"Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays

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Walked Through the Empty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Walking, jogging, and bicycle paths are essential to creating a healthy and enjoyable living environment for city residents, and I hope to be able to impact public policy in this area.

One of the most important and most difficult problems facing American urban centers is the economic divide between rich and poor neighborhoods. Ethnic conflicts and class-related strife are issues that can be helped through effective urban planning and development. I hope to learn how to improve the lives of all city residents and to not favor the wealthy over the poor as a matter of course. Effective city planning can reduce the problems associated with economic and ethnic strife, especially crime. Moreover, keeping all neighborhoods clean and safe is a top priority in making city centers as livable as possible. I look forward to learning about the operation of public utilities, budgeting city funds, and managing burgeoning populations. I believe I have the communication, negotiation, and analytical skills required to solve such significant problems as these.

Moreover, as an urban planner, I would also endeavor to improve air and water quality in urban centers. I believe that urban policy makers have a responsibility to regulate and control pollution and therefore I would like to learn how I can participate in the process of reducing and controlling harmful emissions and environmental toxins. Through my studies in urban planning, I intend to learn about the interface between science, economics, and public policy in improving the atmosphere and quality of life in our cities. With the power that this knowledge provides, I know that I can make a positive impact on the world. I also look forward to studying about the historical development of cities and relating that information to the future. Through traveling I have learned to appreciate the immense work that has gone into the planning, creation, and maintenance of cities.

Urban residents usually take for granted the structures and infrastructures around them: traffic lights simply appear at intersections; water pipes naturally run beneath the ground; bike paths happen as a matter of course. Yet because I have always been a city person, one who relishes the high energy and potential of densely populated areas, I began to wonder if I could ever participate in modeling or changing an urban area. In the United States, where land is continually being transformed, urban planners and developers are indispensable. Now that engineers and scientists are discovering ways to promote growth without sacrificing environmental and public health, the field of urban planning becomes even more vital. I am now seeking entry into this exciting and challenging field so I, too, can participate in the improvement of sustainable, aesthetically pleasing, livable urban centers. Thank you for your…… [read more]


Current Urban Ecology of American Cities Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Urban studies legend Jane Jacobs on gentrification, the New Urbanism, and her legacy" by Bill Steigerwald (June 2001)

As more and more of the world's growing population pours into densely packed urban regions, city planners are faced with some enormous challenges in providing livable conditions and services for these unprecedented numbers. In an early response to these trends, Jane Jacobs called for a more enlightened approach to city planning that takes real people and their needs into account. Although she is not an architect and does not have any specialized training, Jacobs' 1961 book, the Death and Life of Great American Cities, had an enormous influence on traditional city planning processes in the years since its publication. This paper reviews Bill Steigerwald's interview with Jacobs, "Urban studies legend Jane Jacobs on gentrification, the New Urbanism, and her legacy" to identify personal points of agreement as well as divisive issues. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

City planning in North America in general has been a hit-and-miss proposition over the years, and the learning curve has been extremely steep. In his interview with the venerable octogenarian, Steigerwald develops the points that Jacobs had been on the front lines of urban development in Canada during the last half of the 20th century and had the opportunity to witness firsthand the failed efforts of governmental planners to make cities better places to live. Just as Canada managed to avoid the same types of violent union and labor confrontation that rocked the United States during the 20th century, Canada also enjoyed the benefit of watching how the urban renewal initiatives undertaken by its neighbor to the south failed to achieve their goals and use these lessons learned for their own projects. The point is also made that city planning is not an exact science but is rather an art that must take into account the vast range of features that make a city livable by human standards. In response to a question concerning whether modern city planners had learned anything from the failed efforts in the past, Jacobs suggested that in the case of Pittsburg at least, they had not: "That attitude -- that you can sacrifice small things, young things, and a diversity of things for some great big success -- is sad."

The truly sad aspect of the urban renewal approaches that have been used in the United States in the past, Jacobs asserts, is not so much the failures of city planners to achieve their goals but rather the types of misguided goals they actually used. For instance, with respect to the government's power of eminent domain to condemn property that is deemed in the general public's best interests, Jacobs maintains that this power has been subverted and is routinely used to unjustly enrich private enterprises that are in bed with the public sector. For instance, according to Jacobs:

[These] government powers were intended for things like schools and… [read more]


Urbanization and City Planning Considerations: A Prioritization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Urbanization and City Planning Considerations: A Prioritization

City planning in an urban environment is not without its challenges. However, as technology moves forward and people realize that sustainability and the environment are two very important considerations in urban planning and urban living, the horizon for change becomes ever closer. This fact could not be more evident in developed nations, as access to sustainable products and processes is far greater than in less developed places. However, these less developed urban environments allow for a greater scale of change and positive impact, since much of the growth is yet to take place and is there fore fairly malleable and easily influenced to become more environmentally friendly and sustainable.

The first priority of any future urban development, planning, or growth should be sustainability. Since the population of the planet is set to double in the next 30 years, it will become increasingly important that people wishing to live in urban environments, those environs with the highest environmental impact and largest human footprint, be willing and able to do so in a sustainable way (Rees and Wackernagel, 550). In a developed nation, this could be a challenge since much of the urbanization has already occurred, leaving little room for retrofitting or modification. However, with green room technologies and traffic flow and gas consumption optimization, developed nations could take the lead in sustainable urban planning and living (Termorshuizen, Opdam, and van den Brink, 381). In less developed nations, where sustainability is not often on the list of top priorities in urban planning, cities can be planned and built to help minimize environmental impact and maximize utility and use of space.

The second priority of urban planning and design is pollution mitigation. Problems with water and air pollution are just the beginning as often soil pollutants are introduced when cities grow and expand (Rees and Wackernagel, 539). This is also part of the sustainability issue, but since urban environments are often the biggest culprits in pollution, since they have the highest human densities, considerations to reduce pollution…… [read more]


Urban and Suburban Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Large metropolitan areas are attractive to many due to the economic, educational and cultural opportunities available in these areas. During much of the 20th century and especially during economic downturns and recessions large amounts of people abandoned rural areas in search of opportunities that were available in large cities. They rarely took into account the discomforts and negative effects of… [read more]


Real Estate in Greece Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  20 pages (6,076 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 150

SAMPLE TEXT:

Real Estate in Greece

The work of Costa Siomopoulos entitled: "Fast Growth for Greek Real Estate" state that over the past few years that there has been integration of real estate management, development and exploitation in Greece as social security funds, property and construction companies. Leasing firms, portfolio investment firms, foreign institutional investors, realtors, property valuers and others. (nd, paraphrased)… [read more]


HUD Department of Housing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

A disgusting result was obtained from a new audit from city Controller John Liu discovered that city bureaucrats paid out $11.8 million in rent subsidies in recent years to nearly 4,000 people too dead to enjoy them (Einhorn, 2011). Since the money obviously didn't benefit the deceased, instead relatives and landlords were using the funding for their own benefit. This represents a total lack of accountability by the city's housing authority.

Other problems identified in New York City regarding their local housing authority include not sending out their vouchers for section eight recipients causing them trouble with their rent status. The housing authority blamed a new computer and phone system for not being able to process the tenets requests. Several of the victims impacted have actually gone as far as to sue the New York City Housing Authority for the damages caused to them from this affair (Carder, 2011).

PHA vs. NYCHA Statistical Overview

PHA

NYCPA

Number Of Units

14,000

181,581

Individuals Helped

80,000

417,328

Vacancies

7,00

3,300

Waiting List

13,000

135,000

City Population

1,526,006

8,175,133

Conclusion

While the various branches of HUD severe as a valuable service to low income families that are in need of assistance in regards to obtaining decent housing, transgressions such as the one's highlighted are very troubling to say the least. Since funding for these programs comes from tax payers in this country, one might expect that there should be some level of accountability maintained in the management and administration of these programs at all times. People generally aren't too excited to pay as much as they do in taxes and it is reasonable to suspect that when taxpayers become aware that their funds are being blatantly mismanaged then this represents a serious issue.

Despite the managerial problems that have recently arisen in these two organizations, the demand for public housing needs to be filled as effectively as possible to mitigate social injustices that may occur otherwise. The problem is rather straight forward and there are primarily two types of solutions available. First, the programs could be shut down completely however this would cause a great deal of suffering from people who are in need. Therefore, these organizations must be forced to be accountable and offer the public a great deal of transparency regarding all of the operations.

Works Cited

Carder, L. (2011, September 29). New York City Housing Authority sued over Section 8 delays. Retrieved from The Real Deal: http://therealdeal.com/newyork/articles/nycha-sued-over-section-8-paperwork-delays-tenants-blame-new-computer-system-for-voucher-terminations

Einhorn, E. (2011, September 26). Audit reveals city paid $11.8 million in housing subsidies to dead people. Retrieved from NY Daily News: http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2011/09/26/2011-09-26_city_paid_12m_rent_subsidy_to_dead_audit_reveals_shocking_waste.html

Home Zone. (2011). What is HUD? Retrieved from Home Zone: http://www.ginniemae.gov/homezone/brainfood/hud.html

Huber, R. (2011, February). The Devil & Carl Greene. Retrieved from Be Well Philly: http://www.phillymag.com/health/articles/feature_the_devil_carl_greene/

HUD. (2011). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved from HUD: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/about/principal_staff/secretary_donovan

PHA. (2011). About PHA. Retrieved from Philadelphia Housing Authority: http://www.pha.phila.gov/aboutpha/about-pha.aspx

Twyamn, A. (2003, October 28). Pha Could Learn From System In New York Philadelphia, Ranked Among The Worst In Public Housing,… [read more]


Sawyer Possesses a Strong Defense Against Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Sawyer possesses a strong defense against the legal action as outlined by Mills; to wit, the contract outlined by Sawyer was merely an oral offer and presented over a ten-year timeframe. The Statute of Frauds specifically notes that any contract exceeding one year must be devoted to written form else said document is invalid. Mills' secret tape recording of the oral offer is of no consequence because the alleged oral contract implied throughout the conversation was never formally executed as a written contract.

In order for her claim of negligence to be upheld, the female riding the school bus must prove that the driver of said bus: 1) had a duty to refrain from some form of conduct or a duty to engage in some conduct (2) the driver breached that duty (3) the breach actually and proximately caused some harm (4) the plaintiff, as a result of the negligence, sustained damages.

While the school bus driver did have a duty to perform his job in a manner protecting the safety of those on his bus, he could not have foreseen that a bee would fly through the bus window and become trapped in his clothing. Further the driver did attempt to regain control of the bus when it became apparent to him that the bus had slid onto the shoulder of the road thus attempting to fulfill his duty to provide safe…… [read more]


Urban Planning & Urban Planners Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

The broad phenomenon of sprawl is a variety of issues related to land use, transportation, urban and regional design, and planning. Cities expand quickly while also covering an increasing amount of land area. Three factors are argued to be driving this trend: a growing population, rising incomes, and falling community costs (Brueckner, 2000). Some of the disadvantages that are generally attributed to urban sprawl include factors such as the loss of farmlands and wildlife habitats, high car and technology dependence, air pollution and health hazards, increased and higher per-person infrastructure costs.

Urban sprawl has many ecological and health implications which are commonly interrelated. Since urban sprawl positions people outside of walking distance to many of life's necessities, individuals in these communities are effectively forced to rely on cars for everyday transportation. Not only has this reliance on vehicles has contributed significantly to air pollution but it has also played a role in the growing obesity epidemic in the country. When people do not walk on a regular basis because it is so inconvenient to use this form of transportation, then they are far more likely to experience weight problems. However, when communities are designed to be walkable the community members are often much healthier and often report to be happier as well (Frank, et al., 2006).

Urban sprawl is just one of many issues that a community planner might face as they attempt to prepare for future growth. However, this can be a difficult task because transportation with an automobile has become so ingrained into the culture's collective consciousness that it is hard to break this trend; even despite research indicating there is a much higher quality of life in alternative arrangements. Therefore sometimes much of an urban planner's job will consist of educating the public as well as policy makers to the emerging research in the field. Yet it is often difficult to overcome the obstacles that the current culture of growth provides.

Works Cited

Brueckner, J. (2000). URBAN SPRAWL: DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIES. International Regional Science Review, 160-171.

Frank, L., Sallis, J., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75-87.

Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urbanplanning.…… [read more]


Urban Planning Problems in the Developing World Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Urban Development

Urban Planning Problems in the Developing World: A Literature Review

In order to adequately and accurately address the problems that might be faced with urban planning in developing countries and regions of the world, several key pieces of information will need to be found. First, the identification of problems that exist in urban planning generally should be found, and a general idea of developing parts of the world where urban planning is currently taking place would also form a part of the preliminary information need to fully research this issue. Then, an examination of these areas and the specific problems they are facing in terms of urban planning can take place, and finally an assessment of how these problems are similar to and/or differ from urban planning problems generally can be conducted. Collecting this information should be relatively easy using appropriate search terms entered into academic databases; specific terms that will be utilized will include "urban plan* AND problems OR issues OR barriers," "urban develop* regions," "third world urban plan*," and "urban plan* AND develop* world."

Though the basic searches that will lead to the gathering of the necessary information are rather simplistic at the outset, it is expected that several constraints will make this research more difficult than it appears on the surface. Many of these search terms are likely to result in the return of many sources and articles that will not be useful to the research at hand, forming the primary constraint. As research is conducted, more refined search terms will present themselves to the researcher that can be used to narrow down the scope of the returned sources and articles. There is also the potential that abundant information will not exist on this topic, or at least in some of the subtopics identified, which would also constrain the possibility of research to a large degree.

Literature Review

A major problem facing urban planers generally, both in the developed and the developing worlds, is that f traffic congestion -- growth automatically means higher volumes of traffic, and limiting congestion is a way to increase the rate of growth, yet growth also leads to congestion thus creating something of a catch-22 situation (Tennoy 2010). Despite a realization of this issue and a concurrent acknowledgement that increased congestion causes increased pollution, planners tend to use traditional modes to frame this problem and new innovations have not been forthcoming (Tennoy 2010). The regulations and development plans for improved ecological impacts that exist are also left unnoticed by long-term urban planning projects, creating an extreme imbalance between stated values and policies and the realities oof urban development (BenDor & Doyle 2010).

Identifying regions of the world that can be considered as "developing" rather than "developed" does not really require the use of strict definitions, and instead broad regions can be loosely classified as "developing" with little debate or objection (Watson 2009; Beall et al. 2010). By examining proportions of populations that live in rural areas and the level of… [read more]


Affordable Housing and the Use of Exclusionary and Inclusionary Zoning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

AFFORDABLE HOUSING & THE USE OF EXCLUSIONARY AND INCLUSIONARY ZONING

In the past few decades, the lack of affordable housing in the United States has emerged as a crisis effecting low-income residents, government agencies and municipalities, and real estate developers alike. The lack of available affordable housing has increased in the past few years, as a result of zoning ordinances… [read more]


Role of Regional Planning in Disasters Management in Squatter Areas Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Role of Regional Planning in Disaster Management in Squatter Areas

The role of Regional planning in disasters management in squatter areas

Abridged Literature Review

The significance of Regional planning in disasters management in areas occupied by squatters

The research paper that will follow shall look at the contemporary concern of the role of regional planning in managing disasters in squatter… [read more]


Latino Immigration Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,212 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Housing Issues for Los Angeles Latinos

Certain housing issues abound for Latino residents in Los Angeles, due in no small part to particular longstanding political and private practices, a distinctive socio-cultural tradition of residents, and a wealth of legislation that is routinely bypassed to propagate systematic discrimination. The manifold effects of such discrimination may be evidenced in the grouping of… [read more]


African-American Housing: Chicago Study Chicago Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American Housing: Chicago Study

Chicago Housing Study

African-American Housing Disparities

Historical Chicago Housing Facts

Covenants

The Gautreaux Case

Recent Studies and Their Findings

Chicago Housing Study

African-American Housing Disparities

The objective of this work is to examine the status and condition of African-Americans as compared to whites in the area of housing specifically in the city of Chicago, Illinois both… [read more]


Land Use Planning Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Effectiveness of plans

Kaiser and Godschalk's literature also reveal planning policies are ineffective. The land use patterns mapped in community administrative departments often set out plans without any specific land use or implementation strategy. Kaiser and Godschalk call these verbal policy plans, designed for non-physical development policy. At the initial stages these plans were found important for foundation policy. However,… [read more]


Regional Planning, Some Examples Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,497 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Fast Facts About the Strategic Plan

Background

TVA is preparing for fundamental changes that we believe increased competition will bring to the entire electric utility industry and to TVA's business environment.

In the past decade, as the electric-utility industry has moved toward open-market competition, many TVA distributor customers have told us that they want the option of buying from other… [read more]


Daniels When City and Country Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,526 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

One of the greatest strengths of the book is its careful consideration of a number of different interests in the ongoing issue of urban-rural expansion. Daniels looks at the problems of politicians who are interested in economic growth, but who must be sensitive to voters. Further, he looks at the issue from the side of planners and developers who are faced with the task of deciding how much development occurs in the city and in the countryside. In his analysis, Daniels does not fail to consider the needs and opinions of other groups, including developers, citizens, landowners, local governments, and even the courts.

In conclusion, despite these problems in putting urban sprawl within a larger context of urban management and public administration, When City and Country Collide is a useful look at the problems of urban sprawl. Daniels is thorough in his investigations of the problems of urban sprawl, and manages to create a concrete picture of the problems facing growing cities, at least within this defined area. Overall, Daniels provides a useful look into how urban sprawl characterizes modern city planning, and provides some insights into urban management and public administration.

References

Morgan, David R. And England, Robert E. 1999. Managing Urban America (Public Administration and Public Policy), 5th edition. Chatham House Publishers.

Daniels, Thomas L. 1998. When City and…… [read more]


American Industrialization and Its Impacts on Urban System Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,167 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

American Industrialization Urban Systems

The industrial revolution, as it is termed changed the role of cities to a fundamental level in the history of America. Industries tend to congregate at major sources of resources including but not limited to communications, transportation and labor. The growth of cities in the U.S. can even be linked directly to industrialization, as the greater the needs of the market the greater the size of cities that grew around industry to feed it. Capital had to be available, hence communications with foreign investors was needed, until such time as urban centers began to provide their own capital systems and lending. (Kantor, and David 86)

The Industrial Revolution fundamentally transformed the role of cities in capitalism and created a national urban system based on market competition. This new urban economy had enormous local political implications. Not least, it enabled some city governments to achieve powerful market positions and secure relative economic independence. This new reality would change the bargaining positions of local government and business. (Kantor, and David 86)

Urban centers grew exponentially, physically, culturally and socially as a result of industrialization. Many labor needs in the northern cities in the U.S., based near waterways and shipping centers, were met by recruited immigrants from nearly every nation in the world, at different times and for different industries. (Hommann 33) All these people, as well as the industries they worked for an in needed infrastructural supports, systems to get clean water, dispose of waste and transport people and goods. Road building and city planning began with urban needs, as they were required and according to a sort of natural design, then city planning came into the picture to resolve many conflicts that developed.

City planning has thus been preceded in America by extensive free and unplanned urban development and is still overwhelmed, if not engulfed, by it. This chapter gives an overview of the efforts of American planning to stem or correct economic and developmental devastation. While it is true that the laying out of streets is but one phase of city planning, it is an important one. Obviously a city must be built around designated channels of movement, and its street layout markedly affects everything that follows. As we have seen, virtually all attempts at grandeur had to give way to the speculative gridiron plan. (Hommann 47)

The fact that true urban centers exist at all owes a great deal to industry growth. Systems that developed as a result of supporting industry became rapidly urban in character, with entire populations of people and industry requiring dependency to survive. What this means is that cities needed to meet the needs of all, with building, roads, water and food.

urbanization and urbanism must be explained as contingent historical processes. Kingsley Davis (1955:429) has remarked that "compared to most other aspects of society -- e.g., language, religion, stratification, or the family -- cities appeared only yesterday, and urbanization, meaning that a sizable proportion of the population lives in cities,… [read more]


City of Alexandria -- Time Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

13

Visual Representation of Indicator #4

FY 2011 Income Limits Summary

Income Limits

FY 2011 Income Limit Area

Median Income

FY 2011 Income Limit Category

1 Person

2 Person

3 Person

4 Person

5 Person

6 Person

Alexandria city

$106,100

Very Low (50%) Income Limits

$37,150

$42,450

$47,750

$53,050

$57,300

$61,550

Extremely Low (30%)

$22,300

$25,500

$28,700

$31,850

$34,400

$36,950

$39,500

$42,050

Low (80%)

$47,350

$54,100

$60,850

$67,600

$73,050

$78,450

$83,850

$89,250

FY 2012 Fair Market Rents Summary - Alexandria city, Virginia

Efficiency

1 Bedroom

2 Bedrooms

3 Bedrooms

4 Bedrooms

Proposed FY2012 FMRs

$1,171

$1,334

$1,513

$1,952

$2,554

Alexandria City, Virginia

Year

% Change

Efficiency

2-BR

FMR

Percentile

FMR

1 Bedroom

2 Bedrooms

3 Bedrooms

4 Bedrooms

http://www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr/fmrs/fy2011_code/acstypesumm.odn?fmrtype=Final&data=2011

http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/fmr/fmr_il_history/select_Geography.odn

Indicator Reponse #5 - Representing Variance in Time (Cross-Sectional Data)

Visual Representation of Indicator #5

Indicator # 40 Price to Income Ratio / Percentage of Income Paid Towards Housing

Indicator Response #4 - Representing Variance in Time (2000 -- 2010)

There is an acute shortage of affordable, adequate rental units for low income households. The widening supply gap is due to the ongoing reduction in the availability of low-cost units and the difficulty of producing market rate housing at affordable rents. Affordability problems are moving up the income scale, more and more renters who have middle-range incomes must compete for a steadily shrinking inventory of affordable units.

Source: America's Rental Housing: Meeting Challenges, Building on Opportunities

The Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University.

http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/rental/rh11_americas_rental_housing/AHR2011-5-Affordability.pdf

JCHS calculations using U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Market Absorption and New Residential Construction; and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Low Income

Housing Tax Credit database

Visual Representation of Indicator #4

Indicator Reponse #5 - Representing Variance in Time (Cross-Sectional Data)

Visual Representation of Indicator #5

References

Averch, H.A. (XXX). Chapter 10 Using expert judgment. [In XXXX].

Gladwell, M. (2007, November 12).…… [read more]


Housing Price Dynamics Within a Metropolitan Area Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (7,112 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Housing Price Dynamics within a Metropolitan Area

One of the most dramatic features of the current recession is the impact that it has had on housing prices. Rather than viewing houses primarily as homes, many Americans have long considered houses to be their largest financial investments. In addition, real estate had been a fairly secure financial investment for a significant… [read more]


Racism and America's Urban Cycle Question Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,303 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Racism and America's Urban Cycle
Question: 1
Following World War II, two major points of inflection in American
history would set off a settlement pattern that would levy distinct effects
on the racial disparity present here throughout. The acceleration of
America's economic growth paired with the massive improvement of its
technologies and infrastructure for transportation (i.e. the proliferation
of private automobile and home ownership), would lead to the development of
the suburb.
The most immediate and direct reflection of this condition would be
the sharp contrast between the emergence of the suburb and the decline of
the inner-city. The process of urban flight by which many of the older
residences in the heart of the city would be abandoned for residency in
such contexts would essentially expand the borders of the city. The
outskirts would increasingly be occupied by a city's wealthier inhabitants,
whose access to the city by personal or rail car at this time-as well as
by increasingly reliable communication technology-would allow them to
occupy a large space. Simultaneously, this pattern would considerably
reduce the value and appeal of many residencies in the immediate inner-
city. These would therefore increasingly become the low-income
neighborhoods of America's inner cities. With the industrial development
of the city healthfully underway, its labor class would occupy many of the
decayed old neighborhoods of the city, and would by no coincidence
generally be African American residents. The outcome of this pattern is
described damningly by Massey & Denton (1998), who tell that "the
geographic isolation of Africans within a narrowly circumscribed portion of
the urban environment-whether African townships or American ghettos-forces
blacks to live under extraordinarily harsh conditions and to endure a
social world where poverty is endemic, infrastructure is inadequate,
education is lacking, families are fragmented, and crime and violence are
rampant. Moreover, segregation confines these unpleasant by-products of
racial oppression to an isolated portion of the urban geography far removed
from the experience of most whites." (Massey & Denton, 15-16)
This idea of removing such urban consequences from the view of whites
brings us to consider gentrification. The term 'gentrification' is one of
highly controversial and loaded implication. To its supporters, it appears
that this mode to urban revitalization is the most direct route to
improving property values, social conditions and economic outlooks for
distinct city neighborhoods. To its detractors, gentrification is a term
which naturally implies the economic displacement of lower-income residents
in favor of middle-class inhabitants. On the balance, it remains an issue
very much entangled in individualized and personal perspectives, as well as
in the contexts of varying issues relating to society, economy, policy and
race. Mitchell's (2003) text, which evaluates the longstanding conflict of
interests between the developers of Berkley and its extensive homeless
population, with the process of gentrification at the center of differing
needs of urban land use. Mitchell denotes that "while the language of
disaffiliation and deviance retained a certain prominence, homeless
advocates worked hard to emphasize the structural determinants of
homelessness (economic decline;… [read more]


Urban Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Graffiti is an urban art form that is unique to the city, but one in which anyone can participate as an artist.

The significance of fashion, of wearing one's clothes as art is also an element of urban visual culture. The reason that so many fashion trends spring from the city is not simply the location of wealth and talent in these areas, but the fact that individuals are more often driven out onto the streets, out of small apartments to 'show themselves' to one another. Who one is in such an anonymous environment is not immediately known, as in a small town, how one looks and what one wears defines who one is on the street, at any moment.

It is also noteworthy that there are a diversity of visual texts in various neighborhoods -- for instance, the presence of street or commercial signs in a foreign language or alphabet are an act of visual communication particular to cities that 'say something about the neighborhood's composition and sense of identity.

Whose Culture, Whose City?

The patchwork nature of cities into a variety of ethnic, class, and vocationally oriented areas means that no single group 'owns' a particular city. This is particularly true of the sprawling nature of American cities. Witold Rybczynski, Professor of Urbanism at the University of Philadelphia, argued in his 1995 book City Life that the American city is different from the European city because America's urban planners had more abundant open space to allow for more segmentation of ethnic identities, as well as a more diverse population. (Cited by Lobo & Schooler, 2004) This diversity, growth of capitalism, and expansion created a greater environment of cultural freedom, a sense of democratic equality between various groups, and respect for one another in the sense that anyone could succeed in America. But it also created a security of neighborhood environments, so that certain ethnic, regional, and national musical traditions, cuisines, and ways of life could retain their integrity.

Thus, in America, certain ethnic legacies, from pizza, to hip-hip, and clogs, might have all begun as the product of one ethnic group, became blended and reformulated in an urban environment with other cultures, and then, finally, in the industrial age, were sold to all other regions as the world as something urban, ethnic, and 'American,' all at once.

Works Cited

Schultz, Stanley. Constructing the Urban Culture American Cities and City Planning, 1800-1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

Lobo, Daniel G., & Larry Schooler. (2004) "Playing with Urban Life." Technology & Cities. The American City. Issue 6. Retrieved 8 Nov 2005 at http://www.americancity.org/article.php?id_article=21… [read more]


Suburban Metropolis Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,516 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Los Angeles Area: Population Growth

Los Angeles consists of a five county region that has experienced incredible growth since the late nineteenth century. The population of this region has increased from just fewer than twenty thousand in 1870 to almost twenty million by 2010 population estimates. Los Angeles has become the second largest urban region in the United States and… [read more]


New York Real Estate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,269 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

In addition, more parents are leasing apartments for their children, and some retirees are choosing Manhattan over traditional cities such as Miami (Toy, 2012).

Tourism continues to grow, and the development of new hotels in Downtown New York, including the W. And the Four Seasons, added 3,152 rooms in 2011 pushing hotel occupancy rate higher (Gregor, 2011). The robust development… [read more]


Affordable Housing in Los Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

NMS Apartments in Los Angeles also help you for better place to live. It is located in Santa Monica in West Los Angeles. NMS apartments offer affordable housing scheme with modern and affordable luxury apartments. Each property of NMS apartments is finest, modern and reasonably priced. One can also take the advantage of urban living with this housing scheme.

Another housing scheme one could get is Los Angeles Housing Department (LAHD). This housing scheme also provides affordable houses and rosters at reasonable amounts. They offer different square feet houses, flats, apartments to their clients according to their budget and need.

Los Angeles Housing Partnership inc. (LAHP) is one more housing plan which offers houses within your means. It is located near Westlake MacArthur Park area. This housing plan is offering and providing very calm and peaceful environment to the people living there. They are also working in a project of housing plan which is based on the green building method with anti-smoke surroundings. People could also get apartments on Rent if they want a temporary residency in Los Angeles.

My New Space Online can help people online to get low-priced apartments and houses at their favorite places, locations and environments. People can get all the information online and could sort the thing out online from wherever they are.

These are a few schemes which are helping and providing residence services to the people. I guess with help of these sources, one could get better residential style. I found these schemes better than others in providing residential services in Los Angeles.

References

2012) NMS Apartments Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://www.nmsapartments.com/

Los Angeles Apartment Info. Retrieved from http://www.mynewplace.com/city/los-angeles-apartments-for-rent-california

Silverstein, M (2012). Los Angeles Housing Partnership, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.lahousingpartnership.com/Staff.html

Villaraigase, A.R. (2011). Los Angeles Housing Department. Los Angeles, California.… [read more]


Quality of Life Indicators Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

A ranking ratio estimation procedure resulted in two weights being assigned: A weight to each sample person record and a weight to each sample housing unit record.

Level of Aggregation -- Reports are released for specified geographic areas, and all the same set of statistical, legal, and administrative entities as those addressed in previously published Census long form, including the… [read more]


Roman Identity Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,477 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Roman Urbanization

Why was Urbanization an Important Element for the Construction of a Roman Identity?

The challenges of nation and empire building have been a fascination of western civilization since before the industrial revolution, which marked a period of massive alterations in the development of urban centers for trade and commerce in such societies. Yet, it must also be made… [read more]


Urbanization and the Environment: A Critical Balancing Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Urbanization and the Environment: A Critical Balancing Act

The Dilemma

The earth is a complex environment with a seemingly endless amount of vast resources. Viewed from the vantage point of an individual in an industrialized nation, it would appear that the earth has an endless capacity to care for its occupants. However, when viewed from an impoverished developing nation, the earth's limitations in caring for its inhabitants become a harsh reality.

The human population continues to grow at an alarming rate. We know from studying the carrying capacities in other species that the earth's ability to support ever-expanding populations is limited. At some point, the balance is broken and a disaster occurs, one that is often devastating to the species involved. This brings us to the logical question of how long it will be until the earth re-balances the human population. Balancing urbanization and environmental impact issues is one of the most pressing issues confronting human society, both now and in the future.

Slide 2

Institutionalizing Community-Based Development

In Abidjan, structural adjustments have forced the Mayor of Adjame to focus on the issues of unemployment, poverty, and environmental decay in their country (Unesco, 2008a). Neighborhood committees (CDQs) helped to channel local resources to help improve living conditions. The impact of these programs has been astounding. Since their inception, they have:

Generated full and part-time employment for 2000 workers.

Collected $60 million in feels for projects such as infrastructure development

Attained leverage at 6 times the amount invested

Negotiated to cut the cost of basic water connections by 60%

Vaccinated 800 children

Instituted a training program for 40 men to improve their business skills

Promotes the hiring of local labor, resulting in 200 jobs for local citizens.

Slide 3

Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Bank

Shri Mahila Sewa Sahakari Bank, a bank of poor, self-employed women workers was established by those that it would serve...the women themselves (Unesco, 2008b). This bank offers support services to 51,000 depositors consisting of working Indian women in poor rural areas. The success of this bank has served as a catalyst in establishing further initiatives to help the poor and underprivileged. It demonstrates that people have to take their own initiative to institute change.

Slide 4

Shelter Upgrading in Agadir, Morocco

The Moroccan National Shelter Upgrading Agency (ANHI) in Agadir has a large percentage of women acting as head of household (Unesco, 2008c). An earthquake devastated this area in 1960, leaving many of the poor in the community without resources (Unesco, 2008c). This agency provides a means to integrate economic, social, and political avenues to help improve shelter for the women living in poorer sections of the city (Unesco, 2008c).

Slide 5

City Management in Tilburg: Past, Present and Future

Tillburg, Netherlands bills itself as the model city for balancing industrial growth with environmental concerns (Unesco, 2008d). The city manages itself with its sight set on the future and the realization that we, as human, must be proactive in our efforts to manage the environment for our… [read more]


Everyday Urbanism Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Architecture

Urban Space and Architecture

Addressing the cultural as well as the practical needs of urban communities and societies has become a growing challenge for city planners and for architects, as the growing density and diversity of many such communities and societies has led to rapidly changing needs and desires when it comes to public spaces. The different uses that public spaces are expected to serve have themselves become increasingly diverse, as well, which has led to some drastic rethinking not only in the theories that underlie urban planning and development, but also in the practical design efforts and construction implementations that take place. This paper will investigate certain emerging and evolving theories in urban planning and architecture as well as evidence of changing trends in the actual use and implementation of urban spaces, and examines an early example of these emerging trends as a point of illustration and inspection.

Everyday Urbanism

In an essay entitled "Everyday Urbanism," Margaret Crawford demonstrates how many urban spaces are actually sites of everyday public activity despite a lack of effort in designing a useful public space: "[everyday space] is banal, it's repetitive, it's everywhere and nowhere, it's a place that has few characteristics that people pay attention to."

At the same time, Crawford maintains, a close observation of these bland and "repetitive" everyday spaces reveals that they are actually quite specifically identified and utilized by community members.

In this view of unplanned urban space, there are design opportunities and planning influences to be found in existing areas and without conscious and over-arching design principles at work reshaping urban spaces or landscapes in large-scale ways. Such appropriation and site-specific utilizations -- the design/functionality aesthetic that Crawford defines as "Everyday Urbanism" -- are attempts to "refamiliarize urban environments," in contrast to design and architectural trends that lead to the "modernist sensation of defamiliarization."

Examples of this Everyday Urbanism include garage-sale like endeavors taking place in empty parking lots or along streets, get-togethers on grassy spaces that were never intended for any real use, and a variety of other undesigned and spontaneous yet specific uses.

Ecological Urbanism

Margaret Crawford's concept of Everyday Urbanism dovetails quite nicely with the aesthetic and practical movement known as Ecological Urbanism, as defined and described by Moshen Mostafavi in his book of the same title. Mostafavi sees ecological urbanism as something of a response to the "scale of the ecological crisis" facing modern urban communities and sites, "providing a set of sensibilities and practices that can help enhance our approaches to urban development."

Through these practices and sensibilities, Mostafavi contends, societies must (and are) learning to handle the increasing diversity and density that has been noted in urban environments.

This means that urban architecture and city planning efforts are increasingly taking the growing number and diversity of needs for public paces into account in conscious ways, which is a definite difference from Crawford's everyday urbanism.

Still, a great deal of dialogue can be found between the two concepts of everyday urbanism… [read more]


Real Estate Markets on Shenzhen and Beijing Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Real Estate Markets on Shenzhen and Beijing: Overview of the Development and Analysis of Problems

With the rise of the Chinese economy, the face of real estate in its many cities is changing dramatically. Yet, research shows that these changes are not uniform, and differ greatly depending on the area based on prime factors, such as government involvement… [read more]


New York City's Zoning Laws Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The landscape of the city has changed tremendously in the past century and in some cases the zoning laws have not kept pace and cannot address the newer issues that are at hand.

There are several significant outcomes which zoning needs to address:

Zoning must be consistent so that outcomes produce the desired result throughout the community

Zoning needs to be comprehensive so that it can take into account the range of possibilities that might occur

Zoning has to recognize and adapt to growth and change to meet future needs and expanding economies.

Zoning has to protect the population's quality of life.

Zoning has to be realistic and be able to be put into practice.

New York City's zoning regulations fall short even though the city has been a pioneer of innovation in zoning resolutions. In 1916, New York City championed zoning regulations ushered n the great building boom. But the regulations were flawed because they didn't take into account population density in certain areas nor did it provide for adverse environmental conditions in less affluent areas.

Today, New York is facing some consequential challenges that current regulations don't seem able to effectively deal with. The city is becoming a mecca of households of fewer people but more households. Space is at a premium as affluent families want larger rooms. The city is undergoing urban density and the revised zoning laws of 1961 are basically flawed in their vision and don't make allowances for urban growth. The reality is that New York City needs more development but of a different kind.

What improvements would you recommend and how would you justify their value and feasibility?

To begin with, new zoning may need to be implemented to allow for the type of flexibility and innovation that is now needed to design the city of the future. The old rules can still apply and be aptly enforced but a new series of regulations that addresses urban renewal and aesthetic architecture needs to be created.

Developers need to be enticed to want to build in New York City -- and to have the ability to make a profit. Height regulations need to be considered so that height will not be an intrusion to the landscape or the population. I would recommend that we welcome new and innovative ideas for building and that we find a balance between the old and the new. We can celebrate both and create an architectural vision that allows for the appreciation of both.

We'd have to address the parking rules and somehow make parking available for residents of the city who own cars. Limiting the number of commuter cars into the city proper would provide more spaces in dense neighborhoods.

I'd also recommend that we make better use of the less populated manufacturing and industrial areas by creating additional parking and bringing some of the community facilities to these neighborhoods also.

The value in all of this is to create a city that is realistic and livable. To… [read more]


Zoning and Land Use New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,182 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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There are then public hearings, held by the affected community board and the City Planning Commission. Amendments must be considered and Okayed by the community board, the borough board, the Borough President, and then finally the City Council. (This rule is the primary source of Community Board and City Council power.)New York City employs a zoning system which offers a high level of certainty. The Department of City Planning believes that it is very important to give communities, developers and regulators a clear sense of what is and is not allowed in a given district. The City enacted United States' first comprehensive zoning resolution in 1916 and the City continues to be a leader in zoning policy in the States. The 1916 Zoning Resolution separated functionally incompatible uses and established height and setback controls. The ordinance became a model for urban communities throughout the United States

The Zoning Resolution of New York City is divided into two parts: zoning text and zoning maps. The text establishes zoning districts and sets forth the regulations governing land use and development. There are three basic zoning districts: residential, commercial and manufacturing. Detailed regulations in the zoning text set out the use permitted, building density, parking requirements and other detailed design guidelines. Manufacturing uses and certain intense commercial uses are also subject to performance standards which limit noise, air pollution and other nuisance-creating activity

Within the broad commercial zoning district category, office buildings are allowed in two out of the eight specific commercial districts: "Restricted Central Commercial Districts, C5" and "General Central Commercial Districts, C6." The remaining six specific commercial districts are for retail, entertainment and recreational uses at different scale and location. The broad manufacturing zoning district can be further divided into three specific manufacturing districts: "Light Manufacturing Districts, M1," "Medium Manufacturing Districts, M2" and "Heavy Manufacturing Districts, M3," based on performance standards.

Flexibility in the zoning system is provided by allowing discretionary actions. Some development may be allowed if Special Permits are secured from the City Planning Commission or the Board of Standards and Appeals. (Richard F. Babcock, The Zoning Game Revisited, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy; Reprint edition (September 1990))

In response to the changing needs of the changing city, the Zoning Resolution is amended regularly. In 2000, the Department of City Planning presented a zoning proposal to facilitate Long Island City's transformation into a central business district. The proposed zoning changes address critical commercial development needs of the City by allowing large mixed-use buildings to be constructed on sites located one or two subway stops east of Midtown Manhattan. The proposal is anticipated to generate as much as five million square feet of new commercial development. In addition, a wide range of planning tools can be used such as incentive zoning, contextual zoning, waterfront zoning, mixed use zoning, special districts, air-rights transfer and restrictive covenant techniques to make zoning more responsive and sensitive to the changing needs of New York City. Places where the above have been implemented before successfully… [read more]


Game / Outside Game David Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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One of the most valuable contributions of Rusk's book is his use of census statistics to illustrate many of his concepts. This adds a great deal of credence to his theories, and is a profound addition to the anecdotal evidence. Despite this, many of his statistical claims are based on correlational, rather than causational, data.

In addition to his scholarly… [read more]


Streets of Hope -- the Fall Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Streets of Hope -- the Fall and Rise of an Urban Community

In Streets of Hope Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar demonstrate the hope, pride and determination are vital components of any community restoration project. In this ground breaking work the authors demonstrate how a community plagued by poverty and destitution still may rise up from the ashes and transform… [read more]


Event Coverage Story Pitch Article

Article  |  4 pages (1,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Manhattan Community Board 4 (MCB4) public hearing on the District Plan for the proposed Hudson Yards Business Improvement District. The meeting took place July 31, 2013 at Roosevelt Hospital with 70 people in attendance. Supporters and opposition of the business development projects were in attendance, and with so many projects on the table there was a definitely a lot to discuss on the table.

For over three hours, speakers discussed a number of issues in great detail. A number of potential projects were brought to the forum, each getting unique attention from both supporters and the opposition. Yet, it was issue 37, or the business improvement district for the Hudson Yards, was really center stage. The plan regards a southern portion of Hell's Kitchen, being within the area bounded by West 42nd and Eleventh Ave. According to the committee, "the specific aim of the proposed BID is "to provide maintenance for the Hudson Park and Boulevard and district-wide services and improvements that enhance the quality of life of an exceptionally diverse population who live, work and visit within the district" (NYC.gov 12). With no question, there was great support for the business development within the community. Nancy Diez, of the 531 Board of Managers at 9th and 42nd attended the meeting, adding that "We look at 9th Ave as Main Street. We love and appreciate BID. We support to take it further."

There are a number of major components to the new development scheme, with the Hudson Yards BID being renamed the Hudson Yards / Hell's Kitchen Alliance. First and foremost is the desire to generate more open space within the area to increase the feel of open air within the space in question. More open space means a better quality of living for those residents of Hell's Kitchen. Paul, a resident owner and part of the 502 9th Ave Condo Association was excited to see the push towards opening up more space in the neighborhood, saying "I believe and support the greenery of the neighborhood."

Also high on the list is addressing a number of problematic traffic and sanitation safety issues. On behalf of the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT), Lisa added "Items like sanitation and pedestrian safety are priority. We have a commitment to maintain the park. Looking forward to 2014." With a proposed expansion of the Number 7 subway line, it will be crucial to ensure the community that pedestrian safety is a top priority. The board will work tirelessly to come up with solutions to better protect pedestrians, even with this increase in both foot and commuter traffic that would come as a result of the business development expansion. Micheal Niyola from Cullen house also added that "It's important for the community to work on these issues together."

Also in the highlight of the conversation was the style of the area, not just purely the business development aspects. In regards to revamping buildings suffering from old age and disrepair, there was a general spur… [read more]


Story Pitch Article

Article  |  2 pages (540 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Manhattan Community Board 4, Chelsea Land Use (CLU) Committee and Waterfront, Parks, and Environment (WPE) Committee meeting has met to determine to what level they will continue allowing building and changing the Hudson River Park area of New York. Legislation has been passed which changes the Hudson River Park Act in order to take into account then needs of other bodies, including groups who wish for nothing more than to conserve and protect the Hudson River Park as it exists. Too much of the land, as in other parts of the country, has been taken over by bloodthirsty corporations who think of nothing more than their bottom line and the quickest way to fatten their wallets. The trust claimed that they would be financially damaged by these modifications and that they need to get control of the air rights in the area in order to sell their products. CB4 quite rightly does not trust this group, fearing that they will sell the air rights to companies who are similarly interested in only money, who will then use those air rights to violate the law, such as by building more floors in their buildings than are allowed by the district's regulations. The Trust in question has proven itself to be unconcerned by the objections of the opposition and has sited its own monetary gain as a reason why the city planners should allow them to control the air rights. The laws were created to protect the rights of the masses, not the few and this should be explored in order to continue the fight against these large organizations.

Story…… [read more]


Metropolitan Growth and Federal Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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As a result of the Federal Housing Administration's policies, white Americans could readily obtain low-cost, long-term mortgages for in new suburban developments. In contrast, African-Americans were restricted to difficult to obtain, high-cost, short-term mortgages that were largely restricted to inner city, used housing developments.

Certainly, federal policies and suburban sprawl are not the only two factors that have lead to the development of the poor, racially segregated inner city. Other causes include, zoning, creating large public housing products in low-income areas (such as the inner city), redlining by insurance companies and banks. In concert with the powerful forces of federal policies and suburban sprawl, the end result has been staggering: a huge segregation by race and class. This physical segregation of African-Americans in the inner city has the end result of increasing the effects of poverty and segregation.

Certainly, the fact that the federal transportation bill has not been authorized has played a large role on the development of the racial-segregated and poverty-infused central cities in the United States. Reasonably high funds for HUD rent vouchers have also led to the racial and class segregation of African-Americans in America's inner cities.

The development of public housing in inner cities that are already racially segregated has exacerbated the problem of racial-segregated and poverty-infused central cities in the United States. Certainly, when the federal government decides to build public housing, it is the poor who will obviously take advantage of this housing. Given that poverty in America largely wears the face of the minority population (and especially the African-American population) it is not surprising that federally-supported public housing in the inner city has drawn an even larger, poor African-American population to the inner city. The federal government's development of public housing in mixed-income communities may ease help this problem.

Further, the fact that the federal government currently allocates a large share of infrastructure projects (like sewers and highways) to suburban areas has also exacerbated the negative impact on the poor of the central cities in the United States. Certainly, these federal policies have increased metropolitan growth in the suburbs, and discouraged growth in the inner cities that do not receive as much in terms of federal infrastructure payments.

In summary, both metropolitan growth and federal policies over the past fifty years have negatively impacted the poor of the central cities in the United States. The African-Americans community has felt most of the effects of metropolitan growth and federal policies. Suburban sprawl has largely been the domain of whites, leaving African-Americans segregated in the inner city. Further, federal policies such as the…… [read more]


Company Sponsored Childcare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,528 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The child cares crisis and the problems that inadequate childcare present for corporate America is another topic. There is a wealth of background information available on both of these topics. However, there is none that approaches the topics from the angle that will be presented in this research. Therefore is impossible to examine previous academic research on the topic, due… [read more]


Neck Sits on the North Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

) Cape cods and ranches predominate, but the single-family housing mix also includes colonials, Tudors and Mediterranean styles.

Some older houses date back to the 1880's, with a large number of Victorians along Arrandale Avenue and scattered around the village. However, these houses are priced particularly low and many have taken to buying them, knocking them down, and building bigger, more expensive homes. While many contend that the older homes were falling to pieces, many see developers as robbing the city of its heritage. Luckily for the conservationists, the village's landmarks preservation commission is in the process of creating a landmark district along Arrandale Avenue. 2,474 of Great Neck's 3,347 houses are owner-occupied, with 1,067 of these residences built before 1940 and another 1,435 built between 1940 and 1960.

Many city residents have roots in the middle class that fled New York during the chaotic 1960's, 70's and 80's and is home to an especially large Jewish population. Great Neck is home to over a dozen synagogues with a large number of Iranian and Russian Jews. The city became a haven for wealthy Jews that fled Iran in the late 1970's following the Islamic revolution. Only 188 houses were built in the 1990's and 159 homes were built in the 1980's.

The local high school is considered excellent in an affluent suburban county that prides itself in excellent high schools. More than 97% of 248 members of this year's graduating class at North High School went on to attend a four-year college or university; the mean scores for the class of 2001 were 570 in verbal and 609 in math, a combined 159 points above the national average. The high school features many advanced placement courses and vocational programs in which students can intern in their intended professions. Over 50% of adult residents of Great Neck have a bachelor's degree and nearly 30% have some kind of professional degree.

Although the village is over 80% white non-hispanic with a black population of less than 3%, it is extremely diverse. The foreign born population is approximately 35.7%. Of these, 22.8% are from Asia with most being Jews from the Middle East. In addition, 7.0% of residents are from Latin America and 5.6% are from Europe.

1,334,544 people live in the county of Nassau, only slightly less than the population of Manhattan which totals approximately 1.5 million. The population of the county consists of 447,387 households comprised of 347,172 families. The population density is 4,655 per square mile. That of Great Neck is higher but the park system offsets the effects of this.

The racial makeup of Nassau county is 79.30% White, 10.09% African-American, 0.16% Native American, 4.73% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.57% from other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. Great Neck has 1/4th or less black people than the county it is in. 9.99% of the population is Hispanic; this is approximately the same as Great Neck. Of the 447,387 households in Long Island, 35.30% have children under… [read more]


New Deal Documents and Analyzes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The most important being the very shortage of housing which could have very dangerous implications. Also, there is a need for a system which inter-relates urban, suburban, and rural housing and planning. Other considerations like the financing and correlation of public and private agencies to undertake such a huge program have to be thought of as well. In Mayer's opinion, the failure of the government to take regard of these things was mainly due to its incomprehension of the problem. Also, all the agencies that the government created added to the chaos: the Home Owners' Loan Corporation would approve a mortgage and revivify the owner in some area where the PWA was trying to assemble land for slum clearance. Hence, Mayer says, an immediate plan is required which would be practical and would incorporate all the features which were previously left unattended to in Roosevelt's Housing Plan. (Mayer, 1935)

The third source used is Robert Fechner's "My Hopes For the CCC'. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was an environmental program that put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests, beaches, and parks. Workers earned only $1 a day but received free board and job training. Fechner was the Director of the CCC and was immensely pleased with all that it had accomplished.

These men planted new forests on barren lands, reduced forest devastation by forest fires by improving forest and park protection systems, built new recreational facilities to improve the civic usefulness of parks, forests etc. And initiated a large scale drive to demonstrate practical erosion control measures to farmers. They were provided academic as well as vocational education, good food, medical care and their basic needs were met.

Hence, the CCC has been very successful in opened up recreational opportunities in the nation's forests and parks for millions by stimulating new state park development projects, aroused national interest in wildlife conservation by furnishing men and funds for acquisition and development of a chain of wildlife refuges and by improving conditions for fishing and by stimulating federal and state agencies to greater wildlife conservation activity among other things. This was therefore, one of the more successful programs under the New Deal. (Fechner, 1939)

Sources:

Epstein, Abraham. "Social Security" Under the New Deal (September 4, 1935). The New Deal Network. Retrieved Nov 16, 2003. http://newdeal.feri.org/nation/na35261.htm

Fechner, Robert. My Hopes for the CCC (January 1939). The New Deal Network. Retrieved Nov 16, 2003. http://newdeal.feri.org/forests/af139.htm

Mayer, Albert. Can We Have a Housing Program? (October 9, 1935). The New Deal Network. Retrieved…… [read more]


Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System by Donella Meadows Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Headline: Scale-free networks

Date: 2003

Source: Scientific American

Abstract (no more than 150 words): Networks are common to both human organizations and also to entities found in nature. But until recently, scientists have tended to treat networks as relatively random entities. This article specifically focuses on 'scale-free' networks. Scale-free networks (versus random networks) are relatively impervious to accidental failures but can be highly vulnerable to outside attacks. Scale-free network can be found everywhere, from the biological to the environmental realm. They can be understood as a series of nodes and links. The stronger the ties between networks, the more likely contagion in the form of pathogens or ideas will spread: hence the need for ensuring the dissemination through the network is positive rather than negative.

Link: http://www.barabasilab.com/pubs/CCNR-ALB_Publications/200305-01_SciAmer-ScaleFree/200305-01_SciAmer-ScaleFree.pdf

Global Issue: Systems analysis

How does it relate to design? Acceptance of new designs is based upon the spread of ideas. By increasing the acceptance of new ideas amongst critical information leaders (the 'hubs' of design), greater acceptance of new ideas in general (both aesthetic such as in the case of postmodernism and conceptual such as in the case of environmentally-sustainable design, for example) will be facilitated. Art such as that exhibited by Koons which is not conventionally beautiful but rather questions what art is altogether would not have been comprehensible a hundred years ago; today, because of the dissemination of new ideas such postmodern constructions have become commonplace (Saltz 1).

Does it relate to other disciplines? Systems analysis has a wide range of applicability to other design concepts and ways of understanding links between people and ideas, spanning from the biological to the theoretical and conceptual. It is a physical and an intellectual concept.

Work Cited

Saltz, Jerry. "Jeff Koons, creator and destroyer of worlds." Vulture. 25 Jun 2014.

http://www.vulture.com/2014/06/jeff-koons-creator-and-destroyer-of-worlds.html

[15 Sept 2014]… [read more]


Zoning and Development Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (1,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

An Economic Feasibility Study;

b. An Amendment to the North County, South County and Downtown City General Plans;

c. An Environmental Impact Report;

d. Annexation;

e. Financing.

Conclusion:

Attempted development of the Natomas Joint Vision Project Area gave rise to competing interests among County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the HCP Conservancy, landowners, airport planners and developers. With the recommended Win-Win method of conflict resolution and applying the Charrette method, economic equity can be provided to all stakeholders through drafting an MOU among County South, County North and Downtown City, and implementation of an economic feasibility study, amendment to the general plans of North County, South County and Downtown City, an Environmental Impact Report, appropriate annexation and appropriate financing.

Works Cited

Aspen Environmental Group. (2010). Energy Aware: Facility Siting and Permitting Guide. Retrieved from California Energy Commission Web site: http://www.energy.ca.gov/2010publications/CEC-600-2010-007/CEC-600-2010-007.pdf

Callihan, D., Kleiman, D., & Tirnauer, J. (2009). An Independent Evaluation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Habitat Conservation Plan Program. Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

City of Sacramento, CA Planning Department. (2009, June 22). Natomas Joint Vision. Retrieved from City of Sacramento Web site: http://www.cityofsacramento.org/planning/projects/natomas-joint-vision/

Granicus. (2008). 2030 Sacramento General Plan: East Sacramento Community Plan. Sacramento, CA: Granicus.

National Charrette Institute. (2011). National Charrette Institute: Charrettes for Regional and Comprehensive Planning. Retrieved from Charrette Institute Web site: http://www.charretteinstitute.org/projects/regional-planning.html

Newell, C. (2008). Managing local government: Cases in effectiveness (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: ICMA Press.

Sacramento Housing and Redevopment Agency. (2007). County of Sacramento: 2008-2012 Consolidated Plan. Retrieved from SHRA.org Web site: http://www.shra.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=irx-9qf6VNc%3D&tabid=88&mid=392

Stark, P.B., & Flaherty, J. (2003). The Only Negotiating Guide You'll Ever Need: 101 Ways to Win Every Tiime in Any Situation. New York,…… [read more]


History of Urban Planning Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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History Of Urban Planning in the United States

Drive around a number of cities in the United States -- Houston, for example, or Los Angeles -- and you might think that urban planning was just a fantasy, since there seems to have been no thought whatsoever in terms of might be good for the long-term social, cultural, political, and economic health of these cities, where seemingly anything goes. On the other hand, any one of a number of planned communities that dot the newer neighborhoods across the country suggest that urban planning is simply fascism by other means as people cannot pick the flowers for their front yards. There are, of course, some cities that get their urban planning -- like that final bowl for Goldilocks -- just right. But sometimes these can seem very much in the minority, and sometimes seem to get things right more by accident than anything else.

This paper examines the history of urban planning in the United States, considering what has lead different cities to take such extremes on the one hand while others have followed more moderate, more flexible courses that have been better able to stand the test of time.

Giving the range of what goes under the heading of "urban planning," it is perhaps useful to begin with a definition of the term. In general, urban planning can be considered to be the intersection of land-use planning and transportation planning (along with, in some areas) planning to reduce the effects of pollution and climate change to improve or sustain the physical and social infrastructure and relationships of the community. Sometimes this planning is carried out on a larger geographic area and is called regional planning.

It should be noted that urban planning is not the same thing as "urban renewal," which is a governmental focus (sometimes in concert with private enterprise) to remedy a range of infrastructural and cultural problems usually in older parts of a city. Urban renewal is also associated in both the United States and other industrialized nations with efforts made to improve the housing and work conditions for racial minorities. This fact has tended to politicize the process of urban planning in the United States, with conservatives often arguing against it as a part of their overall push to limit social services.

However, urban planning is in fact a process that should be applied to all aspects of a community, and in all likelihood it dates from the very first days of human settlement into permanent cities. For example, in the fifth century BCE, Hippodamus designed the city of Alexandria for Alexander the Great, which might arguably be called the first master-planned city. The city was designed to be efficient in terms of moving goods and people from place to place; hygienic, especially in terms of supplying fresh water to all of the population; and safe, especially in terms of reducing the danger of fire (Jackson, 2985, p. 76).

Today's urban planners are focused on different issues… [read more]


Urban Sprawl in Europe Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Urban sprawl: The United States vs. Europe

Urban sprawl has increasingly become a problem in Europe, but it has been a problem within the United States even longer. One of the reasons Europeans have become so hyper-conscious about the dangers of urban sprawl is that they do not want to fall into the pattern of life exhibited in many regions of the United States, where public transportation is virtually unheard of and even walking to school is difficult. Urban sprawl creates problems for the environment, because of high levels of car dependence, as well as problems for human health. Over-dependence on cars, long commutes, and a lack of attractive places to walk, ride bikes, and play contribute to obesity, high blood pressure, and a host of other modern lifestyle ailments

It could even be argued that American urban sprawl has had a role in the fostering of the housing market bubble and bust and the subprime meltdown that affected all of the world's credit markets. The dream of suburban home ownership is particularly near and dear in the United States, at least partially because of a lack of affordable, attractive accommodations for individuals within cities. Suburbs are often thought of as the only places in the United States where individuals can have places to play, commune with nature, garden, and live and exercise in a healthy manner. Although there may be a discrepancy between the ideal and the reality, a lack of safety and amenities in urban locations has driven many individuals to live in the suburbs, even when their current financial situation does not make them a good candidate for a mortgage.

Europe, in contrast to the United States, has a vastly superior public transportation system. Within most the European Community nations, Travelers can use Euro Rail for international tourism and business travel. National railways such as British Rail and subway systems such as the London Underground and the Paris Metro make transportation relatively affordable and inexpensive. Some cities, such as Amsterdam, are famous for the ability of bikers to safely navigate the city streets.

From a cultural perspective, urban sprawl has been linked to the dilution of European national cultures with the culture of America. At its worst, urban sprawl can take people away from national theaters and museums,…… [read more]


Nigeria the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Nigerian Federal Ministry

Rapidly expanding cities have significantly contributed to an ever increasing deficit in housing, among other widespread problems. This is experienced in cities throughout the world as infrastructure is developed in order to accommodate growing urban populations. Problems associated with this rapid growth, including housing deficits, present major obstacles for economic growth and development, especially in developing nations throughout the world.

Nigeria is no stranger to this phenomenon of rapid urban growth. The increasingly expanding cities, and the problems that accompany this expansion, forced the federal government to seriously address issues surrounding housing and urban development. In response to this crisis, the Nigerian government created the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in July of 2003. This federal ministry was made responsible for ensuring the deliverance of adequate and sustainable housing, as well as the maintenance of a living environment that is conducive to meeting the aspirations and needs of the citizens of Nigeria.

The purpose of the establishment of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in Nigeria was to provide several services to Nigerian citizens, both homeowners and non-homeowners. These services include: handling and supervision of projects conducted by the Federal secretariat; the provision of infrastructure projects involving site and services estates as well as shelter initiatives; issuing og certificates indicating occupancy; compiling inventory of Federal government fixed assets; implementing the National Sites and Services Programme; establishing a support office for the UN-HABITAT program; the provision of a Prototype Housing Scheme; fire fighting and prevention; the development of blueprints for effective planning; development of the housing facilitation scheme; the rehabilitation of Federal Secretariats among the states; the modernization and computerization of the Federal Land Registry; implementing various sites and services; implementing programs for urban renewal and slum upgrading; development of the Sustainable Cities Program; implementing Latterite Brick Projects; establishing of libraries and the Urban Management Information System (UMIS); and implementing the Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM).

The aim of the Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in the provision of these services is to facilitate and promote housing that is adequate, decent and affordable for all Nigerians, regardless of economic or social standing. The focus is to ensure this decent standard of housing in both rural and urban settings in order to encourage decent and healthy living environments. The ministry strives to achieve this goal through the establishment of a system of housing delivery that is both sustainable and ensures easy access to home ownership by all Nigerian citizens. This promotion of home ownership is focused on environments in Nigeria where fundamental physical and social amenities are available.

Involvement in this particular Federal Ministry of Nigeria is interesting to me due to my personal interest in international real estate development. On the international level, the development of real estate has grown considerably over the past few years. These developments are exciting to me, and I'm specifically interested in and focused upon investment in the economic development and prosperity of third world countries like Nigeria… [read more]


Chicano Affordable Housing in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,779 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chicano Affordable Housing

In the United States, there is a current crisis of housing for many different ethnic groups. Racial discrimination, homelessness, mental illness, substance abuse, poverty, and a lack of affordable housing makes obtaining a place of residence difficult for millions of Americans. Additionally, discrimination in banking procedures, real estate agencies, and housing prices makes home ownership a near… [read more]


Urbanization Case Study Chicago Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (2,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Urbanization

Chicago has from its beginnings been a city of immigrants and migrants. In the early days, these were German and Irish immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, large waves of immigration from Eastern Europe rolled in made up of Poles, Jews and Ukrainians. The era of World War 1, the 1920s. World War 2 and the post-war… [read more]


New York City: An Examination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Community is situated above public administration and lying between the two of these is that of placemaking and place management. The placemaking governance model is characterized by the following: (1) leadership at all levels; (2) leaders and facilitators, educators and inspirations; (3) goals that are broad; (4) a process that is agile; (5) shared vision; (6) political capital; (7) bold change; (8) taking risks; (9) lighter, quicker, cheaper; and (10) building partners and capacity. (Kent, 2013, p.1) The placemaking governance structural model is shown in the following illustration.

Figure 2

Source: (Kent, 2013, p.1)

The phases involved in the developmental evolution of placemaking governance are shown in the following illustration.

Figure 3

Source: (Kent, 2013, p.1)

When power and responsibility are shifted to the community for governance the models, which emerge, are reported to be of a more dynamic nature and to involved community relationship and partnership networking inclusive of skill diversification and adaptability support. Placemaking governance enables spaces to evolve much easier and to adapt upon the basis of the participants who are involved in the governance initiative. The result of placemaking governance is that place-led governance is reported to be "more authentic and culturally vibrant" and it is also more open to culture. Moreover, placemaking governance in the form of self-managed spaces "invite and challenge existing and new participants to raise their behavior to contribute to the shared experience. Existing members have less fear of the negative impacts of gentrification as new people and investment are attracted only towards supporting the existing community's vision of itself. And emerging places are not defined by their design or infrastructure, given to, and consumed by citizens, but by their locally defined uses and values." (Kent, 2013, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

New York City was found lacking in its public sphere in terms of the infrastructure necessary for effective governance however, this lack has been identified, and there are solutions to the problems experienced by New York City such as the placmaking governance model presented in this study.

Works Cited

Kent, Ethan (2013) Toward Place Governance: What If We Reinvented Civic Infrastructure Around Placemaking?

Lynch, Kevin (1960): the Image of the City. Massachusetts New York City (2013) Britannica Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/412352/New-York-City/215659/Manhattan

NYC Votes Transformed the Way New Yorkers Interact with…… [read more]


Cohousing: A Model for Australia Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

On the other hand, new models have developed in the United States, which have reduced risks, costs, and resident involvement (McCamant & Charles, 1994).

Developers have shown an increased interest in financing and building cohouses both speculatively and in partnership with prospective residents (Durrett, 2005). In addition, residents are forming their own cohousing communities in current neighborhoods through creating communal… [read more]


Planning Comprehensive Plan and Land Development Plan Zoning Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,847 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Planning

Having grown from a relatively small community insulated from its neighbors, Madison is now the center of a larger region consisting of various other communities that are often integrated with each other in fulfilling the purposes of their respective development. No longer isolate, Madison nonetheless retains a core of specific principles and values, which are integrated in its Comprehensive… [read more]


How Low-Income Families Have Affordable and Accessible Housing? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Affordable and Accessible Housing Can Be Provided for Low Income Individuals and Families Across the Nation

Flow of Information

This paper presents a research proposal aimed at determining what can be done to help low income families have affordable and accessible housing. The writer presents the current issue, a literature review about the problem, a methodology section in… [read more]


Beyond the Box While at Least Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,487 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Beyond the Box

While at least a great deal of the motivation behind public housing in the United States has probably been good, the results have often fallen very short of good, or even adequate. Stalinesque is one of the more accurate terms that could be applied to far too much of the public housing that has been… [read more]


Urban Design When Discussing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Urban Design

When discussing urban design one could determine the strength or lack of strength in a city's character based on a number of different scenarios, including, but not limited to such design strategies as the sustainable urban design philosophy. One city that has used that philosophy in a manner that would make even the most mundane designer proud is Salt Lake

City, Utah. From the time the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

were led to the Utah valley by their leader Brigham Young, the focus of the pioneers was to plan a city that would be sustainable for hundreds of years to come.

One recent study determined that sustainable design "is a philosophy adopted by people concerned with the health of society and the natural environment" (Zande, 2010, p. 321). The

Utah pioneers were definitely concerned with the health of society, especially based on the fact that there was little to sustain the population no matter what type of health they were in.

The nearest large water access was the Great Salt Lake and much to the chagrin of the pioneers, they discovered it was a lake filled with salt water, not fresh water as they had hoped. The method that the pioneers used to accommodate their immediate needs, but also the needs of the future worked extremely well in that the end result was an ordered, clean and organized city that is easy on the eyes. Additionally, the accessibility of the city is one that allows even the most misdirected tourist to find his or her way around the city with minimal trouble.

The exact opposite of Salt Lake City could be a city such as Hong Kong. It is in Hong

Kong that the city of Kowloon can be described as the worst city in the…… [read more]


Environmental Science Suburban Sprawl: Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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"

Solution

A solution must be found to combat the problem that urban sprawl has spawned. One such solution is called "smart growth." This approach is one that works with "a variety of stakeholders in the design and construction industry, businesses and land developers, governments and civic leadership, system users, and planners and engineers" (Potential for $mart Growth Services and… [read more]


Studied Is the Residents of the Geriatric Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … studied is the residents of the geriatric facility (1161). The sampling frame is whether the patient fell in the previous year or not. The unit of analysis is individuals. The type of sample is random. This strategy is sound for this type of study. The population is divided into two groups, one being a control group. This will allow the researcher to test for the different medical factors, and see the differences between the two sets. For studies like this, randomization is the key to the study being free from bias. When the study is fully randomized, then it can be said to be free from bias. Additionally, this study makes note that its population is just the residents of this particular home. If the study was about all elderly people, then choosing only the ones from this home would not be randomized, and the results would be subject to more bias. However, for this study, the method of sampling is good.

b. The population is the rental housing stock of the city. The sample frame in this study is the different ages of the buildings. The study will result in vacancy rates for each age category of building, and then an overall vacancy rate. The unit of analysis is one apartment, as they are measuring whether that apartment is vacant or not. The type of sample is stratified. The stratification allows the researchers to determine vacancy rate for different types of buildings. However, blocks within each planning area are chosen at random. There is no indication of whether the adding and subtracting of blocks is done at random as well. This means that the sampling is not necessarily a true random study. For the purposes of estimating the vacancy rate, this study method is acceptable, since vacancy itself is randomized. However, if only the blocks are randomized and the buildings are…… [read more]


Australian Suburbia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,124 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

The cooperative in turn, rents those houses to its members. There are new schemes in Australia, but despite attempts to make it popular in Australia, the project has failed considerably because Australians prefer to own houses outright.

For a proposed increase in the density of houses in Australia, individuals need to understand future housing designs. Previous generations in Sydney had a positive response of their neighborhoods. An experiment of the year 1979 showed that 90% of children had positive evaluation about their neighborhood. These children had a positive response on the physical amenities as well as the open space. Children in these neighborhoods were sensitive on the bush land, parks, residential streets and gardens. These open spaces are very essential for children development. Over the years, citizens of these cities have been searching for neighborhoods with minimum setbacks. Over the years, cities have been increasing their densities. It is not prudent to overlook other things when designing a community-housing layout. For example, open space or the culture of the neighborhood. Open space has been of a great importance in the Australian community. It is a belief that opens spaces in cities once a time motivated ideas and decisions. Open space however, for the last couple of years has been on the decrease. There has been a rise in the transit-oriented model of housing. However, cities can have both an open space and transit oriented design (Amanda, 2010). Therefore, there is a need to develop a garden oriented model of housing in Australia. Garden oriented model of housing has gained popularity over time. On can develop a community garden in a home or more so develop a network of community gardens.

Summary

Suburbia is a description of the culture of the Australian people. Concentration of people in the country is mainly in the metropolis. Australian cities however, have the most disperse populations in the world. There is a cultural attachment to the suburbia in Australia due to a variety of reasons. This culture of the Australians has been a subject of study over a long period since the 20th century. At the present moment suburbia, culture is a common place in the country. Post war designs portray a lot about the culture of Australia (Bartholomaeus, 2010). The art is sent to the world in the form of film and cinema industry of this culture. Suburb tends to come from cities that have adjacent flat lands. In Australia, localities represent suburbs in the rural places. Moreover, it is further subdivided into inner suburb and external or outer suburb. The difference between the two is the proximity of the suburbs to the city with the inner suburbs characterized by high intensity population of apartments.

References

Grose, M.J. (2009). Changing relationships in public open space and private open space in suburbs in south-western Australia. Landscape and urban planning, 92(1), 53-63.

Amanda, W. (2010). Sensuous multiculturalism: emotional landscapes of inter-ethnic living in Australian suburbia. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 36(6), 917-937.

Dittmar, H., &… [read more]


Affordable Housing and Smart Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In this case, Cary has a particular need for rental properties and for more low-income housing, making the allowance of ADU's a viable option.

Bibliography

Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001.

Environmental Protection Agency. "Encouraging Smart Growth." EPA, March 2002, http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.com/release.htm

Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001, p 8.

Arigoni et al., p 8.

Arigoni et al., p 9.

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.com/release.htm

Arigoni et al., p 11.

Arigoni et al., p 12.

Arigoni et al., p 13.

Environmental Protection Agency. "Encouraging Smart Growth." EPA, March 2002, http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/

Arigoni et al., p 14.

Arigoni et al., p 15.

Arigoni et al., p 17.

Arigoni et al., pp 20-21.

Arigoni et al., p 22.

Arigoni et al., pp 22-23.

Arigoni et al., p 23.

Arigoni et al., p 24.… [read more]


Prohibitively Rising Cost of Housing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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HOME is a program that is designed to specifically create affordable housing for low-income Americans. Countrywide, over 200,000 first-time homebuyers have received assistance thought the HOME program (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, News Release, BUSH).

In addition, Woonsocket, Rhode Island will receive a grant of $2.2 million in HUD assistance. Of this amount, $550,000 will be directed to… [read more]


Urban Anthropology Louis Wirth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

In his book The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space, Rotenberg seeks to explain urban spaces as places made meaningful by the urbanities that live there through creation of metropolitan knowledge. I found this concept best explained in Rotenberg's essay PRICE AND STATUS IN VIENNA'S NASCHMARKT, where he identify's different types of 'knowledges' that applied to Vienna. Among them, metropolitan knowledge: "Only native born Viennese and those who grew up in the neighborhoods can speak the dialect idiomatically and with the proper phonemic values." That is, an intrinsic knowledge of what is particular to a certain metropolis and that you share with the other inhabitants.

Bibliography

1. PRICE AND STATUS IN VIENNA'S NASCHMARKT.

ROBERT ROTENBERG

2. www.umsl.edu/~wolfordj/courses/hc353/profnotesintro-urban.html

3. cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/macionis9 / chapter15/objectives/deluxe-content.html… [read more]


Human Geography by 1970, Newark, New Jersey Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,148 words)
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Human Geography

By 1970, Newark, New Jersey was already a city in decline. The city, which had been built on a diverse industrial base, had been prosperous through the middle of the 20th century. By 1970, however, the city was poor. The population sat at 381,000, down 13% from post-war highs and was in the midst of a long-term downward… [read more]


Industrialization and Social Reformers Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Industrialization and Social Reformers

African-Americans during reconstruction and post-reconstruction

There are several striking characteristics that define the lives of African-Americans during and after Reconstruction. The first is that conditions, in many respects, worsened over time for blacks between the reconstruction era and the World War I era. One indicator of this is the amount of freed blacks employed as skilled… [read more]


Planning Theories Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … planning: Theories and approaches

The act of planning is a normal part of everyone's life. Some people plan activities or endeavors more formally, well in advance, with list making, prioritizing, goal-setting, and/or organizing in some manner that works for a person's unique needs and circumstances. In most processes, it is helpful to make a consolation plan (or plan B), in case certain aspects of the first plan do not happen as desired. Of course the alternative to all of this is spontaneity, also a valid option; however, no one goes through life without planning to some degree. Some people plan to be spontaneous (and otherwise open to opportunities) while all spontaneity includes at least some level of planning (no matter how invisible to the conscious experience) within and after the decision to be spontaneous (is made).

In theory, planning creates the greatest opportunity for flawless execution in any endeavor, activity, event, or desired outcome. Depending on the complexity of the process or the level of control over variables in the process, the practice of planning usually creates an environment or context for the best possible execution and development of an outcome. So many things can be, and need to be, planned.

In private life, planning can be more informal and spontaneity can be of more value. Everyone needs a healthy balance of the two; though, everyone has a unique tolerance and natural skill for handling the process of planning or the level of spontaneity in their lives. Further, certain outcomes are better suited for spontaneity than others. For example, some planning needs to go into having a baby, from preparing to conceive to carrying a baby to creating a birth plan, maternity leaves, paternity leaves,…… [read more]


Exploring Design and Social Innovation in the Urban Environment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,491 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Bedford Ave.

All the World's a Very Small Stage

In this age when we are can all connect instantly to all other corners of the world with the click of a mouse or a few keystrokes on our phones, it is hard to remember that in most respects we all live in a very small neighborhood. Each of us primarily… [read more]


Low Income Housing Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,141 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Low Income Housing Initiatives in Brazil and China

Two giant countries that are well poised to become major players in an increasingly globalized marketplace in the future are China and Brazil. Both of these countries enjoy vast natural resources and workforces that are ready, willing and able to help fuel continued economic growth into the 21st century. Despite these advantages… [read more]


Affordable Housing Chicano Communities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,117 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chicano Community Housing Crisis

Chicano Housing Crisis Plagues U.S. Communities

Supporting the Latino Community

The Honorable Senator Murray of Washington State feels that immigration is one of the most important issues that Latino communities face. She takes the stance that immigration should be more compassionate towards the human side of immigration, while continuing to protect our national interests. She suggests… [read more]


Urban Problems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,545 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Urban Problems

The future of community development depends on the effective integration of social, economic, and environmental imperatives. When two or more of these key issues conflict, the community faces tough challenges in the decision-making process. Unfortunately, social, economic, and environmental issues frequently conflict, frequently leading to ineffective urban planning policies. Almost every social institution plays a key role in… [read more]


Panelized and Modular Building Systems Is Less Dissertation

Dissertation  |  30 pages (9,477 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 40

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … panelized and modular building systems is less common in the UK than abroad and the potential for this to provide a solution for future needs

Housing shortage after the Second World War, rising of housing demand and increase in the defective traditional houses prompt the UK government to adopt sustainable housing development. The major government aim is to… [read more]


How Urban Sprawl Destroys the Environment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Environmental Science: Urban Sprawl

Urban Sprawl: "the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city..." Merriam-Webster Online

Rapid urban growth has had a negative affect on the environment - and when the environment is affected in a negative way, people, too, suffer the consequences. But before this paper covers the issue of specific problems associated with urban sprawl, a little history is appropriate, in terms of how our once beautiful, lush green planet has been altered by the expansion of the human race, and the carelessness of that expansion.

Before humans began to build houses, roads, villages and cities, and in fact before there very few humans at all, trees covered "two-fifths (40%) of the land" on the planet (Victor, et al., 2000). That was eight thousand years ago. Humans have grown by great numbers since then however, and have cut forests in massive quantities for warmth, cooking food, growing crops, building ships and frame houses, and producing paper. Of the original forestland, axes, fires and saws have whittled away half, and "some analysts warn that within decades, the remaining natural forests will disappear altogether."

And that is just one problem affecting the environment. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, and when huge areas of forests have been cut down, all that oxygen that was being produced is not longer there; also, trees taking in carbon dioxide are actually cleaning up the air, because carbon dioxide also carries along with it some pollutants from the air, and so in effect the trees act as "air cleaners" - except, of course, when they're gone.

And once the forests have been cleared away, and villages and towns are built, by the time they reach "city" status, without proper and visionary planning, the metropolis begins to create an ugly "sprawl" out into the countryside; and besides eating up good farm land, exerting pressure on existing water supplies and sewage facilities, taxing transportation systems, school districts and emergency response units, urban sprawl creates air and noise pollution which is harmful to the health of humans and animals.

An article in the journal Environment (Stoel, 1999) points out that "designated metro areas now account for 19% of our nation's vast land area"; that is well higher than the 9% of metro area forty years ago. Some cities are growing very fast; Washington D.C., for example, grew from 3.1 million residents in 1980 to 4.5 million in 1995 - an increase of 47% in fifteen years. Indeed, four out of five American citizens live in a "metro area," and in virtually every metro area, there is urban sprawl.

As to the negative affect of urban sprawl on humans, a study conducted by the federal government in 1998 showed that sitting in traffic on congested freeways cost the average commuter in Washington, D.C. about two full work weeks…… [read more]


Home Building Industry: An Economic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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This promotes local growth and activity.

(2) Better Use of Space. Housing developers should use available space to sponsor the delivery of much needed services or facilities, such as child care, GED classes, or a convenience store.

(3) Increase Cash Inflows. Nonprofit developers should also use available space to increase income to the property and residents by leasing space to paying commercial tenants, by entering into profit-sharing ventures with commercial tenants, or by providing services and products to outsiders.

(4) Build Contracting Capacity. The ability to increase cash inflows is directly related to the ability of businesses to compete for work outside of the housing developments. By controlling the awarding of contracts, the developer can "incubate businesses" by awarding work to residents over a period of time until they can develop the work and contract management experience to, among other things, secure bonding necessary to compete for larger contracts.

The beauty of these objectives is that they can be implemented at both the urban and suburban levels. In this respect all parties benefit from the strategy during a time when many housing companies are not planning for the future but riding out the wave of present economic growth.

References

America's Homeownership Challenge. Retrieved June 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web: .

Hecht, B. Housing-Led Economic Development. Retrieved June 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web: read more-->[read more]


HUD Is a Public Program Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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As an organization, HUD uses group thinking in order to be effective management for people that need help with public housing assistance. In group decision making, group thinking is a part of the decision making process for HUD to manage public housing. Group thinking calls for the tendency of group members to conform to the consensus viewpoint in group decision… [read more]


Diminishing Middle Class Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,873 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13

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Market upswings

The highest new development sale took place in the Greenwich Village during the past month. The property is located at 130 West 12th Street which made a sale of about $13M. There was another sale that took place on the 130 West 12th Street in the last quarter; this was a penthouse that was sold for $8,095,087. Another… [read more]


Urbanism Bristol, Rhode Island Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,198 words)
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Princeton University was chartered in 1746 and is the fourth-oldest college in the United States. One of the eight universities of the Ivy League, Princeton is also one of the nine Colonial Colleges that were founded before the American Revolution. The oldest building on campus is Nassau Hall, which was completed in 1756. During the late 1880s, the campus saw construction of several buildings in High Victorian Gothic style and Romanesque Revival style. Only a few of these buildings remain. The Collegiate Gothic style was adopted by the university toward the end of the 19th century, and the style was standard for all construction through 1960.

Princeton is known as a university town and, accordingly, the campus tends to dominate popular perceptions about the town. The university campus is expanding and the planning involves substantive consideration of campus neighborhoods, which illustrate the blurring of campus and community. The comprehensive plan is intricate, appearing to integrate thoughtful ways to ensure that the interchange between the university and the community that surrounds it continues on an intimate scale despite significant expansion of academic and recreational space.

Baltimore, Maryland

Mirroring its larger sister to the south east, Baltimore's center is circled by a beltway. About half of the streets radiate out from the city center like spokes in a wheel. The rest of the streets form more conventional city blocks that stand obstinately squared off, awkwardly opposing a more integrated orientation to the beltway. The city's planning and development offices estimate that the city will need to accommodate a million additional people, 400,000 more residences, and about 600,000 more jobs. Over the past several decades, the city has been unable to curb sprawl with its Smart Growth plan. As a result, the State of Maryland is exercising its right -- since laws enacted in the 1970s -- to draw up a statewide development plan. Plan Maryland, the state's initiative, will lay out strategies for achieving shared goals with communities, such as more affordable housing, protection of farms and forests, walkable neighborhoods and centers, and encouraging development in or near existing established areas.

The significant space that characterizes Baltimore is the Inner Harbor East Marina. This modern and glitzy development has its share of fans and enemies. Baltimore is experiencing a slow trickle out of its central areas and into developments like the Inner Harbor East. At the heart of Baltimore is a string of colleges and universities surrounded by gentrified areas. But the capacity of these redeveloped areas is limited, which increases the appeal of the new skyscraper residences. Downtown Baltimore consists of four neighborhoods known as City Centre, Westside, Inner Harbor and Camden Yards. As a central business district (CBD), it serves over a tremendous number of employees, but also includes a heavily populated neighborhood in which condominiums and apartments are beginning to dominate.

Conclusion

The three population centers explored in this essay seem like stepping stone to a megalopolis. Certainly, Bristol retains much of its original built space and has not… [read more]


Master Planning & Private Equity Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,038 words)
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That is, unless the infrastructure can support the build out as second homes for well-to-do professionals who live in urban areas during the work week, and commute to rural areas on the weekend and holidays. This type of arrangement can be seen, for instance, in Barcelona where professionals live in small apartments, but escape to their walled homes in remote communities in the Monserrat. That Xander's proposal, and hence its profit potential, is flawed for this development can best be illustrated by considering the FAR restrictions that India depends on in order to avoid spending on infrastructure and to moderate growth.

The modeling assumption for floor area ratio (FAR) of buildings was 1.0. FAR is used to impose height limitations -- computed by dividing a building's total floor area by the area of land parcel on which it is located -- in order to indirectly limit population densities and job densities[footnoteRef:1]. Theoretically, excessive density brings about lowered environmental quality and more traffic congestion. In addition greater demands on the infrastructure of urban areas are a result of higher density dwelling and neighborhoods. The weak technical capacity of cities in India coupled with inadequate tax revenue to remedy the situation means that urban areas do not have the capacity to provide services at acceptable levels. Essentially, FAR restrictions let cities avoid investments in urban infrastructure, as the population is forced to move in areas further away from the city center. The result is longer commuting distance and increased housing prices for these consumers. [1: Bertaud, A. (2003).Analyzing Building-Height Restrictions: Predicted Impacts, Welfare Costs, and a Case Study of Bangalore, India Retrieved http://alain-bertaud.com/images/bangalore_FSI_Bertaud_Brueckner.pdf]

As Shrachi, what is your assessment of the value potentially added by having a private equity investor in this deal, either with or without WBHB?

Private equity firms exist to generate good returns. Generally, private equity firms know how to implement all stages of a project in order to complete the objectives in a timely and lucrative fashion. Xander is a greater threat to Todi's ability to control components of the Bardhaman township project. A dissatisfied or demanding private equity firm has no difficulty replacing executives or making other changes in order to increase the profitability of their investments. Interestingly, the private equity financials refer to several real estate funds, but they do not indicate when draw-downs are expected to occur. Xander is asking for a return on their money within the first three years. For a development of this size, the customary practice for a private equity investment would require less liquidity and a longer term. The participation of the WBHB could either hinder or facilitate Xander's efforts. The goals of the WBHB fall into the area of public service, and explicitly are to provide mass housing for the growing population.

As the Rahul Todi of Shrachi, the developer, would you proceed with the project or not?

The project would be a viable endeavor for Shrachi. It seems most probable that Todi will select the WBHB as a… [read more]


Hill People Page in 1997 Case Study

Case Study  |  20 pages (6,645 words)
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And unlike the Park West site, the Ivanhoe site was home to an endangered bird.

We had to buy Ivanhoe," Plumner said, who had spent seven years trying to find a way for the city to do just this. "Ivanhoe was the most important macro site for the Golden Cheek Warbler in the entire Bull Creek Watershed. It was also… [read more]


Urban Sprawl Is a Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
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Moreover, in an effort to enhance their recruiting ability corporations build facilities in rural areas further encroaching on ecologically sensitive areas. However, this does not decrease commute time or miles. In fact, from 1983 to 1990 mean vehicle miles per household rose 29%.

As these jobs become available in suburban areas with free parking and attractive landscapes they become attractive to everyone rather than just those in the local community. Therefore, cross commuting becomes common and travel miles increase. Consequently, increased traffic leads to street and highway expansion and development furthering deforestation and encroachment on wildlife habitat. As urban conditions deteriorate more of its population moves out seeking better conditions. As a result service sector jobs move out of the city to suburban strip malls further increasing urban unemployment. The urban dwellers cannot afford to live in the suburbs, nor do they have the means to commute to the suburban jobs. The result is poverty concentation in the inner city.

The affluent suburban dwellers want to gain as much distance from this poverty concentration as possible further causing the povertization of cities. Author Anthony Downs of the Brookings Institute argues that as suburban population increases and support services move to suburbia the city will become obsolete . Many suburban areas no longer depend on their urban centers. They now have their own supermarkets, financial institutions, retailers. Some cities lost 25% of their jobs while their suburbs enjoyed a 5% increase between 1969 and 1986 . As these jobs are lost the urban dwellers fall into a greater state of poverty than already exists. Urban tax bases are decreased and there is decreased investment in schools. These factors increase the gap between classes.

Urban decline leads to increased stratification, crime and human suffering. The response of those living outside the city is that it is not their responsibility. However, suburban dwellers have a social responsibility towards the inner city. Suburbanites have an interest in decreasing the decline of urban areas because all Americans benefit from effectively functioning urban centers and the low wage workers living in them.

Functionalists would argue that the segregation of the poor from the affluent eliminates the ability to exploit low wage service industry labor. Thus, driving up prices for services such as housekeeping, lawn maintenance, and other functions served by the poor. Ultimately, it may be in the best interest of the middle and upper strata of society to ensure that poor urban dwellers have an adequate standard of living to prevent social disruption or in other words riots.

Another consequence of urban sprawl is a decrease in precipitation absorbing wetlands. As these wetlands are backfilled, developed, and paved there are fewer outlets for water absorption. The result can be costly and devastating floods. On the other hand, in developed deserts such as Las Vegas and Los Angeles water is stored in reservoirs behind dams to supply the population. The consequence to this is increased evaporation. In Arid areas such as these, even a 1% loss… [read more]


Sociology of California Department Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,331 words)
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Compact development has not been objected to in relation to traffic congestion (Gordon), because higher densities meant greater congestion.

Air quality was also questioned in connection with California's rapid growth in the 80s. But sprawl opponents maintained that air quality in California, particularly in Los Angeles, had been improving dramatically every year, even during peak growths in the 80s. Smog alerts were less recently than in 1977, according to them. They continue to suggest that more compact development could affect air quality only minimally because automobile trips are shortened and less frequent (Gordon). It will be emphasized that almost two-thirds of automobile pollution has to do with starting and stopping, the cold start and the hot soak.

It is quite a different thing now with the telecommunications revolution that allows jobs to be brought home or follow people where they live (Gordon), rather than people moving to where the jobs were in the past. Today, an increasing number of mobile households choose to live in high-amenity-low density settings and most of the job growth is in the rural areas. This appears to be the trend, although still quite a number are in the urban areas (Gordon).

California Business, Housing and Transportation Secretary Sunne McPeak urged for greater mobility and more sufficient workforce housing with the right environment in using smart growth (Metro Investment Report 2004). In an interview, he stressed the need to understand the role and position of schools as a key strategy in improving the neighborhood and that the objectives should be prosperous economy, quality environment and social equity. With $2.9 billion left from the 2000 Transportation and Congestion Relief Program to finance 141 road and transit projects in California, the Secretary said she and her department were still qualifying projects for restored funding when the economy improved. The criteria would be the number and kinds of jobs they could generate immediately and in the long run and how the projects would address the housing needs of an increasing population and its job needs after transportation improvement had been completed (Metro Investment Report).

The Secretary also said that some high-profile TCRP projects were then going through communities planning for housing deficits in 20 years, stressing that, while the Department would invest in public transportation, current land use practices should also be changed. If not, she said that all that spent public money would end up with less mobility. She pointed to the jobs-housing imbalance as the reason behind inefficient land use. She hoped that the $26 billion in school bonds on state and the local March 2 vote would move in ways to support quality schools and neighborhood, to become innovative in the "joint-use of facilities, which must be maximized or optimized (Metro Investment Report). She likewise urged for greater innovativeness in designing schools and the creative use of space in the neighborhood in rebuilding, improving and remodeling quality schools, realizing that these eventually become the centers of community activity and that would make them add very much… [read more]


Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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"Since the founding of the United States, Americans have believed that it is their mission to spread social justice and liberty across the world, and to lead human beings to the New Jerusalem. This sense of mission was deeply rooted in American culture, and exerted a huge influence on the values and attitudes of American people" (Kang, 155). Another manner in which the colonies were able to develop is that they were guided by a belief system which heavily and fully believed in the importance of education: education and enlightenment were absolutely important for all people, according to Puritan social values. By valuing education and enlightenment, Puritan values put the colonists in a situation where they were going to steadily evolve -- become better, smarter, wiser, more experienced and more ready for development and expansion.

In conclusion, urban infrastructure and services changed in the colonial era to the late 19th century through a variety of consistent factors. Many of the most influential factors were strongly connected to values and beliefs which were rooted in Puritanism. For instance, privatism, individualism, a commitment to education, and a belief in a sense of mission were all paramount in the development of the colonies. Even manifestation of urbanization which turned out to be undesirable, such as the prostitution among Five Points, were just forms of confirmation that urbanization was well underway. Thus, the development of cities from quaint colonial townships to thriving cities was largely connected to the Puritan belief system and the strong will of the individual.

Works Cited

Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.

Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from ccsenet.org: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/res/article/viewFile/4585/3924

Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia…… [read more]


Urbanization the Harris-Todaro Model of Rural-Urban Migration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (978 words)
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Urbanization

The Harris-Todaro model of rural-urban migration explains the economic circumstances that result in migration from rural areas to urban areas. Essentially, the model argues that when a rural agricultural worker believes that he or she will earn more in an urban area than in his or her current rural situation, migration will occur. The urban earning in the model is reflected as expected urban wage while the rural earnings are reflected in the model as the marginal product of the rural worker. The model is based on the idea that rural-urban migrations are based strictly on rational economic decision-making.

In the past forty years, the model has become a fundamental tool for explaining rural-urban migration. Riadh (no date) argues that in many less-developed countries, the expectation of higher wages in cities results in an overmigration from rural areas. Many workers, when making this economic determination, do not consider the availability of work in the city. Thus, unemployment effects are not factored into the decision. This leads more workers to come to the city than there are available jobs, creating the Harris-Todaro Paradox of higher unemployment and lower GNP as a result.

In less-developed countries, there is a significant disparity between rural wages and urban ones, and this has led to rapid overcrowding of cities. For example in Indonesia during the 1970s and 1980s, the percentage of urban dwellers increased from 17% to 31% (U.S. Library of Congress, no date). One of the assumptions of the Harris-Todaro model is that rural areas offer full employment. It is interesting to note that in Indonesia this was not the case. The migration was more rapid in that country because the countryside lacked jobs entirely. The marginal product of any unemployment rural worker would naturally be lower than the expected wage in the city, and this caused an even more rapid rural-urban migration than Harris-Todaro would have predicted. This does not invalidate the model, it simply introduces a scenario where the marginal product of agricultural workers is at or near zero.

There are instances where Harris-Todaro does not hold. While rational economic considerations can explain part of the rapid urbanization of Kinshasa, many other migrants leave their rural lands simply to avoid armed conflict (Misilu, Nsokimieno, Chen & Zhang, 2010). While equally rational behavior, this type of rural-urban migration is not economic in nature, but does occur in a number of cities in the developing world. That the migrants typically remain in the city despite the challenges associated with rapid urbanization is perhaps more reflective of a typical Harris-Todaro scenario. Those individuals would not return to the countryside unless their expected marginal product is greater than their city wage.

In general, however, the rapid urbanization of major cities in the developing world reflects a Harris-Todaro scenario. In Malaysia, oil revenues have helped to spur urban development. This increased urban wages, drawing workers from the countryside. As the productivity of urban workers improved,…… [read more]


Informal Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,306 words)
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Social Capital

Applying Concepts of Social Capital to a Real-World Situation: A Personal Managerial Case Study

Organization Overview

I recently held a managerial position at a commercial real estate firm working on many projects of different scale and potential profitability. The organization had a fairly simple if extensive formal structure, with a direct chain of command that did not include an abundance of redundancies. At the same time, there was a great conscious reliance on the informal structures of the company, and often the official chain of command was bypassed altogether due to common practice and a knowledge of individuals' areas of expertise, interest, and skill. The informality of the company's structure was more evident in certain departments than in others, and at times this led to difficulties in inter-team projects.

Given the complex nature of many of the real estate transactions in which the firm was engaged, most projects required a great deal of inter-team cooperation and coordination; achieving this was quite often more easily said than done. The informality that was highly prevalent in certain departments was far less so in others, and though the organization as a whole ran on a more informal basis communications between different departmental teams could become difficult in the early stages of a project, when knowledge of different individual proclivities and the structures of other departments had not yet been established. Ultimately, project success often depended on a sole individual's knowledge of the right individuals to speak to about specific project elements, and their ability and willingness to communicate.

The Case

A major project I was placed in charge of involved the development of an existing shopping centre into a larger retail structure, and the various elements of this project involved the company's development team, its marketing team, the asset management team, and a few other departments were also tangentially involved. From the above description of the problems typically experienced in this organization, it should be fairly clear that communications ended up being a major problem in the progress and completion of this project. The standard interdepartmental communications problems experienced in the organization were exacerbated by two other prominent factors in this particular project, however.

The first of these was my lack of time with the company. A recent arrival, this was my first major project and it cam before I really knew many people at the company or how the various formal and informal structures actually functioned. This left me with very few places to turn to when problems arose, and issues were not dealt with as efficiently as they could have been. I was having trouble obtaining certain necessary authorizations from the city for the planned expansion of the retail structure, and could not get clear answers or definitive actions from the development team personnel that I would engage with. At the same time, the marketing department seemed to be having trouble generating interest in the project, which was beginning to cause doubts amongst senior management as to the viability… [read more]


Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,667 words)
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Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas

Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has undergone a tremendous transformation. Where, a number of countries have begun to engage in different policies to reform their economies. In the case of the EU countries, the overall amounts of economic restructuring have been increasing dramatically. This is because… [read more]


Europe and the U.S Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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National Planning

Dynamics of National Planning

Urban planning is affected by cultural traditions as norms as are all other aspects of a nation. This might seem to be contradictory at first, for planning is a process that emphasizes the pragmatic: There are elements of good planning that supersede any cultural differences, like the need for good sanitation and establishing bulwarks against the depredations of natural disasters. However, even such seemingly obvious universals of planning are not in fact universal; nor are they void of cultural overlays. This paper examines the planning process in two different nations, the United States and the Netherlands.

These two countries are in many ways similar to each other: Both share traditions of Western liberal democracies and cultural tolerance. (Indeed, something that many Americans forget is that before the Pilgrims came to the New World, they stopped in the Netherlands first.) Both have literate, educated populations. Both have immigrant populations that challenge the ways in which both local and national governments determine who shall benefit the most from government policies. But the two nations also differ in important ways that affect the mechanisms and overall philosophy of urban planning.

The United States is certainly not without threats from natural disasters, as recent hurricanes have reminded us. Earthquakes and volcanoes also menace the nation, as do more mundane but potentially terrifying floods, wildfires, and storms. Moreover, of course, urban planning must address a wide range of other concerns, including how to renew downtown spaces and how to balance the move toward suburbanization with planning designed to meet the increasing costs of energy and so of commuting (Gavin, 2002, p. 48).

While there are national agencies in the United States that are tasked with overseeing broad policies in these areas (including FEMA, the…… [read more]

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