Study "Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays 56-110

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Urban Anthropology Louis Wirth Term Paper

… In his book The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space, Rotenberg seeks to explain urban spaces as places made meaningful by the urbanities that live there through creation of metropolitan knowledge. I found this concept best explained in Rotenberg's essay PRICE AND STATUS IN VIENNA'S NASCHMARKT, where he identify's different types of 'knowledges' that applied to Vienna. Among them, metropolitan knowledge: "Only native born Viennese and those who grew up in the neighborhoods can speak the dialect idiomatically and with the proper phonemic values." That is, an intrinsic knowledge of what is particular to a certain metropolis and that you share with the other inhabitants.





3. / chapter15/objectives/deluxe-content.html [read more]

Prohibitively Rising Cost of Housing Term Paper

… HOME is a program that is designed to specifically create affordable housing for low-income Americans. Countrywide, over 200,000 first-time homebuyers have received assistance thought the HOME program (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, News Release, BUSH).

In addition, Woonsocket,… [read more]

Affordable Housing and Smart Growth Term Paper

… In this case, Cary has a particular need for rental properties and for more low-income housing, making the allowance of ADU's a viable option.


Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001.

Environmental Protection Agency. "Encouraging Smart Growth." EPA, March 2002,

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release,

Arigoni, D. Affordable Housing and Smart Growth: Making the Connection. Washington D.C: National Neighborhood Coalition, 2001, p 8.

Arigoni et al., p 8.

Arigoni et al., p 9.

Smart Growth America. "Americans Want Growth and Green; Demand Solutions To Traffic, Haphazard Development." Smart Growth America Press Release,

Arigoni et al., p 11.

Arigoni et al., p 12.

Arigoni et al., p 13.

Environmental Protection Agency. "Encouraging Smart Growth." EPA, March 2002,

Arigoni et al., p 14.

Arigoni et al., p 15.

Arigoni et al., p 17.

Arigoni et al., pp 20-21.

Arigoni et al., p 22.

Arigoni et al., pp 22-23.

Arigoni et al., p 23.

Arigoni et al., p 24. [read more]

Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed Essay

… "Since the founding of the United States, Americans have believed that it is their mission to spread social justice and liberty across the world, and to lead human beings to the New Jerusalem. This sense of mission was deeply rooted in American culture, and exerted a huge influence on the values and attitudes of American people" (Kang, 155). Another manner in which the colonies were able to develop is that they were guided by a belief system which heavily and fully believed in the importance of education: education and enlightenment were absolutely important for all people, according to Puritan social values. By valuing education and enlightenment, Puritan values put the colonists in a situation where they were going to steadily evolve -- become better, smarter, wiser, more experienced and more ready for development and expansion.

In conclusion, urban infrastructure and services changed in the colonial era to the late 19th century through a variety of consistent factors. Many of the most influential factors were strongly connected to values and beliefs which were rooted in Puritanism. For instance, privatism, individualism, a commitment to education, and a belief in a sense of mission were all paramount in the development of the colonies. Even manifestation of urbanization which turned out to be undesirable, such as the prostitution among Five Points, were just forms of confirmation that urbanization was well underway. Thus, the development of cities from quaint colonial townships to thriving cities was largely connected to the Puritan belief system and the strong will of the individual.

Works Cited

Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.

Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from

Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia… [read more]

Diminishing Middle Class Term Paper

… Market upswings

The highest new development sale took place in the Greenwich Village during the past month. The property is located at 130 West 12th Street which made a sale of about $13M. There was another sale that took place… [read more]

HUD Is a Public Program Research Paper

… As an organization, HUD uses group thinking in order to be effective management for people that need help with public housing assistance. In group decision making, group thinking is a part of the decision making process for HUD to manage… [read more]

Panelized and Modular Building Systems Is Less Dissertation

… ¶ … panelized and modular building systems is less common in the UK than abroad and the potential for this to provide a solution for future needs

Housing shortage after the Second World War, rising of housing demand and increase… [read more]

Urbanism Bristol, Rhode Island Research Paper

… Princeton University was chartered in 1746 and is the fourth-oldest college in the United States. One of the eight universities of the Ivy League, Princeton is also one of the nine Colonial Colleges that were founded before the American Revolution. The oldest building on campus is Nassau Hall, which was completed in 1756. During the late 1880s, the campus saw construction of several buildings in High Victorian Gothic style and Romanesque Revival style. Only a few of these buildings remain. The Collegiate Gothic style was adopted by the university toward the end of the 19th century, and the style was standard for all construction through 1960.

Princeton is known as a university town and, accordingly, the campus tends to dominate popular perceptions about the town. The university campus is expanding and the planning involves substantive consideration of campus neighborhoods, which illustrate the blurring of campus and community. The comprehensive plan is intricate, appearing to integrate thoughtful ways to ensure that the interchange between the university and the community that surrounds it continues on an intimate scale despite significant expansion of academic and recreational space.

Baltimore, Maryland

Mirroring its larger sister to the south east, Baltimore's center is circled by a beltway. About half of the streets radiate out from the city center like spokes in a wheel. The rest of the streets form more conventional city blocks that stand obstinately squared off, awkwardly opposing a more integrated orientation to the beltway. The city's planning and development offices estimate that the city will need to accommodate a million additional people, 400,000 more residences, and about 600,000 more jobs. Over the past several decades, the city has been unable to curb sprawl with its Smart Growth plan. As a result, the State of Maryland is exercising its right -- since laws enacted in the 1970s -- to draw up a statewide development plan. Plan Maryland, the state's initiative, will lay out strategies for achieving shared goals with communities, such as more affordable housing, protection of farms and forests, walkable neighborhoods and centers, and encouraging development in or near existing established areas.

The significant space that characterizes Baltimore is the Inner Harbor East Marina. This modern and glitzy development has its share of fans and enemies. Baltimore is experiencing a slow trickle out of its central areas and into developments like the Inner Harbor East. At the heart of Baltimore is a string of colleges and universities surrounded by gentrified areas. But the capacity of these redeveloped areas is limited, which increases the appeal of the new skyscraper residences. Downtown Baltimore consists of four neighborhoods known as City Centre, Westside, Inner Harbor and Camden Yards. As a central business district (CBD), it serves over a tremendous number of employees, but also includes a heavily populated neighborhood in which condominiums and apartments are beginning to dominate.


The three population centers explored in this essay seem like stepping stone to a megalopolis. Certainly, Bristol retains much of its original built space and has not… [read more]

Master Planning and Private Equity Essay

… That is, unless the infrastructure can support the build out as second homes for well-to-do professionals who live in urban areas during the work week, and commute to rural areas on the weekend and holidays. This type of arrangement can be seen, for instance, in Barcelona where professionals live in small apartments, but escape to their walled homes in remote communities in the Monserrat. That Xander's proposal, and hence its profit potential, is flawed for this development can best be illustrated by considering the FAR restrictions that India depends on in order to avoid spending on infrastructure and to moderate growth.

The modeling assumption for floor area ratio (FAR) of buildings was 1.0. FAR is used to impose height limitations -- computed by dividing a building's total floor area by the area of land parcel on which it is located -- in order to indirectly limit population densities and job densities[footnoteRef:1]. Theoretically, excessive density brings about lowered environmental quality and more traffic congestion. In addition greater demands on the infrastructure of urban areas are a result of higher density dwelling and neighborhoods. The weak technical capacity of cities in India coupled with inadequate tax revenue to remedy the situation means that urban areas do not have the capacity to provide services at acceptable levels. Essentially, FAR restrictions let cities avoid investments in urban infrastructure, as the population is forced to move in areas further away from the city center. The result is longer commuting distance and increased housing prices for these consumers. [1: Bertaud, A. (2003).Analyzing Building-Height Restrictions: Predicted Impacts, Welfare Costs, and a Case Study of Bangalore, India Retrieved]

As Shrachi, what is your assessment of the value potentially added by having a private equity investor in this deal, either with or without WBHB?

Private equity firms exist to generate good returns. Generally, private equity firms know how to implement all stages of a project in order to complete the objectives in a timely and lucrative fashion. Xander is a greater threat to Todi's ability to control components of the Bardhaman township project. A dissatisfied or demanding private equity firm has no difficulty replacing executives or making other changes in order to increase the profitability of their investments. Interestingly, the private equity financials refer to several real estate funds, but they do not indicate when draw-downs are expected to occur. Xander is asking for a return on their money within the first three years. For a development of this size, the customary practice for a private equity investment would require less liquidity and a longer term. The participation of the WBHB could either hinder or facilitate Xander's efforts. The goals of the WBHB fall into the area of public service, and explicitly are to provide mass housing for the growing population.

As the Rahul Todi of Shrachi, the developer, would you proceed with the project or not?

The project would be a viable endeavor for Shrachi. It seems most probable that Todi will select the WBHB as a… [read more]

Exploring Design and Social Innovation in the Urban Environment Research Paper

… Bedford Ave.

All the World's a Very Small Stage

In this age when we are can all connect instantly to all other corners of the world with the click of a mouse or a few keystrokes on our phones, it… [read more]

Planning Theories Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … planning: Theories and approaches

The act of planning is a normal part of everyone's life. Some people plan activities or endeavors more formally, well in advance, with list making, prioritizing, goal-setting, and/or organizing in some manner that works for a person's unique needs and circumstances. In most processes, it is helpful to make a consolation plan (or plan B), in case certain aspects of the first plan do not happen as desired. Of course the alternative to all of this is spontaneity, also a valid option; however, no one goes through life without planning to some degree. Some people plan to be spontaneous (and otherwise open to opportunities) while all spontaneity includes at least some level of planning (no matter how invisible to the conscious experience) within and after the decision to be spontaneous (is made).

In theory, planning creates the greatest opportunity for flawless execution in any endeavor, activity, event, or desired outcome. Depending on the complexity of the process or the level of control over variables in the process, the practice of planning usually creates an environment or context for the best possible execution and development of an outcome. So many things can be, and need to be, planned.

In private life, planning can be more informal and spontaneity can be of more value. Everyone needs a healthy balance of the two; though, everyone has a unique tolerance and natural skill for handling the process of planning or the level of spontaneity in their lives. Further, certain outcomes are better suited for spontaneity than others. For example, some planning needs to go into having a baby, from preparing to conceive to carrying a baby to creating a birth plan, maternity leaves, paternity leaves,… [read more]

Industrialization and Social Reformers Research Paper

… Industrialization and Social Reformers

African-Americans during reconstruction and post-reconstruction

There are several striking characteristics that define the lives of African-Americans during and after Reconstruction. The first is that conditions, in many respects, worsened over time for blacks between the reconstruction… [read more]

Human Geography by 1970, Newark, New Jersey Research Paper

… Human Geography

By 1970, Newark, New Jersey was already a city in decline. The city, which had been built on a diverse industrial base, had been prosperous through the middle of the 20th century. By 1970, however, the city was… [read more]

Low Income Housing Thesis

… Low Income Housing Initiatives in Brazil and China

Two giant countries that are well poised to become major players in an increasingly globalized marketplace in the future are China and Brazil. Both of these countries enjoy vast natural resources and… [read more]

Affordable Housing Chicano Communities Term Paper

… Chicano Community Housing Crisis

Chicano Housing Crisis Plagues U.S. Communities

Supporting the Latino Community

The Honorable Senator Murray of Washington State feels that immigration is one of the most important issues that Latino communities face. She takes the stance that… [read more]

Urban Problems Term Paper

… Urban Problems

The future of community development depends on the effective integration of social, economic, and environmental imperatives. When two or more of these key issues conflict, the community faces tough challenges in the decision-making process. Unfortunately, social, economic, and… [read more]

Home Building Industry: An Economic Term Paper

… This promotes local growth and activity.

(2) Better Use of Space. Housing developers should use available space to sponsor the delivery of much needed services or facilities, such as child care, GED classes, or a convenience store.

(3) Increase Cash Inflows. Nonprofit developers should also use available space to increase income to the property and residents by leasing space to paying commercial tenants, by entering into profit-sharing ventures with commercial tenants, or by providing services and products to outsiders.

(4) Build Contracting Capacity. The ability to increase cash inflows is directly related to the ability of businesses to compete for work outside of the housing developments. By controlling the awarding of contracts, the developer can "incubate businesses" by awarding work to residents over a period of time until they can develop the work and contract management experience to, among other things, secure bonding necessary to compete for larger contracts.

The beauty of these objectives is that they can be implemented at both the urban and suburban levels. In this respect all parties benefit from the strategy during a time when many housing companies are not planning for the future but riding out the wave of present economic growth.


America's Homeownership Challenge. Retrieved June 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web: .

Hecht, B. Housing-Led Economic Development. Retrieved June 30, 2005 from the World Wide Web: [read more]

How Urban Sprawl Destroys the Environment Term Paper

… Environmental Science: Urban Sprawl

Urban Sprawl: "the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city..." Merriam-Webster Online

Rapid urban growth has had a negative affect on the environment - and when the environment is affected in a negative way, people, too, suffer the consequences. But before this paper covers the issue of specific problems associated with urban sprawl, a little history is appropriate, in terms of how our once beautiful, lush green planet has been altered by the expansion of the human race, and the carelessness of that expansion.

Before humans began to build houses, roads, villages and cities, and in fact before there very few humans at all, trees covered "two-fifths (40%) of the land" on the planet (Victor, et al., 2000). That was eight thousand years ago. Humans have grown by great numbers since then however, and have cut forests in massive quantities for warmth, cooking food, growing crops, building ships and frame houses, and producing paper. Of the original forestland, axes, fires and saws have whittled away half, and "some analysts warn that within decades, the remaining natural forests will disappear altogether."

And that is just one problem affecting the environment. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, and when huge areas of forests have been cut down, all that oxygen that was being produced is not longer there; also, trees taking in carbon dioxide are actually cleaning up the air, because carbon dioxide also carries along with it some pollutants from the air, and so in effect the trees act as "air cleaners" - except, of course, when they're gone.

And once the forests have been cleared away, and villages and towns are built, by the time they reach "city" status, without proper and visionary planning, the metropolis begins to create an ugly "sprawl" out into the countryside; and besides eating up good farm land, exerting pressure on existing water supplies and sewage facilities, taxing transportation systems, school districts and emergency response units, urban sprawl creates air and noise pollution which is harmful to the health of humans and animals.

An article in the journal Environment (Stoel, 1999) points out that "designated metro areas now account for 19% of our nation's vast land area"; that is well higher than the 9% of metro area forty years ago. Some cities are growing very fast; Washington D.C., for example, grew from 3.1 million residents in 1980 to 4.5 million in 1995 - an increase of 47% in fifteen years. Indeed, four out of five American citizens live in a "metro area," and in virtually every metro area, there is urban sprawl.

As to the negative affect of urban sprawl on humans, a study conducted by the federal government in 1998 showed that sitting in traffic on congested freeways cost the average commuter in Washington, D.C. about two full work weeks… [read more]

Sociology of California Department Term Paper

… Compact development has not been objected to in relation to traffic congestion (Gordon), because higher densities meant greater congestion.

Air quality was also questioned in connection with California's rapid growth in the 80s. But sprawl opponents maintained that air quality in California, particularly in Los Angeles, had been improving dramatically every year, even during peak growths in the 80s. Smog alerts were less recently than in 1977, according to them. They continue to suggest that more compact development could affect air quality only minimally because automobile trips are shortened and less frequent (Gordon). It will be emphasized that almost two-thirds of automobile pollution has to do with starting and stopping, the cold start and the hot soak.

It is quite a different thing now with the telecommunications revolution that allows jobs to be brought home or follow people where they live (Gordon), rather than people moving to where the jobs were in the past. Today, an increasing number of mobile households choose to live in high-amenity-low density settings and most of the job growth is in the rural areas. This appears to be the trend, although still quite a number are in the urban areas (Gordon).

California Business, Housing and Transportation Secretary Sunne McPeak urged for greater mobility and more sufficient workforce housing with the right environment in using smart growth (Metro Investment Report 2004). In an interview, he stressed the need to understand the role and position of schools as a key strategy in improving the neighborhood and that the objectives should be prosperous economy, quality environment and social equity. With $2.9 billion left from the 2000 Transportation and Congestion Relief Program to finance 141 road and transit projects in California, the Secretary said she and her department were still qualifying projects for restored funding when the economy improved. The criteria would be the number and kinds of jobs they could generate immediately and in the long run and how the projects would address the housing needs of an increasing population and its job needs after transportation improvement had been completed (Metro Investment Report).

The Secretary also said that some high-profile TCRP projects were then going through communities planning for housing deficits in 20 years, stressing that, while the Department would invest in public transportation, current land use practices should also be changed. If not, she said that all that spent public money would end up with less mobility. She pointed to the jobs-housing imbalance as the reason behind inefficient land use. She hoped that the $26 billion in school bonds on state and the local March 2 vote would move in ways to support quality schools and neighborhood, to become innovative in the "joint-use of facilities, which must be maximized or optimized (Metro Investment Report). She likewise urged for greater innovativeness in designing schools and the creative use of space in the neighborhood in rebuilding, improving and remodeling quality schools, realizing that these eventually become the centers of community activity and that would make them add very much… [read more]

Urban Sprawl Is a Problem Term Paper

… Moreover, in an effort to enhance their recruiting ability corporations build facilities in rural areas further encroaching on ecologically sensitive areas. However, this does not decrease commute time or miles. In fact, from 1983 to 1990 mean vehicle miles per household rose 29%.

As these jobs become available in suburban areas with free parking and attractive landscapes they become attractive to everyone rather than just those in the local community. Therefore, cross commuting becomes common and travel miles increase. Consequently, increased traffic leads to street and highway expansion and development furthering deforestation and encroachment on wildlife habitat. As urban conditions deteriorate more of its population moves out seeking better conditions. As a result service sector jobs move out of the city to suburban strip malls further increasing urban unemployment. The urban dwellers cannot afford to live in the suburbs, nor do they have the means to commute to the suburban jobs. The result is poverty concentation in the inner city.

The affluent suburban dwellers want to gain as much distance from this poverty concentration as possible further causing the povertization of cities. Author Anthony Downs of the Brookings Institute argues that as suburban population increases and support services move to suburbia the city will become obsolete . Many suburban areas no longer depend on their urban centers. They now have their own supermarkets, financial institutions, retailers. Some cities lost 25% of their jobs while their suburbs enjoyed a 5% increase between 1969 and 1986 . As these jobs are lost the urban dwellers fall into a greater state of poverty than already exists. Urban tax bases are decreased and there is decreased investment in schools. These factors increase the gap between classes.

Urban decline leads to increased stratification, crime and human suffering. The response of those living outside the city is that it is not their responsibility. However, suburban dwellers have a social responsibility towards the inner city. Suburbanites have an interest in decreasing the decline of urban areas because all Americans benefit from effectively functioning urban centers and the low wage workers living in them.

Functionalists would argue that the segregation of the poor from the affluent eliminates the ability to exploit low wage service industry labor. Thus, driving up prices for services such as housekeeping, lawn maintenance, and other functions served by the poor. Ultimately, it may be in the best interest of the middle and upper strata of society to ensure that poor urban dwellers have an adequate standard of living to prevent social disruption or in other words riots.

Another consequence of urban sprawl is a decrease in precipitation absorbing wetlands. As these wetlands are backfilled, developed, and paved there are fewer outlets for water absorption. The result can be costly and devastating floods. On the other hand, in developed deserts such as Las Vegas and Los Angeles water is stored in reservoirs behind dams to supply the population. The consequence to this is increased evaporation. In Arid areas such as these, even a 1% loss… [read more]

Hill People Page in 1997 Case Study

… And unlike the Park West site, the Ivanhoe site was home to an endangered bird.

We had to buy Ivanhoe," Plumner said, who had spent seven years trying to find a way for the city to do just this. "Ivanhoe… [read more]

Urbanization, Slum Formation and Land Reform: Papua New Guinea Research Paper

… 759). Despite regulating the inheritance, use, as well as occupancy of land, this same customary law is crafted in such a way that sale of land is not contemplated, specifically to those outside the kin group (Cooter, 1991). As a… [read more]

Discrimination in Housing Research Paper

… Discrimination in Housing

It is a violation of both state and federal law to discriminate in housing in Florida. The state law parallels federal laws, and both establish a group of protected classes, against whom it is illegal to discriminate… [read more]

Housing Discrimination in 1968 Case Study

… MHDC, the Supreme Court found that even though the result of a particular decision may end in discrimination against certain races, those who claim racial discrimination must prove that racial bias was the deciding factor and not just an unfortunate the result of the decision. (Arlington Heights v MHDC, 1977) Without more evidence proving racial bias, a claim of racial discrimination may be difficult to prove.

But, as stated before, Sally does have her own evidence. A secretary transferred her call to Mark Armstrong, proving that he did indeed speak to her, while a co-worker overheard her objecting to inappropriate questions. This is indeed powerful evidence, but records of Armstrong's renters, especially if they prove to be absent any minorities, could be the deciding factor in his guilt. With this in mind, Sally Gant could take her complaint to HUD, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and her dispute could be handled by an administrative judge. If so, the judge, if he or she finds discrimination has taken place, could assess a damages to Sally. These damages would include out of pocket expenses or losses, things like moving and storage expenses as well as any direct losses that may have occurred as a result of the discrimination. She could also receive compensatory damages for "humiliation, embarrassment, or emotional distress." (Barkley) Finally, if found to be in violation of the Fair Housing Act of 1968, Mark Armstrong, in addition to any damages awarded to Sally, could be fined up to $10,000, if this was his first violation, $25,000 for the second, and up to $50,000 if Armstrong had committed two or more violation in the past seven years.


Arlington heights v MHDC., 429 U.S. 252 (1977). Retrieved from

Barkley, Daniel. "Affordable Housing and Community Development Law."

American Bar Association. Retrieved from


Jones v Mayer Co,. 392 U.S. 409 (1968). Retrieved from

"Laws Against Housing Discrimination." The People's Law Library of Maryland.

Retrieved from

"The Fair Housing Act." United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from [read more]

Japanese Housing Market Term Paper

… Japanese Housing Market your purchase.Japanese housing market

The world is now facing the consequences of the internationalized economic crisis. The financial problems which emerged within the United States real estate sector impacted the international community at a dramatic level and… [read more]

Role and Process of Suburbanization Term Paper

… Thus there evolved 'contested areas' within the city and a host of issues like race relations, competitions and changes in the physical environment. While the population and its composition have an effect on the process of growth, the way the… [read more]

Europe and the U.S Discussion Chapter

… National Planning

Dynamics of National Planning

Urban planning is affected by cultural traditions as norms as are all other aspects of a nation. This might seem to be contradictory at first, for planning is a process that emphasizes the pragmatic: There are elements of good planning that supersede any cultural differences, like the need for good sanitation and establishing bulwarks against the depredations of natural disasters. However, even such seemingly obvious universals of planning are not in fact universal; nor are they void of cultural overlays. This paper examines the planning process in two different nations, the United States and the Netherlands.

These two countries are in many ways similar to each other: Both share traditions of Western liberal democracies and cultural tolerance. (Indeed, something that many Americans forget is that before the Pilgrims came to the New World, they stopped in the Netherlands first.) Both have literate, educated populations. Both have immigrant populations that challenge the ways in which both local and national governments determine who shall benefit the most from government policies. But the two nations also differ in important ways that affect the mechanisms and overall philosophy of urban planning.

The United States is certainly not without threats from natural disasters, as recent hurricanes have reminded us. Earthquakes and volcanoes also menace the nation, as do more mundane but potentially terrifying floods, wildfires, and storms. Moreover, of course, urban planning must address a wide range of other concerns, including how to renew downtown spaces and how to balance the move toward suburbanization with planning designed to meet the increasing costs of energy and so of commuting (Gavin, 2002, p. 48).

While there are national agencies in the United States that are tasked with overseeing broad policies in these areas (including FEMA, the… [read more]

Informal Organizations Term Paper

… Social Capital

Applying Concepts of Social Capital to a Real-World Situation: A Personal Managerial Case Study

Organization Overview

I recently held a managerial position at a commercial real estate firm working on many projects of different scale and potential profitability.… [read more]

Urbanization the Harris-Todaro Model of Rural-Urban Migration Essay

… Urbanization

The Harris-Todaro model of rural-urban migration explains the economic circumstances that result in migration from rural areas to urban areas. Essentially, the model argues that when a rural agricultural worker believes that he or she will earn more in an urban area than in his or her current rural situation, migration will occur. The urban earning in the model is reflected as expected urban wage while the rural earnings are reflected in the model as the marginal product of the rural worker. The model is based on the idea that rural-urban migrations are based strictly on rational economic decision-making.

In the past forty years, the model has become a fundamental tool for explaining rural-urban migration. Riadh (no date) argues that in many less-developed countries, the expectation of higher wages in cities results in an overmigration from rural areas. Many workers, when making this economic determination, do not consider the availability of work in the city. Thus, unemployment effects are not factored into the decision. This leads more workers to come to the city than there are available jobs, creating the Harris-Todaro Paradox of higher unemployment and lower GNP as a result.

In less-developed countries, there is a significant disparity between rural wages and urban ones, and this has led to rapid overcrowding of cities. For example in Indonesia during the 1970s and 1980s, the percentage of urban dwellers increased from 17% to 31% (U.S. Library of Congress, no date). One of the assumptions of the Harris-Todaro model is that rural areas offer full employment. It is interesting to note that in Indonesia this was not the case. The migration was more rapid in that country because the countryside lacked jobs entirely. The marginal product of any unemployment rural worker would naturally be lower than the expected wage in the city, and this caused an even more rapid rural-urban migration than Harris-Todaro would have predicted. This does not invalidate the model, it simply introduces a scenario where the marginal product of agricultural workers is at or near zero.

There are instances where Harris-Todaro does not hold. While rational economic considerations can explain part of the rapid urbanization of Kinshasa, many other migrants leave their rural lands simply to avoid armed conflict (Misilu, Nsokimieno, Chen & Zhang, 2010). While equally rational behavior, this type of rural-urban migration is not economic in nature, but does occur in a number of cities in the developing world. That the migrants typically remain in the city despite the challenges associated with rapid urbanization is perhaps more reflective of a typical Harris-Todaro scenario. Those individuals would not return to the countryside unless their expected marginal product is greater than their city wage.

In general, however, the rapid urbanization of major cities in the developing world reflects a Harris-Todaro scenario. In Malaysia, oil revenues have helped to spur urban development. This increased urban wages, drawing workers from the countryside. As the productivity of urban workers improved,… [read more]

Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas Research Proposal

… Economic and Geographical Restructuring of Small Business Enterprises in Urban Areas

Since the end of the Cold War, Europe has undergone a tremendous transformation. Where, a number of countries have begun to engage in different policies to reform their economies.… [read more]

Space New York City Use Term Paper

… 23





(In Millions of Rentable Square Feet)

% Monthly


Midtown Manhattan Retail




Midtown Manhattan South Retail




Downtown Manhattan Retail… [read more]

Right to the City, Social Justice Research Proposal

… Right to the City, Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, By: Don Mitchell

Mitchell, Don. The Right to the City, Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. Guildford Press, 2003.

Even -- or especially, in a privacy-obsessed society such as our own, public space is hotly contested, particularly in urban areas. The one principle individuals of a variety of political affiliations seem to believe is that public space can never be taken for granted, rather urban public areas are battle grounds of ideology as to what being a citizen means in a free society. This struggle is chronicled in The Right to the City, Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space through a series of case studies, including the early 20th century labor movement's demand that unions have the freedom to assemble, the Berkeley Free Speech Movement and the battle over People's Park; and the rise of anti-homeless legislation in the 1980s.

One aspect of this book that is very surprising is that despite the Constitutions' language about the right of the people to assemble, the right of organized political protest in public spaces has often been very fragile within the court system. The U.S. Supreme Court's 1939 landmark decision in Hague v. CIO, stated that the right to use public spaces, such as parks, must be subordinated to the needs of the "general order" (Mitchell 70). The case was seen as a landmark because it did not regulate activities to protect private property or order, but that of the public order (Mitchell 71). Thus the ability to freely assemble has never been absolute -- even today, in the case of the anti-abortion movement; protests may take the form of illegal actions that inhibit the rights of others. "Law is always enacted" argues Mitchell, who views protest as a performance of rights, specifically the right to public space, not simply an exercise of rights (Mitchell 28). However, the courts have more often denied the use of public space for such articulation of rights, which reinforces social inequities. The liberal Justice of the Supreme Court William Brennan bemoaned the fact that a corporation has access to the ears of millions through the electronic airwaves to sell soap, but a person who wished to get on a soapbox in public could have his or her rights more easily taken… [read more]

American City Research Proposal

… Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, author Don Mitchell presents a Marxist view of the city as a crucial public space. The encroachment of private ownership of public spaces has significantly restricted the "right to the city," a… [read more]

Tampa's Strategic Action Plan for the Redevelopment of the Channelside District Research Paper


The objective of this work is the conduction of a critical analysis of Tampa's strategic action plan for the redevelopment of the Channelside District. The status of… [read more]

Housing Production and Costs in North Virginia Term Paper

… Housing: Production and Costs Survey

Housing market three years ago the housing market overview looked quite positive in North Carolina in the early 2000. According to 2000 Census, home ownership reached approximately 69.4%, which was 3.2% above the national average.… [read more]

Rent vs. Own Housing Serves Term Paper

… An interesting finding is that for households with incomes above $150,000, a lower amount of households accounting to 86% own a home. Norman Hutchinson in his research claims that households headed by professionals, employers or managers are the most likely… [read more]

Urban Sprawl Term Paper

… There are also problems from the runoff from fertilizer on people's lawns, and the various pesticides that they also use to treat their lawns, gardens, and homes (Reid, 1996). All of these things run into the rivers, bays, and lakes,… [read more]

Office Market Analysis of Philadelphia Term Paper

… "In fact, it appears that builders seldom intentionally build offices for the Class B market or lower" (Archer & Smith 2003:142). According to the First Quarter 2004 Market Report for Philadelphia, "The flight to quality for class A direct space in the Southern New Jersey region has forced some companies to high-end flex buildings over the past eighteen months, illustrating the demand for mid-rise buildings and the strength of class A properties in the region" (2004:4). These trends are illustrated in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Overall Rental Rates vs. Vacancy Rates [Source: First Quarter 2004 Market Report].


The competitive demand for Class B office spaces is directly tied to the availability of space that was not intentionally constructed for this purpose. As a result, to the extent that new construction projects that are targeted to the Class A market provide new office space in the aggregate is the extent to which Class B office space will be available. In this supply-and-demand setting then, the more Class B office space that is available means that there will be less overall demand; however, off-setting this aspect of the "invisible hand" is the explosion in start-up enterprises that may well be suited to the segment of the Philadelphia population that has been historically marginalized to date; in other words, minorities and low-income families may view self-employment or a small business as a viable alternative to traditional employment patterns based on new opportunities available through improved telecommunications. Based on the foregoing analysis of the local economy, competitive supply, and competitive demand for office space in Philadelphia, the overall current and future market for Class B office space should actually grow in spite of the increasing supply of such space.

Works Cited

Adams, Carolyn, Bartelt, David and Ira Goldstein et al. Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Archer, Wayne R. And Marc T. Smith. (2003). Explaining Location Patterns of Suburban Offices. Real Estate Economics, 31(2):139.

Philadelphia, PA Office Market - First Quarter 2004. (2004). Cushman & Wakefield. Available: pdf.

Imbroscio, David L. (1995). Nontraditional Public Enterprise as a Local Economic Development Policy: Dimensions, Prospects, and Constraints. Policy Studies Journal, 23(2):218.

Robertson, Kent A. (1995). Downtown Redevelopment Strategies… [read more]

Globalization, Fostered by Free Flow Term Paper

… Dublin Corporation has embarked on a major regeneration project for a historic part of London called H.A.R.P. - Historic Area Regeneration Project. It covers a large part of the inner north city and includes the city markets area, major shopping centers, important public buildings, long established residential communities, areas of dereliction and many socially deprived areas.

Globalization does have it's benefits. Globalization has made better quality goods available to more people, in more places. For example, Motorola Inc. ought to be the undisputed ruler of the wireless world. The company was the first to mass-produce car phones. It also sits in the heart of the world's biggest market for them. But it has been humbled by Nokia Corp., a relatively small company from Finland that only a decade ago was more interested in bathroom tissue than mobile phones. Nokia's only weapons were better phones and better management. (Micklethwait, and Wooldridge, 2001)

There are those who consider that competition is bad for their people, and to those globalization is a disruptive force in their once solitary castle. There are those who recognize that success comes from the vehicle of competition, and therefore globalization is a positive force.


Bowring, Philip. Thinking at Cross-Purposes About Globalization., International Herald Tribune, 02-01-2001.

Godfrey, B.J. 1984. Inner-City Revitalization and Cultural Succession: The Evolution of San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury District. Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 46: 79-91.

1985. Ethnic Identities and Ethnic Enclaves: The Morphogenesis of San Francisco's Hispanic Barrio. Yearbook of the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers 11: 45-53.

Godfrey, Brian J., Urban development and redevelopment in San Francisco. (California). Vol. 86, The Geographical Review, 07-01-1997, pp 309(25).

Townsend, Alan R. Making a living in Europe: human geographies of economic change; Routledge London 1997

Hammonds, Keith H. Good News - It's a Small World., Fast Company, 05-01-2000, pp 90.

Micklethwait John, and Wooldridge, Adrian: (2003) A Future Perfect: The Challenge and Hidden Promise of Globalization. New York: Random House.

Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian, The globalization backlash., Foreign Policy, 09-01-2001, pp 16.

Wilson,… [read more]

Old, My Parents Term Paper

… "No comment," he said with a smile.

The connection between sprawl and crime is less clear-cut than it seems. Although there is unquestionably a link, it is not clear which is cause and which effect. In 1992, a survey of… [read more]

Social Capital Was Available Research Paper

… First, setting an artificially low (or high) price on an item that is not supported by market forces or prices in the area rarely ends well because it can influence the demand of a product to induce either shortages or gluts of property. Indeed, one person paying half of what their neighbor pays for the same accommodations is not going to end well. Second, one of the reasons it will not end well is because one of two things will happen. Either the more affluent people who can afford the whole prices will avoid the area or they will move in and gentrify the poorer people out of the area unless the price controls remain in place. Regardless of whether the price controls stick or not, toying with the market like that and not fixing the underlying problems (which is not the appearance of the area, to be clear) is a recipe for disaster.

• Can society be classified as "fit" based on Merton's definition? Why or why not? Justify your answer with real-life examples and scholarly reasoning.

I believe so, but only if "fit" means that equality of opportunity, not equality of outcomes, is the main goal. Success and fulfillment is going to mean a different thing for each person. Many people dream to have kids while many others would never think of it. Many want a big house in the suburbs while others would be happy with a condo in the city. Some want to live in NYC while others are happy in America's Heartland. What this means in terms of defining success and equality is that dollars alone can't be the definition because hobbies, choice of state/city of residence and so forth is all going to cost very different amounts of money and people should not be giftwrapped anything in the form of housing, etc. unless they are truly in need and they are not just finding a way to continue to leech off the largesse of others.


Adams, J.T. (1931). The epic of America. New York, NY: Blue Ribbon Books.

Merton, R.K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY:… [read more]

Social Activism the World Today Creative Writing

… The shelter would do well to contact them or a similar entity to help with Mr. Paladin's case. Indeed, he appears to be in dire need of counseling, conciliation, and education. It would be even better if Molly could attend… [read more]

Prediction of the Housing Value in Beverly Hills Los Angeles Term Paper

… Bev Hill Real Estate

Beverly Hills Real Estate: Reasons to Delay Investment in 90210

The recent global recession was felt especially severely in the United States, where the bursting of the real estate bubble not only served as a partial… [read more]

Battery Park City Essay

… Battery Park thus embodies many contradictions. On one hand, it is not a touristy area, nor are there many attractions or amenities even for residents. It is cut off geographically and in terms of its natural tempo from the rest of New York City. New York is famously the city that never sleeps, a city where it is possible to find something to do and something to eat every hour of the day. Battery Park feels like a showpiece. Architecturally, from the outside Battery Park seems like a reconstructed ideal of a 'perfect' New York, although it is not a real slice of New York life. According to Lopate, Battery Park is a facade of how New York should be rather than the real thing, a place with pretty parks and quaint buildings and little else to offer.

Ironically, despite the resistance to affordable housing, giving Battery Park a 'soul' might be created by expanding the demographics represented within its confines. However, while "the sadness of Battery Park is that it may never feel like part of the city," its "smugness is that it may not want to be" (Lopate 38). Battery Park was devastated by the 9/11 attacks but the collective experience of having to be evacuated and to deal with the toxic air and trauma did not create a more compassionate or tight-knit neighborhood.

Walking around Battery Park, it is difficult not to be impressed by its beauty. However, it is not an area that captivates the wanderer. If there is anything going on, it is going on inside -- inside the powerful buildings where financial deals are being arranged, or within the privacy of wealthy residents' homes. The apartments may indeed by confined, but little life spills out into the streets, and there are no public spaces that draw people to them. Even the parks, as lovely as they are, provoke quiet contemplation rather than engagement with others.

Works Cited

Lopate, Phillip. Waterfront. New York: Anchor, 2005.… [read more]

Urbanization and China Discussion Chapter

… China and Urbanization

What are the three main reasons urbanization was limited between 1949 and 1980 in China?

First, according to professor Kenneth a. Small of University of California at Irving, "During the Mao era, urbanization was often suppressed"; also, Small writes that in that era developing in the eastern coastal cities was discouraged for "military reasons" (Small, 2002, p. 3). A recent article in the Harvard Political Review (Huang, 2011) suggests that autocratic regimes like China are "more easily threatened" by huge masses of people in cities. The author also references a research document by Jeremy Wallace of Stanford University ("Cities and Stability: Urbanization and Non-Democratic Regime Survival") in which Wallace asserts, "urbanization hinders autocratic regime survival." The rationale behind that statement, Huang writes, is that when masses of people jam the cities they can "…more easily threaten autocratic regimes due to their proximity to seats of government" (p. 1).

Guoming Wen writes in the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation site that China's big concern is for "social stability" in the nation of 1.3 billion people. "Uncontrolled urbanization causes many farmers to flock to cities in a short period of time," Wen explains (Wen, 2007). Having rural people moving to the city so quickly "…not only imposes pressures on city infrastructures, but also causes potential social problems," Wen continues. In fact, if too many newly immigrated "city citizens" are not properly educated and "cannot find jobs, they may be more likely to commit suicide," Wen concludes; Wen adds that the "criminal who were immigrants account for over 50% of the total criminals in Shanghai, and 80% in Guangzhou."

Meanwhile, in R.J.R. Kirkby's book, Urbanization in China, the author explains that the most "common sense explanation" for China's "supposed anti-urbanism" in the post-1949 era "lies in the means to state power taken by the Chinese Communist Party" (Kirkby, 1985, p. 4). What he means by that is that the Chinese Communists are different than the Bolsheviks in the Soviet Union, who used the "industrial proletariat" for their revolution. In China, the communists owed their ascendancy to power to the "massed ranks of the peasantry," so it was "only natural" that the communists would show "a leaning" towards the rural China and its peasantry (Kirkby, p. 4). Mao himself hailed… [read more]

Economic Development Programs Discussion Chapter

… ECN Development

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD 2009) offers a series of programs intended to provide incentives to local government entities for promoting economic development. Those programs include the Renewal Community/Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Community (RC/EZ/EC) Initiative; the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), and the Rural Housing and Economic Development (RHED) Initiative. These specific programs are offered in addition to standard community development loans and congressional grants. Workforce initiatives offer another type of motivation for local government entities and help to improve quality of life, citizen empowerment, and regional prosperity.

The RC/EZ/EC Initiatives are available to "distressed urban and rural communities" throughout the United States (HUD 2009). Practical incentives include "a combination of innovative tax incentives, federal grants, and partnerships with government, for-profit and non-profit agencies," (HUD 2009). The BEDI helps to create what are known as "Brownfields," thorough renovations and renewals of "environmentally contaminated industrial and commercial sites," (HUD 2009). The RHED focuses on funding for non-profit organizations, which in turn help organize building, housing, and other development in a community. Economic development programs can also be situation-specific as with finding offered to communities affected by natural disasters.

One of the key roles of urban planners is to encourage economic development. In addition to taking advantage of HUD incentives, urban planners can also solicit funding from public and private sources. Community Development Block Grants are one avenue of economic development funding. However, urban planners also need to perform measurements that will determine need, as many funding incentives are need-dependent. An analysis of economic structure may be performed as a preliminary technique, and "can be determined through variables such as: analysis of output, employment and investment data," (World Bank Group… [read more]

Conception and Function of Public Essay

… The cultural and historical reflection of the city's role in global commerce, as depicted in the Maidan-I-Shah square, served two roles. Internally, the synthesis of cultural influences served to forge a collective urban identity of cosmopolitanism predicated upon the primacy of trade in the city's successes. Industrialization played a significant role in the creation of collective urban identity in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to the interconnectivity and centrality of economic production within urban limits (5). The transient nature of trade inflects the relationship between commercial activity and collective memory differently; the grandiose nature of Maidan-I-Shah square instructs the populace that their city is defined by their relevance in trade. This impels greater participation from those in the city and square in the trading taking place there -- further entrenching the primacy of a trade identity.

Boyer confirms the concept of public space as an embodiment of the ideals and idea of what a place represents: "…a wise leader…would architecturally embellish a capital city to visually demonstrate what the order and organization or a well-governed state or society should be (13)." Externally, the elaborate, ornate Square served to solidify Istfahan's role as a major, prospering economic and cultural hub in the world of global commerce. It created strong, memorable, and impressive visual reference for those entering the city for trade and delineated a specific geographic and spatial location as a center within a center, a hub within a hub. As the city was a vital link, geographically and perceptually, in the international commercial trade of the seventeenth century, the square was the place of prime importance in the city in these ways as well.

The juxtaposition of the highly ornamented facade of the two story arcade surrounding Isfahan's central square with the natural environment outside the city's confines and the long, sparsely populated trade routes caravans traveled at this time emphasized the concept of triumph and prosperity the square was intended to convey. Whereas in the post-industrial era, the intention was to reclaim beauty in a disjointed urban jungle, Isfahan rose out of the landscape as a grand gesture of man's triumph over nature. The architectural domination of the square was meant to evoke a sense of permanence -- to engender a collective memory that this grand bastion of civilization had no antecedent and faced no threat or danger (16). Looking at Isfahan through the lens of the post-modern, it is clear that the city square in Isfahan served to forge a physical collective identity while creating a public space that displayed, supported, and extended a historical canon which validated the wealth and importance of Isfahan and the Shah to the rest of the world.


Boyer, M.C. (1996). The… [read more]

Public Space: "The Living Room Research Paper

… Public Space: "The Living Room of the City"

The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). defines public space as "the living room of the city - the place where people come together to enjoy the city and each other." Modernity has… [read more]

Confined Living Quarters Thesis

… ¶ … Population Density

One striking image exists in my mind of population density on an international level: Amsterdam. Amsterdam is a highly populated city, yet it has become known as the world bicycling capital, rather than the world's capital of automotive congestion. It is a place noted for the willingness of people to sacrifice cars and personal comfort for the sake of their neighbors. The commonality of the culture of its citizens clearly facilitates the relative harmony they enjoy. So does widespread respect for the city's rules pertaining to civility -- visitors note that cyclists wait at red lights, even if no cars are coming.

But this level of respect for law and order is not the primary reason for the lack of strife: an even more important aspect of Amsterdam's low levels of conflict and high levels of population density is its relatively equitable standard of living -- social services provide cradle to grave protection for the poor, unemployed, elderly and young, and the highly progressive taxation rate ensures there are few disparities of wealth. The United States, in contrast, has been characterized by an increasingly seismic gap between the haves and the have-nots, which has only been growing. The rage that this has created across American society is evident in the anger over how many bankers have benefited from the bailout designed to help extricate the nation from the crisis the financial industry helped to orchestrate, while millions of homeowners face foreclosure. The gap between rich and poor is also very visible in America's congested cities, where wealthy districts are only blocks away from very poor areas.

It is difficult to find examples in the United States where there is little concern over financial status: perhaps the housing boom can partially be explained by the American desire to enjoy home ownership -- and utter privacy from one's neighbors. But although I do not enjoy the luxury of privacy, I am one of the… [read more]

China Housing Market Term Paper

… Additionally, the growth of the Chinese real estate sector has not been so much based on an increased access to loans, but more on a real demand for homes -- demand which still exists and which is expected to support the revival of the sector (Batson).

4. Conclusions

The modern day society faces one of the toughest economic challenges. Emerging from within the American real estate industry, the economic crisis soon affected not just the rest of the American sectors, but the entire globe. In terms of the real estate industry, this represented not only the source of the crisis, but also the most heavily impacted sector.

Before the crisis broke out, most international housing markets were registering exponential levels of growth. Within the United States and the western European countries, the growth was pegged to an increased access to loans. In China however, it was pegged to an increasing real demand for real estate properties. The authorities in the Asian country concomitantly fought to reduce the artificial increase of the sector. They reduced the sources of speculative purchases through increased property taxes as well as imposed restrictions on the foreigners' ability to own real estate properties within the state.

During the second half of 2007, the first signs of problems were obvious and the volume and value of the properties traded within the Chinese real estate sector significantly decreased. The government intervened promptly by offering incentives to housing trade, such as the reduction in the property taxes. Given a situation of a sustained demand and a reduced financial crisis affecting the Chinese banking sector, the third quarter of 2008 revealed slow growths in the activities of the real estate sector. 2009 reveals promising signs, once more proving the China's resilience in the face of global threats.


Batson, A., April 2, 2009, China Housing Market Shows Signs of Life, The Wall Street Journal

2007, China to Raise Downpayment for Second Homes: Sources, Latest News and the Property Market in Singapore, / last accessed on November 26, 2009

2007, European Real Estate in 2008: Spain and UK Deep into the Crisis / Eastern Europe near Housing Bubble Burst, Leap 2020,… [read more]

Chicago Politics Research Proposal

… Chicago Politics: Change for the Better Has Taken Place

"The central city is by far the dominant municipal jurisdiction within the [Chicago] region, and for most local officials across Cook and the five 'collar counties' beyond, the direct benefits of… [read more]

Inequality Is an Issue Term Paper

… In addition the postmodern city is not characterized by a single way of life, which makes it quite different from traditional cities. According to Brym postmodern cities contribute to inequality because they provide fewer and fewer public places available for… [read more]

Service Housing Essay

… Shelter for Life

Homelessness and affordable housing is a global problem. The social issues behind homelessness are complex and varied. In the United States, homelessness is most-often associated with unemployment, drug and alcohol abuse, affecting both large cities and smaller… [read more]

Arizona Over Use of Natural Resources and the Shortage of Waters Research Proposal

… Arizona Water Shortage

Arizona's Water Resources

Arizona citizens may face a crisis the size of the Sonoma Desert if water supplies into the Colorado River do not increase in the near future. Parched Arizona may be declared a drought area… [read more]

Student Housing Options and Campus Housing Choices Essay

… Student Housing Options & Campus Housing Choices in College

English Composition

College often provides students with their first opportunity to live independently, at least with respect to their families. In fact, many college students consider this one of the advantages of a residential campus. The list of housing options from which college students may choose includes living at home, renting a single apartment, living in a residential dormitory, living in a sorority or fraternity house, or renting an off-campus house with a group of friends. Each choice comes with various advantages and disadvantages that students must consider before making a choice.

Living at Home:

Living at home while commuting back and forth to school is certainly the cheapest housing option. For this reason, students living on a very tight budget, as well as those who have family responsibilities may consider this option preferable to others.

The obvious disadvantages of living at home include saving money and the ability to fulfill family responsibilities with which other forms of housing may conflict.

Living in a Dormitory:

Living in a dormitory is the most common housing option, especially among college freshmen because many colleges specifically prohibit freshmen from living off campus or in fraternities and sororities. The advantages of dormitory living include proximity to other students as well as the availability of pre-paid food plans in dormitory cafeterias. The disadvantages of dormitory living include the possibility of having to share a living quarters with strangers with whom one does not get along, as well as unwelcome disturbances such as loud music at times when one is studying or sleeping.

Renting a… [read more]

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