Study "Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays 111-165

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Memory and Place of Carlton With Relation to Melbourne Term Paper

… Memory and Place of Carlton With Relation to Melbourne

This focus of this study is Carlton, a suburb in Melbourne, Australia. It sits on the edge of the CBD, and has a strong role in tying the city together. The… [read more]

Life and Death of Great American Cities Term Paper

… ¶ … life and death of great American cities" by Jane Jacobs

Response Paper: Jane Jacobs' the Death and Life of Great American Cities

In an era such as our own, where even suburbs are becoming increasingly urbanized, the title of Jane Jacobs' the Death and Life of Great American Cities may seem curious. How are cities dying when fewer and fewer Americans live in rural areas? But upon deeper perusal of her work it becomes clear that the death that Jacobs is talking about is a cultural and spiritual death, the death of an American residential institution near and dear to her heart and life, not merely where people are relocating their lives and livelihoods in numerical terms.

Jacobs criticizes the rise of highly specified city 'neighborhoods' which have been to the detriment of a city's collective character. Instead of public squares, which encouraged the intermingling of different cultural and socioeconomic classes in past eras, the structure and modern economy of cities creates individualized, rather than blended communities. Cities should be characterized by small, short blocks, buildings should not be standardized, and rather than spread out like suburbs, the population of those blocks must be dense. Population density makes cities safer, as "intricate" and "unconscious" public controls and standards are often even more effective than policing (32). Shared community standards are often why neighborhoods of similar demographics very close to one another can have widely different crime rates. The kindness of strangers is one of the marvels of city life. But as people become more and more segregated, to neighborhoods, to enclosed areas, even to sidewalks while the streets are dominated by cars, people lose a sense of connection and ownership of an area and cease to care about their neighborhoods and neighbors.

Architecturally, old buildings should be saved, rather than struck down in the name of progress. Architectural diversity contributes to functionality of neighborhoods, creating multiple-user locations that encompass Chinese restaurants, clothing stores, and other things that people in the area really need as opposed to what urban planners tell them they need (198).…… [read more]

City of Quartz: Excavating the Future Term Paper

… ¶ … City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles" by Mike Davis and "Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir" by D.J. Waldie. Specifically, it compares the visions of suburban Southern California presented in the two works.

Is Southern California… [read more]

Domestic Architecture in Ancient Pompeii Term Paper

… Additionally, ceiling beams were also painted, gilded, or inlaid with ivory and the floors were paved in stone or fine mosaic. All historians have generally agreed on the ideology on the division of Pompeian mural painting into four styles based… [read more]

Pruitt-Igoe St. Louis Technology and Place Term Paper

… Pruitt-Igoe, St. Louis; 'Technology' & 'Place'

Pruitt-Igoe is the symbol of death of modern architecture.

The construction of Pruitt-Igoe was completed in 1956. It consisted of 33 buildings each of 11 stories set up on 57 acres. It comprises of… [read more]

Low Income Home Loans Term Paper

… A combination of factors can affect whether a borrower qualifies for a loan, and if so, at what interest rate. Many of these factors are class related.

While lenders should consider a borrower's income and assets, an overemphasis on these… [read more]

Philadelphia Office Market Analysis Downtown Term Paper

… This will affect thousands of employees and millions of square feet of prime office buildings. "Since 44% of Center City office employees live in Philadelphia's neighborhoods, the future of Center City business will have a direct economic impact on Philadelphia's neighborhoods." (Center City, 2003) From the perspective of the real estate market, the purchase of a new office space could flood an already tenant friendly market.

Competitive Demand -What is the demand for office space, both now and in the near future?

Not only is the market likely to be flooded with open office spaces, thus driving down rents, but also as the region has grown and spread out, Philadelphia's role as the dominant force in the regional economy has slipped. Philadelphia's share of the eight-county regional population has shrunk from 46% in 1960 to 30% in 2000. During those 40 years, Philadelphia's population shrank by over 480,000 people (almost a quarter of its population) while the rest of the region grew by almost 1.2 million.

The city's employment share has shrunk also. From 1991 to 2000, private sector employment in the city was essentially flat, while jobs in the region grew by almost 14%. The result: The city's share of employment fell from 31% in 1991 to 27% in 2000. (Intergovernmental Relations, 2003) recent study by the Brookings Institution showed that, of the nine major cities that were being compared, Philadelphia ranked seventh in the share of office space in its region in its Central Business District. The study found that more and more commercial office space for the area is being built in the suburbs. (Intergovernmental Relations, 2003) Although this might at first seem like a positive, driving down competition in the CBD, combined with the fact that so many rental property leases for office space in the area will be terminating their duration in the coming months and years, a decline in demand combined with a flood in supply does not bode well for the purchase of the proposed real estate property.

Conclusion - Based on your understanding of the local economy, competitive supply, and competitive demand, what is the overall current and future market for Class B and Class A office space in Philadelphia?

Thus, it would not be a strong recommendation to purchase office space in the CBD of Philadelphia. An alternative recommendation, however might be the purchase or investment in hotel property. "Tourism is sustaining Philly's hotel sector until corporate travel rebounds, noted one industry insider." "Tourism is a steady growth area," for the district, and as the economy improves, corporate travel will grow as well. (Walsh & Brickley, 2003)

Works Cited

Central City Proprietor's Association (CCPA). 2004. Official Website.

Issues: Philadelphia 2003. "Central City." 2003.;jsessionid=5BDE0AE39622D8AA8A7E64D63FBC750A

Issues: Philadelphia 2003. "Intergovernmental Relations." 2003.

Sinderman, Martin. "Philadelphia." August 1, 1996. National Real Estate Investor.

Walsh, Thomas & Brickley, Peg. "Philadelphia Story: Betting on a better downtown." National Real Estate Investor. January 1, 2003.… [read more]

Low Income Housing Credit Term Paper

… " ("Affordable Housing Needs Boost")

Another pressure on America's poorest housing seekers was the enactment of the 1998 Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act. (Anderson) The act mandates that a minimum of 40% of newly available public housing units be rented out to families with incomes less than 30% of the regions' median income. While the rest of the newly vacant units are to be reserved for families in the middle income range -- instead of for those that are in the lowest income brackets. (Anderson) These rules created by the law create yet another dilemma for low income households that cannot afford the rent of regular housing. It is believed that in New York City that between 10,000 and 16,000 public housing units for low income tenants will be lost by the year 2010.(Anderson)


The purpose of this discussion was to define the Low Income Housing Credit and to determine the advantages and disadvantages associated with the program. Our investigation found that the program is very complex and presents many hurdles for investors and tenants. We also found that there is a shortage of low income housing available in the United States and that this shortage may have a profound effect on children that live in low-income households.


About the Low Income Housing Credit."

Affordable Housing Needs Boost." Real Estate Weekly. January 10,2001.

Anderson, George. "Housing and Low Income Americans." America. July 29,2000.

Low Income Housing Credit." Published by the Internal Revenue Service. Number 89018M

Chris Kelleher "MDP Update: Recession, MDPs, and the CPA. The CPA Journal… [read more]

Florida's Homeless Introduction and Demographics Term Paper

… Resources

The last decade has brought homelessness to the forefront of social issues, and coalitions have been working toward getting more and more governmental support. As a result, several efforts have been made on federal, state and local levels to… [read more]

Cross-Cutting Issues Regarding Slum Upgrading Research Proposal

… There is also need to eliminate the various restrictive factors that Housing microfinance the state of the practice cites as being responsible for limiting the uptake of mortgage finance amongst the low income bracket. Some of the factors cited fall under institutional and structural challenges.

Housing Reconstruction after Disaster: Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka was one of the countries worst hit by the 2004 tsunami that also devastated countries such as Thailand and Indonesia. According to scaling-up people-centered reconstruction (p. 77), the Owner Driven Programme (ODP), one of the two components of Sri Lanka's post-tsunami reconstruction, "has been successful in reaching large numbers of the affected, and was less time consuming, incurred lower cost per house…. provided higher beneficiary satisfaction and a higher sense of ownership by beneficiaries."

Essentially, Sri Lanka has faired quite well with regard to the reconstruction of housing -- an occurrence attributed to the ODP adoption. The program, however, had its own set of unique challenges. For instance, there was the problem of inadequate cash grants, where beneficiaries found the grants provided inadequate. Such, alongside the undertaking's successes, could be used as learning points in seeking to design similar programs. Lessons learnt in this case have practical application outside of the post-disaster realm. Solutions could be remodeled to help rein in the housing challenge in urban settings.

Slum Upgrading

Slum upgrading has got to do with the improvement of slums. Its benefits are immense. In addition to promoting inclusion, slum upgrading also enhances and promotes economic development (Cities Alliance, 2014). Further, it seeks to ensure that the urban poor are provided with shelter and can advance security of tenure to communities (Moser and Dani). It is important to note that slum upgrading is also less costly than relocation of slum dwellers. Indeed, as Cities Alliance (2014) points out, it costs much less than "relocation to public housing" -- a fact that those involved in policy formulation ought not to miss. However, to be effective, slum upgrading should be conducted in a systematic and well-planned manner. Cities Alliance recommends that the said upgrading be connected to other goals, objectives, or initiatives. There is also need to be aware of the challenges that could be encountered beforehand, so that measures can be taken to mitigate against such challenges.


Cities Alliance. (2014). About Slum Upgrading. Retrieved from

Moser, C.O. & Dani, A.A. (Eds.). (2008). Assets. Livelihoods and Social Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

1. Housing finance and financial inclusion

2. Housing microfinance the state of the…… [read more]

Human Services Case Term Paper

… If the client does not qualify for Medicaid she will have to seek coverage for her children through the Children Health Insurance Program.

7. Once the client has been able to apply for the above services it will be important to follow up with her regarding why the father(s) of her children are not involved in their care and upbringing. Counseling and guidance will be provided to help her to contact the Friend of the Court, locate the father(s) of her children, and to take the appropriate steps to get them involved in the financial support of the children.

8. The client stated she wished to eventually find employment but she could not afford day care. There are a couple of alternatives that she can investigate. The client can investigate potential affordable day care providers via the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services ( Care/default.asp). Other potential day care options can be also be explored in this context.

9. In line with the above recommendation, a future goal of the client will be to have her receive training in a career that can help her become independent in caring for herself and for her family. Counseling to help the client work toward permanent, full-time employment by evaluating the client's job skills and job history should be implemented. It will be important to also work with client to help her make connections with job training programs. This will require linking her to career counseling services, assisting her in locating permanent, full time job training and employment opportunities. It will also be important to help her to gain budgeting skills, credit counseling, and money management training. Thus, once she has been settled into a longer-term residence and has support and sufficient resources it will be important to begin to consider her future and provide her with vocational/career counseling in order to help her determine the most appropriate career course of action for her in the future and to provide her with training to be self sufficient.

10. Set up regular follow-up visits with the client to keep track on her progress and to provide support and guidance…… [read more]

Radial Lakes or a Repetitive Essay

… In terms of competence, I found that both bids were satisfactory on the competence issue. They both seemed to understand the concept and were able to execute a quality design. If there was a difference here, it is that Malone dedicated a lot of space to the hospital but none to police, a taxi stand or a hotel. To me, these were oversights because there are things that every town should have in order to enhance the quality of life. While the edge in competence would therefore go to DellaForma, I do not think competence was a major deciding factor.

Commitment is another critical success factor. Planning is one thing, but control is also important. This is India -- bringing things on time, on budget and to spec is not exactly an easy task. Both bids were roughly equal in this respect, providing us with pro-formas that can be used as part of the financial controls for the project. I also felt that the priorities of our organization were interpreted differently by the two companies, but not in a way that separated them in terms of quality.

Lastly, communication is a critical success factor, especially as we are based in Calcutta, and this remoteness is something that has concerned us from the outset of the project. We feel comfortable with both of these groups in terms for their communication responsiveness. This is actually a mandatory trait for us -- we would not award a contract to any company that we felt was not strong in terms of its communication. We need to know that if things start to go wrong that not only are their controls, but that there will also be transparency about this. This was not a deciding factor between the two companies. Ultimately, it was the comprehension that made the difference, and we feel that the DellaForma proposal of the grid system better encapsulates our vision for the project.


Toor, S-u.R. & Ogunlana, S.O. (2008) 'Critical COMs of success in large-scale construction projects: evidence from Thailand construction industry', International Journal of Project Management,…… [read more]

Local Economic Development Initiatives Term Paper

… (Blignaut, 2011) It has also been contended, particularly by European and Asian proponents of Infrastructure-founded development that methodical, long-term government investments in things such as housing, transportation, education and healthcare are essential to in making sure sustainable financial growth in… [read more]

Red Hook Brooklyn Community Assessment Research Paper

… Community Assessment, part 1-

Red Hook Brooklyn

Red Hook is a neighborhood in south Brooklyn, NY that rests along an industrial waterfront. The region is predominately poor and mostly African-Americans reside in this area. The movie on the Waterfront was… [read more]

Homelessness Intervention Social Work Universally Term Paper

… The four components appear to be critical for the ability of the program to achieve its stated objective: Stable employment for formerly homeless people. Three of the four components differentiate highly successful job training programs from less successful job training… [read more]

Post Office Square Park Case Term Paper

… The revenues derived from the project for the city would be substantial, and public opinion began to turn against the initial park. What was the value of a purely aesthetic park and a rather moderate office structure, as proposed by the Friends of the Post Office Square, versus the more lucrative venture of Claremont? The city of Boston was 'hurting' and desperately needed revenue. Also, many Bostonians desperately needed affordable housing, which the Claremont Development could theoretically make more of a feasible reality, given the provision of linkage payments derived from the more financially sustainable office complex.

Supporters of Claremont noted that the proposal would still allow for a park structure to be created, albeit not as large as the original Friends proposal. In Europe, many parks existed which were designed to be very aesthetically pleasing, even though they were tucked away into a relatively small enclosure. Moreover, it was not as if the district in which the park would be located was undeveloped -- the question was how much land in a highly congested area of Boston should be devoted to open space, versus developing a large and pristine area of territory. And Boston already had many large public parks. In fact, some people said that having a larger structure to shield the sight of some of the uglier and more industrial buildings of the area might be desirable, versus a more open park and an underground garage.

The divide between 'the people' of Boston and 'the developers' was not as clear-cut as might have initially been suggested by the facts. There were many competing financial interests, not only those of the developers who wished to use the park for their own and the city's needs. Furthermore, the needs of the city had to be taken into consideration, both the financial needs of the shrinking coffers of Boston and also the financial services demanded of the city's overtaxed residents. But it was unclear which proposal would ultimately generate more revenue, in the long run -- that of Claremont or that of the Friends proposal. The revenue derived from both proposals -- both the parking lot and the office building -- would depend upon market conditions. Ultimately, the Friends proposal was selected, not because of the financial revenue that could be obtained through taxation, but a general sense that Claremont was more of an unknown quantity as a developer by the newly-elected mayoral administration. This indicates how emotion just as much as hard facts and financial data can result in a particular decision taking place within the confines of a city. Ultimately, in retrospect, the untaken Claremont proposal seems more of a 'win-win' of aesthetics and revenue for the city, and offers the ability to add jobs as well as provide more beauty and parking to the area.


Scott, Esther. (1993). Post Office Square Park. Case Study: Kennedy School of Government.… [read more]

Jane Jacobs Asserts That Art Essay

… Jane Jacobs asserts that art is an important component in structuring a city. How can art be incorporated? In various ways. Rather than straight girds, for instance, the city can be defined by winding streets mingled with streets that have dead ends, or by streets that seem to seemingly meander on forever.

Highlights can be another aspect -- some prominent focal points of the city that people are drawn to look at and that stand in key places.

Unifying aspects can also be used, where similar categories are grouped together thereby according a harmonious look. All of this lends interest and an aesthetic twinge to the dullest of cities and it is this way that art can be incorporated into city design.

As a point of example, Chicago, my chosen city, exemplifies Jacob's point perfectly. The streets are of all proportions with some long streets neighboring and intercepting of aborted ones.

Great care has gone into the architecture, specifically in order to inject some sort of art into an urban location. Highlights are grouped in focal points along the lake: Wrigley's stadium, the Fountain, the Art Museum, the Museum of Science and Technology, and all of Chicago's fascinating museums in their outstanding architecture grouped in specific spots close to or not far from the meandering lake. Interesting enough, its most famous university, North Western is too bestriding the lake, whilst the University of Chicago is close by. This may represent Jacob's third point of a unifying node where the Lake serves as hub of harmonization and integration.

Furthermore, Chicago is a city of contrast. Split into disparate ethnic parts such as China Town, a section characterized by Russians, one by Italians, another Jewish and so forth, the whole is yet united by its distinctive urban sprawl and carefully demarcated streets where deliberateness and apparent accident go into forming an integrated whole. A city per excellence, one yet receives an aesthetic tingle from one's visit to Chicago due to the fact that the design of the city has utilized the characteristics mentioned by Jacob into formulating its structure.

Rem Koolhaas paints the opposite picture in a poetic depiction of what he calls 'Junkspace'. Junkspace is the portrayal of a cacophonous, chaotic mess of nonsense shapes and haphazard urban design squeezed in and loaded onto each other, formless, and ill- or utterly undefined with different cultures and periods of history throttling one another and almost squeezing the other out of existence. Junkspace is the reverse of Jacob's picture of design and order. Here, there is no deliberate plan rather we have the post modernistic vision of urban society per excellence where cacophony…… [read more]

Land Pricing Case Study

… Land Pricing in the Buckingham Place Deal


Max Price by Site Use Type, per acre:

Big Box: $19/sf/year in income ($20/sf for occupied space less the stabilized vacancy rate of 5% yields a $19/sf average)

To achieve the target… [read more]

Hines Goes to Rio Case Study

… ¶ … Brazil that Steven Dolman, vice president of Hines, is determined to complete on time but that is sadly running into numerous operational difficulties. The Torre Almirante office tower in Rio de Janeiro was a 36-story, Class AA office… [read more]

RFP -- Saddle Creek Hoa Business Proposal

… An independently owned accounting firm shall conduct the annual financial audit of the property management services company, on behalf of the homeowners' association. The Executive Vice President of the property management firm shall meet with the auditors to review the… [read more]

Real Estate Development Case Study

… Real Estate Development

In every real estate development project regardless of the location the government is a necessary partner. The following is a description of a project that is being built in a prosperous close in a suburban village near a large population center. Tell me in outline form: 1. The various government requirements that the developer will encounter and 2. What must the developer do to satisfy those requirements?

The various government requirements for the developer will depend upon: the city and state that the properties are located. This is because each community; will have different regulations that will apply to: the activities of the developer and what they are allowed to do under the law. The below outline will detail some of the challenges the developer will encounter and what must steps must be taken to satisfy these requirements. (Kemp, 2003, pp. 89 -- 103)

Requirements the Developer will Encounter

Urban renewal regulations -- These require that certain historical aspects of the community must be in place at all times (such as: the maintaining a certain width and style of the street).

The disposal of hazardous material -- This means that the company will have to account for how the will remove materials that were used in some of the old building such as: asbestos.

Zoning -- Since residential homes are being demolished and retail space is going to be developed, means that there could be different zoning issues that will have to be addressed. (Kemp, 2003, pp. 89 -- 103)

Satisfying these Different Requirements

Urban renewal regulations -- To satisfy these different regulations all of the precise specifications must be addressed. This will take place during the planning and construction phases.

Disposal of hazardous material - The disposal of hazardous material will require making certain that protective suits are used. At the same time, all waste must be sent to locations that can safely dispose of these substances.

Zoning -- This will require the developer obtaining the proper approval from: the local government (before beginning any kind of construction). (Kemp, 2003, pp. 89 -- 103)

How does the political world impact development? How do developers and development impact politicians?

The way that politics is having an impact upon development is based upon:…… [read more]

Williamsburg Gentrification and Commercialization in Williamsburg, Brooklyn Term Paper

… Williamsburg

Gentrification and Commercialization in Williamsburg, Brooklyn: An Analysis of Bedford Ave. Between 3rd and 4th Streets

Gentrification is often seen as a good thing for many communities, as it means (pretty much by definition) increased property values, higher income… [read more]

Home Building Proposal Befficiency, Safety Essay

… The plan above also integrates green features from the beginning instead of adding these energy-efficient elements after the home has already been constructed.

Remember, high water-heating bill might not be just due to the price of gas or electricity, or… [read more]

Cultural Diversity in Homeownership Term Paper

… "

Summary and Conclusion

This work has clearly demonstrated that there is much disparity in homeownership rates between white and ethnic minority households. While there have been legislative and regulatory acts geared toward reducing these disparities it is clear that the disparity in homeownership rates for minority households persists. Predatory lending practices have served to further and deepen these disparities with the subprime crisis highlighting the treatment received by minorities when seeking financing for their purchase of a home. It is not clear what actions should or will be taken to address these problems. In fact, the only thing that is sure at this point in time is that many minority households are losing their homes to foreclosure and in many cases their equity has been stripped and this is representative of a loss of their life savings along with the loss of their home.


Bostic, Raphael W. And Surette, Brian J. (2000) Have the Doors Opened Wider? Trends in Homeownership Rates by Race and Income. Federal Reserve. Retrieved from:

Correa, Vanesa Estrada (2009) Foreclosure Affect Minorities Disproportionately, Report Shows. 15 Oct 2009. University of California, Riverside. Retrieved from:

Coulson, N. Edward and Dalton, Maurice (nd) Temporal and Ethnic Decompositions of Homeownership Rates: Synthetic Cohorts Across Five Censuses" Penn State University Research Study. Retrieved from:

Nier, Charles Lewis III (2010) Race, Racism and the Law: Speaking Truth to Power!! Dayton Edu. 10 Dec 2010. Retrieved from:

Ray, Charles (nd) Homeownership Rates by Race in Today's America. Helium. Retrieved from:

Williams, Latonia (2004) African-American Homeownership and the Dream Deferred: A Disparate Impact Argument Against the Use of Credit Scores in Homeownership Insurance Underwriting. Insurance Journal. Retrieved from:

Wright, Kai (2009) The Assault on the Black Middle Class. The American Prospect. 4 Aug 2009. Retrieved from:… [read more]

Daily Journey Commuting to School Term Paper

… The sidewalk is uneven in some places broken, but comparatively to many other parts of New York, the subway is great.

Some of the things that changed daily were the people whom I passed and the cars on the street. On one day the streets were not busy, however the rest of the days there was heavy vehicular traffic. I passed a lot of college students around the subway station, however during the walk home I passed a mixed blend of people, business people walking home or their offices, nannies and moms walking with little children and employees in the neighborhoods. On the freezing cold days there were fewer children on the street, and no elderly people. One day during my walk it was raining so almost everyone had an umbrella. I did not see anyone that I recognized daily except the street vendors. I did see many people on their cell phones, except on the day it was raining. On the rainy day, there was a gentleman selling umbrella at the subway station. My cell phone signal did not really change during my walk home.

The most surprising thing I noticed during my walk was at the Hunter College campus, there were many people outside smoking daily. Even on the rainy day, there were several students outside smoking, both males and females. This was a surprising fact, there is an abundance of information available about the dangers of smoking and yet college students are smoking to this extent.

I noticed that right after 5pm many of the doormen in the building I passed were leaving their post. I guess it was a dinner break at 5pm. There were three door men that worked on the same block that met up everyday right after 5pm, except on the…… [read more]

Credit Crunch on UK Residential Property Dissertation

… ¶ … credit crunch on UK Residential property: Is there an opportunity for the buy-To- let?

The effect of the credit crunch on UK residential property: Is there an opportunity for the buy-to-let?

The economic crisis which emerged within the… [read more]

Financial Concepts Used to Execute the Obligations and Expenditures Related to Hurricane Katrina Term Paper

… Financial Concepts Used to Execute the Obligations and Expenditures Related to Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina, one of the biggest disasters that America has faced till date due to natural causes, also turned out to be one of the costliest ones… [read more]

Soaring Chinese House Prices Increase Fears of Property Bubble Research Paper

… Soaring Chinese House Prices Increase Fears of Property Bubble

The current economic recession has underscored a trend that is occurring in China. Where, they are keeping their currency artificially low against all the other major currencies, resulting in a trade… [read more]

How and Why Did American Cities Grow so Dramatically in the Late 19th Century Essay

… Growth of American Cities in the 19th Century:

In the 19th century, the United States experienced an era of speedy urbanization. American cities were subjected to a massive change due to the industrial revolution and the nation's change in status. During this period, the United States also changed from a small agricultural country to a key commercial and industrial power (Excalibur par, 1). With most American cities functioning as cities at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a very small percentage of the population was urban. For thousands of years, it took almost the total population to grow enough food to feed everyone. Like any other society, the growth of American cities depended greatly on the efficiency of agriculture.

It's important to note that the early United States was mainly rural with the Southern part almost completely rural ("Urbanization of America" par, 1). In fact, the number of Americans living in the rural areas exceeded the number in cities until 1920 and in the 1990s; three of four Americans lived in urban settings. The most fashionable place to live in until mid 19th century was the center of the city. In the back alleys and courtyards of the central city poor people lived while merchants, manufacturers and lawyers built townhouses within walking distances of their workplace. On the other hand, middle class people lived a little farther from the center with other poor people living in the suburbs far from urban amenities. During this period, cities were densely populated because people lived within walking distances of work and streets were narrow enough to accommodate pedestrians and wagons.

Urban life was soon transformed by the industrial revolution of the 19th century which gave people high expectations of improving their standards of life. Many Americans began to migrate to cities due to the increase in number of jobs, technological advancements in transportation and construction of houses. City boundaries also expanded as a result of the development of railroads, streetcars and trolleys.…… [read more]

Will Obama's Housing Plan Work Essay

… Ethics and Morality: Obama's Housing Plan

President Barack Obama won the presidential campaign in November 2008, on a platform of "change" in terms of how Washington D.C. politicians and bureaucrats conduct business. Now that he is in the White House,… [read more]

Inequality in Condo Advertising the Research Theme Essay

… Inequality in Condo Advertising

The research theme for this paper is two-fold: it considers inequality as a social phenomenon, and secondly how this relates to Condo advertising in newspapers. Inequality is an extremely important research issue in today's sociological environment,… [read more]

Cal Housing Market the Southern California Essay

… ¶ … Cal Housing Market

The Southern California housing market is mired in a prolonged slump. The average house price in Southern California declined 27% in May 2008 versus May 2007. Some experts believe that the prices will decline even… [read more]

Disparities in Socioeconomic Outcomes of Wealth Term Paper

… Disparities in Socioeconomic Outcomes of Wealth and Social Policies and Other Solutions Aimed at Black/White Wealth Inequality

Differences in the patterns of savings, wealth accumulation, home ownership, and other disparities between races have been demonstrated to exist in previous studies.… [read more]

Problems Facing Harris County Term Paper

… Harris County Housing Department Issues

One of the most consistently pressing issues facing the local government's of Houston and Harris County respectively is that of housing. Houston has been one of America's fastest growing urban centers in the last two decades, rendered thus by its appeal to corporate investment and its many accessible, low-wage neighborhoods. Recent challenges in the population landscape relating both to the continual influx of Mexican immigrant laborers and, more recently, the deluge of impoverished peoples feeling post-Katrina conditions in New Orleans. Given that so many of the individuals arriving to the Houston metropolitan area are in need of assistance, it has fallen significantly upon the Harris County Housing Department to actively pursue ways to integrate a wide array of new arrivals.

Of course, any failure to properly absorb such troubled populations as those arriving from south of the Mexican border or from New Orleans could negatively stimulate higher incidences of crime, resource shortfall and gang activity. This is already quite well evidence by the dire situation in housing which is part and parcel of the Hurricane Katrina migration. Those who relocated following the devastating 2005 hurricane and flooding have largely done so on the basis of pubic assistance. Indeed, "more than 30,000 evacuee families in Houston still live in government-subsidized housing, and a Zogby International survey sponsored by the city found three-fourths of the adults receiving housing help were not working." (Bustillo, 1) This points to a serious problem facing the Housing Department, which must find ways to balance its responsibilities to the public with the need to stretch scarce resources. Though federal assistance has taken part in footing the bill, much of this aid has by now or will soon expire. With that, many non-working transplants will occupy public housing to no prospect of economic improvement.

This speaks to the demand placed upon the Housing Department to act more closely in concordance with local employment groups and agencies to help place such transplants…… [read more]

Peasants in the Big City Robert Term Paper

… Peasants in the Big City

Robert and I have made the harrowing decision to move to London. We hated to leave our old home, but we knew that we would never be able to raise our children properly with things the way they were in the country, so here we are. We share a home with Robert's brothers, and while I love them like the family they are, I hate the lack of privacy and space that make up our lives now. Indeed, there is nowhere I can go to escape for even a second's peace, and I miss the quite and peacefulness of the countryside we left behind. Here in London it's dark, dirty, and exceedingly noisy. There are the noises of the machinery in the factories that continue on from dusk 'til dawn. There is the noise and soot from the trains that run just a few meters from our home, and then, there is the dark, sooty air that seems to permeate London and every building in the city. It always seems to be raining soot and dirt, and it is impossible to keep anything clean in this city. I certainly miss the quiet of the countryside, and the sounds I took for granted there, like the chirping of…… [read more]

Purchase of Real Estate by Judicial Sale in Germany Term Paper

… Purchase of Real Estate by Judicial Sale in Germany

Real estate is the one most frequently mentioned areas of law that has the greatest divergence between jurisdictions today. For example, under Germany's Civil Code, certain aspects of real estate are… [read more]

Vulnerability of the Chicago Water Supply and Other Great Lakes Cities Term Paper

… Terrorism

As a result of the terrorist attacks that occurred in September 2001 and subsequent attacks that have occurred in regions throughout the world, an emphasis has been placed on the types of terror attacks that could occur in the… [read more]

My Ideal Community Term Paper

… ¶ … Utopia

Thomas More may have been one of the first people to envision a Utopian society in the 16th century. He wrote of a city that eliminated both poverty and exploitation based on employment for all (Porter, 2003),… [read more]

Homelessness Term Paper

… The average age of he people was about 18 to 64. More than 39% of the people were found to be suffering from schizophrenia, and about 42% were suffering from affective disorders like depression. 58% had a serious problem of… [read more]

Muenster Pump Company, Purchasing Manager Term Paper

… If Terri decides that price is the most important consideration, and decides to press for outsourcing of housings, it would be to her advantage to address some of Ned's concerns. Concern over housing quality and the speed of filling orders could likely be addressed relatively easily. Ensuring top quality from outsourced parts and quick availability may result in increased price. However, given the fact that outsourced housings were originally priced at less than half of the in-house housings, it is likely that even with assurances of top quality and quick availability, outsourced parts will remain more cost-effective than in-house parts.

Assuming that Terri can alleviate Ned's concern over quality and availability, and retain a cost advantage to outsourced parts she faces Ned's ethical objections to putting the 16 foundry workers out of work. One solution would be to attempt to find other employment for the men, even though Ned's original assertion was that this was not possible. Another solution would be to keep one person on to ensure the quality of the outsourced housings, and act as a liaison to the other foundries. However, the other 16 employees would need to be laid off. At first glance, there is no easy solution to Ned's ethical concern about firing the 16 employees.

Another solution would be to attempt to decrease the cost of L-1023 housings produced in house. While materials and labor seem relatively in line (at $60 per housing), the cost of overhead in-house is an astronomical at $120 per housing. A reduction in depreciation, taxes, and executive salaries would play an important role in reducing this overhead. The remainder of the overhead could also potentially be reduced, as could material and labor costs in house. This solution would have the advantage of addressing Ned's ethical concern over firing the 16 employees, and also address his concerns over product quality and availability. In addition, this solution would greatly reduce the cost of in-house production. In short, reducing the cost of in-house housings is likely the best overall…… [read more]

College Grades Accurately Term Paper

… Not only I have been involved with the management of several large real estate deals, but also I have been a key members in several important decisions and discussions with real estate executives, county and state management, and attorneys in planning out the sales of several large lands and estates in Brooklyn and other nearby areas.

My experience in Queens real estate agency and Brooklyn has been unique.

This experience has shown me the power of analytical thinking and descriptive language. In addition, this experience has been critical in understanding the effect of market growth, attractiveness of the locations, and interest rate on mortgage, which bears directly on the real estate transactions. This knowledge has been important for my securing large real estate deals and meeting the business and residential needs of community and customers. During the execution of these real estate deals, I have come to believe that knowledge, integrity, consistency of purpose, accountability, and responsibilities form the very basics of the leadership. My interdisciplinary knowledge, along with values of integrity, accountability, responsibility, and purpose, has provided me with a strong foundation to carry out leadership roles in performing my work.

3. My main responsibilities in real estate include processing real estate transactions, communicating with office clientele, attorneys, mortgage companies, banks, and insurance companies, assisting office clients in signing and closing of real estate contracts, and handling official correspondence. I am also responsible for training new employees and providing financial reports to my employer about the department's operation. In addition, I make decisions on several criteria: work policies, variety of mortgage programs, and clients' feedbacks, about the dealings of my company with different mortgage companies.

4. I am sure that my present professional experiences will prove extremely valuable in achieving my goals. I am applying for an MBA to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the commercial aspects of real estate business, develop acute marketing and finance skills, and refine my management abilities. After comparing the curriculums of several schools, I find that your school's curriculum specifically addresses and focuses on the knowledge and skills that I need to acquire in order to achieve my future goals. Therefore, I believe that my work experience, my interdisciplinary background, and my professionalism would be immensely benefited from an MBA; in turn, I am confident that these abilities…… [read more]

Franz Berger Is Quality Assurance Case Study

… Probably, the main disadvantage in this solution (selling the malt house) would be related to asset evaluation as well. However, I am inclined to study further this solution, because I am considering, for example, the maintenance problem that the other two solutions face. What will guarantee us that the malt house and cleaning house equipment will be better maintained in the years to come? Shouldn't we rather assume that maintenance will be done in the same manner as it has so far, that is poorly? Or should we rather add an additional cost regarding educating the workers to work in proper conditions and to respect elementary safety rules? An additional serious problem (perhaps the most important one) that such a solution implies is the fact that it is most probable that many, if not all of the workers that work in the malt house would have to be fired and we know from the rest of the case study that the conditions for this in China are rather harsh. A lease could mean that the company leasing the facility would have the obligation not to fire anybody or fewer people for a period of time.

Even if the best solution seems to be the last one that I have proposed, it is more probable that, given the current conditions, the second solution will work best. In my opinion, it is hard to change the way Chinese think and the way they regard management. There are no signs in the country, from top to bottom, that there is a decentralization policy on the horizon. A possible liberalism, more economical freedom- yes. But a centralized way of running an economy and a business seems to be one of the basic rules in China. So, in this sense, it is most probable that the local breweries will want in the future as well to produce their own malts and to ensure a full cycle of production. That is why, in my opinion, it is best to use the second alternative solution.

I am rather inclined to choose this solution because it tends to solve the problem of the malt house in what the equipment is concerned for a good 20 years. Hopefully, this will also mean the fact that operative utilization indices will also increase in the malt house and that the additional costs related to educating the personnel will not be so high. There would be another problem to be taken into consideration when analyzing this solution: does the brewery have enough money to pay for a full refitting? Because if it doesn't, all the discussion is futile and the first solution is practically the only available one. In my opinion, a very important step in implementing this solution is related to educating the workers. I would set up special classes each week during which the workers can learn not only how to operate the new machines, but also how to ensure safe working conditions.

As we have seen here above, Franz… [read more]

Diversity: Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Term Paper

… Washington, D.C. provides the urban experience shared by federal policy makers, while Los Angeles is considered a newer, rapidly growing, lower-density and less industrialized city, and like New York, is a gateway for immigrants and offers ethnic diversity (Myers, 1999)." When comparing demographic dynamics, studies found they were more pronounced in Los Angeles, setting it apart from the three other cities. These results further exemplified the mutual demographics of New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C.


Demographics are continually changing throughout the country. Urban scholars need to be aware of the differences, as well as influences, of cities in order to properly chart the changing demographics of the United States.


Myers, Dowell. (1999) Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Change: Comparing

Los Angeles, New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C. Housing Policy Debate,

Vol. 10, Issue 4. pp. 919-954. (accessed 07 January, 2003).… [read more]

Homelessness in the United States Term Paper

… The most visible, those sleeping on part benches or in business district doorways, are believed to be alcoholics, drug addicts, or the mentally ill, however, they make up the minority of the homeless population (Wasson 212). More than half of the single men and roughly 75% of the remaining homeless do not abuse drug or alcohol. Furthermore, many have suggested that drug use and mental illness are more likely to be the result of homelessness rather than the cause (Wasson 212).

A recent "Time" survey reported that the fastest-growing population among the homeless is families, increasing year after year. According to the Urban Institute, homeless parents and children in the year 1999 made up about 15% of the case load, or roughly 35% of the total number of homeless people (Stein 52). "These families mainly consist of single women with kids, whose greater housing needs, compared with those of single people, make them more vulnerable to rental increases than are single people" (Stein 52).

The waiting lists for public housing are several years long, while increased welfare payments have not kept up with inflation (Homelessness pg). Roughly 75% of available help for the homeless comes from the private sector, such as churches that operate soup kitchens, shelters and offer free clothing (Homelessness pg). The key federal programs are those established by the 1987 Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act which established a nationwide network of health clinics for the homeless (Homelessness pg). This act also "established adult education programs, provided emergency homelessness prevention funds, and created a number of transitional housing programs" (Homelessness pg). Programs such as these have made a huge difference in many lives by offering alternatives, however small, thus making an intolerable situation or circumstance a little more tolerable (Homelessness pg). But these programs do not address the low-income housing crisis, a problem that many feel can only be solved by government commitment to affordable housing construction (Homelessness pg).

Many cities try to curb the presence of the homeless population by voting to drive away food programs that occupy public spaces in the city by citing a health-code rule that actually does not apply (Conan pg). By trying to drive them away, the cities, according the Santa Monica's mayor, Michael Feinstein, "We want few programs, and if we can cut the programs down there'll be fewer homeless in our community. I think that was very wrong" (Conan pg).

Unfortunately, it is not that rare today to find oneself homeless. With the increasing number of uninsured Americans, a serious accident or chronic illness could devastate someone financially, due to medical expenses and lack of wage compensation. Due to the fact that the middle class is increasingly living paycheck to paycheck, with little or no savings, being unemployed for only a few months might well be long enough to be evicted with no resources for alternative housing.

Works Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Changing approaches to homelessness in cities around the country." Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio (NPR).… [read more]

Public Administrator Often Goes Unappreciated Essay

… Moreover, it excites me to think about being able to have a say in important matters such as the improvement of public transportation systems or recycling programs.

A also look forward to working with elected officials and business people alike. Urban planners, because they often span the political and business communities, must have a firm knowledge of the needs of both these groups as well as the citizens of a community. One of my main goals is to be able to be a liaison between these various communities and interest groups. Effective communication skills must me combined with practical knowledge, such as that gained with a Master's degree, to act confidently and professionally. With appropriate education and job experience, I will be a successful public administrator and urban planner in particular.

An MPA will offer the necessary training, support, networking, and training I need to accomplish my personal and career goals. In the short-term, I hope to work with either non-profit or governmental agencies to gain understanding of the practical, day-to-day work of a public administrator. I look forward to learning the various computer applications that city planners employ to facilitate their work and to grasping the fundamentals of public relations and effective communication that is so necessary in this profession. For years I have considered entering this profession and it is finally time for me to take the next step in my professional development. I am sure that an MPA degree will provide me with the tools I need to be a successful urban planner. Perhaps ten years from now when I am stopped at a red light, I can say to myself, "It's a good thing I brought this up to the committee: we really needed a light at…… [read more]

How Internal Succession Planning Promotional Succession and on Boarding Affect Marketing Essay

… ¶ … Internal Succession, Promotional Succession


How internal succession planning, promotional succession and on boarding affect marketing of a company

Onboarding, succession planning, promotions affect the marketing of a company in vital ways. In order… [read more]

Using Decision Trees to Work With Development Clients Term Paper

… David Duchovney, a real estate broker specializing in rural Texas real estate, is mentoring a salesperson from "way out of town." After a few days on the job, the new salesperson begins establishing asking prices for new property listings and seems to be quite accurate. Since the new broker seems to have picked up or "calibrated" local market behaviour very quickly, David is pleasantly surprised. What method of resolving uncertainty is the new salesperson using?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Confidence range estimates

7. Your client owns a manufactured home park in Williams Lake and is facing a myriad of issues: rent controls have eroded profitability; expenses appear to be rising faster every year; and more tenants are beginning to miss rent payments. The client isn't sure whether to hold, invest in upgrading the park and raising rents, or sell. She has asked for your recommendations on the best way to remove uncertainty from her real estate decision. What technique would you recommend?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Both (2) and (3)

8. Your boss and you are having a chat about a real estate decision to purchase either a parking lot or a small motel in Nanaimo. Both of you discuss the reasons why either decision would be profitable, in the event a purchase was concluded. What type of evaluation technique have you used to highlight uncertainty?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

9. A property manager is considering deferring repairs and maintenance for her firm's 40 unit rental townhouse complex in Grand Prairie. She is planning on scheduling minor maintenance this summer (e.g., painting, re-caulking, power-washing, etc.) and more serious structural repairs (e.g., broken concrete, fascia replacement, roof replacement on some units) the following summer. The key benefits of spreading essential repairs and maintenance over two years, rather than tackling everything this summer are reduced impact on the firms's cash-flow, avoiding anticipated labour supply problems, and interest saved on deferred expenses. However, the key risk with this option is that the property will deteriorate to the extent that the repairs are considerably more expensive and remedial work may be required (e.g. To fix leaks) before the second year. In addition, completing all the work in one summer will improve tenant satisfaction and will ensure the property to an acceptable standard. What type of reasoning has the property manager just completed?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

10. Your boss wants you to explain why the use of influence diagrams will help him make better real estate decisions. Which of the following explains a benefit of using influence diagrams as decision tools?

A. Provides an illustration of the relationships among the decision drivers.

B. Provides a permanent record of the decision drivers.

C. Simplifies the drivers of complex decision, making uncertainties easier to identify and… [read more]

Sustainability of the Water Supply Term Paper

… "The object-oriented system dynamics approach is an appropriate technique for integrated water resources analysis. The inherent flexibility and transparency is particularly helpful for the development of simulation models for complex water resource systems with subjective variables and parameters" such as the way human beings engage with water systems (Xu et al. 2007: 240),

This systems approach would be most suitable for analyzing water management in the Caribbean (the focus of my own research) given the complexity of influences on water quality and availability in the region. Also, I believe that all research should ideally be practical and future-focused, to result in real, concrete improvement for all actors. The approaches of the Iglesias (et al. 2007) and the Xu (et al. 2007) articles would be more amenable to my research than the approach of Rijsberman's article on "Water scarcity: Fact or fiction" which is solely concerned with the scientific evidence available about water supplies. My interest is in taking a prescriptive as well as descriptive research orientation. That there are problems with water availability in the Caribbean is a given, since this has been well-documented beforehand. The purpose is to study operations of the water supply and the prospects for future sustainability: how to improve them and how best to use organizational resources. The method I would use is a systems approach, to see how different human and organizational systems are interacting with the environment to produce the current issues which have arisen with the water supply in the area.


Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788

Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)


Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability…… [read more]

Revamp Detroit Is a City Capstone Project

… While the above may not seem related to government meddling, it most certainly is. The interest rates charged and who gets money is greatly affected by government regulations, requirements and restrictions. Furthermore, local governments are going to get testy if… [read more]

Foucault and Davis Essay

… In an article titled "Fortress Los Angeles: The Militarization of Urban Space" which was published in 1992, author Mike Davis examines the second-largest city in America from a unque perspective, as he analyzes the idea of modern urban environments as representing the panopticon. Davis begins his article by reviewing the many ways in which Los Angeles is set up to be a hostile, closed off place where people are scared of strangers and keep to themselves. According to Davis, society's overwhelming need to secure its major cites has led to a situation where they basically become panopticons, because the citizens of urban areas are made to feel as though they are constantly being watched. The idea of ever-present supervision by an unseen authority figure is the heart of the panopticon concept, and as Davis sees things, Los Angeles has adopted all of the philosophical ideas put forth by Foucault. Davis mentions the rising use of personal security systems to suggest that people living in Los Angeles are always being filmed without their knowledge, which is similar to what Foucault observes when he mentions panopticism as a growing trend. Continuing with this theory, Davis discusses the ways in which Los Angeles restricts movement for its citizens, with poor highway design and urban planning leading to traffic jams, urban sprawl and other trends. In the end, Davis' views Los Angeles as the modern representation of panopticism as first imagined by Foucault.


Davis, M. (1992). Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space. Variations on a theme park, 154-180.

Foucault, M. (1984).…… [read more]

Walsh v. Winthrop Case Essay

… According to the law, "people who believe they have been discriminated against may also sue in Federal Court under the Federal Fair Housing Act and with the state's Division of Human Rights" (Peterson 1990: 2). However, class is not a protected category, unlike race, sex, or gender. And rather than a silent, undefended admission, the co-op board died release a letter stating why Walsh had been rejected. "Inherent in the nature of the cooperative form of ownership is the right of the stockholders, acting by and through the board and officers, to select people and activities that are compatible with the community" (Bailey 2006).

On one hand, it is every easy to emotionally side with Walsh, given that he is a far more sympathetic person, given his background, than John Winthrop. Walsh was born poor and pulled himself up by his proverbial bootstraps who grew up in a Somerville housing project. A college dropout, he was able to make his line of salons tremendously profitable through his hard work and heroic efforts. John Winthrop, in contrast, is a descendent from the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and represents 'old' money (Bailey 2006). But a distaste for old money and class discrimination and an admiration for what Walsh represents in terms of achieving the American Dream does not automatically 'prove' that discrimination has taken place.

As a result of his experiences with the co-op, Walsh was granted a $2.2 million out-of-court settlement (Estes 2008). He also has lobbied to pass a bill in the Massachusetts legislature which would require all co-ops to put into writing why they refused a particular candidate (which, interestingly enough, the co-op did) and also limit the reasons individuals could be turned down by a co-op to "one of the few reasons a potential buyer could be rejected by a co-op board would be an inability to afford the unit" (Phillips 2011:1). However, opponents of the bill noted that this would defeat the purpose of a co-op, which is in part to create a community, not a unit simply determined upon the ability of who can pay for particular apartments. Regardless, Walsh's admitted need for a law to enshrine his views underlines that although his case many have generated a great deal of emotional support, it rested on tenuous legal grounds.


Bailey, S. (2006). An American Dream denied. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:;wap2

Estes, A. (2008). Luxury co-op pays $2.2m settlement: Cosmetics mogul alleges realty snub.

The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:

Navarro, M. (2013). New bill seeks to curb discrimination by co-op boards. The New York

Times. Retrieved from:

Peterson, I. (1990). As co-ops spread, discrimination concerns grow. The New York Times.

Phillips, F. (2011). Spurned by co-op man lobbies legislature again. The Boston Globe.

Retrieved from:… [read more]

Ian Simms Without a Body Case Study

… Ian Moore was able to trace McCourt's and Simms's movement through the apartment based on bloodstain spatter analysis. Moore surmised the fight between McCourt and Simms began just inside Simms's apartment. Moore then noted a trail of blood leading upstairs and across the landing to a rear bedroom where blood spatter on the walls showed the extent to which Simms had beaten McCourt and how he had continued to beat her at floor level (Evans, 2007). Moore concluded that Simms murdered McCourt through strangulation, stabbing, or pummeling her to death, and then bundled her body and belongings before placing them in the trunk of his car (Evans, 2007). Simms was taken into custody on February 14, 1988.

Two weeks later at the beginning of March, a marksman shooting rats found McCourt's handbag, taupe coat, maroon scarf, navy trousers, and green mittens approximately 17 miles from Simms's pub (McCourt, 2011; Evans, 2007). The search perimeter was extended to Hollis Green were investigators found McCourt's coat and clothing belonging to Simms, all of which were heavily bloodstained. Among the clothing recovered was a Labatt's sweatshirt, which was used as part of a promotion at Simms's pub (Evans, 2007). They also found "a knotted length of electric cord" that had strands of McCourt's hair entwined in it (Evans, 2007). The trash bags that had been used to throw the clothes away were matched to those used in the pub by comparing heat seal marks. Also, dog hairs collected from McCourt's clothing matched the Simms's Rottweiler and Black Labrador Retriever (Evans, 2007). Carpet fibers found on McCourt's clothing were matched to the carpet in Simms's apartment.

One of the most groundbreaking pieces of evidence was the DNA profiling performed. In the first of its kind, DNA was collected from McCourt's parents to match the blood found in the pub. It was determined that all three codes were a match and that the blood could not have come from someone other than McCourt. Dr. Alec Jeffreys calculated the blood was 14,500 times more likely to come from one of McCourt's children than from a random stranger (Evans, 2007). Based on this evidence, Simms was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment on March 14, 1989.


Evans, C. (2007). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World's Most Baffling Crimes. New York: Berkley Books. Retrieved 5 August

2013, from

McCourt, M. (2011, December 1). I'll never stop searching for my daughter as told to Fiona Duffy. Express: Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. Retrieved 5 August 2013, from… [read more]

Rent Control Essay

… Rent Control

The basis for the argument against rent control is that rent control takes the market for rental accommodation is taken out of equilibrium, creating a deadweight loss (Investopedia, 2013). Under equilibrium conditions, the supply and demand in the market will match up. In the real world, especially with something like real estate, the market will never truly arrive at equilibrium, but it should trend close to it. What rent controls do is they move both supply and demand away from equilibrium. Rent control is a price cap. If the natural equilibrium point moves upward in terms of price, then the rent cap will mean that P. is not at the natural equilibrium point. If P. is below its natural equilibrium point, then demand will be higher and supply will be lower.

From a purely economic point-of-view, this situation creates a deadweight loss where there is surplus demand that is not being met in the economy. Some people who want an apartment cannot find one. Further, from a social perspective not only will the quantity of rental stock decline, but the quality will as well. The reason for this is that, seeing unmet demand, more potential suppliers will seek to find a way to enter the market profitably, and they will only be able to do this with lower prices that would be normal. To cut costs, buildings are not maintained. Thus, from both an economic and social perspective, rent control is undesirable. In equilibrium, benefits of the market are evenly distributed. Under rent control, economic winners and losers are created, so that some people benefit from the system at the expense of others. Moreover, the lack of efficiency creates the deadweight loss -- potential economic benefit that nobody receives.


Rent controls are not introduced because of economic efficiency, they are the product of political desirability. Economic efficiency, after all, does still create adverse outcomes for people and that creates asymmetry between the economically optimal solution and the politically optimal solution. Housing costs are often a political issue, as they affect the economic well-being of the population. While…… [read more]

Resistance Dancing I Have Experienced Essay

… ¶ … resistance dancing I have experienced in my life is turf dancing, which is similar to gang-related dances like the crip walk, or the hyphy dance. I have seen this dance in Northern California when I go to visit my family members who live there. Turf dancing is usually very rapid, and almost always involves participants 'throwing up their sets'. Whereas in southern California gang dances, sets are particular gang affiliations, in northern California sets are specific neighborhoods that people refer to as turfs. This is a general countercultural movement form of resistance, in which dancers are resisting traditional American values and social conventions. Dancers' preoccupation with the neighborhoods they are representing, and not the actual movements themselves, underscore this fact.

Dance can contribute to social-political change by preserving culture. When people have physical reminders of their culture, they are less likely to accept a new one -- even when it is forced on them, much as new culture was forced upon people of African descent during slavery (Browning). In situations in which people are forced to accept another culture, dance can serve as a catalyst to rebel against it.

I think gentrification is an important social issue, because it is displacing a lot of lower class people. If it continues, soon there will be nowhere for lower class people to live, at least not in the United States. Turf dancing helps to combat gentrification because it reinforces a feeling of pride in people and in their neighborhoods. By continuing to represent their neighborhoods through turf dancing, these dancers can help get the word out about the issue of gentrification by reminding one another of who lives where, and of the threat of outsiders coming in, buying the property inexpensively, and raising the prices so poorer people cannot live there.

I agree with Alyssa that…… [read more]

Federal Government in Dealing Thesis

… " In that regard, those who are most vulnerable to homelessness are individuals in the low income bracket.

In my opinion, the federal government must play a more prominent role in addressing the plight of the homeless. This is more so the case when it comes to funding the construction of housing units that are more affordable. Towards this end, the government could consider further subsidize the construction of more housing units per annum. This in my opinion could help address the severe depletion of affordable housing units throughout the country. Other considerations the federal government should explore include increasing the level of funding advanced to various homeless-service providers. The amount of funds distributed to communities via the relevant agencies in an attempt to boost affordable housing programs should also be increased. Going forward, other federal departments should also be roped in to help in making homelessness history. Departments that could play a vital role in this endeavor include but they are not limited to the Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.


In conclusion, it should be noted that unless the federal government takes bold measures to increase the number of affordable housing units, the problem of homelessness will not be conclusively addressed anytime soon. The United States of America has both the tools and capabilities to bring to an end the homelessness menace. What lacks in my view is the proper, effective, and strategic utilization of the said tools and capabilities.


Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website:

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website:… [read more]

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