaders in this field, believing that for Europe to be truly united economically, the transportation system must be robust enough to encourage travel between countries and between longer distances within countries. In Britain, the first High Speed Line ran from London through the Channel Tunnel, a 108 km distance. In fact, Britain's railway infrastructure dates primarily from the Victorian era, which does not permit operating speeds above 201 km/h. Movement within Britain and the need to move to France increased over 50 per cent since the 1970s, thus requiring new solutions to transport and commute issues (Atkins 2009).

While the concept of High Speed railways is endorsed by Britain's three main political parties, there remains controversy and disagreement over which cities should be placed on the rout, the environmental impact of HS2, the actual performance of the railway, the affordability of the project, and even whether it reduces carbon emissions, as it states (Millward 2010). However, most of the country agrees something must be done to improve inner-city links and shrink the time it takes to traverse the country. The solution is simple, according to Transportation Secretary Lord Adonis -- it is either high-speed or more motorways and planes (Cheap fast trains "are transport future" 2009).

Hypothesis- The HS2 project, while laudable in some areas of the EU, is not a viable option for the London to central and north Britain because the business case is based on unrealistic assumptions, the environmental impact remains unassessed, and the strategic benefits are questionable.

Summary of Articles- The arguments regarding the HS2 fall into three major categories: fiscal, environmental, and strategic. On one hand, the government's figures showed a fairly reasonable construction cost, based on many previous smaller scale projects with quick paybacks. The economic reality, according to some, is that with a flattening economy, taxpayers are being asked to fund a project that may or may not see paybacks by 2026. In addition, many of the reports fail to adequately acknowledge that there are some clear difficult geographic features between London and Birmingham; even more so at the split between Birmingham and Manchester and Birmingham and Leeds (Wendover Technology 2010). The government also believes that there is a considerable value of time that should be noted in view of increasing commute demands. In fact, according to a government survey, 70 per cent of those surveyed think that their time is valuable enough to justify the cost of a High Speed railway. Indeed, it is not just the time spent in route, but waiting for the next transportation service, that must be factored into any equation. Robust routes and fast trains alleviate this problem for most individuals, the government says (Valuing the Benefits… [read more]

Hong Kong Financial Market Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (6,345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … financial market of Hong Kong in the airline transportation arena. Our central question is whether or not this a good time for an airline based in Hong Kong to issue its IPO. While the Hong Kong and market has just went for a downturn, it is turning around have weathered nicely and is turning around.. Major Hong Kong… [read more]

Packaging Material There Are Various Packaging Materials Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Packaging Material

There are various packaging materials that are used in the daily transport of goods across the globe. There is always a pursuit to get the most efficient packaging and one that is most efficient in getting the goods safely to the destination. These packaging material always come with varied advantages that make transporters to go for them, on the other hand, they also have various disadvantages that accompany them.

There is the paper-based shipping container that is widely used in moving goods. The advantage of such a transport mode is that is environment friendly as it can be recycled or re-used 100%, it is also noted to be light hence does not add unnecessary weight to the carriers. The paper-based containers are also noted to be easy to manipulate since they can be stapled together during packaging or even just glued together and the packaging is complete. This then allows the packaging to take various shapes and sizes without much problems and it is worth noting that it gives as easy printability (Food Communications Information Services, 2012).

This method has its disadvantages as well since it does not provide any protection against moisture or water to the goods that are on transit. The paper packaging cannot as well accommodate a heavy load and may easily disintegrate upon bearing heavy weights.

The other category is the wood-based shipping containers which apparently is widely used due to its features despite the disadvantages that it has. Wood-based containers will provide adequate protection to the items that are under transport if they happen to be fragile, with a foam lining, wood-based containers are the best. Wood is also reusable as the demolished containers can easily be used to make other pieces of furniture hence reducing the wastage of the material. Wood can also be custom cut into crates of the required sizes and the items to be transported fitted into it without needing much effort or resources…… [read more]

Financial Analysis of International Airlines Group Thesis

Thesis  |  19 pages (5,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Financial Analysis of International Airlines Group


Contact Details

Confidentiality Restrictions

Today, the aviation industry is faced with skyrocketing energy costs, the lingering aftereffects of the Great Recession of 2008 and the looming threat of ongoing terrorist activities in many regions of the world. In this environment, identifying opportunities for air carriers to achieve a competitive advantage through improved administrative… [read more]

Bikeways: A New Jersey State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It is also something of an obviation that the most important stakeholder at the end of this program is the cycling enthusiast or the potential cycling enthusiast. The degree to which the resultant bike paths are used, enjoyed and contributing to a reduction in automobile usage, traffic and related emissions will be a substantial gauge to their success in satisfying stakeholder demands.


The immediate goals of the program are to accept applications and award grants for the construction of the recently approved 1000 new miles of bike path space throughout the State of New Jersey and, consequently, "to establish regionally connected bicycle networks" that produce an interconnectedness between all New Jersey counties and municipalities. (NJDOT, p. 1) Additional goals of the program are outlined by the Handbook, which calls for the prioritization of safety, the improvement of access through paths to local community centers, parks, commercial and residential areas, expedient production from the time of grant allotment, the fomenting of community support and the pairing of reputable applicants with meaningful funding. (LTPA, p. 1)


The major objectives to be achieved as the outcome of these goals will be the increase in usage of conserved public space, increased interest in cycling as a mode of transportation, reduced traffic congestion and improved compliance with statewide emissions standards. These objectives are supported by a boon in state funding. According to Copeland (2011), "the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) has announced the award of 33 grants worth a total of $7.6 million to municipal and county recipients through four Local Aid programs, including nearly $3 million for bikeways."

Evaluation of Goals and Objectives:

This funding brings great promise but also calls for the objective evaluation of the program's ability to achieve its stated goals. The article by Andy (2009), for instance, describes a project in New Brunswick in which poor routing decisions seem to impede a constructed path from providing improved access or safety. This highlights the need to engage in survey evaluations amongst path users for every newly constructed bikeway, with bi-annual improvements to be made at those sites found wanting.

Works Cited:

Andy, B. (2009). New Brunswick Bikeway Fatally Flawed. Walk Bike Jersey Blog.

Copeland, D. (2011). NJDOT announces grants of nearly $3 million for bikeway development around New Jersey. NJ.com.

Local Transportation Planning Assistance (LTPA). (2011). Bikeways Grant Program Handbook. New Jersey Department of…… [read more]

Bicycle Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Reason 2

Internal and export demand for the product will increase in the year 2005 as oil prices continue to skyrocket. As fewer individuals will be able to simply jump in their car to go to the market, bicycle sales will jump proportionately.

International markets would be very accepting of our product if we sold it as a status symbol in developing nations and as reliable tool in developed nations like Germany. Internal United States and North American sales would be positively affected by the Made in America strategy. The Made in America theory would also go over well in export markets to help support the status symbol marketing ideas and maybe even create a self-promoting product.

In addition, by simply taking one percent of the import market in the United States from either China, India or the European nations individually or even one percent combined, we could meet and then exceed internal United States bicycle sales sine the late 1980's.

Reason 3

Green House And Oil Shortage. Not only are bicycles great exercise, in foreign nations they enhance an individual's mobility and usually contributes to income possibilities of the owner. Both men and women in rural nations get increased access to education and employment opportunities. "In Ghana, bikes have helped HIV / AIDS outreach workers reach 50% more beneficiaries." (Larsen, 2002)

In nations like India where pollution has grown out of control due to outrageous population expansion, bicycles are viable substitute for cars. Bicycles therefore reduce traffic while also cutting air and noise pollution. "Stockholm, one of the world's wealthiest cities, has seen car use decline in recent decades. There, urban development is concentrated around city centers, allowing for greater public transportation efficiency. Rail and buses are linked with pedestrian and bicycle-oriented routes." (Larsen, 2002

Reason 4

Because we can. World bicycle manufacturing numbers are way up to record levels. (See Appendix A) "As can be seen from the figures, global automobile production very nearly caught up to bicycles in terms of total numbers by the late 1960's, but since then bicycle production has far outstripped that of automobiles and now stands at better than a 3:1 ratio; so while bike sales may be steady or declining in America over the past few years, they continue to make enormous gains in other parts of the world -- particularly Asia where China alone is now producing more bikes (40+ million per year) than all the world's automotive output." (International Bicycle Fund, 2004)

But the majority of these bicycle products are sub-standard or just not worth the time and effort to produce. We, on the other hand, could produce a better than average product at a fraction of the cost and therefore win market share on quality alone. Because our production costs would be low we could literally under sell far less superior bicycles.


In conclusion, although world bicycle production has grown to well over one hundred million bicycles in the year 2000, there are still specialty markets available that… [read more]

Bicycle Technology and Its Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The drift towards merges seems likely to persist, but with few main companies enduring, the next upsurge will be among high-end manufacturers. Pacific Cycle then surprised the market, following its purchase of Schwinn/GT in 2001, by declaring its plans to sell the Schwinn and GT brands at sporting goods stores, and perhaps mass marketers, as well as autonomous bicycle shops.… [read more]

Aviation Demands and Capacity Constraints at SFO Airport Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


San Francisco Airport -- Solutions

In business, it is sometimes necessary to make decisions regarding the long-term future in terms of survival. This often means that there are few choices, some or most of which might be unpleasant. Airports face many difficult decisions in both the long and short-term. In the short-term, challenges are to maintain a business that can sustain itself in spite of the recent economic downturn and the continuing struggle that former clients face to make ends meet. Fewer people therefore tend to use airports and flights for non-essential purposes such as vacations and the like. On the other hand, in the long-term, airports have the need to maintain adequate capacity to continue serving a projected growth in customer base. This is the case at San Francisco Airport. Although the company's current approach does address some of the long-term issues they face, this is not adequate to truly be able to face capacity growth concerns in the future. A more proactive step is necessary to handle this. It is therefore necessary for airport managers to focus not only upon current capacity and delay concerns, but also on potential long-term growth and concomitant capacity needs. Technologies such as NextGen offer some potential solutions for the situation at San Francisco Airport, while incorporating other airports in its operations may also be a viable alternative to actually expanding the space at the facility.

Eads, Kiefer, and Mehndiratte (n.d., p. 44) acknowledge that the greatest challenge the airport is currently facing in terms of delays is its local weather conditions. This causes more delays than any other factor at the airport. According to the authors, one long-term solution to this is the reconfiguration of its runway space, which would take a long time, but would ultimately provide a solution to most of the airport's delay challenges. While the majority of the paper focuses on short-term policies that could be used for the airport's current delay problems, the reader is left wondering if the true capacity needs for the future have been taken into account in the reconfiguration process. It appears that there has been a somewhat myopic assessment of current needs in terms of delays and capacity. However, the growth of the passenger base and long-term future capacity needs have not been so much ignored as blindly avoided in the light of the current need to avoid weather-related delays. After the reconfiguration of its runways, San Francisco Airport may therefore face capacity concerns related to the growth of its customer base, which would all but negate its efforts to mitigate the weather problem.

One major problem in the concern for capacity is that San Francisco Airport in fact lacks the space to increase its physical size. It would therefore be difficult to build additional runways. The space is simply not there. This is a factor that Butler (2008) takes into account. The author suggests that NextGen technologies can potentially offer solutions to the challenges faced by San Francisco Airport, where the… [read more]

Military Spending on Boeing in Seattle From 1970-1994 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Boeing Spending - 1974 to 1990

The purpose of this work is to research Boeing from the year of 1974 to the year of 1990 and identify the spending by Boeing for those years in terms of projects, expenditures on projects as well as the environment within the Aircraft production industry to those specific years and the shifts and transitions… [read more]

History of the Belmar New Jersey 07719 Railroad Station Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



History of the Railroad Station of Belmar, New Jersey

Situated on the New Jersey Peninsula

The historic site of Belmar has been for many years now a favored summer vacationing spot and is complete with historic sites and legendary tales of fish and men eating sharks as well as a site that has witnessed many aspects in American history.… [read more]

Public Policy the Bush Administration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Given the time needed to bring hydrogen technologies to commercialization and the long time constants inherent in changing the energy system, most analysts do not see a major role for hydrogen in reducing emissions or oil use on a global scale for several decades." (Ogden, 2004). In the interim, the United States is left with no effective public policy response to the problems presented by our present gasoline-driven automobiles, given its de-emphasis on current options such as hybrid cars.

A hybrid car is a cross between a gasoline-powered car and an electric car. According to Joseph Romm, chief official for alternative fuels for the Department of Energy under President Clinton, hybrid cars can reduce emissions by thirty to fifty percent (Onion, 2004). And, the technology is viable today. Already, approximately 47,500 hybrid vehicles were sold in the United States at a price of only a few thousand dollars more than gasoline-powered cars. Certainly, with mass production the prices of hybrid cars could be even lower. Even with aggressive efforts, a MIT study concludes, the hydrogen vehicle will not surpass the hybrid in terms of total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (Driving it home: Hybrid cars overtake fuel cells in short-term comparison, 2003).

Despite the immediate availability and benefits of hybrid technology, the United States government is reducing tax breaks for their purchase (Block, 2004). A buyer of a hybrid car received a $2,000 deduction in 2003 and $1,500 in 2004. In 2004, the deduction will drop to $1,000 and then to $500 in 2006. After 2006, the tax break is slated to disappear all together unless new legislation is introduced.

Clearly, hydrogen cars represent a future technology, perhaps with a questionable outcome. Given the concerns highlighted in this research regarding hydrogen cars and the current success and availability of hybrid automobiles, adequate public policy calls for a short-term and a long-term strategy for automobiles. In the short-term, the United States should increase incentives for hybrids along with continued funding for hydrogen research. In the long-term, the government should endorse whatever technology is economically and technologically feasible. While some may argue that this approach would dilute hydrogen research efforts and confuse the public, the current policy favoring hydrogen cars is too risky and leaves a gap of decades for doing anything about pressing problems that exist now such as carbon dioxide emissions, unstable foreign oil sources, rising fuel costs and fuel shortages. The time to act is now with credible options and to move forward into the future with alternatives that may hold greater potential.


Block, S. (2004, January 25). Hybrid car saves fuel, money. The Enquirer. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from Web site: http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2004/01/25/biz_greencar25.html

Driving it home: Hybrid cars overtake fuel cells in short-term comparison (2003, March 11). EurActiv. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from Web site: http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-113292-16& type=News

Keith, D.W., and A.E. Farrell, 2003: Rethinking hydrogen cars. Science 301, 315-316

Korchinski, W. (2004, November). Fueling America: how hydrogen cars affect the environment. Retrieved December 30, 2004… [read more]

Guard Services Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Guard Services Industry

Guards are also called security officers and their job is to patrol areas and inspect the condition of the property where they have been assigned. Their job is to ensure protection against fire, theft, vandalism, terrorism and other illegal activity. These workers are to save the investment made by their employers, ensure that laws are observed on… [read more]

Katherine Moriwaki an Internationally Respected Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When the phone rings, a voice-sample automatically is triggered, and the skirt actually "talks" out loud, saying "Charge it!" The skirt is designed to create some fun in the wearer's immediate environment; humor is nearly always part of Moriwaki's goal. "Communication equates consumption," she writes, and "consumption commands technological progress."

The "Charge It" skirt is made of black velvet with… [read more]

Jet Blue Airways Corporate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+







Ryanair Holdings PLC






British Airways PLC






AIR France-KLM






Lan Airlines SA






JetBlue Airways Corp








Industry Leader



Market Capitalization




6 / 29

P/E Ratio (ttm)



1 / 29

PEG Ratio (ttm, 5 yr expected)




2 / 29

Revenue Growth (Qtrly YoY)




6 / 29

EPS Growth (Qtrly YoY)



11 / 29

Long-Term Growth Rate (5 yr)




5 / 29

Return on Equity (ttm)



12 / 29

Long-Term Debt/Equity (mrq)




5 / 29

Dividend Yield (annual)





SOURCE: Yahoo. (2005). JetBlue. Retrieved from the Internet at:

http://finance.yahoo.com/q/h?s=JBLU& t=2005-04-14.

B. Firm Financial Performance




USD in thousands


USD in thousands


USD in thousands

Net Sales












Net Profit








Fixed Assets




Current Liabilities




Long-Term Debt




Total Shareholder Eq
















Net Profit Margin






Cur. Ratio








SOURCE: WorldVest Base Inc. (2004). Jet Blue Financial Summary. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.shibuimarkets.com/perl/company.pl?cid=170253& page=Discussion.

C. Comparative Analysis

According to Mayer (2002): "A fundamental shift in the business air travel market may be underway. The advantages of low-cost travel on discount air carriers for business passengers may render obsolete the existing model of major airlines of trading high-cost tickets for frequent travel times and amenities for business travelers. This shift in the market paradigm may be a function of the cyclical economy. However, some experts predict that 'this is a permanent shift to lower-priced tickets and, therefore, airlines will continue to see reduced revenues.'"

For now, discounters like JetBlue have four advantages over the majors airlines that affect supply and demand, keeping their seats full:

1. Lower Labor Costs. The majors have high and intractable labor costs in comparison to the low-cost carriers. JetBlue has labor costs of 25% of revenue while the majors like United and Delta spend 40% of revenues on labor.

2. One Aircraft Type. While the majors have multiple aircraft types in service, JetBlue tries to manage with one type, minimizing their relative maintenance, training and operating costs.

3. Transparent Fares. Educated consumers can locate the inexpensive fares and easily compare them to the full-service competition. In the past, consumers could not find lower fares to compare prices. Even when business travelers use the majors, 56% of the biggest companies fly on discount tickets.

4. More Reliance by Business on Low Cost Travel. According to Mayer (2002: "a study by the influential Business Travel… [read more]

Aviation Personal Air Vehicles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,879 words)
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The introduction of a personal aircraft with a cost under $50,000, short take off and landing capability and the ability to safely travel on residential streets might have a significant impact on society, provided that regulations were relaxed enough to make the sale and use of such vehicles legal and practical. The initial changes would… [read more]

Driving Age Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Driver Licensing and Young Adults: The Case for Young Drivers

Of late there have been numerous complaints regarding young drivers. Many authorities have suggested that the licensing age be raised to 18 instead of 16. However, youths aged 16 and older should be provided the benefit of acquiring a driver's license provided they meet certain driver competencies at a young age. Allowing young drivers to acquire their driver license will help bolster the economy in a number of ways, in part by generating more revenue by licensing authorities and in part by providing young adults the independence necessary to acquire jobs at a young age.

There are several reasons the minimum driving age should be kept at 16 and not raised to 18. For a number of economic factors it is vital that young drivers are afforded the opportunity to use motor vehicles. Many youths rely on independent transportation to get to and from work (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1996). Young adults in fact make up a large portion of the current workforce. Not all young adults have access to reasonable public transportation. If those jobs remained unfilled, not only will youth's financial burden increase but the economy in general will suffer as more burden is placed on businesses trying to succeed in today's harsh economy.

Those opposed to youth licensing requirements argue that young drivers are much less safe drivers than older drivers with more experience on the road. Though a number of studies suggest that the risk of a motor vehicle crash is greater for young people, that is largely due to a lack of adequate experience driving rather than reckless driving (Williams, 1997). There is adequate evidence that suggests that requirements for driver education and proper training can help alleviate such statistics (William, 1997). Lack of experience is a factor that is just as likely to impact an older adult or elderly person as it…… [read more]

Linear Programming as a Method for Solving Term Paper

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Linear Programming as a Method for Solving Transportation Problems

Linear programming is described as a mathematical technique designed to determine the best use of scarce resources (Schermerhorn 1989, p. 685). Each problem is solved based on an objective function, which is what the organizations wants to achieve, and the constraints, which refers to the factors that limit the decision that can be made. One of the types of problems that linear programming can solve is transportation problems. Linear programming is a method that can be used to optimize transportation and reduce the costs of transportation.

Transportation problems are important to manufacturing firms that have to organize for the distribution and storage of their created products. For these organizations, the costs of distribution are part of the overall costs of producing the product and supplying it to the customer. This means that reducing the costs of transportation will increase the profits that can be made for the product. For these organizations, the transportation problem that exists is how to most cost effectively transport products to any number of locations.

Linear programming is a useful tool to optimize distribution because the number of options possible often makes it impossible for the best decision to be reached by human decision alone. For example, consider the case where an organization creates products and has to ensure that they are always available to meet demand at several locations. Is it better to ship large amounts infrequently and store them at the individual locations? Is it better to ship small amounts infrequently from a single storage area? Is it better to send shipments to individual locations or to send shipments to many locations via certain locations? Cheung, Cheung, and Powell (1996, p. 52) also show how the most cost-effective solution can even include having one location serviced by several storage locations. This shows just some of the possibilities that may need…… [read more]

Ethics in Southwest Airlines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (7,676 words)
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Ethics in Southwest Airlines

An Overview of the Business Ethics of Southwest airlines

How Southwest Airlines handle the various crises?

The ethical responsibility of southwest today and for the future

Ethics in South West Airlines

How can one single company enjoy so much success in its chosen field of operations? What is the business ethics of the company that has… [read more]

Fleet Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fleet Safety - 11 elements

Fleet Safety

Strategic Goals

The purpose of this work is to discuss how a great safety record for fleet safety has been improved and why. Discuss what the transportation industry is doing to ensure a viable security program. Explain each of the 11 main elements of a fleet safety program.

According to reports driving of the workplace variety is very much an organizational risk and occupational safety issue." It is reported that "fleet crashes, even minor" in nature may cost the organization greatly affecting the bottom line as well. It is not only the smaller organizations but even those considered to be the "most profitable" may suffer costs that are not necessary if the "optimal fleet safety management systems" are "in place."

According to one report the following statistics are stated:

Between 20-30% of fleet vehicles crash each year

Fleet crash costs are equal to 13-15% of fleet spending

Drivers of company vehicles have 50% more crashes that private drivers

Road crashes is the most common form of work-related death

Companies with active road safety programs have achieved 30-65%

Reductions in work-related traffic accidents and associated costs. (Accident Research Centre, Monash University)

Fleet Safety solutions are realized through:

1) Commitment to tailored organization-wide occupational driving safety solutions; practical policies and processes for managers and staff; a driving management safety system that works; and sustainable good driver safety management practices.

2) Benefits realized are:

a) Quality System inclusive of policy, human resource management; fleet and risk management systems;

b) Supportive practices inclusive of safe work management, fleet selection and maintenance processes;

Accurate and up-to-date information inclusive of crash reporting, analysis of causes, and risk resolution;

d) Sustainable motivators inclusive of incentives, disincentives, driver education and training;

3) Services include a) Policy gap analysis;

b) Occupational driving safety strategy development;

Fleet safety education; training and seminars;

d) Driver safety risk identification and resolution programs; and e) Fleet safety project evaluation.

4) Results are:

a) Substantial savings in both human and dollar costs; and b) Higher staff morale, productivity and increased profitability.

According to a NHTSA Case Study entitled "Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement" it is stated that the NHTSA or the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has been engaged in strategic planning since 1992 and was designated as a Government Performance and Results Act pilot agency." The Strategic Planning activities began in earnest at NHTSA in January 1992 and the Strategic Planning Division was formed which previously had fallen on the Department of Transportation under the National Transportation Policy (NTP).

The process at NHTSA begin with the development process with discussions in series with individuals who had experience in the development of future scenarios which allowed for strategic plan development capable of dealing with several future scenarios. Accordingly, "the investment in NHTSA's highway safety data systems over several years produces reliable outcome data for fatality and injury rates, crash involvement and crash consequence rates, alcohol involvement and safety belt use, among other indicators." Tracking systems which have… [read more]

Fleet Safety Accident Prevention - Four Elements Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
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Fleet Safety

Accident Prevention - Four Elements of a Small Fleet Safety Program

The objective of this work is to discuss the purpose for accident prevention in fleet safety and to explain all of the expenses associated with injuries and illnesses in fleet safety. Further this work will identify and explain the four elements of a small fleet safety program as well as list the consideration when selecting employees. Finally the role of management in a successful safety program will be discussed.

According to Della-Guistina (2005) "Losses from transportation incidents are significant and include death, injury, wage losses, hiring and training expenses, higher insurance premiums, property damage and business losses...." According to Della-Guistina's (2005) wok the primary cause of accidental death in the United States can be attributed to motor vehicle incidents. Della-Guistina (2005) states that approximately 50,000 people die and more than 2 million receive disabling injuries each year [with the] overall death rate [being approximately] "22 per 100,00 motor vehicle incidents." Studies state that approximately 25 to 35% of all death that are job-related can be attributed to incidents involving motor vehicles.

The Purpose for Accident Prevention in Fleet Safety

Safety directors of motor fleets should focus on both "direct and indirect costs associated with their vehicular operations." A motor fleet safety program can do for fleet operations what similar safety and loss control programs do for an organization - that is, employ a competent, well-trained workforce; recognize hazards along with past losses; and take the appropriate action to prevent potential losses from occurring." (Della-Guistina, 2005) According to Della-Guistina (2005) the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) 'have ensured the adoption of uniform safe practices and policies by the motor fleet and bus transit industries." It is required that all new drivers are trained, accident reports developed, follow-up with corrective measures is taken and vehicle inspections be performed daily. Further implementations are safety equipment/devices, side/rear lights and reflectors and hydraulic and air brakes. Safe driving practices are further required with limitations on the amount of hours a driver can drive. Meetings are held in which training and discussion occurs as well as competition programs among drivers and fleets to motivate the drivers to keep clean records. Further motivations are provided through incentives of bonuses and other rewards for clean driving records.

The purpose for prevention is quite clearly revealed in the statistics taken from an Australia study which states: "Workers compensation, compulsory third party (CTP) and damage-only insurance data, all illustrate the extent of the problem; "Queensland Workers Compensation figures provided by Robinson (2001) for 1997-2000 show that vehicle accident payments from 10,195 claims (5% of total claims) cost over $52.5 million (10% of total costs) and resulted in 233,013 workdays absent (9% of total days). Vehicles were involved in 99 (43%) of the fatal claim. Further revealed was that in 2000/2001 heavy truck drivers made up 33% of total payments, 26% of lost time and 11% of vehicle claims." (Murray, et… [read more]

Hybrid Car Engine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Hybrid Car Engines

How exactly does a hybrid car engine work? We all know these engines use less gasoline and are more economical than conventional internal combustion engines, but how exactly to they do it? They do it not with smoke and mirrors, but with new and exciting technologies!

The hybrid car engine is a relatively new development in automobile technology that is really beginning to catch on as gas prices continue to climb. The word "hybrid" actually means a combination of two engines or power supplies, which is why these cars are called hybrids. For example, the big diesel-electric engines you see pulling trains are actually considered hybrid engines.

Two of the hybrids on the market for several years are the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight, although there are some new models hitting showroom floors, including SUVs from Lexus, Ford, and Mercury, and upcoming hybrid entries from other companies, including Nissan. Honda is also introducing a hybrid Civic 4-door model. Hybrids are the wave of the future because of rising gasoline prices and because they are much less harmful to the environment than traditional gasoline engines. In fact, they reduce pollution up to 90% (Bamber).

Hybrids blend the best of two technologies to come out ahead in gas mileage. They use an electric engine combined with a gasoline engine. Why? Because it's more efficient that using only one or the other. Gasoline engines provide more power but are most costly to run and cause more pollution. Electric engines use a bank of batteries that must be recharged after a certain number of miles, (usually between 50 to 100 miles), and they are notoriously underpowered - they can reach perhaps a maximum of 60 mph. By blending the two technologies, engineers have come up with a more effective engine that has the power most people want and the fuel economy the country needs.

Here's how the thing actually works. The car runs mainly on the electric engine that runs off a bank of batteries. When the electric engine is accelerating and cruising, the gasoline engine shuts down and does not run. When the car…… [read more]

Southwest Airlines Originally Began Operation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The main concerns of any HR department are: improving performance, lowering costs plus motivating and satisfying employees.

Human Resource is responsible for recruiting, promoting and training employees. The company itself aims to provide the best quality service with a warm, friendly attitude. Southwest's company philosophy is that customers come second to employees- the most important members. They believe that if the firm takes care of the employees will take care of the company and in Southwest employees introduce creative, innovative ideas and a 'fun culture' that has helped increase profitability. The aim of the airline was to maximize profits and they have their own pocket in the market that is affordable air travel to people who did not afford it in the past. The airline flies short, domestic flights and smaller airports, to save costs. Southwest management has strived to engender employee loyalty. Their introduction of Ticketless travel, they had a limited fleet of technicians -- which saved on training costs. They also introduced computerization, they have other tradeoffs that are made in favor of low fare. The company has a wonderful employee satisfaction record, in this respect it is one of top Fortune 100 companies and has remained continuously profitable for over 50 years (Hall, A. 2007).

Diversification: Southwest must implement related diversification, it should start its own booking offices, a training centre for security and other related airport personnel. With its great profits it can invest in manufacturing of plane seats or other parts. The airline can also start its own catering company, which provides simple, healthy food. This is because an airline needs the support of agents, managers, catering companies to ensure effective cost management. Southwest began by flying such short distances that food was not a requirement, but since it is now flying in many cities, it should add these complements to improve service while keeping cost under control.

First it results in an increase in costs, as now the business has to coordinate between the airline and production division. This means greater transportation, communication costs. They in this way might exhaust important resources in the working of the extended division. The sole decision making posts become unimportant and more interdepartmental coordination is required (Zhou, Y. M, 2007).


Southwest is the leading airline in the U.S. And it's a model of excellent human resource management as well as strategic implementation. However, the company should consider expanding its horizon's through diversification.


Bunz, U.K & Maes, J. D, (1998). Case Studies. Learning Excellence: Southwest Airlines Approach. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://bunz.comm.fsu.edu/southwest.pdf

Dirk, T. (2012). Travel and Leisure Services Outsourcing. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://www.wns.com/Resources/Articles/Article-Details/45/Five-trends-for-the-airline-industry-in-2010.aspx

Hall, A. (2007). Southwest Airlines: The Role of Human Resources in Implementing Business Strategy and Hiring Practices. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://www.arichall.com/academic/papers/om5210-hrm.pdf

The Official Board (2012). Southwest Airlines. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/southwest-airlines

Zhou, Y.M. (2007). University of Michigan: Related Diversification and Structural Complexity. Retrieved 8 July, 2012, from citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=… [read more]

Exxon Valdez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Exxon Valdez

The oil tanker Exxon Valdez hit at a reef in the Prince William Sound of Alaska on March 24, 1989 and it was considered as a nightmare that not only brought revolutionary change in Prince William Sound but made the world to think twice about the belief of the assurances from corporations that their operations are safe. (The… [read more]

Automobile on American Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Unfortunately, an engine is the main source responsible for the large amount of hazardous emissions, thus the usage of any vehicle, even a small car, contaminates the environment.

During the combustion process, numerous chemical reactions create hazardous compounds produced in the engine that are expulsed into the environment, for example, large amounts of 'nitrogen oxides are formed when oxygen… [read more]

Crash of American Airlines Flight Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


("Aircraft Accident Brief," 1998, p. 15)

The two main landing gears and parts of the airplane's left and right wings were found along a 2,670-foot debris path, in the area between the point of the plane's impact short of the runway threshold and where the airplane came to rest. The pneumatic start connection door and the lower tailskid assembly were found 180 feet from the runway threshold. The debris also included other parts of the plane such as airstairs, airstairs door, right spoiler panels, flap surfaces and control assemblies. The bottom of the fuselage sustained substantial damage and was torn, dented and scratched. (Ibid.)

In short, the aircraft was damaged beyond repairs and was later declared a total hull loss by the airplane's insurer. It was valued at $2.3 million. (Ibid, p.5)

Aftermath of the Crash


Soon after the airplane came to a stop after the crash landing, an emergency evacuation procedure was initiated. A ceiling stowage compartment door had been unhinged by the impact and blocked the forward entry and forward galley doors, preventing passengers and crewmembers from exiting the airplane through the forward left exit. Passengers and the crew, therefore, evacuated the airplane through the remaining exits, i.e., the forward right, aft right, and aft left exit doors and the four overwing exits. Twenty-two passengers and one flight attendant received minor injuries during the accident and the emergency evacuation. (Ibid, p. 16)


Although no one was killed or suffered serious injury in the flight 1340 crash, most passengers suffered psychologically. As a result, a class action was filed by a law firm in Chicago, Illinois, which was later turned into mass tort litigation representing 44 individual passengers. The litigants alleged that the American Airlines' landing protocol was dangerous that left the control of the plane in the hands of the autopilot until the plane was just 100 feet above ground. After a lengthy and protracted litigation, a confidential out-of-court settlement was negotiated between the passengers and American Airlines. ("Airplane Crashes," 2005)

Probable Causes of the Crash

A subsequent inquiry by the National Transportation Safety Board into the accident established that "the probable cause of this accident was the failure of the flight crew to maintain a proper pitch altitude for a successful landing or go-around." It also noted that "the divergent pitch oscillations of the airplane, which occurred during the final approach were the result of an improper autopilot desensitization rate" and it contributed to the accident. ("Aircraft Accident Brief," 1998, p.26)

More specifically, in the most critical phase of the landing approach at the decision height, the flight crew "did not react in a proper and timely manner to excessive pitch deviations and descent rates by either initiating a go-around or adjusting the pitch attitude and thrust to ensure a successful landing." (Ibid, p. 24)

As for the "contributing cause": the autopilot was programmed to be desensitized in a 150-second period after passing through 1,500 feet radio altitude on the approach. This time setting was… [read more]

Ford Moto Company Sample Marketing Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ford Motor Company, Sample Marketing Plan

Marketing Objectives a) Environmental analysis:

Ford Motors completed 100 years in 2003 to become one of the world's biggest corporations. Few companies are considered synonymous with the history and development of industry to which it represents and society throughout the 20th century as the Ford Motor Company. The most remarkable contribution of the company… [read more]

Designing a Procedural Security System-Wk4-Writ Oakland International Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Designing a Procedural Security System-wk4-Writ

Oakland International Security

The particular asset within the global transportation system that this document will discuss is Oakland International airport, which is approximately the third largest airport within the San Francisco Bay Area. Before describing the security system and the different measures employed to maintain the safety of passengers and employees utilizing this airport, it is essential to describe the security threats that Oakland International regularly faces. Essentially, there are both external and internal threats. External threats are those that come from outside the airport and threaten to breach its perimeter defenses. Internal threats are those that are found within the airport itself -- typically in the form of passengers or those posing as passengers or possibly as employees.

External threats to Oakland International include objects, vehicles, and people attempting to penetrate its perimeter to damage the airport and those inside of it. For this specific reason, the primary security measures for this airport include fortifying its exterior. There are a couple of ways to efficaciously accomplish this objective, such as erecting barricades like walls and tall fences around the perimeter of the building. Access to areas that are considered sensitive -- such as terminals, fuel depots, and baggage area handling areas -- should be especially guarded. Additionally, it is important to employ a large force of a security team -- members of which should ideally include representatives from the Federal Aviation Authority -- on the outside of the airport to project a vigilant presence that can detect any external threats before they have breached the airport's perimeter. Vehicular access to the airport should be restricted and includes implementing measures of parking in which people are not allowed to be in stationary vehicles for an extended length of time near sensitive areas (Tyson & Grabianowski, no date).

In terms of attempting to counteract internal threats to Oakland International Airport, there are a number of prudent measures that can help secure the airport. Again, it is necessary to enumerate…… [read more]

Government Agencies Post 911 September 11, 2001 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Government Agencies Post 911

September 11, 2001 changed the lives of all Americans. It was a terrible attack on American soil that forever changed the nature of the modern American consciousness. However, it had much more practical implications as well in terms of how it impacted government agencies and their role in protecting American citizens from future attacks. Today, old agencies have readjusted their roles along with the formation of new agencies to step up the level of protection for American citizens, especially in terms of global transportation security.

Both old and new agencies have had to revamp their agendas in accordance with new policies adopted after the 9/11 attack shocked the nation. Many government agencies that were already in place were revamped in order to take on new responsibilities and to ensure an increase in security measures. For example, the Federal Aviation Administration was restructured in order to address the new threats in a post 9/11 world. Originally set up in the mid 20th century, the agency predominately dealt with air traffic. However, after the attack on 9/11, the agency then became responsible for increased security measures. In addition to readjusting the roles of already established agencies, new ones were established as well. For example, the Department of Homeland Security was established in order to increase protection of citizens from terrorist attacks, which differentiated its activities from the Department of Defense which works in a military context only.

In this post 9/11 world, the nature of aviation security has dramatically changed. The Federal Aviation Administration has increased its own role in global transportation security. Funding to the organization has been crucial in developing and implementing more innovative global positioning software that tracks planes all over the world. Their efforts have not only streamlined flight…… [read more]

Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 182 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,262 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) Flight 182

The mid-air collision between a Boeing 727 commercial airliner (the ill-fated Pacific Southwest Airlines flight 182) and a Cessna training aircraft over a San Diego neighborhood on September 25, 1978 remains one of the biggest air disasters in the U.S. aviation history to date. All 135 people on board the PSA flight including seven… [read more]

Henry Ford Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Henry Ford may be the most famous American innovator. From his development of the Ford Model T, to the introduction of assembly lines, Ford helped usher in a technological revolution. Ford's impact was not limited to technology; he was widely renowned as a champion of his workers, and was the first major manufacturer to ensure that his workers were paid… [read more]

Environmental Politics in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Canada



The objective of this research is to answer the question of: "What kind of impact does globalization have on Canadian policies concerning air pollution, specifically concerning motor vehicle air pollution?


The argument presented in this work is that Canada's tendency to follow the… [read more]

Hybrid vs. Gas Car Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,041 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hybrid Car

The Pros and Cons of a Hybrid Car

The intent of this paper is to evaluate the pros and cons of having a hybrid car vs. one that is powered by gasoline. With the price of gasoline globally escalating upward, the debate between hybrid and gasoline-powered is also becoming more prevalent, especially in the United States where Toyota Motor Company, Ford, GM, Chrysler, and other manufacturers are aggressively launching hybrid vehicles at an unprecedented pace.

With all the efforts of auto manufacturers to deliver hybrid vehicles, the questions remain if these automobiles are worth the higher price when lower-priced and smaller gasoline-powered vehicles get just as good of mileage and are thousands of dollars less. Hybrid vehicles do deliver efficiency in larger metro areas where state and local governments allow drivers traveling alone to use the High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes. The State of California has recently decided to retract the offer to hybrid vehicle owners to use HOV lanes due to the slowness of hybrid vehicle sales in the state and the cost of administering the program. With this benefit no longer available and the wide variety of low cost and high mileage cars in California, hybrid cars are being increasingly seen as a social statement of environmental awareness over the economics of operating them. Toyota's positioning of the Prius as a socially responsible vehicle is working, while Ford positioning hybrids for their fuel saving capability is failing. Positioning is the marketing strategies that manufacturers use to communicate the value of their automobiles. As Leonardo DiCaprio, Tom Hanks, Cheryl Crow, Prince Charles of England, Will Farrell, Harrison Ford and many other celebrities drive the Prius, the car has become a symbol of the young and environmental conscious. These celebrities are making a statement about their concern for the environment, and each is definitely not concerned about the economics of hybrid saving on gasoline. So what is happening is a paradox. Originally designed to save on fuel costs, the environmentally friendly features of the car has become a social statement.

Demographics from Strategic Vision (2006) bear out the strength of branding on hybrid auto sales, with 34.13% having a post-graduate degree, the majority being professors or instructors (21.97%), and the majority over 50 (58%) and three quarters of them owning a Toyota (75.73%) followed by Lexus with the 440h (9.92% with Honda being 7.64% of total sales. Please see the references for an Excel spreadsheet with additional information.

Pros of Owning Hybrid Cars

With all the hype surrounding hybrid cars it's a good idea to list the pros and cons of the technology. The pros include the following, and come from Greenhybrid.com (2006):

By design, hybrid vehicles run cleaner. While manufacturers claim up to 80% cleaner emissions and have lower emissions.

There are on average eight different warranties on hybrid cars mainly due to the many systems that comprise the entire car.

There are generous federal tax credits for buying a hybrid vehicle, as the Federal Government considers… [read more]

Industrial and Post Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Urban Industrialization

During the 19th Century, the application of science to invention started the Industrial Revolution -- the mass production of material goods by machines. Although population growth had reached new highs, the first step in this revolution happened in mid-eighteenth-century England, with the development of the steam engine and machines for spinning and weaving textiles. Increased production of coal, iron, and steel fueled expansion of industry and commerce meant production of goods shifting from homes and small shops to manufactured goods being produced "in factories, mills and mines. It demanded enormous investments of capital and the efforts of a large labor force; it stimulated growth." (Fiero 1)

Industrialism was the reason for the West's economic and military dominance over the rest of the world. This process is illustrated in the history of the railroad, "the most important technological phenomenon of the early nineteenth century and one made possible by the combined technologies of steam power, coal, and iron." The first all-iron rails were forged in Britain in 1789, but it was not until 1804 that the first steam railway locomotive was built, and several more decades until "iron horses" became a major mode of transportation. The rails throughout Europe and the United States provided the means through which industry spread their factories and goods. Industrialism was the basis of the West's spread of their control over the rest of the world. Industrialization polarized nations into the strong and the weak. With the ability to produce mechanized automatic weapons, such as the machine gun, and enormous amounts of ammunition, Western imperialism spread throughout the world. The factory and mill workers worked long, hard hours, even children worked, without much compensation or care about their physical conditions. In the 1830's…… [read more]

Network Design Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Network Design

Network engineers together with the users develop the ability to deal with network design challenges that prove difficult compared to a similar level they were created. The predicament can lead to network that is complex and challenging to trouble shoot. The situation can also lead to networks that do not function well as required as the significant of scale growth arises hence not matching the requirements of the customer. A solution to such a problem is usage of an organized, top-down network design methodology that concentrates on fulfilling the requirements of a customer, limitations, and goals.

Top-down network design

Top-down network design is a method for planning networks that start at the top layer of the OSI reference model prior to moving to the bottom layers. It concentrates on applications, phases, and data transport done before choosing routers, switches together with media that function at the bottom layers. The top-down network design procedurecomprise exploring divisional as well as group structuresto get the people whom the network offers services and also to get valued information to make the project succeed (O'Kelly, & Miller 1994).Top-down network design is considered interactive and recognizes that the consistent model and the physical strategy change as more data is gathered.Understanding the business goals of a customer and constraints is a serious element of network design.

As network expectations changes network engineers come up with design principles. Many Enterprises do not depend on one vendor, technology inventions or protocol. The design tactic has improved dramatically and comprise of safety and scalability as main criteria. Security has an immense influence on network design.There is larger redundancy in many network designs since the events that took place in September in the year 2001. This has made business continuity a priority. Organizations are concentrating on increased stages of redundancy as well as disaster-recovery initiatives becoming a requirement (Nes, 2003).Redundancy is defined in many forms comprising of different power sources, several WAN carriers, substitute cable routes coupled with redundant hardware. Network connectivity and other services are perilous components of enterprise functions.

The rate of downtime is aggregating at a remarkable rate.Enterprises do not focus on usingone vendor and protocol as many technologies are now consistent. Designing a network is not an insignificant factor. Evaluating the design standards enables a person to understand the network and the functions of the network. Network designs have to adapt easily in implementation of the next generation of technological invention. Many network designers plan to have IP telephony.These network design initiatives are for new networks and helpful in enhancing the existing ones.Proper planning on networks is often based on sound architecture hence makes redesigning of the designs in the future easy.

Stages of the Network

Design is one elementassociated with a network life cycle. Planning, design, implementation, operation, and optimization (PDIOO) are the phasesinvolved in network life cycle. Every stagecreates its precursor to establish a sound network that preserves its efficiencynotwithstandingthe changing business wants. A person can use the PDIOO methodology…… [read more]

City Corridor I Rode Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


4. I also felt like the neighborhoods were generally quite vibrant, with a lot of street life. The transit line goes through a lot of high-density urban areas, and it seems that is why the line was built here.. Looking at the route, it connects downtown with many inner city neighborhoods, but ones that are mixed in income. Thus, there are going to be people traveling from these areas to downtown during the week. The line has fairly high ridership during rush hours, compared with the weekends. That said, there are few areas along the route that are economically depressed or that would not have a good reason for one to get out and walk around. Thus, the line also serves as a means to explore these areas, or to live in one part and shop in others. On the way back downtown, there were more people with shopping bags, presumably because it is later in the day.

The route also serves as a connecting route. From the Red Line, there are connections downtown with other lines, and at North Hollywood there is a further connection to the orange line bus. So the route serves to connect these major hubs. This also gives access to the different neighborhoods in the Hollywood/Wiltshire area to the people who work downtown, or who live in further suburbs to come to the city. I think the city planners felt like building this line here was both a means to get a lot of cars off the road during rush hour, but also to revitalize some areas in Hollywood and connect Koreatown with downtown.

5. From what I know of this route, it is much busier during rush hours than on the weekend. During weekdays, I think it is the most traveled line in the network. So as far as I am aware, the choice to ride on a Saturday had a significant impact on the number of other riders that were on the train.

I also am certain that the types of riders is affected. It may be that the number of non-professional riders is roughly the same, or maybe a little bit higher during the week. People still go shopping mid-week as far as I know. But the number of professionals, people in suits, especially downtown, is going to be much higher. I also feel that during the week, especially during the rush hour, a lot of these will be riding all the way to North Hollywood so that they can connect with suburban services beyond the metro line. On the weekend, there were a few of these people exiting the train at the end of the line. I feel that the "feeder" nature of the route clearly exists for downtown.

This means that the other major group of people using the line are those who live, work and shop in the immediate area. They might use the line to go two or three stops away, and I saw a lot of evidence… [read more]

Estimation of Road Traffic Emissions in Jakarta Indonesia and Development of Strategies for Reducing Dissertation

Dissertation  |  25 pages (6,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … prosperity in the developing nations of Asia such as Indonesia is exacting a toll on the health of people and the environment through increased vehicular travel and concomitant increases in harmful emissions. This aim of this case study is to estimate and to quantify road traffic emissions and determine how they could have a bearing on the transportation… [read more]

Session Long Project Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


economy class?

First class targets passengers can afford to pay more money for greater amenities such as more comfortable seats (or seats that totally recline on long flights), food, and bonuses like specialty drinks. Comfort, luxury, and privacy are prioritized by first class travelers. Business class is often a second-tier class and its name implies it is populated by businesspeople traveling on the company dime. These travelers fly frequently and want additional amenities, particularly those that speed their travel time and waiting in line. "International airlines are locked in a technology-led competition to provide the best business class seats and win the largest share of big-spending corporate travelers" (Rothman & Jasper 2011). Economy class is the cheapest of all three, and is populated by travelers who are at least somewhat budget-conscious.

Contrast Jet Blue vs. Southwest Airlines in terms of the following two aspects:

(1) Compare and explain the impact of key external factors on each company, e.g., economic conditions and the growing consumer interest in leisure travel.

Both Jet Blue and Southwest are regional carriers who offer budget services. Given that travelers are growing increasingly price-conscious, both carriers have capitalized upon the misfortunes of the major carriers to some degree, as even the nationals are forced to offer fewer services such as meals but have not slashed prices. Jet Blue and Southwest have never offered many amenities but always offer cheaper prices.

(2) Describe each company's target market and positioning. Give some examples of how these strategies are implemented for each company.

"Veteran Southwest built its reputation on 33 years of stake-your-claim seating, wisecracking flight attendants and plentiful peanuts. Upstart JetBlue emerged from nowhere...with new planes, free seatback boob tubes and baskets of junk food. [However] They're two very different creations, especially when it comes to size. Southwest flew seven times as many passengers as JetBlue...it serves twice as many cities and has more than 10 times the number of daily flights" (Woodyard 2004). Southwest is also better known for its quirky marketing, including singing flight attendants and wisecracking pilots. Customer service is a priority. There is also a rough democracy in its attitudes -- until recently there was no assigned seating at Southwest, in contrast to Jet Blue. However, Jet Blue has been praised for having better food and more in-flight amenities like televisions.


Rothman, A., & Jasper, C. (2011). The unbearable heaviness of business class. Business Week



Structure of the airline industry (n.d.). Avjobs. Retrieved:


Wen, C.-H., & Yeh, W.-Y. (2010). Positioning of international air passenger carriers using multidimensional scaling and correspondence analysis. Transportation Journal,… [read more]

Alliance Why Would Large Airlines Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

So you think the government should have a role in overseeing these alliances? Is it good for competition for the government to keep intervening?

The government plays a central role in regulating the industry. This is because the standards they impose will ensure that consumers are treated fairly. Moreover, they can ensure that everyone is following the highest safety practices. This improves reliability and the experience for everyone. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

It is beneficial for the government to intervene up to a certain extent. This means that officials can determine if certain practices are hurting consumers or if any kind of regulations are being ignored. This ensures that there is a focus on promoting competition and maintaining the highest standards for improving safety. When this happens, the public will have more confidence about utilizing this form of transportation more frequently. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

Does it make sense to have several government departments involved in antitrust regulations?

Yes. This is because each department has the ability to determine if a particular problem will result from a possible merger. These insights can help to focus the discussion by looking at contrasting aspects of the issue. When this happens, the government can create a policy that is taking these different views into account. This will ensure that the interests of the general public are always at the forefront. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)

For instance, the Department of Transportation will look at the impact of a deal on the industry. While the Justice Department, is concerned about anti-trust regulations and possible breaches. Each agency is providing unique insights about the overall challenges of a potential merger and how they will impact stakeholders. It is at this point when officials can make an informed decision by examining contrasting opinions and views. (Hauptman, 2008) (Wensveen, 2011)…… [read more]

Environmental Pollution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (685 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Pollution

Phoenix, Arizona's growing population exerts pressure on infrastructure and natural resources. This has ultimately impacted the environment. City's expansion initiatives have cut deeper into rural areas leading to loss of wetlands and biological habitats. It has also led to air and water pollution. The high density of automobiles, factories, and commercial enterprises within the vicinity of the city has accelerated airborne emission of particulate matter, various types of oxides, and toxic volatile compounds. The city authorities are bothered that the population trends could have negative impact on the environment, economy, and the general social welfare of the city residents. The authorities are particularly concerned that the population growth could possible lead to infrastructure deterioration, increase traffic congestion, and loss of open space. The population increase could also compromise air and water quality. This report seeks to come up with recommendations that can help fix Phoenix pollution scares that lies within the $18 million allocated for tackling environmental issues.

The City Council of Phoenix should seriously consider establishing green spaces or even embark on urban forestry to address pollution debacle that it is currently faced with. This costs a total of $4.2 million. Trees influence local air quality because they remove air pollutants (Escobedo, 2010). They also indirectly modify microclimates by lowering temperature and altering wind patterns. Trees minimize air pollution in three major ways: deposition, precipitation, and wind (Nowak, Crane & Stevens, 2006). Care should however be taken because trees can also modify ambient temperature and solar radiation, wind patterns, and relative humidity (Scott, Simpson & McPherson, 1999). Trees remove particulate matters, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide (Smith, 1990). Trees also reduce topsoil erosion as well as stopping the washing of pollutants into the water sources (Kuo, 2003).

The City Council of Phoenix should encourage alternative transportation. The authorities should beef up security to ensure that those walking or cycling to work are safe. This will substantially reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. This will significantly reduce emission of compounds like carbon monoxide and lead…… [read more]

South Africa's Public Transportation Needs Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (523 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


The first and foremost is the need for improved and ongoing maintenance of road conditions, road signs, barriers and other traffic constructions designed to maintained orderly use of the roads.

But beyond that, an article in BBC News (1999) reports, "Paul Swart, a spokesman for the opposition Democratic Party, called for improved policing, more frequent roadworthy tests and limiting the number of hours bus drivers spend at the wheel." These recommendations would be highlighted by a high number of bus accidents and subsequent fatalities. These would demonstrate the need for more traffic safety officers on the road. Lax enforcement of traffic safety rules leads to unsafe driving and, in the case of the bus drivers that are essential to South Africa's public transportation landscape, also leads to inappropriately long hours behind the wheel. Tired bus drivers represent a danger to everybody on the road.

Therefore, a key component to improving the way that land is used for public transportation is to improve the numbers and distribution of enforcement officers and roadwork or maintenance teams. With its roads so heavily traveled both by locals and visitors, it is incumbent upon South Africa to make them safe and desirable.

South Africa is a nation on the cusp of greater recognition as an internationally appealing destination. Improvement of these above-noted dimensions of public transportation could help it to take that next step forward on the world stage.

Works Cited:

BBC News. (1999). South Africa's Deadly Roads. BBC.co.uk.

CIA. (2013). South Africa. The World Factbook.

Move, Inc. (2012).…… [read more]

Porter's Five Force in Auto Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Porter's Five Forces In Auto Industry

Industry definition

Industry profile

Industry structure

Future outlook

Porter's Five Forces Strategy Analysis as it applies to the Auto Industry

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Threat of New Entrants

Bargaining Power of Buyers

Threat of Substitutes

Competitive Rivalry in the Industry

The American Auto industry is about to lose some of its key players; Detroit.… [read more]

School Parking Hello, Mr. Martinez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


School Parking

Hello, Mr. Martinez. As you are well aware, the overall student population at Florida International University has become very disgruntled over the apparent lack of decision making regarding student parking. The campus, to my delight, has been very vocal in their assertions regarding parking and its overall availability. In addition, faculty, staff, and visitors are all united in their concerns over the lack of parking availability. These negative sentiments can affect the campus and its overall reputation irrefutability is this problem continues unabated. As such, this document provides plausible solutions to the Universities parking epidemic that mitigates harm to the university while also adding convenience to all patrons. Furthermore, the document provides valuable insight as to how to prevent this problem from occurring in the future. Through the use of this document, my aim is to provide a financial atoneable solution that is both relevant and timely.

To begin, I would first like to present figure 1, highlighted the number of parking spaces to the number of students enrolled in the university. As you can infer, the campus has grown enormously throughout its three-decade history. Students are now recognizing the value proposition of the university in regards to academics and overall quality. However, the available parking spaces have not grown at a rate anywhere near that of the students. This creates massive inconvenience in the form of transportation, timeliness, and overall traffic. There are now roughly 6 students for every 1 available parking space. This corresponds with a ratio of roughly 1 to 1 in 1970 and 2 to one in 1980.

Figure 1: Comparison of Student Body Increase to Decrease in Availability of Student Parking




















In addition, the university conducted a survey regarding parking and the…… [read more]

Eisenhower Creation of Interstate Highway System Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Eisenhower Creation of Interstate Highway System

Dwight Eisenhower was the United States of America's 34th president. He ranks as one of the best presidents in the country's history due to many development projects that he initiated and complete during his era. One of the biggest and most remarkable projects of his times is the "National system of interstate and defense… [read more]

Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Research Paper

Research Paper  |  62 pages (20,526 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 63


The main technique for controlling stormwater releases is the application of best administration practices (BMPs) that stop or diminish the release of contaminants into a water body (e.g., building of a stormwater holding pond to stop stormwater drainage straight into getting waters). best administration practices appropriate for one airport are not necessarily appropriate for another. Issues that may have some… [read more]

Comair Flight 5191 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This pattern of behavior is consistent with perseveration. In other words, the air traffic controller was more comfortable engaging in routine tasks than ensuring that planes were taking off properly or handling the emergency once it occurred.

Based on the flight crew's behavior, they too were experiencing perseveration. As Pruchnicki and colleagues (2011) mention, with the flight crew went to a plane without checking to be sure it was the right one. After the right plane was located they went through the motions of pre-flight preparations, rather than going over the details with enough attention to generate concern about where the runway was located. This suggests the flight crew was feeling pressured to perform tasks in a shorter period of time, thus the omissions and mistakes when performing checklists and briefings. With the pressure of rushed preflight checks and briefings, the increased workload would have aggravated perseveration.


Based on the analysis by Pruchnicki and colleagues (2011), the SAFTE/FAST model could have only been useful for predicting whether the air traffic controller was too fatigued to be on duty. To try and correct this deficiency, they recommended that flight crew members wear actigraphs when sleeping to generate a record of the amount and timing of sleep periods. The data from the past several days could be uploaded into the onboard recorder before the flight, thereby preserving the data in case of a fatal accident. The data thus gathered could also be used to develop shift schedules that would protect the sleep/wake rhythms of the flight crews and air traffic controllers.

In her speech before National Sleep Foundation in 2010, NTSB chairman Hersman described the difficulty accident investigators experience when trying to determine if fatigue played a role. She also mentioned that fatigue was being documented in an "… alarming" number of transportation accidents, including aviation. In an effort to describe the NTSB's view of the effects of fatigue, she compared it to the severity of alcohol inebriation. This comparison was used because so much more is known about the effects of alcohol consumption on motor and cognitive performance and the NTSB has responded accordingly by routinely testing for alcohol and drugs in the immediate aftermath of an accident. Achieving the same goal for fatigue is at the top of the NTSB's Most Wanted List of transportation safety improvements.

The fatigue-related safety goals the NTSB is working towards includes a methodology for forensically determining whether fatigue played a role, establishing employee work schedules that would foster rest and circadian uniformity, pushing employers to establish policies that permit employees to call in fatigued, and encouraging professional standards that include reporting for work only when rested (Hersman, 2010).


Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.

Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. NTSB.gov. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from…… [read more]

Demand for Suvs, Hybrids Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For drivers who need large utility vehicles like trucks for works, hybrid technology has proved to be disappointing. Overall, the "the hybrid has a greatly-reduced towing capacity and payload, which is most likely due to the addition of the electric motor and batteries" ("Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid trucks," Cars Direct, 2009). Given the higher initial purchase cost with reduced… [read more]

Cmv Cellular Phones Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Most truck drivers who responded to the agency's new rule did not wholly object to the idea that it is safer to drive without holding a cellular phone. One driver was quoted as stating "They should expand it to everybody…If you're going to operate a cellphone in a motor vehicle, you should be wearing a Bluetooth… [but] why limit it to truckers?" (Leiser 2011) The most common complaint was that the new rule did not go far enough, that drivers of ordinary cars, vans, and all other vehicles should also be included.

It is not entirely fair that truckers have been chosen to be the ones who get the ban on mobile phone use since the majority of accidents and fatalities seem to be caused by regular drivers in regular vehicles. And while the FMSCA seems to unfairly impose a rule on one group of drivers while not do the same to all the others, this should be seen more as a first step than a finished product. The ban on hand-held devices in CMV's should only be the gateway toward a complete ban on hand-held phone use in all vehicles. It will not be until all drivers are completely focused on their driving, and not on the phone in their hands, that the roads will be safe for all.

Works Cited

"Cell Phone Use Banned for Commercial Motor Vehicles." Local CBS St. Louis. 13

Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.


"Drivers of CMV's: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones." Federal Register. 2

Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.


Leiser, Ken. "Interstate truck drivers face cellphone ban on Jan. 3." SLTtoday.com.

10 Dec. 2011. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.

http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/interstate-truck-drivers-face-cellphone-ban-on-jan/article_c2e61739-c27c-5f8f-ac54-0b5adf902a9f.html… [read more]

Global Position System (GPS) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This creates a lot impact in the business travel buyers and their travelers (Sheridan & Corker, 2006). According to Next Generation Air Transport System (NGATS) blue print, which ask funding to the aviation security system and to the entire sector so it can be re-established to meet the surging demands.

The market is expected to develop quickly therefore most travel… [read more]

United States Automotive Industry Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The automobile industry of the United States is saturated by a large number of well-established local and international brands. General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are the local automobile giants whereas Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Suzuki, and Hyundai; the big five international brands have more than 80% share in this industry. All these local and international brands are competing with each other… [read more]

TSA Is TSA Crossing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Another major policy that TSA implemented is TSA VIPR's Program (Visual Intermodel Prevention and Response). This program involved teams of Federal Air Marshals, Surface Transportation Security Inspectors, Transportation Security Officers, Behavior Detection Officers and Explosive Detection Canine teams screening every individual on train stations, airports and bus stations. The measure was a complete violation of the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution that states that the government cannot carry out any sort of search without any probable/solid reason (Stanley, 2011). The policy crosses the boundaries of ACLU terms laid down.

The current measure introduced by TSA is TSA Pre-check Program. Pre-check / Trusted Traveler Program is an expedited screening program where travelers eligible for this screening (Global Entry/GE, NEXUS, SENTRI members, Delta Skymiles and American Advantage frequent flyer program members (U.S. Department of Homeland Security)) would need to provide nine digit Trusted Traveler Member number (PASS ID) when booking for travelling. A complete detail of the program will be a part of this thesis. The one important claim that comes out of the analysis of this program is that this security measure is running in the right direction, with no violation against ACLU principles. TSA Pre-check has expanded in numerous airports of the nation and this pre-screening process has been successful so far.

Moreover, the transition of TSA towards less invasive silhouette outline body scanner images instead of SPOT and VIPR has been appreciated due to the fact that these scanners are millimeter wave body scanners which replace the nude images of bodies with just generic outlines of the human form… [read more]

Smith Electric Vehicles - Kc Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


However, with increasing utilization of renewable energies, electric powered vehicles could represent a sustainable solution to transportation related environmental issues.

Companies such as this represent a private sector solution to the quest for sustainability. Although a comprehensive industry solution is still many years away from being feasible, it takes companies like Smith Electric Vehicles many years to acquire the capabilities to be able to mass produce their products. Though there are still a plethora of obstacles that must be overcome before this technology can become mainstream, the company is making great strides towards this end.

One way this company benefits the local community is that it is training local citizens in the technologies that will most likely be employed in the future. Not only does it employ many people and train them in these technologies but it also fosters a sense of awareness about environmental issues. The company also definitely adds a positive contribution to the local culture which adds sustainable issues to the discussion. All and all, the company is a good member of the Kansas City community and it should receive as much local support as feasibly possible.

Works Cited

Colgrass, N. (2012, April 15). The Coal-Powered Secret of Some Electric Cars. Retrieved from Newser: http://www.newser.com/story/144094/are-electric-cars-so-green-depends-where-you-live.html

Smith. (2012). Overview. Retrieved from Smith Electric Vehicles: http://smithelectric.com/about-smith/overview/

Smith. (2012). Zero Emissions. Retrieved from Smith Electric Vehicles: http://smithelectric.com/go-electric/zero-emissions/… [read more]

Hot Rod Car Enthusiasts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (911 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


These regulations are generally geared at number of other related issues on the surface. For example, a noisy muffler may be regulated on the grounds of pollution standards and environmental concerns. Other restrictions may also be geared at certain safety concerns such as the having the proper safety restraint equipment in place or barring certain performance enhancements that are legal to use on the street, such as tires for example. Older customized vehicles may also not pass a state required inspection if some of the vehicles features are not modernized to meet standards introduced after the cars production.

Although many of these regulations and restrictions are arguably well intentioned, many others are not. Some are clearly driven by contempt for the emerging countercultures' that are centered around the aesthetic and performance enhancements of automobiles. Furthermore, this contempt is based upon a stereotype that is one actual reality. While some members of such counter-cultures are undoubtedly of a criminal nature, the vast majority are completely law abiding. This is actually the same within any cultural group that you can imagine whether it be based on religion, national identity, hobbies, ext. However, given the formation of the stereotypes is already in existence, instances of indiscretions by any of the members are quick to be picked up by the media which only acts to further perpetuate the stereotype.

There is some evidence of groups fighting back against both the stereotype in general as well as the unfounded instances of restrictions and regulations. The Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) has formed an action network known as SAN (SEMA Action Network) (SAN). While the action network is focused mainly on legislative issues regarding the specialty equipment modifications performed on cars, the broader organization also works to mitigate the negative stereotype by holding car rallies and other events for charitable causes through another branch of the organization known as SEMA cares (SEMA). As a result of this groups efforts, as well as the efforts of individuals all over the nation, it is unlikely that legislative measures will ever be able to break the collective spirit of automotive enthusiast in this country and the spirit of the hot rod will live on indefinitely.

Works Cited

Hardin, D. "Can They Outlaw Hot Rodding?" 10 December 2010. Hot Rod Magazine. Web. 1 May 2012.

IBIS World. "Auto Customization Shops in the U.S. - Industry Market Research Report." 1 February 2012. Market Research. Web. 1 May 2012.

SAN. "Promoting Legislative Solutions for the Automotive Hobby." 2012. SEMA Action Network. Web. 1 May 2012.

SEMA. "Leading Manufactures Pitch in Parts for Charity Mustang GT." 2010. SEMA. Web. 1 May 2012.

Zaragoza, S. "Alta Mere…… [read more]

New Payment System for Parking Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The proposed fees for the website necessary for the project are within the MBTA's budget and will be subject to quality assurance beta-testing.

The detriments from the city's point-of-view are that the proposed plan may not recoup the additional revenue it must outlay to construct the system. Even if the system is not unduly costly, there will still be some cost to install scanners, mail stickers to participants, and to screen for those who attempt to circumvent the system. The new system must also be marketed in a compelling fashion, and the different aspects of participation must be clearly explained. There is no guarantee that increased numbers of commuters will avail themselves of the opportunity to pay in advance because of the increased ease of using the system. Secondly, if more people elect to use public transportation, this can result in higher costs, greater stressors upon the system, and a demand for new routes and more subway cars and buses to accommodate traffic. Finally, there may be complaints of favoritism towards those who buy the passes. More casual drivers may feel excluded and angry when they cannot find places to park near MBTA stations if there is an increase of commuters using the parking lots, thanks to the greater ease of the new system. Tourists that take their cars to the city may feel irritated when they cannot find easy, convenient parking near an MBTA station.

A final charge might be that the system does not convey much additional value, since commuters can already buy a monthly permit and display this on the dashboard or pay via mobile phone technology. The primary added value is that the 'scanned' payment system is less cumbersome and the payments are automatic, reducing the chance a commuter will forget it is the first of the month and needs to renew the pass: the detriment from a consumer's point-of-view is a loss of control and flexibility day-by-day and month-by-month, in terms…… [read more]

Commercial Helicopter Industry Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  6 pages (1,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Speculation of Findings

The proposed research will likely be similar to trend analysis from trade materials, but will provide a much more detailed look at the trend notification in public material. The researcher expects to see data that indicates that these smaller companies struggle to recruit pilots in a timely manner and find this trend to be increasingly prevalent. The work will also seek to provide a better understanding of the kinds and types of training that might be needed to respond to mass pilot loss and how the training organizations might better serve future students. Challenges to the industry are clearly many and finding qualified pilots would seem to be at the top of the list of possible shortcomings in this almost golden industry of growth. The work might also better indicate to future students what type of experience smaller providers are seeking and how to get it through larger industry involvement. There is a clear sense that with the diversity of the industry pilots need to be skilled in a variety of areas and given the task there is little margin for error. For this reason I believe this work will be highly informative regarding small business trends in the commercial helicopter industry.

Austin, N. (2008, June 21). Business with lots of highs. Advertiser, The (Adelaide).

Denham, S. (2007, June 10). Ireland is flying high? Not if you own a chopper. Sunday Times, The.

Garvey, W. (2006). B/CA Fast Five. Business & Commercial Aviation, 98(1), 20.

Moore, A. (2008, January 13). With predicted pilot shortage in mind, Oregon college touts aviation program. Bulletin, The (Bend, OR).

Phillips, E.H. (2000). Genav Feeling Pinch of Tight Pilot Market. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 153(15), 106.

Rimmer, D. (2000). Sierra Adds Career Helicopter Training. Business…… [read more]

Trip of a Lifetime Bon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


4. Sightseeing:

Though we are reserving our right to laziness, we intend to use: Walks of Italy, which the one we will likely visit and provides a private boat for a tour of Venice for 484 Euros ($645.40 USD) (Walks of Italy); Chiesa Santa Maria dei Miracoli; Collezione Peggy Guggenheim; Galleria dell'Accademia; Isola San Michele; The Fenice.

c. San Marino… [read more]

2007 Economic Crisis on American Thesis

Thesis  |  88 pages (24,230 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 50



One of the main factors which incremented this crisis even more was the expensive cost of automobile fuel, this was linked to the global oil crisis which occurred before the automobile crisis. The rise in fuel prices caused the general consumer to shift in their demand and they now opted to buy except for the large vehicles such as… [read more]

Learning Journal Weekly Research Article Review

Article Review  |  11 pages (5,125 words)
Bibliography Sources: 27


SIA and Virgin Australia will start interlining in Aug-2011. Codesharing, frequent flyer links, schedule coordination and joint pricing will follow once approval for the partnership is secured, expected by the end of 2011. Both carriers do not expect any major problems in securing the required approvals.

Big changes in Southeast Asia

The agreement is the next step in a rapidly… [read more]

School Transporation Time Management Problem Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In addition, a specific protocol for determining seniority and making assignments will be provided to dispatchers and management. Any deviations from the protocol must be communicated to Human Resources.

The Director of School Transportation has established the following standards related to the tracking hours worked by employees:

1. Arrivals and departures from the central bus barn of the District's Department of Transportation shall be recorded by punching a time clock. The rationale for this practice is the difficulty of oversight and the location of the bus barn in relation to other school district facilities. Because of the early hours associated with high school and middle school bus runs, office employees are generally not in place. The dispatcher is located in the central office on another campus, and so dispatch staff cannot provide oversight to bus drivers.

2. Drivers are also required to punch out at the end of a regular run and at the beginning of all runs. Drivers are able to access the interior of the bus barn at all times. Access to phones, restrooms, lockers, the lunchroom, and the punch clock can occur 24/7.

3. Drivers assigned to special activity runs, particularly those that encompass overnight stays, will be required to sign in and out, recording their actual working hours on a time sheet retained in the bus. The time sheet shall be turned in to the Director of Transportation's administrative staff on the next regular school day following the special activity bus run.

Evaluation of GPS/system or MDT/system tracking.

Functioning of tracking systems.

Anticipated savings attributed to tracking systems.


Maintenance…… [read more]

Body Imaging Integrating the Transportation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In keeping within the topic of public health, many suspect that this technology, when utilized consistently, can expose travelers to potential radiation poisoning. (Jones, 2009). Several experts believe that full-body scanning machines can deliver heavy doses of the extremely harmful "ionic radiation" (Jones, 2009, p. 1). Therefore, this makes women more vulnerable to subsequent long-term risks of breast cancer (Moore, 2010). Also, customers with thyroid glandular issues run the increased risk of future health problems (Moore, 2010).

Knowing the various health risks and other variables surrounding full-body screening, the need for the TSA to develop an integrated information system encompassing this technology becomes all the more profound. Updated and reliable passenger data must be maintained at the IT level in order for repeated exposure and potential health risks to be averted. Accurate systematic passenger information is essential in order to ensure that no one is misrepresented or mistreated (TSA, 2010). Software and hardware upgrade schedules should also be made available to TSA leadership through information systems' channels. By developing a dependable information system, the TSA can better manage the risks and downsides of this controversial practice, while also poising itself for the receptive and swift response to innovation.


Laskey, M. (2010). An Assessment of Checkpoint Security: Are Our Airports Keeping Passengers Safe? House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Transportation Security & Infrastructure Protection. Washington, DC: United States Department of Homeland Security.

Brenner, D.J., & Elliston, C.D. (2004). Estimated Radiation Risks Potentially Associated with Full-Body Screening. Journal of Radiology (232), 735-738.

Daanen, H.A., & Water, G.J. (1999, March). Whole Body Scanners. Human Factors Research Institute .

Electronic Privacy Information Center. (2010). Whole Body Imaging Technology and Body Scanners. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://epic.org/privacy/airtravel/backscatter/

Jones, A. (2009, December). Full-Body Scanners to Fry Travelers With Radiation. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.prisonplanet.com/full-body-scanners-to-fry-travelers-with-radiation.html

McCullagh, D. (2010, November). Transcript: Senate Hearing on TSA, Full-body Scanners. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20023038-281.html

Moore, E.A. (2010, January). Can Full-body Airport Scanners Harm You? Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://news.cnet.com/8301-27083_3-10423199-247.html

Smith, S. (2009). Body Scanner. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.tek84.com/bodyscanner.html

Tessler, J. (2009). Airport Full-body Scanners have Benefits, and Limits. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The Denver Post: http://www.denverpost.com/nationalpolitics/ci_14097796

Transportation Security Administration. (2010). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/secureflight/faqs.shtm

Weisblott, M. (2011). Are Full-body Scanners at Canadian Airports Really Just a Marketing Stunt? Retrieved March 3, 2011, from http://ca.news.yahoo.com/blogs/dailybrew/full-body-scanners-canadian-airports-really-just-marketing-20110117-113012-227.html… [read more]

Airport Security Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (4,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The section on the aircraft movement area should provide a description of any area that may be potentially used for landing, take-off and surface maneuvering of aircraft. This includes all intermediate unpaved sections of the airfield on the airport property. A map or diagram should be attached. This section should provide a description for perimeter barriers or access controls including:… [read more]

Practicing Safe Driving Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


d.). The Motor Accident Authority encourages one to take a break from driving every two hours if on a longer trip and whenever possible, drivers should share operating responsibilities. A person should be certain to acquire a good night of sleep before operating any vehicle. If not possible, they should pull over when feeling drowsy (SmartMotorist.com, n.d.). A New Zealand study found that taking a nap for twenty minutes could greatly improve energy levels, driving skills, and alertness (SmartMotorist.com, n.d.).

A third driving safety issue is the lack in the use of mirrors. Different cars have different blind spots, but blind spots can be made safe through the use of mirrors or checking blind spots physically. Not checking blind spots before changing lanes causes thousands of accidents a year (Pardilla, 2009). One should adjust their mirrors before driving, look directly in the mirrors, or look in blind spots before changing lanes. This will allow one to avoid hitting another car or a pedestrian.

Before this paper, I was aware of the risks that distractions such as texting had on the driving process, but I did not realize that they caused such a high percentage of accidents. Also, the research proved to be a great reminder not to drive while fatigued; drivers run the risk of being pulled over for suspected drunk driving, or worse, hitting something or someone. Lastly, I intend on using my mirrors in order to avoid collision with objects or persons in my blind spots. The use of each of these will protect me, other drivers, and other passengers on the road.


Pardilla, C. (2009). Top 10 Editors' Tips to Prevent a Car Accident. Retrieved November 14,

2010 from http://www.edmunds.com/reviews/list/top10/107098/article.html.

Public Health. (2010, August 12). In-Car Driving Coach To Prevent Driver Distraction.

Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/197542.php.

SmartMotorist.com. (n.d.). Driver Fatigue is an Important Cause of Road Crashes. Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.smartmotorist.com/traffic-and-safety-guideline/driver-fatigue-is-an-important-cause-of-road-crashes.html

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). The 2010 Statistical Abstract. Retrieved November 14, 2010 from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/transportation/motor_vehicle_accidents_an d_fatalities.html.… [read more]

Rail and Water or Maritime Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15



Rodrigue, Jean-Paul; Comtois, Claude and Brian Slack. (2009). The Goegraphy of Transportation Systems,

2nd Ed.. New York: Routledge.

Case Study (3 pages with 6 references)

As a government auditor, you determine a port has cargo handling issues. It takes too long to clear cargo through the terminal. What would you propose to the terminal manager to correct this problem… [read more]

Toyota's Prius With the Increased Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The typical Prius consumer is thought to have more concern for the environment then transportation yet wants to maintain their lifestyle. These would be high levels of professionals who work at managerial level who can afford the price Prius offers. These includes executives, sponsors, corporations and institutions etc. [PR Newswire. July 20, 2000].

Positioning the product: In order to position… [read more]

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