"Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays

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Walsh v. Winthrop Case Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


According to the law, "people who believe they have been discriminated against may also sue in Federal Court under the Federal Fair Housing Act and with the state's Division of Human Rights" (Peterson 1990: 2). However, class is not a protected category, unlike race, sex, or gender. And rather than a silent, undefended admission, the co-op board died release a letter stating why Walsh had been rejected. "Inherent in the nature of the cooperative form of ownership is the right of the stockholders, acting by and through the board and officers, to select people and activities that are compatible with the community" (Bailey 2006).

On one hand, it is every easy to emotionally side with Walsh, given that he is a far more sympathetic person, given his background, than John Winthrop. Walsh was born poor and pulled himself up by his proverbial bootstraps who grew up in a Somerville housing project. A college dropout, he was able to make his line of salons tremendously profitable through his hard work and heroic efforts. John Winthrop, in contrast, is a descendent from the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and represents 'old' money (Bailey 2006). But a distaste for old money and class discrimination and an admiration for what Walsh represents in terms of achieving the American Dream does not automatically 'prove' that discrimination has taken place.

As a result of his experiences with the co-op, Walsh was granted a $2.2 million out-of-court settlement (Estes 2008). He also has lobbied to pass a bill in the Massachusetts legislature which would require all co-ops to put into writing why they refused a particular candidate (which, interestingly enough, the co-op did) and also limit the reasons individuals could be turned down by a co-op to "one of the few reasons a potential buyer could be rejected by a co-op board would be an inability to afford the unit" (Phillips 2011:1). However, opponents of the bill noted that this would defeat the purpose of a co-op, which is in part to create a community, not a unit simply determined upon the ability of who can pay for particular apartments. Regardless, Walsh's admitted need for a law to enshrine his views underlines that although his case many have generated a great deal of emotional support, it rested on tenuous legal grounds.


Bailey, S. (2006). An American Dream denied. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:


Estes, A. (2008). Luxury co-op pays $2.2m settlement: Cosmetics mogul alleges realty snub.

The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:


Navarro, M. (2013). New bill seeks to curb discrimination by co-op boards. The New York

Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/10/nyregion/new-bill-seeks-to-curb-discrimination-by-co-op-boards.html?_r=0

Peterson, I. (1990). As co-ops spread, discrimination concerns grow. The New York Times.


Phillips, F. (2011). Spurned by co-op man lobbies legislature again. The Boston Globe.

Retrieved from:

http://www.boston.com/news/local/Massachusetts/articles/2011/07/30/spurned_by_co_op_man__lobbies_legislators_again/… [read more]

Ian Simms Without a Body Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ian Moore was able to trace McCourt's and Simms's movement through the apartment based on bloodstain spatter analysis. Moore surmised the fight between McCourt and Simms began just inside Simms's apartment. Moore then noted a trail of blood leading upstairs and across the landing to a rear bedroom where blood spatter on the walls showed the extent to which Simms had beaten McCourt and how he had continued to beat her at floor level (Evans, 2007). Moore concluded that Simms murdered McCourt through strangulation, stabbing, or pummeling her to death, and then bundled her body and belongings before placing them in the trunk of his car (Evans, 2007). Simms was taken into custody on February 14, 1988.

Two weeks later at the beginning of March, a marksman shooting rats found McCourt's handbag, taupe coat, maroon scarf, navy trousers, and green mittens approximately 17 miles from Simms's pub (McCourt, 2011; Evans, 2007). The search perimeter was extended to Hollis Green were investigators found McCourt's coat and clothing belonging to Simms, all of which were heavily bloodstained. Among the clothing recovered was a Labatt's sweatshirt, which was used as part of a promotion at Simms's pub (Evans, 2007). They also found "a knotted length of electric cord" that had strands of McCourt's hair entwined in it (Evans, 2007). The trash bags that had been used to throw the clothes away were matched to those used in the pub by comparing heat seal marks. Also, dog hairs collected from McCourt's clothing matched the Simms's Rottweiler and Black Labrador Retriever (Evans, 2007). Carpet fibers found on McCourt's clothing were matched to the carpet in Simms's apartment.

One of the most groundbreaking pieces of evidence was the DNA profiling performed. In the first of its kind, DNA was collected from McCourt's parents to match the blood found in the pub. It was determined that all three codes were a match and that the blood could not have come from someone other than McCourt. Dr. Alec Jeffreys calculated the blood was 14,500 times more likely to come from one of McCourt's children than from a random stranger (Evans, 2007). Based on this evidence, Simms was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment on March 14, 1989.


Evans, C. (2007). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World's Most Baffling Crimes. New York: Berkley Books. Retrieved 5 August

2013, from http://books.google.com/books?id=adKcM055ERoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=evans+ian+simms&source=bl&ots=m8nLle-_-s&sig=VYKVUQoMJIT31tn6RbzUtSwpQac&hl=en&sa=X&ei=L0IAUo7KIKS6yAGDzoH4AQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=evans%20ian%20simms&f=false

McCourt, M. (2011, December 1). I'll never stop searching for my daughter as told to Fiona Duffy. Express: Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. Retrieved 5 August 2013, from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/286994/I-ll-never-stop-searching-for-my-daughter… [read more]

Rent Control Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Rent Control

The basis for the argument against rent control is that rent control takes the market for rental accommodation is taken out of equilibrium, creating a deadweight loss (Investopedia, 2013). Under equilibrium conditions, the supply and demand in the market will match up. In the real world, especially with something like real estate, the market will never truly arrive at equilibrium, but it should trend close to it. What rent controls do is they move both supply and demand away from equilibrium. Rent control is a price cap. If the natural equilibrium point moves upward in terms of price, then the rent cap will mean that P. is not at the natural equilibrium point. If P. is below its natural equilibrium point, then demand will be higher and supply will be lower.

From a purely economic point-of-view, this situation creates a deadweight loss where there is surplus demand that is not being met in the economy. Some people who want an apartment cannot find one. Further, from a social perspective not only will the quantity of rental stock decline, but the quality will as well. The reason for this is that, seeing unmet demand, more potential suppliers will seek to find a way to enter the market profitably, and they will only be able to do this with lower prices that would be normal. To cut costs, buildings are not maintained. Thus, from both an economic and social perspective, rent control is undesirable. In equilibrium, benefits of the market are evenly distributed. Under rent control, economic winners and losers are created, so that some people benefit from the system at the expense of others. Moreover, the lack of efficiency creates the deadweight loss -- potential economic benefit that nobody receives.


Rent controls are not introduced because of economic efficiency, they are the product of political desirability. Economic efficiency, after all, does still create adverse outcomes for people and that creates asymmetry between the economically optimal solution and the politically optimal solution. Housing costs are often a political issue, as they affect the economic well-being of the population. While…… [read more]

Resistance Dancing I Have Experienced Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … resistance dancing I have experienced in my life is turf dancing, which is similar to gang-related dances like the crip walk, or the hyphy dance. I have seen this dance in Northern California when I go to visit my family members who live there. Turf dancing is usually very rapid, and almost always involves participants 'throwing up their sets'. Whereas in southern California gang dances, sets are particular gang affiliations, in northern California sets are specific neighborhoods that people refer to as turfs. This is a general countercultural movement form of resistance, in which dancers are resisting traditional American values and social conventions. Dancers' preoccupation with the neighborhoods they are representing, and not the actual movements themselves, underscore this fact.

Dance can contribute to social-political change by preserving culture. When people have physical reminders of their culture, they are less likely to accept a new one -- even when it is forced on them, much as new culture was forced upon people of African descent during slavery (Browning). In situations in which people are forced to accept another culture, dance can serve as a catalyst to rebel against it.

I think gentrification is an important social issue, because it is displacing a lot of lower class people. If it continues, soon there will be nowhere for lower class people to live, at least not in the United States. Turf dancing helps to combat gentrification because it reinforces a feeling of pride in people and in their neighborhoods. By continuing to represent their neighborhoods through turf dancing, these dancers can help get the word out about the issue of gentrification by reminding one another of who lives where, and of the threat of outsiders coming in, buying the property inexpensively, and raising the prices so poorer people cannot live there.

I agree with Alyssa that…… [read more]

Federal Government in Dealing Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" In that regard, those who are most vulnerable to homelessness are individuals in the low income bracket.

In my opinion, the federal government must play a more prominent role in addressing the plight of the homeless. This is more so the case when it comes to funding the construction of housing units that are more affordable. Towards this end, the government could consider further subsidize the construction of more housing units per annum. This in my opinion could help address the severe depletion of affordable housing units throughout the country. Other considerations the federal government should explore include increasing the level of funding advanced to various homeless-service providers. The amount of funds distributed to communities via the relevant agencies in an attempt to boost affordable housing programs should also be increased. Going forward, other federal departments should also be roped in to help in making homelessness history. Departments that could play a vital role in this endeavor include but they are not limited to the Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.


In conclusion, it should be noted that unless the federal government takes bold measures to increase the number of affordable housing units, the problem of homelessness will not be conclusively addressed anytime soon. The United States of America has both the tools and capabilities to bring to an end the homelessness menace. What lacks in my view is the proper, effective, and strategic utilization of the said tools and capabilities.


Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/us/homeless-rates-steady-despite-recession-hud-says.html?ref=housingandurbandevelopmentdepartment

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing… [read more]

Practices Associated With Real Estate Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,466 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Finally, the conformity principle is more subtle as compared to progression and regression but is considered to be equally important.

According to conformity the improvements must conform in age, size, style and condition to maximize value. In other words, if all the houses in a neighborhood have two garages then your house would achieve its highest value by having two… [read more]

Predatory Lending and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  22 pages (6,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Predatory Lending and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis

The issues with subprime mortgages are recognized by now, with many evasions and consequences for businesses and financiers in a similar way. A lot of writers have been swift to charge what they call hungry, predatory lenders who oppressed poor, simple and uneducated borrowers. This is expected for the reason that lenders have… [read more]

Future of Community Development Historically Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Accordingly, each extension may have various interests that may include ecological, economic, and social. Within each interest lie priorities that may be conflicting among its residents. To minimize conflicts, networking is deemed as a feasible method to connect like-minded individuals with the same interests and flexible boundaries.

Asset Based

Discovering and leveraging the community's current assets denotes this approach. Instead of solving problems, building from existing strengths becomes the emphasis. Being visionary and speculating possible needs will better prepare future generational communities. The power of grass-root efforts becomes paramount, which seeks to draw strengths from local associations and its residents. Meeting current residents' needs without jeopardizing future community needs is the basis for this approach. Emphasis is providing a long-term focus, interlinking infrastructures, and capitalizing strengths (Zautra & Murray, 2009).


The future of community development is evolving into three intentional approaches for effectiveness. Each approach provides avenues to create viable communities, with long-term sustainability. Future generational communities may benefit from its forefathers who cared enough to plan. Importantly, the sum of the whole is greater than its individual parts. Indeed, there is strength in unity, whereby synergy is captured with the collective efforts of many.


Zautra, A., Hall, J., & Murray, K. (2009). Community Development and Community Resilience: An Integrative Approach. Community Development, 39(3), 130-147.

Vidal, A.C., & Keating, W. (2004). Community Development: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges. Journal of Urban Affairs, 26(2), 125-137. doi:10.1111/j.0735-2166.2004.00191.x

Community Development Institute (CDI). (2006). Trends and issues in community development: Building sustainable communities. Retrieved from http://sustainabledevelopment.osu.edu/educational-resources/cdi-east-2006-trends

1 of 4… [read more]

Hydrogeological Report: Lipan Aquifer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Several small springs, when they flow, move water only a short distance before it is infiltrated back into the Lipan aquifer or evapotranspirated. Precipitation and lateral cross-formational flow are the main sources of recharge to the Lipan aquifer. Estimates from published reports of recharge rate for other aquifers indicate a vertical recharge of the Lipan from precipitation range from about… [read more]

Housing the Defined Market Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The size of the primary and selective demand gap between who has heard of the product and who is seeking out the product and may choose us is practically nil. Since we are currently the only company offering the product the only type of demand that can be attributed is the primary demand. That may change in the future as other companies see what the company is doing and emulate it, but currently that is not the case.

The potential for growth in the marketplace for this product is approximately at a 9 to 1 ratio, or in other words; for every one unit sold there are nine potential units that are not being calculated in the projections. Additionally, there are international markets that could provide sales that have not even been projected at all. There are always new houses being built around the world, many of which are in flood prone areas. This product will initially only be installed by the company, however, future sales of the product could also be done to competitors who can install the product on their own.

Some of the major influences on future sales will include whether the product is seen as an efficient and effective way to combat flooding, and will certainly be a major revenue producer for years to come if it is as effective as it is touted to be. Industry trends may be to develop a better product that is equally as efficient yet less costly, however, as the primary manufacturer of the current product, many of the improvements will come at our own behest as we will constantly be using our experience(s) with…… [read more]

Community What Makes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,544 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


The only acknowledgement of native peoples was the law in Newfoundland that banned the sale of alcohol to Indians -- which is an outrageously arrogant and ignorant slap in the face to a bona fide community group. By excluding the Mi'kmaq in the Terms of Union, that basically meant that no Mi'kmaq living in the province had "access to or received any of the benefits, statutory advantages or rights provided by the Parliament and Government of Canada" (White).

However, that having been pointed out, a small group of "mostly Mi'kmaq band members in the coastal town of Conne River in Newfoundland has "gone from being poor and isolated with high unemployment to a strong and vibrant community with nearly 100% employment," according to "Transcript: Miawpukek First Nation." This group of first peoples began their community development with Christmas tree farms and fisheries, but have expanded their economic growth to a point that has become self-supporting. In conclusion, the fact that the Mi'kmaq has engaged in community development that has strong economic footings, and has provided good education and opportunities for everyone -- in the face of a distant government that didn't seem to care -- shows what a community can do for itself, and stands as a glowing positive symbol for other groups elsewhere in Canada and in the world.

Works Cited

[Chapter 1] "Importance of Community"

[Chapter 2] "Introduction to Community Development"

Thomas, Lori…… [read more]

Negotiations -- Real Life Bargaining Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Negotiations -- Real Life Bargaining and Negotiation

The negotiation process never has -- nor will it ever have -- a "one-size-fits-all" strategy. In fact there so many theories, strategies, tactics and books with hands-on advice about how to negotiate a deal (whether for business or personal purposes) that a party to negotiations could become bewildered and confused by all the… [read more]

Federal Legislation and Impact Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Assisting homeowners from foreclosure is appropriate and necessary. This plan was extended and refined in 2011 by the Obama Administration.

Chapter 23: Condominiums and Timeshares

Buyers should be aware of rules that may prohibit the approval of a loan for a particular condominium property. For both FHA and conventional loans the unit needs be at least 50% owner occupied, if not, the loan will not be approved. Buyers should ensure the HOA does not have any pending litigation and that the HOA is well-funded, absent any of these factors and securing a loan for the condo can prove to be quite difficult.

There is an active condo market in my area. For people who looking to own property they find relative cost to own a condo compared to a single family home is much less. The economy in my area (Washington, DC) is supported heavily by government jobs. The healthy job market attracts tens of thousands of people annually, including younger workers who purchase a condo as their first home.

Chapter 24: Property Insurance

Lenders require property insurance to protect both parties against loss or damage to the property. Some lenders require a Loan Policy, which is based on the dollar amount of the loan. It is protection for the lender in the event of a title issue. Owner's title insurance protects the buyer if an issue comes up in regards to the title that was not previously found during a title search. In additional almost all lenders require homeowners insurance. Homeowners insurance usually covers the dwelling personal property, liability and loss of use. In some areas flood insurance may also be required.

Allowing a policy to lapse will leave the homeowner at risk, without insurance the homeowner will have absorb the full financial and legal implications in the instance of an adverse event. Homeowners can not only lose their homes but run the risk of being sued and even bankruptcy. Homeowners will be forced indemnify all parties if found responsible and have to fund the replacement of their own property in case of loss or damage. For this reason, it is not wise to allow homeowner insurance policies to lapse for a significant period of time.


Collins, Michelle. "Opening Doors to Fair Housing: Enforcing the Affirmatively Further Provision of the Fair Housing Act Through 42 U.S.C § 1983" Columbia Law Review Vol. 110:2135-2010: 2137-2183.

Washington, DC. Department of Treasury.…… [read more]

Performance of the Middle East Property Markets Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  30 pages (8,783 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Performance of the Middle East Property Markets

Over the last several years, the real estate market in the Middle East has been through a tremendous amount of challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the different oil exporting countries experienced a boom in prices until 2008. This is when the price of West Texas Light Sweet Crude would… [read more]

Webster, C. ). The New Institutional Economics Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,178 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Webster, C. (2005). The new institutional economics and the evolution of modern urban planning: Insights, issues and lessons. Town Planning Review, 76 (4), 455 -- 502.

Planning, also called: urban, city or regional planning; is a dynamic profession that improves the welfare of people and their communities. as, this is creating more: convenient, equitable, healthy, efficient and attractive places for future generations to live (Bremer, 2008, p. 35). Webster (2005) found that urban planning is continuously facing increasing amount of scrutiny and constantly evolving. As it is re-inventing itself and it seeks to understand how cities develop the boundary between: market forces and government policy (p. 455).

He further emphasized that it is important to determine the role of the market and the government in the allocation of property rights (over limited land-related resources). Moreover, he examined the theoretical insights of urban planning from the New Institutional Economics and he drew insights, based on the modern British town. The issues, on the institutional design problems that are present in urban planning were also addressed, which included the controversy on: whether or not rights should be distributed between the states / and the private property owners.

At which point, the article focused on the practice of urban planning, in stimulating new ways of thinking of the ideas, in assisting those who are the in profession of conceptualizing what they do. While, seeing possibilities for what could be accomplished (Webster, 2005, p. 456)

However, Webster failed to discuss the historical background of: urban planning and its impact on various controversies. The relation of the development of urban planning, to its issues should have been discussed in: a context that causal relationships would be determined. This could have been accomplished, by providing more means of improvement that will help in avoiding certain issues.

This also, includes various disciplines that are associating, all elements that make up a town. Webster could have made improvements in his article, by providing a discussion on the beginnings of urban planning, in order to offer more information about: it and the details.

As a process of improving a city's ability to: make communication, living conditions, transportation and public facilities more efficient. as, urban planning has included: the communities and highways, as a part of its regional focus. In its earliest account, this is a vital element for the strategies of ancient cities like Babylon and Nineveh, where it served as the primary basis for their designs. The Chinese and the Greeks adopted a similar approach in the construction of their main streets. While, the Romans used it to solve their problems on: drainage and water supply.

Bremer, D. (2008). Planning tomorrow's urban world. International Educator, 17, 32 -- 39.

In Bremer's (2008) article, she provided a description of urban planners. These are people who usually work in rural / suburban areas, as well as in large cities around the world, for: nonprofit and nongovernment agencies. This is usually within the private sector for multidisciplinary consulting firms to: interact… [read more]

Land Assemblage Problem Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Land Assemblage

The discussion of land assemblage and its connectivity to urban renewal must focus on economic issues as well as those of eminent domain. Of particular interest in this regard is the decision in Kelo v. City of New London, a case in which the U.S. Supreme Court "held that the city's taking of private property to sell for private development qualified as a "public use" within the meaning of the takings clause" (Oyez.org. 2005). The decision highlights the significant differences inherent in the development of developed land as opposed to undeveloped tracts. Private developers who invest their own capital in redevelopment projects are not the focus of questions on eminent domain as it relates to urban renewal projects; rather significant policy issues arise when government utilizes its taking power for assemblage purposes designed to invigorate and revive blighted communities.

Land assemblage at its most basic level is "the combining of two or more parcels, usually but not necessarily contiguous, into one ownership or use; the process that creates plottage value" (Parli, R. 2005). Local governments for reasons of urban renewal are often forced to use their eminent domain power to take property from private individuals and develop it with the intent of reducing "blight" in the community. The question of what defines "blight" is not a topic for this discussion however, its traditional and historic roots are in the redevelopment of areas which have "obsolescence, dilapidation, or deleterious land uses" (Gordon, C. 2004). The logic of using eminent domain and public money for the purposes of strengthening an economically blighted area is straightforward when there is a public use of the assemblage property, however; the issue becomes more complex when the power of eminent domain is used to…… [read more]

Eminent Domain Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Eminent Domain

According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD 2011), eminent domain is defined as "an exercise of the power of government or quasi-government agencies (such as airport authorities, highway commissions, community development agencies, and utility companies) to take private property for public use." The consent of the property owner is not required. Governments might, for instance, seize private property for the purpose of building roads and other public infrastructure or ensuring public safety. In this sense, eminent domain is related to the process by which law enforcement may appropriate public property for the purposes of promoting public safety and welfare. For example, a police officer can legally (if not temporarily) use private homes or cars for the purposes of law enforcement in a process that is not dissimilar from eminent domain.

Government zoning is a totally different concept from eminent domain. However, eminent domain may be used in the process of government zoning. For example, the government might determine the need to build a new school in an area of dilapidated housing. Zoning goals will have determined the need for the school, and the government uses eminent domain to achieve those zoning goals. Zoning might also affect the aesthetic or lifestyle objectives of urban planners. "The Supreme Court has approved generally the widespread use of the power of eminent domain by federal and state governments in conjunction with private companies to facilitate urban renewal, destruction of slums, erection of low-cost housing in place of deteriorated housing, and the promotion of aesthetic values as well as economic ones," ("National Eminent Domain Power," n.d).

The process by which the government proclaims eminent domain in the United States is relatively simple. At the federal level, HUD must consent to the taking (HUD 2011). At the local level, the government or its representative agency contacts the owner of the property and offers to buy it. If the owner agrees to the initial price, then the government has successfully exercised its right to eminent domain. In many cases, the two parties negotiate the selling price with the aid of attorneys at law. Private property owners frequently fight the government…… [read more]

Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan

The Roppongi Hills is one of Tokyo's largest in newest urban centers. At the center of the district is the 54 story Mori Tower, which features an integrated urban community that allows people to live, work, and shop all within a short commute. The center includes office space, apartments, restaurants, movie theaters, a hotel, a major… [read more]

Squatting Has Had a Long History Worldwide Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Squatting has had a long history worldwide, especially as concepts and laws related to property ownership change. Although most American media focuses on squatting movements in New York City, other cities in the United States are seeing squatters take over abandoned or foreclosed properties. The economic recession has driven many landowners out of their homes. Some are opting to ignore eviction notices, while other homeowners are becoming inadvertent landlords when homeless squatters take advantage of the indoor space. In some cities, squatting has become a political response to income disparity. Organizations like Take Back the Land in Miami works to place new "tenants" in abandoned homes, even setting them up with "secondhand furniture, cleaning supplies and yard upkeep. So far, he has moved six families into foreclosed homes and has nine on a waiting list," ("As Foreclosures Rise, Squatters Lay Claims"). As with Europe, the United States has been demonstrating a willingness to view squatting as a form of peaceful protest.

Squatting is a form of social justice, a politically subversive reaction to injustice and income disparity. When rents are artificially high -- or at least higher than local residents can afford -- many legal tenants are driven from their homes. The result is a glut of empty property and a simultaneous humanitarian crisis from increased homelessness. Squatting is viewed as a viable solution to mitigate problems like overly powerful landlords and economies that prejudice the poor.

In New York City, squatting made recent headlines when eleven buildings on the Lower East Side sold for $1 each. The city of New York basically donated the buildings at this price, giving them to a non-profit group that then handed the buildings over to 200+ squatters living inside. Cities are not always on the side of squatters, but increasing numbers of city representatives and law enforcement officials are taking stances in favor of squatters' rights. "Carol Abrams of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development said the arrangement was made possible because the city does not want to displace people while creating code compliant housing," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC"). In other words, the city understood the humanitarian and social justice issues at stake. There is no reason why a building should remain abandoned when in fact there are too many homeless people already. "The city preferred to have the squatters -- who will continue to live in the buildings while they are brought up to code -- inherit their seized homes rather than be shown the curb in a time of rising homelessness in New York City," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC").

One of the most remarkable success stories in the history of squatting, the New York experiment shows how poverty can be squelched by simple and peaceful activism. The city understood that the squatters, when empowered by being given homes, would be instrumental in helping the neighborhood gentrify as well as the building. In return, the squatters become owners in a… [read more]

New Suburban Poverty Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


But it is also a fact that less affluent people are slowly but surely finding their way into suburbs anyway" and Press hopes that this will result in new voting patterns more favorable to the interests of the poor (Press 2007). Press' optimism seems undercut by the recent, overwhelming victory for Tea Party and Republican candidates, overwhelmingly supported by white, suburban voters. A presence within the suburbs does not always translate into electoral victory, if members of the so-called underclass do not vote. One of the dangers of the suburbs may be its spread-out nature, and there is a lack of cohesion and ability to mobilize, versus more urban environments.

Press believes that affordable housing a vital component in providing a meaningful solution to the problem of suburban poverty. And as well as mobilizing the poor to take back the ballot box, to realize Press' dream, the courts may also be required. Recently, "a 3-year-old federal lawsuit, filed by the Anti-Discrimination Center, accusing [Westchester] County of taking tens of millions of dollars in federal housing grants while falsely certifying that it was living up to its legal requirement to provide affordable housing without reinforcing racial segregation" was won when "Judge Denise L. Cote ruled that between 2000 and 2006 the county had, indeed, misrepresented its actions and had made little or no effort to place affordable homes in overwhelmingly white communities where residents objected" (Fair housing in the suburbs, 2009, The New York Times). Only though anti-discrimination lawsuits, voting and meaningful social justice campaigns can change be enacted: food banks merely provide band-aid solutions to the problem of suburban poverty.


Allard, Scott & Benjamin Roth. (2010, October). Strained suburbs: The social service challenges of rising suburban poverty. The Brookings Institute. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2010/1007_suburban_poverty_allard_roth.aspx

Cawthorne, Alexandra. (2010, October 27). Trouble in the suburbs: Poverty rises in areas outside cities. American Progress. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/10/trouble_in_the_suburbs.html/print.html

Fair housing in the suburbs. (2009, August 12). Editorial. The New York Times.

Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/opinion/11tue3.html

Press, Eyal. (2007, April 23). The new suburban poverty. The Nation.

Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.thenation.com/article/new-suburban-poverty… [read more]

Rental Values and Capital Valuation Methods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Rental Values and Capital Valuation Methods:

Methods of Assessing Rental Value:

Assessing rental values does not only involve several methods but it's also an intricate and testing process to both academicians and practitioners. it's a difficult and demanding process because it encompasses scrutinizing the rental property, market conditions and neighborhood characteristics. The rental housing market is considered to be both imperfect and inefficient given that the product is long-term, set on a particular site, varied and managed by wide-ranging governmental regulations. The market conditions of an area are not necessarily the actual representation of other market conditions given that every rental housing market is limited to a particular area.

Assessing the rental value helps in determining the fair rental value which is the amount that an educated and willing renter would pay in a competitive market. The fair rental value that is determined after the assessment can also be considered as the amount which an informed and educated renter would accept for the short-term use and gratification of the property ("Rental Value," n.d.). The various methods of assessing rental value should help in the scrutiny of factors that establishes market rents of a given area. There are some two major methods by which rental values are assessed which are & #8230;

Multiple Regression Method:

This is the first and traditional method by which rental values are assessed and is considered as a parametric technique that requires the client to identify the practical form of the solution. This method has been used primarily to scrutinize the price manners of rental houses in the existing literature. The multiple regression method is however associated with many difficulties in assessing rental values because of the requirement of the user to specify the practical form of the solution. In cases where the user is ignorant of or cannot estimate the primary form of the practical relationship, the technique provides results that are in inaccurate models. Notably, this method of assessing rental values permits the use of a very common polynomial equation in situations where the practical relationship is likely to be nonlinear (Kim & Nelson, 1996).

However, the application of this method in the assessment of rental values makes it practically impossible to approximate all coefficients since the basic number of all the coefficients to be estimated increases. The number of the coefficients to be approximated continues to increase factorially because of the increase in the number of variables and function degrees. The major difficulty associated with this method is that the survey data used are usually erroneous, partial and unclear leading to inaccurate results.

Abductive Learning Networks (ALN) Method:

This is the second method by which rental values are assessed and can be used to overcome the various challenges that are associated with the multiple regression method. This technique uses both the arithmetical functions for numeric knowledge representation and a synthetic neural network formation to simplify the learning of practical models. Simplifying the assignment of learning practical models is made possible by subdividing multifaceted… [read more]

Sustainable Engineering Practice Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Sustainable Engineering Practice

Water is an essential, replenishable resource. Water resources require conservation regardless of whether a country has high or low rainfall. Regional autonomy and varying local conditions also call for local specientic plans and approaches to water resource conservation and utilization.

As water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, a future trend must be towards more and better utilization of water, in particular rainwater, in urban systems. Rainwater is a discarded resource, and its mismanagement can result in major environmental problems and disruptions such as urban run-off. 41 But there are simple technologies available that local governments can introduce, which can save rainwater for drinking and other purposes. The big dam age is, by and large, unfinished, with only a few dams in the world really having lived up to initial expectations. Rather, alternative approaches are needed, such as smaller cascading dam engineering and applications of underground dam technologies.

Cities are great consumers, and water is no exception. They require large amounts of water to sustain themselves, owing to the sheer numbers and density of housing. To meet their demands, there has been a variety of ways in which cities have accessed water and managed needs. The most typical pattern to date has been to build a large dam or central water supply and pipe in the water as needed. This type of exercise can be ecologically disruptive, as well as costly. One of the resources that maintains potential for exploitation is rainwater, as a renewable natural resource to which we generally have access. Usually cities have access to rainfall, which opens up possibilities for its improved application and for innovative water management methods. Generally, the larger a town or city, the more difficult it is to achieve sustainable water resources and to maintain regional water circulation. The following three scenarios illustrate problems which exist worldwide:

Scenario 1: Groundwater is available in adequate quantities and of good quality, but the demand for potable water continues to rise with the growth of the town, while the new formation rate for groundwater is reduced because rainwater can no longer seep into the subsoil naturally. More roads, paths, paved areas, dwellings, public buildings, and industrial plants work to seal the surface, and the town comes to "import" potable water from other regions, which endangers nature through heavy extraction of water and dependency on this region. Another problem concerns the quantity of rainwater flowing off the surface, which rises dramatically when the surface is sealed. This causes flood damage and rising costs for sewers and the cleaning of wastewater.

Scenario 2: Potable water is obtained from surface water, a river or lake. The treatment for making potable water is technically expensive because other communities lead their poorly cleaned wastewater into these open waters. As a result of this exercise, potable water becomes extremely expensive;…… [read more]

Family Business Business Plan

Business Plan  |  4 pages (1,443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Family Business

Over the last three years, the commercial real estate market has faced a number of different challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the depth of recession, has been having a profound impact on retail businesses. This is creating ripple effects for commercial property owners, as a variety of companies are having trouble maintaining their locations.… [read more]

Niosh Fire Fighter Investigation and Prevention Program Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (5,201 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


NIOSH Fire Fighter Investigation / Prevention

When errors in judgment occur and correct firefighter safety practices are violated, accidents, injuries, and even deaths can result. In the case of the February 9, 2007 fire training exercise on South Calverton Road, many National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) guidelines were ignored or violated, resulting in the death of recruit Racheal Wilson. Though… [read more]

Regional Analysis Chinatown Manhattan Is Not Unique Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (882 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Regional Analysis

Chinatown Manhattan is not unique in terms of its demographic nature as mostly composed of Chinese immigrants. Many other American cities also include Chinatown districts. However, the neighborhood in Manhattan has until recently had the somewhat unique status of being the largest enclave of Chinese immigrants not only in the country, but in the entire Western Hemisphere. Chinatown Manhattan attained this status during the 1980s, when it surpassed Chinatown San Francisco in size. Interestingly, size is a fluid, dynamic thing, particularly in terms of cultural regions. The Chinese community in Flushing, Queens, close to Manhattan's Chinatown, has recently outgrown it in number of citizens.

In terms of location, Chinatown Manhattan originated on Mott, Par, Pell and Doyer streets, close to the Five Points district. The traditional borders of Chinatown, valid until the 1970s, were Canal Street (North), the Bowery (East), Worth Street (South), and Baxter Street (West) (AAFNY).

The growth of the region since the 1970s is closely connected to the political issues of the time. Changes to the American immigration laws during 1965 allowed a large increase of immigrants from Asia, which led to an explosion of Chinatown's population. Consequently, the 1970s saw the absorption of Little Italy by Chinatown (AAFNY).

The government subsidized much-needed housing projects in Chinatown, including Confucius Plaza in 1976, which included both residential units and a new public grade school. The former Eastern-European Jewish occupied Lower East Side also became a largely Chinatown neighborhood during the 1990s.

The dynamic growth of the neighborhood is further exemplified by its current geographic borders: Dilancey Street (north), East Broadway (East), Broadway (West) and Chambers Street (South). From north to south, the area stretches to approximately one mile, while it covers two miles in the east-west direction. In addition to its size, Chinatown is also interesting in terms of its residential size.

According the AAFNY, Chinatown Manhattan differs from most others of its kind across the United States in that it features as both a residential and commercial region. Population estimates range from 150,000 to 250,000 or even 350,000 residents. The residents of the region have a tendency towards low participation in the U.S. Census, mainly because of language barriers and illegal immigration. In terms of employment, the some 200-300 Chinese restaurants in the region offer income opportunities for cooks and waiters, although there are also some sweat shops. The local garment industry offers part-time employment for home workers, as it focuses on quick production in small volumes. Population growth is generally due to immigration, with generations that gain language and employment skills moving to the more affluent areas of New York.

In determining whether Chinatown might…… [read more]

Fire Prevention and Early Fire Detection Devices Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,090 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Fire Safety History And Current Research

The history of fire safety and prevention is generally associated with the events of the Industrial Revolution. Here, the proliferation of factory working contexts and the dangers of highly mechanized processes of operation would create a waiting disaster.

Though it would not be until far later in the 20th century that the United States… [read more]

Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,508 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Barbara Ehrenreich's

Nickel and Dimed

Barbara Ehrenreich's book Nickel and Dimed explores the nasty and depressing life of minimum-wages earners and their struggles to sustain a healthy existence. Ehrenreich's goal is to shine the light on American poverty and its endless cycle. The premise of the book is to understand how hundreds and thousands of people were going… [read more]

Green Housing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Green Housing

Green home-building businesses: Controls and follow-up


One critical aspect of quality control inherent in any green home building business is that of home inspection. Home inspection is important to ensure the safety of the inhabitants of any residential structure, but for a green home, the environmentally-friendly aspects advertised by the builder or seller must also be validated. New residents will often want to ensure that their homes are inspected by certified, independent professional home inspectors. Fortunately, associations such as the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors, Inc. are offering courses specifically designed for green home inspectors. Inspecting the structures before sale and providing buyers with a copy of the energy audit is one way to guarantee that the home is genuinely green, and not merely advertized as such. On a state-by-state basis, many associations such as GreenPoint Rated Existing Home in California provide rating systems for homes engaged in energy upgrades, which can be useful for remodeled homes. "A major objective of the Existing Home rating system is to educate homeowners about the benefits of green remodeling and to provide a pathway for making continued improvements" (Build it green announces partnership with the California Real Estate Inspection Association, 2009, Build it Green).

High-quality inspection is essential given that some green buildings will command a higher price than standard structures and consumers will want to know why green remodeling can save them money. Consumers interested in green building are likely to want proof that the structures will show genuine value over time, and are genuinely energy-efficient, in accordance with EPA regulations. For the builder, when subcontracting aspects of the green structure, such as energy-efficient windows, appliances or other materials, reviewing the validity of these credentials is important so the builder gets maximum value from such input materials. The EPA's Energy Star program certifies the 'greenness' of specific products.…… [read more]

Green Housing Building a Green Home Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Green Housing

Building a green home building business: skills, capabilities, experience


Communication skills are vital in the home building industry, particularly the green home building industry. An individual must be able to communicate why a green home has financial and aesthetic value to prospective buyers. He or she must also be able to work well with suppliers and bargain a fair deal on input goods and prices. Negotiation and time management are essential in coordinating the various actors involved in home building to do a good job, and a timely job. So is budgeting and writing an effective business plan.


Multitasking is essential -- an individual must be able to deal with suppliers as well as sell homes at the same time. An individual in the industry must be able to balance cost and affordability with genuinely environmentally-friendly technology. A balance of aesthetics and environmentalism is also important when creating a home's design. A green home builder must know how to provide added financial as well as ethical value that is better than his or her competitors, even those in the standard home-building industry.


An individual should be well-versed in different types of mortgages, and the home buying and building industry. This requires a background in business, real estate, and some financial training. He or she should also know about outside elements that affect supply and demand in the industry, such as seasonal changes in demand, property values, quality of schools in the area, availability of credit, and what makes a house attractive to different market demographics. A high level of comfort…… [read more]

International Competitiveness Politics and Policy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,915 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


International Competitiveness, Politics and Policy


As Thomas Friedman clearly states in the Lexus and the Olive Tree, globalization is not just a trend. Globalization is not just a trend that countries or companies may choose to follow or not to follow. Globalization is the system that replaces the former system that was ended by the Cold War.

Countries and… [read more]

Southwest Water Issue Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Southwest - Water Issue

Southwest - Facing Serious Water Issues

It is no secret that the Southwest is largely a desert, so it is not uncommon for the land to be dry and parched. However, recent developments have shown that the Southwest Basin will be facing several serious water management challenges throughout the next three decades. Land use planning and conservation are ways to help alleviate this, but they must begin now if the relentless drought and low precipitation that have been occurring are to be adjusted for. The people who live in that area must have water, but it is running out. Since it is not possible to make more water, what is available must last longer, and as the population grows it must be spread out between more people. Conservation practices such as standards and ordinances are being implemented in order to keep enough water available for everyone to use, but a shortfall of almost 5,000 gallons is still expected by 2030 (Water, n.d.). There are a lot of urban areas springing up as well, and they put heavier demands on an already depleted water supply (Great, n.d.). The same heavier strain is being felt with farmers, as their water…… [read more]

Why Suburb Development Occurred Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,539 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Suburbanization: Identifying Convincing Rationale in Support of the Process

Throughout history, mankind has tend to migrate to large, densely populated urban centers in an effort to provide themselves with mutual support and protection, as well as to engage in trade and the humanities. Today, these same forces at hard at work, of course, with many of the world's biggest cities… [read more]

Business Research - Financial Hardship Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (614 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Business Research - "Financial Hardship for most Cities to Grow in '09"

After decades of tremendous successes, the American economy now finds itself at a crossroads. Tormented by an increasing price for crude oil, a weakening dollar in the background of a strengthening euro, its involvement in international wars and the record high federal debt, the harsh effects of the real estate crisis or the insufficient labor force (in both numbers and training, against the aging of the baby boomers which imply increased health care costs), the American entrepreneur finds himself in difficult times. And all these forces generate one more negative implication for the players in the business communities: they increase the costs of cities, while also decreasing their revenues.

An article focused on analyzing the financial difficulties of the American cities was featured on the 15th of September 2008 in Business Week. Andrew Welsh-Huggins, the author of "Financial Hardship for most Cities to Grow in '09" is focused on revealing the challenges faced by the American cities in the current background. His study sample is composed of various cities, including Columbus in Ohio, Palm Bay in Florida or Indianapolis. The cities have been selected based on common features, and have also been analyzed from the lens of common forces which influence them, such as the real estate crisis or the revenues registered by the local offices.

The most relevant similarity between these cities, but also between most American cities, is that only until recently, they used to be registering increasing revenues. Today however, their revenues are decreasing and becoming insufficient to support a sustainable growth and development of the urban structures. In the words of the author, "Cities for a long while now have been on the upside of the curve, generally experiencing pretty good growth in revenues," said Chris Hoene, director of policy and…… [read more]

Eminent Domain Rulings Are Frequently Minimally Damaging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Eminent Domain rulings are frequently minimally damaging to property owners, as only small portions of land have been seized for government use, yet there are also many cases a year where a government entity, be it state, local or federal utilizes eminent domain laws to seize or purchase property that includes domestic residences. In such cases the municipality often has the upper hand, with regard to purchase price as they can dictate the purchase price at any level the individual is willing to accept or set the rate of purchase at the tax assessed value of the property, a rate that is usually significantly lower than the fair market value of the property. Additionally, the municipality may argue in favor of a purchase price determined by the value of the land itself, not including the improvements upon it, including homes and other buildings as the value becomes very limited once the announcement of eminent domain seizure has occurred. In short, the government can set the rate of reimbursement to property owners, wherever they want it to be as they are going to be the only ones willing to pay for it, once they have decided they want it.

The Fifth Amendment provides the legal standard for eminent domain: "nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation." (1) Thus, there are two constitutional requirements for the exercise of eminent domain: that the use be public, and that the owner receive just compensation.

(Talley 759)

The problem that arises from the circumstance is that "just" is not a very definitive description of compensation and individuals facing the might of a government may feel intimidated and overpowered to the point of accepting the first offer the government makers, as if it is a mandate rather than an offer. Additionally, the individuals that would be most likely to be hurt by the process would be people who had little or no concept of the fair market value of their property. This is likely to be people who have lived in their homes for a long time, such as the elderly, who also might have a stiff sense of respect for authority or the poor who have limited resources and often education to fight such authority.

Bright 83)

An additional issue regarding the use of eminent domain is that of the first constitutional stipulation, that the property be intended for public use. In recent years there have been many challenges to actions by municipalities with regard to what defines public use. As in the last 100 years municipalities have tended to loosely apply the term public to almost any purpose that denotes economic growth and development. "By the Twentieth Century it appeared that the narrow doctrine, where it still ostensibly existed, constituted at best a minor hindrance to liberal use of the eminent domain power. (103)" (Cohen 491) the frustrating part is that in many cases the property will actually be held by private developers who will likely stand to gain… [read more]

Rise of Modern America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Frederick Law Olmsted describes the challenges of urban planning in the nineteenth century including issues related to public transportation and public works such as municipal water. A landscape developer, Olmsted envisions the possible solutions to the problems sudden urban growth and industrial development pose. Olmsted, who writes for a general audience in a persuasive manner, claims that urban growth is an unavoidable fact of modernization. Framing urban development in positive terms, Olmsted suggests large-scale transit projects, sanitation projects, and access to sources of energy. The author mentions also the scores of people who commute to the cities for work and cites reasons why urban living can be preferable to rural lifestyles because of the greater access to sources of business and education. Olmsted is concerned with retaining quality of life in the midst of rapid industrial and urban development.

Long before the cause for labor unions blossomed in the United States, Dr. John B. Whitaker lists the possible repercussions of working in…… [read more]

Family Business in Real Estate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,260 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … East Coast Real Estate Families

The Rudin Family:

What family member started the Rudin business and when?

The English Rudin Family originally came from Leicestershire, where they were seated as the Lords of the Manor. (Rudin family crest and family history) the Rudin family business, which has been redited with the disticntion, in later eyars of spearheading the… [read more]

To Prohibit Building High Rises Buildings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … building high-rise buildings in any area and many times the appropriateness of such projects are questionable to say the least. If a developer were to request permission to build a high-rise building in my community I would have to strongly urge the city government to deny such a request.

One reason why I would urge such a denial would be due to the water problem currently being experienced throughout the country and especially in my community. That problem, of course, is the lack of water, and a dwindling water supply.

High-rise building fire water supply system (HFWS) is the basic element of fire protection system of high-rise buildings. Its features are high water consumption, higher water pressure and self-relief ability" (Qi, 2002, p. 71). Since buildings of the stature of a high-rise depend on high water consumption and even higher water pressure, it would be my suggestion that such water supply and pressure would come at the expense of other consumers. Other consumers would either have to pay higher prices for the water they are consuming, or have less access to that water. More and more cities and communities are requiring more stringent guidelines in regards to fire protection systems in high-rise buildings including Houston, where city planners recently changed the building codes. "In November 2005, the Houston City Council passed an ordinance requiring that owners of existing high-rises equip their structures with fire sprinklers in the next 12 years" (Monikowski, Woodcock, 2007, p. 30)

Houston is not the only city that is worried about the risk of fire in high-rise buildings. "With the passage of this ordinance, Houston joined the list of cities putting new requirements in place for the installation of fire-sprinkler systems in high-rise buildings" (Monikowski, Woodcock, 2007, p. 30).

Actions such as the ones taken by Houston city planners are understandable considering the state of the world today, and the fact that high-rise buildings can become targets for terrorist actions, actions that can cause huge fires and all the issues that go along with a fire in a high-rise building. In Monikowski's (et al.) article, he goes on to state that, "Fire-sprinkler protection in high-rise buildings is challenging; there are many issues and considerations to be addressed" (p.30) and that one of the main challenges to be considered from the start would be the availability of a nearby water supply.

Having to supply water to the building would drain the resources that the community already holds dear.

Another concern in developing a high-rise building in the community would be that it would take away the line of sight currently enjoyed by all the citizens of the community. A high-rise building would block the wonderful view of the various topography and abundant botany currently found throughout the community. Esthetic views of the local landscape would no longer be viewable and would likely lead to a lower morale for those individuals in the community that enjoy such sights.

Our community has bloomed into a beautiful and… [read more]

Real Estate Condominium Exhibits the Mixed Attributes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,337 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Real Estate

Condominium exhibits the mixed attributes of cooperative and condominium elements and is created when a landlord splits a commercial and residential mixed-use building into many large condominiums, then again divides each condominium into that of a residential cooperative. The advocators of conversions state that condominiums pave the way for home ownership to individuals who are instead priced out.… [read more]

Water Restrictions Block Billing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,408 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Water Restrictions

Block Billing and Water Restrictions

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze water restrictions in Lubbock Texas. Specifically it will discuss local water restrictions and the block billing system that the city council designed. Lubbock Texas is experiencing a major drought, and water conservation is key to conserving this most precious of resources. However,… [read more]

Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs -- from Levittown to today's gated communities

To understand the power of the suburban ideal upon the modern American consciousness it is necessary to go far back in American history, even before the ideal of "Leave it to Beaver" became the benchmark of wholesomeness in the American cultural mindset. The photographs of Jacob Riis of tenement life during the turn of the 20th century are a powerful testimony to the cramped, dehumanized conditions of individuals living in urban locations, the result of rapid urbanization and a rapid rise in immigration. Even in the 19th century, as America was only beginning to industrialize, the ideal of the suburban homesteader proclaimed that finding one's own patch of land, rather than renting and dwelling in close proximity to other people in a rented space was the only true, right way to live. America is a democratic nation, founded upon ideals of meritocracy -- but also the Jeffersonian ideal of the gentleman farmer. Is there any wonder that most Americans wish, in their own lives, to embody this Jeffersonian ideal and to become owners of their own plot of land?

The American dream of home ownership only became a reality for many returning GIs and their families in the 1950s, with the advent of Levittown, or small, suburban planned communities where all of the houses looked fairly similar, but individuals were still able to have some sense of personal space, away from their extended families and nearby neighbors. "The basic orientation of the house was a combination of historical precedent, social engineering, and sheer financial pragmatism...The Levitt model was, finally, a compromise between extreme economy and the promise of an appropriate living space for an American family. Small at first, it could expand with time -- upward, first, then outward. Though the views Levitt's organization promoted showed a two-story structure, in fact only the downstairs was finished: a tiny, two-bedroom detached dwelling on a concrete slab, with stairs to an unfinished 'expansion attic' which could, Levitt's salespeople promised, be converted with ease into a third and perhaps even a fourth bedroom, under the eaves" (Clark 2007).

The houses were tiny and affordable, some priced at only $8,000. Early Levitt designs still harked back, according to architecture historian Peter Bacon Hales, to earlier concepts of urban 'neighborhoods,' such as the fact that the kitchen looked out into the street so that mothers could keep an eye on their children playing, rather than onto the backyard, which was later to become the focus of suburban childhood. But the houses proved appealing because, above all, built within the ideal of economy with the potential for expansion was the concept that every American family was entitled to his or her own home, and that home could be customized and expanded upon as the family presumably financially prospered and enjoyed the American dream. The success of the family would be proclaimed by the beautification and the changes written upon the face of… [read more]

Ergonomic Factors in Work Activities Ergonomic Life Cycles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Ergonomics - Work Activities

The excitement of moving into a newly bought house is often so overwhelming that little thought is given to possible difficulties with maintenance and repair issues. A newly-wed couple moved into a house that was badly in need of repair, having been built some decades ago. They obtained all the necessary permits and professionals to complete the job and prepared to live happily ever after in their new home some months after purchasing the property.

While repairs were made to all aspects of the house above ground, in terms of electrical wiring, cracks in the walls and floors, and the like, no attention was given to plumbing or the position of water pipes. The happy couple was therefore not aware that the underground plumbing system was also in need of considerable repair. Furthermore, they were not aware that the garage housing their car was built more recently than the rest of the house, and located over one of the water pipes running from the plumbing system of the house. It was therefore to their great surprise that, when trying to leave for work one morning, that the husband found his car in the middle of a pool of water gushing from a previously unnoticed crack in the garage floor. One of the water pipes underneath the garage had burst and was leaking through the floor.

The result was greatly inconvenient to the couple in terms of both finance and practical issues. The husband had to take a day off from work to call the plumber for an assessment of the damage. Because the floor of the garage was made of thick, hard concrete, repair to the pipes would take around two weeks. The floor had to be broken to reach the pipe in question. Because the water supply had to be switched off to make the repairs, the couple had to rent alternative premises to stay during the two weeks of the repair process. They were therefore not home on a continuous basis and suffered considerable stress as a result of worrying about safety issues. Because it was an urgent matter, they could only find a hotel room…… [read more]

Housing Starts This Leading Economic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (334 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conversely, lower interest rates increases housing affordability and spurs homes sales and housing starts. Housing data also can have a significant impact on the bond market.

Personal Income

Personal income measures income from all sources. The largest component of total income is wages and salaries, a figure, which can be estimated using payrolls and earnings data from the employment report. Beyond that, there are many other categories of income, including rental income, government subsidy payments, interest income, and dividend income. Personal income is a decent indicator of future consumer demand, but it is not perfect. Recessions usually occur when consumers stop spending, which then drives down income growth. Looking solely at income growth, one may therefore miss the turning point when consumers stop spending.


"Economic Indicators - Housing Starts." Investopedia.com. 2005. Investopedia.com. 11 July

2005 .

"Overview of Hawaii's Economy." www.state.hi.us. www.state.hi.us. 11 July 2005

.… [read more]

Change in Supply Demand and Pricing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organizational Development

The construction industry and the 'supply' of new homes are investigated for this study. Low interest rates on mortgages in the U.S. have encouraged individuals to buy rather than rent. In turn, builders anticipating this demand have been involved in new constructions at a very brisk rate. The construction industry has generally had a cyclic trend. At present, the market appears to be at a high peak in this cycle. Many experts in the field are predicting that a construction bubble burst is eminent. (Clark, 2005)

Traditionally, most home prices tend to rise with rising incomes and tend to also keep pace with the Federal Reserve System's (Fed) interest rate determination. In reality, construction boom has begun to outpace demand in the U.S. The flush economy of the 90s and the increasing trend of individuals to own a second home had spurred on the construction. Despite the increased construction trends in homes, the relative price of homes has also been soaring. The price jump in some markets has been as much as $3,000 in a month and about 45.6% in the past year. (Clark, 2005) the troubling trend however, is that low interest rates, high housing prices and the over supplying of markets with homes has made the market very unstable and a possible collapse of this market could result in extensive foreclosures of homes all over the U.S.

Traditionally supply of new homes has been done to support new household formations and immigration of population within the country. (Clark, 2005) an additional 300,000 homes are also created for second or vacation homes in the U.S. As baby boomers retire, they are also increasing looking for second homes for use as both vacation homes as well as investment vehicles. Many also impacted by the stock market collapse are investing in the real estate market hoping that a similar collapse will not occur in this arena.

The median housing price in some markets far outpaces the rising salary trends and the ability of the average American to buy such a house. For example, in San Francisco, the median house price has risen to $689,000 and many homeowners are purchasing such homes using very innovative and risky lending practices. Construction companies realizing that the housing industry is over heating is currently resorting to the practice of starting construction only after a sale has been made of the new property. This trend is also very prevalent in condo development where construction is only started after 90% of the condos have been sold.

Supply, demand and prices for homes vary significantly based on the perceptions of the population. Currently, the interest in finding modern homes, which are more energy efficient, do not contain lead and asbestos as well as designed with better architectural features and modern amenities is also on the rise. Many older homes have limited capabilities of accommodating new appliances and the 'home office'. In addition, modern technology has also introduced more features and personal gadgets such as personal gyms… [read more]

Landscape Neighborhood in 1996, 79 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In contrast, the Maillardville neighborhood contains a substantial French-Canadian population. A church called Notre Dame de Lourdes is an example of how the ethnic character of the neighborhood influences its religious institutions and architecture. Maillardville has more multi-family housing and apartments with an almost European flavor than does Cariboo/Burquitlam, which has more single-family homes in its residential areas. Although Maillardville also has a number of large chain stores and fast food outlets, many of the stores are located on smaller shopping streets. Many Maillardville streets have French names such as Brunette Avenue. Many of the community centers are shared with adjoining communities. However, Maillardville boasts its unique French-Canadian character with the name of Place Maillardville.

Works Cited

City of Coquitlam Community Profiles: Cariboo/Burquitlam. http://www.coquitlam.ca/NR/rdonlyres/C6DEE97B-6E28-4722-B181-8D5D12D7011E/0/CaribooBurqProf5.pdf.

City of Coquitlam Community Profiles: Maillardville. http://www.coquitlam.ca/NR/rdonlyres/F10A98E4-616A-449B-9377-33C7BAF64B0F/0/MaillardvilleProfile3.pdf.… [read more]

Personal Statement L. Jones Real Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Additionally, I actively assisted in contract negotiations, coordinated the due diligence process, as well as evaluated potential acquisitions of distressed platforms thorough financial statement analysis and restructuring scenarios.

One of the interesting things I found during my work experience was the complex methods and interpersonal skills that are required in maintaining efficient relationships with owners, brokers, and developers, and this, too, is something I hope to learn more about in the Master's program.

My work at J&T also gave me extensive operations experience, including acting as a Senior Analyst in the company's $100 million recapitalization transaction, developing and implementing ancillary revenue initiatives to increase overall funds from operations.

Before J&T, I also worked for Chateau Communities in Denver, during the fall of 2000. There, I assisted in the creation of a disposition decision matrix to identify under-performing assets for potential sale, and conducted resident profile research to develop a resident retention program.

In short, my experience has given me an intense interest and love of the industry that I hope to refine through the Master's of Real Estate program. Although I believe that experience is one of the best ways to learn the "ins and outs" of a particular industry, I believe there are aspects of real estate in specific that lends itself to intense academic study.… [read more]

Steering Discrimination Against Minority Homebuyers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Any money not paid to identified victims was paid to the government as a civil penalty.

This lawsuit and the Consent Order entered today signal our continuing commitment to the principle that equal rights in housing for all people is a basic right of citizenship," said Redding Pitt, U.S. Attorney in Montgomery, following the decision.

Similar cases of steering have occurred across the nation. In a recent case, a court held the owner of a real estate firm liable for his sales agents' discriminatory practices (Nicolai Law Group, 1998). The agents participated in racial steering by encouraging buyers to buy homes in neighborhoods that were predominantly their own race group. The owner was found liable even though "the agents were independent contractors, he did not know what they were doing, and the company had an anti-discrimination policy."

This case shows that realty owners must demonstrate greater care regarding their agents' practices. The owner was liable because the brokers were his agents, and the owner had general control of the office. In this light, real estate owners are responsible for monitoring the activities of the agents who represent them instead of simply relying on written policies.

In racial steering cases, white and black home seekers are guided to neighborhoods that differ with respect to social and economic characteristics, especially racial composition. As a result, minority groups suffer. While fair housing laws reduce some forms of discriminatory treatment, there is still a continuing problem of discrimination. The current rate of homeownership demonstrates housing discrimination today. While the minority homeownership rate is at its highest point in history, it is still way below the homeownership rate of non-minority homeowners. Despite major improvements, there is reason to believe that discriminatory treatment exists. For this reason, further laws on steering are in order.


Delaware County Fair Housing News. (November 2000). Real Estate Sales & Racial Steering. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fhcsp.com/Newsletters/november_2000.htm.

Nicolai Law Group. (Winter, 1998). Realty Firm Owner Liable for Brokers' Discrimination. Nicolai Law Letter. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.niclawgrp.com/NicolaiLawLetter/1998winter.html

Turner, Margery. Mikelsons, Maris. (1992). Patterns of Racial Steering in Four Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Housing Economics 2, 199-234. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.turnerhome.org/mat/steering.htm.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1996). Justice Department Sues Montgomery real Estate Firm for Refusing to Show African-Americans Rental Properties in White Areas. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.usdoj.gov.… [read more]

Income Tax Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to an estimate issued by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the Government might have to phase out about 60,000 vouchers because the House wasn't providing enough money, although this is disputed by those behind the reforms. (Koff, 2003)

However, this inadequacy is not a fault of the reforms, but of the acute housing shortage facing the United States. In a situation where funding for housing support is lagging far behind demand, it could be argued that any measures which increase the amount of funds available would be welcome.

The major fear of critics of the reform concerning the amount of flexibility afforded to the states through the block grants is that it may actually worsen the housing shortage. States which are in financial difficulties may choose to change the eligibility criteria for the grants in order to use the grants as deficit financing. With so many states in dire financial straits, that worry could prove to be well-founded. ("Out In the Cold," 2003)

Since a major selling point of the proposal is that cost savings would enable the Government to provide more grants to people having difficulties finding safe, affordable housing, arguably the most damaging criticism is that the reform may reduce the amount of money available for distribution to needy families. As local agencies would be forced to relinquish control of the funds to state entities, the states would have to replace an existing network with their own, which is never an inexpensive process. The increased administrative oversight and organizational costs for the State would inevitably cut into the amount of funds available to assist needy families. Therefore, the states may be spending more in new administrative costs than is saved by the central Government by passing these duties down to the state level. (Koff, 2003)

Reducing the administrative burden of programs such as Section 8 on central Government to free up more funds to plough into increased financing for such programs appears to be a reasonable course of action, but if the ultimate costs are merely spread, not cut, such an action would not do much to improve the housing difficulties faced by the nation's poor. Finding ways to eliminate bureaucratic roadblocks, improving the screening process for prospective tenants and educating landlords in order to convince them to accept tenants who pay with vouchers may, perhaps, be areas where tangible and tenable improvements can be made, and such avenues for improving the workings of programs such as Section 8 should not be ignored in the search for budgetary solutions.


1) "About the federal Section 8 housing voucher program," The Associated Press State & Local Wire, May 20, 2003.

2) Koff, Stephen, "Section 8 program gets money but won't expand," Plain Dealer, July 26, 2003.

3) "Two demanding jobs to fill," Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), May 15, 2003…… [read more]

Geology Means to Me Chose Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As for the analysis of the slope strength itself, I stuck my finger in the wet ground and it did not resist as much as I thought it would. This leads me to believe that if there was a heavy enough rain that saturated the earth of the slope, the slope at the head would eventually grow heavier and cause the earth below to give way. Also, if the earth did not give way, the water would increase on the earth past the point of saturation so that there was a significant amount of run-off that would destabilize the ground below. This could manifest danger to the homes below because of rockslides or earth falls.

This analysis comes from the fact that I poked the ground and found that the earth was not as packed in or as solid as I thought it looked like at first glance. This theme that hazards seem to inherently hide themselves in nature worries me but I am glad we are able to be aware of the problem. It seems that we have to struggle to study each element of what makes an environment tick, and then to see what can go wrong. This will eventually lead us to the solutions for these problems. I know this for a fact because I myself have been motivated to question "what are other hazards that hide in nature that can potentially harm me and my residence?" I realize that the answers which eventually will lead to safeguards may potentially save thousands of people if only because others became more aware of the hazards that obviously still exist around them.

Specifically, looking at the weak slope, I think to myself, there must be a way to either buttress this slope, or perhaps take weight off the top to decrease the load on the toe of the slope, which is most susceptible to being pushed out by the tons of material on top. The analysis of resolutions also I think is not that easy because of so many variables. We must consider not only time, which as it passes increases the probability that something will go wrong, but our actions as well, which might accelerate the fact something bad will occur.

I think that is why in the end, we as students must be taught to learn, not only learning the material itself, but ways of how to apply that knowledge. That way, we will better be able to understand what we have learned and also apply such knowledge to any type of situation no matter…… [read more]

Stephen Crane's Novella, Maggie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Maggie seeks to escape from the Bowery and doesn't wish to become as her family. After his father dies, it is in Jimmie we see distaste for the upper class society. He despises it out of jealousy and ignorance. The narrator in the novella states that "He [Jimmie] maintained a belligerent attitude toward all well-dressed men."(14) By chapter four, the… [read more]

Real Estate Industry Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


What we do know however, is that the U.S., European and some Asian markets seem to move in tandem, so when the American is down it effects the performance of markets around the globe. Another limitation is that some unknown catalyst could be the resulting data. For example, it has been proposed that following September 11th, American's have been seeking home ownership, as a way to feel safe and connected to loved ones. Such a consumer trend may also have an effect even though it cannot be directly quantified.


The real estate industry's strengths, weakness rely mainly on fiscal policy, consumer preferences and leading economic indicators. How these factors are exploited determine what opportunities or threats may be encountered. Overall, the economic outlook for the industry is bright as the current situation of the market is expected improve by the following year and lead the way to a full economic recovery both at home and abroad.

Works Cited

Grant, David. Windmere Suggests Housing Boom is Misleading. Retrieved on June 28, 2002 from MSNBC Website: http://www.msnbc.com/local/scj/a91655.asp.

Levin, Elzar. Apartments Sold and Rented. Retrieved on June 29, 2002 from Globes Online Website: http://new.globes.co.il

Pasadilla, B, F. Pretorius and B. Renaud. Markets and Work: Dynamics of the Residential Real Estate Market in Hong Kong. 1997 November. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Realty Times. Speyer to Keynote Real Estate Outlook Conference. Retrieved on June 29, 2002 from Realtytimes.com: http://realtytimes.com/rtnews/rtcpages/19990115_rupspeyer.htm

Rourke, Dennis. The American Home Builder and the Housing Industry. (2 ed.)

1994 December. New York: Management Practice Print… [read more]

Analyzing Marketing Mix Plan Assessment

Assessment  |  5 pages (2,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Marketing Mix for 'Logan Together'

This report discusses the service marketing mix plan for Logan Together. The report begins with the stating of marketing objectives, which are to create awareness for the project among the target market and conducting an information campaign for the same purpose. A positioning strategy is outlined for Logan Together along with positioning attributes. Further, the… [read more]

Analyzing Marketing Strategies and Reflective Dialogue Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marketing Strategies / Reflective Dialogue

In the following article, I will share my experience while learning about the Marketing Plan.

Develop Understanding

I was given to understand that running a business was all about capital investment and some hands on experience of daily chores. I was not aware of either how to pursue them, nor about other important elements. And the most important is that we should come up with a suitable marketing strategy. Now, 'what is a marketing strategy? 'I wondered. In June 2013, I attended this workshop on "How to become a successful entrepreneur" in which learnt that it is the foundation of a marketing plan. It guides in the marketing related decision-making process of the company. It is carried out with the help of marketing research and includes the features of the product, the price to be charged, the distribution channels and policies regarding customer service and sales. I learnt that a well-drawn market strategy can help evaluate marketing decisions by analysing if that decision is in accordance with the strategy. When planning the market strategy, external forces e.g. competitors should be kept in mind and analysis of their marketing strategy will help in the formation of a successful marketing strategy. A thorough study of the demographic, physiographic, geographic and behavioural characteristics of the market and analysis of how consumers behave or want will also aid in the development of marketing strategy. In the workshop, we were told that there were several marketing strategies. I remember these two basic ones:

Market Segmentation: It is the process of dividing the market into smaller segments according to their common traits and then designing a market strategy deemed fit for that segment. Processes of advertisement, promotions and sales can be carried appropriately for that particular segment.

Branding: The process of creating an image and reputation for the business is known as brand positioning. This is the main strategy used when stepping into a large market. All aspects of marketing: advertisement, pricing, product features and distribution revolve around this concept of branding. And therefore, in order to carry out an effective marketing strategy, a specific identity should be achieved by which name consumers, producers and competitors can recognise your company.

By now, I had learnt a whole lot more about Marketing Plan and I believed that it was time to implement my learning.

Aspects That Are Challenging

However, first I needed a better perspective. I needed to brush up the skills that I had learnt in that workshop and thus, I attended more workshops, I did my research, I weighed the challenges I was facing to the advantages I could extract from it. Consequently, I learnt a lot more. However, I had to confront certain…… [read more]

Evaluating What Makes a Wedding Planner Unique Business Plan

Business Plan  |  11 pages (2,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Alice King Wedding Planner Value Proposition and Market Size and Growth Potential

Company Purpose

The purpose of the company is to provide a luxury experience that is individualized and custom tailored to meet each clients' specific wedding needs with an emphasis on destination weddings in romantic-historical settings.

Problem (gap in the market)

The gap in the market that exists today… [read more]

Consumerism and the Reading Terminal Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Shopping -- Sale of Popular Culture

A trip to the Reading Terminal Market ("RTM") is illuminating for understanding things about consumer culture and popular culture. The first thing that comes to mind, before the direct observations is just to step back and examine the market itself. There as a time not too long ago when such markets were not really… [read more]

Marketing and Business Management Article Critique

Article Critique  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Marketing Management Styles

Fundamentals of Marketing Management

Individuals seek to improve the results of the choices they make. Satisfaction ought to be one of the outcomes. This paper studies a special set of determinants to improve our understanding of choice satisfaction after an in-store decision. Marketing management entails the recognition, formation, capture, communication and conveyance of better client value to the target market to meet their wants and needs at the same time and hence satisfying the objectives of the organization (Martin, et al., 2015). Promotions consequent to communication of value entail trade and sales promotions and promotions to the sales force. The meaning and conceptualization of promotions as market operations are laid out by the investigation. This entails the definition of promotions and transactions as well as placing transactions as a portion of the market sequencing of exchanges, agreements and contracts (Nagasimha, 2013).

One of the essential ideas in marketing is of exchanges, agreements and market transactions. Exchanges can be defined as 'give' and 'take' of value amidst the marketed and the marketer. Market transactions are simply qualified exchange acts which take place at every purchase, whereas the qualification takes place on two counts- the first is the measurement of exchange values as well as the exchange of values amidst the marketed and the marketer; the second is the accumulation of transaction costs to the marketed or the customer (Nagasimha, 2013).

Role of Promotions in Transactional Marketing

Research differentiates market transactions as being different from the transactions which are a segment of industrial organization studies. The research explains the repercussions for marketers and supposes that promotions possess vital positions in transactional marketing in all of the four aspects- market equilibrium, demand management, market share dynamics, and market potential realization which also leads to demand (Nagasimha, 2013). Results reveal that the individual determinants possess great impact on choice satisfaction. Measures of in-store attention seem to possess just a little impact, showing that visual attention in the store is generally not a significant determinant of choice satisfaction (Martin et al., 2015).

In a wider sense, demand management entails every marketing activity to establish, meet and manage demand. It also entails market potential realization. Market potential realization entails (1) market penetration, which is also referred to as trial realization or first purchase (2) market enhancement in the customer markets and business growth in B2B markets that entails attainment of first little repeat purchases as well as fructification of any competitive transaction that is of great significance along with market penetration, and (3) spread of novelty in a transaction or market at the collective point, which is a result of adoption at the personal point. Market-share dynamics result from various market forces; competitor, consumer, context and company and it is transactional value in nature. Therefore, market share dynamics is impacted by the control of market and consumer reaction utilizing the market decision variables like product, price, promotion, and advertisements which are all under the marketing manager's direct purview (Nagasimha, 2013).

Market share dynamics,… [read more]

Adidas Response to Nike S Marketing Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Nike Case Study

Nike's core strategy is based on the idea of the pyramid of influence. The way that this strategy typically manifests is that Nike partners with top athletes in their fields, and uses the latent influence that those athletes have to market Nike's products. The strength of this strategy, in essence, is that Nike is right. Over time, the evidence is fairly conclusive that Nike's top athletes are worth a tremendous amount in the marketplace. Elberse and Verleun (2012) found that there is a positive payoff to having a celebrity endorser, and it stands to reason that the value of the endorser will increase with their prestige and fame. The authors found that when an athlete has a major achievement, sales increase. If the company is sufficiently skilled at leveraging its relationship with the athlete, the company can enjoy tremendous success, and Nike has provided ample evidence of that over the past thirty years. For example, Tiger Wood's effect on golf ball sales alone was determined to be worth $103 million from 2010-2012 for Nike (Chung, Derdenger & Srinasavan, 2012)

There are two risks for the company. The first is that there are diminishing returns over time (Elberse & Verleun, 2012). This is because the value of the endorser is typically linked to performance, and performance naturally declines at a certain point. Only an elite handful of athletes are (i.e. Michael Jordan, David Beckham) are able to maintain their marketing power after they retire. The other risk is that the athlete's credibility as an endorser may decline significantly if there are any off-field issues that cloud public perception of the athlete. One of Nike's major clients, Tiger Woods, is a pretty good example of this. When Tiger Woods' scandal broke, the companies that endorsed him collectively lost 2% of their stock market value. This scandal in particular "sent a negative marketwide signal about the reputation risk associated with celebrity endorsements" (Knittel & Stango, 2013).

If there are cons that are not included under the category of "risk," it would be that there is a need to spent quite liberally to acquire the endorsement of high-end celebrity athletes. This means that any company wishing to utilize this strategy needs to have premium pricing, and be able to support that pricing with a high quality product. The different elements of the firm's…… [read more]

Designing an Integrated Market Communication Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Designing the Integrated Market Campaign

The IMC (Integrated market campaign) is the strategy of achieving a marketing campaign through an integrated and well-coordinated method using different promotional methods intended to reinforce one another. In other words, the integrated marketing campaign is a comprehensive promotional plan using a variety of communication disciplines that include public relations, advertising, personal selling, and sales promotion to provide a consistence, clarity and maximum communication impact.

Objective of this paper is to present an integrated marketing campaign that is extremely well-designed, simple, strong and coherent.

Well-designed Integrated Marketing Campaign

"The IMC (Integrated marketing campaigns) emphasize the benefits of harnessing synergy across multiple media to build brand equity of products and services." (Dennis, et al. 2006 p 156).

The paper uses an integrated marketing campaign to coordinate and integrate all marketing communication avenues, and tools within a company to maximize impact of consumers at a minimal cost. The paper uses the following the IMC promotions mix:

Internet marketing

Direct marketing

Public relations program

Sponsorship marketing, and Database marketing.

The study identifies the internet marketing as one of the promotional tools of the IMC. In the contemporary IT (information technology) environment, the internet has become an effective promotional tool to enhance a brand image. The paper selects the internet marketing because of the benefits that organizations will derive from the internet promotion Apart from being cost effective, internet marketing can also assist organizations to reach large number of target consumers across different geographic locations. (Batchelor, & Formentin, 2008).

Direct marketing is a form of advertising technique that assists organizations to communicate directly with consumers. Examples of direct marketing include catalog distribution, target television commercials, magazines/newspaper advertisements, outdoor adverts and promotional letters. The paper also suggests the use of telemarketing, and company blogs as a form of direct marketing.

Public relations are also part of the tools of the IMC, which is the practice of spreading information about a company product to the…… [read more]

Business Startup Business Plan Company Business Plan

Business Plan  |  4 pages (1,071 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


I believe that there is a large opportunity for sustainable operations to dominate a portion of this new trend. There are many different target markets that would find such a service valuable. Many consumers, especially in the younger generations, consider ecological impacts in their decision making process and can actually hold these as a more important factor than luxury accommodations. If fact, many people will actually boycott the luxury industry and prefer more humble accommodations. Airbnb, the website and app that makes it easier than ever for people to rent out rooms or whole apartments for short periods of time which gives small businesses an opportunity to generate rental incomes from their own houses (Benjamin & Westin, 2014).

Single Family Home/Room Rental Details

The business will consist of a property with as much acreage as possible while also being close to downtown and public transportation. There will be two rooms that can be available to rent in the main house in which the owner will also occupy and then there can be a three bedroom home that is also rented out on the property. The secondary home can be rented as a whole house or room-by-room which will give the operations some flexibility with their service options.

Balance Sheet

Total Liabilities


Total Assets


Owners' Equity


Monthly Expenses


Utilities and Maintenance

Rental Income

20 days per month occupancy

5 rooms

100 Rental Days at $120


Total Income


Total Expenses

Net Profit

The budget for the properties should be one million dollars even. The owner will have to put down at least one hundred thousand dollars as collateral to obtain the business which will represent the initial owners' equity in the business. The mortgage was calculated using an online mortgage calculator for thirty years at 6% interest and the monthly payment was estimated to be sixty-five hundred dollars a month (Mortgage Calculator, N.d. ). The property will have 3 bedrooms in the main building and 3 bedrooms in the secondary building. However the owner will live onsite and use one of the rooms for personal space and thus there will be five rooms available to the public and each one will average being rented out 20 days per month. The mortgage and an estimated maintenance amount comes to about eight thousand dollars a month and the rental income, The average expected revenue generated per month from leasing activities will be twelve thousand thus giving the business a gross profit of about four thousand dollars. In addition to the gross revenues, the business will also generate equity as the mortgage is paid down which is illustrated below.

Figure 1 - Mortgage Repayment (Mortgage Calculator, N.d. )

Works Cited

Benjamin, J., & Westin, J. (2014, August 9). Airbnb's threat to affordable housing . Retrieved from Daily News: http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/airbnb-threat-affordable-housing-article-1.1897375

Mortgage Calculator. (N.d. ). Mortgage Calculator. Retrieved from Mortgage Calculator: http://www.mortgagecalculator.org/

Roberts, S. (2011, October 31). U.N. Says 7 Billion Now Share the World. Retrieved from The New York Times:… [read more]

Population of the Caulfield Postcode Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


5% of the population of the postcode. Similarly, 58.2% of full time workforce may be Australians.

Table 5: Dwelling type

Caulfield North

Occupied private dwellings



Unoccupied private dwellings


As being revealed in the table 5, 91.1% of the private residential houses are occupied and 8.9% are not occupied. As being revealed in Fig 1, the purchaser will be 26% of the population and renting will be 35% of the population.

Fig 1: Occupancy

Source: My Data (2013).

The Table 6 also reveals the median price, gross rental yield and quarterly growth of the properties.

Table 6



Median price



Quarterly growth

12-month growth

3-year growth


5-year growth



Average Annual Growth

Weekly median-advertised rent



Number of sales

Gross rental yield

Days on market



The paper recommends that the company should invest in residential properties based on the data collected from the Australian census data. From the data collected, more than 91% of the private residential properties are occupied revealing that the company will realize market advantages by focusing on the residential property. Moreover, the DSR (Demand to Supply Ratio) for the residential properties in the region is above average. In the region, the market for the properties is above the national average. (Tomorrow Finance. 2012). However, it is very critical for the company to focus on the market segment of people between 20 and 44 years of age because this age group will consist of the largest percentages of market for the company. (Real Estate Review, 2013). This trend is likely to continue in the future because only 47.7% are married in the post code, while 37.6% are never married and 14.7% are separated divorce or widowed. Meanwhile, average people per household is 2.5, thus, it is critical for the company to focus on the dwelling that can only occupy two or three people at a time because largest percentages of the households in the postcode will only require the dwelling that can occupy two or three people.

Other recommendation is that the Australians will form the largest percentages of the market for the properties because Australian forms the largest percentages of the segment enjoying the full employment in the postcode. Thus, the theory of targeting and segmentation can assist in understanding the marketing strategy to use in identifying which segment of the population that the company will direct its marketing campaigning. The analysis of the data collected reveals that it is essentially to target the marketing campaign on Australian rather than the minority group in the postcode. (Suburb Profile, 2012).

Moreover, the company will enjoy market advantages from investing in residential properties in the postcode because the median rent in the region $650 per week and median rental in the area yields approximately 3.35%. However, the average time to sell houses in the region…… [read more]

2005 Documentary Film Street Fight Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (634 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Booker tries to set himself apart from James by firmly establishing himself as the candidate for the people, and a man of the streets. After being a Rhodes scholar, Booker moved into the housing projects in Newark to be closer to the people who voted for him as a city council member. This is one of the strongest methods of establishing himself apart from his opponent. Booker also goes door to door. He is a clean candidate without anything sullying his reputation; he does not drink and is a reputation. James, on the other hand, has visited strip clubs even though he shouts about the sordid nature of places of "ill repute." One of the problems that emerge later in the campaign is that Booker is accused of having skin being too light; the black community does not perceive him as being "black" enough because of both his skin color and because of the fact his parents raised him in the suburbs and he went to good schools. His living in the housing projects does not seem to matter to them.

The voters do not seem to mind about hypocrisy. From the voters' perspective, familiarity is more important than corruption. The voters seem afraid of change. They would prefer the devil they know to the devil they don't know. Thus in spite of a remarkably well-run campaign, Booker loses. The documentary clearly explicates the complex and varied reasons why Booker loses, including reasons that are related to voter prejudice. James is clever in that he capitalizes on every setback Booker possibly has, from the issue of the strip club patron, to Booker's being perceived as not being African-American. It is unfortunate that James's attempt to distract people from the genuine problems in Newark including crime, poverty, and a deplorably low high school graduation rate ultimately…… [read more]

Indian Architecture Architectural Context Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Either way, given the fact it does not serve a necessary purpose, but is mainly ornamental, someone of wealth must have financially supported its construction. Its designer seems to be an admirer of old, temple pavilion-like structures and perhaps European-style cathedrals, given the layout. The builder must have had to balance the need for spaciousness with sturdiness. The top part of the building seems suspended and weightless on top of the columns holding it up but it must be secure enough to withstand strong winds and hurricanes.

How might it relate to other buildings in its location?

This building may be attached to a larger structure, such as a house or a great mansion. In that instance, it would be an ideal location to look at the gardens of that venue within the encased area. If it is in a public space, it might be an area in which wanderers in a park could take shade as they went shopping or simply came outdoors to gaze at the flowers. If it is used for festivals, ceremonies, and private locations, it would ideally be located near venues of public transportation and parking, to allow for easy access.

When a building is designed to be enjoyed in a park, it should be far away enough from the hustle and bustle of the city to ensure that it provides a respite of tranquility and the sounds and sights of the exterior world such as bumping horns and shouting do not intrude. But it should also be close enough to allow for easy and convenient access.

Can you decide when it was constructed?

The building looks modern, given the fragility of its structure: no old building could have endured that was made of such fragile construction. The building is very top-heavy, with the ceiling far weightier than the bottom. An open structure like this is unlikely to have been able to have withstood centuries, particularly given the upheavals endured by India in the 20th century. Also, the materials involved in its construction seem to be quite modern.

The building was likely constructed relatively recently, within the past ten years. Even though the architect may have been very enamored with older design styles, the appearance, lack of weathering, and physical details of its composition suggest that it is a 21st structure.

Historical context: Form, structure, setting and purpose

India is becoming an increasingly modernized and urban society. Its class divisions are less acute and more people are enjoying the prosperity of a middle-class life, including leisure time to wander around public gardens and enjoy the greenery. The structure might also be available for rent to such middle-class families too, to celebrate special occasions.

If located on the estate of someone who is wealthy, it is possible that it is one of the 'new rich' which wishes to create a permanent outdoor structure to host parties to simulate the life of someone wealthy and powerful who lived long ago in a place like the Taj Mahal.… [read more]

Role Americans Disabilities Act 1990 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The shot of Manhattan is inverted on its side and the loneliness of the standing chair and breakfast table seems to symbolize the larger human condition of so many urban dwellers: trapped in confined and limiting quarters and made to feel small because of the presence of infinite space and size outside of their living quarters.

While Morell began his career primarily as a black-and-white photographer, he has since expanded into the use of color in his camera obscura work. This has resulted in even more surreal works, such as his View of Florence Looking Northwest Inside Bedroom, 2009 in which a bed and nightstand are dominated by a superimposed vision of the old, submerged city, as if the photograph attempted to depict vision of a dream that a sleeper was having of a much older era. In another image in which the privacy of the bedroom intruded upon by the public space of the exterior world, "In View of the Brooklyn Bridge in the Bedroom (2009), bold red sheets serve as a reminder of the bed as a site of intimacy, contrasting with the public space of the Brooklyn Bridge. This strange juxtaposition also evokes a dreamlike state, as the outdoor image floats just above the bed" ("Getty exhibition explores the fantastic visual world of photographer Abelardo Morell," Art Daily, 2012).

Morell sees the world in a very unique fashion, and by going to one of his exhibits, the gazer is able to see the world through new eyes. After seeing a Morell photograph, the 'ordinary' version of the objects he captures never looks the same. Morell's works seamlessly merge the extraordinary with the mundane and create something even more fantastic and implausible as a result, through the magic of photography.

Works Cited

"Camera Obscura: The Captivating Work of Abelardo Morell." Apartment Therapy. Oct 2013.

[8 Nov 2013] http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/camera-obscura-150465

Di Pero, W.S. "In a dark room: The photography of Abelardo Morell

San Diego Reader. 30 Oct 2013. [8 Nov 2013]


"Getty exhibition explores the fantastic visual world of photographer Abelardo Morell."

Art Daily, 2012. [8 Nov 2013]

http://artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=11&int_new=65363#.Un1-qeLMv5M… [read more]

Foreign Direct Investment Strategy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Foreign Direct Investment Strategy

The work of Wei and Liu (2001) states that globalization, both in general and in terms of offshoring have directly and indirectly affected the supply chain for construction of real estate. It is reported that a leading producer and consumer of a great many building construction materials. The question that is posed is whether growth will… [read more]

Contract With a Property Management Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


When he later went to the office, the manager had no recollection of his phone call neither was there a record of this information nor witness. He was given the penalty and paid 400 dollars as required.

This would be a difficult case to handle for the tenant as it was basically his word against the managers and more so in reference to what the agreement stipulates. Looking at Varney v. Ditmars, 111 N.E. 822 (N.Y. 1916). It is actually difficult to enforce agreements that lack definiteness and specificity in regard to material terms there in. Furthermore, the agreement that the tenant alleges to have happened verbally is not a binding one as seen in the case between (Learning Annex Holdings, LLC v. Whitney Educ. Group, Inc., _ F. Supp. 2d _, No. 09 Civ. 4432 (SAS), 2011. These kind of agreemenets are enforcable because they point at the parties commitment in pursuing further their agreement unlike in the case of the teneant in the case study who allegedly made the call while he was a ware of the legal requirements and procedures as stipulatd by the contract terms.

It would have been pssible for the tenant to claim correspondence as required by the contract terms if he had done an email to the manager instead of the phone call. Despite the claim by Louis B. Meyer in an article by Professional Liability Agents Network (2011), that verbal agreements are binding no matter how brief they are, the overriding asumption is that a contract such as a tenant lease, is guided by clauses that restrict further agreements. The contract stipulates that an agreement shall be made by filling a renewal form and not calling in. Therefore this can not be a valid reason for the tenant to take to court. However, it is possible that this could have worked as a notice to the management pointing at his engagement elsewhere and the reason for his unplanned lateness. This however is a communication to the manager and subject to the offices approval not an aspect of the contract requirement.


The tenant has been given a 400 dollar penalty. It is only possible for him to plead with the management to waive the penalty. However, as discussed in the above paragraphs, it is challenging for the tenant to reverse such a decision as it is in respect to a legally binding contract. He should have done two things; First, he should have called earlier to inform the management of his intentions and most likely in writing. Second, as soon as he learnt of his out of town trip, he should have filled out the lease renewal form and submitted it to the property management office and third. It is important to note that the tenant relied on a phone call he made to the property management office. This phone call apparently was not recorded or even acknowledged by the office, a move that led to the imposition of 400 dollar penalty.… [read more]

Fade In: 68th Street Between 5th Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  10 pages (2,645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


FADE in: 68TH Street between 5th and 6th in an upstairs parking lot -- early morning 5:30am, New York, New York. Two friends, Sam and Jacob, are one behind the other. Jacob looks at Sam worried. A man simply called "The Boss" motions for them to start the meeting.

The Boss

Looks like you need to tell me what's going… [read more]

Critique the Impact of a Golf Course on Residential Property Values Article Critique

Article Critique  |  5 pages (1,529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Golf Course on Residential Property Values

The following pages focus on analyzing an article on the impact of golf course on the prices of residential properties. The analysis begins by summarizing the article that is analyzed, its most important issues, and the points-of-view presented in the article. The critical analysis presents the analysis of the article, its importance,… [read more]

Service Day Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (895 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … House -- Summary and Lessons Learned

Description of Cause

In order to be truly effective at helping homeless people secure meaningful employment and permanent housing, homeless assistance agencies must provide a wide array of full-service assistance that most people take for granted, including training in daily job search methods, rehearsing job interviews, providing job leads and referrals, bus fare to interviews, personal hygiene items and haircuts, as well as interview clothes and a place to receive phone calls and mail (Ettorre 17).

Strategies and Tactics Used towards Accomplishment of Goals

Complex problems demand complex solutions and the multifaceted issues confronting the homeless are certainly no exception. Therefore, identifying creative solutions and opportunities to improve existing approaches represents a timely and valuable enterprise for helping organizations. Using innovative approaches to complex problems as a strategy is described by R. Greene and Joost Elffers in their book, the 48 Laws of Power. Based on a critical analysis of numerous historical works, the 48 Laws of Power provides a useful framework in which to achieve innovative solutions as well as some factors that should be taken into account when providing social services to the homeless (Westwood 139). According to one practitioner, "These types of people inspire us to think more creatively" (Hargrove 191).

Description of Project

The service day experience focused on delivering social service assistance through the Hope House to residents in need of job search assistance, including new clothes and haircuts as described further below.

What Hope House Is and Does. The mission of Hope House is to provide temporary housing for the homeless for a time period of up to 6 months (Brown and Ruhl 3). The goal of this approach is for residents to find shelter of a more permanent nature during this 6-month period and counseling and job-placement services are available to facilitate the process (Brown and Ruhl 3). The rationale in support of the 6 months of services is based on the need for stable housing during this turbulent period in people's lives. According to Sherrie Kay, Director of one Hope House:

1. Many families become homeless within 35-40 days of losing their welfare benefits;

2. Shelters are filled to capacity, must turn people away and homeless families are forced to sleep outdoors;

3. Fully 75% of new residents of Hope House are there because they lost their benefits as a result of the welfare changes;

4. The length of time it takes families staying at Hope House to obtain housing and leave the shelter has almost tripled (cited in Whitman 37).

What Stilisti Is and Does. Established in 2006 by Marisa Marino, Stilisti has become a well-known name in hairstyle and…… [read more]

Elder Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Elder Law

The preponderance of older Americans would prefer to grown old in their own homes. The high amount of long-term care paid by government, however, suggests that few seniors have enough money to pay these costs for very long. Until lately, older homeowners had inadequate options for improving their financial situation. They could sell their house, or if they… [read more]

Dahmer Forensic Analysis Jeffrey Lionel Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The more DNA samples used in the analysis, the "greater the odds for a unique pattern and against a coincidental match" (DNA Forensics, 2009).

Another forensic analysis used in determining the identity of Dahmer's victims was fingerprint analysis. Like DNA, every fingerprint is unique. In order to identify a fingerprint, an investigator must "look at the shape of the ridges… [read more]

1970's and Early 1980's, Boston's Post Office Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … 1970's and early 1980's, Boston's Post Office Square was one of the most sought after properties in the city. The main reason is because the region had experienced tremendous amounts of urban renewal with the construction of numerous high rises. This is vastly different from when the former location of the Federal Reserve and U.S. Post Office were leased to Frank Sawyer in 1953. He built a parking garage at the location (with the city giving him a 40-year lease). Over the course of time, the structure had become an eye sore in areas that were considered to be a part of Boston's urban renewal. This is when the changes in the neighborhood caused the price of real estate to increase (which invited discussions about what the city should do). At first, there was a debate between the different parties that were in support of building another office tower. While others, were more focused on creating an area that can serve as an outdoor oasis (such as a park). ("Post Office Square Park," n.d.)

Once the individuals in favor of building park, began to have an advantage over other groups is when there were tremendous amounts of pressure placed on city officials. What was happening is an alternate bid was introduced to create a smaller officer tower and have vast areas for the park on the same location. The problem for city officials was trying to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of both plans. This is because there was pressure to use the location to help increase tax revenues through the construction of an office tower / plaza (based on appreciating real estate values and rental prices). ("Post Office Square Park," n.d.)

At the same time, a new Mayor (Raymond Flynn) was elected and the two parties were unsure about where the administration stood on the issue. This increased speculation surrounding the future of the project. After looking at a series of different bids, Flynn sided with those in favor of turning the location into a park. The main reason is that the city did not own any other land in the area. Moreover, this section of Boston was becoming one of the more popular communities for corporations to relocate. This increased the pressure on Flynn to do something for the benefit of the people.

What the Mayor's Office discovered is…… [read more]

Political Economy Subsidize the Rebuilding Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Helping residents rebuild is the superior strategy.

Of course, this policy has its naysayers. The area hit by the hurricane has been severely impacted, which means that jobs may be difficult to come by for the poorest of the poor, and there are serious concerns as to whether the ability of scientists to gage whether the city could withstand another storm can be estimated. Not all residents will necessarily want to rebuild (nor did all displaced persons have homes). For these individuals, offering them subsidies to resettle in areas so they could find temporary housing and job training, if needed, would be another option that should be made available. But for those who can rebuild, they can become the backbone of the New Orleans -- working to recreate the culture of the city that drew so many people to visit.

A second policy must deal with the children whose lives have been disrupted by Hurricane Katrina. For displaced children living in other areas, these schools should receive additional assistance for temporarily assuming the education of these children, since rebuilding the educational infrastructure will take time, meaning that some children may need to rely upon other areas to receive a quality education. As the educational system is rebuilt in New Orleans, once again the outside community can participate. Given the shortage of available teaching jobs in the U.S. As a whole, new teachers can participate in a special program where they can travel to the affected area and teach in the local school systems that are continuing to operate, in exchange for forgiveness of student loans. This would increase the chance that highly educated and qualified teachers would come to the area, and ensure that the children of New Orleans have a sound foundation to pursue better employment prospects than their parents.… [read more]

Price Floor/Ceiling Explain the Difference Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Price Floor/Ceiling

Explain the difference between a price floor and price ceiling. Provide a situation in which a price ceiling may be used. What are the effects of this price control on the equilibrium price and quantity?

Both concepts of a price floor and a price ceiling fall under the larger umbrella concept of price controls. A price floor "is the lowest legal price a commodity can be sold at" and are often utilized "by the government to prevent prices from being too low" (Taylor, 2006). The concept is most familiar in terms of the minimum wage, in which the government establishes the lowest possible hourly wage that a worker can be paid; thus, the minimum wage puts a price floor on hourly work. A price ceiling is in effect the opposite of the price floor. Issued by the government, it is the highest possible price that a good can be priced, in order to protect the consumer from prices that are far too high for goods that are important for one's living.

There are several examples of price ceilings in action over history; but, an example of price ceilings that started a while ago and is something that still is in existence today includes rent controlled housing. Rent controlled apartments in New York City started during World War II when soldiers that returned from war had…… [read more]

Social Capital Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The volunteers identified four areas in which they helped residents with practices and process. These areas included acting as an acting pair of hands to address immediate labor shortage needs, providing tangible resources, philanthropy and social capital, introducing new ideas and increasing intercultural competence, and transferring technical skills.

The volunteers described the extra pair of hands as helping with childcare and care and companionship for the elderly and disabled. The area of providing tangible resources and philanthropy included providing such things as paint, crayons, paper, books, games, used clothes, shoes and vitamins. The introduction of new ideas included such things as exchanging ideas about cooking, eating, music and dancing. The transfer of technical skills included providing technical and professional skills in education, health, social services and business.

When looking at the things that the volunteers were providing it can be seen that the residents of Villa El Salvador were doing a good job providing for their basic living needs. They seemed to have the basics covered. Essentially what were being provided by the volunteers were things that could be used to facilitate the development of social capital in this region. The people in this area appear to possess significant amounts of social capital but just need a helping hand to get started in the right direction. The residents appear to sincerely what to improve their way of life and thus improve their community as a whole. They have tremendous potential to grow their community into a very nice one in which the majority of the citizens will be able to live very happy and fulfilled lives. Thy simply need help with direction in order to facilitate this development.


Brown, J.D. & Hannis, D. (2007). Chapter 10 International community development.

Community Development in Canada. (146-164). Ontario: Pearson Education Canada.

Dominelli, L. (2011). Community development across boarders. International Social Work,

48(6), 702-713.

Lough, B.J., McBride, A.M., Sherraden, M.S. & O'Hara, K. (2011). Capacity building contributions of…… [read more]

Community Organizing Principles Community Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (754 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


[footnoteRef:2] [2: Points taken from: Chalise, K. (2011). Aboriginal Communities Development Program. Human Services ASW. Retrieved October 23, from .]

Feminist Principles

The paragraphs above have described the situation for indigenous peoples and has also given areas in which community principles can help rectify damage and ensure success. Though there are many differences between feminist principles and aboriginal principles, with one clear difference between the groups and their situations today, the main similarity is found in the fact that both groups have been marginalized, both have endured decades of inferiority and discrimination, and both fight with the principles they have to make their respective communities better, wherever they are.

In order to examine more differences, however, it is first important to look at feminist organizing (FO). FO, according to one author is a "process designed to legitimize the lived experience of marginalized women, include diverse partners, equitably distribute power and responsibility, and foster respectful social connections."[footnoteRef:3] Though this many seem familiar with the poverty and community related issues described in aboriginal communities above, feminist principles and organizing focus on issues in a different way. For instance, another important facet of FO is power sharing, which is not found as clearly in the paragraphs above. This is defined as being "committed to creating balanced power relationships through democratic practices of shared leadership, decision-making, authority, and responsibility."[footnoteRef:4] This is a vital principle that can ensure success in this community. [3: Ponic, P and Frisby, W. (2005). Feminist Organizing as Community Development. Canadian Society for Leisure Studies. Retrieved October 23, from < http://lin.ca/Uploads/cclr11/CCLR11-112.pdf>. ] [4: Feminist Principles (n.a.). (2003). DAWN Ontario. Retrieved October 23, from < http://dawn.thot.net/feminism12.html>.]


It is important to organize as a community, especially if one is marginalized, discriminated against, or if one's community does not achieve full potential. The examples given above, from the aboriginal and feminist communities around the world are very good places to start looking. Though different in many ways, these two communities have one thing in common: striving constantly for success, which is an admirable quality and which should be encouraged by all countries and all governments.… [read more]

Community Space and Youth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (727 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Several reasons that understanding the dynamics of community structures is important in low-income communities -- outlined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion -- include: a) citizens have a right to a healthy quality of life; b) without social justice, a community cannot become truly healthy; c) social exclusion is an unhealthy policy for a community; d) when there is a great deal of unemployment, that community cannot be considered a healthy one (Raphael, 311).

In the study of Lawrence Heights that Raphael and colleagues conducted, young people spoke out about the quality of life they appreciated, including having the right to the things adults have access to: a) shopping and a variety of activities; b) health center services; c) recreational facilities; d) open space and parks with trees and room to play; e) a sense of neighborliness and caring; f) public transportation; and g) adequate educational opportunities (Raphael, 315-316).

Why so few protests about poor conditions in Lawrence Heights? The community is "isolated from more well-off communities around it" and Lawrence Heights is "much more diverse and residents have not established a stable community"; moreover, there are not many businesses that allow culturally appropriate amenities "to be easily available" (Raphael, 326).

What are the underlying reasons for youth to be denied public space? Frankly, many youths are not able to turn their "outrage" (Wharf, 1997, p. 309) into an organized movement to change the way government and business approach their needs. Wharf notes that social movements begin with outrage but they are successful only after leadership from "charismatic people" and after "commitment to a cause." It is likely that young people -- as a generalization that has validity -- do not have the political instincts and social sophistication to achieve the kind of community development-related results that are needed.

Works Cited

Canadian Case Studies.

Raphael, Dennis, Renwick, Rebecca, Brown, Ivan, Phillips, Sherry, Sehdev, Hersh, and Steinmetz, Brenda. (2001). Community Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods:

Findings From Two Contrasting Communities in Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Community Development Society, 32(2), 310-333.

Social Planning Toronto. Another Winter, Another Spring: Toronto Youth Speak Out about


Wharf, Brian, and Clague, Michael.…… [read more]

Low Income Housing for Habitat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


There is also an issue tracking metric to monitor performance and quality of services that must be addressed each quarter (Haurin & Parcel, 2002).

Logic Model: Figure 1. (Trochim, 1-4c, Kellog Foundation, 2004)

The Needs -Services-Outcomes is the Model that best fits Habitat for Humanity.




The U.S. has reported that over 95 million citizens have experienced housing problems. This is about 33% of the country.

The 2008 census reports that over 18 million households were paying over half their income for housing.

In every county of the United States full time basic or minimum wage earners cannot even afford a one bedroom apartment according to HUD (NLIHC 2006).

Donations to a non-profit organization or builder is used according to how the donor requests.

Any materials or equipment received is designated to a specific builder or project.

Those gifts without a designated recipient are allocated to the area most in need within Habitat for Humanity or for administrative expense.

Homes have been built in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Europe, Latin America, U.S. And Canada. Areas where natural disasters have occurred.

Home ownership is a contributor to a higher standard of living for the entire family.

It has proven to raise children's test scores 9% in math, and 7% in reading (Haurin, Parcel, 2002).

Having a stable and safe home environment also reduces child behavior issues (Haurin, Parcel, 2002)

Children that live in substandard housing tend to repeat the cycle of lower education and failure to escape poverty as adults (Harker: 2006)

Home ownership is an advantage to the entire community and has a positive effect on the local economy. It adds to consumer expenditures while supporting the community with additional tax and fee assistance. This supports local programs and public schools.

Paying taxes also contributes to supplying jobs. (JCHS 2006). 15% more homeowners tend to vote (DiPasquale and Glaeser: 1998).


Retsinas, N.P., Belsky, E.S. Boehm, T.P. And Schlottmann, A.M. (2002). Housing and Wealth Accumulation: Intergenerational Impacts. Low-Income Homeownership:

Examining the Unexamined Goal, Brookings Institution Press: Washington DC.

Harker, L. (2006). Chance of a Lifetime: The Impacts of Bad Housing on Children's



Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel, and R. Jean Haurin (2002). Impact of Homeownership

on Child Outcomes. Low-Income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined

Goal. Nicholas P. Retsinas and Eric S. Belsky eds., Brookings Institution Press:

Washington DC.

NLIHC. (2004) America's Neighbors: The Affordable Housing Crisis and the People it

Affects, National Low Income Housing Coalition, Washington, DC.

NLIHC. (2010) . National Low Income Housing Coalition, Washington DC Retrieved

August 8, 2011 from www. nlihc. org

Trochim, W. Ph. D. & Donnelly, J.P. Ph. D. (2004). The Research Methods

Knowledge Base: Logic Model. 1-4c, Kellog Foundation.

U.S. Department of Health…… [read more]

Legendary "American Dream" Is Home Ownership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … legendary "American Dream" is home ownership. From the beginning of the republic, the right to own real estate in the United States has been recognized as an important right of all citizens, rich and poor (Mozilo). Many of those who originally settled in America did so simply so that they would have the right to own property and… [read more]

Care Impact the Continuum Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


We vow to look at every aspect, yet by meeting the immediate demands of target populations and dilemmas in our programs and individuals. We will use the data to create the short-term goals, their deadlines, expectations, the financials of that service, and the population effected. Long-term programs' and other goals of the Buncombe County, North Carolina Continuum of Care team will be reviewed bi-monthly and will have no less than 120 day deadlines and will be discussed on the even number months. When we meet these goals we rid ourselves of some of the county and neighborhood issues within a reasonable amount of time with a detailed and followed timeline to have a more organized and successful communities ("Continuum of senior," 2011).

The Buncombe County Department of Human Services will work side-by-side with other department to house meetings and look at our budget's grants and other funding options. We will have four seasonal fund raisers to help get people out in to the community and get businesses to sponsor our services to increase the amount of finances and how far we can extend our services. The committee will be required to determine ways to reduce costs throughout the next 12 months and have short- and long-term goals that will be discussed monthly and resolved as we continue to grow more financially stable. Each agency will be responsible for staying below a certain monthly spending limit to target populations and avoid unnecessary finances

In conclusion we, the committee for Continuum of Care at the Buncombe County Human Services Department request that the North Carolina State Office continue to provide funds for the programs we have continued to provide and find that these agencies within our county are vital to the residents needing a variety of services and needs. Individuals that are released from the care of our county's hospital will be made aware of the services upon entry, during their stay, and when the doctor is considering the patient's discharge from the hospital. All applicants who come to other organizations for assistance will know and become educated about their housing options, possible job, rehabilitation, therapy and counseling, and other human services they may qualify for that helps the families of Buncombe County fight against homelessness, illiteracy, poverty, depression, mental health, and drug and alcohol abuse in our neighborhoods.


Continuum of senior care management. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.continuumseniorcare.com/

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Human Services. (2011). Department of housing and urban development. Raleigh, NC: Government Housing Office. Retrieved from http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?lastName%5B1%5D=Last&firstName%5B1%5D=Initials&department=U.S.+Department+of+Housing+and+Urban+Development&subDepartment=Office+of+Human+Services&yearPublished=2011&titleDocument=Department+of+housing+and+urband+development&docID=&pubCity=Raleigh%2C+NC&publisher=Government+Housing+Office&URL=http%3A%2F%2Fportal.hud.gov%2Fportal%2Fpage%2Fportal%2FHUD&reqstyleid=2&mode=form&minimode=citation&nameCnt=1&more=yes&reqsrcid=APAGovernmentReportOnline… [read more]

Sabina: Describe What Is Entailed Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is a valuation of the property. The appraisal gives an opinion about the market value of the land. It is an evaluation of the worth of the property. It is an opinion that has been developed to determine the real property value or market value of the property.

6. Describe the contents or a mortgage or deed of trust.

A deed of trust is a signed legal document. It is a legal document used to determine the right of the property. It is a valid document that determines the rightful owner of the property. They can be described as a contract since they require the signatures of all parties involved. Deeds are a specialty contract under seal or bond.

7. Define property insurance requirements.

All properties that have mortgages have an insurance requirement. Insurance is required to cover the cost of loss. It is also required to cover the cost of damage or accident. Most homeowners choose to get insurance to eliminate risk. Mortgage companies require insurance to ensure their investment is protected.

8. Describe the impact of federal legislation on fair housing.

Fair market housing outlaws discrimination. Federal legislations in 1960's created the fair market housing. The fair market housing allows Americans to be able to live wherever they choose. Legislations such as Civil Rights Acts and Fair Market Housing Acts allows us to choose where we want to live without discrimination.

9. Describe the impact the real estate market has on the economy.

Many analysts believe that the real estate market is a major factor in the economy. The boom of the market in the early 2000's and then crash in 2007 has played a big role in the state of the economy. When real estate begins to climb, we will see a significant change in the economy. A positive real estate market reflects a healthy…… [read more]

Real Estate Bubble in China Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Real Estate Bubble in China

Over the last several years, China has been seeing above average economic growth. Part of the reason for this, is because the country has been rapidly developing and industrializing. This has caused economic expansion to accelerate at a tremendous pace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the GDP… [read more]

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