"Urban Studies / City Planning / Housing" Essays

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Rental Values and Capital Valuation Methods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Rental Values and Capital Valuation Methods:

Methods of Assessing Rental Value:

Assessing rental values does not only involve several methods but it's also an intricate and testing process to both academicians and practitioners. it's a difficult and demanding process because it encompasses scrutinizing the rental property, market conditions and neighborhood characteristics. The rental housing market is considered to be both imperfect and inefficient given that the product is long-term, set on a particular site, varied and managed by wide-ranging governmental regulations. The market conditions of an area are not necessarily the actual representation of other market conditions given that every rental housing market is limited to a particular area.

Assessing the rental value helps in determining the fair rental value which is the amount that an educated and willing renter would pay in a competitive market. The fair rental value that is determined after the assessment can also be considered as the amount which an informed and educated renter would accept for the short-term use and gratification of the property ("Rental Value," n.d.). The various methods of assessing rental value should help in the scrutiny of factors that establishes market rents of a given area. There are some two major methods by which rental values are assessed which are & #8230;

Multiple Regression Method:

This is the first and traditional method by which rental values are assessed and is considered as a parametric technique that requires the client to identify the practical form of the solution. This method has been used primarily to scrutinize the price manners of rental houses in the existing literature. The multiple regression method is however associated with many difficulties in assessing rental values because of the requirement of the user to specify the practical form of the solution. In cases where the user is ignorant of or cannot estimate the primary form of the practical relationship, the technique provides results that are in inaccurate models. Notably, this method of assessing rental values permits the use of a very common polynomial equation in situations where the practical relationship is likely to be nonlinear (Kim & Nelson, 1996).

However, the application of this method in the assessment of rental values makes it practically impossible to approximate all coefficients since the basic number of all the coefficients to be estimated increases. The number of the coefficients to be approximated continues to increase factorially because of the increase in the number of variables and function degrees. The major difficulty associated with this method is that the survey data used are usually erroneous, partial and unclear leading to inaccurate results.

Abductive Learning Networks (ALN) Method:

This is the second method by which rental values are assessed and can be used to overcome the various challenges that are associated with the multiple regression method. This technique uses both the arithmetical functions for numeric knowledge representation and a synthetic neural network formation to simplify the learning of practical models. Simplifying the assignment of learning practical models is made possible by subdividing multifaceted… [read more]

Sustainable Engineering Practice Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Sustainable Engineering Practice

Water is an essential, replenishable resource. Water resources require conservation regardless of whether a country has high or low rainfall. Regional autonomy and varying local conditions also call for local specientic plans and approaches to water resource conservation and utilization.

As water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, a future trend must be towards more and better utilization of water, in particular rainwater, in urban systems. Rainwater is a discarded resource, and its mismanagement can result in major environmental problems and disruptions such as urban run-off. 41 But there are simple technologies available that local governments can introduce, which can save rainwater for drinking and other purposes. The big dam age is, by and large, unfinished, with only a few dams in the world really having lived up to initial expectations. Rather, alternative approaches are needed, such as smaller cascading dam engineering and applications of underground dam technologies.

Cities are great consumers, and water is no exception. They require large amounts of water to sustain themselves, owing to the sheer numbers and density of housing. To meet their demands, there has been a variety of ways in which cities have accessed water and managed needs. The most typical pattern to date has been to build a large dam or central water supply and pipe in the water as needed. This type of exercise can be ecologically disruptive, as well as costly. One of the resources that maintains potential for exploitation is rainwater, as a renewable natural resource to which we generally have access. Usually cities have access to rainfall, which opens up possibilities for its improved application and for innovative water management methods. Generally, the larger a town or city, the more difficult it is to achieve sustainable water resources and to maintain regional water circulation. The following three scenarios illustrate problems which exist worldwide:

Scenario 1: Groundwater is available in adequate quantities and of good quality, but the demand for potable water continues to rise with the growth of the town, while the new formation rate for groundwater is reduced because rainwater can no longer seep into the subsoil naturally. More roads, paths, paved areas, dwellings, public buildings, and industrial plants work to seal the surface, and the town comes to "import" potable water from other regions, which endangers nature through heavy extraction of water and dependency on this region. Another problem concerns the quantity of rainwater flowing off the surface, which rises dramatically when the surface is sealed. This causes flood damage and rising costs for sewers and the cleaning of wastewater.

Scenario 2: Potable water is obtained from surface water, a river or lake. The treatment for making potable water is technically expensive because other communities lead their poorly cleaned wastewater into these open waters. As a result of this exercise, potable water becomes extremely expensive;…… [read more]

Family Business Business Plan

Business Plan  |  4 pages (1,443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Family Business

Over the last three years, the commercial real estate market has faced a number of different challenges. Part of the reason for this, is because the depth of recession, has been having a profound impact on retail businesses. This is creating ripple effects for commercial property owners, as a variety of companies are having trouble maintaining their locations.… [read more]

Squatting Has Had a Long History Worldwide Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Squatting has had a long history worldwide, especially as concepts and laws related to property ownership change. Although most American media focuses on squatting movements in New York City, other cities in the United States are seeing squatters take over abandoned or foreclosed properties. The economic recession has driven many landowners out of their homes. Some are opting to ignore eviction notices, while other homeowners are becoming inadvertent landlords when homeless squatters take advantage of the indoor space. In some cities, squatting has become a political response to income disparity. Organizations like Take Back the Land in Miami works to place new "tenants" in abandoned homes, even setting them up with "secondhand furniture, cleaning supplies and yard upkeep. So far, he has moved six families into foreclosed homes and has nine on a waiting list," ("As Foreclosures Rise, Squatters Lay Claims"). As with Europe, the United States has been demonstrating a willingness to view squatting as a form of peaceful protest.

Squatting is a form of social justice, a politically subversive reaction to injustice and income disparity. When rents are artificially high -- or at least higher than local residents can afford -- many legal tenants are driven from their homes. The result is a glut of empty property and a simultaneous humanitarian crisis from increased homelessness. Squatting is viewed as a viable solution to mitigate problems like overly powerful landlords and economies that prejudice the poor.

In New York City, squatting made recent headlines when eleven buildings on the Lower East Side sold for $1 each. The city of New York basically donated the buildings at this price, giving them to a non-profit group that then handed the buildings over to 200+ squatters living inside. Cities are not always on the side of squatters, but increasing numbers of city representatives and law enforcement officials are taking stances in favor of squatters' rights. "Carol Abrams of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development said the arrangement was made possible because the city does not want to displace people while creating code compliant housing," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC"). In other words, the city understood the humanitarian and social justice issues at stake. There is no reason why a building should remain abandoned when in fact there are too many homeless people already. "The city preferred to have the squatters -- who will continue to live in the buildings while they are brought up to code -- inherit their seized homes rather than be shown the curb in a time of rising homelessness in New York City," ("For $1, squatters become building owners in NYC").

One of the most remarkable success stories in the history of squatting, the New York experiment shows how poverty can be squelched by simple and peaceful activism. The city understood that the squatters, when empowered by being given homes, would be instrumental in helping the neighborhood gentrify as well as the building. In return, the squatters become owners in a… [read more]

Niosh Fire Fighter Investigation and Prevention Program Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (5,201 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


NIOSH Fire Fighter Investigation / Prevention

When errors in judgment occur and correct firefighter safety practices are violated, accidents, injuries, and even deaths can result. In the case of the February 9, 2007 fire training exercise on South Calverton Road, many National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) guidelines were ignored or violated, resulting in the death of recruit Racheal Wilson. Though… [read more]

Regional Analysis Chinatown Manhattan Is Not Unique Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (882 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Regional Analysis

Chinatown Manhattan is not unique in terms of its demographic nature as mostly composed of Chinese immigrants. Many other American cities also include Chinatown districts. However, the neighborhood in Manhattan has until recently had the somewhat unique status of being the largest enclave of Chinese immigrants not only in the country, but in the entire Western Hemisphere. Chinatown Manhattan attained this status during the 1980s, when it surpassed Chinatown San Francisco in size. Interestingly, size is a fluid, dynamic thing, particularly in terms of cultural regions. The Chinese community in Flushing, Queens, close to Manhattan's Chinatown, has recently outgrown it in number of citizens.

In terms of location, Chinatown Manhattan originated on Mott, Par, Pell and Doyer streets, close to the Five Points district. The traditional borders of Chinatown, valid until the 1970s, were Canal Street (North), the Bowery (East), Worth Street (South), and Baxter Street (West) (AAFNY).

The growth of the region since the 1970s is closely connected to the political issues of the time. Changes to the American immigration laws during 1965 allowed a large increase of immigrants from Asia, which led to an explosion of Chinatown's population. Consequently, the 1970s saw the absorption of Little Italy by Chinatown (AAFNY).

The government subsidized much-needed housing projects in Chinatown, including Confucius Plaza in 1976, which included both residential units and a new public grade school. The former Eastern-European Jewish occupied Lower East Side also became a largely Chinatown neighborhood during the 1990s.

The dynamic growth of the neighborhood is further exemplified by its current geographic borders: Dilancey Street (north), East Broadway (East), Broadway (West) and Chambers Street (South). From north to south, the area stretches to approximately one mile, while it covers two miles in the east-west direction. In addition to its size, Chinatown is also interesting in terms of its residential size.

According the AAFNY, Chinatown Manhattan differs from most others of its kind across the United States in that it features as both a residential and commercial region. Population estimates range from 150,000 to 250,000 or even 350,000 residents. The residents of the region have a tendency towards low participation in the U.S. Census, mainly because of language barriers and illegal immigration. In terms of employment, the some 200-300 Chinese restaurants in the region offer income opportunities for cooks and waiters, although there are also some sweat shops. The local garment industry offers part-time employment for home workers, as it focuses on quick production in small volumes. Population growth is generally due to immigration, with generations that gain language and employment skills moving to the more affluent areas of New York.

In determining whether Chinatown might…… [read more]

Fire Prevention and Early Fire Detection Devices Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,090 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Fire Safety History And Current Research

The history of fire safety and prevention is generally associated with the events of the Industrial Revolution. Here, the proliferation of factory working contexts and the dangers of highly mechanized processes of operation would create a waiting disaster.

Though it would not be until far later in the 20th century that the United States… [read more]

Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,508 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Barbara Ehrenreich's

Nickel and Dimed

Barbara Ehrenreich's book Nickel and Dimed explores the nasty and depressing life of minimum-wages earners and their struggles to sustain a healthy existence. Ehrenreich's goal is to shine the light on American poverty and its endless cycle. The premise of the book is to understand how hundreds and thousands of people were going… [read more]

Green Housing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Green Housing

Green home-building businesses: Controls and follow-up


One critical aspect of quality control inherent in any green home building business is that of home inspection. Home inspection is important to ensure the safety of the inhabitants of any residential structure, but for a green home, the environmentally-friendly aspects advertised by the builder or seller must also be validated. New residents will often want to ensure that their homes are inspected by certified, independent professional home inspectors. Fortunately, associations such as the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors, Inc. are offering courses specifically designed for green home inspectors. Inspecting the structures before sale and providing buyers with a copy of the energy audit is one way to guarantee that the home is genuinely green, and not merely advertized as such. On a state-by-state basis, many associations such as GreenPoint Rated Existing Home in California provide rating systems for homes engaged in energy upgrades, which can be useful for remodeled homes. "A major objective of the Existing Home rating system is to educate homeowners about the benefits of green remodeling and to provide a pathway for making continued improvements" (Build it green announces partnership with the California Real Estate Inspection Association, 2009, Build it Green).

High-quality inspection is essential given that some green buildings will command a higher price than standard structures and consumers will want to know why green remodeling can save them money. Consumers interested in green building are likely to want proof that the structures will show genuine value over time, and are genuinely energy-efficient, in accordance with EPA regulations. For the builder, when subcontracting aspects of the green structure, such as energy-efficient windows, appliances or other materials, reviewing the validity of these credentials is important so the builder gets maximum value from such input materials. The EPA's Energy Star program certifies the 'greenness' of specific products.…… [read more]

Green Housing Building a Green Home Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Green Housing

Building a green home building business: skills, capabilities, experience


Communication skills are vital in the home building industry, particularly the green home building industry. An individual must be able to communicate why a green home has financial and aesthetic value to prospective buyers. He or she must also be able to work well with suppliers and bargain a fair deal on input goods and prices. Negotiation and time management are essential in coordinating the various actors involved in home building to do a good job, and a timely job. So is budgeting and writing an effective business plan.


Multitasking is essential -- an individual must be able to deal with suppliers as well as sell homes at the same time. An individual in the industry must be able to balance cost and affordability with genuinely environmentally-friendly technology. A balance of aesthetics and environmentalism is also important when creating a home's design. A green home builder must know how to provide added financial as well as ethical value that is better than his or her competitors, even those in the standard home-building industry.


An individual should be well-versed in different types of mortgages, and the home buying and building industry. This requires a background in business, real estate, and some financial training. He or she should also know about outside elements that affect supply and demand in the industry, such as seasonal changes in demand, property values, quality of schools in the area, availability of credit, and what makes a house attractive to different market demographics. A high level of comfort…… [read more]

International Competitiveness Politics and Policy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,915 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


International Competitiveness, Politics and Policy


As Thomas Friedman clearly states in the Lexus and the Olive Tree, globalization is not just a trend. Globalization is not just a trend that countries or companies may choose to follow or not to follow. Globalization is the system that replaces the former system that was ended by the Cold War.

Countries and… [read more]

Southwest Water Issue Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Southwest - Water Issue

Southwest - Facing Serious Water Issues

It is no secret that the Southwest is largely a desert, so it is not uncommon for the land to be dry and parched. However, recent developments have shown that the Southwest Basin will be facing several serious water management challenges throughout the next three decades. Land use planning and conservation are ways to help alleviate this, but they must begin now if the relentless drought and low precipitation that have been occurring are to be adjusted for. The people who live in that area must have water, but it is running out. Since it is not possible to make more water, what is available must last longer, and as the population grows it must be spread out between more people. Conservation practices such as standards and ordinances are being implemented in order to keep enough water available for everyone to use, but a shortfall of almost 5,000 gallons is still expected by 2030 (Water, n.d.). There are a lot of urban areas springing up as well, and they put heavier demands on an already depleted water supply (Great, n.d.). The same heavier strain is being felt with farmers, as their water…… [read more]

Why Suburb Development Occurred Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,539 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Suburbanization: Identifying Convincing Rationale in Support of the Process

Throughout history, mankind has tend to migrate to large, densely populated urban centers in an effort to provide themselves with mutual support and protection, as well as to engage in trade and the humanities. Today, these same forces at hard at work, of course, with many of the world's biggest cities… [read more]

Business Research - Financial Hardship Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (614 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Business Research - "Financial Hardship for most Cities to Grow in '09"

After decades of tremendous successes, the American economy now finds itself at a crossroads. Tormented by an increasing price for crude oil, a weakening dollar in the background of a strengthening euro, its involvement in international wars and the record high federal debt, the harsh effects of the real estate crisis or the insufficient labor force (in both numbers and training, against the aging of the baby boomers which imply increased health care costs), the American entrepreneur finds himself in difficult times. And all these forces generate one more negative implication for the players in the business communities: they increase the costs of cities, while also decreasing their revenues.

An article focused on analyzing the financial difficulties of the American cities was featured on the 15th of September 2008 in Business Week. Andrew Welsh-Huggins, the author of "Financial Hardship for most Cities to Grow in '09" is focused on revealing the challenges faced by the American cities in the current background. His study sample is composed of various cities, including Columbus in Ohio, Palm Bay in Florida or Indianapolis. The cities have been selected based on common features, and have also been analyzed from the lens of common forces which influence them, such as the real estate crisis or the revenues registered by the local offices.

The most relevant similarity between these cities, but also between most American cities, is that only until recently, they used to be registering increasing revenues. Today however, their revenues are decreasing and becoming insufficient to support a sustainable growth and development of the urban structures. In the words of the author, "Cities for a long while now have been on the upside of the curve, generally experiencing pretty good growth in revenues," said Chris Hoene, director of policy and…… [read more]

Eminent Domain Rulings Are Frequently Minimally Damaging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Eminent Domain rulings are frequently minimally damaging to property owners, as only small portions of land have been seized for government use, yet there are also many cases a year where a government entity, be it state, local or federal utilizes eminent domain laws to seize or purchase property that includes domestic residences. In such cases the municipality often has the upper hand, with regard to purchase price as they can dictate the purchase price at any level the individual is willing to accept or set the rate of purchase at the tax assessed value of the property, a rate that is usually significantly lower than the fair market value of the property. Additionally, the municipality may argue in favor of a purchase price determined by the value of the land itself, not including the improvements upon it, including homes and other buildings as the value becomes very limited once the announcement of eminent domain seizure has occurred. In short, the government can set the rate of reimbursement to property owners, wherever they want it to be as they are going to be the only ones willing to pay for it, once they have decided they want it.

The Fifth Amendment provides the legal standard for eminent domain: "nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation." (1) Thus, there are two constitutional requirements for the exercise of eminent domain: that the use be public, and that the owner receive just compensation.

(Talley 759)

The problem that arises from the circumstance is that "just" is not a very definitive description of compensation and individuals facing the might of a government may feel intimidated and overpowered to the point of accepting the first offer the government makers, as if it is a mandate rather than an offer. Additionally, the individuals that would be most likely to be hurt by the process would be people who had little or no concept of the fair market value of their property. This is likely to be people who have lived in their homes for a long time, such as the elderly, who also might have a stiff sense of respect for authority or the poor who have limited resources and often education to fight such authority.

Bright 83)

An additional issue regarding the use of eminent domain is that of the first constitutional stipulation, that the property be intended for public use. In recent years there have been many challenges to actions by municipalities with regard to what defines public use. As in the last 100 years municipalities have tended to loosely apply the term public to almost any purpose that denotes economic growth and development. "By the Twentieth Century it appeared that the narrow doctrine, where it still ostensibly existed, constituted at best a minor hindrance to liberal use of the eminent domain power. (103)" (Cohen 491) the frustrating part is that in many cases the property will actually be held by private developers who will likely stand to gain… [read more]

Rise of Modern America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Frederick Law Olmsted describes the challenges of urban planning in the nineteenth century including issues related to public transportation and public works such as municipal water. A landscape developer, Olmsted envisions the possible solutions to the problems sudden urban growth and industrial development pose. Olmsted, who writes for a general audience in a persuasive manner, claims that urban growth is an unavoidable fact of modernization. Framing urban development in positive terms, Olmsted suggests large-scale transit projects, sanitation projects, and access to sources of energy. The author mentions also the scores of people who commute to the cities for work and cites reasons why urban living can be preferable to rural lifestyles because of the greater access to sources of business and education. Olmsted is concerned with retaining quality of life in the midst of rapid industrial and urban development.

Long before the cause for labor unions blossomed in the United States, Dr. John B. Whitaker lists the possible repercussions of working in…… [read more]

Family Business in Real Estate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,260 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … East Coast Real Estate Families

The Rudin Family:

What family member started the Rudin business and when?

The English Rudin Family originally came from Leicestershire, where they were seated as the Lords of the Manor. (Rudin family crest and family history) the Rudin family business, which has been redited with the disticntion, in later eyars of spearheading the… [read more]

To Prohibit Building High Rises Buildings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … building high-rise buildings in any area and many times the appropriateness of such projects are questionable to say the least. If a developer were to request permission to build a high-rise building in my community I would have to strongly urge the city government to deny such a request.

One reason why I would urge such a denial would be due to the water problem currently being experienced throughout the country and especially in my community. That problem, of course, is the lack of water, and a dwindling water supply.

High-rise building fire water supply system (HFWS) is the basic element of fire protection system of high-rise buildings. Its features are high water consumption, higher water pressure and self-relief ability" (Qi, 2002, p. 71). Since buildings of the stature of a high-rise depend on high water consumption and even higher water pressure, it would be my suggestion that such water supply and pressure would come at the expense of other consumers. Other consumers would either have to pay higher prices for the water they are consuming, or have less access to that water. More and more cities and communities are requiring more stringent guidelines in regards to fire protection systems in high-rise buildings including Houston, where city planners recently changed the building codes. "In November 2005, the Houston City Council passed an ordinance requiring that owners of existing high-rises equip their structures with fire sprinklers in the next 12 years" (Monikowski, Woodcock, 2007, p. 30)

Houston is not the only city that is worried about the risk of fire in high-rise buildings. "With the passage of this ordinance, Houston joined the list of cities putting new requirements in place for the installation of fire-sprinkler systems in high-rise buildings" (Monikowski, Woodcock, 2007, p. 30).

Actions such as the ones taken by Houston city planners are understandable considering the state of the world today, and the fact that high-rise buildings can become targets for terrorist actions, actions that can cause huge fires and all the issues that go along with a fire in a high-rise building. In Monikowski's (et al.) article, he goes on to state that, "Fire-sprinkler protection in high-rise buildings is challenging; there are many issues and considerations to be addressed" (p.30) and that one of the main challenges to be considered from the start would be the availability of a nearby water supply.

Having to supply water to the building would drain the resources that the community already holds dear.

Another concern in developing a high-rise building in the community would be that it would take away the line of sight currently enjoyed by all the citizens of the community. A high-rise building would block the wonderful view of the various topography and abundant botany currently found throughout the community. Esthetic views of the local landscape would no longer be viewable and would likely lead to a lower morale for those individuals in the community that enjoy such sights.

Our community has bloomed into a beautiful and… [read more]

Real Estate Condominium Exhibits the Mixed Attributes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,337 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Real Estate

Condominium exhibits the mixed attributes of cooperative and condominium elements and is created when a landlord splits a commercial and residential mixed-use building into many large condominiums, then again divides each condominium into that of a residential cooperative. The advocators of conversions state that condominiums pave the way for home ownership to individuals who are instead priced out.… [read more]

Water Restrictions Block Billing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,408 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Water Restrictions

Block Billing and Water Restrictions

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze water restrictions in Lubbock Texas. Specifically it will discuss local water restrictions and the block billing system that the city council designed. Lubbock Texas is experiencing a major drought, and water conservation is key to conserving this most precious of resources. However,… [read more]

Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Paradoxical Promise of the Suburbs -- from Levittown to today's gated communities

To understand the power of the suburban ideal upon the modern American consciousness it is necessary to go far back in American history, even before the ideal of "Leave it to Beaver" became the benchmark of wholesomeness in the American cultural mindset. The photographs of Jacob Riis of tenement life during the turn of the 20th century are a powerful testimony to the cramped, dehumanized conditions of individuals living in urban locations, the result of rapid urbanization and a rapid rise in immigration. Even in the 19th century, as America was only beginning to industrialize, the ideal of the suburban homesteader proclaimed that finding one's own patch of land, rather than renting and dwelling in close proximity to other people in a rented space was the only true, right way to live. America is a democratic nation, founded upon ideals of meritocracy -- but also the Jeffersonian ideal of the gentleman farmer. Is there any wonder that most Americans wish, in their own lives, to embody this Jeffersonian ideal and to become owners of their own plot of land?

The American dream of home ownership only became a reality for many returning GIs and their families in the 1950s, with the advent of Levittown, or small, suburban planned communities where all of the houses looked fairly similar, but individuals were still able to have some sense of personal space, away from their extended families and nearby neighbors. "The basic orientation of the house was a combination of historical precedent, social engineering, and sheer financial pragmatism...The Levitt model was, finally, a compromise between extreme economy and the promise of an appropriate living space for an American family. Small at first, it could expand with time -- upward, first, then outward. Though the views Levitt's organization promoted showed a two-story structure, in fact only the downstairs was finished: a tiny, two-bedroom detached dwelling on a concrete slab, with stairs to an unfinished 'expansion attic' which could, Levitt's salespeople promised, be converted with ease into a third and perhaps even a fourth bedroom, under the eaves" (Clark 2007).

The houses were tiny and affordable, some priced at only $8,000. Early Levitt designs still harked back, according to architecture historian Peter Bacon Hales, to earlier concepts of urban 'neighborhoods,' such as the fact that the kitchen looked out into the street so that mothers could keep an eye on their children playing, rather than onto the backyard, which was later to become the focus of suburban childhood. But the houses proved appealing because, above all, built within the ideal of economy with the potential for expansion was the concept that every American family was entitled to his or her own home, and that home could be customized and expanded upon as the family presumably financially prospered and enjoyed the American dream. The success of the family would be proclaimed by the beautification and the changes written upon the face of… [read more]

Ergonomic Factors in Work Activities Ergonomic Life Cycles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (725 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Ergonomics - Work Activities

The excitement of moving into a newly bought house is often so overwhelming that little thought is given to possible difficulties with maintenance and repair issues. A newly-wed couple moved into a house that was badly in need of repair, having been built some decades ago. They obtained all the necessary permits and professionals to complete the job and prepared to live happily ever after in their new home some months after purchasing the property.

While repairs were made to all aspects of the house above ground, in terms of electrical wiring, cracks in the walls and floors, and the like, no attention was given to plumbing or the position of water pipes. The happy couple was therefore not aware that the underground plumbing system was also in need of considerable repair. Furthermore, they were not aware that the garage housing their car was built more recently than the rest of the house, and located over one of the water pipes running from the plumbing system of the house. It was therefore to their great surprise that, when trying to leave for work one morning, that the husband found his car in the middle of a pool of water gushing from a previously unnoticed crack in the garage floor. One of the water pipes underneath the garage had burst and was leaking through the floor.

The result was greatly inconvenient to the couple in terms of both finance and practical issues. The husband had to take a day off from work to call the plumber for an assessment of the damage. Because the floor of the garage was made of thick, hard concrete, repair to the pipes would take around two weeks. The floor had to be broken to reach the pipe in question. Because the water supply had to be switched off to make the repairs, the couple had to rent alternative premises to stay during the two weeks of the repair process. They were therefore not home on a continuous basis and suffered considerable stress as a result of worrying about safety issues. Because it was an urgent matter, they could only find a hotel room…… [read more]

Negotiations -- Real Life Bargaining Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Negotiations -- Real Life Bargaining and Negotiation

The negotiation process never has -- nor will it ever have -- a "one-size-fits-all" strategy. In fact there so many theories, strategies, tactics and books with hands-on advice about how to negotiate a deal (whether for business or personal purposes) that a party to negotiations could become bewildered and confused by all the… [read more]

Community What Makes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,544 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


The only acknowledgement of native peoples was the law in Newfoundland that banned the sale of alcohol to Indians -- which is an outrageously arrogant and ignorant slap in the face to a bona fide community group. By excluding the Mi'kmaq in the Terms of Union, that basically meant that no Mi'kmaq living in the province had "access to or received any of the benefits, statutory advantages or rights provided by the Parliament and Government of Canada" (White).

However, that having been pointed out, a small group of "mostly Mi'kmaq band members in the coastal town of Conne River in Newfoundland has "gone from being poor and isolated with high unemployment to a strong and vibrant community with nearly 100% employment," according to "Transcript: Miawpukek First Nation." This group of first peoples began their community development with Christmas tree farms and fisheries, but have expanded their economic growth to a point that has become self-supporting. In conclusion, the fact that the Mi'kmaq has engaged in community development that has strong economic footings, and has provided good education and opportunities for everyone -- in the face of a distant government that didn't seem to care -- shows what a community can do for itself, and stands as a glowing positive symbol for other groups elsewhere in Canada and in the world.

Works Cited

[Chapter 1] "Importance of Community"

[Chapter 2] "Introduction to Community Development"

Thomas, Lori…… [read more]

Future of Community Development Historically Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Accordingly, each extension may have various interests that may include ecological, economic, and social. Within each interest lie priorities that may be conflicting among its residents. To minimize conflicts, networking is deemed as a feasible method to connect like-minded individuals with the same interests and flexible boundaries.

Asset Based

Discovering and leveraging the community's current assets denotes this approach. Instead of solving problems, building from existing strengths becomes the emphasis. Being visionary and speculating possible needs will better prepare future generational communities. The power of grass-root efforts becomes paramount, which seeks to draw strengths from local associations and its residents. Meeting current residents' needs without jeopardizing future community needs is the basis for this approach. Emphasis is providing a long-term focus, interlinking infrastructures, and capitalizing strengths (Zautra & Murray, 2009).


The future of community development is evolving into three intentional approaches for effectiveness. Each approach provides avenues to create viable communities, with long-term sustainability. Future generational communities may benefit from its forefathers who cared enough to plan. Importantly, the sum of the whole is greater than its individual parts. Indeed, there is strength in unity, whereby synergy is captured with the collective efforts of many.


Zautra, A., Hall, J., & Murray, K. (2009). Community Development and Community Resilience: An Integrative Approach. Community Development, 39(3), 130-147.

Vidal, A.C., & Keating, W. (2004). Community Development: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges. Journal of Urban Affairs, 26(2), 125-137. doi:10.1111/j.0735-2166.2004.00191.x

Community Development Institute (CDI). (2006). Trends and issues in community development: Building sustainable communities. Retrieved from http://sustainabledevelopment.osu.edu/educational-resources/cdi-east-2006-trends

1 of 4… [read more]

Predatory Lending and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  22 pages (6,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Predatory Lending and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis

The issues with subprime mortgages are recognized by now, with many evasions and consequences for businesses and financiers in a similar way. A lot of writers have been swift to charge what they call hungry, predatory lenders who oppressed poor, simple and uneducated borrowers. This is expected for the reason that lenders have… [read more]

Change in Supply Demand and Pricing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organizational Development

The construction industry and the 'supply' of new homes are investigated for this study. Low interest rates on mortgages in the U.S. have encouraged individuals to buy rather than rent. In turn, builders anticipating this demand have been involved in new constructions at a very brisk rate. The construction industry has generally had a cyclic trend. At present, the market appears to be at a high peak in this cycle. Many experts in the field are predicting that a construction bubble burst is eminent. (Clark, 2005)

Traditionally, most home prices tend to rise with rising incomes and tend to also keep pace with the Federal Reserve System's (Fed) interest rate determination. In reality, construction boom has begun to outpace demand in the U.S. The flush economy of the 90s and the increasing trend of individuals to own a second home had spurred on the construction. Despite the increased construction trends in homes, the relative price of homes has also been soaring. The price jump in some markets has been as much as $3,000 in a month and about 45.6% in the past year. (Clark, 2005) the troubling trend however, is that low interest rates, high housing prices and the over supplying of markets with homes has made the market very unstable and a possible collapse of this market could result in extensive foreclosures of homes all over the U.S.

Traditionally supply of new homes has been done to support new household formations and immigration of population within the country. (Clark, 2005) an additional 300,000 homes are also created for second or vacation homes in the U.S. As baby boomers retire, they are also increasing looking for second homes for use as both vacation homes as well as investment vehicles. Many also impacted by the stock market collapse are investing in the real estate market hoping that a similar collapse will not occur in this arena.

The median housing price in some markets far outpaces the rising salary trends and the ability of the average American to buy such a house. For example, in San Francisco, the median house price has risen to $689,000 and many homeowners are purchasing such homes using very innovative and risky lending practices. Construction companies realizing that the housing industry is over heating is currently resorting to the practice of starting construction only after a sale has been made of the new property. This trend is also very prevalent in condo development where construction is only started after 90% of the condos have been sold.

Supply, demand and prices for homes vary significantly based on the perceptions of the population. Currently, the interest in finding modern homes, which are more energy efficient, do not contain lead and asbestos as well as designed with better architectural features and modern amenities is also on the rise. Many older homes have limited capabilities of accommodating new appliances and the 'home office'. In addition, modern technology has also introduced more features and personal gadgets such as personal gyms… [read more]

Housing Starts This Leading Economic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (334 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conversely, lower interest rates increases housing affordability and spurs homes sales and housing starts. Housing data also can have a significant impact on the bond market.

Personal Income

Personal income measures income from all sources. The largest component of total income is wages and salaries, a figure, which can be estimated using payrolls and earnings data from the employment report. Beyond that, there are many other categories of income, including rental income, government subsidy payments, interest income, and dividend income. Personal income is a decent indicator of future consumer demand, but it is not perfect. Recessions usually occur when consumers stop spending, which then drives down income growth. Looking solely at income growth, one may therefore miss the turning point when consumers stop spending.


"Economic Indicators - Housing Starts." Investopedia.com. 2005. Investopedia.com. 11 July

2005 .

"Overview of Hawaii's Economy." www.state.hi.us. www.state.hi.us. 11 July 2005

.… [read more]

Federal Government in Dealing Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


" In that regard, those who are most vulnerable to homelessness are individuals in the low income bracket.

In my opinion, the federal government must play a more prominent role in addressing the plight of the homeless. This is more so the case when it comes to funding the construction of housing units that are more affordable. Towards this end, the government could consider further subsidize the construction of more housing units per annum. This in my opinion could help address the severe depletion of affordable housing units throughout the country. Other considerations the federal government should explore include increasing the level of funding advanced to various homeless-service providers. The amount of funds distributed to communities via the relevant agencies in an attempt to boost affordable housing programs should also be increased. Going forward, other federal departments should also be roped in to help in making homelessness history. Departments that could play a vital role in this endeavor include but they are not limited to the Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.


In conclusion, it should be noted that unless the federal government takes bold measures to increase the number of affordable housing units, the problem of homelessness will not be conclusively addressed anytime soon. The United States of America has both the tools and capabilities to bring to an end the homelessness menace. What lacks in my view is the proper, effective, and strategic utilization of the said tools and capabilities.


Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/us/homeless-rates-steady-despite-recession-hud-says.html?ref=housingandurbandevelopmentdepartment

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing… [read more]

Resistance Dancing I Have Experienced Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … resistance dancing I have experienced in my life is turf dancing, which is similar to gang-related dances like the crip walk, or the hyphy dance. I have seen this dance in Northern California when I go to visit my family members who live there. Turf dancing is usually very rapid, and almost always involves participants 'throwing up their sets'. Whereas in southern California gang dances, sets are particular gang affiliations, in northern California sets are specific neighborhoods that people refer to as turfs. This is a general countercultural movement form of resistance, in which dancers are resisting traditional American values and social conventions. Dancers' preoccupation with the neighborhoods they are representing, and not the actual movements themselves, underscore this fact.

Dance can contribute to social-political change by preserving culture. When people have physical reminders of their culture, they are less likely to accept a new one -- even when it is forced on them, much as new culture was forced upon people of African descent during slavery (Browning). In situations in which people are forced to accept another culture, dance can serve as a catalyst to rebel against it.

I think gentrification is an important social issue, because it is displacing a lot of lower class people. If it continues, soon there will be nowhere for lower class people to live, at least not in the United States. Turf dancing helps to combat gentrification because it reinforces a feeling of pride in people and in their neighborhoods. By continuing to represent their neighborhoods through turf dancing, these dancers can help get the word out about the issue of gentrification by reminding one another of who lives where, and of the threat of outsiders coming in, buying the property inexpensively, and raising the prices so poorer people cannot live there.

I agree with Alyssa that…… [read more]

Rent Control Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Rent Control

The basis for the argument against rent control is that rent control takes the market for rental accommodation is taken out of equilibrium, creating a deadweight loss (Investopedia, 2013). Under equilibrium conditions, the supply and demand in the market will match up. In the real world, especially with something like real estate, the market will never truly arrive at equilibrium, but it should trend close to it. What rent controls do is they move both supply and demand away from equilibrium. Rent control is a price cap. If the natural equilibrium point moves upward in terms of price, then the rent cap will mean that P. is not at the natural equilibrium point. If P. is below its natural equilibrium point, then demand will be higher and supply will be lower.

From a purely economic point-of-view, this situation creates a deadweight loss where there is surplus demand that is not being met in the economy. Some people who want an apartment cannot find one. Further, from a social perspective not only will the quantity of rental stock decline, but the quality will as well. The reason for this is that, seeing unmet demand, more potential suppliers will seek to find a way to enter the market profitably, and they will only be able to do this with lower prices that would be normal. To cut costs, buildings are not maintained. Thus, from both an economic and social perspective, rent control is undesirable. In equilibrium, benefits of the market are evenly distributed. Under rent control, economic winners and losers are created, so that some people benefit from the system at the expense of others. Moreover, the lack of efficiency creates the deadweight loss -- potential economic benefit that nobody receives.


Rent controls are not introduced because of economic efficiency, they are the product of political desirability. Economic efficiency, after all, does still create adverse outcomes for people and that creates asymmetry between the economically optimal solution and the politically optimal solution. Housing costs are often a political issue, as they affect the economic well-being of the population. While…… [read more]

Ian Simms Without a Body Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (939 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ian Moore was able to trace McCourt's and Simms's movement through the apartment based on bloodstain spatter analysis. Moore surmised the fight between McCourt and Simms began just inside Simms's apartment. Moore then noted a trail of blood leading upstairs and across the landing to a rear bedroom where blood spatter on the walls showed the extent to which Simms had beaten McCourt and how he had continued to beat her at floor level (Evans, 2007). Moore concluded that Simms murdered McCourt through strangulation, stabbing, or pummeling her to death, and then bundled her body and belongings before placing them in the trunk of his car (Evans, 2007). Simms was taken into custody on February 14, 1988.

Two weeks later at the beginning of March, a marksman shooting rats found McCourt's handbag, taupe coat, maroon scarf, navy trousers, and green mittens approximately 17 miles from Simms's pub (McCourt, 2011; Evans, 2007). The search perimeter was extended to Hollis Green were investigators found McCourt's coat and clothing belonging to Simms, all of which were heavily bloodstained. Among the clothing recovered was a Labatt's sweatshirt, which was used as part of a promotion at Simms's pub (Evans, 2007). They also found "a knotted length of electric cord" that had strands of McCourt's hair entwined in it (Evans, 2007). The trash bags that had been used to throw the clothes away were matched to those used in the pub by comparing heat seal marks. Also, dog hairs collected from McCourt's clothing matched the Simms's Rottweiler and Black Labrador Retriever (Evans, 2007). Carpet fibers found on McCourt's clothing were matched to the carpet in Simms's apartment.

One of the most groundbreaking pieces of evidence was the DNA profiling performed. In the first of its kind, DNA was collected from McCourt's parents to match the blood found in the pub. It was determined that all three codes were a match and that the blood could not have come from someone other than McCourt. Dr. Alec Jeffreys calculated the blood was 14,500 times more likely to come from one of McCourt's children than from a random stranger (Evans, 2007). Based on this evidence, Simms was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment on March 14, 1989.


Evans, C. (2007). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World's Most Baffling Crimes. New York: Berkley Books. Retrieved 5 August

2013, from http://books.google.com/books?id=adKcM055ERoC&pg=PT90&lpg=PT90&dq=evans+ian+simms&source=bl&ots=m8nLle-_-s&sig=VYKVUQoMJIT31tn6RbzUtSwpQac&hl=en&sa=X&ei=L0IAUo7KIKS6yAGDzoH4AQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=evans%20ian%20simms&f=false

McCourt, M. (2011, December 1). I'll never stop searching for my daughter as told to Fiona Duffy. Express: Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. Retrieved 5 August 2013, from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/286994/I-ll-never-stop-searching-for-my-daughter… [read more]

Practices Associated With Real Estate Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,466 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Finally, the conformity principle is more subtle as compared to progression and regression but is considered to be equally important.

According to conformity the improvements must conform in age, size, style and condition to maximize value. In other words, if all the houses in a neighborhood have two garages then your house would achieve its highest value by having two… [read more]

Hydrogeological Report: Lipan Aquifer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Several small springs, when they flow, move water only a short distance before it is infiltrated back into the Lipan aquifer or evapotranspirated. Precipitation and lateral cross-formational flow are the main sources of recharge to the Lipan aquifer. Estimates from published reports of recharge rate for other aquifers indicate a vertical recharge of the Lipan from precipitation range from about… [read more]

Housing the Defined Market Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The size of the primary and selective demand gap between who has heard of the product and who is seeking out the product and may choose us is practically nil. Since we are currently the only company offering the product the only type of demand that can be attributed is the primary demand. That may change in the future as other companies see what the company is doing and emulate it, but currently that is not the case.

The potential for growth in the marketplace for this product is approximately at a 9 to 1 ratio, or in other words; for every one unit sold there are nine potential units that are not being calculated in the projections. Additionally, there are international markets that could provide sales that have not even been projected at all. There are always new houses being built around the world, many of which are in flood prone areas. This product will initially only be installed by the company, however, future sales of the product could also be done to competitors who can install the product on their own.

Some of the major influences on future sales will include whether the product is seen as an efficient and effective way to combat flooding, and will certainly be a major revenue producer for years to come if it is as effective as it is touted to be. Industry trends may be to develop a better product that is equally as efficient yet less costly, however, as the primary manufacturer of the current product, many of the improvements will come at our own behest as we will constantly be using our experience(s) with…… [read more]

Federal Legislation and Impact Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Assisting homeowners from foreclosure is appropriate and necessary. This plan was extended and refined in 2011 by the Obama Administration.

Chapter 23: Condominiums and Timeshares

Buyers should be aware of rules that may prohibit the approval of a loan for a particular condominium property. For both FHA and conventional loans the unit needs be at least 50% owner occupied, if not, the loan will not be approved. Buyers should ensure the HOA does not have any pending litigation and that the HOA is well-funded, absent any of these factors and securing a loan for the condo can prove to be quite difficult.

There is an active condo market in my area. For people who looking to own property they find relative cost to own a condo compared to a single family home is much less. The economy in my area (Washington, DC) is supported heavily by government jobs. The healthy job market attracts tens of thousands of people annually, including younger workers who purchase a condo as their first home.

Chapter 24: Property Insurance

Lenders require property insurance to protect both parties against loss or damage to the property. Some lenders require a Loan Policy, which is based on the dollar amount of the loan. It is protection for the lender in the event of a title issue. Owner's title insurance protects the buyer if an issue comes up in regards to the title that was not previously found during a title search. In additional almost all lenders require homeowners insurance. Homeowners insurance usually covers the dwelling personal property, liability and loss of use. In some areas flood insurance may also be required.

Allowing a policy to lapse will leave the homeowner at risk, without insurance the homeowner will have absorb the full financial and legal implications in the instance of an adverse event. Homeowners can not only lose their homes but run the risk of being sued and even bankruptcy. Homeowners will be forced indemnify all parties if found responsible and have to fund the replacement of their own property in case of loss or damage. For this reason, it is not wise to allow homeowner insurance policies to lapse for a significant period of time.


Collins, Michelle. "Opening Doors to Fair Housing: Enforcing the Affirmatively Further Provision of the Fair Housing Act Through 42 U.S.C § 1983" Columbia Law Review Vol. 110:2135-2010: 2137-2183.

Washington, DC. Department of Treasury.…… [read more]

New Suburban Poverty Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


But it is also a fact that less affluent people are slowly but surely finding their way into suburbs anyway" and Press hopes that this will result in new voting patterns more favorable to the interests of the poor (Press 2007). Press' optimism seems undercut by the recent, overwhelming victory for Tea Party and Republican candidates, overwhelmingly supported by white, suburban voters. A presence within the suburbs does not always translate into electoral victory, if members of the so-called underclass do not vote. One of the dangers of the suburbs may be its spread-out nature, and there is a lack of cohesion and ability to mobilize, versus more urban environments.

Press believes that affordable housing a vital component in providing a meaningful solution to the problem of suburban poverty. And as well as mobilizing the poor to take back the ballot box, to realize Press' dream, the courts may also be required. Recently, "a 3-year-old federal lawsuit, filed by the Anti-Discrimination Center, accusing [Westchester] County of taking tens of millions of dollars in federal housing grants while falsely certifying that it was living up to its legal requirement to provide affordable housing without reinforcing racial segregation" was won when "Judge Denise L. Cote ruled that between 2000 and 2006 the county had, indeed, misrepresented its actions and had made little or no effort to place affordable homes in overwhelmingly white communities where residents objected" (Fair housing in the suburbs, 2009, The New York Times). Only though anti-discrimination lawsuits, voting and meaningful social justice campaigns can change be enacted: food banks merely provide band-aid solutions to the problem of suburban poverty.


Allard, Scott & Benjamin Roth. (2010, October). Strained suburbs: The social service challenges of rising suburban poverty. The Brookings Institute. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2010/1007_suburban_poverty_allard_roth.aspx

Cawthorne, Alexandra. (2010, October 27). Trouble in the suburbs: Poverty rises in areas outside cities. American Progress. Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/10/trouble_in_the_suburbs.html/print.html

Fair housing in the suburbs. (2009, August 12). Editorial. The New York Times.

Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/opinion/11tue3.html

Press, Eyal. (2007, April 23). The new suburban poverty. The Nation.

Retrieved November 12, 2010 at http://www.thenation.com/article/new-suburban-poverty… [read more]

Real Estate Industry Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


What we do know however, is that the U.S., European and some Asian markets seem to move in tandem, so when the American is down it effects the performance of markets around the globe. Another limitation is that some unknown catalyst could be the resulting data. For example, it has been proposed that following September 11th, American's have been seeking home ownership, as a way to feel safe and connected to loved ones. Such a consumer trend may also have an effect even though it cannot be directly quantified.


The real estate industry's strengths, weakness rely mainly on fiscal policy, consumer preferences and leading economic indicators. How these factors are exploited determine what opportunities or threats may be encountered. Overall, the economic outlook for the industry is bright as the current situation of the market is expected improve by the following year and lead the way to a full economic recovery both at home and abroad.

Works Cited

Grant, David. Windmere Suggests Housing Boom is Misleading. Retrieved on June 28, 2002 from MSNBC Website: http://www.msnbc.com/local/scj/a91655.asp.

Levin, Elzar. Apartments Sold and Rented. Retrieved on June 29, 2002 from Globes Online Website: http://new.globes.co.il

Pasadilla, B, F. Pretorius and B. Renaud. Markets and Work: Dynamics of the Residential Real Estate Market in Hong Kong. 1997 November. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Realty Times. Speyer to Keynote Real Estate Outlook Conference. Retrieved on June 29, 2002 from Realtytimes.com: http://realtytimes.com/rtnews/rtcpages/19990115_rupspeyer.htm

Rourke, Dennis. The American Home Builder and the Housing Industry. (2 ed.)

1994 December. New York: Management Practice Print… [read more]

Stephen Crane's Novella, Maggie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Maggie seeks to escape from the Bowery and doesn't wish to become as her family. After his father dies, it is in Jimmie we see distaste for the upper class society. He despises it out of jealousy and ignorance. The narrator in the novella states that "He [Jimmie] maintained a belligerent attitude toward all well-dressed men."(14) By chapter four, the… [read more]

Geology Means to Me Chose Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


As for the analysis of the slope strength itself, I stuck my finger in the wet ground and it did not resist as much as I thought it would. This leads me to believe that if there was a heavy enough rain that saturated the earth of the slope, the slope at the head would eventually grow heavier and cause the earth below to give way. Also, if the earth did not give way, the water would increase on the earth past the point of saturation so that there was a significant amount of run-off that would destabilize the ground below. This could manifest danger to the homes below because of rockslides or earth falls.

This analysis comes from the fact that I poked the ground and found that the earth was not as packed in or as solid as I thought it looked like at first glance. This theme that hazards seem to inherently hide themselves in nature worries me but I am glad we are able to be aware of the problem. It seems that we have to struggle to study each element of what makes an environment tick, and then to see what can go wrong. This will eventually lead us to the solutions for these problems. I know this for a fact because I myself have been motivated to question "what are other hazards that hide in nature that can potentially harm me and my residence?" I realize that the answers which eventually will lead to safeguards may potentially save thousands of people if only because others became more aware of the hazards that obviously still exist around them.

Specifically, looking at the weak slope, I think to myself, there must be a way to either buttress this slope, or perhaps take weight off the top to decrease the load on the toe of the slope, which is most susceptible to being pushed out by the tons of material on top. The analysis of resolutions also I think is not that easy because of so many variables. We must consider not only time, which as it passes increases the probability that something will go wrong, but our actions as well, which might accelerate the fact something bad will occur.

I think that is why in the end, we as students must be taught to learn, not only learning the material itself, but ways of how to apply that knowledge. That way, we will better be able to understand what we have learned and also apply such knowledge to any type of situation no matter…… [read more]

Steering Discrimination Against Minority Homebuyers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Any money not paid to identified victims was paid to the government as a civil penalty.

This lawsuit and the Consent Order entered today signal our continuing commitment to the principle that equal rights in housing for all people is a basic right of citizenship," said Redding Pitt, U.S. Attorney in Montgomery, following the decision.

Similar cases of steering have occurred across the nation. In a recent case, a court held the owner of a real estate firm liable for his sales agents' discriminatory practices (Nicolai Law Group, 1998). The agents participated in racial steering by encouraging buyers to buy homes in neighborhoods that were predominantly their own race group. The owner was found liable even though "the agents were independent contractors, he did not know what they were doing, and the company had an anti-discrimination policy."

This case shows that realty owners must demonstrate greater care regarding their agents' practices. The owner was liable because the brokers were his agents, and the owner had general control of the office. In this light, real estate owners are responsible for monitoring the activities of the agents who represent them instead of simply relying on written policies.

In racial steering cases, white and black home seekers are guided to neighborhoods that differ with respect to social and economic characteristics, especially racial composition. As a result, minority groups suffer. While fair housing laws reduce some forms of discriminatory treatment, there is still a continuing problem of discrimination. The current rate of homeownership demonstrates housing discrimination today. While the minority homeownership rate is at its highest point in history, it is still way below the homeownership rate of non-minority homeowners. Despite major improvements, there is reason to believe that discriminatory treatment exists. For this reason, further laws on steering are in order.


Delaware County Fair Housing News. (November 2000). Real Estate Sales & Racial Steering. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fhcsp.com/Newsletters/november_2000.htm.

Nicolai Law Group. (Winter, 1998). Realty Firm Owner Liable for Brokers' Discrimination. Nicolai Law Letter. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.niclawgrp.com/NicolaiLawLetter/1998winter.html

Turner, Margery. Mikelsons, Maris. (1992). Patterns of Racial Steering in Four Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Housing Economics 2, 199-234. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.turnerhome.org/mat/steering.htm.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1996). Justice Department Sues Montgomery real Estate Firm for Refusing to Show African-Americans Rental Properties in White Areas. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.usdoj.gov.… [read more]

Income Tax Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to an estimate issued by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the Government might have to phase out about 60,000 vouchers because the House wasn't providing enough money, although this is disputed by those behind the reforms. (Koff, 2003)

However, this inadequacy is not a fault of the reforms, but of the acute housing shortage facing the United States. In a situation where funding for housing support is lagging far behind demand, it could be argued that any measures which increase the amount of funds available would be welcome.

The major fear of critics of the reform concerning the amount of flexibility afforded to the states through the block grants is that it may actually worsen the housing shortage. States which are in financial difficulties may choose to change the eligibility criteria for the grants in order to use the grants as deficit financing. With so many states in dire financial straits, that worry could prove to be well-founded. ("Out In the Cold," 2003)

Since a major selling point of the proposal is that cost savings would enable the Government to provide more grants to people having difficulties finding safe, affordable housing, arguably the most damaging criticism is that the reform may reduce the amount of money available for distribution to needy families. As local agencies would be forced to relinquish control of the funds to state entities, the states would have to replace an existing network with their own, which is never an inexpensive process. The increased administrative oversight and organizational costs for the State would inevitably cut into the amount of funds available to assist needy families. Therefore, the states may be spending more in new administrative costs than is saved by the central Government by passing these duties down to the state level. (Koff, 2003)

Reducing the administrative burden of programs such as Section 8 on central Government to free up more funds to plough into increased financing for such programs appears to be a reasonable course of action, but if the ultimate costs are merely spread, not cut, such an action would not do much to improve the housing difficulties faced by the nation's poor. Finding ways to eliminate bureaucratic roadblocks, improving the screening process for prospective tenants and educating landlords in order to convince them to accept tenants who pay with vouchers may, perhaps, be areas where tangible and tenable improvements can be made, and such avenues for improving the workings of programs such as Section 8 should not be ignored in the search for budgetary solutions.


1) "About the federal Section 8 housing voucher program," The Associated Press State & Local Wire, May 20, 2003.

2) Koff, Stephen, "Section 8 program gets money but won't expand," Plain Dealer, July 26, 2003.

3) "Two demanding jobs to fill," Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), May 15, 2003…… [read more]

Personal Statement L. Jones Real Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Additionally, I actively assisted in contract negotiations, coordinated the due diligence process, as well as evaluated potential acquisitions of distressed platforms thorough financial statement analysis and restructuring scenarios.

One of the interesting things I found during my work experience was the complex methods and interpersonal skills that are required in maintaining efficient relationships with owners, brokers, and developers, and this, too, is something I hope to learn more about in the Master's program.

My work at J&T also gave me extensive operations experience, including acting as a Senior Analyst in the company's $100 million recapitalization transaction, developing and implementing ancillary revenue initiatives to increase overall funds from operations.

Before J&T, I also worked for Chateau Communities in Denver, during the fall of 2000. There, I assisted in the creation of a disposition decision matrix to identify under-performing assets for potential sale, and conducted resident profile research to develop a resident retention program.

In short, my experience has given me an intense interest and love of the industry that I hope to refine through the Master's of Real Estate program. Although I believe that experience is one of the best ways to learn the "ins and outs" of a particular industry, I believe there are aspects of real estate in specific that lends itself to intense academic study.… [read more]

Landscape Neighborhood in 1996, 79 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In contrast, the Maillardville neighborhood contains a substantial French-Canadian population. A church called Notre Dame de Lourdes is an example of how the ethnic character of the neighborhood influences its religious institutions and architecture. Maillardville has more multi-family housing and apartments with an almost European flavor than does Cariboo/Burquitlam, which has more single-family homes in its residential areas. Although Maillardville also has a number of large chain stores and fast food outlets, many of the stores are located on smaller shopping streets. Many Maillardville streets have French names such as Brunette Avenue. Many of the community centers are shared with adjoining communities. However, Maillardville boasts its unique French-Canadian character with the name of Place Maillardville.

Works Cited

City of Coquitlam Community Profiles: Cariboo/Burquitlam. http://www.coquitlam.ca/NR/rdonlyres/C6DEE97B-6E28-4722-B181-8D5D12D7011E/0/CaribooBurqProf5.pdf.

City of Coquitlam Community Profiles: Maillardville. http://www.coquitlam.ca/NR/rdonlyres/F10A98E4-616A-449B-9377-33C7BAF64B0F/0/MaillardvilleProfile3.pdf.… [read more]

Walsh v. Winthrop Case Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


According to the law, "people who believe they have been discriminated against may also sue in Federal Court under the Federal Fair Housing Act and with the state's Division of Human Rights" (Peterson 1990: 2). However, class is not a protected category, unlike race, sex, or gender. And rather than a silent, undefended admission, the co-op board died release a letter stating why Walsh had been rejected. "Inherent in the nature of the cooperative form of ownership is the right of the stockholders, acting by and through the board and officers, to select people and activities that are compatible with the community" (Bailey 2006).

On one hand, it is every easy to emotionally side with Walsh, given that he is a far more sympathetic person, given his background, than John Winthrop. Walsh was born poor and pulled himself up by his proverbial bootstraps who grew up in a Somerville housing project. A college dropout, he was able to make his line of salons tremendously profitable through his hard work and heroic efforts. John Winthrop, in contrast, is a descendent from the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and represents 'old' money (Bailey 2006). But a distaste for old money and class discrimination and an admiration for what Walsh represents in terms of achieving the American Dream does not automatically 'prove' that discrimination has taken place.

As a result of his experiences with the co-op, Walsh was granted a $2.2 million out-of-court settlement (Estes 2008). He also has lobbied to pass a bill in the Massachusetts legislature which would require all co-ops to put into writing why they refused a particular candidate (which, interestingly enough, the co-op did) and also limit the reasons individuals could be turned down by a co-op to "one of the few reasons a potential buyer could be rejected by a co-op board would be an inability to afford the unit" (Phillips 2011:1). However, opponents of the bill noted that this would defeat the purpose of a co-op, which is in part to create a community, not a unit simply determined upon the ability of who can pay for particular apartments. Regardless, Walsh's admitted need for a law to enshrine his views underlines that although his case many have generated a great deal of emotional support, it rested on tenuous legal grounds.


Bailey, S. (2006). An American Dream denied. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:


Estes, A. (2008). Luxury co-op pays $2.2m settlement: Cosmetics mogul alleges realty snub.

The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:


Navarro, M. (2013). New bill seeks to curb discrimination by co-op boards. The New York

Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/10/nyregion/new-bill-seeks-to-curb-discrimination-by-co-op-boards.html?_r=0

Peterson, I. (1990). As co-ops spread, discrimination concerns grow. The New York Times.


Phillips, F. (2011). Spurned by co-op man lobbies legislature again. The Boston Globe.

Retrieved from:

http://www.boston.com/news/local/Massachusetts/articles/2011/07/30/spurned_by_co_op_man__lobbies_legislators_again/… [read more]

Foucault and Davis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In an article titled "Fortress Los Angeles: The Militarization of Urban Space" which was published in 1992, author Mike Davis examines the second-largest city in America from a unque perspective, as he analyzes the idea of modern urban environments as representing the panopticon. Davis begins his article by reviewing the many ways in which Los Angeles is set up to be a hostile, closed off place where people are scared of strangers and keep to themselves. According to Davis, society's overwhelming need to secure its major cites has led to a situation where they basically become panopticons, because the citizens of urban areas are made to feel as though they are constantly being watched. The idea of ever-present supervision by an unseen authority figure is the heart of the panopticon concept, and as Davis sees things, Los Angeles has adopted all of the philosophical ideas put forth by Foucault. Davis mentions the rising use of personal security systems to suggest that people living in Los Angeles are always being filmed without their knowledge, which is similar to what Foucault observes when he mentions panopticism as a growing trend. Continuing with this theory, Davis discusses the ways in which Los Angeles restricts movement for its citizens, with poor highway design and urban planning leading to traffic jams, urban sprawl and other trends. In the end, Davis' views Los Angeles as the modern representation of panopticism as first imagined by Foucault.


Davis, M. (1992). Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space. Variations on a theme park, 154-180.

Foucault, M. (1984).…… [read more]

Revamp Detroit Is a City Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  10 pages (3,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14


While the above may not seem related to government meddling, it most certainly is. The interest rates charged and who gets money is greatly affected by government regulations, requirements and restrictions. Furthermore, local governments are going to get testy if they feel that house flippers are profiteering on prior homeowners in any way similar to what pawn shops and payday… [read more]

Sustainability of the Water Supply Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


"The object-oriented system dynamics approach is an appropriate technique for integrated water resources analysis. The inherent flexibility and transparency is particularly helpful for the development of simulation models for complex water resource systems with subjective variables and parameters" such as the way human beings engage with water systems (Xu et al. 2007: 240),

This systems approach would be most suitable for analyzing water management in the Caribbean (the focus of my own research) given the complexity of influences on water quality and availability in the region. Also, I believe that all research should ideally be practical and future-focused, to result in real, concrete improvement for all actors. The approaches of the Iglesias (et al. 2007) and the Xu (et al. 2007) articles would be more amenable to my research than the approach of Rijsberman's article on "Water scarcity: Fact or fiction" which is solely concerned with the scientific evidence available about water supplies. My interest is in taking a prescriptive as well as descriptive research orientation. That there are problems with water availability in the Caribbean is a given, since this has been well-documented beforehand. The purpose is to study operations of the water supply and the prospects for future sustainability: how to improve them and how best to use organizational resources. The method I would use is a systems approach, to see how different human and organizational systems are interacting with the environment to produce the current issues which have arisen with the water supply in the area.


Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788

Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)


Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability…… [read more]

Using Decision Trees to Work With Development Clients Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


David Duchovney, a real estate broker specializing in rural Texas real estate, is mentoring a salesperson from "way out of town." After a few days on the job, the new salesperson begins establishing asking prices for new property listings and seems to be quite accurate. Since the new broker seems to have picked up or "calibrated" local market behaviour very quickly, David is pleasantly surprised. What method of resolving uncertainty is the new salesperson using?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Confidence range estimates

7. Your client owns a manufactured home park in Williams Lake and is facing a myriad of issues: rent controls have eroded profitability; expenses appear to be rising faster every year; and more tenants are beginning to miss rent payments. The client isn't sure whether to hold, invest in upgrading the park and raising rents, or sell. She has asked for your recommendations on the best way to remove uncertainty from her real estate decision. What technique would you recommend?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) Both (2) and (3)

8. Your boss and you are having a chat about a real estate decision to purchase either a parking lot or a small motel in Nanaimo. Both of you discuss the reasons why either decision would be profitable, in the event a purchase was concluded. What type of evaluation technique have you used to highlight uncertainty?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

9. A property manager is considering deferring repairs and maintenance for her firm's 40 unit rental townhouse complex in Grand Prairie. She is planning on scheduling minor maintenance this summer (e.g., painting, re-caulking, power-washing, etc.) and more serious structural repairs (e.g., broken concrete, fascia replacement, roof replacement on some units) the following summer. The key benefits of spreading essential repairs and maintenance over two years, rather than tackling everything this summer are reduced impact on the firms's cash-flow, avoiding anticipated labour supply problems, and interest saved on deferred expenses. However, the key risk with this option is that the property will deteriorate to the extent that the repairs are considerably more expensive and remedial work may be required (e.g. To fix leaks) before the second year. In addition, completing all the work in one summer will improve tenant satisfaction and will ensure the property to an acceptable standard. What type of reasoning has the property manager just completed?

(1) Scenario planning

(2) Evaluating pros and cons

(3) Prospective hindsight

(4) None of the above

10. Your boss wants you to explain why the use of influence diagrams will help him make better real estate decisions. Which of the following explains a benefit of using influence diagrams as decision tools?

A. Provides an illustration of the relationships among the decision drivers.

B. Provides a permanent record of the decision drivers.

C. Simplifies the drivers of complex decision, making uncertainties easier to identify and… [read more]

How Internal Succession Planning Promotional Succession and on Boarding Affect Marketing Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,165 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Internal Succession, Promotional Succession


How internal succession planning, promotional succession and on boarding affect marketing of a company

Onboarding, succession planning, promotions affect the marketing of a company in vital ways. In order for a company to be successful, all three of these components have to line up right. If they are just… [read more]

Social Entrepreneurship Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (825 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Social Entrepreneurship

The Nuba Water Project

The Nuba Water Project (NWP) was co-founded by Ibrahim A. Agor and Steve Riley in the early 2000s. Born in Sudan, Ibrahim is a refugee of the civil war in the Nuba Mountains in the 1990s. He fled that violence with his family in 2000, and they resettled in Egypt. Later, he and his wife and three young daughters emigrated to the United States so that he could complete a graduate degree in electrical engineering at the University of Colorado. Steve Riley is an American citizen, and spent most of his career working in the insurance industry and spending his free time volunteering in the refugee housing sector. In this volunteer capacity, he became acquainted with Sudanese refugees in Denver where he met Ibrahim. The combined experience these two men bring to the project create a passion for helping some of the planet's poorest people.

Based on the belief that access to clean water is a fundamental human right, the NWP's mission is to improve the quality of life for people living in the Nuba region of Sudan through the provision of sustainable sources of clean water. Staff affiliated with the Project work hard to "rely on the Nuba peoples' own spirit of independence, resourcefulness and hard work in the creation of economically sound, self-sustaining water projects." (www.nubawaterproject.org). In this way, the NWP takes a very specific issue, the provision of clean water supplies, and applies it to a very specific region of the world, the Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Larger goals for the organization are based on their conviction that once a group of people has guaranteed access to clean water, they will be better able to achieve larger community development goals including education, sanitation, public health, and infrastructure.

As a 501(c)3 organization, the NWP relies entirely on fundraising and donations for its revenue. The organization's website allows visitors to donate, and the group holds occasional local events in Denver, Colorado, where they are based. Their largest fundraising event each year is the Walk for Sudan. Hundreds of Denver residents pay to walk 5K, and in the process they are educated about war, poverty, and other realities facing the Sudanese. The majority of the NWP staff work as volunteers in the U.S., thereby reserving most of their revenue for project use (rather than administration). Local Sudanese are paid when the group arrives to install new infrastructure.

Building water infrastructure does by its very nature involve…… [read more]

Financial System Reforms and Emerging Property Markets Performance in the Middle East Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  30 pages (10,927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Financial System Reforms

Over the last several years the property markets of: Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and United Arab Emirates followed the performance of what was occurring worldwide. Where, prices are in a steady free fall following many years of appreciation. However, due to the overall amounts of speculation that was taking place meant that many of… [read more]

Radon Gas Is a Major Health Concern Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Radon gas is a major health concern faced by all people. Many people have not heard of radon gas nor do they understand radon gas can be found within their houses. Radon is radioactive and is naturally occurring within the ground. It is colorless and odorless so detection can only be made through proper testing for the gas.

This study… [read more]

Social Work and Welfare the Charity Organization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Social Work and Welfare

The Charity Organization Society (COS), established in 1869, has had a profound influence on social work by way of its support and codification of budding techniques. This, along with its spotlight on the family, and upon a scientific advance offered a key basis for the progress of social work as profession. The Charity Organization Society came into existence in large part as a reaction to the opposition and overlap taking place between the diverse charities and agencies in a lot of parts of Britain and Ireland. The universal lack of collaboration between associations not only led to repetition, it also entailed what was seen at the time as haphazard giving. Not enough comprehensive consideration was given to looking at the issues and needs of possible clients (Smith, 2002).

Mary Ellen Richmond was a pioneer of professional social work and a vital part of women's history in the United States. She worked with families and their social troubles, as well as did research, providing important information into how charity developed into social work. She effectively fashioned a model for social casework, which today is known as case management, and the advance now referred to in the social work field as person-in-environment viewpoint. Mary Ellen Richmond started her social work career with the Charity Organization Society (COS) of Baltimore which permitted her the occasion to work inside her neighborhood to raise money for the work of the COS. Later on, Richmond worked as the Director of the Charity Organization Department for the Russell Sage Foundation where she endorsed the institutionalization of social work with support of philanthropies (Szymoniak, n.d.).

The Settlement House Movement, which was begun by Jane Addams was a division of the national Progressive Era reform movement. It extended quickly to a lot of industrial urban areas. Addams's Hull House, which was positioned in an immigrant neighborhood of the city with awful living circumstances, provided many women with the occasion to serve the underprivileged area and reform circumstances there. Environmental reforms became…… [read more]

D'arcy Jones Design Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



House: The Jones house

The Jones house certainly questions the familiar. It is an unadorned two story gray block of a building with no visible windows or apertures. It is a single-family dwelling that offers a contrast between the greenery surrounding it and the conventional suburban cottages.

It appears robust and heavy on the one hand, and yet, possibly… [read more]

Performance of the Middle East Emerging Property Markets Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  27 pages (7,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Performance of the Middle East Emerging Property Markets

The previous chapters have constituted the preamble to the analysis to be conducted at this stage. Specifically, this chapter reveals the distribution of the survey, the collection of answers and the processing of the findings in order to generate conclusions. The fact that the survey is used generates a wide array of… [read more]

Vision of Change Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Vision for Change

This is no informative article. This is a persuasive piece on 'Chicago's Public Housing" (CHA), the history of their developments, the successes that they've achieved since then, and their objective for the future. As the timeline on p.31 shows, CHA, at the time of writing, is in the fifth year of its Plan for Transformation. Presumably, much of the public, including several readers of this journal, might perceive CHA's ongoing construction activities as technically disturbing to their life (in terms of snarling road traffic and causing them similar time-related difficulties). Investors or owners of these public housing developments, as involved parties, would, likewise, need to be informed about reasons for this transformation, and persuaded into accepting it. CHA, in this article, consequently explains its need for construction, by detailing its history and the history of some of these developments, elaborating on its successful projects through examples, and plotting out its immediate and long-term plan. In persuasive manner, Peterson (2005) uses the term 'we', also alluding to the public, as means, presumably, of cajoling the reader that his or her understanding would be appreciated. Indeed, as the abstract notes, this is a "massive revitalization" of some of the poorest public housing stock, which "aims to completely transform isolated public housing developments" (30). By transforming developments that were (or still now are) marked by "crime, poverty, and despair into thriving mixed-income neighborhoods" (ibid.), CHA will, simultaneously, raise the value on these developments, attracting new buyers to the market whilst raising the quality of the neighborhood. Terry Peterson, the author, is the Chief Executive Officer of the CHA. Her intent for this ten-year Plan for Transformation, she tells you upfront, is to change the "mindset surrounding public housing." The tone of the article attempts to do this by demonstrating the marked change that many formerly depressing neighborhoods have gone through, and ambitious plans for their revitalization for the coming decade. The project involved "immense participation and coordination among various private and public entities." To that end, Peterson, delineates CHA's origin, its commitments, its present successes, and its plans for the future.

Peterson starts off by describing the need for revitalization: how targeted neighborhoods had decayed introducing sociological problems; how their notoriety had effected Chicago's public housing reputation; and how CHA had fissured under this mismanagement and had had to be restored. Mayor Daley's threefold plan (to overhaul CHA's finances; to upgrade the quality and safety of these depressed neighborhoods and; to integrate public housing into the greater Chicago area) vitiated into CHA's ten-year Plan for Transformation that was approved by the federal government in February 2000.

The Plan incorporates the following commitments:

1. To invest in a $1.5 billion capital…… [read more]

Fire Safety Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fire Safety

I live in an apartment building with 10 floors. Although certain features make the building a relatively low fire risk, there are also factors that could be improved to further reduce the likelihood of injury and death should fire occur, and to reduce the likelihood of fire itself. This can be done by means of several measures, including an improvement in planning and communication, as well as a focus on increasing fire prevention tools such as fire extinguishers.

The building's design is focused upon providing safety for residents, including reducing the likelihood of fire, and providing several escape routes should fire occur, especially from the higher floors. The building has four elevators positioned on either side of the building. Access to and from apartments are also provided by means of three internal staircases, positioned strategically along the hallways linking the apartments. Apartments are therefore proportionately served by internal stairs should fire erupt and make the elevators unusable. Furthermore, two external staircases are provided along the outside of the building, both of which are linked to all the apartments in the building.

Other safety features include two fire hoses and one fire extinguisher on each floor. However, a hazard is that residents are likely unaware of how to use these effectively should fire erupt. The residents have also not been drilled to effect an escape should this be necessary in case of fire.

The Common Floor (2010) Web site suggests that each family in the apartment building should have a fire extinguisher in their homes, and each adult member of the family should know how to use them. This empowers residents to control fires that break out within their individual apartments.

Another important feature to help detect and prevent fires is an alarm and sprinkler system. My apartment building has a sprinkler system in every kitchen, which drastically reduces the likelihood that kitchen fires could get out of control. There are however no smoke detectors or other form of alarm system. Wu (2001, p. 22) suggests that that an alarm system should be of the appropriate volume to alert residents of the hazard and to encourage timely escape.

At the same time, residents should also be aware of the building's evacuation plan (Common Floor, 2010). Current, this is one of the greatest hazards inherent in my building. There is very little communication among the building's management group and the residents living in it. There are no fire drills, nor are residents even aware if an evacuation plan exists. Communication and orderly evacuations are two vital elements in the case of fire, as fire tends to cause panic. Without an effective evacuation plan, panic will cause many more deaths and injuries than is necessary.

In order to improve this situation, the management group must create a platform for communication among residents and management. Currently, the only form of communication between the two…… [read more]

Real Estate Bubble in China Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Real Estate Bubble in China

Over the last several years, China has been seeing above average economic growth. Part of the reason for this, is because the country has been rapidly developing and industrializing. This has caused economic expansion to accelerate at a tremendous pace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the GDP… [read more]

Renting an Apartment Is a Better Option Than Buying a House Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Home Ownership vs. Renting

One of the major financial debates overtime has been whether to rent or purchase a home. This argument is of particular importance since the American family spends approximately 25-30% of their annual budget on occupancy alone (Shelton, 1968). Home ownership is the single largest investment that most family's make in their lifetime and appears to be a natural expectation throughout the course of life particularly in American culture. Home ownership is deeply imbedded in our social values and expectations of the life course (Kemeny, 1978). However, this issue is not without significant debate. Many people have made persuasive arguments for both sides of the debate with some claiming that home ownership builds equity and allows for tax advantages while others believe that due to the amount of time that it takes for an individual or family to pay off interest and begin to build equity that home ownership is a costly endeavor for which the rewards do not outweigh the risks.

Home ownership has many financial benefits such as a return on investment as equity builds in the property, tax deductions for mortgage interest, and the stability of payments that occur in fixed rate loans. When a family initially purchases a home, the bulk of their monthly payment goes directly toward paying the interest on the loan, however, over time this decreases with additional monies going toward the mortgage balance. Therefore as a family decreases their overall mortgage balance, or principal, the equity in the home begins to increase. In good economic times many home owners also experience an appreciation in the value of their home, building the equity faster than traditional means. The ability to build equity in a home provides families with long-term financial options including use in retirement or for college tuition payments (Leonhardt, 2005). Equity can be borrowed against for unexpected costs incurred by a family or also for planned life events. This money will also be received should an individual decide to sell the home, providing them with money that can be invested in future occupancies.

Tax deductions are also another major benefit to owning a home. Homeowners are able to deduct mortgage interest as well as property taxes from both federal and state taxes (Shelton, 1968). This can result in significant tax savings particularly in the early years of a mortgage loan when the significant portion of the loan payment is directly applied to interest. This is a key time for new home owners who are at times living close to or slightly beyond their means and can benefit from this financial incentive.

The ability to predict monthly payments due to the stable nature of fixed mortgage loans is also a tremendous benefit to homeowners. A fixed rate mortgage ensures that individuals will pay the same monthly payment consisting of principal and interest throughout the life of their loan. Renters can experience increases in rent overtime at the discretion of the landlord which is not the case when one owns… [read more]

Renting House vs. Owning Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Home Ownership and Rental

Home Ownership

There are both advantages and disadvantages to owning a home instead of renting private property. Owning a home has represented an important milestone in life for many people since the middle of the 20th century. It represents a stability and a permanence to the family and to its roots to the surrounding community that private property renters may not experience as often. Homeowners have complete autonomy to make any legal use of their property and to make any changes without restrictions, limitations, or the need for notice and approval of changes by a landlord or property manager. The only restrictions to a homeowner's autonomy in that regard are those arising from applicable ordinances or property codes under local and state law.

Until the recent collapse of the housing market in 2007, the value of private property had never before gone down in the modern era. Owning a home was always partly an investment in the future because homes always increased in value over time. While the current situation still makes home purchasing much less advisable in most situations today, once the market normalizes again over the long-term, it is likely that home ownership will continue to be a safe investment over the long-term, just as it always was.

Naturally, one of the main disadvantages of home ownership (especially right now) is that a home whose value declines instead of increasing represents a loss of net worth of the owner. Other disadvantages include relative inability to change locations if circumstances, opportunities, or local environments change. Also, net worth that is locked up in the value of a home is not available for other investments.

Private Property Rental

There are also advantages and disadvantages to renting a…… [read more]

Limits of Proxemic Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (662 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Personal Proxemics

In some senses, I tend to be very conscious of the personal space between myself and others. Over the course of this past week, I have consciously noted my immediate emotional response to certain proxemical conditions. In particular, I would focus anecdotally on those relating to interactions or engagements with strangers. This is warranted by the tendency for most individuals to assume differences in proxemics depending upon the familiarity of the other individual or individuals. Certainly, most of us are more likely to tolerate being forced into close proximity with a friend or relation on a bus or elevator than with a stranger.

This would prove a particularly appropriate way to approach the non-scientific experiment for someone such as myself, who lives in the middle of a bustling city. Though there are many opportunities such as in the park and on my own side-street to enjoy ample personal space and 'leg room' as it were, I also often find myself on tightly packed streets, in public restrooms, in line at a cash register, at sporting events or caught in traffic. These instances revealed some things about myself that I may not have consciously recognized prior to this experiment.

In particular, I am made uncomfortable by individuals who tend to stare. According to a compelling New York Times article by Rosenbloom (2006), Americans as a cultural characteristic tends to value personal space. But there are numerous other levels of proxemics which reveal the depth and nuance of this alleged preservation of privacy. As Rosenbloom denotes, "personal space involves not only the invisible bubble around the body, but all the senses. People may feel their space is being violated when they experience an unwelcome sound, scent or stare: the woman on the bus squawking into her cellphone, the co-worker in the adjacent cubicle dabbing on cologne, or the man in the sandwich shop leering at you over his panini." (Rosenbloom, 1)

Staring is a particular invasion of space that my…… [read more]

Sharing Scenarios and Conditions 1. Things Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sharing Scenarios and Conditions

1. Things I would lease to someone for a moderate price, but do not
Among the various things that I call my own and would be willing in
some capacity to share, there are very few that would justify imposing some
sort of expense. At my age, I have not come to own a great… [read more]

State of Green Home Building Industry Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,120 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Green Home Building Industry

SWOT Analysis of the state of green building

Green industries have become a renewed focus of the housing industry. But today's proposed innovations are even more radical than the solar-heated houses that were briefly popular during the oil-conscious 'stagflation' era of the 1970s. Replacement windows, highly efficient light bulbs, improved circulatory systems, and mold and dust-free homes may all be the face of the cleaner, greener, healthier future of the housing industry -- provided there are solvent consumers to buy such innovative houses and products, and provided banks are willing and able to provide the credit to the industry. This paper will attempt to give an overview of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats offered by entering the green building industry.


Consumers today are more cost-conscious than ever before. Greening a home, by replacing energy-inefficient windows, caulking drafts, and replacing light bulbs will all result in tremendous cost savings on current buildings. Given the glut in the housing market, consumers may wish to make their current homes more affordable than move to new homes. Greening a home, with a future-oriented focus on energy costs is the obvious solution, and can provide a boon to the industry in terms of refurbishing current houses to make them greener.

Other consumers, unable to sell their homes, may wish to make their current residences cheaper to maintain, even if they eventually desire to move from their homes.

Going green is also hipper than ever before, and has an added social cache, just like adding a new deck might have had only five years ago. Consumers may opt for green technology rather than more typical home improvements to 'impress the neighbors' and 'keep up with the Joneses.'


Because of the credit crisis, few banks are lending money to homeowners for any purposes, even for relatively modest changes in their living structures. Consumers who are wary of losing their jobs may fear any outlay of expenses. Because the economic future is so uncertain, consumers are focusing on surviving in the short-term, not the long-term, and greening a building requires a long-term focus. Many homeowners are defaulting on their mortgages and are being forced from their homes. They lack the funds and resources simply to pay for basic home necessities, much less 'green' their current structures.

In terms of new home structures, there is already a glut in most markets of currently-existing homes, and even consumers with good credit may have trouble getting a mortgage to buy existing green homes, or obtain credit to build a new, green home to their desired energy-saving specifications.

Finally, the deflation of energy prices and prices in general may make people less worried about the escalating price of gasoline. Consumers' concerns are fickle, and although interest in green cars and green homes rose when gas prices were going 'through the roof,' this may become less of an issue, as there is a serious possibility of further price deflation in terms of maintenance costs,… [read more]

U.S. Strategy Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,818 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 14



There have been several government-written strategies addressing terrorism in the United States since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and all of these are required to complement one another if the defense against a terrorist attack in the United States is to be effective and efficient. This work intends to select three strategy documents from… [read more]

Literature Response Focusing on Suburbia Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,570 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Suburbia

The fulfillment of the "American Dream" was supposed to be there, and millions of Americans certainly tried to find it in the suburbs. Like the participants in a gold rush, though, although some Americans managed to find their dream in suburbia, many others ended up disillusioned, deceived, divorced and broke - or worse. In not a few… [read more]

Employment Landlord-Tenant Liability and Duties of Care Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,351 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4





The ABC Apartment Company maintains an apartment complex in conjunction with which it employs an apartment complex manager to oversee the property. As part of those responsibilities, the manager has access to the spare keys of all rental units in case of emergency requiring entry to those units. The manager of ABC Apartments misused the key to one of the apartments by raping a tenant after using a spare key to enter a her apartment. Subsequently, it was determined that the manager had a criminal record that was never discovered by ABC Apartment Company at the time of the manager's hire. The tenant has sued ABC Apartment Company for compensatory and punitive damages. Duty of Care:

landlord has an affirmative duty to maintain the safety and integrity of rental premises by exercising reasonable care. That duty includes compliance with applicable housing and real property codes and standards as well as the exercise of reasonable care in protecting tenants from a wide variety of physical harms and monetary losses that are reasonably foreseeable (Feliu & Johnson 2002). Certain types of potential harm to tenants, while foreseeable, are not capable of being prevented by the exercise of reasonable care. Other types of potential harm are easily prevented in hindsight, but not discoverable prospectively except through means that greatly exceed the duty of reasonable care owed by landlords.

In the cases of ABC Apartments, for example, the landlord could have subjected all applicants for the Manager's position to rigorous, multi-tiered medical and psychological evaluation of the same type as used in conjunction with law enforcement applicant screening. However, that level of care exceeds what is reasonably required for apartment complex managers, although an armed managerial position would justify a higher duty of care than otherwise.

The most significant element of the apartment manager's position with respect to establishing what is (and what is not) required by reasonable care by the landlord pertains to his access to the keys to all the rental units necessitated by his responsibilities. At the very least, the foreseeability that access to key banks (or master keys) could be problematic in the case of employees with extensive criminal records for crimes relating to theft.

A preliminary criminal background check is not unreasonable to expect in conjunction with hiring apartment managers by virtue of their access to apartment units.

Even the criminal background check may fail to disclose relevant information; whether or not a greater duty of care is required to go further to confirm the apparent absence of any negative relevant entries depend on the nature of the position.

ABC Apartment's failure to conduct a standard criminal background check of the complex manager was a violation of ABC's duty of care owed to its apartment complex tenants. What is less easily established is exactly where this duty is satisfied without exceeding what is required by reasonable care. For example, had a preliminary background investigation revealed no problematic information, the question becomes… [read more]

Academic Goals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


admissions have studied accounting for the past several years. Although I feel I would excel as a registered accountant, my main academic and career goals involve applying my accounting skills toward real estate sales. Working in real estate has been a primary goal of mine for several reasons. First, I have studied a lot about real estate and am fascinated with the way the market changes, with how real estate prices and property values affect local and national economies, and also with how interest rates impact real estate markets. Therefore, I am interested in real estate on a purely academic level even before I become a licensed realtor.

From France, I also have a unique international perspective to the world of real estate. I have seen how real estate prices, lending procedures, and other issues affect buyers in more than one country. I believe my global perspective will be an asset during my studies, as I may choose to research different markets and perhaps help…… [read more]

Rent Control Price Ceilings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,634 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Rent Control- Price Ceilings

Rent Control and Price Ceilings

This essay will introduce the topic of rent control and price ceilings to the reader. The paper is divided into three parts: First, we will introduce the topic to the reader, laying out the relevant details of the law, when it was enacted, how it works, what it was designed to… [read more]

Hollyhock House and Site Integration the Ability Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,362 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Hollyhock House and Site Integration

The ability to blend architecture into the natural surroundings is a hallmark of Frank Lloyd Wright's designs. Hollyhock House was designed for Aline Barnsdall, an oil heiress from Bradford, Pennsylvania. The design of the house reflected the preferences of an unconventional, independent woman. Barnsdall had a passion for the arts and could be considered an eccentric, even by today's standards. Frank Lloyd Wright had a flair for the unconventional in design as well. Together they created the most unusual home design of their era. Hollyhock House was the result of their collaboration.

History of Hollyhock House

Hollyhock House was built between 1919 and 1923 in Los Angeles. One of the key challenges that Wright faced was that he wanted to make certain that the design of Hollyhock House blended with the established architectural style of Southern California. Although Wright's designs often stood out from those in the local area, he still did not want his designs to look out of place. Wright referred to the architectural style of Southern California as California Romanza, which means "freedom to makes one's own form."

One of the key features of Wrights' designs is their ability to take advantage of the natural surroundings. The key was to work with the natural landscape and climate, rather than to attempt to change it. Wright's designs appear to spring from the land itself, rather than appear to be "placed" there by human intervention. This philosophy permeates throughout Wright's work and Hollyhock House is no exception.

Holly Hock house was designed to take advantage of Los Angeles' dry, temperate climate. Wright's key to design was integration of all of the house elements. For instance, rather than treating the house and garden separate, they were designed as an integral part of the whole. Major interior space connects with the exterior space. Wright took advantage of the scenery surrounding the Hollywood Hills through the use of rooftop terraces.

Hollyhocks were integrated throughout the house as a design element to reflect the preferences of Barnsdall. This central theme tied the architectural theme together and served to soften the lines created by square concrete structures. The house uses straight lines and harsh angle, unlike the free flowing circular lines of the art deco period. This makes the house appear to be more Eames Era than art deco. Hollyhock House appears to be anachronistic when one realized that it was built 30 years before this type of design became popular.

Frank Lloyd Wright's philosophy

Frank Lloyd Wright's philosophy of integrating the structure into the surrounding landscape sounds more like a construct of the "green building" movement of today, rather than the art deco period of his time. Art deco was based on extravagance and the display of extravagance. Sculptured gold and marble were meant to stand out and shout the owner's wealth to all of the world. The art deco period was a period of extremes where architects paid little attention to the natural surroundings. This is where… [read more]

Is Real Estate a Solid Investment? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,020 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Real Estate as a Solid Investment OPPORTUNITY

Traditionally, real estate has been a safe investment opportunity that, generally, yields positive returns without some of the instability and risk associated with other types of financial investment, such as stock market investment. While the returns may be more modest and require more patience before they are fully realized, the real estate market… [read more]

Poverty Prevention Strategy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (805 words)
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Prevention Strategy

As it relates to the aforementioned issue of Children's poverty in Louisiana, there must be a concerted effort to meet the needs of the populace. These needs are inclusive of but not limited to living-wage compensation, safe and affordable housing, and education. It is evident that one of the primary problems associated with attempting to meet these needs is bureaucracy and the slow pace at which society changes. The state of Louisiana can no longer afford to allow children to live in such deplorable conditions.

The prevention strategy proposed will first examine the issue of living wage compensation.

Many of the poor children in Louisiana are from families of the working poor. This means that the head of household actually works full time but does not make what a living wage. The prevention strategy would make it mandatory for businesses to supply employees with living wage compensation. The implementation of such a mandate may occur over a period of time but should take place within a three-year period.

Living wage compensation will allow families to afford their basic necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing. Having the ability to afford these necessities without having to work multiple jobs will have a positive impact on families and their children because the head of household will be able to spend more time with the children and offer the proper supervision and guidance. This may also decrease the amount of crime and gang activity because more children will have proper supervision. The presence of a living wage will also allow a family to purchase healthier foods such as fresh fruit and vegetables which would assist in lowering some of the health risks that this segment of the population tends to face.

The strategy would also entail the implementation of safe affordable housing that families will be able to purchase as oppose to renting.

Statistics have shown that children that live in a home that their parents or guardians own are more stable and do better in school than children that live in rental properties. In fact Green & White (1997) found that the "earlier a family owns a home, the greater the probability that the youth remained in school (Haurin et al. 2002. pg 635)." In addition, neighborhoods in which a majority of the occupants own their homes tend to be safer their neighborhoods where the majority of the occupants rent their…… [read more]

Statistics Regression Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,045 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Statistical Analysis and Forecasting of Housing Prices

The property chosen for predicting its selling price using statistical analysis techniques including multiple regression, correlation analysis, and factor analysis is shown to the right. The property is located at 2834 N. Danbury Street in Orange, California.

The home has 4 bedrooms and 3 baths, and is located on a cul-de-sec street, which… [read more]

Historic Preservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Historic Preservation in the West

Historic Preservation in Albuquerque, Denver, & Seattle

Along with the cities of Albuquerque, New Mexico and Seattle, Washington, the city of Denver, Colorado has gone through many phases and many changes in its history. In 1858, Denver was just a settlement in Colorado with no name and not much else except three town sites that had been staked out. But that was soon to change when a man named General William Larimer from Leavenworth, Kansas arrived to a place near where Cherry Creek meets the South Platte River, looking for gold. He took one of the sites and "named his town after James Denver, governor of the Kansas Territory" (Morley, 44) author Judy Mattivi Morley writes in her book, Historic Preservation and the Imagined West: Albuquerque, Denver and Seattle.

And as for the main street of that early town of Denver, General Larimer named it after himself. When the mining region of Pikes Peak became a bustling place for speculators from around the country, Larimer Street "grew into the commercial heart of the city," Morley explains on page 44. But several events proved tough on Larimer Street; they were the silver crash of 1893, World War I at the beginning of the 20th Century, and the Dust Bowl in the 1930s, and "economic hardship changed the demographics of Larimer Street," and in fact it turned into a depressed area where "men down on their luck" and recent struggling immigrants lived.

But as many modern cities will do, Denver decided to clean up its act; the city appropriated money and resources into what became "Larimer Square" in 1967. Bond issue money and the energetic preservationist advocacy of Dana Crawford turned Larimer Square into a thriving commercial zone. Basically, Larimer Square was purchased by a for-profit corporation and the Larimer Square Historic District became official on June 21, 1971.

Crawford understood that Larimer Square had to appeal to visitors, so she convinced the city to market the square (and they did); and after being sold twice, by the late 1990s Larimer Square became the cool place to be "frequently surpassing the Denver Mint and Buffalo Bill's Grave" as attractions for tourists. Today, it is both a noted historic portion of a thriving city, and a popular attraction for locals and tourists (Morley 65). When the Denver Broncos won two straight Super Bowls in the late 1990s, Larimer Square was where the city's celebrations took place.

The creation and fine-tuning of historic districts in cities have proven, in many cases, as a way to revitalize old crumbling areas of urban blight and also to jumpstart the image of a city in terms of a welcoming destination for travelers. Pioneer Square in Seattle is another classic example where city leaders and business interests worked together to create a worthy downtown venue for locals and visitors. The city was born in 1852, boomed because of saw mills, mostly burned down in the great fire of 1889 and then the Klondike… [read more]

Legendary "American Dream" Is Home Ownership Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,293 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … legendary "American Dream" is home ownership. From the beginning of the republic, the right to own real estate in the United States has been recognized as an important right of all citizens, rich and poor (Mozilo). Many of those who originally settled in America did so simply so that they would have the right to own property and… [read more]

Low Income Housing for Habitat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


There is also an issue tracking metric to monitor performance and quality of services that must be addressed each quarter (Haurin & Parcel, 2002).

Logic Model: Figure 1. (Trochim, 1-4c, Kellog Foundation, 2004)

The Needs -Services-Outcomes is the Model that best fits Habitat for Humanity.




The U.S. has reported that over 95 million citizens have experienced housing problems. This is about 33% of the country.

The 2008 census reports that over 18 million households were paying over half their income for housing.

In every county of the United States full time basic or minimum wage earners cannot even afford a one bedroom apartment according to HUD (NLIHC 2006).

Donations to a non-profit organization or builder is used according to how the donor requests.

Any materials or equipment received is designated to a specific builder or project.

Those gifts without a designated recipient are allocated to the area most in need within Habitat for Humanity or for administrative expense.

Homes have been built in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Europe, Latin America, U.S. And Canada. Areas where natural disasters have occurred.

Home ownership is a contributor to a higher standard of living for the entire family.

It has proven to raise children's test scores 9% in math, and 7% in reading (Haurin, Parcel, 2002).

Having a stable and safe home environment also reduces child behavior issues (Haurin, Parcel, 2002)

Children that live in substandard housing tend to repeat the cycle of lower education and failure to escape poverty as adults (Harker: 2006)

Home ownership is an advantage to the entire community and has a positive effect on the local economy. It adds to consumer expenditures while supporting the community with additional tax and fee assistance. This supports local programs and public schools.

Paying taxes also contributes to supplying jobs. (JCHS 2006). 15% more homeowners tend to vote (DiPasquale and Glaeser: 1998).


Retsinas, N.P., Belsky, E.S. Boehm, T.P. And Schlottmann, A.M. (2002). Housing and Wealth Accumulation: Intergenerational Impacts. Low-Income Homeownership:

Examining the Unexamined Goal, Brookings Institution Press: Washington DC.

Harker, L. (2006). Chance of a Lifetime: The Impacts of Bad Housing on Children's



Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel, and R. Jean Haurin (2002). Impact of Homeownership

on Child Outcomes. Low-Income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined

Goal. Nicholas P. Retsinas and Eric S. Belsky eds., Brookings Institution Press:

Washington DC.

NLIHC. (2004) America's Neighbors: The Affordable Housing Crisis and the People it

Affects, National Low Income Housing Coalition, Washington, DC.

NLIHC. (2010) . National Low Income Housing Coalition, Washington DC Retrieved

August 8, 2011 from www. nlihc. org

Trochim, W. Ph. D. & Donnelly, J.P. Ph. D. (2004). The Research Methods

Knowledge Base: Logic Model. 1-4c, Kellog Foundation.

U.S. Department of Health…… [read more]

Community Space and Youth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (727 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Several reasons that understanding the dynamics of community structures is important in low-income communities -- outlined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion -- include: a) citizens have a right to a healthy quality of life; b) without social justice, a community cannot become truly healthy; c) social exclusion is an unhealthy policy for a community; d) when there is a great deal of unemployment, that community cannot be considered a healthy one (Raphael, 311).

In the study of Lawrence Heights that Raphael and colleagues conducted, young people spoke out about the quality of life they appreciated, including having the right to the things adults have access to: a) shopping and a variety of activities; b) health center services; c) recreational facilities; d) open space and parks with trees and room to play; e) a sense of neighborliness and caring; f) public transportation; and g) adequate educational opportunities (Raphael, 315-316).

Why so few protests about poor conditions in Lawrence Heights? The community is "isolated from more well-off communities around it" and Lawrence Heights is "much more diverse and residents have not established a stable community"; moreover, there are not many businesses that allow culturally appropriate amenities "to be easily available" (Raphael, 326).

What are the underlying reasons for youth to be denied public space? Frankly, many youths are not able to turn their "outrage" (Wharf, 1997, p. 309) into an organized movement to change the way government and business approach their needs. Wharf notes that social movements begin with outrage but they are successful only after leadership from "charismatic people" and after "commitment to a cause." It is likely that young people -- as a generalization that has validity -- do not have the political instincts and social sophistication to achieve the kind of community development-related results that are needed.

Works Cited

Canadian Case Studies.

Raphael, Dennis, Renwick, Rebecca, Brown, Ivan, Phillips, Sherry, Sehdev, Hersh, and Steinmetz, Brenda. (2001). Community Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods:

Findings From Two Contrasting Communities in Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Community Development Society, 32(2), 310-333.

Social Planning Toronto. Another Winter, Another Spring: Toronto Youth Speak Out about


Wharf, Brian, and Clague, Michael.…… [read more]

Social Capital Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The volunteers identified four areas in which they helped residents with practices and process. These areas included acting as an acting pair of hands to address immediate labor shortage needs, providing tangible resources, philanthropy and social capital, introducing new ideas and increasing intercultural competence, and transferring technical skills.

The volunteers described the extra pair of hands as helping with childcare and care and companionship for the elderly and disabled. The area of providing tangible resources and philanthropy included providing such things as paint, crayons, paper, books, games, used clothes, shoes and vitamins. The introduction of new ideas included such things as exchanging ideas about cooking, eating, music and dancing. The transfer of technical skills included providing technical and professional skills in education, health, social services and business.

When looking at the things that the volunteers were providing it can be seen that the residents of Villa El Salvador were doing a good job providing for their basic living needs. They seemed to have the basics covered. Essentially what were being provided by the volunteers were things that could be used to facilitate the development of social capital in this region. The people in this area appear to possess significant amounts of social capital but just need a helping hand to get started in the right direction. The residents appear to sincerely what to improve their way of life and thus improve their community as a whole. They have tremendous potential to grow their community into a very nice one in which the majority of the citizens will be able to live very happy and fulfilled lives. Thy simply need help with direction in order to facilitate this development.


Brown, J.D. & Hannis, D. (2007). Chapter 10 International community development.

Community Development in Canada. (146-164). Ontario: Pearson Education Canada.

Dominelli, L. (2011). Community development across boarders. International Social Work,

48(6), 702-713.

Lough, B.J., McBride, A.M., Sherraden, M.S. & O'Hara, K. (2011). Capacity building contributions of…… [read more]

Price Floor/Ceiling Explain the Difference Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Price Floor/Ceiling

Explain the difference between a price floor and price ceiling. Provide a situation in which a price ceiling may be used. What are the effects of this price control on the equilibrium price and quantity?

Both concepts of a price floor and a price ceiling fall under the larger umbrella concept of price controls. A price floor "is the lowest legal price a commodity can be sold at" and are often utilized "by the government to prevent prices from being too low" (Taylor, 2006). The concept is most familiar in terms of the minimum wage, in which the government establishes the lowest possible hourly wage that a worker can be paid; thus, the minimum wage puts a price floor on hourly work. A price ceiling is in effect the opposite of the price floor. Issued by the government, it is the highest possible price that a good can be priced, in order to protect the consumer from prices that are far too high for goods that are important for one's living.

There are several examples of price ceilings in action over history; but, an example of price ceilings that started a while ago and is something that still is in existence today includes rent controlled housing. Rent controlled apartments in New York City started during World War II when soldiers that returned from war had…… [read more]

1970's and Early 1980's, Boston's Post Office Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … 1970's and early 1980's, Boston's Post Office Square was one of the most sought after properties in the city. The main reason is because the region had experienced tremendous amounts of urban renewal with the construction of numerous high rises. This is vastly different from when the former location of the Federal Reserve and U.S. Post Office were leased to Frank Sawyer in 1953. He built a parking garage at the location (with the city giving him a 40-year lease). Over the course of time, the structure had become an eye sore in areas that were considered to be a part of Boston's urban renewal. This is when the changes in the neighborhood caused the price of real estate to increase (which invited discussions about what the city should do). At first, there was a debate between the different parties that were in support of building another office tower. While others, were more focused on creating an area that can serve as an outdoor oasis (such as a park). ("Post Office Square Park," n.d.)

Once the individuals in favor of building park, began to have an advantage over other groups is when there were tremendous amounts of pressure placed on city officials. What was happening is an alternate bid was introduced to create a smaller officer tower and have vast areas for the park on the same location. The problem for city officials was trying to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of both plans. This is because there was pressure to use the location to help increase tax revenues through the construction of an office tower / plaza (based on appreciating real estate values and rental prices). ("Post Office Square Park," n.d.)

At the same time, a new Mayor (Raymond Flynn) was elected and the two parties were unsure about where the administration stood on the issue. This increased speculation surrounding the future of the project. After looking at a series of different bids, Flynn sided with those in favor of turning the location into a park. The main reason is that the city did not own any other land in the area. Moreover, this section of Boston was becoming one of the more popular communities for corporations to relocate. This increased the pressure on Flynn to do something for the benefit of the people.

What the Mayor's Office discovered is…… [read more]

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