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Walked Through the Empty Lot,

Walking, jogging, and bicycle paths are essential to creating a healthy and enjoyable living environment for city residents, and I hope to be able to impact public policy in this area. One of the most important and most difficult problems facing American urban centers is the economic divide between rich and poor neighborhoods. Ethnic conflicts and class-related strife are issues that can be helped through effective urban planning and development. I hope to learn how to improve the lives of all city residents and to not favor the wealthy over the poor as a matter of course. Effective city planning can reduce the problems associated with economic and ethnic strife, especially crime. Moreover, keeping all neighborhoods clean and safe is a top priority in making city centers as livable as possible. I look forward to learning about the operation of public utilities, budgeting city funds, and managing burgeoning populations. I believe I have the communication, negotiation, and analytical skills required to solve such significant problems as these. Moreover, as an urban planner, I would also endeavor to improve air and water quality in urban centers. I believe that urban policy makers have a responsibility to regulate and control pollution and therefore I would like to learn how I can participate in the process of reducing and controlling harmful emissions and environmental toxins. Through my studies in urban planning, I intend to learn about the interface between science, economics, and public policy in improving the atmosphere and quality of life in our cities. With the power that this knowledge provides, I know that I can make a positive impact on the world. I also look forward to studying about the historical development of cities and relating that information to the future. Through traveling I have learned to appreciate the immense work that has gone into the planning, creation, and maintenance of cities. Urban residents usually take for granted the structures and infrastructures around them: traffic lights simply appear at intersections; water pipes naturally run beneath the ground; bike paths happen as a matter of course. Yet because I have always been a city person, one who relishes the high energy and potential of densely populated areas, I began to wonder if I could ever participate in modeling or changing an urban area. In the United States, where land is continually being transformed, urban planners and developers are indispensable. Now that engineers…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Current Urban Ecology of American Cities

¶ … Urban studies legend Jane Jacobs on gentrification, the New Urbanism, and her legacy" by Bill Steigerwald (June 2001) As more and more of the world's growing population pours into densely packed urban regions, city planners are faced with some enormous challenges in providing livable conditions and services for these unprecedented numbers. In an early response to these trends, Jane Jacobs called for a more enlightened approach to city planning that takes real people and their needs into account. Although she is not an architect and does not have any specialized training, Jacobs' 1961 book, the Death and Life of Great American Cities, had an enormous influence on traditional city planning processes in the years since its publication. This paper reviews Bill Steigerwald's interview with Jacobs, "Urban studies legend Jane Jacobs on gentrification, the New Urbanism, and her legacy" to identify personal points of agreement as well as divisive issues. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion. Review and Discussion City planning in North America in general has been a hit-and-miss proposition over the years, and the learning curve has been extremely steep. In his interview with the venerable octogenarian, Steigerwald develops the points that Jacobs had been on the front lines of urban development in Canada during the last half of the 20th century and had the opportunity to witness firsthand the failed efforts of governmental planners to make cities better places to live. Just as Canada managed to avoid the same types of violent union and labor confrontation that rocked the United States during the 20th century, Canada also enjoyed the benefit of watching how the urban renewal initiatives undertaken by its neighbor to the south failed to achieve their goals and use these lessons learned for their own projects. The point is also made that city planning is not an exact science but is rather an art that must take into account the vast range of features that make a city livable by human standards. In response to a question concerning whether modern city planners had learned anything from the failed efforts in the past, Jacobs suggested that in the case of Pittsburg at least, they had not: "That attitude -- that you can sacrifice small things, young things, and a diversity of things for some great big success -- is sad." The truly sad aspect of the urban renewal…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Urbanization and City Planning Considerations: A Prioritization

Urbanization and City Planning Considerations: A Prioritization City planning in an urban environment is not without its challenges. However, as technology moves forward and people realize that sustainability and the environment are two very important considerations in urban planning and urban living, the horizon for change becomes ever closer. This fact could not be more evident in developed nations, as access to sustainable products and processes is far greater than in less developed places. However, these less developed urban environments allow for a greater scale of change and positive impact, since much of the growth is yet to take place and is there fore fairly malleable and easily influenced to become more environmentally friendly and sustainable. The first priority of any future urban development, planning, or growth should be sustainability. Since the population of the planet is set to double in the next 30 years, it will become increasingly important that people wishing to live in urban environments, those environs with the highest environmental impact and largest human footprint, be willing and able to do so in a sustainable way (Rees and Wackernagel, 550). In a developed nation, this could be a challenge since much of the urbanization has already occurred, leaving little room for retrofitting or modification. However, with green room technologies and traffic flow and gas consumption optimization, developed nations could take the lead in sustainable urban planning and living (Termorshuizen, Opdam, and van den Brink, 381). In less developed nations, where sustainability is not often on the list of top priorities in urban planning, cities can be planned and built to help minimize environmental impact and maximize utility and use of space. The second priority of urban planning and design is pollution mitigation. Problems with water and air pollution are just the beginning as often soil pollutants are introduced when cities grow and expand (Rees and Wackernagel, 539). This is also part of the sustainability issue, but since urban environments are often the biggest culprits in pollution, since they have the highest human densities, considerations to reduce pollution……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Urban and Suburban Planning. It

Large metropolitan areas are attractive to many due to the economic, educational and cultural opportunities available in these areas. During much of the 20th century and especially during economic downturns and recessions large amounts of people abandoned rural areas in search of opportunities that were available in large cities. They rarely took into account the discomforts and negative effects of…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Real Estate in Greece

Real Estate in Greece The work of Costa Siomopoulos entitled: "Fast Growth for Greek Real Estate" state that over the past few years that there has been integration of real estate management, development and exploitation in Greece as social security funds, property and construction companies. Leasing firms, portfolio investment firms, foreign institutional investors, realtors, property valuers and others. (nd, paraphrased)…

Pages: 20  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 150


HUD Department of Housing and

A disgusting result was obtained from a new audit from city Controller John Liu discovered that city bureaucrats paid out $11.8 million in rent subsidies in recent years to nearly 4,000 people too dead to enjoy them (Einhorn, 2011). Since the money obviously didn't benefit the deceased, instead relatives and landlords were using the funding for their own benefit. This represents a total lack of accountability by the city's housing authority. Other problems identified in New York City regarding their local housing authority include not sending out their vouchers for section eight recipients causing them trouble with their rent status. The housing authority blamed a new computer and phone system for not being able to process the tenets requests. Several of the victims impacted have actually gone as far as to sue the New York City Housing Authority for the damages caused to them from this affair (Carder, 2011). PHA vs. NYCHA Statistical Overview PHA NYCPA Number Of Units 14,000 181,581 Individuals Helped 80,000 417,328 Vacancies 7,00 3,300 Waiting List 13,000 135,000 City Population 1,526,006 8,175,133 Conclusion While the various branches of HUD severe as a valuable service to low income families that are in need of assistance in regards to obtaining decent housing, transgressions such as the one's highlighted are very troubling to say the least. Since funding for these programs comes from tax payers in this country, one might expect that there should be some level of accountability maintained in the management and administration of these programs at all times. People generally aren't too excited to pay as much as they do in taxes and it is reasonable to suspect that when taxpayers become aware that their funds are being blatantly mismanaged then this represents a serious issue. Despite the managerial problems that have recently arisen in these two organizations, the demand for public housing needs to be filled as effectively as possible to mitigate social injustices that may occur otherwise. The problem is rather straight forward and there are primarily two types of solutions available. First, the programs could be shut down completely however this would cause a great deal of suffering from people who are in need. Therefore, these organizations must be forced to be accountable and offer the public a great deal of transparency regarding all of the operations. Works Cited Carder, L. (2011, September 29). New York City Housing Authority sued over Section 8…

Pages: 3  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Sawyer Possesses a Strong Defense Against the

¶ … Sawyer possesses a strong defense against the legal action as outlined by Mills; to wit, the contract outlined by Sawyer was merely an oral offer and presented over a ten-year timeframe. The Statute of Frauds specifically notes that any contract exceeding one year must be devoted to written form else said document is invalid. Mills' secret tape recording of the oral offer is of no consequence because the alleged oral contract implied throughout the conversation was never formally executed as a written contract. In order for her claim of negligence to be upheld, the female riding the school bus must prove that the driver of said bus: 1) had a duty to refrain from some form of conduct or a duty to engage in some conduct (2) the driver breached that duty (3) the breach actually and proximately caused some harm (4) the plaintiff, as a result of the negligence, sustained damages. While the school bus driver did have a duty to perform his job in a manner protecting the safety of those on his bus, he could not have foreseen that a bee would fly through the bus window and become trapped in his clothing. Further the driver did attempt to regain control of the bus when it became apparent to him that the bus had slid onto the shoulder of the road thus attempting to fulfill his duty to provide safe……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Urban Planning & Urban Planners

The broad phenomenon of sprawl is a variety of issues related to land use, transportation, urban and regional design, and planning. Cities expand quickly while also covering an increasing amount of land area. Three factors are argued to be driving this trend: a growing population, rising incomes, and falling community costs (Brueckner, 2000). Some of the disadvantages that are generally attributed to urban sprawl include factors such as the loss of farmlands and wildlife habitats, high car and technology dependence, air pollution and health hazards, increased and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Urban sprawl has many ecological and health implications which are commonly interrelated. Since urban sprawl positions people outside of walking distance to many of life's necessities, individuals in these communities are effectively forced to rely on cars for everyday transportation. Not only has this reliance on vehicles has contributed significantly to air pollution but it has also played a role in the growing obesity epidemic in the country. When people do not walk on a regular basis because it is so inconvenient to use this form of transportation, then they are far more likely to experience weight problems. However, when communities are designed to be walkable the community members are often much healthier and often report to be happier as well (Frank, et al., 2006). Urban sprawl is just one of many issues that a community planner might face as they attempt to prepare for future growth. However, this can be a difficult task because transportation with an automobile has become so ingrained into the culture's collective consciousness that it is hard to break this trend; even despite research indicating there is a much higher quality of life in alternative arrangements. Therefore sometimes much of an urban planner's job will consist of educating the public as well as policy makers to the emerging research in the field. Yet it is often difficult to overcome the obstacles that the current culture of growth provides. Works Cited Brueckner, J. (2000). URBAN SPRAWL: DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIES. International Regional Science Review, 160-171. Frank, L., Sallis, J., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75-87. Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urbanplanning.……

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Urban Planning Problems in the Developing World

Urban Development Urban Planning Problems in the Developing World: A Literature Review In order to adequately and accurately address the problems that might be faced with urban planning in developing countries and regions of the world, several key pieces of information will need to be found. First, the identification of problems that exist in urban planning generally should be found, and a general idea of developing parts of the world where urban planning is currently taking place would also form a part of the preliminary information need to fully research this issue. Then, an examination of these areas and the specific problems they are facing in terms of urban planning can take place, and finally an assessment of how these problems are similar to and/or differ from urban planning problems generally can be conducted. Collecting this information should be relatively easy using appropriate search terms entered into academic databases; specific terms that will be utilized will include "urban plan* AND problems OR issues OR barriers," "urban develop* regions," "third world urban plan*," and "urban plan* AND develop* world." Though the basic searches that will lead to the gathering of the necessary information are rather simplistic at the outset, it is expected that several constraints will make this research more difficult than it appears on the surface. Many of these search terms are likely to result in the return of many sources and articles that will not be useful to the research at hand, forming the primary constraint. As research is conducted, more refined search terms will present themselves to the researcher that can be used to narrow down the scope of the returned sources and articles. There is also the potential that abundant information will not exist on this topic, or at least in some of the subtopics identified, which would also constrain the possibility of research to a large degree. Literature Review A major problem facing urban planers generally, both in the developed and the developing worlds, is that f traffic congestion -- growth automatically means higher volumes of traffic, and limiting congestion is a way to increase the rate of growth, yet growth also leads to congestion thus creating something of a catch-22 situation (Tennoy 2010). Despite a realization of this issue and a concurrent acknowledgement that increased congestion causes increased pollution, planners tend to use traditional modes to frame this problem and new innovations have not been…

Pages: 3  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Affordable Housing and the Use of Exclusionary and Inclusionary Zoning

AFFORDABLE HOUSING & THE USE OF EXCLUSIONARY AND INCLUSIONARY ZONING In the past few decades, the lack of affordable housing in the United States has emerged as a crisis effecting low-income residents, government agencies and municipalities, and real estate developers alike. The lack of available affordable housing has increased in the past few years, as a result of zoning ordinances…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Role of Regional Planning in Disasters Management in Squatter Areas

Role of Regional Planning in Disaster Management in Squatter Areas The role of Regional planning in disasters management in squatter areas Abridged Literature Review The significance of Regional planning in disasters management in areas occupied by squatters The research paper that will follow shall look at the contemporary concern of the role of regional planning in managing disasters in squatter…

Pages: 7  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Latino Immigration in LA

Housing Issues for Los Angeles Latinos Certain housing issues abound for Latino residents in Los Angeles, due in no small part to particular longstanding political and private practices, a distinctive socio-cultural tradition of residents, and a wealth of legislation that is routinely bypassed to propagate systematic discrimination. The manifold effects of such discrimination may be evidenced in the grouping of…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African-American Housing: Chicago Study Chicago Housing Study

African-American Housing: Chicago Study Chicago Housing Study African-American Housing Disparities Historical Chicago Housing Facts Covenants The Gautreaux Case Recent Studies and Their Findings Chicago Housing Study African-American Housing Disparities The objective of this work is to examine the status and condition of African-Americans as compared to whites in the area of housing specifically in the city of Chicago, Illinois both…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Land Use Planning Policies and

Effectiveness of plans Kaiser and Godschalk's literature also reveal planning policies are ineffective. The land use patterns mapped in community administrative departments often set out plans without any specific land use or implementation strategy. Kaiser and Godschalk call these verbal policy plans, designed for non-physical development policy. At the initial stages these plans were found important for foundation policy. However,…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Regional Planning, Some Examples, Which

Fast Facts About the Strategic Plan Background TVA is preparing for fundamental changes that we believe increased competition will bring to the entire electric utility industry and to TVA's business environment. In the past decade, as the electric-utility industry has moved toward open-market competition, many TVA distributor customers have told us that they want the option of buying from other…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Daniels When City and Country

One of the greatest strengths of the book is its careful consideration of a number of different interests in the ongoing issue of urban-rural expansion. Daniels looks at the problems of politicians who are interested in economic growth, but who must be sensitive to voters. Further, he looks at the issue from the side of planners and developers who are faced with the task of deciding how much development occurs in the city and in the countryside. In his analysis, Daniels does not fail to consider the needs and opinions of other groups, including developers, citizens, landowners, local governments, and even the courts. In conclusion, despite these problems in putting urban sprawl within a larger context of urban management and public administration, When City and Country Collide is a useful look at the problems of urban sprawl. Daniels is thorough in his investigations of the problems of urban sprawl, and manages to create a concrete picture of the problems facing growing cities, at least within this defined area. Overall, Daniels provides a useful look into how urban sprawl characterizes modern city planning, and provides some insights into urban management and public administration. References Morgan, David R. And England, Robert E. 1999. Managing Urban America (Public Administration and Public Policy), 5th edition. Chatham House Publishers. Daniels, Thomas L. 1998. When City and……

Pages: 5  |  Book Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


American Industrialization and Its Impacts on Urban System

American Industrialization Urban Systems The industrial revolution, as it is termed changed the role of cities to a fundamental level in the history of America. Industries tend to congregate at major sources of resources including but not limited to communications, transportation and labor. The growth of cities in the U.S. can even be linked directly to industrialization, as the greater the needs of the market the greater the size of cities that grew around industry to feed it. Capital had to be available, hence communications with foreign investors was needed, until such time as urban centers began to provide their own capital systems and lending. (Kantor, and David 86) The Industrial Revolution fundamentally transformed the role of cities in capitalism and created a national urban system based on market competition. This new urban economy had enormous local political implications. Not least, it enabled some city governments to achieve powerful market positions and secure relative economic independence. This new reality would change the bargaining positions of local government and business. (Kantor, and David 86) Urban centers grew exponentially, physically, culturally and socially as a result of industrialization. Many labor needs in the northern cities in the U.S., based near waterways and shipping centers, were met by recruited immigrants from nearly every nation in the world, at different times and for different industries. (Hommann 33) All these people, as well as the industries they worked for an in needed infrastructural supports, systems to get clean water, dispose of waste and transport people and goods. Road building and city planning began with urban needs, as they were required and according to a sort of natural design, then city planning came into the picture to resolve many conflicts that developed. City planning has thus been preceded in America by extensive free and unplanned urban development and is still overwhelmed, if not engulfed, by it. This chapter gives an overview of the efforts of American planning to stem or correct economic and developmental devastation. While it is true that the laying out of streets is but one phase of city planning, it is an important one. Obviously a city must be built around designated channels of movement, and its street layout markedly affects everything that follows. As we have seen, virtually all attempts at grandeur had to give way to the speculative gridiron plan. (Hommann 47) The fact that true urban centers exist at all…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


City of Alexandria -- Time

13 Visual Representation of Indicator #4 FY 2011 Income Limits Summary Income Limits FY 2011 Income Limit Area Median Income FY 2011 Income Limit Category 1 Person 2 Person 3 Person 4 Person 5 Person 6 Person Alexandria city $106,100 Very Low (50%) Income Limits $37,150 $42,450 $47,750 $53,050 $57,300 $61,550 Extremely Low (30%) $22,300 $25,500 $28,700 $31,850 $34,400 $36,950 $39,500 $42,050 Low (80%) $47,350 $54,100 $60,850 $67,600 $73,050 $78,450 $83,850 $89,250 FY 2012 Fair Market Rents Summary - Alexandria city, Virginia Efficiency 1 Bedroom 2 Bedrooms 3 Bedrooms 4 Bedrooms Proposed FY2012 FMRs $1,171 $1,334 $1,513 $1,952 $2,554 Alexandria City, Virginia Year % Change Efficiency 2-BR FMR Percentile FMR 1 Bedroom 2 Bedrooms 3 Bedrooms 4 Bedrooms http://www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr/fmrs/fy2011_code/acstypesumm.odn?fmrtype=Final&data=2011 http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/fmr/fmr_il_history/select_Geography.odn Indicator Reponse #5 - Representing Variance in Time (Cross-Sectional Data) Visual Representation of Indicator #5 Indicator # 40 Price to Income Ratio / Percentage of Income Paid Towards Housing Indicator Response #4 - Representing Variance in Time (2000 -- 2010) There is an acute shortage of affordable, adequate rental units for low income households. The widening supply gap is due to the ongoing reduction in the availability of low-cost units and the difficulty of producing market rate housing at affordable rents. Affordability problems are moving up the income scale, more and more renters who have middle-range incomes must compete for a steadily shrinking inventory of affordable units. Source: America's Rental Housing: Meeting Challenges, Building on Opportunities The Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University. http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/rental/rh11_americas_rental_housing/AHR2011-5-Affordability.pdf JCHS calculations using U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Market Absorption and New Residential Construction; and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Low Income Housing Tax Credit database Visual Representation of Indicator #4 Indicator Reponse #5 - Representing Variance in Time (Cross-Sectional Data) Visual Representation of Indicator #5 References Averch, H.A. (XXX). Chapter 10 Using expert judgment. [In XXXX]. Gladwell, M. (2007, November 12).……

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Housing Price Dynamics Within a Metropolitan Area

Housing Price Dynamics within a Metropolitan Area One of the most dramatic features of the current recession is the impact that it has had on housing prices. Rather than viewing houses primarily as homes, many Americans have long considered houses to be their largest financial investments. In addition, real estate had been a fairly secure financial investment for a significant…

Pages: 20  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Racism and America's Urban Cycle Question: 1

Racism and America's Urban Cycle Question: 1 Following World War II, two major points of inflection in American history would set off a settlement pattern that would levy distinct effects on the racial disparity present here throughout. The acceleration of America's economic growth paired with the massive improvement of its technologies and infrastructure for transportation (i.e. the proliferation of private automobile and home ownership), would lead to the development of the suburb. The most immediate and direct reflection of this condition would be the sharp contrast between the emergence of the suburb and the decline of the inner-city. The process of urban flight by which many of the older residences in the heart of the city would be abandoned for residency in such contexts would essentially expand the borders of the city. The outskirts would increasingly be occupied by a city's wealthier inhabitants, whose access to the city by personal or rail car at this time-as well as by increasingly reliable communication technology-would allow them to occupy a large space. Simultaneously, this pattern would considerably reduce the value and appeal of many residencies in the immediate inner- city. These would therefore increasingly become the low-income neighborhoods of America's inner cities. With the industrial development of the city healthfully underway, its labor class would occupy many of the decayed old neighborhoods of the city, and would by no coincidence generally be African American residents. The outcome of this pattern is described damningly by Massey & Denton (1998), who tell that "the geographic isolation of Africans within a narrowly circumscribed portion of the urban environment-whether African townships or American ghettos-forces blacks to live under extraordinarily harsh conditions and to endure a social world where poverty is endemic, infrastructure is inadequate, education is lacking, families are fragmented, and crime and violence are rampant. Moreover, segregation confines these unpleasant by-products of racial oppression to an isolated portion of the urban geography far removed from the experience of most whites." (Massey & Denton, 15-16) This idea of removing such urban consequences from the view of whites brings us to consider gentrification. The term 'gentrification' is one of highly controversial and loaded implication. To its supporters, it appears that this mode to urban revitalization is the most direct route to improving property values, social conditions and economic outlooks for distinct city neighborhoods. To its detractors, gentrification is a term which naturally implies the economic displacement of…

Pages: 4  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Urban Culture What Is Urban

Graffiti is an urban art form that is unique to the city, but one in which anyone can participate as an artist. The significance of fashion, of wearing one's clothes as art is also an element of urban visual culture. The reason that so many fashion trends spring from the city is not simply the location of wealth and talent in these areas, but the fact that individuals are more often driven out onto the streets, out of small apartments to 'show themselves' to one another. Who one is in such an anonymous environment is not immediately known, as in a small town, how one looks and what one wears defines who one is on the street, at any moment. It is also noteworthy that there are a diversity of visual texts in various neighborhoods -- for instance, the presence of street or commercial signs in a foreign language or alphabet are an act of visual communication particular to cities that 'say something about the neighborhood's composition and sense of identity. Whose Culture, Whose City? The patchwork nature of cities into a variety of ethnic, class, and vocationally oriented areas means that no single group 'owns' a particular city. This is particularly true of the sprawling nature of American cities. Witold Rybczynski, Professor of Urbanism at the University of Philadelphia, argued in his 1995 book City Life that the American city is different from the European city because America's urban planners had more abundant open space to allow for more segmentation of ethnic identities, as well as a more diverse population. (Cited by Lobo & Schooler, 2004) This diversity, growth of capitalism, and expansion created a greater environment of cultural freedom, a sense of democratic equality between various groups, and respect for one another in the sense that anyone could succeed in America. But it also created a security of neighborhood environments, so that certain ethnic, regional, and national musical traditions, cuisines, and ways of life could retain their integrity. Thus, in America, certain ethnic legacies, from pizza, to hip-hip, and clogs, might have all begun as the product of one ethnic group, became blended and reformulated in an urban environment with other cultures, and then, finally, in the industrial age, were sold to all other regions as the world as something urban, ethnic, and 'American,' all at once. Works Cited Schultz, Stanley. Constructing the Urban Culture American Cities and…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Suburban Metropolis

Los Angeles Area: Population Growth Los Angeles consists of a five county region that has experienced incredible growth since the late nineteenth century. The population of this region has increased from just fewer than twenty thousand in 1870 to almost twenty million by 2010 population estimates. Los Angeles has become the second largest urban region in the United States and…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


New York Real Estate and

In addition, more parents are leasing apartments for their children, and some retirees are choosing Manhattan over traditional cities such as Miami (Toy, 2012). Tourism continues to grow, and the development of new hotels in Downtown New York, including the W. And the Four Seasons, added 3,152 rooms in 2011 pushing hotel occupancy rate higher (Gregor, 2011). The robust development…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Affordable Housing in Los

NMS Apartments in Los Angeles also help you for better place to live. It is located in Santa Monica in West Los Angeles. NMS apartments offer affordable housing scheme with modern and affordable luxury apartments. Each property of NMS apartments is finest, modern and reasonably priced. One can also take the advantage of urban living with this housing scheme. Another housing scheme one could get is Los Angeles Housing Department (LAHD). This housing scheme also provides affordable houses and rosters at reasonable amounts. They offer different square feet houses, flats, apartments to their clients according to their budget and need. Los Angeles Housing Partnership inc. (LAHP) is one more housing plan which offers houses within your means. It is located near Westlake MacArthur Park area. This housing plan is offering and providing very calm and peaceful environment to the people living there. They are also working in a project of housing plan which is based on the green building method with anti-smoke surroundings. People could also get apartments on Rent if they want a temporary residency in Los Angeles. My New Space Online can help people online to get low-priced apartments and houses at their favorite places, locations and environments. People can get all the information online and could sort the thing out online from wherever they are. These are a few schemes which are helping and providing residence services to the people. I guess with help of these sources, one could get better residential style. I found these schemes better than others in providing residential services in Los Angeles. References 2012) NMS Apartments Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://www.nmsapartments.com/ Los Angeles Apartment Info. Retrieved from http://www.mynewplace.com/city/los-angeles-apartments-for-rent-california Silverstein, M (2012). Los Angeles Housing Partnership, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.lahousingpartnership.com/Staff.html Villaraigase, A.R. (2011). Los Angeles Housing Department. Los Angeles, California.…

Pages: 2  |  Reaction Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Quality of Life Indicators --

A ranking ratio estimation procedure resulted in two weights being assigned: A weight to each sample person record and a weight to each sample housing unit record. Level of Aggregation -- Reports are released for specified geographic areas, and all the same set of statistical, legal, and administrative entities as those addressed in previously published Census long form, including the…

Pages: 14  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Roman Identity

Roman Urbanization Why was Urbanization an Important Element for the Construction of a Roman Identity? The challenges of nation and empire building have been a fascination of western civilization since before the industrial revolution, which marked a period of massive alterations in the development of urban centers for trade and commerce in such societies. Yet, it must also be made…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


Urbanization and the Environment: A Critical Balancing

Urbanization and the Environment: A Critical Balancing Act The Dilemma The earth is a complex environment with a seemingly endless amount of vast resources. Viewed from the vantage point of an individual in an industrialized nation, it would appear that the earth has an endless capacity to care for its occupants. However, when viewed from an impoverished developing nation, the earth's limitations in caring for its inhabitants become a harsh reality. The human population continues to grow at an alarming rate. We know from studying the carrying capacities in other species that the earth's ability to support ever-expanding populations is limited. At some point, the balance is broken and a disaster occurs, one that is often devastating to the species involved. This brings us to the logical question of how long it will be until the earth re-balances the human population. Balancing urbanization and environmental impact issues is one of the most pressing issues confronting human society, both now and in the future. Slide 2 Institutionalizing Community-Based Development In Abidjan, structural adjustments have forced the Mayor of Adjame to focus on the issues of unemployment, poverty, and environmental decay in their country (Unesco, 2008a). Neighborhood committees (CDQs) helped to channel local resources to help improve living conditions. The impact of these programs has been astounding. Since their inception, they have: Generated full and part-time employment for 2000 workers. Collected $60 million in feels for projects such as infrastructure development Attained leverage at 6 times the amount invested Negotiated to cut the cost of basic water connections by 60% Vaccinated 800 children Instituted a training program for 40 men to improve their business skills Promotes the hiring of local labor, resulting in 200 jobs for local citizens. Slide 3 Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Bank Shri Mahila Sewa Sahakari Bank, a bank of poor, self-employed women workers was established by those that it would serve...the women themselves (Unesco, 2008b). This bank offers support services to 51,000 depositors consisting of working Indian women in poor rural areas. The success of this bank has served as a catalyst in establishing further initiatives to help the poor and underprivileged. It demonstrates that people have to take their own initiative to institute change. Slide 4 Shelter Upgrading in Agadir, Morocco The Moroccan National Shelter Upgrading Agency (ANHI) in Agadir has a large percentage of women acting as head of household (Unesco, 2008c). An earthquake devastated this…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Everyday Urbanism

Architecture Urban Space and Architecture Addressing the cultural as well as the practical needs of urban communities and societies has become a growing challenge for city planners and for architects, as the growing density and diversity of many such communities and societies has led to rapidly changing needs and desires when it comes to public spaces. The different uses that public spaces are expected to serve have themselves become increasingly diverse, as well, which has led to some drastic rethinking not only in the theories that underlie urban planning and development, but also in the practical design efforts and construction implementations that take place. This paper will investigate certain emerging and evolving theories in urban planning and architecture as well as evidence of changing trends in the actual use and implementation of urban spaces, and examines an early example of these emerging trends as a point of illustration and inspection. Everyday Urbanism In an essay entitled "Everyday Urbanism," Margaret Crawford demonstrates how many urban spaces are actually sites of everyday public activity despite a lack of effort in designing a useful public space: "[everyday space] is banal, it's repetitive, it's everywhere and nowhere, it's a place that has few characteristics that people pay attention to." At the same time, Crawford maintains, a close observation of these bland and "repetitive" everyday spaces reveals that they are actually quite specifically identified and utilized by community members. In this view of unplanned urban space, there are design opportunities and planning influences to be found in existing areas and without conscious and over-arching design principles at work reshaping urban spaces or landscapes in large-scale ways. Such appropriation and site-specific utilizations -- the design/functionality aesthetic that Crawford defines as "Everyday Urbanism" -- are attempts to "refamiliarize urban environments," in contrast to design and architectural trends that lead to the "modernist sensation of defamiliarization." Examples of this Everyday Urbanism include garage-sale like endeavors taking place in empty parking lots or along streets, get-togethers on grassy spaces that were never intended for any real use, and a variety of other undesigned and spontaneous yet specific uses. Ecological Urbanism Margaret Crawford's concept of Everyday Urbanism dovetails quite nicely with the aesthetic and practical movement known as Ecological Urbanism, as defined and described by Moshen Mostafavi in his book of the same title. Mostafavi sees ecological urbanism as something of a response to the "scale of the ecological crisis"…

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Real Estate Markets on Shenzhen and Beijing:

¶ … Real Estate Markets on Shenzhen and Beijing: Overview of the Development and Analysis of Problems With the rise of the Chinese economy, the face of real estate in its many cities is changing dramatically. Yet, research shows that these changes are not uniform, and differ greatly depending on the area based on prime factors, such as government involvement…

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New York City's Zoning Laws

The landscape of the city has changed tremendously in the past century and in some cases the zoning laws have not kept pace and cannot address the newer issues that are at hand. There are several significant outcomes which zoning needs to address: Zoning must be consistent so that outcomes produce the desired result throughout the community Zoning needs to be comprehensive so that it can take into account the range of possibilities that might occur Zoning has to recognize and adapt to growth and change to meet future needs and expanding economies. Zoning has to protect the population's quality of life. Zoning has to be realistic and be able to be put into practice. New York City's zoning regulations fall short even though the city has been a pioneer of innovation in zoning resolutions. In 1916, New York City championed zoning regulations ushered n the great building boom. But the regulations were flawed because they didn't take into account population density in certain areas nor did it provide for adverse environmental conditions in less affluent areas. Today, New York is facing some consequential challenges that current regulations don't seem able to effectively deal with. The city is becoming a mecca of households of fewer people but more households. Space is at a premium as affluent families want larger rooms. The city is undergoing urban density and the revised zoning laws of 1961 are basically flawed in their vision and don't make allowances for urban growth. The reality is that New York City needs more development but of a different kind. What improvements would you recommend and how would you justify their value and feasibility? To begin with, new zoning may need to be implemented to allow for the type of flexibility and innovation that is now needed to design the city of the future. The old rules can still apply and be aptly enforced but a new series of regulations that addresses urban renewal and aesthetic architecture needs to be created. Developers need to be enticed to want to build in New York City -- and to have the ability to make a profit. Height regulations need to be considered so that height will not be an intrusion to the landscape or the population. I would recommend that we welcome new and innovative ideas for building and that we find a balance between the old and the new. We…

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Zoning and Land Use New

There are then public hearings, held by the affected community board and the City Planning Commission. Amendments must be considered and Okayed by the community board, the borough board, the Borough President, and then finally the City Council. (This rule is the primary source of Community Board and City Council power.)New York City employs a zoning system which offers a high level of certainty. The Department of City Planning believes that it is very important to give communities, developers and regulators a clear sense of what is and is not allowed in a given district. The City enacted United States' first comprehensive zoning resolution in 1916 and the City continues to be a leader in zoning policy in the States. The 1916 Zoning Resolution separated functionally incompatible uses and established height and setback controls. The ordinance became a model for urban communities throughout the United States The Zoning Resolution of New York City is divided into two parts: zoning text and zoning maps. The text establishes zoning districts and sets forth the regulations governing land use and development. There are three basic zoning districts: residential, commercial and manufacturing. Detailed regulations in the zoning text set out the use permitted, building density, parking requirements and other detailed design guidelines. Manufacturing uses and certain intense commercial uses are also subject to performance standards which limit noise, air pollution and other nuisance-creating activity Within the broad commercial zoning district category, office buildings are allowed in two out of the eight specific commercial districts: "Restricted Central Commercial Districts, C5" and "General Central Commercial Districts, C6." The remaining six specific commercial districts are for retail, entertainment and recreational uses at different scale and location. The broad manufacturing zoning district can be further divided into three specific manufacturing districts: "Light Manufacturing Districts, M1," "Medium Manufacturing Districts, M2" and "Heavy Manufacturing Districts, M3," based on performance standards. Flexibility in the zoning system is provided by allowing discretionary actions. Some development may be allowed if Special Permits are secured from the City Planning Commission or the Board of Standards and Appeals. (Richard F. Babcock, The Zoning Game Revisited, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy; Reprint edition (September 1990)) In response to the changing needs of the changing city, the Zoning Resolution is amended regularly. In 2000, the Department of City Planning presented a zoning proposal to facilitate Long Island City's transformation into a central business district. The proposed zoning…

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Game / Outside Game David

One of the most valuable contributions of Rusk's book is his use of census statistics to illustrate many of his concepts. This adds a great deal of credence to his theories, and is a profound addition to the anecdotal evidence. Despite this, many of his statistical claims are based on correlational, rather than causational, data. In addition to his scholarly…

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Streets of Hope -- the Fall and

Streets of Hope -- the Fall and Rise of an Urban Community In Streets of Hope Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar demonstrate the hope, pride and determination are vital components of any community restoration project. In this ground breaking work the authors demonstrate how a community plagued by poverty and destitution still may rise up from the ashes and transform…

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Event Coverage Story Pitch

¶ … Manhattan Community Board 4 (MCB4) public hearing on the District Plan for the proposed Hudson Yards Business Improvement District. The meeting took place July 31, 2013 at Roosevelt Hospital with 70 people in attendance. Supporters and opposition of the business development projects were in attendance, and with so many projects on the table there was a definitely a lot to discuss on the table. For over three hours, speakers discussed a number of issues in great detail. A number of potential projects were brought to the forum, each getting unique attention from both supporters and the opposition. Yet, it was issue 37, or the business improvement district for the Hudson Yards, was really center stage. The plan regards a southern portion of Hell's Kitchen, being within the area bounded by West 42nd and Eleventh Ave. According to the committee, "the specific aim of the proposed BID is "to provide maintenance for the Hudson Park and Boulevard and district-wide services and improvements that enhance the quality of life of an exceptionally diverse population who live, work and visit within the district" (NYC.gov 12). With no question, there was great support for the business development within the community. Nancy Diez, of the 531 Board of Managers at 9th and 42nd attended the meeting, adding that "We look at 9th Ave as Main Street. We love and appreciate BID. We support to take it further." There are a number of major components to the new development scheme, with the Hudson Yards BID being renamed the Hudson Yards / Hell's Kitchen Alliance. First and foremost is the desire to generate more open space within the area to increase the feel of open air within the space in question. More open space means a better quality of living for those residents of Hell's Kitchen. Paul, a resident owner and part of the 502 9th Ave Condo Association was excited to see the push towards opening up more space in the neighborhood, saying "I believe and support the greenery of the neighborhood." Also high on the list is addressing a number of problematic traffic and sanitation safety issues. On behalf of the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT), Lisa added "Items like sanitation and pedestrian safety are priority. We have a commitment to maintain the park. Looking forward to 2014." With a proposed expansion of the Number 7 subway line, it will be crucial to…

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Story Pitch

¶ … Manhattan Community Board 4, Chelsea Land Use (CLU) Committee and Waterfront, Parks, and Environment (WPE) Committee meeting has met to determine to what level they will continue allowing building and changing the Hudson River Park area of New York. Legislation has been passed which changes the Hudson River Park Act in order to take into account then needs of other bodies, including groups who wish for nothing more than to conserve and protect the Hudson River Park as it exists. Too much of the land, as in other parts of the country, has been taken over by bloodthirsty corporations who think of nothing more than their bottom line and the quickest way to fatten their wallets. The trust claimed that they would be financially damaged by these modifications and that they need to get control of the air rights in the area in order to sell their products. CB4 quite rightly does not trust this group, fearing that they will sell the air rights to companies who are similarly interested in only money, who will then use those air rights to violate the law, such as by building more floors in their buildings than are allowed by the district's regulations. The Trust in question has proven itself to be unconcerned by the objections of the opposition and has sited its own monetary gain as a reason why the city planners should allow them to control the air rights. The laws were created to protect the rights of the masses, not the few and this should be explored in order to continue the fight against these large organizations. Story……

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Metropolitan Growth and Federal Policies

As a result of the Federal Housing Administration's policies, white Americans could readily obtain low-cost, long-term mortgages for in new suburban developments. In contrast, African-Americans were restricted to difficult to obtain, high-cost, short-term mortgages that were largely restricted to inner city, used housing developments. Certainly, federal policies and suburban sprawl are not the only two factors that have lead to the development of the poor, racially segregated inner city. Other causes include, zoning, creating large public housing products in low-income areas (such as the inner city), redlining by insurance companies and banks. In concert with the powerful forces of federal policies and suburban sprawl, the end result has been staggering: a huge segregation by race and class. This physical segregation of African-Americans in the inner city has the end result of increasing the effects of poverty and segregation. Certainly, the fact that the federal transportation bill has not been authorized has played a large role on the development of the racial-segregated and poverty-infused central cities in the United States. Reasonably high funds for HUD rent vouchers have also led to the racial and class segregation of African-Americans in America's inner cities. The development of public housing in inner cities that are already racially segregated has exacerbated the problem of racial-segregated and poverty-infused central cities in the United States. Certainly, when the federal government decides to build public housing, it is the poor who will obviously take advantage of this housing. Given that poverty in America largely wears the face of the minority population (and especially the African-American population) it is not surprising that federally-supported public housing in the inner city has drawn an even larger, poor African-American population to the inner city. The federal government's development of public housing in mixed-income communities may ease help this problem. Further, the fact that the federal government currently allocates a large share of infrastructure projects (like sewers and highways) to suburban areas has also exacerbated the negative impact on the poor of the central cities in the United States. Certainly, these federal policies have increased metropolitan growth in the suburbs, and discouraged growth in the inner cities that do not receive as much in terms of federal infrastructure payments. In summary, both metropolitan growth and federal policies over the past fifty years have negatively impacted the poor of the central cities in the United States. The African-Americans community has felt most of the…

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Company Sponsored Childcare Recently There

The child cares crisis and the problems that inadequate childcare present for corporate America is another topic. There is a wealth of background information available on both of these topics. However, there is none that approaches the topics from the angle that will be presented in this research. Therefore is impossible to examine previous academic research on the topic, due…

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Neck Sits on the North

) Cape cods and ranches predominate, but the single-family housing mix also includes colonials, Tudors and Mediterranean styles. Some older houses date back to the 1880's, with a large number of Victorians along Arrandale Avenue and scattered around the village. However, these houses are priced particularly low and many have taken to buying them, knocking them down, and building bigger, more expensive homes. While many contend that the older homes were falling to pieces, many see developers as robbing the city of its heritage. Luckily for the conservationists, the village's landmarks preservation commission is in the process of creating a landmark district along Arrandale Avenue. 2,474 of Great Neck's 3,347 houses are owner-occupied, with 1,067 of these residences built before 1940 and another 1,435 built between 1940 and 1960. Many city residents have roots in the middle class that fled New York during the chaotic 1960's, 70's and 80's and is home to an especially large Jewish population. Great Neck is home to over a dozen synagogues with a large number of Iranian and Russian Jews. The city became a haven for wealthy Jews that fled Iran in the late 1970's following the Islamic revolution. Only 188 houses were built in the 1990's and 159 homes were built in the 1980's. The local high school is considered excellent in an affluent suburban county that prides itself in excellent high schools. More than 97% of 248 members of this year's graduating class at North High School went on to attend a four-year college or university; the mean scores for the class of 2001 were 570 in verbal and 609 in math, a combined 159 points above the national average. The high school features many advanced placement courses and vocational programs in which students can intern in their intended professions. Over 50% of adult residents of Great Neck have a bachelor's degree and nearly 30% have some kind of professional degree. Although the village is over 80% white non-hispanic with a black population of less than 3%, it is extremely diverse. The foreign born population is approximately 35.7%. Of these, 22.8% are from Asia with most being Jews from the Middle East. In addition, 7.0% of residents are from Latin America and 5.6% are from Europe. 1,334,544 people live in the county of Nassau, only slightly less than the population of Manhattan which totals approximately 1.5 million. The population of the county…

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New Deal Documents and Analyzes

The most important being the very shortage of housing which could have very dangerous implications. Also, there is a need for a system which inter-relates urban, suburban, and rural housing and planning. Other considerations like the financing and correlation of public and private agencies to undertake such a huge program have to be thought of as well. In Mayer's opinion, the failure of the government to take regard of these things was mainly due to its incomprehension of the problem. Also, all the agencies that the government created added to the chaos: the Home Owners' Loan Corporation would approve a mortgage and revivify the owner in some area where the PWA was trying to assemble land for slum clearance. Hence, Mayer says, an immediate plan is required which would be practical and would incorporate all the features which were previously left unattended to in Roosevelt's Housing Plan. (Mayer, 1935) The third source used is Robert Fechner's "My Hopes For the CCC'. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was an environmental program that put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests, beaches, and parks. Workers earned only $1 a day but received free board and job training. Fechner was the Director of the CCC and was immensely pleased with all that it had accomplished. These men planted new forests on barren lands, reduced forest devastation by forest fires by improving forest and park protection systems, built new recreational facilities to improve the civic usefulness of parks, forests etc. And initiated a large scale drive to demonstrate practical erosion control measures to farmers. They were provided academic as well as vocational education, good food, medical care and their basic needs were met. Hence, the CCC has been very successful in opened up recreational opportunities in the nation's forests and parks for millions by stimulating new state park development projects, aroused national interest in wildlife conservation by furnishing men and funds for acquisition and development of a chain of wildlife refuges and by improving conditions for fishing and by stimulating federal and state agencies to greater wildlife conservation activity among other things. This was therefore, one of the more successful programs under the New Deal. (Fechner, 1939) Sources: Epstein, Abraham. "Social Security" Under the New Deal (September 4, 1935). The New Deal Network. Retrieved Nov 16, 2003. http://newdeal.feri.org/nation/na35261.htm Fechner, Robert. My Hopes for the CCC (January 1939). The New Deal Network.…

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Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System by Donella Meadows

Headline: Scale-free networks Date: 2003 Source: Scientific American Abstract (no more than 150 words): Networks are common to both human organizations and also to entities found in nature. But until recently, scientists have tended to treat networks as relatively random entities. This article specifically focuses on 'scale-free' networks. Scale-free networks (versus random networks) are relatively impervious to accidental failures but can be highly vulnerable to outside attacks. Scale-free network can be found everywhere, from the biological to the environmental realm. They can be understood as a series of nodes and links. The stronger the ties between networks, the more likely contagion in the form of pathogens or ideas will spread: hence the need for ensuring the dissemination through the network is positive rather than negative. Link: http://www.barabasilab.com/pubs/CCNR-ALB_Publications/200305-01_SciAmer-ScaleFree/200305-01_SciAmer-ScaleFree.pdf Global Issue: Systems analysis How does it relate to design? Acceptance of new designs is based upon the spread of ideas. By increasing the acceptance of new ideas amongst critical information leaders (the 'hubs' of design), greater acceptance of new ideas in general (both aesthetic such as in the case of postmodernism and conceptual such as in the case of environmentally-sustainable design, for example) will be facilitated. Art such as that exhibited by Koons which is not conventionally beautiful but rather questions what art is altogether would not have been comprehensible a hundred years ago; today, because of the dissemination of new ideas such postmodern constructions have become commonplace (Saltz 1). Does it relate to other disciplines? Systems analysis has a wide range of applicability to other design concepts and ways of understanding links between people and ideas, spanning from the biological to the theoretical and conceptual. It is a physical and an intellectual concept. Work Cited Saltz, Jerry. "Jeff Koons, creator and destroyer of worlds." Vulture. 25 Jun 2014. http://www.vulture.com/2014/06/jeff-koons-creator-and-destroyer-of-worlds.html [15 Sept 2014]…

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