"Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays 141-210

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Inequality in Condo Advertising the Research Theme Essay

… Inequality in Condo Advertising

The research theme for this paper is two-fold: it considers inequality as a social phenomenon, and secondly how this relates to Condo advertising in newspapers. Inequality is an extremely important research issue in today's sociological environment,… [read more]


Cal Housing Market the Southern California Essay

… ¶ … Cal Housing Market

The Southern California housing market is mired in a prolonged slump. The average house price in Southern California declined 27% in May 2008 versus May 2007. Some experts believe that the prices will decline even further before prices are sufficiently low enough to entice buyers back into the market. There are a couple of key microeconomic factors that have contributed to this downturn on the demand side, and others on the supply side. Affecting the demand side is a reduction in cheap and easy access to credit. This access had fueled an abnormal surge in demand, contributing to rising prices which in turn fueled more demand. Also affecting demand is the increase in fuel prices, which has discourage many consumers from entering the housing market, especially in certain areas. On the supply side, the rising prices had encouraged developers to build more housing, and now this has resulted in excess housing. Also, the speculative buyers of the past few years have been attempting to sell to capture their profits. Plus, banks have foreclosed on many mortgages, and are trying to liquidate the properties quickly. These factors have increased supply just as demand was decreasing.

These two factors both impact the demand side of the economy, and there are supply-side pressures as well. In recent years, low mortgage rates and easy access to credit fueled a nationwide real estate boom. Mortgages could be had so cheaply that many people bought houses with the plan to sell them in a few years. The low rates offered at the time were not sustainable, however. As rates rose, buyers found that they were unable to meet their higher mortgage payments. In addition, this caused a supply side problem. The speculative buying had caused prices to rise to the point where many buyers could no longer afford to enter the housing market. The net effect of this was to reduce demand just as the speculative buyers needed to sell. Many buyers foreclosed, causing a glut of supply on the market as banks took title to the homes and tried to liquidate them. The recent rise in gas prices has also contributed to reduced demand. Higher gas prices are causing many buyers to live closer to work, to reduce gas price costs. Previously, low fuel prices had made it economical to live further away, but those economics no longer work. This has reduced demand in many places, especially in the outer suburbs where driving distances are far.

The types of shifts that would be consistent with the recent fall in housing prices are an increase in supply and a fall in demand. Prices rise when demand is high and supply is tight. For prices to fall typically the opposite will be true. I believe that the demand shift has been greater than the supply shift. The supply shift has occurred due to two main factors. The first is that speculative buyers found themselves unable to make their mortgage payments. They wanted… [read more]


Disparities in Socioeconomic Outcomes of Wealth Term Paper

… Disparities in Socioeconomic Outcomes of Wealth and Social Policies and Other Solutions Aimed at Black/White Wealth Inequality

Differences in the patterns of savings, wealth accumulation, home ownership, and other disparities between races have been demonstrated to exist in previous studies.… [read more]


Problems Facing Harris County Term Paper

… Harris County Housing Department Issues

One of the most consistently pressing issues facing the local government's of Houston and Harris County respectively is that of housing. Houston has been one of America's fastest growing urban centers in the last two decades, rendered thus by its appeal to corporate investment and its many accessible, low-wage neighborhoods. Recent challenges in the population landscape relating both to the continual influx of Mexican immigrant laborers and, more recently, the deluge of impoverished peoples feeling post-Katrina conditions in New Orleans. Given that so many of the individuals arriving to the Houston metropolitan area are in need of assistance, it has fallen significantly upon the Harris County Housing Department to actively pursue ways to integrate a wide array of new arrivals.

Of course, any failure to properly absorb such troubled populations as those arriving from south of the Mexican border or from New Orleans could negatively stimulate higher incidences of crime, resource shortfall and gang activity. This is already quite well evidence by the dire situation in housing which is part and parcel of the Hurricane Katrina migration. Those who relocated following the devastating 2005 hurricane and flooding have largely done so on the basis of pubic assistance. Indeed, "more than 30,000 evacuee families in Houston still live in government-subsidized housing, and a Zogby International survey sponsored by the city found three-fourths of the adults receiving housing help were not working." (Bustillo, 1) This points to a serious problem facing the Housing Department, which must find ways to balance its responsibilities to the public with the need to stretch scarce resources. Though federal assistance has taken part in footing the bill, much of this aid has by now or will soon expire. With that, many non-working transplants will occupy public housing to no prospect of economic improvement.

This speaks to the demand placed upon the Housing Department to act more closely in concordance with local employment groups and agencies to help place such transplants…… [read more]


Peasants in the Big City Robert Term Paper

… Peasants in the Big City

Robert and I have made the harrowing decision to move to London. We hated to leave our old home, but we knew that we would never be able to raise our children properly with things the way they were in the country, so here we are. We share a home with Robert's brothers, and while I love them like the family they are, I hate the lack of privacy and space that make up our lives now. Indeed, there is nowhere I can go to escape for even a second's peace, and I miss the quite and peacefulness of the countryside we left behind. Here in London it's dark, dirty, and exceedingly noisy. There are the noises of the machinery in the factories that continue on from dusk 'til dawn. There is the noise and soot from the trains that run just a few meters from our home, and then, there is the dark, sooty air that seems to permeate London and every building in the city. It always seems to be raining soot and dirt, and it is impossible to keep anything clean in this city. I certainly miss the quiet of the countryside, and the sounds I took for granted there, like the chirping of…… [read more]


Purchase of Real Estate by Judicial Sale in Germany Term Paper

… Purchase of Real Estate by Judicial Sale in Germany

Real estate is the one most frequently mentioned areas of law that has the greatest divergence between jurisdictions today. For example, under Germany's Civil Code, certain aspects of real estate are… [read more]


Vulnerability of the Chicago Water Supply and Other Great Lakes Cities Term Paper

… Terrorism

As a result of the terrorist attacks that occurred in September 2001 and subsequent attacks that have occurred in regions throughout the world, an emphasis has been placed on the types of terror attacks that could occur in the… [read more]


My Ideal Community Term Paper

… ¶ … Utopia

Thomas More may have been one of the first people to envision a Utopian society in the 16th century. He wrote of a city that eliminated both poverty and exploitation based on employment for all (Porter, 2003), a radical concept at the time. More recently, the city of St. Louis, Missouri experimented with creating a Utopian-like residential community called "LaClede Town," named after one of the city founders. A large community of town houses, it was near the center of the city and encouraged an artistic, artsy atmosphere. A variety of talented people lived there, including Eddie Saxon (as a child), who went on to produce major movies such as "Philadelphia." Built in the sixties, residents were a mix of multiple races and income levels. The complex's racial mix was reflected in changes that took place in a local all-black church, that became integrated as white LaClede Town residents began attending (McGuire, 1995). However, LaClede Town was an island surrounded by declining areas. It addressed residential issues only, and ultimately failed and was razed (McGuire, 1995).

I believe that a Utopian society includes all types of people: young and old, people of all races, of both sexes, of all sexual orientations and social classes. A mix of people enriches the experiences of all. I would like to see these segments of society distributed in proportions that reflect the United States generally, so that this Utopia would be a microcosm of United States population.

The population should be distributed throughout the community as they choose. However, community features that tend to draw people together, such as parks, open-air markets and recreational facilities should be placed in ways that draw people together.

This town, if successful, might become quite popular, so they need to decide how to control population growth. This might be best accomplished by population density rules, such as not allowing home for individual homes to be converted to higher density condominiums or apartments. Since such a forward-thinking community should allow as much freedom of choice as possible, people should be allowed to have whatever pets they want unless the animal can clearly be shown to be a real potential danger to the community. An example of this might be keeping a tiger. Tigers do not make good house pets and would be a menace if one should get loose.

Residents of this town should be encouraged to work within the community, but since this is not always possible, mass transit to the nearby metropolitan area, such as light rail, should be part of the plan. This town should actively encourage barter as well as work for pay and sale of products. The community centers might include babysitting exchanges between young mother as well as opportunities to swap one service for another: example a person types someone's dissertation, and in exchange, that person paints their house.

The town should have some sort of bus service, using small buses to make them practical and energy efficient. Perhaps it… [read more]


Homelessness Term Paper

… The average age of he people was about 18 to 64. More than 39% of the people were found to be suffering from schizophrenia, and about 42% were suffering from affective disorders like depression. 58% had a serious problem of drug abuse, and this was leading them into developing mental disorders. The various services that are offered by PATH for the homeless are as follows: outreach services, habilitation as well as rehabilitation services, diagnostic services, case management services, treatment for substance abuse related problems such as alcoholism, and housing services as well as services that would help clients gain access to housing services that are being offered. (An Overview of the Program)

The federal government does have quite a few policies in place that deal with the very real and complex problem of homelessness in the various states of the United States of America, as well as in Chicago. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Program provides funds for the purpose of supportive housing for those people who are above 18 years of age and earn the barest minimum income. The funds provided can be used for the purpose of constructing and rehabilitating and also for acquiring structures for housing, and to develop small scale group houses, and for other types of living projects. Section 811 ensures that rental assistance is provided for the persons who need certain sums of money to make up for the lack of the complete amount. Section 202 provides supportive housing for the elderly group of people who also have very low incomes. (Federal Housing Assistance Program, Fact sheets)

The difference between what the individual can afford to pay and the actual cost of the housing project will be made up be this HUD administered program. 85% of the funding is to be used for the residents of metropolitan areas and 15% for those residents of the non-metro areas. The 'Housing Choice Voucher Program' comes under section 8, under which the extremely low-income group families and also the elderly and the disabled citizens of the U.S.A. are eligible for availing of housing facilities in the private market, provided they take the initiative of finding their own housing facilities, and they do not have to limit their choice to subsidized housing programs. The HUD will apply section 8 to 'Public Housing Agencies' that will in turn grant the vouchers to those who are the most eligible. The 'Single Room Occupancy' also comes under section 8, and this policy applies to those individuals who earn a very low income, and a small private room will be provided for one single person. (Federal Housing Assistance Program, Fact sheets)

Public Housing is a facility that ensures that the elderly and the disabled and others are given housing at affordable rents. The 'Home Investments Partnership Program 'provides grants to states that the local communities use for the buying and selling of housing units. Trust Funds are also established under this program, and the grantee is given credit upon… [read more]


Muenster Pump Company, Purchasing Manager Term Paper

… If Terri decides that price is the most important consideration, and decides to press for outsourcing of housings, it would be to her advantage to address some of Ned's concerns. Concern over housing quality and the speed of filling orders could likely be addressed relatively easily. Ensuring top quality from outsourced parts and quick availability may result in increased price. However, given the fact that outsourced housings were originally priced at less than half of the in-house housings, it is likely that even with assurances of top quality and quick availability, outsourced parts will remain more cost-effective than in-house parts.

Assuming that Terri can alleviate Ned's concern over quality and availability, and retain a cost advantage to outsourced parts she faces Ned's ethical objections to putting the 16 foundry workers out of work. One solution would be to attempt to find other employment for the men, even though Ned's original assertion was that this was not possible. Another solution would be to keep one person on to ensure the quality of the outsourced housings, and act as a liaison to the other foundries. However, the other 16 employees would need to be laid off. At first glance, there is no easy solution to Ned's ethical concern about firing the 16 employees.

Another solution would be to attempt to decrease the cost of L-1023 housings produced in house. While materials and labor seem relatively in line (at $60 per housing), the cost of overhead in-house is an astronomical at $120 per housing. A reduction in depreciation, taxes, and executive salaries would play an important role in reducing this overhead. The remainder of the overhead could also potentially be reduced, as could material and labor costs in house. This solution would have the advantage of addressing Ned's ethical concern over firing the 16 employees, and also address his concerns over product quality and availability. In addition, this solution would greatly reduce the cost of in-house production. In short, reducing the cost of in-house housings is likely the best overall…… [read more]


College Grades Accurately Term Paper

… Not only I have been involved with the management of several large real estate deals, but also I have been a key members in several important decisions and discussions with real estate executives, county and state management, and attorneys in planning out the sales of several large lands and estates in Brooklyn and other nearby areas.

My experience in Queens real estate agency and Brooklyn has been unique.

This experience has shown me the power of analytical thinking and descriptive language. In addition, this experience has been critical in understanding the effect of market growth, attractiveness of the locations, and interest rate on mortgage, which bears directly on the real estate transactions. This knowledge has been important for my securing large real estate deals and meeting the business and residential needs of community and customers. During the execution of these real estate deals, I have come to believe that knowledge, integrity, consistency of purpose, accountability, and responsibilities form the very basics of the leadership. My interdisciplinary knowledge, along with values of integrity, accountability, responsibility, and purpose, has provided me with a strong foundation to carry out leadership roles in performing my work.

3. My main responsibilities in real estate include processing real estate transactions, communicating with office clientele, attorneys, mortgage companies, banks, and insurance companies, assisting office clients in signing and closing of real estate contracts, and handling official correspondence. I am also responsible for training new employees and providing financial reports to my employer about the department's operation. In addition, I make decisions on several criteria: work policies, variety of mortgage programs, and clients' feedbacks, about the dealings of my company with different mortgage companies.

4. I am sure that my present professional experiences will prove extremely valuable in achieving my goals. I am applying for an MBA to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the commercial aspects of real estate business, develop acute marketing and finance skills, and refine my management abilities. After comparing the curriculums of several schools, I find that your school's curriculum specifically addresses and focuses on the knowledge and skills that I need to acquire in order to achieve my future goals. Therefore, I believe that my work experience, my interdisciplinary background, and my professionalism would be immensely benefited from an MBA; in turn, I am confident that these abilities…… [read more]


Franz Berger Is Quality Assurance Case Study

… Probably, the main disadvantage in this solution (selling the malt house) would be related to asset evaluation as well. However, I am inclined to study further this solution, because I am considering, for example, the maintenance problem that the other two solutions face. What will guarantee us that the malt house and cleaning house equipment will be better maintained in the years to come? Shouldn't we rather assume that maintenance will be done in the same manner as it has so far, that is poorly? Or should we rather add an additional cost regarding educating the workers to work in proper conditions and to respect elementary safety rules? An additional serious problem (perhaps the most important one) that such a solution implies is the fact that it is most probable that many, if not all of the workers that work in the malt house would have to be fired and we know from the rest of the case study that the conditions for this in China are rather harsh. A lease could mean that the company leasing the facility would have the obligation not to fire anybody or fewer people for a period of time.

Even if the best solution seems to be the last one that I have proposed, it is more probable that, given the current conditions, the second solution will work best. In my opinion, it is hard to change the way Chinese think and the way they regard management. There are no signs in the country, from top to bottom, that there is a decentralization policy on the horizon. A possible liberalism, more economical freedom- yes. But a centralized way of running an economy and a business seems to be one of the basic rules in China. So, in this sense, it is most probable that the local breweries will want in the future as well to produce their own malts and to ensure a full cycle of production. That is why, in my opinion, it is best to use the second alternative solution.

I am rather inclined to choose this solution because it tends to solve the problem of the malt house in what the equipment is concerned for a good 20 years. Hopefully, this will also mean the fact that operative utilization indices will also increase in the malt house and that the additional costs related to educating the personnel will not be so high. There would be another problem to be taken into consideration when analyzing this solution: does the brewery have enough money to pay for a full refitting? Because if it doesn't, all the discussion is futile and the first solution is practically the only available one. In my opinion, a very important step in implementing this solution is related to educating the workers. I would set up special classes each week during which the workers can learn not only how to operate the new machines, but also how to ensure safe working conditions.

As we have seen here above, Franz… [read more]


Diversity: Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Term Paper

… Washington, D.C. provides the urban experience shared by federal policy makers, while Los Angeles is considered a newer, rapidly growing, lower-density and less industrialized city, and like New York, is a gateway for immigrants and offers ethnic diversity (Myers, 1999)." When comparing demographic dynamics, studies found they were more pronounced in Los Angeles, setting it apart from the three other cities. These results further exemplified the mutual demographics of New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C.

Conclusion

Demographics are continually changing throughout the country. Urban scholars need to be aware of the differences, as well as influences, of cities in order to properly chart the changing demographics of the United States.

References

Myers, Dowell. (1999) Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Change: Comparing

Los Angeles, New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C. Housing Policy Debate,

Vol. 10, Issue 4. pp. 919-954. (accessed 07 January, 2003). http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_1004_myers.pdf.… [read more]


Homelessness in the United States Term Paper

… The most visible, those sleeping on part benches or in business district doorways, are believed to be alcoholics, drug addicts, or the mentally ill, however, they make up the minority of the homeless population (Wasson 212). More than half of the single men and roughly 75% of the remaining homeless do not abuse drug or alcohol. Furthermore, many have suggested that drug use and mental illness are more likely to be the result of homelessness rather than the cause (Wasson 212).

A recent "Time" survey reported that the fastest-growing population among the homeless is families, increasing year after year. According to the Urban Institute, homeless parents and children in the year 1999 made up about 15% of the case load, or roughly 35% of the total number of homeless people (Stein 52). "These families mainly consist of single women with kids, whose greater housing needs, compared with those of single people, make them more vulnerable to rental increases than are single people" (Stein 52).

The waiting lists for public housing are several years long, while increased welfare payments have not kept up with inflation (Homelessness pg). Roughly 75% of available help for the homeless comes from the private sector, such as churches that operate soup kitchens, shelters and offer free clothing (Homelessness pg). The key federal programs are those established by the 1987 Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act which established a nationwide network of health clinics for the homeless (Homelessness pg). This act also "established adult education programs, provided emergency homelessness prevention funds, and created a number of transitional housing programs" (Homelessness pg). Programs such as these have made a huge difference in many lives by offering alternatives, however small, thus making an intolerable situation or circumstance a little more tolerable (Homelessness pg). But these programs do not address the low-income housing crisis, a problem that many feel can only be solved by government commitment to affordable housing construction (Homelessness pg).

Many cities try to curb the presence of the homeless population by voting to drive away food programs that occupy public spaces in the city by citing a health-code rule that actually does not apply (Conan pg). By trying to drive them away, the cities, according the Santa Monica's mayor, Michael Feinstein, "We want few programs, and if we can cut the programs down there'll be fewer homeless in our community. I think that was very wrong" (Conan pg).

Unfortunately, it is not that rare today to find oneself homeless. With the increasing number of uninsured Americans, a serious accident or chronic illness could devastate someone financially, due to medical expenses and lack of wage compensation. Due to the fact that the middle class is increasingly living paycheck to paycheck, with little or no savings, being unemployed for only a few months might well be long enough to be evicted with no resources for alternative housing.

Works Cited

Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Changing approaches to homelessness in cities around the country." Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio (NPR).… [read more]


Public Administrator Often Goes Unappreciated Essay

… Moreover, it excites me to think about being able to have a say in important matters such as the improvement of public transportation systems or recycling programs.

A also look forward to working with elected officials and business people alike. Urban planners, because they often span the political and business communities, must have a firm knowledge of the needs of both these groups as well as the citizens of a community. One of my main goals is to be able to be a liaison between these various communities and interest groups. Effective communication skills must me combined with practical knowledge, such as that gained with a Master's degree, to act confidently and professionally. With appropriate education and job experience, I will be a successful public administrator and urban planner in particular.

An MPA will offer the necessary training, support, networking, and training I need to accomplish my personal and career goals. In the short-term, I hope to work with either non-profit or governmental agencies to gain understanding of the practical, day-to-day work of a public administrator. I look forward to learning the various computer applications that city planners employ to facilitate their work and to grasping the fundamentals of public relations and effective communication that is so necessary in this profession. For years I have considered entering this profession and it is finally time for me to take the next step in my professional development. I am sure that an MPA degree will provide me with the tools I need to be a successful urban planner. Perhaps ten years from now when I am stopped at a red light, I can say to myself, "It's a good thing I brought this up to the committee: we really needed a light at…… [read more]


How Internal Succession Planning Promotional Succession and on Boarding Affect Marketing Essay

… ¶ … Internal Succession, Promotional Succession

THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

How internal succession planning, promotional succession and on boarding affect marketing of a company

Onboarding, succession planning, promotions affect the marketing of a company in vital ways. In order… [read more]


Using Decision Trees to Work With Development Clients Term Paper

… David Duchovney, a real estate broker specializing in rural Texas real estate, is mentoring a salesperson from "way out of town." After a few days on the job, the new salesperson begins establishing asking prices for new property listings and seems to be quite accurate. Since the new broker seems to have picked up or "calibrated" local market behaviour very quickly, David is pleasantly surprised. What method of resolving uncertainty is the new salesperson using?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Confidence range estimates

7. Your client owns a manufactured home park in Williams Lake and is facing a myriad of issues: rent controls have eroded profitability; expenses appear to be rising faster every year; and more tenants are beginning to miss rent payments. The client isn't sure whether to hold, invest in upgrading the park and raising rents, or sell. She has asked for your recommendations on the best way to remove uncertainty from her real estate decision. What technique would you recommend?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Both (2) and (3)

8. Your boss and you are having a chat about a real estate decision to purchase either a parking lot or a small motel in Nanaimo. Both of you discuss the reasons why either decision would be profitable, in the event a purchase was concluded. What type of evaluation technique have you used to highlight uncertainty?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

9. A property manager is considering deferring repairs and maintenance for her firm's 40 unit rental townhouse complex in Grand Prairie. She is planning on scheduling minor maintenance this summer (e.g., painting, re-caulking, power-washing, etc.) and more serious structural repairs (e.g., broken concrete, fascia replacement, roof replacement on some units) the following summer. The key benefits of spreading essential repairs and maintenance over two years, rather than tackling everything this summer are reduced impact on the firms's cash-flow, avoiding anticipated labour supply problems, and interest saved on deferred expenses. However, the key risk with this option is that the property will deteriorate to the extent that the repairs are considerably more expensive and remedial work may be required (e.g. To fix leaks) before the second year. In addition, completing all the work in one summer will improve tenant satisfaction and will ensure the property to an acceptable standard. What type of reasoning has the property manager just completed?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

10. Your boss wants you to explain why the use of influence diagrams will help him make better real estate decisions. Which of the following explains a benefit of using influence diagrams as decision tools?

A. Provides an illustration of the relationships among the decision drivers.

B. Provides a permanent record of the decision drivers.

C. Simplifies the drivers of complex decision, making uncertainties easier to identify and… [read more]


Sustainability of the Water Supply Term Paper

… "The object-oriented system dynamics approach is an appropriate technique for integrated water resources analysis. The inherent flexibility and transparency is particularly helpful for the development of simulation models for complex water resource systems with subjective variables and parameters" such as the way human beings engage with water systems (Xu et al. 2007: 240),

This systems approach would be most suitable for analyzing water management in the Caribbean (the focus of my own research) given the complexity of influences on water quality and availability in the region. Also, I believe that all research should ideally be practical and future-focused, to result in real, concrete improvement for all actors. The approaches of the Iglesias (et al. 2007) and the Xu (et al. 2007) articles would be more amenable to my research than the approach of Rijsberman's article on "Water scarcity: Fact or fiction" which is solely concerned with the scientific evidence available about water supplies. My interest is in taking a prescriptive as well as descriptive research orientation. That there are problems with water availability in the Caribbean is a given, since this has been well-documented beforehand. The purpose is to study operations of the water supply and the prospects for future sustainability: how to improve them and how best to use organizational resources. The method I would use is a systems approach, to see how different human and organizational systems are interacting with the environment to produce the current issues which have arisen with the water supply in the area.

References

Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788

Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)

35-22

Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability…… [read more]


Revamp Detroit Is a City Capstone Project

… While the above may not seem related to government meddling, it most certainly is. The interest rates charged and who gets money is greatly affected by government regulations, requirements and restrictions. Furthermore, local governments are going to get testy if… [read more]


Foucault and Davis Essay

… In an article titled "Fortress Los Angeles: The Militarization of Urban Space" which was published in 1992, author Mike Davis examines the second-largest city in America from a unque perspective, as he analyzes the idea of modern urban environments as representing the panopticon. Davis begins his article by reviewing the many ways in which Los Angeles is set up to be a hostile, closed off place where people are scared of strangers and keep to themselves. According to Davis, society's overwhelming need to secure its major cites has led to a situation where they basically become panopticons, because the citizens of urban areas are made to feel as though they are constantly being watched. The idea of ever-present supervision by an unseen authority figure is the heart of the panopticon concept, and as Davis sees things, Los Angeles has adopted all of the philosophical ideas put forth by Foucault. Davis mentions the rising use of personal security systems to suggest that people living in Los Angeles are always being filmed without their knowledge, which is similar to what Foucault observes when he mentions panopticism as a growing trend. Continuing with this theory, Davis discusses the ways in which Los Angeles restricts movement for its citizens, with poor highway design and urban planning leading to traffic jams, urban sprawl and other trends. In the end, Davis' views Los Angeles as the modern representation of panopticism as first imagined by Foucault.

References

Davis, M. (1992). Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space. Variations on a theme park, 154-180.

Foucault, M. (1984).…… [read more]


Walsh v. Winthrop Case Essay

… According to the law, "people who believe they have been discriminated against may also sue in Federal Court under the Federal Fair Housing Act and with the state's Division of Human Rights" (Peterson 1990: 2). However, class is not a protected category, unlike race, sex, or gender. And rather than a silent, undefended admission, the co-op board died release a letter stating why Walsh had been rejected. "Inherent in the nature of the cooperative form of ownership is the right of the stockholders, acting by and through the board and officers, to select people and activities that are compatible with the community" (Bailey 2006).

On one hand, it is every easy to emotionally side with Walsh, given that he is a far more sympathetic person, given his background, than John Winthrop. Walsh was born poor and pulled himself up by his proverbial bootstraps who grew up in a Somerville housing project. A college dropout, he was able to make his line of salons tremendously profitable through his hard work and heroic efforts. John Winthrop, in contrast, is a descendent from the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and represents 'old' money (Bailey 2006). But a distaste for old money and class discrimination and an admiration for what Walsh represents in terms of achieving the American Dream does not automatically 'prove' that discrimination has taken place.

As a result of his experiences with the co-op, Walsh was granted a $2.2 million out-of-court settlement (Estes 2008). He also has lobbied to pass a bill in the Massachusetts legislature which would require all co-ops to put into writing why they refused a particular candidate (which, interestingly enough, the co-op did) and also limit the reasons individuals could be turned down by a co-op to "one of the few reasons a potential buyer could be rejected by a co-op board would be an inability to afford the unit" (Phillips 2011:1). However, opponents of the bill noted that this would defeat the purpose of a co-op, which is in part to create a community, not a unit simply determined upon the ability of who can pay for particular apartments. Regardless, Walsh's admitted need for a law to enshrine his views underlines that although his case many have generated a great deal of emotional support, it rested on tenuous legal grounds.

References

Bailey, S. (2006). An American Dream denied. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:

http://www.getbig.com/boards/index.php?topic=102286.0;wap2

Estes, A. (2008). Luxury co-op pays $2.2m settlement: Cosmetics mogul alleges realty snub.

The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:

http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2008/09/10/luxury_co_op_pays_22m_settlement/

Navarro, M. (2013). New bill seeks to curb discrimination by co-op boards. The New York

Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/10/nyregion/new-bill-seeks-to-curb-discrimination-by-co-op-boards.html?_r=0

Peterson, I. (1990). As co-ops spread, discrimination concerns grow. The New York Times.

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/25/realestate/as-co-ops-spread-discrimination-concerns-grow.html

Phillips, F. (2011). Spurned by co-op man lobbies legislature again. The Boston Globe.

Retrieved from:

http://www.boston.com/news/local/Massachusetts/articles/2011/07/30/spurned_by_co_op_man__lobbies_legislators_again/… [read more]


Ian Simms Without a Body Case Study

… Ian Moore was able to trace McCourt's and Simms's movement through the apartment based on bloodstain spatter analysis. Moore surmised the fight between McCourt and Simms began just inside Simms's apartment. Moore then noted a trail of blood leading upstairs and across the landing to a rear bedroom where blood spatter on the walls showed the extent to which Simms had beaten McCourt and how he had continued to beat her at floor level (Evans, 2007). Moore concluded that Simms murdered McCourt through strangulation, stabbing, or pummeling her to death, and then bundled her body and belongings before placing them in the trunk of his car (Evans, 2007). Simms was taken into custody on February 14, 1988.

Two weeks later at the beginning of March, a marksman shooting rats found McCourt's handbag, taupe coat, maroon scarf, navy trousers, and green mittens approximately 17 miles from Simms's pub (McCourt, 2011; Evans, 2007). The search perimeter was extended to Hollis Green were investigators found McCourt's coat and clothing belonging to Simms, all of which were heavily bloodstained. Among the clothing recovered was a Labatt's sweatshirt, which was used as part of a promotion at Simms's pub (Evans, 2007). They also found "a knotted length of electric cord" that had strands of McCourt's hair entwined in it (Evans, 2007). The trash bags that had been used to throw the clothes away were matched to those used in the pub by comparing heat seal marks. Also, dog hairs collected from McCourt's clothing matched the Simms's Rottweiler and Black Labrador Retriever (Evans, 2007). Carpet fibers found on McCourt's clothing were matched to the carpet in Simms's apartment.

One of the most groundbreaking pieces of evidence was the DNA profiling performed. In the first of its kind, DNA was collected from McCourt's parents to match the blood found in the pub. It was determined that all three codes were a match and that the blood could not have come from someone other than McCourt. Dr. Alec Jeffreys calculated the blood was 14,500 times more likely to come from one of McCourt's children than from a random stranger (Evans, 2007). Based on this evidence, Simms was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment on March 14, 1989.

References

Evans, C. (2007). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World's Most Baffling Crimes. New York: Berkley Books. Retrieved 5 August

2013, from http://books.google.com/books?id=adKcM055ERoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=evans+ian+simms&source=bl&ots=m8nLle-_-s&sig=VYKVUQoMJIT31tn6RbzUtSwpQac&hl=en&sa=X&ei=L0IAUo7KIKS6yAGDzoH4AQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=evans%20ian%20simms&f=false

McCourt, M. (2011, December 1). I'll never stop searching for my daughter as told to Fiona Duffy. Express: Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. Retrieved 5 August 2013, from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/286994/I-ll-never-stop-searching-for-my-daughter… [read more]


Rent Control Essay

… Rent Control

The basis for the argument against rent control is that rent control takes the market for rental accommodation is taken out of equilibrium, creating a deadweight loss (Investopedia, 2013). Under equilibrium conditions, the supply and demand in the market will match up. In the real world, especially with something like real estate, the market will never truly arrive at equilibrium, but it should trend close to it. What rent controls do is they move both supply and demand away from equilibrium. Rent control is a price cap. If the natural equilibrium point moves upward in terms of price, then the rent cap will mean that P. is not at the natural equilibrium point. If P. is below its natural equilibrium point, then demand will be higher and supply will be lower.

From a purely economic point-of-view, this situation creates a deadweight loss where there is surplus demand that is not being met in the economy. Some people who want an apartment cannot find one. Further, from a social perspective not only will the quantity of rental stock decline, but the quality will as well. The reason for this is that, seeing unmet demand, more potential suppliers will seek to find a way to enter the market profitably, and they will only be able to do this with lower prices that would be normal. To cut costs, buildings are not maintained. Thus, from both an economic and social perspective, rent control is undesirable. In equilibrium, benefits of the market are evenly distributed. Under rent control, economic winners and losers are created, so that some people benefit from the system at the expense of others. Moreover, the lack of efficiency creates the deadweight loss -- potential economic benefit that nobody receives.

2.

Rent controls are not introduced because of economic efficiency, they are the product of political desirability. Economic efficiency, after all, does still create adverse outcomes for people and that creates asymmetry between the economically optimal solution and the politically optimal solution. Housing costs are often a political issue, as they affect the economic well-being of the population. While…… [read more]


Resistance Dancing I Have Experienced Essay

… ¶ … resistance dancing I have experienced in my life is turf dancing, which is similar to gang-related dances like the crip walk, or the hyphy dance. I have seen this dance in Northern California when I go to visit my family members who live there. Turf dancing is usually very rapid, and almost always involves participants 'throwing up their sets'. Whereas in southern California gang dances, sets are particular gang affiliations, in northern California sets are specific neighborhoods that people refer to as turfs. This is a general countercultural movement form of resistance, in which dancers are resisting traditional American values and social conventions. Dancers' preoccupation with the neighborhoods they are representing, and not the actual movements themselves, underscore this fact.

Dance can contribute to social-political change by preserving culture. When people have physical reminders of their culture, they are less likely to accept a new one -- even when it is forced on them, much as new culture was forced upon people of African descent during slavery (Browning). In situations in which people are forced to accept another culture, dance can serve as a catalyst to rebel against it.

I think gentrification is an important social issue, because it is displacing a lot of lower class people. If it continues, soon there will be nowhere for lower class people to live, at least not in the United States. Turf dancing helps to combat gentrification because it reinforces a feeling of pride in people and in their neighborhoods. By continuing to represent their neighborhoods through turf dancing, these dancers can help get the word out about the issue of gentrification by reminding one another of who lives where, and of the threat of outsiders coming in, buying the property inexpensively, and raising the prices so poorer people cannot live there.

I agree with Alyssa that…… [read more]


Federal Government in Dealing Thesis

… " In that regard, those who are most vulnerable to homelessness are individuals in the low income bracket.

In my opinion, the federal government must play a more prominent role in addressing the plight of the homeless. This is more so the case when it comes to funding the construction of housing units that are more affordable. Towards this end, the government could consider further subsidize the construction of more housing units per annum. This in my opinion could help address the severe depletion of affordable housing units throughout the country. Other considerations the federal government should explore include increasing the level of funding advanced to various homeless-service providers. The amount of funds distributed to communities via the relevant agencies in an attempt to boost affordable housing programs should also be increased. Going forward, other federal departments should also be roped in to help in making homelessness history. Departments that could play a vital role in this endeavor include but they are not limited to the Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it should be noted that unless the federal government takes bold measures to increase the number of affordable housing units, the problem of homelessness will not be conclusively addressed anytime soon. The United States of America has both the tools and capabilities to bring to an end the homelessness menace. What lacks in my view is the proper, effective, and strategic utilization of the said tools and capabilities.

References

Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/us/homeless-rates-steady-despite-recession-hud-says.html?ref=housingandurbandevelopmentdepartment

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing… [read more]


Practices Associated With Real Estate Essay

… Finally, the conformity principle is more subtle as compared to progression and regression but is considered to be equally important.

According to conformity the improvements must conform in age, size, style and condition to maximize value. In other words, if… [read more]


Predatory Lending and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis Seminar Paper

… Predatory Lending and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis

The issues with subprime mortgages are recognized by now, with many evasions and consequences for businesses and financiers in a similar way. A lot of writers have been swift to charge what they… [read more]


Future of Community Development Historically Term Paper

… Accordingly, each extension may have various interests that may include ecological, economic, and social. Within each interest lie priorities that may be conflicting among its residents. To minimize conflicts, networking is deemed as a feasible method to connect like-minded individuals with the same interests and flexible boundaries.

Asset Based

Discovering and leveraging the community's current assets denotes this approach. Instead of solving problems, building from existing strengths becomes the emphasis. Being visionary and speculating possible needs will better prepare future generational communities. The power of grass-root efforts becomes paramount, which seeks to draw strengths from local associations and its residents. Meeting current residents' needs without jeopardizing future community needs is the basis for this approach. Emphasis is providing a long-term focus, interlinking infrastructures, and capitalizing strengths (Zautra & Murray, 2009).

Conclusion

The future of community development is evolving into three intentional approaches for effectiveness. Each approach provides avenues to create viable communities, with long-term sustainability. Future generational communities may benefit from its forefathers who cared enough to plan. Importantly, the sum of the whole is greater than its individual parts. Indeed, there is strength in unity, whereby synergy is captured with the collective efforts of many.

References

Zautra, A., Hall, J., & Murray, K. (2009). Community Development and Community Resilience: An Integrative Approach. Community Development, 39(3), 130-147.

Vidal, A.C., & Keating, W. (2004). Community Development: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges. Journal of Urban Affairs, 26(2), 125-137. doi:10.1111/j.0735-2166.2004.00191.x

Community Development Institute (CDI). (2006). Trends and issues in community development: Building sustainable communities. Retrieved from http://sustainabledevelopment.osu.edu/educational-resources/cdi-east-2006-trends

1 of 4… [read more]


Hydrogeological Report: Lipan Aquifer Research Paper

… Several small springs, when they flow, move water only a short distance before it is infiltrated back into the Lipan aquifer or evapotranspirated. Precipitation and lateral cross-formational flow are the main sources of recharge to the Lipan aquifer. Estimates from… [read more]


Housing the Defined Market Research Paper

… The size of the primary and selective demand gap between who has heard of the product and who is seeking out the product and may choose us is practically nil. Since we are currently the only company offering the product the only type of demand that can be attributed is the primary demand. That may change in the future as other companies see what the company is doing and emulate it, but currently that is not the case.

The potential for growth in the marketplace for this product is approximately at a 9 to 1 ratio, or in other words; for every one unit sold there are nine potential units that are not being calculated in the projections. Additionally, there are international markets that could provide sales that have not even been projected at all. There are always new houses being built around the world, many of which are in flood prone areas. This product will initially only be installed by the company, however, future sales of the product could also be done to competitors who can install the product on their own.

Some of the major influences on future sales will include whether the product is seen as an efficient and effective way to combat flooding, and will certainly be a major revenue producer for years to come if it is as effective as it is touted to be. Industry trends may be to develop a better product that is equally as efficient yet less costly, however, as the primary manufacturer of the current product, many of the improvements will come at our own behest as we will constantly be using our experience(s) with…… [read more]


Community What Makes Term Paper

… The only acknowledgement of native peoples was the law in Newfoundland that banned the sale of alcohol to Indians -- which is an outrageously arrogant and ignorant slap in the face to a bona fide community group. By excluding the Mi'kmaq in the Terms of Union, that basically meant that no Mi'kmaq living in the province had "access to or received any of the benefits, statutory advantages or rights provided by the Parliament and Government of Canada" (White).

However, that having been pointed out, a small group of "mostly Mi'kmaq band members in the coastal town of Conne River in Newfoundland has "gone from being poor and isolated with high unemployment to a strong and vibrant community with nearly 100% employment," according to "Transcript: Miawpukek First Nation." This group of first peoples began their community development with Christmas tree farms and fisheries, but have expanded their economic growth to a point that has become self-supporting. In conclusion, the fact that the Mi'kmaq has engaged in community development that has strong economic footings, and has provided good education and opportunities for everyone -- in the face of a distant government that didn't seem to care -- shows what a community can do for itself, and stands as a glowing positive symbol for other groups elsewhere in Canada and in the world.

Works Cited

[Chapter 1] "Importance of Community"

[Chapter 2] "Introduction to Community Development"

Thomas, Lori…… [read more]


Negotiations -- Real Life Bargaining Research Paper

… Negotiations -- Real Life Bargaining and Negotiation

The negotiation process never has -- nor will it ever have -- a "one-size-fits-all" strategy. In fact there so many theories, strategies, tactics and books with hands-on advice about how to negotiate a… [read more]


Federal Legislation and Impact Essay

… Assisting homeowners from foreclosure is appropriate and necessary. This plan was extended and refined in 2011 by the Obama Administration.

Chapter 23: Condominiums and Timeshares

Buyers should be aware of rules that may prohibit the approval of a loan for a particular condominium property. For both FHA and conventional loans the unit needs be at least 50% owner occupied, if not, the loan will not be approved. Buyers should ensure the HOA does not have any pending litigation and that the HOA is well-funded, absent any of these factors and securing a loan for the condo can prove to be quite difficult.

There is an active condo market in my area. For people who looking to own property they find relative cost to own a condo compared to a single family home is much less. The economy in my area (Washington, DC) is supported heavily by government jobs. The healthy job market attracts tens of thousands of people annually, including younger workers who purchase a condo as their first home.

Chapter 24: Property Insurance

Lenders require property insurance to protect both parties against loss or damage to the property. Some lenders require a Loan Policy, which is based on the dollar amount of the loan. It is protection for the lender in the event of a title issue. Owner's title insurance protects the buyer if an issue comes up in regards to the title that was not previously found during a title search. In additional almost all lenders require homeowners insurance. Homeowners insurance usually covers the dwelling personal property, liability and loss of use. In some areas flood insurance may also be required.

Allowing a policy to lapse will leave the homeowner at risk, without insurance the homeowner will have absorb the full financial and legal implications in the instance of an adverse event. Homeowners can not only lose their homes but run the risk of being sued and even bankruptcy. Homeowners will be forced indemnify all parties if found responsible and have to fund the replacement of their own property in case of loss or damage. For this reason, it is not wise to allow homeowner insurance policies to lapse for a significant period of time.

References

Collins, Michelle. "Opening Doors to Fair Housing: Enforcing the Affirmatively Further Provision of the Fair Housing Act Through 42 U.S.C § 1983" Columbia Law Review Vol. 110:2135-2010: 2137-2183.

Washington, DC. Department of Treasury.…… [read more]


Performance of the Middle East Property Markets Data Analysis Chapter

… Performance of the Middle East Property Markets

Over the last several years, the real estate market in the Middle East has been through a tremendous amount of challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the different oil exporting… [read more]


Webster, C. ). The New Institutional Economics Article Review

… Webster, C. (2005). The new institutional economics and the evolution of modern urban planning: Insights, issues and lessons. Town Planning Review, 76 (4), 455 -- 502.

Planning, also called: urban, city or regional planning; is a dynamic profession that improves the welfare of people and their communities. as, this is creating more: convenient, equitable, healthy, efficient and attractive places for future generations to live (Bremer, 2008, p. 35). Webster (2005) found that urban planning is continuously facing increasing amount of scrutiny and constantly evolving. As it is re-inventing itself and it seeks to understand how cities develop the boundary between: market forces and government policy (p. 455).

He further emphasized that it is important to determine the role of the market and the government in the allocation of property rights (over limited land-related resources). Moreover, he examined the theoretical insights of urban planning from the New Institutional Economics and he drew insights, based on the modern British town. The issues, on the institutional design problems that are present in urban planning were also addressed, which included the controversy on: whether or not rights should be distributed between the states / and the private property owners.

At which point, the article focused on the practice of urban planning, in stimulating new ways of thinking of the ideas, in assisting those who are the in profession of conceptualizing what they do. While, seeing possibilities for what could be accomplished (Webster, 2005, p. 456)

However, Webster failed to discuss the historical background of: urban planning and its impact on various controversies. The relation of the development of urban planning, to its issues should have been discussed in: a context that causal relationships would be determined. This could have been accomplished, by providing more means of improvement that will help in avoiding certain issues.

This also, includes various disciplines that are associating, all elements that make up a town. Webster could have made improvements in his article, by providing a discussion on the beginnings of urban planning, in order to offer more information about: it and the details.

As a process of improving a city's ability to: make communication, living conditions, transportation and public facilities more efficient. as, urban planning has included: the communities and highways, as a part of its regional focus. In its earliest account, this is a vital element for the strategies of ancient cities like Babylon and Nineveh, where it served as the primary basis for their designs. The Chinese and the Greeks adopted a similar approach in the construction of their main streets. While, the Romans used it to solve their problems on: drainage and water supply.

Bremer, D. (2008). Planning tomorrow's urban world. International Educator, 17, 32 -- 39.

In Bremer's (2008) article, she provided a description of urban planners. These are people who usually work in rural / suburban areas, as well as in large cities around the world, for: nonprofit and nongovernment agencies. This is usually within the private sector for multidisciplinary consulting firms to: interact… [read more]


Land Assemblage Problem Discussion and Results Chapter

… Land Assemblage

The discussion of land assemblage and its connectivity to urban renewal must focus on economic issues as well as those of eminent domain. Of particular interest in this regard is the decision in Kelo v. City of New London, a case in which the U.S. Supreme Court "held that the city's taking of private property to sell for private development qualified as a "public use" within the meaning of the takings clause" (Oyez.org. 2005). The decision highlights the significant differences inherent in the development of developed land as opposed to undeveloped tracts. Private developers who invest their own capital in redevelopment projects are not the focus of questions on eminent domain as it relates to urban renewal projects; rather significant policy issues arise when government utilizes its taking power for assemblage purposes designed to invigorate and revive blighted communities.

Land assemblage at its most basic level is "the combining of two or more parcels, usually but not necessarily contiguous, into one ownership or use; the process that creates plottage value" (Parli, R. 2005). Local governments for reasons of urban renewal are often forced to use their eminent domain power to take property from private individuals and develop it with the intent of reducing "blight" in the community. The question of what defines "blight" is not a topic for this discussion however, its traditional and historic roots are in the redevelopment of areas which have "obsolescence, dilapidation, or deleterious land uses" (Gordon, C. 2004). The logic of using eminent domain and public money for the purposes of strengthening an economically blighted area is straightforward when there is a public use of the assemblage property, however; the issue becomes more complex when the power of eminent domain is used to…… [read more]


Eminent Domain Discussion and Results Chapter

… Eminent Domain

According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD 2011), eminent domain is defined as "an exercise of the power of government or quasi-government agencies (such as airport authorities, highway commissions, community development agencies, and utility companies) to take private property for public use." The consent of the property owner is not required. Governments might, for instance, seize private property for the purpose of building roads and other public infrastructure or ensuring public safety. In this sense, eminent domain is related to the process by which law enforcement may appropriate public property for the purposes of promoting public safety and welfare. For example, a police officer can legally (if not temporarily) use private homes or cars for the purposes of law enforcement in a process that is not dissimilar from eminent domain.

Government zoning is a totally different concept from eminent domain. However, eminent domain may be used in the process of government zoning. For example, the government might determine the need to build a new school in an area of dilapidated housing. Zoning goals will have determined the need for the school, and the government uses eminent domain to achieve those zoning goals. Zoning might also affect the aesthetic or lifestyle objectives of urban planners. "The Supreme Court has approved generally the widespread use of the power of eminent domain by federal and state governments in conjunction with private companies to facilitate urban renewal, destruction of slums, erection of low-cost housing in place of deteriorated housing, and the promotion of aesthetic values as well as economic ones," ("National Eminent Domain Power," n.d).

The process by which the government proclaims eminent domain in the United States is relatively simple. At the federal level, HUD must consent to the taking (HUD 2011). At the local level, the government or its representative agency contacts the owner of the property and offers to buy it. If the owner agrees to the initial price, then the government has successfully exercised its right to eminent domain. In many cases, the two parties negotiate the selling price with the aid of attorneys at law. Private property owners frequently fight the government…… [read more]


Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan Research Paper

… Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan

The Roppongi Hills is one of Tokyo's largest in newest urban centers. At the center of the district is the 54 story Mori Tower, which features an integrated urban community that allows people to live, work,… [read more]


Squatting Has Had a Long History Worldwide Essay

… Squatting has had a long history worldwide, especially as concepts and laws related to property ownership change. Although most American media focuses on squatting movements in New York City, other cities in the United States are seeing squatters take over abandoned or foreclosed properties. The economic recession has driven many landowners out of their homes. Some are opting to ignore eviction notices, while other homeowners are becoming inadvertent landlords when homeless squatters take advantage of the indoor space. In some cities, squatting has become a political response to income disparity. Organizations like Take Back the Land in Miami works to place new "tenants" in abandoned homes, even setting them up with "secondhand furniture, cleaning supplies and yard upkeep. So far, he has moved six families into foreclosed homes and has nine on a waiting list," ("As Foreclosures Rise, Squatters Lay Claims"). As with Europe, the United States has been demonstrating a willingness to view squatting as a form of peaceful protest.

Squatting is a form of social justice, a politically subversive reaction to injustice and income disparity. When rents are artificially high -- or at least higher than local residents can afford -- many legal tenants are driven from their homes. The result is a glut of empty property and a simultaneous humanitarian crisis from increased homelessness. Squatting is viewed as a viable solution to mitigate problems like overly powerful landlords and economies that prejudice the poor.

In New York City, squatting made recent headlines when eleven buildings on the Lower East Side sold for $1 each. The city of New York basically donated the buildings at this price, giving them to a non-profit group that then handed the buildings over to 200+ squatters living inside. Cities are not always on the side of squatters, but increasing numbers of city representatives and law enforcement officials are taking stances in favor of squatters' rights. "Carol Abrams of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development said the arrangement was made possible because the city does not want to displace people while creating code compliant housing," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC"). In other words, the city understood the humanitarian and social justice issues at stake. There is no reason why a building should remain abandoned when in fact there are too many homeless people already. "The city preferred to have the squatters -- who will continue to live in the buildings while they are brought up to code -- inherit their seized homes rather than be shown the curb in a time of rising homelessness in New York City," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC").

One of the most remarkable success stories in the history of squatting, the New York experiment shows how poverty can be squelched by simple and peaceful activism. The city understood that the squatters, when empowered by being given homes, would be instrumental in helping the neighborhood gentrify as well as the building. In return, the squatters become owners in a… [read more]


New Suburban Poverty Essay

… But it is also a fact that less affluent people are slowly but surely finding their way into suburbs anyway" and Press hopes that this will result in new voting patterns more favorable to the interests of the poor (Press 2007). Press' optimism seems undercut by the recent, overwhelming victory for Tea Party and Republican candidates, overwhelmingly supported by white, suburban voters. A presence within the suburbs does not always translate into electoral victory, if members of the so-called underclass do not vote. One of the dangers of the suburbs may be its spread-out nature, and there is a lack of cohesion and ability to mobilize, versus more urban environments.

Press believes that affordable housing a vital component in providing a meaningful solution to the problem of suburban poverty. And as well as mobilizing the poor to take back the ballot box, to realize Press' dream, the courts may also be required. Recently, "a 3-year-old federal lawsuit, filed by the Anti-Discrimination Center, accusing [Westchester] County of taking tens of millions of dollars in federal housing grants while falsely certifying that it was living up to its legal requirement to provide affordable housing without reinforcing racial segregation" was won when "Judge Denise L. Cote ruled that between 2000 and 2006 the county had, indeed, misrepresented its actions and had made little or no effort to place affordable homes in overwhelmingly white communities where residents objected" (Fair housing in the suburbs, 2009, The New York Times). Only though anti-discrimination lawsuits, voting and meaningful social justice campaigns can change be enacted: food banks merely provide band-aid solutions to the problem of suburban poverty.

References

Allard, Scott & Benjamin Roth. (2010, October). Strained suburbs: The social service challenges of rising suburban poverty. The Brookings Institute. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2010/1007_suburban_poverty_allard_roth.aspx

Cawthorne, Alexandra. (2010, October 27). Trouble in the suburbs: Poverty rises in areas outside cities. American Progress. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/10/trouble_in_the_suburbs.html/print.html

Fair housing in the suburbs. (2009, August 12). Editorial. The New York Times.

Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/opinion/11tue3.html

Press, Eyal. (2007, April 23). The new suburban poverty. The Nation.

Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.thenation.com/article/new-suburban-poverty… [read more]


Rental Values and Capital Valuation Methods Term Paper

… Rental Values and Capital Valuation Methods:

Methods of Assessing Rental Value:

Assessing rental values does not only involve several methods but it's also an intricate and testing process to both academicians and practitioners. it's a difficult and demanding process because it encompasses scrutinizing the rental property, market conditions and neighborhood characteristics. The rental housing market is considered to be both imperfect and inefficient given that the product is long-term, set on a particular site, varied and managed by wide-ranging governmental regulations. The market conditions of an area are not necessarily the actual representation of other market conditions given that every rental housing market is limited to a particular area.

Assessing the rental value helps in determining the fair rental value which is the amount that an educated and willing renter would pay in a competitive market. The fair rental value that is determined after the assessment can also be considered as the amount which an informed and educated renter would accept for the short-term use and gratification of the property ("Rental Value," n.d.). The various methods of assessing rental value should help in the scrutiny of factors that establishes market rents of a given area. There are some two major methods by which rental values are assessed which are & #8230;

Multiple Regression Method:

This is the first and traditional method by which rental values are assessed and is considered as a parametric technique that requires the client to identify the practical form of the solution. This method has been used primarily to scrutinize the price manners of rental houses in the existing literature. The multiple regression method is however associated with many difficulties in assessing rental values because of the requirement of the user to specify the practical form of the solution. In cases where the user is ignorant of or cannot estimate the primary form of the practical relationship, the technique provides results that are in inaccurate models. Notably, this method of assessing rental values permits the use of a very common polynomial equation in situations where the practical relationship is likely to be nonlinear (Kim & Nelson, 1996).

However, the application of this method in the assessment of rental values makes it practically impossible to approximate all coefficients since the basic number of all the coefficients to be estimated increases. The number of the coefficients to be approximated continues to increase factorially because of the increase in the number of variables and function degrees. The major difficulty associated with this method is that the survey data used are usually erroneous, partial and unclear leading to inaccurate results.

Abductive Learning Networks (ALN) Method:

This is the second method by which rental values are assessed and can be used to overcome the various challenges that are associated with the multiple regression method. This technique uses both the arithmetical functions for numeric knowledge representation and a synthetic neural network formation to simplify the learning of practical models. Simplifying the assignment of learning practical models is made possible by subdividing multifaceted… [read more]


Sustainable Engineering Practice Book Report

… Sustainable Engineering Practice

Water is an essential, replenishable resource. Water resources require conservation regardless of whether a country has high or low rainfall. Regional autonomy and varying local conditions also call for local specientic plans and approaches to water resource conservation and utilization.

As water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, a future trend must be towards more and better utilization of water, in particular rainwater, in urban systems. Rainwater is a discarded resource, and its mismanagement can result in major environmental problems and disruptions such as urban run-off. 41 But there are simple technologies available that local governments can introduce, which can save rainwater for drinking and other purposes. The big dam age is, by and large, unfinished, with only a few dams in the world really having lived up to initial expectations. Rather, alternative approaches are needed, such as smaller cascading dam engineering and applications of underground dam technologies.

Cities are great consumers, and water is no exception. They require large amounts of water to sustain themselves, owing to the sheer numbers and density of housing. To meet their demands, there has been a variety of ways in which cities have accessed water and managed needs. The most typical pattern to date has been to build a large dam or central water supply and pipe in the water as needed. This type of exercise can be ecologically disruptive, as well as costly. One of the resources that maintains potential for exploitation is rainwater, as a renewable natural resource to which we generally have access. Usually cities have access to rainfall, which opens up possibilities for its improved application and for innovative water management methods. Generally, the larger a town or city, the more difficult it is to achieve sustainable water resources and to maintain regional water circulation. The following three scenarios illustrate problems which exist worldwide:

Scenario 1: Groundwater is available in adequate quantities and of good quality, but the demand for potable water continues to rise with the growth of the town, while the new formation rate for groundwater is reduced because rainwater can no longer seep into the subsoil naturally. More roads, paths, paved areas, dwellings, public buildings, and industrial plants work to seal the surface, and the town comes to "import" potable water from other regions, which endangers nature through heavy extraction of water and dependency on this region. Another problem concerns the quantity of rainwater flowing off the surface, which rises dramatically when the surface is sealed. This causes flood damage and rising costs for sewers and the cleaning of wastewater.

Scenario 2: Potable water is obtained from surface water, a river or lake. The treatment for making potable water is technically expensive because other communities lead their poorly cleaned wastewater into these open waters. As a result of this exercise, potable water becomes extremely expensive;…… [read more]


Family Business Business Plan

… Family Business

Over the last three years, the commercial real estate market has faced a number of different challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the depth of recession, has been having a profound impact on retail businesses.… [read more]


Niosh Fire Fighter Investigation and Prevention Program Thesis

… NIOSH Fire Fighter Investigation / Prevention

When errors in judgment occur and correct firefighter safety practices are violated, accidents, injuries, and even deaths can result. In the case of the February 9, 2007 fire training exercise on South Calverton Road,… [read more]


Regional Analysis Chinatown Manhattan Is Not Unique Thesis

… Regional Analysis

Chinatown Manhattan is not unique in terms of its demographic nature as mostly composed of Chinese immigrants. Many other American cities also include Chinatown districts. However, the neighborhood in Manhattan has until recently had the somewhat unique status of being the largest enclave of Chinese immigrants not only in the country, but in the entire Western Hemisphere. Chinatown Manhattan attained this status during the 1980s, when it surpassed Chinatown San Francisco in size. Interestingly, size is a fluid, dynamic thing, particularly in terms of cultural regions. The Chinese community in Flushing, Queens, close to Manhattan's Chinatown, has recently outgrown it in number of citizens.

In terms of location, Chinatown Manhattan originated on Mott, Par, Pell and Doyer streets, close to the Five Points district. The traditional borders of Chinatown, valid until the 1970s, were Canal Street (North), the Bowery (East), Worth Street (South), and Baxter Street (West) (AAFNY).

The growth of the region since the 1970s is closely connected to the political issues of the time. Changes to the American immigration laws during 1965 allowed a large increase of immigrants from Asia, which led to an explosion of Chinatown's population. Consequently, the 1970s saw the absorption of Little Italy by Chinatown (AAFNY).

The government subsidized much-needed housing projects in Chinatown, including Confucius Plaza in 1976, which included both residential units and a new public grade school. The former Eastern-European Jewish occupied Lower East Side also became a largely Chinatown neighborhood during the 1990s.

The dynamic growth of the neighborhood is further exemplified by its current geographic borders: Dilancey Street (north), East Broadway (East), Broadway (West) and Chambers Street (South). From north to south, the area stretches to approximately one mile, while it covers two miles in the east-west direction. In addition to its size, Chinatown is also interesting in terms of its residential size.

According the AAFNY, Chinatown Manhattan differs from most others of its kind across the United States in that it features as both a residential and commercial region. Population estimates range from 150,000 to 250,000 or even 350,000 residents. The residents of the region have a tendency towards low participation in the U.S. Census, mainly because of language barriers and illegal immigration. In terms of employment, the some 200-300 Chinese restaurants in the region offer income opportunities for cooks and waiters, although there are also some sweat shops. The local garment industry offers part-time employment for home workers, as it focuses on quick production in small volumes. Population growth is generally due to immigration, with generations that gain language and employment skills moving to the more affluent areas of New York.

In determining whether Chinatown might…… [read more]


Fire Prevention and Early Fire Detection Devices Research Proposal

… Fire Safety History And Current Research

The history of fire safety and prevention is generally associated with the events of the Industrial Revolution. Here, the proliferation of factory working contexts and the dangers of highly mechanized processes of operation would… [read more]


Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed Book Review

… ¶ … Barbara Ehrenreich's

Nickel and Dimed

Barbara Ehrenreich's book Nickel and Dimed explores the nasty and depressing life of minimum-wages earners and their struggles to sustain a healthy existence. Ehrenreich's goal is to shine the light on American poverty… [read more]


Green Housing Term Paper

… Green Housing

Green home-building businesses: Controls and follow-up

Controls

One critical aspect of quality control inherent in any green home building business is that of home inspection. Home inspection is important to ensure the safety of the inhabitants of any residential structure, but for a green home, the environmentally-friendly aspects advertised by the builder or seller must also be validated. New residents will often want to ensure that their homes are inspected by certified, independent professional home inspectors. Fortunately, associations such as the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors, Inc. are offering courses specifically designed for green home inspectors. Inspecting the structures before sale and providing buyers with a copy of the energy audit is one way to guarantee that the home is genuinely green, and not merely advertized as such. On a state-by-state basis, many associations such as GreenPoint Rated Existing Home in California provide rating systems for homes engaged in energy upgrades, which can be useful for remodeled homes. "A major objective of the Existing Home rating system is to educate homeowners about the benefits of green remodeling and to provide a pathway for making continued improvements" (Build it green announces partnership with the California Real Estate Inspection Association, 2009, Build it Green).

High-quality inspection is essential given that some green buildings will command a higher price than standard structures and consumers will want to know why green remodeling can save them money. Consumers interested in green building are likely to want proof that the structures will show genuine value over time, and are genuinely energy-efficient, in accordance with EPA regulations. For the builder, when subcontracting aspects of the green structure, such as energy-efficient windows, appliances or other materials, reviewing the validity of these credentials is important so the builder gets maximum value from such input materials. The EPA's Energy Star program certifies the 'greenness' of specific products.…… [read more]


Green Housing Building a Green Home Term Paper

… Green Housing

Building a green home building business: skills, capabilities, experience

Skills

Communication skills are vital in the home building industry, particularly the green home building industry. An individual must be able to communicate why a green home has financial and aesthetic value to prospective buyers. He or she must also be able to work well with suppliers and bargain a fair deal on input goods and prices. Negotiation and time management are essential in coordinating the various actors involved in home building to do a good job, and a timely job. So is budgeting and writing an effective business plan.

Capabilities

Multitasking is essential -- an individual must be able to deal with suppliers as well as sell homes at the same time. An individual in the industry must be able to balance cost and affordability with genuinely environmentally-friendly technology. A balance of aesthetics and environmentalism is also important when creating a home's design. A green home builder must know how to provide added financial as well as ethical value that is better than his or her competitors, even those in the standard home-building industry.

Experience

An individual should be well-versed in different types of mortgages, and the home buying and building industry. This requires a background in business, real estate, and some financial training. He or she should also know about outside elements that affect supply and demand in the industry, such as seasonal changes in demand, property values, quality of schools in the area, availability of credit, and what makes a house attractive to different market demographics. A high level of comfort…… [read more]


International Competitiveness Politics and Policy Essay

… International Competitiveness, Politics and Policy

Globalization

As Thomas Friedman clearly states in the Lexus and the Olive Tree, globalization is not just a trend. Globalization is not just a trend that countries or companies may choose to follow or not… [read more]


Southwest Water Issue Research Proposal

… Southwest - Water Issue

Southwest - Facing Serious Water Issues

It is no secret that the Southwest is largely a desert, so it is not uncommon for the land to be dry and parched. However, recent developments have shown that the Southwest Basin will be facing several serious water management challenges throughout the next three decades. Land use planning and conservation are ways to help alleviate this, but they must begin now if the relentless drought and low precipitation that have been occurring are to be adjusted for. The people who live in that area must have water, but it is running out. Since it is not possible to make more water, what is available must last longer, and as the population grows it must be spread out between more people. Conservation practices such as standards and ordinances are being implemented in order to keep enough water available for everyone to use, but a shortfall of almost 5,000 gallons is still expected by 2030 (Water, n.d.). There are a lot of urban areas springing up as well, and they put heavier demands on an already depleted water supply (Great, n.d.). The same heavier strain is being felt with farmers, as their water…… [read more]


Why Suburb Development Occurred Thesis

… Suburbanization: Identifying Convincing Rationale in Support of the Process

Throughout history, mankind has tend to migrate to large, densely populated urban centers in an effort to provide themselves with mutual support and protection, as well as to engage in trade… [read more]


Business Research - Financial Hardship Research Proposal

… Business Research - "Financial Hardship for most Cities to Grow in '09"

After decades of tremendous successes, the American economy now finds itself at a crossroads. Tormented by an increasing price for crude oil, a weakening dollar in the background of a strengthening euro, its involvement in international wars and the record high federal debt, the harsh effects of the real estate crisis or the insufficient labor force (in both numbers and training, against the aging of the baby boomers which imply increased health care costs), the American entrepreneur finds himself in difficult times. And all these forces generate one more negative implication for the players in the business communities: they increase the costs of cities, while also decreasing their revenues.

An article focused on analyzing the financial difficulties of the American cities was featured on the 15th of September 2008 in Business Week. Andrew Welsh-Huggins, the author of "Financial Hardship for most Cities to Grow in '09" is focused on revealing the challenges faced by the American cities in the current background. His study sample is composed of various cities, including Columbus in Ohio, Palm Bay in Florida or Indianapolis. The cities have been selected based on common features, and have also been analyzed from the lens of common forces which influence them, such as the real estate crisis or the revenues registered by the local offices.

The most relevant similarity between these cities, but also between most American cities, is that only until recently, they used to be registering increasing revenues. Today however, their revenues are decreasing and becoming insufficient to support a sustainable growth and development of the urban structures. In the words of the author, "Cities for a long while now have been on the upside of the curve, generally experiencing pretty good growth in revenues," said Chris Hoene, director of policy and…… [read more]


Eminent Domain Rulings Are Frequently Minimally Damaging Term Paper

… Eminent Domain rulings are frequently minimally damaging to property owners, as only small portions of land have been seized for government use, yet there are also many cases a year where a government entity, be it state, local or federal utilizes eminent domain laws to seize or purchase property that includes domestic residences. In such cases the municipality often has the upper hand, with regard to purchase price as they can dictate the purchase price at any level the individual is willing to accept or set the rate of purchase at the tax assessed value of the property, a rate that is usually significantly lower than the fair market value of the property. Additionally, the municipality may argue in favor of a purchase price determined by the value of the land itself, not including the improvements upon it, including homes and other buildings as the value becomes very limited once the announcement of eminent domain seizure has occurred. In short, the government can set the rate of reimbursement to property owners, wherever they want it to be as they are going to be the only ones willing to pay for it, once they have decided they want it.

The Fifth Amendment provides the legal standard for eminent domain: "nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation." (1) Thus, there are two constitutional requirements for the exercise of eminent domain: that the use be public, and that the owner receive just compensation.

(Talley 759)

The problem that arises from the circumstance is that "just" is not a very definitive description of compensation and individuals facing the might of a government may feel intimidated and overpowered to the point of accepting the first offer the government makers, as if it is a mandate rather than an offer. Additionally, the individuals that would be most likely to be hurt by the process would be people who had little or no concept of the fair market value of their property. This is likely to be people who have lived in their homes for a long time, such as the elderly, who also might have a stiff sense of respect for authority or the poor who have limited resources and often education to fight such authority.

Bright 83)

An additional issue regarding the use of eminent domain is that of the first constitutional stipulation, that the property be intended for public use. In recent years there have been many challenges to actions by municipalities with regard to what defines public use. As in the last 100 years municipalities have tended to loosely apply the term public to almost any purpose that denotes economic growth and development. "By the Twentieth Century it appeared that the narrow doctrine, where it still ostensibly existed, constituted at best a minor hindrance to liberal use of the eminent domain power. (103)" (Cohen 491) the frustrating part is that in many cases the property will actually be held by private developers who will likely stand to gain… [read more]


Rise of Modern America Term Paper

… Frederick Law Olmsted describes the challenges of urban planning in the nineteenth century including issues related to public transportation and public works such as municipal water. A landscape developer, Olmsted envisions the possible solutions to the problems sudden urban growth and industrial development pose. Olmsted, who writes for a general audience in a persuasive manner, claims that urban growth is an unavoidable fact of modernization. Framing urban development in positive terms, Olmsted suggests large-scale transit projects, sanitation projects, and access to sources of energy. The author mentions also the scores of people who commute to the cities for work and cites reasons why urban living can be preferable to rural lifestyles because of the greater access to sources of business and education. Olmsted is concerned with retaining quality of life in the midst of rapid industrial and urban development.

Long before the cause for labor unions blossomed in the United States, Dr. John B. Whitaker lists the possible repercussions of working in…… [read more]


Family Business in Real Estate Term Paper

… ¶ … East Coast Real Estate Families

The Rudin Family:

What family member started the Rudin business and when?

The English Rudin Family originally came from Leicestershire, where they were seated as the Lords of the Manor. (Rudin family crest… [read more]


To Prohibit Building High Rises Buildings Term Paper

… ¶ … building high-rise buildings in any area and many times the appropriateness of such projects are questionable to say the least. If a developer were to request permission to build a high-rise building in my community I would have to strongly urge the city government to deny such a request.

One reason why I would urge such a denial would be due to the water problem currently being experienced throughout the country and especially in my community. That problem, of course, is the lack of water, and a dwindling water supply.

High-rise building fire water supply system (HFWS) is the basic element of fire protection system of high-rise buildings. Its features are high water consumption, higher water pressure and self-relief ability" (Qi, 2002, p. 71). Since buildings of the stature of a high-rise depend on high water consumption and even higher water pressure, it would be my suggestion that such water supply and pressure would come at the expense of other consumers. Other consumers would either have to pay higher prices for the water they are consuming, or have less access to that water. More and more cities and communities are requiring more stringent guidelines in regards to fire protection systems in high-rise buildings including Houston, where city planners recently changed the building codes. "In November 2005, the Houston City Council passed an ordinance requiring that owners of existing high-rises equip their structures with fire sprinklers in the next 12 years" (Monikowski, Woodcock, 2007, p. 30)

Houston is not the only city that is worried about the risk of fire in high-rise buildings. "With the passage of this ordinance, Houston joined the list of cities putting new requirements in place for the installation of fire-sprinkler systems in high-rise buildings" (Monikowski, Woodcock, 2007, p. 30).

Actions such as the ones taken by Houston city planners are understandable considering the state of the world today, and the fact that high-rise buildings can become targets for terrorist actions, actions that can cause huge fires and all the issues that go along with a fire in a high-rise building. In Monikowski's (et al.) article, he goes on to state that, "Fire-sprinkler protection in high-rise buildings is challenging; there are many issues and considerations to be addressed" (p.30) and that one of the main challenges to be considered from the start would be the availability of a nearby water supply.

Having to supply water to the building would drain the resources that the community already holds dear.

Another concern in developing a high-rise building in the community would be that it would take away the line of sight currently enjoyed by all the citizens of the community. A high-rise building would block the wonderful view of the various topography and abundant botany currently found throughout the community. Esthetic views of the local landscape would no longer be viewable and would likely lead to a lower morale for those individuals in the community that enjoy such sights.

Our community has bloomed into a beautiful and… [read more]


Real Estate Condominium Exhibits the Mixed Attributes Term Paper

… Real Estate

Condominium exhibits the mixed attributes of cooperative and condominium elements and is created when a landlord splits a commercial and residential mixed-use building into many large condominiums, then again divides each condominium into that of a residential cooperative.… [read more]


Water Restrictions Block Billing Term Paper

… Water Restrictions

Block Billing and Water Restrictions

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze water restrictions in Lubbock Texas. Specifically it will discuss local water restrictions and the block billing system that the city council designed.… [read more]


Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs Essay

… ¶ … Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs -- from Levittown to today's gated communities

To understand the power of the suburban ideal upon the modern American consciousness it is necessary to go far back in American history, even before the ideal of "Leave it to Beaver" became the benchmark of wholesomeness in the American cultural mindset. The photographs of Jacob Riis of tenement life during the turn of the 20th century are a powerful testimony to the cramped, dehumanized conditions of individuals living in urban locations, the result of rapid urbanization and a rapid rise in immigration. Even in the 19th century, as America was only beginning to industrialize, the ideal of the suburban homesteader proclaimed that finding one's own patch of land, rather than renting and dwelling in close proximity to other people in a rented space was the only true, right way to live. America is a democratic nation, founded upon ideals of meritocracy -- but also the Jeffersonian ideal of the gentleman farmer. Is there any wonder that most Americans wish, in their own lives, to embody this Jeffersonian ideal and to become owners of their own plot of land?

The American dream of home ownership only became a reality for many returning GIs and their families in the 1950s, with the advent of Levittown, or small, suburban planned communities where all of the houses looked fairly similar, but individuals were still able to have some sense of personal space, away from their extended families and nearby neighbors. "The basic orientation of the house was a combination of historical precedent, social engineering, and sheer financial pragmatism...The Levitt model was, finally, a compromise between extreme economy and the promise of an appropriate living space for an American family. Small at first, it could expand with time -- upward, first, then outward. Though the views Levitt's organization promoted showed a two-story structure, in fact only the downstairs was finished: a tiny, two-bedroom detached dwelling on a concrete slab, with stairs to an unfinished 'expansion attic' which could, Levitt's salespeople promised, be converted with ease into a third and perhaps even a fourth bedroom, under the eaves" (Clark 2007).

The houses were tiny and affordable, some priced at only $8,000. Early Levitt designs still harked back, according to architecture historian Peter Bacon Hales, to earlier concepts of urban 'neighborhoods,' such as the fact that the kitchen looked out into the street so that mothers could keep an eye on their children playing, rather than onto the backyard, which was later to become the focus of suburban childhood. But the houses proved appealing because, above all, built within the ideal of economy with the potential for expansion was the concept that every American family was entitled to his or her own home, and that home could be customized and expanded upon as the family presumably financially prospered and enjoyed the American dream. The success of the family would be proclaimed by the beautification and the changes written upon the face of… [read more]


Ergonomic Factors in Work Activities Ergonomic Life Cycles Term Paper

… Ergonomics - Work Activities

The excitement of moving into a newly bought house is often so overwhelming that little thought is given to possible difficulties with maintenance and repair issues. A newly-wed couple moved into a house that was badly in need of repair, having been built some decades ago. They obtained all the necessary permits and professionals to complete the job and prepared to live happily ever after in their new home some months after purchasing the property.

While repairs were made to all aspects of the house above ground, in terms of electrical wiring, cracks in the walls and floors, and the like, no attention was given to plumbing or the position of water pipes. The happy couple was therefore not aware that the underground plumbing system was also in need of considerable repair. Furthermore, they were not aware that the garage housing their car was built more recently than the rest of the house, and located over one of the water pipes running from the plumbing system of the house. It was therefore to their great surprise that, when trying to leave for work one morning, that the husband found his car in the middle of a pool of water gushing from a previously unnoticed crack in the garage floor. One of the water pipes underneath the garage had burst and was leaking through the floor.

The result was greatly inconvenient to the couple in terms of both finance and practical issues. The husband had to take a day off from work to call the plumber for an assessment of the damage. Because the floor of the garage was made of thick, hard concrete, repair to the pipes would take around two weeks. The floor had to be broken to reach the pipe in question. Because the water supply had to be switched off to make the repairs, the couple had to rent alternative premises to stay during the two weeks of the repair process. They were therefore not home on a continuous basis and suffered considerable stress as a result of worrying about safety issues. Because it was an urgent matter, they could only find a hotel room…… [read more]


Housing Starts This Leading Economic Term Paper

… Conversely, lower interest rates increases housing affordability and spurs homes sales and housing starts. Housing data also can have a significant impact on the bond market.

Personal Income

Personal income measures income from all sources. The largest component of total income is wages and salaries, a figure, which can be estimated using payrolls and earnings data from the employment report. Beyond that, there are many other categories of income, including rental income, government subsidy payments, interest income, and dividend income. Personal income is a decent indicator of future consumer demand, but it is not perfect. Recessions usually occur when consumers stop spending, which then drives down income growth. Looking solely at income growth, one may therefore miss the turning point when consumers stop spending.

References

"Economic Indicators - Housing Starts." Investopedia.com. 2005. Investopedia.com. 11 July

2005 .

"Overview of Hawaii's Economy." www.state.hi.us. www.state.hi.us. 11 July 2005

.… [read more]


Change in Supply Demand and Pricing Term Paper

… Organizational Development

The construction industry and the 'supply' of new homes are investigated for this study. Low interest rates on mortgages in the U.S. have encouraged individuals to buy rather than rent. In turn, builders anticipating this demand have been involved in new constructions at a very brisk rate. The construction industry has generally had a cyclic trend. At present, the market appears to be at a high peak in this cycle. Many experts in the field are predicting that a construction bubble burst is eminent. (Clark, 2005)

Traditionally, most home prices tend to rise with rising incomes and tend to also keep pace with the Federal Reserve System's (Fed) interest rate determination. In reality, construction boom has begun to outpace demand in the U.S. The flush economy of the 90s and the increasing trend of individuals to own a second home had spurred on the construction. Despite the increased construction trends in homes, the relative price of homes has also been soaring. The price jump in some markets has been as much as $3,000 in a month and about 45.6% in the past year. (Clark, 2005) the troubling trend however, is that low interest rates, high housing prices and the over supplying of markets with homes has made the market very unstable and a possible collapse of this market could result in extensive foreclosures of homes all over the U.S.

Traditionally supply of new homes has been done to support new household formations and immigration of population within the country. (Clark, 2005) an additional 300,000 homes are also created for second or vacation homes in the U.S. As baby boomers retire, they are also increasing looking for second homes for use as both vacation homes as well as investment vehicles. Many also impacted by the stock market collapse are investing in the real estate market hoping that a similar collapse will not occur in this arena.

The median housing price in some markets far outpaces the rising salary trends and the ability of the average American to buy such a house. For example, in San Francisco, the median house price has risen to $689,000 and many homeowners are purchasing such homes using very innovative and risky lending practices. Construction companies realizing that the housing industry is over heating is currently resorting to the practice of starting construction only after a sale has been made of the new property. This trend is also very prevalent in condo development where construction is only started after 90% of the condos have been sold.

Supply, demand and prices for homes vary significantly based on the perceptions of the population. Currently, the interest in finding modern homes, which are more energy efficient, do not contain lead and asbestos as well as designed with better architectural features and modern amenities is also on the rise. Many older homes have limited capabilities of accommodating new appliances and the 'home office'. In addition, modern technology has also introduced more features and personal gadgets such as personal gyms… [read more]


Landscape Neighborhood in 1996, 79 Term Paper

… "

In contrast, the Maillardville neighborhood contains a substantial French-Canadian population. A church called Notre Dame de Lourdes is an example of how the ethnic character of the neighborhood influences its religious institutions and architecture. Maillardville has more multi-family housing and apartments with an almost European flavor than does Cariboo/Burquitlam, which has more single-family homes in its residential areas. Although Maillardville also has a number of large chain stores and fast food outlets, many of the stores are located on smaller shopping streets. Many Maillardville streets have French names such as Brunette Avenue. Many of the community centers are shared with adjoining communities. However, Maillardville boasts its unique French-Canadian character with the name of Place Maillardville.

Works Cited

City of Coquitlam Community Profiles: Cariboo/Burquitlam. http://www.coquitlam.ca/NR/rdonlyres/C6DEE97B-6E28-4722-B181-8D5D12D7011E/0/CaribooBurqProf5.pdf.

City of Coquitlam Community Profiles: Maillardville. http://www.coquitlam.ca/NR/rdonlyres/F10A98E4-616A-449B-9377-33C7BAF64B0F/0/MaillardvilleProfile3.pdf.… [read more]


Personal Statement L. Jones Real Term Paper

… Additionally, I actively assisted in contract negotiations, coordinated the due diligence process, as well as evaluated potential acquisitions of distressed platforms thorough financial statement analysis and restructuring scenarios.

One of the interesting things I found during my work experience was the complex methods and interpersonal skills that are required in maintaining efficient relationships with owners, brokers, and developers, and this, too, is something I hope to learn more about in the Master's program.

My work at J&T also gave me extensive operations experience, including acting as a Senior Analyst in the company's $100 million recapitalization transaction, developing and implementing ancillary revenue initiatives to increase overall funds from operations.

Before J&T, I also worked for Chateau Communities in Denver, during the fall of 2000. There, I assisted in the creation of a disposition decision matrix to identify under-performing assets for potential sale, and conducted resident profile research to develop a resident retention program.

In short, my experience has given me an intense interest and love of the industry that I hope to refine through the Master's of Real Estate program. Although I believe that experience is one of the best ways to learn the "ins and outs" of a particular industry, I believe there are aspects of real estate in specific that lends itself to intense academic study.… [read more]


Steering Discrimination Against Minority Homebuyers Term Paper

… Any money not paid to identified victims was paid to the government as a civil penalty.

This lawsuit and the Consent Order entered today signal our continuing commitment to the principle that equal rights in housing for all people is a basic right of citizenship," said Redding Pitt, U.S. Attorney in Montgomery, following the decision.

Similar cases of steering have occurred across the nation. In a recent case, a court held the owner of a real estate firm liable for his sales agents' discriminatory practices (Nicolai Law Group, 1998). The agents participated in racial steering by encouraging buyers to buy homes in neighborhoods that were predominantly their own race group. The owner was found liable even though "the agents were independent contractors, he did not know what they were doing, and the company had an anti-discrimination policy."

This case shows that realty owners must demonstrate greater care regarding their agents' practices. The owner was liable because the brokers were his agents, and the owner had general control of the office. In this light, real estate owners are responsible for monitoring the activities of the agents who represent them instead of simply relying on written policies.

In racial steering cases, white and black home seekers are guided to neighborhoods that differ with respect to social and economic characteristics, especially racial composition. As a result, minority groups suffer. While fair housing laws reduce some forms of discriminatory treatment, there is still a continuing problem of discrimination. The current rate of homeownership demonstrates housing discrimination today. While the minority homeownership rate is at its highest point in history, it is still way below the homeownership rate of non-minority homeowners. Despite major improvements, there is reason to believe that discriminatory treatment exists. For this reason, further laws on steering are in order.

Bibliography

Delaware County Fair Housing News. (November 2000). Real Estate Sales & Racial Steering. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fhcsp.com/Newsletters/november_2000.htm.

Nicolai Law Group. (Winter, 1998). Realty Firm Owner Liable for Brokers' Discrimination. Nicolai Law Letter. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.niclawgrp.com/NicolaiLawLetter/1998winter.html

Turner, Margery. Mikelsons, Maris. (1992). Patterns of Racial Steering in Four Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Housing Economics 2, 199-234. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.turnerhome.org/mat/steering.htm.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1996). Justice Department Sues Montgomery real Estate Firm for Refusing to Show African-Americans Rental Properties in White Areas. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.usdoj.gov.… [read more]


Income Tax Term Paper

… According to an estimate issued by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the Government might have to phase out about 60,000 vouchers because the House wasn't providing enough money, although this is disputed by those behind the reforms. (Koff, 2003)

However, this inadequacy is not a fault of the reforms, but of the acute housing shortage facing the United States. In a situation where funding for housing support is lagging far behind demand, it could be argued that any measures which increase the amount of funds available would be welcome.

The major fear of critics of the reform concerning the amount of flexibility afforded to the states through the block grants is that it may actually worsen the housing shortage. States which are in financial difficulties may choose to change the eligibility criteria for the grants in order to use the grants as deficit financing. With so many states in dire financial straits, that worry could prove to be well-founded. ("Out In the Cold," 2003)

Since a major selling point of the proposal is that cost savings would enable the Government to provide more grants to people having difficulties finding safe, affordable housing, arguably the most damaging criticism is that the reform may reduce the amount of money available for distribution to needy families. As local agencies would be forced to relinquish control of the funds to state entities, the states would have to replace an existing network with their own, which is never an inexpensive process. The increased administrative oversight and organizational costs for the State would inevitably cut into the amount of funds available to assist needy families. Therefore, the states may be spending more in new administrative costs than is saved by the central Government by passing these duties down to the state level. (Koff, 2003)

Reducing the administrative burden of programs such as Section 8 on central Government to free up more funds to plough into increased financing for such programs appears to be a reasonable course of action, but if the ultimate costs are merely spread, not cut, such an action would not do much to improve the housing difficulties faced by the nation's poor. Finding ways to eliminate bureaucratic roadblocks, improving the screening process for prospective tenants and educating landlords in order to convince them to accept tenants who pay with vouchers may, perhaps, be areas where tangible and tenable improvements can be made, and such avenues for improving the workings of programs such as Section 8 should not be ignored in the search for budgetary solutions.

Sources

1) "About the federal Section 8 housing voucher program," The Associated Press State & Local Wire, May 20, 2003.

2) Koff, Stephen, "Section 8 program gets money but won't expand," Plain Dealer, July 26, 2003.

3) "Two demanding jobs to fill," Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), May 15, 2003…… [read more]


Geology Means to Me Chose Term Paper

… As for the analysis of the slope strength itself, I stuck my finger in the wet ground and it did not resist as much as I thought it would. This leads me to believe that if there was a heavy enough rain that saturated the earth of the slope, the slope at the head would eventually grow heavier and cause the earth below to give way. Also, if the earth did not give way, the water would increase on the earth past the point of saturation so that there was a significant amount of run-off that would destabilize the ground below. This could manifest danger to the homes below because of rockslides or earth falls.

This analysis comes from the fact that I poked the ground and found that the earth was not as packed in or as solid as I thought it looked like at first glance. This theme that hazards seem to inherently hide themselves in nature worries me but I am glad we are able to be aware of the problem. It seems that we have to struggle to study each element of what makes an environment tick, and then to see what can go wrong. This will eventually lead us to the solutions for these problems. I know this for a fact because I myself have been motivated to question "what are other hazards that hide in nature that can potentially harm me and my residence?" I realize that the answers which eventually will lead to safeguards may potentially save thousands of people if only because others became more aware of the hazards that obviously still exist around them.

Specifically, looking at the weak slope, I think to myself, there must be a way to either buttress this slope, or perhaps take weight off the top to decrease the load on the toe of the slope, which is most susceptible to being pushed out by the tons of material on top. The analysis of resolutions also I think is not that easy because of so many variables. We must consider not only time, which as it passes increases the probability that something will go wrong, but our actions as well, which might accelerate the fact something bad will occur.

I think that is why in the end, we as students must be taught to learn, not only learning the material itself, but ways of how to apply that knowledge. That way, we will better be able to understand what we have learned and also apply such knowledge to any type of situation no matter…… [read more]


Stephen Crane's Novella, Maggie Term Paper

… Maggie seeks to escape from the Bowery and doesn't wish to become as her family. After his father dies, it is in Jimmie we see distaste for the upper class society. He despises it out of jealousy and ignorance. The… [read more]


Real Estate Industry Analysis Term Paper

… What we do know however, is that the U.S., European and some Asian markets seem to move in tandem, so when the American is down it effects the performance of markets around the globe. Another limitation is that some unknown catalyst could be the resulting data. For example, it has been proposed that following September 11th, American's have been seeking home ownership, as a way to feel safe and connected to loved ones. Such a consumer trend may also have an effect even though it cannot be directly quantified.

Summary

The real estate industry's strengths, weakness rely mainly on fiscal policy, consumer preferences and leading economic indicators. How these factors are exploited determine what opportunities or threats may be encountered. Overall, the economic outlook for the industry is bright as the current situation of the market is expected improve by the following year and lead the way to a full economic recovery both at home and abroad.

Works Cited

Grant, David. Windmere Suggests Housing Boom is Misleading. Retrieved on June 28, 2002 from MSNBC Website: http://www.msnbc.com/local/scj/a91655.asp.

Levin, Elzar. Apartments Sold and Rented. Retrieved on June 29, 2002 from Globes Online Website: http://new.globes.co.il

Pasadilla, B, F. Pretorius and B. Renaud. Markets and Work: Dynamics of the Residential Real Estate Market in Hong Kong. 1997 November. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Realty Times. Speyer to Keynote Real Estate Outlook Conference. Retrieved on June 29, 2002 from Realtytimes.com: http://realtytimes.com/rtnews/rtcpages/19990115_rupspeyer.htm

Rourke, Dennis. The American Home Builder and the Housing Industry. (2 ed.)

1994 December. New York: Management Practice Print… [read more]

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