"Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Role and Process of Suburbanization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,246 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Thus there evolved 'contested areas' within the city and a host of issues like race relations, competitions and changes in the physical environment. While the population and its composition have an effect on the process of growth, the way the growth occurred had a deep impact on the population. (Koval; Bennett; Bennett; Demissie; Garner; Kim, 56)

A research by Massey and Denton analyzed the trend in the link between suburbanization and the ethnic communities, like African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians for a period from 1970 to 1980 and for fifty nine U.S. metropolitan areas. The study showed that African-Americans were least suburbanized compared to the other minorities and Asians in comparison with African-Americans become quickly suburbanized. This according to researchers, Massey and Denton, show that there still prevail great hardships in the assimilation of African-Americans and continue to be more segregated than Hispanics or Asians. In most cases the African-Americans tried to segregate within the cities and the other population moved to the suburbs creating the statement -- 'chocolate cities and vanilla suburbs'. (Massey; Denton, 595)

This can be seen clearly in Chicago. Urbanization occur due to economic activities and the ethnic conglomeration of people near and around the urban areas. Thus in Chicago the urbanization by African-American population has caused a shift in the paradigm. The housing needs have been accommodated in the process of urbanization and this it is argued by detractors has caused problems in terms of social integration and exclusion from the 'white' housing market. Likewise, the shifting of large families away from these 'ghettos' caused by the unrestricted and unplanned expansion also resulted in social fragmentations. (Peterson, 162) Thus the rate of suburbanization for the African-American community has been slow in Chicago which like Detroit has a similar growth pattern shows that urbanization for African-Americans have been slow and underachieved. (Rose, 19) Therefore taking it as a model, there is a need to avoid these anomalies in other cities that may grow into a metropolis.


Primarily small cities develop into metropolises thus creating suburban development most of which are residential suburbs and they are the result of availability of work but not a place to stay in the metropolis and the services that are seen in the metros are a result of the commuting population from the suburbs. Thus the growth of the metropolis is dependent on the growth of suburbs and the suburbanization is a historical process. As an example it was shown that for Chicago, urbanization has historical and ethnic consequences, including social fragmentation. The need is to have a better town planning in cases of expansion and treat the suburbs as a part of the Metropolis.


Figure: 1

The above retrieved from:

Fellmann, Jerome Donald; Getis, Arthur; Getis, Judith. (1997) Human geography: landscapes of human activities. William C. Brown Pub.


Banfield, Edward C; Grodzins, Morton. Government and Housing in Metropolitan Areas.

McGraw-Hill: New York.

Clawson, Marion. Suburban Land Conversion in the United States: An Economic and Governmental Process. Resources for… [read more]

Europe and the U.S Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


National Planning

Dynamics of National Planning

Urban planning is affected by cultural traditions as norms as are all other aspects of a nation. This might seem to be contradictory at first, for planning is a process that emphasizes the pragmatic: There are elements of good planning that supersede any cultural differences, like the need for good sanitation and establishing bulwarks against the depredations of natural disasters. However, even such seemingly obvious universals of planning are not in fact universal; nor are they void of cultural overlays. This paper examines the planning process in two different nations, the United States and the Netherlands.

These two countries are in many ways similar to each other: Both share traditions of Western liberal democracies and cultural tolerance. (Indeed, something that many Americans forget is that before the Pilgrims came to the New World, they stopped in the Netherlands first.) Both have literate, educated populations. Both have immigrant populations that challenge the ways in which both local and national governments determine who shall benefit the most from government policies. But the two nations also differ in important ways that affect the mechanisms and overall philosophy of urban planning.

The United States is certainly not without threats from natural disasters, as recent hurricanes have reminded us. Earthquakes and volcanoes also menace the nation, as do more mundane but potentially terrifying floods, wildfires, and storms. Moreover, of course, urban planning must address a wide range of other concerns, including how to renew downtown spaces and how to balance the move toward suburbanization with planning designed to meet the increasing costs of energy and so of commuting (Gavin, 2002, p. 48).

While there are national agencies in the United States that are tasked with overseeing broad policies in these areas (including FEMA, the…… [read more]

Informal Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Social Capital

Applying Concepts of Social Capital to a Real-World Situation: A Personal Managerial Case Study

Organization Overview

I recently held a managerial position at a commercial real estate firm working on many projects of different scale and potential profitability. The organization had a fairly simple if extensive formal structure, with a direct chain of command that did not include an abundance of redundancies. At the same time, there was a great conscious reliance on the informal structures of the company, and often the official chain of command was bypassed altogether due to common practice and a knowledge of individuals' areas of expertise, interest, and skill. The informality of the company's structure was more evident in certain departments than in others, and at times this led to difficulties in inter-team projects.

Given the complex nature of many of the real estate transactions in which the firm was engaged, most projects required a great deal of inter-team cooperation and coordination; achieving this was quite often more easily said than done. The informality that was highly prevalent in certain departments was far less so in others, and though the organization as a whole ran on a more informal basis communications between different departmental teams could become difficult in the early stages of a project, when knowledge of different individual proclivities and the structures of other departments had not yet been established. Ultimately, project success often depended on a sole individual's knowledge of the right individuals to speak to about specific project elements, and their ability and willingness to communicate.

The Case

A major project I was placed in charge of involved the development of an existing shopping centre into a larger retail structure, and the various elements of this project involved the company's development team, its marketing team, the asset management team, and a few other departments were also tangentially involved. From the above description of the problems typically experienced in this organization, it should be fairly clear that communications ended up being a major problem in the progress and completion of this project. The standard interdepartmental communications problems experienced in the organization were exacerbated by two other prominent factors in this particular project, however.

The first of these was my lack of time with the company. A recent arrival, this was my first major project and it cam before I really knew many people at the company or how the various formal and informal structures actually functioned. This left me with very few places to turn to when problems arose, and issues were not dealt with as efficiently as they could have been. I was having trouble obtaining certain necessary authorizations from the city for the planned expansion of the retail structure, and could not get clear answers or definitive actions from the development team personnel that I would engage with. At the same time, the marketing department seemed to be having trouble generating interest in the project, which was beginning to cause doubts amongst senior management as to the viability… [read more]

Urbanization the Harris-Todaro Model of Rural-Urban Migration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



The Harris-Todaro model of rural-urban migration explains the economic circumstances that result in migration from rural areas to urban areas. Essentially, the model argues that when a rural agricultural worker believes that he or she will earn more in an urban area than in his or her current rural situation, migration will occur. The urban earning in the model is reflected as expected urban wage while the rural earnings are reflected in the model as the marginal product of the rural worker. The model is based on the idea that rural-urban migrations are based strictly on rational economic decision-making.

In the past forty years, the model has become a fundamental tool for explaining rural-urban migration. Riadh (no date) argues that in many less-developed countries, the expectation of higher wages in cities results in an overmigration from rural areas. Many workers, when making this economic determination, do not consider the availability of work in the city. Thus, unemployment effects are not factored into the decision. This leads more workers to come to the city than there are available jobs, creating the Harris-Todaro Paradox of higher unemployment and lower GNP as a result.

In less-developed countries, there is a significant disparity between rural wages and urban ones, and this has led to rapid overcrowding of cities. For example in Indonesia during the 1970s and 1980s, the percentage of urban dwellers increased from 17% to 31% (U.S. Library of Congress, no date). One of the assumptions of the Harris-Todaro model is that rural areas offer full employment. It is interesting to note that in Indonesia this was not the case. The migration was more rapid in that country because the countryside lacked jobs entirely. The marginal product of any unemployment rural worker would naturally be lower than the expected wage in the city, and this caused an even more rapid rural-urban migration than Harris-Todaro would have predicted. This does not invalidate the model, it simply introduces a scenario where the marginal product of agricultural workers is at or near zero.

There are instances where Harris-Todaro does not hold. While rational economic considerations can explain part of the rapid urbanization of Kinshasa, many other migrants leave their rural lands simply to avoid armed conflict (Misilu, Nsokimieno, Chen & Zhang, 2010). While equally rational behavior, this type of rural-urban migration is not economic in nature, but does occur in a number of cities in the developing world. That the migrants typically remain in the city despite the challenges associated with rapid urbanization is perhaps more reflective of a typical Harris-Todaro scenario. Those individuals would not return to the countryside unless their expected marginal product is greater than their city wage.

In general, however, the rapid urbanization of major cities in the developing world reflects a Harris-Todaro scenario. In Malaysia, oil revenues have helped to spur urban development. This increased urban wages, drawing workers from the countryside. As the productivity of urban workers improved,…… [read more]

Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas

Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has undergone a tremendous transformation. Where, a number of countries have begun to engage in different policies to reform their economies. In the case of the EU countries, the overall amounts of economic restructuring have been increasing dramatically. This is because… [read more]

Space New York City Use Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,440 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15







(In Millions of Rentable Square Feet)

% Monthly


Midtown Manhattan Retail




Midtown Manhattan South Retail




Downtown Manhattan Retail





Total Retail




2. (Optimal Spaces)

Filling empties will help bring life to each… [read more]

Right to the City, Social Justice Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (782 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Right to the City, Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, By: Don Mitchell

Mitchell, Don. The Right to the City, Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. Guildford Press, 2003.

Even -- or especially, in a privacy-obsessed society such as our own, public space is hotly contested, particularly in urban areas. The one principle individuals of a variety of political affiliations seem to believe is that public space can never be taken for granted, rather urban public areas are battle grounds of ideology as to what being a citizen means in a free society. This struggle is chronicled in The Right to the City, Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space through a series of case studies, including the early 20th century labor movement's demand that unions have the freedom to assemble, the Berkeley Free Speech Movement and the battle over People's Park; and the rise of anti-homeless legislation in the 1980s.

One aspect of this book that is very surprising is that despite the Constitutions' language about the right of the people to assemble, the right of organized political protest in public spaces has often been very fragile within the court system. The U.S. Supreme Court's 1939 landmark decision in Hague v. CIO, stated that the right to use public spaces, such as parks, must be subordinated to the needs of the "general order" (Mitchell 70). The case was seen as a landmark because it did not regulate activities to protect private property or order, but that of the public order (Mitchell 71). Thus the ability to freely assemble has never been absolute -- even today, in the case of the anti-abortion movement; protests may take the form of illegal actions that inhibit the rights of others. "Law is always enacted" argues Mitchell, who views protest as a performance of rights, specifically the right to public space, not simply an exercise of rights (Mitchell 28). However, the courts have more often denied the use of public space for such articulation of rights, which reinforces social inequities. The liberal Justice of the Supreme Court William Brennan bemoaned the fact that a corporation has access to the ears of millions through the electronic airwaves to sell soap, but a person who wished to get on a soapbox in public could have his or her rights more easily taken…… [read more]

American City Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, author Don Mitchell presents a Marxist view of the city as a crucial public space. The encroachment of private ownership of public spaces has significantly restricted the "right to the city," a term Mitchell borrowed from Henri Lefebvre. Mitchell targets anti-homeless laws including bans on panhandling as infringements on essential civil liberties. Moreover, Mitchell points out the specific ways public spaces are being restricted and constricted. First, environmental alterations such as the erection of physical barriers are used to quarter off some spaces that should be designated as public. Second, behavior modification techniques are used to control the flow of traffic or the specific activities that are possible in a public space such as political protesting. Finally, stringent policing methods including surveillance cameras are stifling freedom in American cities. Mitchell argues that public space was itself "socially produced through struggle," and that through struggle citizens may regain social justice (8).

By definition, urban centers are heterogeneous public zones. Any number of interactions and transactions may take place within the city zone. Some of those actions are likely to cause alarm, annoyance, consternation, and even fear. Fear has been the primary tactic of restricting the rights of the city, notes Mitchell. Even before September 11, fear tactics were used to control homeless populations in cities like New York and reduce instances of loitering, panhandling, and picketing. Mitchell refers to "the fear of inappropriate users" to describe the underlying motive for legal changes that affect the urban environment. By designating certain areas as "business improvement districts," local governments can undermine core constitutional rights by declaring some parts of the city off-limits to persons or activities deemed unsavory.

Essentially, Mitchell argues that control over the city equals social control and in many cases, political oppression. Social control methods end up creating what can easily be called "a highly sanitized city and a fully deracinated politics," (Mitchell 9). Cities are becoming woefully suburbanized too, notes Mitchell. For example, urban cores now have actual indoor shopping malls: several blocks worth of private property in the middle of a city. The presence of private property in what should be a public space enables the restriction on who and what can exist in the city. Similarly, new real estate development plans are designed to control traffic flows both within and around them. Such structural elements are proposed as security measures but are actually thinly veiled attempts to eliminate disenfranchised populations from the political, economic, and social mainstream. By cutting off access to public spaces, city leaders are neutering the political rights of some citizens.

Mitchell squarely blames capitalism and neoliberalism as the primary causes for recent changes to city spaces. The city has become a realm controlled by the upper class, and not one created by the collective whole of all classes. As Mitchell puts it, the city was "created for us rather than by us," (p. 18). Not just homeless people are disenfranchised in the sterile city: so… [read more]

Tampa's Strategic Action Plan for the Redevelopment of the Channelside District Research Paper

Research Paper  |  22 pages (5,938 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



The objective of this work is the conduction of a critical analysis of Tampa's strategic action plan for the redevelopment of the Channelside District. The status of this plan will be analyzed as well as the issues faced such as funding and brining in new business and… [read more]

Housing Production and Costs in North Virginia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Housing: Production and Costs Survey

Housing market three years ago the housing market overview looked quite positive in North Carolina in the early 2000. According to 2000 Census, home ownership reached approximately 69.4%, which was 3.2% above the national average. Also, the family incomes rose faster than inflation, averaging 9.5% between 1990 and 2000 after adjusting for inflation (North Carolina… [read more]

Rent vs. Own Housing Serves Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


An interesting finding is that for households with incomes above $150,000, a lower amount of households accounting to 86% own a home. Norman Hutchinson in his research claims that households headed by professionals, employers or managers are the most likely to own a house with a mortgage while the unskilled or manual workers are five times more likely to be… [read more]

Urban Sprawl Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There are also problems from the runoff from fertilizer on people's lawns, and the various pesticides that they also use to treat their lawns, gardens, and homes (Reid, 1996). All of these things run into the rivers, bays, and lakes, and some of them also get into the drinking water as well. The wildlife that use the waterways for their drinking and bathing water, and the fish and other animals that call it home are suffering from the effects of urban sprawl, too. Much of the habitat for this wildlife has been eliminated, and even in places where this has not happened there is less and less habitat every day, and the quality of it is not what it once was (Gordon & Richardson, 1998). People also use the waterways for fishing and for recreation, further polluting and damaging the fragile ecosystem that exists there. This would not generally be a problem if there were very few people doing this, but as urban sprawl increases, there are more and more individuals that use the country's waterways, and when this takes place all of the environment around that waterway sees some kind of damage.

There have, however, been efforts in many parts of the country to try to control urban sprawl to some degree. The voter turnout in Maine that was mentioned previously is only one example of people that want to protect the environment fighting back against what they see as the main problem that is causing harm to come to it. In the 1970s, Vermont and Oregon started working on their urban sprawl problems by enacting laws for land use that were partially intended to, among other things, limit the amount of urban sprawl that could take place (Gordon & Richardson, 1998). Other states including Florida, Maryland, Hawaii, Georgia, New Jersey, Tennessee, Washington, and Rhode Island have enacted similar laws since that time (Gordon & Richardson, 1998).

Many of these laws require cities to designate what they call an 'urban boundary.' This boundary stops urban growth at a certain point, so that the city can only grow to a certain size or take up a certain amount of land (Gordon & Richardson, 1998). As many people as want to can move into the city, and high-rises and other buildings to accommodate more people can be built, but the amount of land and the extent the buildings can spread are limited by the imaginary line that has been drawn. This law was first enacted in Oregon, but the other states that are working to limit urban sprawl have seen it as a kind of model and basically adopted it as their own. Some other ways that these states are limiting urban sprawl is by the requiring of permits for specific types of buildings or specific types of land use, to try to regulate to some extent what gets built and where (Gordon & Richardson, 1998). By doing this, buildings and land use that would cause a further problem with urban… [read more]

Office Market Analysis of Philadelphia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,687 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"In fact, it appears that builders seldom intentionally build offices for the Class B market or lower" (Archer & Smith 2003:142). According to the First Quarter 2004 Market Report for Philadelphia, "The flight to quality for class A direct space in the Southern New Jersey region has forced some companies to high-end flex buildings over the past eighteen months, illustrating the demand for mid-rise buildings and the strength of class A properties in the region" (2004:4). These trends are illustrated in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Overall Rental Rates vs. Vacancy Rates [Source: First Quarter 2004 Market Report].


The competitive demand for Class B office spaces is directly tied to the availability of space that was not intentionally constructed for this purpose. As a result, to the extent that new construction projects that are targeted to the Class A market provide new office space in the aggregate is the extent to which Class B office space will be available. In this supply-and-demand setting then, the more Class B office space that is available means that there will be less overall demand; however, off-setting this aspect of the "invisible hand" is the explosion in start-up enterprises that may well be suited to the segment of the Philadelphia population that has been historically marginalized to date; in other words, minorities and low-income families may view self-employment or a small business as a viable alternative to traditional employment patterns based on new opportunities available through improved telecommunications. Based on the foregoing analysis of the local economy, competitive supply, and competitive demand for office space in Philadelphia, the overall current and future market for Class B office space should actually grow in spite of the increasing supply of such space.

Works Cited

Adams, Carolyn, Bartelt, David and Ira Goldstein et al. Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Archer, Wayne R. And Marc T. Smith. (2003). Explaining Location Patterns of Suburban Offices. Real Estate Economics, 31(2):139.

Philadelphia, PA Office Market - First Quarter 2004. (2004). Cushman & Wakefield. Available: http://www.mack-cali.com/graphics2/markets/pdfs_1Q_04/Phi_Off_1Q04. pdf.

Imbroscio, David L. (1995). Nontraditional Public Enterprise as a Local Economic Development Policy: Dimensions, Prospects, and Constraints. Policy Studies Journal, 23(2):218.

Robertson, Kent A. (1995). Downtown Redevelopment Strategies…… [read more]

Globalization, Fostered by Free Flow Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dublin Corporation has embarked on a major regeneration project for a historic part of London called H.A.R.P. - Historic Area Regeneration Project. It covers a large part of the inner north city and includes the city markets area, major shopping centers, important public buildings, long established residential communities, areas of dereliction and many socially deprived areas.

Globalization does have it's benefits. Globalization has made better quality goods available to more people, in more places. For example, Motorola Inc. ought to be the undisputed ruler of the wireless world. The company was the first to mass-produce car phones. It also sits in the heart of the world's biggest market for them. But it has been humbled by Nokia Corp., a relatively small company from Finland that only a decade ago was more interested in bathroom tissue than mobile phones. Nokia's only weapons were better phones and better management. (Micklethwait, and Wooldridge, 2001)

There are those who consider that competition is bad for their people, and to those globalization is a disruptive force in their once solitary castle. There are those who recognize that success comes from the vehicle of competition, and therefore globalization is a positive force.


Bowring, Philip. Thinking at Cross-Purposes About Globalization., International Herald Tribune, 02-01-2001.

Godfrey, B.J. 1984. Inner-City Revitalization and Cultural Succession: The Evolution of San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury District. Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 46: 79-91.

1985. Ethnic Identities and Ethnic Enclaves: The Morphogenesis of San Francisco's Hispanic Barrio. Yearbook of the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers 11: 45-53.

Godfrey, Brian J., Urban development and redevelopment in San Francisco. (California). Vol. 86, The Geographical Review, 07-01-1997, pp 309(25).

Townsend, Alan R. Making a living in Europe: human geographies of economic change; Routledge London 1997

Hammonds, Keith H. Good News - It's a Small World., Fast Company, 05-01-2000, pp 90.

Micklethwait John, and Wooldridge, Adrian: (2003) A Future Perfect: The Challenge and Hidden Promise of Globalization. New York: Random House.

Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian, The globalization backlash., Foreign Policy, 09-01-2001, pp 16.

Wilson,…… [read more]

Old, My Parents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"No comment," he said with a smile.

The connection between sprawl and crime is less clear-cut than it seems. Although there is unquestionably a link, it is not clear which is cause and which effect. In 1992, a survey of those who had left New York found that fear of crime was easily the most common reason for moving to… [read more]

Social Capital Was Available Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


First, setting an artificially low (or high) price on an item that is not supported by market forces or prices in the area rarely ends well because it can influence the demand of a product to induce either shortages or gluts of property. Indeed, one person paying half of what their neighbor pays for the same accommodations is not going to end well. Second, one of the reasons it will not end well is because one of two things will happen. Either the more affluent people who can afford the whole prices will avoid the area or they will move in and gentrify the poorer people out of the area unless the price controls remain in place. Regardless of whether the price controls stick or not, toying with the market like that and not fixing the underlying problems (which is not the appearance of the area, to be clear) is a recipe for disaster.

• Can society be classified as "fit" based on Merton's definition? Why or why not? Justify your answer with real-life examples and scholarly reasoning.

I believe so, but only if "fit" means that equality of opportunity, not equality of outcomes, is the main goal. Success and fulfillment is going to mean a different thing for each person. Many people dream to have kids while many others would never think of it. Many want a big house in the suburbs while others would be happy with a condo in the city. Some want to live in NYC while others are happy in America's Heartland. What this means in terms of defining success and equality is that dollars alone can't be the definition because hobbies, choice of state/city of residence and so forth is all going to cost very different amounts of money and people should not be giftwrapped anything in the form of housing, etc. unless they are truly in need and they are not just finding a way to continue to leech off the largesse of others.


Adams, J.T. (1931). The epic of America. New York, NY: Blue Ribbon Books.

Merton, R.K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY:…… [read more]

Social Activism the World Today Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  7 pages (2,232 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The shelter would do well to contact them or a similar entity to help with Mr. Paladin's case. Indeed, he appears to be in dire need of counseling, conciliation, and education. It would be even better if Molly could attend several such sessions with him to enhance his concept of her as a person rather than a helpless drain on… [read more]

Prediction of the Housing Value in Beverly Hills Los Angeles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Bev Hill Real Estate

Beverly Hills Real Estate: Reasons to Delay Investment in 90210

The recent global recession was felt especially severely in the United States, where the bursting of the real estate bubble not only served as a partial reason for the collapse of banking and financial companies and structures but also eroded much of the wealth of the middle class. Not all areas were as significantly impacted by the drop in housing prices as others, and many upscale areas especially did not take the value hit that much of the rest of the nation experienced. While the housing market turmoil and the suddenly low prices and glutted market of 2008 created investment opportunities in some areas, then, in many higher-value areas the wisdom of investing in real estate at the current time -- or at any time in the past five years -- is more questionable. The following pages present an analysis of the Beverly Hills real estate market, and specifically the market within the highly-desirable 90210 zip code, demonstrating that while real estate investment in the area would not be disastrous it is also not accurate to view such an investment decision as particularly strong.

The 2008 Housing Crisis

Crisis, bubble burst, correction -- call it what you will, in 2008 housing/real estate prices around the nation dropped, and indeed plummeted in some areas (PARSONS, 2012). Mortgage deals were becoming increasingly complex and allowing for the purchase of ever-larger and more expensive homes by increasingly less qualified buyers, which combined with already substantial real estate speculation drove the market on an increasingly steep upward trend beginning in about 1998-1999 and actually peaking in 2006, though the downward trend in that year and even in 2007 was not as precipitous as the near free-fall in prices through 2008 and 2009 (PARSONS, 2012). The downward trend in prices has actually continued on a national basis to the present year, though prices now match the pre-bubble trend of both inflation-adjusted and nominal home prices that can be established stretching back thirty years prior to the bubble's formation (PARSONS, 2012). This, along with the slight volatility of the much shallower downward trend in home prices over the past two-year, suggests that home price might be stabilizing and long-term investment in real estate might again be a wise decision in areas tracking the national trend and especially in those areas where home prices have currently dipped below the pre-bubble trend line.

In the 90210 zip code, however, the story of real estate speculation and bubbles is far less clear. The sudden sharp off-trend increase in home prices is obvious in a chart tracking national real estate averages, but a look at a graph of Beverly Hills and 90210's home prices tell a very different story -- there is a definite upwards trend in home prices from 200 through 2007 and a fairly significant dip in 2008 and 2009, yet neither the rising trend nor the dip are as extreme as in the… [read more]

Battery Park City Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Battery Park thus embodies many contradictions. On one hand, it is not a touristy area, nor are there many attractions or amenities even for residents. It is cut off geographically and in terms of its natural tempo from the rest of New York City. New York is famously the city that never sleeps, a city where it is possible to find something to do and something to eat every hour of the day. Battery Park feels like a showpiece. Architecturally, from the outside Battery Park seems like a reconstructed ideal of a 'perfect' New York, although it is not a real slice of New York life. According to Lopate, Battery Park is a facade of how New York should be rather than the real thing, a place with pretty parks and quaint buildings and little else to offer.

Ironically, despite the resistance to affordable housing, giving Battery Park a 'soul' might be created by expanding the demographics represented within its confines. However, while "the sadness of Battery Park is that it may never feel like part of the city," its "smugness is that it may not want to be" (Lopate 38). Battery Park was devastated by the 9/11 attacks but the collective experience of having to be evacuated and to deal with the toxic air and trauma did not create a more compassionate or tight-knit neighborhood.

Walking around Battery Park, it is difficult not to be impressed by its beauty. However, it is not an area that captivates the wanderer. If there is anything going on, it is going on inside -- inside the powerful buildings where financial deals are being arranged, or within the privacy of wealthy residents' homes. The apartments may indeed by confined, but little life spills out into the streets, and there are no public spaces that draw people to them. Even the parks, as lovely as they are, provoke quiet contemplation rather than engagement with others.

Works Cited

Lopate, Phillip. Waterfront. New York: Anchor, 2005.…… [read more]

Urbanization and China Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


China and Urbanization

What are the three main reasons urbanization was limited between 1949 and 1980 in China?

First, according to professor Kenneth a. Small of University of California at Irving, "During the Mao era, urbanization was often suppressed"; also, Small writes that in that era developing in the eastern coastal cities was discouraged for "military reasons" (Small, 2002, p. 3). A recent article in the Harvard Political Review (Huang, 2011) suggests that autocratic regimes like China are "more easily threatened" by huge masses of people in cities. The author also references a research document by Jeremy Wallace of Stanford University ("Cities and Stability: Urbanization and Non-Democratic Regime Survival") in which Wallace asserts, "urbanization hinders autocratic regime survival." The rationale behind that statement, Huang writes, is that when masses of people jam the cities they can "…more easily threaten autocratic regimes due to their proximity to seats of government" (p. 1).

Guoming Wen writes in the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation site that China's big concern is for "social stability" in the nation of 1.3 billion people. "Uncontrolled urbanization causes many farmers to flock to cities in a short period of time," Wen explains (Wen, 2007). Having rural people moving to the city so quickly "…not only imposes pressures on city infrastructures, but also causes potential social problems," Wen continues. In fact, if too many newly immigrated "city citizens" are not properly educated and "cannot find jobs, they may be more likely to commit suicide," Wen concludes; Wen adds that the "criminal who were immigrants account for over 50% of the total criminals in Shanghai, and 80% in Guangzhou."

Meanwhile, in R.J.R. Kirkby's book, Urbanization in China, the author explains that the most "common sense explanation" for China's "supposed anti-urbanism" in the post-1949 era "lies in the means to state power taken by the Chinese Communist Party" (Kirkby, 1985, p. 4). What he means by that is that the Chinese Communists are different than the Bolsheviks in the Soviet Union, who used the "industrial proletariat" for their revolution. In China, the communists owed their ascendancy to power to the "massed ranks of the peasantry," so it was "only natural" that the communists would show "a leaning" towards the rural China and its peasantry (Kirkby, p. 4). Mao himself hailed…… [read more]

Economic Development Programs Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


ECN Development

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD 2009) offers a series of programs intended to provide incentives to local government entities for promoting economic development. Those programs include the Renewal Community/Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Community (RC/EZ/EC) Initiative; the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), and the Rural Housing and Economic Development (RHED) Initiative. These specific programs are offered in addition to standard community development loans and congressional grants. Workforce initiatives offer another type of motivation for local government entities and help to improve quality of life, citizen empowerment, and regional prosperity.

The RC/EZ/EC Initiatives are available to "distressed urban and rural communities" throughout the United States (HUD 2009). Practical incentives include "a combination of innovative tax incentives, federal grants, and partnerships with government, for-profit and non-profit agencies," (HUD 2009). The BEDI helps to create what are known as "Brownfields," thorough renovations and renewals of "environmentally contaminated industrial and commercial sites," (HUD 2009). The RHED focuses on funding for non-profit organizations, which in turn help organize building, housing, and other development in a community. Economic development programs can also be situation-specific as with finding offered to communities affected by natural disasters.

One of the key roles of urban planners is to encourage economic development. In addition to taking advantage of HUD incentives, urban planners can also solicit funding from public and private sources. Community Development Block Grants are one avenue of economic development funding. However, urban planners also need to perform measurements that will determine need, as many funding incentives are need-dependent. An analysis of economic structure may be performed as a preliminary technique, and "can be determined through variables such as: analysis of output, employment and investment data," (World Bank Group…… [read more]

Conception and Function of Public Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The cultural and historical reflection of the city's role in global commerce, as depicted in the Maidan-I-Shah square, served two roles. Internally, the synthesis of cultural influences served to forge a collective urban identity of cosmopolitanism predicated upon the primacy of trade in the city's successes. Industrialization played a significant role in the creation of collective urban identity in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to the interconnectivity and centrality of economic production within urban limits (5). The transient nature of trade inflects the relationship between commercial activity and collective memory differently; the grandiose nature of Maidan-I-Shah square instructs the populace that their city is defined by their relevance in trade. This impels greater participation from those in the city and square in the trading taking place there -- further entrenching the primacy of a trade identity.

Boyer confirms the concept of public space as an embodiment of the ideals and idea of what a place represents: "…a wise leader…would architecturally embellish a capital city to visually demonstrate what the order and organization or a well-governed state or society should be (13)." Externally, the elaborate, ornate Square served to solidify Istfahan's role as a major, prospering economic and cultural hub in the world of global commerce. It created strong, memorable, and impressive visual reference for those entering the city for trade and delineated a specific geographic and spatial location as a center within a center, a hub within a hub. As the city was a vital link, geographically and perceptually, in the international commercial trade of the seventeenth century, the square was the place of prime importance in the city in these ways as well.

The juxtaposition of the highly ornamented facade of the two story arcade surrounding Isfahan's central square with the natural environment outside the city's confines and the long, sparsely populated trade routes caravans traveled at this time emphasized the concept of triumph and prosperity the square was intended to convey. Whereas in the post-industrial era, the intention was to reclaim beauty in a disjointed urban jungle, Isfahan rose out of the landscape as a grand gesture of man's triumph over nature. The architectural domination of the square was meant to evoke a sense of permanence -- to engender a collective memory that this grand bastion of civilization had no antecedent and faced no threat or danger (16). Looking at Isfahan through the lens of the post-modern, it is clear that the city square in Isfahan served to forge a physical collective identity while creating a public space that displayed, supported, and extended a historical canon which validated the wealth and importance of Isfahan and the Shah to the rest of the world.


Boyer, M.C. (1996). The…… [read more]

Public Space: "The Living Room Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Public Space: "The Living Room of the City"

The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). defines public space as "the living room of the city - the place where people come together to enjoy the city and each other." Modernity has encroached on the concept of public space by confining the most mundane aspects of daily life to the enclave of… [read more]

Confined Living Quarters Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (652 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Population Density

One striking image exists in my mind of population density on an international level: Amsterdam. Amsterdam is a highly populated city, yet it has become known as the world bicycling capital, rather than the world's capital of automotive congestion. It is a place noted for the willingness of people to sacrifice cars and personal comfort for the sake of their neighbors. The commonality of the culture of its citizens clearly facilitates the relative harmony they enjoy. So does widespread respect for the city's rules pertaining to civility -- visitors note that cyclists wait at red lights, even if no cars are coming.

But this level of respect for law and order is not the primary reason for the lack of strife: an even more important aspect of Amsterdam's low levels of conflict and high levels of population density is its relatively equitable standard of living -- social services provide cradle to grave protection for the poor, unemployed, elderly and young, and the highly progressive taxation rate ensures there are few disparities of wealth. The United States, in contrast, has been characterized by an increasingly seismic gap between the haves and the have-nots, which has only been growing. The rage that this has created across American society is evident in the anger over how many bankers have benefited from the bailout designed to help extricate the nation from the crisis the financial industry helped to orchestrate, while millions of homeowners face foreclosure. The gap between rich and poor is also very visible in America's congested cities, where wealthy districts are only blocks away from very poor areas.

It is difficult to find examples in the United States where there is little concern over financial status: perhaps the housing boom can partially be explained by the American desire to enjoy home ownership -- and utter privacy from one's neighbors. But although I do not enjoy the luxury of privacy, I am one of the…… [read more]

China Housing Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Additionally, the growth of the Chinese real estate sector has not been so much based on an increased access to loans, but more on a real demand for homes -- demand which still exists and which is expected to support the revival of the sector (Batson).

4. Conclusions

The modern day society faces one of the toughest economic challenges. Emerging from within the American real estate industry, the economic crisis soon affected not just the rest of the American sectors, but the entire globe. In terms of the real estate industry, this represented not only the source of the crisis, but also the most heavily impacted sector.

Before the crisis broke out, most international housing markets were registering exponential levels of growth. Within the United States and the western European countries, the growth was pegged to an increased access to loans. In China however, it was pegged to an increasing real demand for real estate properties. The authorities in the Asian country concomitantly fought to reduce the artificial increase of the sector. They reduced the sources of speculative purchases through increased property taxes as well as imposed restrictions on the foreigners' ability to own real estate properties within the state.

During the second half of 2007, the first signs of problems were obvious and the volume and value of the properties traded within the Chinese real estate sector significantly decreased. The government intervened promptly by offering incentives to housing trade, such as the reduction in the property taxes. Given a situation of a sustained demand and a reduced financial crisis affecting the Chinese banking sector, the third quarter of 2008 revealed slow growths in the activities of the real estate sector. 2009 reveals promising signs, once more proving the China's resilience in the face of global threats.


Batson, A., April 2, 2009, China Housing Market Shows Signs of Life, The Wall Street Journal

2007, China to Raise Downpayment for Second Homes: Sources, Latest News and the Property Market in Singapore, http://sgpropertypress.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/china-to-raise-downpayment-for-second-homes-sources / last accessed on November 26, 2009

2007, European Real Estate in 2008: Spain and UK Deep into the Crisis / Eastern Europe near Housing Bubble Burst, Leap 2020,…… [read more]

Chicago Politics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,848 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Chicago Politics: Change for the Better Has Taken Place

"The central city is by far the dominant municipal jurisdiction within the [Chicago] region, and for most local officials across Cook and the five 'collar counties' beyond, the direct benefits of Chicago globalism are difficult to discern" -- Larry Bennett, "Community Power Applied: Chicago's Engagement With 21st Century Globalization."

Viewpoints expressed… [read more]

Inequality Is an Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,247 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


In addition the postmodern city is not characterized by a single way of life, which makes it quite different from traditional cities. According to Brym postmodern cities contribute to inequality because they provide fewer and fewer public places available for people to come together to socialize. The author also explains that post modern cities have a negative impact on minority… [read more]

Service Housing Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,013 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Shelter for Life

Homelessness and affordable housing is a global problem. The social issues behind homelessness are complex and varied. In the United States, homelessness is most-often associated with unemployment, drug and alcohol abuse, affecting both large cities and smaller communities. However, in other countries, homelessness can be the result of other factors. One of the most common factors for homelessness in some regions is war. Millions of people over the decades, in many regions, have been forced to leave their homes and become refugees, often in lands unfamiliar to them. Although many countries have government funded organizations to help address the problem, these programs often cannot fulfill the need, especially when it occurs on the scale of millions of people displaced by war. As such, many countries rely on private organizations to come to the rescue.

There are a variety of non-governmental organizations (NGO) that have been formed to address the problem of homelessness and lack of affordable housing. Organizations such as Habitat for Humanity, a nonprofit, ecumenical Christian housing ministry, have built more than 300,000 homes around the globe, providing housing for more than 1.5 million people ("Habitat for Humanity"). Although Habitat for Humanity may be one of the more well-known organizations working towards solving the homelessness and affordable housing challenge, they're often focused on homelessness due to low-income. Others are making headway in solving the homelessness challenge due to the displacement from war, such as Shelter for Life.

Shelter for Life International is also a Christian-based organization. Their mission is "to demonstrate God's love by enabling people affected by conflict and disaster to rebuild their communities and restore their lives" ("Mission"). Shelter for Life's inception was sparked by the need to provide temporary shelter for the refugees who had fled to the Pakistan border, after fleeing Afghanistan. Their first goal of Shelter for Life was simply to help these displaced people find safe shelter. They had no idea how having a safe place to live could create and restore a person's sense of security, dignity and hope for the future. From this humble beginning of sheltering refugees, the organization has expanded their goals to include not only rebuilding homes, but entire communities as well.

Shelter for life began its existence in 1984, as Shelter Now International. Their current headquarters are located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Their mission has expanded from the original refugees on the Pakistan border and now they are serving people in "Afghanistan, Indonesia, Iraq, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and the United States. In past years SFL has served other countries including Angola, Burundi, Honduras, India, Iran, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Western Sahara" (FAQ).

As mentioned, Shelter for Life began as a result of the millions of Afghans pouring into Pakistan. The Soviet Union had invaded Afghanistan in 1978, causing the upheaval. Thor and Debi Armstrong, founders of the organization, had been at work in Asia, and realized the tremendous need caused by this displacement. In 1982, they moved to Pakistan with a dedicated team, and began… [read more]

Arizona Over Use of Natural Resources and the Shortage of Waters Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,688 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Arizona Water Shortage

Arizona's Water Resources

Arizona citizens may face a crisis the size of the Sonoma Desert if water supplies into the Colorado River do not increase in the near future. Parched Arizona may be declared a drought area by 2011 if the situation is not remedied quickly (Blake). The following will explore water usage and culture, as it… [read more]

Student Housing Options &amp Campus Housing Choices Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (537 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Student Housing Options & Campus Housing Choices in College

English Composition

College often provides students with their first opportunity to live independently, at least with respect to their families. In fact, many college students consider this one of the advantages of a residential campus. The list of housing options from which college students may choose includes living at home, renting a single apartment, living in a residential dormitory, living in a sorority or fraternity house, or renting an off-campus house with a group of friends. Each choice comes with various advantages and disadvantages that students must consider before making a choice.

Living at Home:

Living at home while commuting back and forth to school is certainly the cheapest housing option. For this reason, students living on a very tight budget, as well as those who have family responsibilities may consider this option preferable to others.

The obvious disadvantages of living at home include saving money and the ability to fulfill family responsibilities with which other forms of housing may conflict.

Living in a Dormitory:

Living in a dormitory is the most common housing option, especially among college freshmen because many colleges specifically prohibit freshmen from living off campus or in fraternities and sororities. The advantages of dormitory living include proximity to other students as well as the availability of pre-paid food plans in dormitory cafeterias. The disadvantages of dormitory living include the possibility of having to share a living quarters with strangers with whom one does not get along, as well as unwelcome disturbances such as loud music at times when one is studying or sleeping.

Renting a…… [read more]

Memory and Place of Carlton With Relation to Melbourne Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,276 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Memory and Place of Carlton With Relation to Melbourne

This focus of this study is Carlton, a suburb in Melbourne, Australia. It sits on the edge of the CBD, and has a strong role in tying the city together. The Carlton United Brewery Site sits at very edge of Carlton and the Central Business District (CBD) of Melbourne, and has… [read more]

Life and Death of Great American Cities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (693 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … life and death of great American cities" by Jane Jacobs

Response Paper: Jane Jacobs' the Death and Life of Great American Cities

In an era such as our own, where even suburbs are becoming increasingly urbanized, the title of Jane Jacobs' the Death and Life of Great American Cities may seem curious. How are cities dying when fewer and fewer Americans live in rural areas? But upon deeper perusal of her work it becomes clear that the death that Jacobs is talking about is a cultural and spiritual death, the death of an American residential institution near and dear to her heart and life, not merely where people are relocating their lives and livelihoods in numerical terms.

Jacobs criticizes the rise of highly specified city 'neighborhoods' which have been to the detriment of a city's collective character. Instead of public squares, which encouraged the intermingling of different cultural and socioeconomic classes in past eras, the structure and modern economy of cities creates individualized, rather than blended communities. Cities should be characterized by small, short blocks, buildings should not be standardized, and rather than spread out like suburbs, the population of those blocks must be dense. Population density makes cities safer, as "intricate" and "unconscious" public controls and standards are often even more effective than policing (32). Shared community standards are often why neighborhoods of similar demographics very close to one another can have widely different crime rates. The kindness of strangers is one of the marvels of city life. But as people become more and more segregated, to neighborhoods, to enclosed areas, even to sidewalks while the streets are dominated by cars, people lose a sense of connection and ownership of an area and cease to care about their neighborhoods and neighbors.

Architecturally, old buildings should be saved, rather than struck down in the name of progress. Architectural diversity contributes to functionality of neighborhoods, creating multiple-user locations that encompass Chinese restaurants, clothing stores, and other things that people in the area really need as opposed to what urban planners tell them they need (198).…… [read more]

City of Quartz: Excavating the Future Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles" by Mike Davis and "Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir" by D.J. Waldie. Specifically, it compares the visions of suburban Southern California presented in the two works.

Is Southern California really "heaven and hell" as Davis maintains, or a "holy land" of relative comfortable suburbs as Waldie maintains? After reading… [read more]

Domestic Architecture in Ancient Pompeii Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (7,989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Additionally, ceiling beams were also painted, gilded, or inlaid with ivory and the floors were paved in stone or fine mosaic. All historians have generally agreed on the ideology on the division of Pompeian mural painting into four styles based on stylistic variations each having its own specific characteristics. All four styles remained in use concurrently with specific styles chosen… [read more]

Pruitt-Igoe St. Louis Technology and Place Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pruitt-Igoe, St. Louis; 'Technology' & 'Place'

Pruitt-Igoe is the symbol of death of modern architecture.

The construction of Pruitt-Igoe was completed in 1956. It consisted of 33 buildings each of 11 stories set up on 57 acres. It comprises of 2,870 units to accommodate about 12000 low income residents. The most prominent technical feature was 'skip-stop' elevators that stopped at… [read more]

Low Income Home Loans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,197 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A combination of factors can affect whether a borrower qualifies for a loan, and if so, at what interest rate. Many of these factors are class related.

While lenders should consider a borrower's income and assets, an overemphasis on these factors may discriminate against low-income and minority borrowers (Kim, 2002). A low-income person under existing measures of creditworthiness is labeled… [read more]

Philadelphia Office Market Analysis Downtown Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This will affect thousands of employees and millions of square feet of prime office buildings. "Since 44% of Center City office employees live in Philadelphia's neighborhoods, the future of Center City business will have a direct economic impact on Philadelphia's neighborhoods." (Center City, 2003) From the perspective of the real estate market, the purchase of a new office space could flood an already tenant friendly market.

Competitive Demand -What is the demand for office space, both now and in the near future?

Not only is the market likely to be flooded with open office spaces, thus driving down rents, but also as the region has grown and spread out, Philadelphia's role as the dominant force in the regional economy has slipped. Philadelphia's share of the eight-county regional population has shrunk from 46% in 1960 to 30% in 2000. During those 40 years, Philadelphia's population shrank by over 480,000 people (almost a quarter of its population) while the rest of the region grew by almost 1.2 million.

The city's employment share has shrunk also. From 1991 to 2000, private sector employment in the city was essentially flat, while jobs in the region grew by almost 14%. The result: The city's share of employment fell from 31% in 1991 to 27% in 2000. (Intergovernmental Relations, 2003) recent study by the Brookings Institution showed that, of the nine major cities that were being compared, Philadelphia ranked seventh in the share of office space in its region in its Central Business District. The study found that more and more commercial office space for the area is being built in the suburbs. (Intergovernmental Relations, 2003) Although this might at first seem like a positive, driving down competition in the CBD, combined with the fact that so many rental property leases for office space in the area will be terminating their duration in the coming months and years, a decline in demand combined with a flood in supply does not bode well for the purchase of the proposed real estate property.

Conclusion - Based on your understanding of the local economy, competitive supply, and competitive demand, what is the overall current and future market for Class B and Class A office space in Philadelphia?

Thus, it would not be a strong recommendation to purchase office space in the CBD of Philadelphia. An alternative recommendation, however might be the purchase or investment in hotel property. "Tourism is sustaining Philly's hotel sector until corporate travel rebounds, noted one industry insider." "Tourism is a steady growth area," for the district, and as the economy improves, corporate travel will grow as well. (Walsh & Brickley, 2003)

Works Cited

Central City Proprietor's Association (CCPA). 2004. Official Website. http://www.centercityproprietors.org/

Issues: Philadelphia 2003. "Central City." 2003. http://www.issuesphiladelphia.net/articles/4062/;jsessionid=5BDE0AE39622D8AA8A7E64D63FBC750A

Issues: Philadelphia 2003. "Intergovernmental Relations." 2003. http://www.issuesphiladelphia.net/articles/4063/

Sinderman, Martin. "Philadelphia." August 1, 1996. National Real Estate Investor. http://www.nreionline.com/ar/real_estate_philadelphia_3/

Walsh, Thomas & Brickley, Peg. "Philadelphia Story: Betting on a better downtown." National Real Estate Investor. January 1, 2003. http://www.nreionline.com/microsites/magazinearticle.asp?mode=print&magazinearticleid=163727&releaseid=&srid=11492&magazineid=126&siteid=23… [read more]

Low Income Housing Credit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" ("Affordable Housing Needs Boost")

Another pressure on America's poorest housing seekers was the enactment of the 1998 Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act. (Anderson) The act mandates that a minimum of 40% of newly available public housing units be rented out to families with incomes less than 30% of the regions' median income. While the rest of the newly vacant units are to be reserved for families in the middle income range -- instead of for those that are in the lowest income brackets. (Anderson) These rules created by the law create yet another dilemma for low income households that cannot afford the rent of regular housing. It is believed that in New York City that between 10,000 and 16,000 public housing units for low income tenants will be lost by the year 2010.(Anderson)


The purpose of this discussion was to define the Low Income Housing Credit and to determine the advantages and disadvantages associated with the program. Our investigation found that the program is very complex and presents many hurdles for investors and tenants. We also found that there is a shortage of low income housing available in the United States and that this shortage may have a profound effect on children that live in low-income households.


About the Low Income Housing Credit." http://www.novoco.com/Facts_Figures/Aboutlihc.htm

Affordable Housing Needs Boost." Real Estate Weekly. January 10,2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3601/23_47/69676209/p1/article.jhtml?term=low+income+housing+credit

Anderson, George. "Housing and Low Income Americans." America. July 29,2000. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1321/3_183/63649246/p1/article.jhtml?term=low+income+housing+credit

Low Income Housing Credit." Published by the Internal Revenue Service. Number 89018M

Chris Kelleher "MDP Update: Recession, MDPs, and the CPA. The CPA Journal… [read more]

Florida's Homeless Introduction and Demographics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,047 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The last decade has brought homelessness to the forefront of social issues, and coalitions have been working toward getting more and more governmental support. As a result, several efforts have been made on federal, state and local levels to help Florida's homeless population.


The U.S. Congress enacted the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act in 1987. This legislation… [read more]

Cross-Cutting Issues Regarding Slum Upgrading Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There is also need to eliminate the various restrictive factors that Housing microfinance the state of the practice cites as being responsible for limiting the uptake of mortgage finance amongst the low income bracket. Some of the factors cited fall under institutional and structural challenges.

Housing Reconstruction after Disaster: Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka was one of the countries worst hit by the 2004 tsunami that also devastated countries such as Thailand and Indonesia. According to scaling-up people-centered reconstruction (p. 77), the Owner Driven Programme (ODP), one of the two components of Sri Lanka's post-tsunami reconstruction, "has been successful in reaching large numbers of the affected, and was less time consuming, incurred lower cost per house…. provided higher beneficiary satisfaction and a higher sense of ownership by beneficiaries."

Essentially, Sri Lanka has faired quite well with regard to the reconstruction of housing -- an occurrence attributed to the ODP adoption. The program, however, had its own set of unique challenges. For instance, there was the problem of inadequate cash grants, where beneficiaries found the grants provided inadequate. Such, alongside the undertaking's successes, could be used as learning points in seeking to design similar programs. Lessons learnt in this case have practical application outside of the post-disaster realm. Solutions could be remodeled to help rein in the housing challenge in urban settings.

Slum Upgrading

Slum upgrading has got to do with the improvement of slums. Its benefits are immense. In addition to promoting inclusion, slum upgrading also enhances and promotes economic development (Cities Alliance, 2014). Further, it seeks to ensure that the urban poor are provided with shelter and can advance security of tenure to communities (Moser and Dani). It is important to note that slum upgrading is also less costly than relocation of slum dwellers. Indeed, as Cities Alliance (2014) points out, it costs much less than "relocation to public housing" -- a fact that those involved in policy formulation ought not to miss. However, to be effective, slum upgrading should be conducted in a systematic and well-planned manner. Cities Alliance recommends that the said upgrading be connected to other goals, objectives, or initiatives. There is also need to be aware of the challenges that could be encountered beforehand, so that measures can be taken to mitigate against such challenges.


Cities Alliance. (2014). About Slum Upgrading. Retrieved from http://www.citiesalliance.org/About-slum-upgrading#Why_do_slums_develop

Moser, C.O. & Dani, A.A. (Eds.). (2008). Assets. Livelihoods and Social Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

1. Housing finance and financial inclusion

2. Housing microfinance the state of the…… [read more]

Human Services Case Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,663 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If the client does not qualify for Medicaid she will have to seek coverage for her children through the Children Health Insurance Program.

7. Once the client has been able to apply for the above services it will be important to follow up with her regarding why the father(s) of her children are not involved in their care and upbringing. Counseling and guidance will be provided to help her to contact the Friend of the Court, locate the father(s) of her children, and to take the appropriate steps to get them involved in the financial support of the children.

8. The client stated she wished to eventually find employment but she could not afford day care. There are a couple of alternatives that she can investigate. The client can investigate potential affordable day care providers via the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Care/Search_Texas_Child_ Care/default.asp). Other potential day care options can be also be explored in this context.

9. In line with the above recommendation, a future goal of the client will be to have her receive training in a career that can help her become independent in caring for herself and for her family. Counseling to help the client work toward permanent, full-time employment by evaluating the client's job skills and job history should be implemented. It will be important to also work with client to help her make connections with job training programs. This will require linking her to career counseling services, assisting her in locating permanent, full time job training and employment opportunities. It will also be important to help her to gain budgeting skills, credit counseling, and money management training. Thus, once she has been settled into a longer-term residence and has support and sufficient resources it will be important to begin to consider her future and provide her with vocational/career counseling in order to help her determine the most appropriate career course of action for her in the future and to provide her with training to be self sufficient.

10. Set up regular follow-up visits with the client to keep track on her progress and to provide support and guidance…… [read more]

Radial Lakes or a Repetitive Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In terms of competence, I found that both bids were satisfactory on the competence issue. They both seemed to understand the concept and were able to execute a quality design. If there was a difference here, it is that Malone dedicated a lot of space to the hospital but none to police, a taxi stand or a hotel. To me, these were oversights because there are things that every town should have in order to enhance the quality of life. While the edge in competence would therefore go to DellaForma, I do not think competence was a major deciding factor.

Commitment is another critical success factor. Planning is one thing, but control is also important. This is India -- bringing things on time, on budget and to spec is not exactly an easy task. Both bids were roughly equal in this respect, providing us with pro-formas that can be used as part of the financial controls for the project. I also felt that the priorities of our organization were interpreted differently by the two companies, but not in a way that separated them in terms of quality.

Lastly, communication is a critical success factor, especially as we are based in Calcutta, and this remoteness is something that has concerned us from the outset of the project. We feel comfortable with both of these groups in terms for their communication responsiveness. This is actually a mandatory trait for us -- we would not award a contract to any company that we felt was not strong in terms of its communication. We need to know that if things start to go wrong that not only are their controls, but that there will also be transparency about this. This was not a deciding factor between the two companies. Ultimately, it was the comprehension that made the difference, and we feel that the DellaForma proposal of the grid system better encapsulates our vision for the project.


Toor, S-u.R. & Ogunlana, S.O. (2008) 'Critical COMs of success in large-scale construction projects: evidence from Thailand construction industry', International Journal of Project Management,…… [read more]

Local Economic Development Initiatives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


(Blignaut, 2011) It has also been contended, particularly by European and Asian proponents of Infrastructure-founded development that methodical, long-term government investments in things such as housing, transportation, education and healthcare are essential to in making sure sustainable financial growth in emerging nations.

Literature Review

The Concept of Sustainable Rural Communities in Local Areas

The body of literature on impact of… [read more]

Red Hook Brooklyn Community Assessment Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Community Assessment, part 1-

Red Hook Brooklyn

Red Hook is a neighborhood in south Brooklyn, NY that rests along an industrial waterfront. The region is predominately poor and mostly African-Americans reside in this area. The movie on the Waterfront was based on this part of New York and the famous international cruise liner, the Queen Mary, docks in this area. This neighborhood has experienced much change in the last decade with mostly positive economic gains and improving infrastructure. Currently, the area is in a state of disarray and confusion as Hurricane Sandy's recent devastating impact on the area has left many of its residents and businesses at a loss. This area could be described as going through a serious recovery period currently and is in a state of transition. It is important time for the people of this area and much resilience is needed to help prevent this community from losing much of its economic and social progress it has seen in the last decade or two. This may be accomplished in several ways: continued infrastructure build out, gentrification, and greater investment into the community itself.

Red Hook Community

The population of the African-American persons in Brooklyn New York is quite high. The census done in 2011 released their overall population at 34,917 people, but the actual city of Red Hook, not the outlying areas, has roughly 12,000 full time residents the population of the people living in the red hook houses is about 7,512 people (Roberts, 2009). The population of the African-American is majorly constituted by large numbers of low level of education, with up to 68% of the population not having formal education. In addition, the population is highly unemployed, with most doing manual labor and other small jobs. As a result, the income of most of the population is quite low with about 60% earning less than $20,000 and 40% getting less than $10,000 and only 10% making $35,000 and above (Roberts, 2009). This indicates the very high poverty level of the people. However, other residents that live in the area red hook neighborhood, code 11231 are quite better off as they own houses and only 19.1% live below the poverty line.

Windshield Survey

Overview: A windshield survey of Red Hook shows that there is much damage that still resides from the recent hurricane. Flooding and wind damage has made parts of this town resemble a war zone. Red Hook is particularly isolated from the rest of New York City due to its severe lack of public transportation. Intermixed between large public housing projects are some signs of economic stability, but overall, Red Hook is in poor shape with many poor people living well below the poverty line. Red Hook was formerly prosperous and vital, until the shipping industry moved jobs to New Jersey ports and the community became somewhat economically depressed.

Population -- 30,215 (1/2 who live in subsidized housing)

Demographic Overview -- the community is known as South Brooklyn and has a rather varied population… [read more]

Homelessness Intervention Social Work Universally Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,616 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


The four components appear to be critical for the ability of the program to achieve its stated objective: Stable employment for formerly homeless people. Three of the four components differentiate highly successful job training programs from less successful job training services. Recruitment and selection procedures ensure that individuals selected for the program do not intractable problems and that they are… [read more]

Post Office Square Park Case Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (985 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The revenues derived from the project for the city would be substantial, and public opinion began to turn against the initial park. What was the value of a purely aesthetic park and a rather moderate office structure, as proposed by the Friends of the Post Office Square, versus the more lucrative venture of Claremont? The city of Boston was 'hurting' and desperately needed revenue. Also, many Bostonians desperately needed affordable housing, which the Claremont Development could theoretically make more of a feasible reality, given the provision of linkage payments derived from the more financially sustainable office complex.

Supporters of Claremont noted that the proposal would still allow for a park structure to be created, albeit not as large as the original Friends proposal. In Europe, many parks existed which were designed to be very aesthetically pleasing, even though they were tucked away into a relatively small enclosure. Moreover, it was not as if the district in which the park would be located was undeveloped -- the question was how much land in a highly congested area of Boston should be devoted to open space, versus developing a large and pristine area of territory. And Boston already had many large public parks. In fact, some people said that having a larger structure to shield the sight of some of the uglier and more industrial buildings of the area might be desirable, versus a more open park and an underground garage.

The divide between 'the people' of Boston and 'the developers' was not as clear-cut as might have initially been suggested by the facts. There were many competing financial interests, not only those of the developers who wished to use the park for their own and the city's needs. Furthermore, the needs of the city had to be taken into consideration, both the financial needs of the shrinking coffers of Boston and also the financial services demanded of the city's overtaxed residents. But it was unclear which proposal would ultimately generate more revenue, in the long run -- that of Claremont or that of the Friends proposal. The revenue derived from both proposals -- both the parking lot and the office building -- would depend upon market conditions. Ultimately, the Friends proposal was selected, not because of the financial revenue that could be obtained through taxation, but a general sense that Claremont was more of an unknown quantity as a developer by the newly-elected mayoral administration. This indicates how emotion just as much as hard facts and financial data can result in a particular decision taking place within the confines of a city. Ultimately, in retrospect, the untaken Claremont proposal seems more of a 'win-win' of aesthetics and revenue for the city, and offers the ability to add jobs as well as provide more beauty and parking to the area.


Scott, Esther. (1993). Post Office Square Park. Case Study: Kennedy School of Government.… [read more]

Jane Jacobs Asserts That Art Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (880 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Jane Jacobs asserts that art is an important component in structuring a city. How can art be incorporated? In various ways. Rather than straight girds, for instance, the city can be defined by winding streets mingled with streets that have dead ends, or by streets that seem to seemingly meander on forever.

Highlights can be another aspect -- some prominent focal points of the city that people are drawn to look at and that stand in key places.

Unifying aspects can also be used, where similar categories are grouped together thereby according a harmonious look. All of this lends interest and an aesthetic twinge to the dullest of cities and it is this way that art can be incorporated into city design.

As a point of example, Chicago, my chosen city, exemplifies Jacob's point perfectly. The streets are of all proportions with some long streets neighboring and intercepting of aborted ones.

Great care has gone into the architecture, specifically in order to inject some sort of art into an urban location. Highlights are grouped in focal points along the lake: Wrigley's stadium, the Fountain, the Art Museum, the Museum of Science and Technology, and all of Chicago's fascinating museums in their outstanding architecture grouped in specific spots close to or not far from the meandering lake. Interesting enough, its most famous university, North Western is too bestriding the lake, whilst the University of Chicago is close by. This may represent Jacob's third point of a unifying node where the Lake serves as hub of harmonization and integration.

Furthermore, Chicago is a city of contrast. Split into disparate ethnic parts such as China Town, a section characterized by Russians, one by Italians, another Jewish and so forth, the whole is yet united by its distinctive urban sprawl and carefully demarcated streets where deliberateness and apparent accident go into forming an integrated whole. A city per excellence, one yet receives an aesthetic tingle from one's visit to Chicago due to the fact that the design of the city has utilized the characteristics mentioned by Jacob into formulating its structure.

Rem Koolhaas paints the opposite picture in a poetic depiction of what he calls 'Junkspace'. Junkspace is the portrayal of a cacophonous, chaotic mess of nonsense shapes and haphazard urban design squeezed in and loaded onto each other, formless, and ill- or utterly undefined with different cultures and periods of history throttling one another and almost squeezing the other out of existence. Junkspace is the reverse of Jacob's picture of design and order. Here, there is no deliberate plan rather we have the post modernistic vision of urban society per excellence where cacophony…… [read more]

Land Pricing Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Land Pricing in the Buckingham Place Deal


Max Price by Site Use Type, per acre:

Big Box: $19/sf/year in income ($20/sf for occupied space less the stabilized vacancy rate of 5% yields a $19/sf average)

To achieve the target cap rate, $19/total-value-per-sf must be equal to or greater than 7.75%, or: 19/.0775 = $245.16

Less the $70/sf in construction costs = $175.16

At 10,000sf of retail space per acre, the maximum price that should be paid per acre of Big Box space is $1,751,600.

Specialty Retail/Entertainment: $28.2/sf/year in income ($30/sf occupied; 6% vacancy)

To achieve the target cap rate, $28.2/total-value-per-sf must be equal to or greater than 7.25%, or: 28.2/.0725 = $388.97

Less the $85/sf in construction costs = $383.97

At 8,000sf of retail space per acre, the maximum price that should be paid per acre of specialty retail/entertainment space is $3,071,760.

Apartment: $8.78/sf/year in income ($1.10/sf/month = $13.20/year for occupied space; 5%

vacancy; 30% reduction of gross rental income lost to operating expenses)

To achieve the target cap rate, $8.78/total-value-per-sf must be equal to or greater than 6.75%, or: 8.78/.0675 = $130.07

Less the $95/sf in construction costs = $35.07

At 18,000sf of apartment space per acre, the maximum price that should be paid per acre of apartment space is $631,260

Office: $7.20/sf/year in income ($15/sf occupied; 20% vacancy; 40% reduction of gross rental income lost to operating expenses)

To achieve the target cap rate, $7.20/total-value-per-sf must be equal to or greater than 7.75%, or: 7.20/.0775 = $92.90

Less the $100/sf in construction costs = $-7.10

At 10,000sf of office space per acre per floor, the total loss on three-story office space construction would be $-213,000

An estimated 220,000sf of specialty retail entertainment space (10% of currently existing 2.2 million sf) and 700,000sf of big box space (25% of currently existing 2.8 million sf) is needed to meet unmet demand, translating to 70 acres of Big Box space and 27.5 acres of specialty retail/entertainment space.

30 acres of the site must be set aside for storm water management/wetlands, leaving a remaining 42.5 acres (170 acres of the original site -- 70 acres Big Box -- 27.5 acres specialty retail/entertainment -- 30 acres storm water management/wetlands = 42.5 acres).

Population density in the nearby city of Nashua is 4.4 people per acre. At 18 apartment units per acre and an average household size of 2.7, the density per acre of apartment-developed land is 48.6. A population density of 5 people per acre for the entirety of the 170-acre site would mean a maximum of 850 residents in the development, and 850/48.6 = 17.49, or approximately 17.5 acres of apartment complexes should be developed.

The remaining 25 acres of the sit3 (42.5-17.5 = 25) might be better devoted to additional Big Box or specialty retail/entertainment space rather than office space, but regardless these last 25 acres should not be included in pricing considerations, as revenue from this space is minimal at best given current projections.

The final pricing determination can… [read more]

Hines Goes to Rio Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (2,182 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Brazil that Steven Dolman, vice president of Hines, is determined to complete on time but that is sadly running into numerous operational difficulties. The Torre Almirante office tower in Rio de Janeiro was a 36-story, Class AA office tower and a complete innovation in the city. Problematic issues ranged from the glass window specifications to the material for… [read more]

RFP -- Saddle Creek Hoa Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  15 pages (5,565 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


An independently owned accounting firm shall conduct the annual financial audit of the property management services company, on behalf of the homeowners' association. The Executive Vice President of the property management firm shall meet with the auditors to review the audit report and develop an action list for following up on each item to resolution. An audit report shall be… [read more]

Real Estate Development Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Real Estate Development

In every real estate development project regardless of the location the government is a necessary partner. The following is a description of a project that is being built in a prosperous close in a suburban village near a large population center. Tell me in outline form: 1. The various government requirements that the developer will encounter and 2. What must the developer do to satisfy those requirements?

The various government requirements for the developer will depend upon: the city and state that the properties are located. This is because each community; will have different regulations that will apply to: the activities of the developer and what they are allowed to do under the law. The below outline will detail some of the challenges the developer will encounter and what must steps must be taken to satisfy these requirements. (Kemp, 2003, pp. 89 -- 103)

Requirements the Developer will Encounter

Urban renewal regulations -- These require that certain historical aspects of the community must be in place at all times (such as: the maintaining a certain width and style of the street).

The disposal of hazardous material -- This means that the company will have to account for how the will remove materials that were used in some of the old building such as: asbestos.

Zoning -- Since residential homes are being demolished and retail space is going to be developed, means that there could be different zoning issues that will have to be addressed. (Kemp, 2003, pp. 89 -- 103)

Satisfying these Different Requirements

Urban renewal regulations -- To satisfy these different regulations all of the precise specifications must be addressed. This will take place during the planning and construction phases.

Disposal of hazardous material - The disposal of hazardous material will require making certain that protective suits are used. At the same time, all waste must be sent to locations that can safely dispose of these substances.

Zoning -- This will require the developer obtaining the proper approval from: the local government (before beginning any kind of construction). (Kemp, 2003, pp. 89 -- 103)

How does the political world impact development? How do developers and development impact politicians?

The way that politics is having an impact upon development is based upon:…… [read more]

Williamsburg Gentrification and Commercialization in Williamsburg, Brooklyn Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Gentrification and Commercialization in Williamsburg, Brooklyn: An Analysis of Bedford Ave. Between 3rd and 4th Streets

Gentrification is often seen as a good thing for many communities, as it means (pretty much by definition) increased property values, higher income potentials, decreased crime, and an increased and diversified array of amenities, shopping opportunities, and other business interests. At the same… [read more]

Home Building Proposal Befficiency, Safety Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The plan above also integrates green features from the beginning instead of adding these energy-efficient elements after the home has already been constructed.

Remember, high water-heating bill might not be just due to the price of gas or electricity, or even how much energy one uses. The problem may be traced back poor insulation, or improper ventilation and air condition.… [read more]

Cultural Diversity in Homeownership Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Summary and Conclusion

This work has clearly demonstrated that there is much disparity in homeownership rates between white and ethnic minority households. While there have been legislative and regulatory acts geared toward reducing these disparities it is clear that the disparity in homeownership rates for minority households persists. Predatory lending practices have served to further and deepen these disparities with the subprime crisis highlighting the treatment received by minorities when seeking financing for their purchase of a home. It is not clear what actions should or will be taken to address these problems. In fact, the only thing that is sure at this point in time is that many minority households are losing their homes to foreclosure and in many cases their equity has been stripped and this is representative of a loss of their life savings along with the loss of their home.


Bostic, Raphael W. And Surette, Brian J. (2000) Have the Doors Opened Wider? Trends in Homeownership Rates by Race and Income. Federal Reserve. Retrieved from: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2000/200031/200031pap.pdf

Correa, Vanesa Estrada (2009) Foreclosure Affect Minorities Disproportionately, Report Shows. 15 Oct 2009. University of California, Riverside. Retrieved from: http://newsroom.ucr.edu/news_item.html?action=page&id=2192

Coulson, N. Edward and Dalton, Maurice (nd) Temporal and Ethnic Decompositions of Homeownership Rates: Synthetic Cohorts Across Five Censuses" Penn State University Research Study. Retrieved from: http://econ.la.psu.edu/~ecoulson/oax3.pdf

Nier, Charles Lewis III (2010) Race, Racism and the Law: Speaking Truth to Power!! Dayton Edu. 10 Dec 2010. Retrieved from: http://academic.udayton.edu/race/04needs/housing06.htm

Ray, Charles (nd) Homeownership Rates by Race in Today's America. Helium. Retrieved from: http://www.helium.com/items/1443251-home-ownership-rates-by-race-in-todays-america

Williams, Latonia (2004) African-American Homeownership and the Dream Deferred: A Disparate Impact Argument Against the Use of Credit Scores in Homeownership Insurance Underwriting. Insurance Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.insurancejournal.org/content/repository/journals/15/1/9.pdf

Wright, Kai (2009) The Assault on the Black Middle Class. The American Prospect. 4 Aug 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=the_assault_on_the_black_middle_class… [read more]

Daily Journey Commuting to School Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The sidewalk is uneven in some places broken, but comparatively to many other parts of New York, the subway is great.

Some of the things that changed daily were the people whom I passed and the cars on the street. On one day the streets were not busy, however the rest of the days there was heavy vehicular traffic. I passed a lot of college students around the subway station, however during the walk home I passed a mixed blend of people, business people walking home or their offices, nannies and moms walking with little children and employees in the neighborhoods. On the freezing cold days there were fewer children on the street, and no elderly people. One day during my walk it was raining so almost everyone had an umbrella. I did not see anyone that I recognized daily except the street vendors. I did see many people on their cell phones, except on the day it was raining. On the rainy day, there was a gentleman selling umbrella at the subway station. My cell phone signal did not really change during my walk home.

The most surprising thing I noticed during my walk was at the Hunter College campus, there were many people outside smoking daily. Even on the rainy day, there were several students outside smoking, both males and females. This was a surprising fact, there is an abundance of information available about the dangers of smoking and yet college students are smoking to this extent.

I noticed that right after 5pm many of the doormen in the building I passed were leaving their post. I guess it was a dinner break at 5pm. There were three door men that worked on the same block that met up everyday right after 5pm, except on the…… [read more]

Credit Crunch on UK Residential Property Dissertation

Dissertation  |  30 pages (9,799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


¶ … credit crunch on UK Residential property: Is there an opportunity for the buy-To- let?

The effect of the credit crunch on UK residential property: Is there an opportunity for the buy-to-let?

The economic crisis which emerged within the American real estate sector has expanded throughout the world and it has even come to impact the residential real estate… [read more]

Financial Concepts Used to Execute the Obligations and Expenditures Related to Hurricane Katrina Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Financial Concepts Used to Execute the Obligations and Expenditures Related to Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina, one of the biggest disasters that America has faced till date due to natural causes, also turned out to be one of the costliest ones as well. It also exposed many flaws in the responding capability and readiness that American government agencies displayed both before… [read more]

Soaring Chinese House Prices Increase Fears of Property Bubble Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,506 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Soaring Chinese House Prices Increase Fears of Property Bubble

The current economic recession has underscored a trend that is occurring in China. Where, they are keeping their currency artificially low against all the other major currencies, resulting in a trade surplus. The problem with using such a strategy is that they are making it difficult for Chinese investors to invest… [read more]

How and Why Did American Cities Grow so Dramatically in the Late 19th Century Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Growth of American Cities in the 19th Century:

In the 19th century, the United States experienced an era of speedy urbanization. American cities were subjected to a massive change due to the industrial revolution and the nation's change in status. During this period, the United States also changed from a small agricultural country to a key commercial and industrial power (Excalibur par, 1). With most American cities functioning as cities at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a very small percentage of the population was urban. For thousands of years, it took almost the total population to grow enough food to feed everyone. Like any other society, the growth of American cities depended greatly on the efficiency of agriculture.

It's important to note that the early United States was mainly rural with the Southern part almost completely rural ("Urbanization of America" par, 1). In fact, the number of Americans living in the rural areas exceeded the number in cities until 1920 and in the 1990s; three of four Americans lived in urban settings. The most fashionable place to live in until mid 19th century was the center of the city. In the back alleys and courtyards of the central city poor people lived while merchants, manufacturers and lawyers built townhouses within walking distances of their workplace. On the other hand, middle class people lived a little farther from the center with other poor people living in the suburbs far from urban amenities. During this period, cities were densely populated because people lived within walking distances of work and streets were narrow enough to accommodate pedestrians and wagons.

Urban life was soon transformed by the industrial revolution of the 19th century which gave people high expectations of improving their standards of life. Many Americans began to migrate to cities due to the increase in number of jobs, technological advancements in transportation and construction of houses. City boundaries also expanded as a result of the development of railroads, streetcars and trolleys.…… [read more]

Will Obama's Housing Plan Work Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,556 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethics and Morality: Obama's Housing Plan

President Barack Obama won the presidential campaign in November 2008, on a platform of "change" in terms of how Washington D.C. politicians and bureaucrats conduct business. Now that he is in the White House, he is facing an enormous series of urgent economic challenges. Those challenges include: Americans are being laid off from their… [read more]

Inequality in Condo Advertising the Research Theme Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,415 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Inequality in Condo Advertising

The research theme for this paper is two-fold: it considers inequality as a social phenomenon, and secondly how this relates to Condo advertising in newspapers. Inequality is an extremely important research issue in today's sociological environment, especially as it concerns basic needs such as housing. Advertising provides an extra dimension to the study of such issues:… [read more]

Cal Housing Market the Southern California Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,116 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Cal Housing Market

The Southern California housing market is mired in a prolonged slump. The average house price in Southern California declined 27% in May 2008 versus May 2007. Some experts believe that the prices will decline even further before prices are sufficiently low enough to entice buyers back into the market. There are a couple of key microeconomic factors that have contributed to this downturn on the demand side, and others on the supply side. Affecting the demand side is a reduction in cheap and easy access to credit. This access had fueled an abnormal surge in demand, contributing to rising prices which in turn fueled more demand. Also affecting demand is the increase in fuel prices, which has discourage many consumers from entering the housing market, especially in certain areas. On the supply side, the rising prices had encouraged developers to build more housing, and now this has resulted in excess housing. Also, the speculative buyers of the past few years have been attempting to sell to capture their profits. Plus, banks have foreclosed on many mortgages, and are trying to liquidate the properties quickly. These factors have increased supply just as demand was decreasing.

These two factors both impact the demand side of the economy, and there are supply-side pressures as well. In recent years, low mortgage rates and easy access to credit fueled a nationwide real estate boom. Mortgages could be had so cheaply that many people bought houses with the plan to sell them in a few years. The low rates offered at the time were not sustainable, however. As rates rose, buyers found that they were unable to meet their higher mortgage payments. In addition, this caused a supply side problem. The speculative buying had caused prices to rise to the point where many buyers could no longer afford to enter the housing market. The net effect of this was to reduce demand just as the speculative buyers needed to sell. Many buyers foreclosed, causing a glut of supply on the market as banks took title to the homes and tried to liquidate them. The recent rise in gas prices has also contributed to reduced demand. Higher gas prices are causing many buyers to live closer to work, to reduce gas price costs. Previously, low fuel prices had made it economical to live further away, but those economics no longer work. This has reduced demand in many places, especially in the outer suburbs where driving distances are far.

The types of shifts that would be consistent with the recent fall in housing prices are an increase in supply and a fall in demand. Prices rise when demand is high and supply is tight. For prices to fall typically the opposite will be true. I believe that the demand shift has been greater than the supply shift. The supply shift has occurred due to two main factors. The first is that speculative buyers found themselves unable to make their mortgage payments. They wanted… [read more]

Disparities in Socioeconomic Outcomes of Wealth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,942 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 16


Disparities in Socioeconomic Outcomes of Wealth and Social Policies and Other Solutions Aimed at Black/White Wealth Inequality

Differences in the patterns of savings, wealth accumulation, home ownership, and other disparities between races have been demonstrated to exist in previous studies. This work examines these studies and the social policies or solutions that have been historically focused on the inequality of… [read more]

Problems Facing Harris County Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (656 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Harris County Housing Department Issues

One of the most consistently pressing issues facing the local government's of Houston and Harris County respectively is that of housing. Houston has been one of America's fastest growing urban centers in the last two decades, rendered thus by its appeal to corporate investment and its many accessible, low-wage neighborhoods. Recent challenges in the population landscape relating both to the continual influx of Mexican immigrant laborers and, more recently, the deluge of impoverished peoples feeling post-Katrina conditions in New Orleans. Given that so many of the individuals arriving to the Houston metropolitan area are in need of assistance, it has fallen significantly upon the Harris County Housing Department to actively pursue ways to integrate a wide array of new arrivals.

Of course, any failure to properly absorb such troubled populations as those arriving from south of the Mexican border or from New Orleans could negatively stimulate higher incidences of crime, resource shortfall and gang activity. This is already quite well evidence by the dire situation in housing which is part and parcel of the Hurricane Katrina migration. Those who relocated following the devastating 2005 hurricane and flooding have largely done so on the basis of pubic assistance. Indeed, "more than 30,000 evacuee families in Houston still live in government-subsidized housing, and a Zogby International survey sponsored by the city found three-fourths of the adults receiving housing help were not working." (Bustillo, 1) This points to a serious problem facing the Housing Department, which must find ways to balance its responsibilities to the public with the need to stretch scarce resources. Though federal assistance has taken part in footing the bill, much of this aid has by now or will soon expire. With that, many non-working transplants will occupy public housing to no prospect of economic improvement.

This speaks to the demand placed upon the Housing Department to act more closely in concordance with local employment groups and agencies to help place such transplants…… [read more]

Peasants in the Big City Robert Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (424 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Peasants in the Big City

Robert and I have made the harrowing decision to move to London. We hated to leave our old home, but we knew that we would never be able to raise our children properly with things the way they were in the country, so here we are. We share a home with Robert's brothers, and while I love them like the family they are, I hate the lack of privacy and space that make up our lives now. Indeed, there is nowhere I can go to escape for even a second's peace, and I miss the quite and peacefulness of the countryside we left behind. Here in London it's dark, dirty, and exceedingly noisy. There are the noises of the machinery in the factories that continue on from dusk 'til dawn. There is the noise and soot from the trains that run just a few meters from our home, and then, there is the dark, sooty air that seems to permeate London and every building in the city. It always seems to be raining soot and dirt, and it is impossible to keep anything clean in this city. I certainly miss the quiet of the countryside, and the sounds I took for granted there, like the chirping of…… [read more]

Purchase of Real Estate by Judicial Sale in Germany Term Paper

Term Paper  |  49 pages (13,364 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Purchase of Real Estate by Judicial Sale in Germany

Real estate is the one most frequently mentioned areas of law that has the greatest divergence between jurisdictions today. For example, under Germany's Civil Code, certain aspects of real estate are governed by other laws, e.g. The proceedings regarding registration in the land register by the land register regulation, and regarding… [read more]

Vulnerability of the Chicago Water Supply and Other Great Lakes Cities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,222 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



As a result of the terrorist attacks that occurred in September 2001 and subsequent attacks that have occurred in regions throughout the world, an emphasis has been placed on the types of terror attacks that could occur in the future. A major point of vulnerability is the nation's public water supply. This vulnerability is most evident as it relates… [read more]

My Ideal Community Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,256 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Utopia

Thomas More may have been one of the first people to envision a Utopian society in the 16th century. He wrote of a city that eliminated both poverty and exploitation based on employment for all (Porter, 2003), a radical concept at the time. More recently, the city of St. Louis, Missouri experimented with creating a Utopian-like residential community called "LaClede Town," named after one of the city founders. A large community of town houses, it was near the center of the city and encouraged an artistic, artsy atmosphere. A variety of talented people lived there, including Eddie Saxon (as a child), who went on to produce major movies such as "Philadelphia." Built in the sixties, residents were a mix of multiple races and income levels. The complex's racial mix was reflected in changes that took place in a local all-black church, that became integrated as white LaClede Town residents began attending (McGuire, 1995). However, LaClede Town was an island surrounded by declining areas. It addressed residential issues only, and ultimately failed and was razed (McGuire, 1995).

I believe that a Utopian society includes all types of people: young and old, people of all races, of both sexes, of all sexual orientations and social classes. A mix of people enriches the experiences of all. I would like to see these segments of society distributed in proportions that reflect the United States generally, so that this Utopia would be a microcosm of United States population.

The population should be distributed throughout the community as they choose. However, community features that tend to draw people together, such as parks, open-air markets and recreational facilities should be placed in ways that draw people together.

This town, if successful, might become quite popular, so they need to decide how to control population growth. This might be best accomplished by population density rules, such as not allowing home for individual homes to be converted to higher density condominiums or apartments. Since such a forward-thinking community should allow as much freedom of choice as possible, people should be allowed to have whatever pets they want unless the animal can clearly be shown to be a real potential danger to the community. An example of this might be keeping a tiger. Tigers do not make good house pets and would be a menace if one should get loose.

Residents of this town should be encouraged to work within the community, but since this is not always possible, mass transit to the nearby metropolitan area, such as light rail, should be part of the plan. This town should actively encourage barter as well as work for pay and sale of products. The community centers might include babysitting exchanges between young mother as well as opportunities to swap one service for another: example a person types someone's dissertation, and in exchange, that person paints their house.

The town should have some sort of bus service, using small buses to make them practical and energy efficient. Perhaps it… [read more]

Homelessness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The average age of he people was about 18 to 64. More than 39% of the people were found to be suffering from schizophrenia, and about 42% were suffering from affective disorders like depression. 58% had a serious problem of drug abuse, and this was leading them into developing mental disorders. The various services that are offered by PATH for the homeless are as follows: outreach services, habilitation as well as rehabilitation services, diagnostic services, case management services, treatment for substance abuse related problems such as alcoholism, and housing services as well as services that would help clients gain access to housing services that are being offered. (An Overview of the Program)

The federal government does have quite a few policies in place that deal with the very real and complex problem of homelessness in the various states of the United States of America, as well as in Chicago. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Program provides funds for the purpose of supportive housing for those people who are above 18 years of age and earn the barest minimum income. The funds provided can be used for the purpose of constructing and rehabilitating and also for acquiring structures for housing, and to develop small scale group houses, and for other types of living projects. Section 811 ensures that rental assistance is provided for the persons who need certain sums of money to make up for the lack of the complete amount. Section 202 provides supportive housing for the elderly group of people who also have very low incomes. (Federal Housing Assistance Program, Fact sheets)

The difference between what the individual can afford to pay and the actual cost of the housing project will be made up be this HUD administered program. 85% of the funding is to be used for the residents of metropolitan areas and 15% for those residents of the non-metro areas. The 'Housing Choice Voucher Program' comes under section 8, under which the extremely low-income group families and also the elderly and the disabled citizens of the U.S.A. are eligible for availing of housing facilities in the private market, provided they take the initiative of finding their own housing facilities, and they do not have to limit their choice to subsidized housing programs. The HUD will apply section 8 to 'Public Housing Agencies' that will in turn grant the vouchers to those who are the most eligible. The 'Single Room Occupancy' also comes under section 8, and this policy applies to those individuals who earn a very low income, and a small private room will be provided for one single person. (Federal Housing Assistance Program, Fact sheets)

Public Housing is a facility that ensures that the elderly and the disabled and others are given housing at affordable rents. The 'Home Investments Partnership Program 'provides grants to states that the local communities use for the buying and selling of housing units. Trust Funds are also established under this program, and the grantee is given credit upon… [read more]

Muenster Pump Company, Purchasing Manager Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (680 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


If Terri decides that price is the most important consideration, and decides to press for outsourcing of housings, it would be to her advantage to address some of Ned's concerns. Concern over housing quality and the speed of filling orders could likely be addressed relatively easily. Ensuring top quality from outsourced parts and quick availability may result in increased price. However, given the fact that outsourced housings were originally priced at less than half of the in-house housings, it is likely that even with assurances of top quality and quick availability, outsourced parts will remain more cost-effective than in-house parts.

Assuming that Terri can alleviate Ned's concern over quality and availability, and retain a cost advantage to outsourced parts she faces Ned's ethical objections to putting the 16 foundry workers out of work. One solution would be to attempt to find other employment for the men, even though Ned's original assertion was that this was not possible. Another solution would be to keep one person on to ensure the quality of the outsourced housings, and act as a liaison to the other foundries. However, the other 16 employees would need to be laid off. At first glance, there is no easy solution to Ned's ethical concern about firing the 16 employees.

Another solution would be to attempt to decrease the cost of L-1023 housings produced in house. While materials and labor seem relatively in line (at $60 per housing), the cost of overhead in-house is an astronomical at $120 per housing. A reduction in depreciation, taxes, and executive salaries would play an important role in reducing this overhead. The remainder of the overhead could also potentially be reduced, as could material and labor costs in house. This solution would have the advantage of addressing Ned's ethical concern over firing the 16 employees, and also address his concerns over product quality and availability. In addition, this solution would greatly reduce the cost of in-house production. In short, reducing the cost of in-house housings is likely the best overall…… [read more]

College Grades Accurately Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Not only I have been involved with the management of several large real estate deals, but also I have been a key members in several important decisions and discussions with real estate executives, county and state management, and attorneys in planning out the sales of several large lands and estates in Brooklyn and other nearby areas.

My experience in Queens real estate agency and Brooklyn has been unique.

This experience has shown me the power of analytical thinking and descriptive language. In addition, this experience has been critical in understanding the effect of market growth, attractiveness of the locations, and interest rate on mortgage, which bears directly on the real estate transactions. This knowledge has been important for my securing large real estate deals and meeting the business and residential needs of community and customers. During the execution of these real estate deals, I have come to believe that knowledge, integrity, consistency of purpose, accountability, and responsibilities form the very basics of the leadership. My interdisciplinary knowledge, along with values of integrity, accountability, responsibility, and purpose, has provided me with a strong foundation to carry out leadership roles in performing my work.

3. My main responsibilities in real estate include processing real estate transactions, communicating with office clientele, attorneys, mortgage companies, banks, and insurance companies, assisting office clients in signing and closing of real estate contracts, and handling official correspondence. I am also responsible for training new employees and providing financial reports to my employer about the department's operation. In addition, I make decisions on several criteria: work policies, variety of mortgage programs, and clients' feedbacks, about the dealings of my company with different mortgage companies.

4. I am sure that my present professional experiences will prove extremely valuable in achieving my goals. I am applying for an MBA to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the commercial aspects of real estate business, develop acute marketing and finance skills, and refine my management abilities. After comparing the curriculums of several schools, I find that your school's curriculum specifically addresses and focuses on the knowledge and skills that I need to acquire in order to achieve my future goals. Therefore, I believe that my work experience, my interdisciplinary background, and my professionalism would be immensely benefited from an MBA; in turn, I am confident that these abilities…… [read more]

Franz Berger Is Quality Assurance Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Probably, the main disadvantage in this solution (selling the malt house) would be related to asset evaluation as well. However, I am inclined to study further this solution, because I am considering, for example, the maintenance problem that the other two solutions face. What will guarantee us that the malt house and cleaning house equipment will be better maintained in the years to come? Shouldn't we rather assume that maintenance will be done in the same manner as it has so far, that is poorly? Or should we rather add an additional cost regarding educating the workers to work in proper conditions and to respect elementary safety rules? An additional serious problem (perhaps the most important one) that such a solution implies is the fact that it is most probable that many, if not all of the workers that work in the malt house would have to be fired and we know from the rest of the case study that the conditions for this in China are rather harsh. A lease could mean that the company leasing the facility would have the obligation not to fire anybody or fewer people for a period of time.

Even if the best solution seems to be the last one that I have proposed, it is more probable that, given the current conditions, the second solution will work best. In my opinion, it is hard to change the way Chinese think and the way they regard management. There are no signs in the country, from top to bottom, that there is a decentralization policy on the horizon. A possible liberalism, more economical freedom- yes. But a centralized way of running an economy and a business seems to be one of the basic rules in China. So, in this sense, it is most probable that the local breweries will want in the future as well to produce their own malts and to ensure a full cycle of production. That is why, in my opinion, it is best to use the second alternative solution.

I am rather inclined to choose this solution because it tends to solve the problem of the malt house in what the equipment is concerned for a good 20 years. Hopefully, this will also mean the fact that operative utilization indices will also increase in the malt house and that the additional costs related to educating the personnel will not be so high. There would be another problem to be taken into consideration when analyzing this solution: does the brewery have enough money to pay for a full refitting? Because if it doesn't, all the discussion is futile and the first solution is practically the only available one. In my opinion, a very important step in implementing this solution is related to educating the workers. I would set up special classes each week during which the workers can learn not only how to operate the new machines, but also how to ensure safe working conditions.

As we have seen here above, Franz… [read more]

Diversity: Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Washington, D.C. provides the urban experience shared by federal policy makers, while Los Angeles is considered a newer, rapidly growing, lower-density and less industrialized city, and like New York, is a gateway for immigrants and offers ethnic diversity (Myers, 1999)." When comparing demographic dynamics, studies found they were more pronounced in Los Angeles, setting it apart from the three other cities. These results further exemplified the mutual demographics of New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C.


Demographics are continually changing throughout the country. Urban scholars need to be aware of the differences, as well as influences, of cities in order to properly chart the changing demographics of the United States.


Myers, Dowell. (1999) Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Change: Comparing

Los Angeles, New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C. Housing Policy Debate,

Vol. 10, Issue 4. pp. 919-954. (accessed 07 January, 2003). http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_1004_myers.pdf.… [read more]

Homelessness in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,285 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The most visible, those sleeping on part benches or in business district doorways, are believed to be alcoholics, drug addicts, or the mentally ill, however, they make up the minority of the homeless population (Wasson 212). More than half of the single men and roughly 75% of the remaining homeless do not abuse drug or alcohol. Furthermore, many have suggested that drug use and mental illness are more likely to be the result of homelessness rather than the cause (Wasson 212).

A recent "Time" survey reported that the fastest-growing population among the homeless is families, increasing year after year. According to the Urban Institute, homeless parents and children in the year 1999 made up about 15% of the case load, or roughly 35% of the total number of homeless people (Stein 52). "These families mainly consist of single women with kids, whose greater housing needs, compared with those of single people, make them more vulnerable to rental increases than are single people" (Stein 52).

The waiting lists for public housing are several years long, while increased welfare payments have not kept up with inflation (Homelessness pg). Roughly 75% of available help for the homeless comes from the private sector, such as churches that operate soup kitchens, shelters and offer free clothing (Homelessness pg). The key federal programs are those established by the 1987 Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act which established a nationwide network of health clinics for the homeless (Homelessness pg). This act also "established adult education programs, provided emergency homelessness prevention funds, and created a number of transitional housing programs" (Homelessness pg). Programs such as these have made a huge difference in many lives by offering alternatives, however small, thus making an intolerable situation or circumstance a little more tolerable (Homelessness pg). But these programs do not address the low-income housing crisis, a problem that many feel can only be solved by government commitment to affordable housing construction (Homelessness pg).

Many cities try to curb the presence of the homeless population by voting to drive away food programs that occupy public spaces in the city by citing a health-code rule that actually does not apply (Conan pg). By trying to drive them away, the cities, according the Santa Monica's mayor, Michael Feinstein, "We want few programs, and if we can cut the programs down there'll be fewer homeless in our community. I think that was very wrong" (Conan pg).

Unfortunately, it is not that rare today to find oneself homeless. With the increasing number of uninsured Americans, a serious accident or chronic illness could devastate someone financially, due to medical expenses and lack of wage compensation. Due to the fact that the middle class is increasingly living paycheck to paycheck, with little or no savings, being unemployed for only a few months might well be long enough to be evicted with no resources for alternative housing.

Works Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Changing approaches to homelessness in cities around the country." Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio (NPR).… [read more]

Public Administrator Often Goes Unappreciated Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Moreover, it excites me to think about being able to have a say in important matters such as the improvement of public transportation systems or recycling programs.

A also look forward to working with elected officials and business people alike. Urban planners, because they often span the political and business communities, must have a firm knowledge of the needs of both these groups as well as the citizens of a community. One of my main goals is to be able to be a liaison between these various communities and interest groups. Effective communication skills must me combined with practical knowledge, such as that gained with a Master's degree, to act confidently and professionally. With appropriate education and job experience, I will be a successful public administrator and urban planner in particular.

An MPA will offer the necessary training, support, networking, and training I need to accomplish my personal and career goals. In the short-term, I hope to work with either non-profit or governmental agencies to gain understanding of the practical, day-to-day work of a public administrator. I look forward to learning the various computer applications that city planners employ to facilitate their work and to grasping the fundamentals of public relations and effective communication that is so necessary in this profession. For years I have considered entering this profession and it is finally time for me to take the next step in my professional development. I am sure that an MPA degree will provide me with the tools I need to be a successful urban planner. Perhaps ten years from now when I am stopped at a red light, I can say to myself, "It's a good thing I brought this up to the committee: we really needed a light at…… [read more]

How Internal Succession Planning Promotional Succession and on Boarding Affect Marketing Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,165 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Internal Succession, Promotional Succession


How internal succession planning, promotional succession and on boarding affect marketing of a company

Onboarding, succession planning, promotions affect the marketing of a company in vital ways. In order for a company to be successful, all three of these components have to line up right. If they are just… [read more]

Using Decision Trees to Work With Development Clients Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


David Duchovney, a real estate broker specializing in rural Texas real estate, is mentoring a salesperson from "way out of town." After a few days on the job, the new salesperson begins establishing asking prices for new property listings and seems to be quite accurate. Since the new broker seems to have picked up or "calibrated" local market behaviour very quickly, David is pleasantly surprised. What method of resolving uncertainty is the new salesperson using?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Confidence range estimates

7. Your client owns a manufactured home park in Williams Lake and is facing a myriad of issues: rent controls have eroded profitability; expenses appear to be rising faster every year; and more tenants are beginning to miss rent payments. The client isn't sure whether to hold, invest in upgrading the park and raising rents, or sell. She has asked for your recommendations on the best way to remove uncertainty from her real estate decision. What technique would you recommend?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Both (2) and (3)

8. Your boss and you are having a chat about a real estate decision to purchase either a parking lot or a small motel in Nanaimo. Both of you discuss the reasons why either decision would be profitable, in the event a purchase was concluded. What type of evaluation technique have you used to highlight uncertainty?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

9. A property manager is considering deferring repairs and maintenance for her firm's 40 unit rental townhouse complex in Grand Prairie. She is planning on scheduling minor maintenance this summer (e.g., painting, re-caulking, power-washing, etc.) and more serious structural repairs (e.g., broken concrete, fascia replacement, roof replacement on some units) the following summer. The key benefits of spreading essential repairs and maintenance over two years, rather than tackling everything this summer are reduced impact on the firms's cash-flow, avoiding anticipated labour supply problems, and interest saved on deferred expenses. However, the key risk with this option is that the property will deteriorate to the extent that the repairs are considerably more expensive and remedial work may be required (e.g. To fix leaks) before the second year. In addition, completing all the work in one summer will improve tenant satisfaction and will ensure the property to an acceptable standard. What type of reasoning has the property manager just completed?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

10. Your boss wants you to explain why the use of influence diagrams will help him make better real estate decisions. Which of the following explains a benefit of using influence diagrams as decision tools?

A. Provides an illustration of the relationships among the decision drivers.

B. Provides a permanent record of the decision drivers.

C. Simplifies the drivers of complex decision, making uncertainties easier to identify and… [read more]

Sustainability of the Water Supply Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


"The object-oriented system dynamics approach is an appropriate technique for integrated water resources analysis. The inherent flexibility and transparency is particularly helpful for the development of simulation models for complex water resource systems with subjective variables and parameters" such as the way human beings engage with water systems (Xu et al. 2007: 240),

This systems approach would be most suitable for analyzing water management in the Caribbean (the focus of my own research) given the complexity of influences on water quality and availability in the region. Also, I believe that all research should ideally be practical and future-focused, to result in real, concrete improvement for all actors. The approaches of the Iglesias (et al. 2007) and the Xu (et al. 2007) articles would be more amenable to my research than the approach of Rijsberman's article on "Water scarcity: Fact or fiction" which is solely concerned with the scientific evidence available about water supplies. My interest is in taking a prescriptive as well as descriptive research orientation. That there are problems with water availability in the Caribbean is a given, since this has been well-documented beforehand. The purpose is to study operations of the water supply and the prospects for future sustainability: how to improve them and how best to use organizational resources. The method I would use is a systems approach, to see how different human and organizational systems are interacting with the environment to produce the current issues which have arisen with the water supply in the area.


Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788

Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)


Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability…… [read more]

Revamp Detroit Is a City Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (3,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


While the above may not seem related to government meddling, it most certainly is. The interest rates charged and who gets money is greatly affected by government regulations, requirements and restrictions. Furthermore, local governments are going to get testy if they feel that house flippers are profiteering on prior homeowners in any way similar to what pawn shops and payday… [read more]

Foucault and Davis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In an article titled "Fortress Los Angeles: The Militarization of Urban Space" which was published in 1992, author Mike Davis examines the second-largest city in America from a unque perspective, as he analyzes the idea of modern urban environments as representing the panopticon. Davis begins his article by reviewing the many ways in which Los Angeles is set up to be a hostile, closed off place where people are scared of strangers and keep to themselves. According to Davis, society's overwhelming need to secure its major cites has led to a situation where they basically become panopticons, because the citizens of urban areas are made to feel as though they are constantly being watched. The idea of ever-present supervision by an unseen authority figure is the heart of the panopticon concept, and as Davis sees things, Los Angeles has adopted all of the philosophical ideas put forth by Foucault. Davis mentions the rising use of personal security systems to suggest that people living in Los Angeles are always being filmed without their knowledge, which is similar to what Foucault observes when he mentions panopticism as a growing trend. Continuing with this theory, Davis discusses the ways in which Los Angeles restricts movement for its citizens, with poor highway design and urban planning leading to traffic jams, urban sprawl and other trends. In the end, Davis' views Los Angeles as the modern representation of panopticism as first imagined by Foucault.


Davis, M. (1992). Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space. Variations on a theme park, 154-180.

Foucault, M. (1984).…… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.