"Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays 1-70

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Climate/Meteorology Nitrogen and Oxygen Term Paper

… Accordingly, an increase in pressure will cause an increase in density of the gas and a decrease in its volume."

6. The two types of barometers include Torricelli's and the aneroid barometers. The latter is used most commonly in the home and works with a vacuum rather than with the element mercury.

7. "Standard sea level pressure is said to be 76.0 cm or 29.92 inches or 1013.2 millibars. Scientists often use the kilopascal (kPa) as their preferred unit for measuring pressure."

8. The monsoons in Asia are caused by the Asiatic Low pressure systems that occur over that region of the globe.

9. Harmful effects of ozone depletion include increased risk for skin cancer due to exposure to UV light, increase in cataracts and other eye problems, lowered immune systems, and cooling of the Earth's stratosphere.

10. "Ozone is created naturally in the stratosphere by the combining of atomic oxygen (O) with molecular oxygen O2). This process is activated by sunlight. Ozone is destroyed naturally by the absorption of ultraviolet radiation."

Works Cited

Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Chapter 7: Introduction…… [read more]

Climate Change in America Essay

… ¶ … American planning in the next 20 years?

More and more each day, there is becoming ample indication of the more ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments 20 years from now. The… [read more]

Air Pressure and Winds Term Paper

… Winds are the large-scale flow of gases through the atmosphere and the mass movement of air is characteristic when considering Earth. The masses know very little about winds in spite of the fact that they are one of the most… [read more]

Health Concept Analysis Health From a Nurse Term Paper

… Health


Health" From a Nurse Practitioner's Perspective


The word "health" is, among other things, a concept that relates in most cases to the survival and physical condition of a living entity, in this case, the human body.… [read more]

Geography, Weather, and Climate Geographic Features Aside Essay

… Geography, Weather, And Climate

Geographic features aside from elevation or latitude can influence a city's climate depending on how those features affect the flow of water vapor and hot or cold air. By comparing the cities of San Francisco and Denver, it is possible to see how the combination of the ocean and an extensive mountain range can give two cities at nearly the same latitude vastly different climates. San Francisco remains relatively moderate, climate-wise, whereas Denver is dramatically colder during much of the year, and sees much more precipitation.

San Francisco is at latitude 37.4 north, and its elevation is 7 feet. The maximum temperature for the years 1961-1990 was 106 degrees Fahrenheit, and the minimum low temperature for the same period was 24 degrees Fahrenheit. Rain was more common than snow during this time, with a yearly average of 19.7 inches of rain compared to .1 inches of average yearly snowfall. In contrast, Denver is at nearly the same latitude, 39.5, but its elevation is 5333 feet. Denver's maximum temperature for 1961-1990 was 103 degrees Fahrenheit, with a minimum of -25 degree Fahrenheit. Snow was far more common than rain in Denver, with only 15.4 inches of yearly average rainfall compared to an average of 60.4 inches of yearly snowfall.

Although San Francisco and Denver are at nearly the same latitude, they have dramatic differences when it comes to low temperatures and yearly snowfall. Denver has a minimum temperature nearly fifty degrees lower that San Francisco's, even though their maximum temperatures are only 3 degrees apart. In addition, Denver sees an average of roughly 60 inches of snowfall a year, compared to San Francisco's average of .1 inches per year (although San Francisco does get slightly more rain than…… [read more]

Climate Change Regulation Research Paper

… These transportation units are responsible for producing 20% of the world total carbon dioxide and other emission that harms the Earth hemisphere.

Farming and Deforestation:

As the population is increasing, it needs more and more area to do farming and to settle down. More wood and wood products are required which has resulted in significant amount of deforestation. Trees and plantations play a vital role in recycling carbon dioxide oxygen, which is not harmful for atmosphere, but with the trees missing this recycling process has stopped and thus adversely affected the atmosphere. On the other hand, animal wastes used for farming also produce carbon dioxide, which is again harmful for the atmosphere (Archer, 2011).

Natural Activities:

Natural activities like change in Earths orbit and volcanic eruption has led to increase emission of carbon dioxide, which has harmed the Earths atmosphere.

Following were the natural and human factor responsible for altering the factors that are directly responsible for change in climate.

Methods to control Earth Environment:

There are two ways to control factors that are aversely affects Earths climate. First being the Regulatory-based policy and second being the Incentive-based policy.

Regulatory-based policy:

These policies have been used for long time in United States, which is responsible for regulating every institution to abide by these policies on reducing the risk of factors that can adversely effect the change in climate, and failure to do so will result in imposition of heavy fines. However, there are pros and cons to this policy.


This policy has a clear outcome and thus helps in regulating and monitoring the compliance process as failure to do so will result in heavy fines.


This policy is very costly in terms of monitoring and ensuring compliance and despite this it, still light fail to reach its objectives, as it requires information from its sources and the information provided may be incorrect or false. This policy is not cost effective. In addition, it offers no help or creativity of ideas to help reduce emission rate.

Incentive-based policy:

This policy enables the people to choose and move towards better production techniques and better low cost equipments that not only reduces emission but also are also quite effective in fulfilling their needs. Government can encourage by offering incentives and subsidies on these machines and increase taxes on less environment friendly products and machines thus discouraging its use. This system also has pros and cons.


This policy is cost effective and it encourages the people to move towards more eco friendly products and giving them a sense of responsibility to protect Earths environment.


The disadvantage of this policy may be that those who fail to adhere to these policies will be taxed and as a result prices of the good s will increase and the burden will be shifted towards the final consumers.

My Opinion:

If I was to get a chance in choosing which policy to be used I would choose both of them because both can complement… [read more]

Weather and Climate Research Proposal

… Weather and Climate

Comparison of Two Publications on Climate change

In his unique New York Times article, "On the Climate Change Beat, Doubt Gives Way to Certainty," retired Times reporter William K. Stevens recalls his work in climate change reporting, documenting how scientific knowledge on the topic has changed from his first days in the newsroom until today. Published on February 6, 2007, this article draws primarily on the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change's 2007 report for its information regarding the science behind climate change today in contrast to the science behind climate change years ago.

Stevens begins his article with an anecdote of life in the Times newsroom. He recalls that whenever a cold front would hit, other reporters would spend some humor on the climate change reporter, saying something to the tune of "so much for global warming." Stevens comments that a joke like that would probably not be heard today.

He worked for the paper until 2000, when a minority of people were convinced that global warming was a result of humans' actions. Today, he argues, little doubt exists that humans have a serious impact on global warming. One of the primary arguments that Stevens uses to support this claim is the vast amount of political attention that the issue receives. For instance, Stevens notes the attention paid to global warming in the 2008 election, especially recalling the importance that conservative Republican John McCain assigned to the issue. A similar scene "back in the day" would have been "unimaginable," according to Stevens. In addition to the politics and widespread attention paid to the issue, Stevens cites the most recent publication of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, in addition to its progression of reports. According to Stevens, this panel commented that human involvement in the climate change crisis could occur "easily" in the 1990s. More recently, the panel noted that human involvement in climate change is "likely." Finally, Stevens mentions the 2007 report's long list of ways in which climate change is having an affect on the globe. Included in this list is an increase in temperature and drought paired with a decrease in precipitation, as well as an increase in hurricanes like Katrina. His final statement is a wish of luck to those who will be around to see climate change and its affects on population and planet.

In contrast to Stevens' article, which is just over 1500 words, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2007 report, "Climate change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change," is quite lengthy, filled with research, recommendations, and data. The report opens with an introduction, in highly scientific language, that discusses not only the degree by which greenhouse gases are rising and the association of energy to climate change and greenhouse gases, but also the social and political implications of climate change, along with the goals of the UN regarding climate change. Most importantly, this introduction addresses the previous attempts at mitigating climate change, noting that the Koyoto Protocal and other mitigation… [read more]

Climate Change and Disease Term Paper

… Climate Change and Disease

Global warming and its effect on climate change has been an environmental issue of much debate as of lately. Due to the severe nature of this problem, research has been conducted in order to establish a connection between the act of climate change and that of the spread of diseases. Because of the dramatic shifting climates in parts of the world that are used to maintaining stable temperatures, the spread of potentially hazardous diseases can essentially increase. In order to establish a solid connection between these two factors, the implications involved with the facilitation of disease spread as a direct result of the change in climate is to be analyzed.

For decades, warnings about the potential risks that ignoring environmental issues would bring had been emphasized. However, despite the numerous attempts at making the public more aware of these environmental situations, people have chosen not to pay any attention to the problem. By doing this and choosing this particular attitude toward climate change, the problems that could have been avoided had this issue been taken more seriously earlier, are now coming to light. As a result of global warming, climates have shifted in areas that are only used to receiving a particular type of weather (University of Texas). For some time, these abnormal and previously unseen shifts have been becoming more of a normal occurrence. With the normality in extreme temperature and weather shifts, comes the increased risk of infectious disease (Smith). The spread of disease has been facilitated by the development and growth of global warming.

The mechanisms involved in the process of climate change are what have been contributing to the growth in the occurrence of the spread of disease around the world. Climate change entails the sudden shifting of temperatures in areas that are not used to experiencing such a drastic change. In areas where cold and freezing temperatures used to be a normal occurrence, there are now days that freezing points are not even achieved. That means that these areas are now quite warmer than they should be. This is a recipe for the spread of diseases (Hasham).

Mosquitos are popular carriers of various illnesses, especially malaria and the West Nile Virus (NRDC). These diseased mosquitos in fact are able to travel for longer periods of time and farther distances if the temperatures allow them to. With an increase in the temperature of the areas that were once dominated by freezing weather, mosquitos are now able to travel to them quicker and stay for longer periods of time. Allowing for the further travel of the infected mosquitos means that areas that had not been exposed to mosquitos previously, are now also going to be exposed to the disease that the mosquitos are carrying (NRDC). Aside from mosquitos, other insects and bugs can also carry illnesses to other parts of the world due to the shift in temperatures.

The ability of disease-carrying cockroaches to live is also affected by climate change (Smith). Areas… [read more]

Weather Evidence Supporting and Opposing Research Paper

… The human perspective is likely too limited to see our weather patterns clearly enough to firmly argue that now we have global climate change.

The scientific and political communities agree that a change is happening. There is evidence that substantiates and has been interpreted by authorities showing that the Earth is experiencing a climate change and that has been happening for at least a century. There is additional evidence that some human activities confound this global climate change. There is a lack of evidence in favor of or directly purporting that humans are the only reason for the change.

The Earth's lifespan far exceeds the lifespan of any and every species that has lived upon it. The strength and resiliency of the Earth is a concept that the human imagination cannot adequately quantify, qualify, or even understand. Throughout the Earth's history, it has experienced and undergone massive environmental changes, many of which occurred long before the human race and proved far more severe than the effects of greenhouses gases thus far. There is a substantial amount of highly credible scientific evidence that illustrates that the Earth is undergoing another kind of global change.

By 2005 a widespread scientific consensus had emerged that serious, large -- scale disruption could occur around 2050, once average global temperature increase exceeds about 2 "C, leading to abrupt and irreversible changes…This new theory of "abrupt climate change" has overturned earlier predictions of gradual change and has prompted some scientists to warn that unmitigated climate change could lead to the complete collapse of civilisation…This "global dimming" effect is diminishing as we clean up air pollution. As a result global average temperature could rise by as much as 10 degrees Celsius [approximately 18 "F] by the close of the century -- a catastrophic increase. (Bensel & Turk, 2011)

The effects of this change range from melting ice caps, raised temperatures, expansion of deserts, rising sea levels, and increased frequency & intensity of extreme weather such as hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts, and heat waves.

Overall, the paper has argued not so much about the existence of evidence for or against the existence of global climate change. More so, the paper has demonstrated how there is evidence and data about the global climate patterns of modern times. This information exists and the greater argument is not about the existence, but rather, it is about who and how is interpreting this data. The global climate change issue proves as other research endeavors do, that data and evidence can be interpreted or presented to state whatever the user(s) of the data want or intend the data to say. There is a power to statistics and there is a fallibility to them. Scientists, politicians, and the media can make the evidence say whatever supports their objective or agenda. Evidence can also be manipulated to contradict any one position, too. The data available may very well be based on models of weather that are too limited in scope and lack adequate perspective to truly… [read more]

Arctic Climate Change Term Paper

… The Inuit have also become adaptable to their environment because of the diversity and flexibility in the usage of resources. They take chances in harvesting. They harvest whenever and wherever the conditions allow them. They are now really clever in identifying and taking advantage of particular conditions. The climate change gives them the opportunity of creating new situations. For instance, they get benefitted from the later ice freeze-up during autumn by making the fishing season longer. They wait for the occurrence of freezing and resume their normal activities (Ford, 2005).

The Inuit need to organize themselves to raise awareness regarding the magnitude of Arctic climate change. They must come forward to advocate action for the reduction of greenhouse gases. They must stop playing the part of the helpless victims (Nickels, 2004, p. 7).


Arctic, The. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117003688

Fenge, T. (2006, January). Arctic Alarm: In the Arctic, Climate Change Isn't an Abstraction-It's Happening Now. Alternatives Journal,31, 25+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015434890

Ford, J. (2005, September/October). Living with Climate Change in the Arctic. World Watch, 18, 18+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938862

Ford, J.D. (2009). Dangerous Climate Change and the Importance of Adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit Population. Environmental Research Letters, 4, Retrieved May 11, 2012 from http://climatehealthconnect.org/sites/climatehealthconnect.org/files/resources/1748-9326_4_2_024006.pdf

Melting Arctic Ice Threatens to Speed Up Climate Change. (2010).Perspectives in Public Health, 130(1), 4. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044785568

Nickels, S. (2004, November/December). Climate Change Is a Daily Reality for Inuit. Alternatives Journal, 30, 7. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008235477

Scientific Facts on Arctic Climate Change. (2012, April 14). Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/arctic-climate-change/index.htm… [read more]

Concepts of Meteorology Research Paper

… Meterology

Weather in Gaithersburg, MD

There are many different factors that influence the weather anywhere in the world, and Gaithersburg, Maryland is no exception. At an elevation of approximately four-hundred-and-fifty feet, located in the proximity of the Potomac River and not incredibly distant form the Atlantic Ocean, a confluence of land and water weather patterns impact the city and alter is climate and temperature patterns. Analyzing this locality's weather requires and understanding of the global, regional, and local forces and patterns at work, and such an assessment will be provided below. A discussion of recent weather events and potential human impacts on climate and weather patterns in the area will also be provided at the end of this report, providing a comprehensive view of known and potential weather influences.

Gaithersburg, Maryland is located at a latitude of thirty-nine-point-fifteen (39.15) degrees North and a longitude of seventy-seven-point-twenty-one degrees West (National Weather Service, 2011). This places the city in the Northern Hemisphere, which is currently in the process of becoming tilted as far away from the Sun as it can get and is thus experiencing winter. Less direct sunlight and shorter days are the primary weather impacts of this global situation, causing lower temperatures and, in Gaithersburg as well as many other parts of the world, less precipitation and less overall "weather" due to less energy being existent in the system. With the average daily temperature range for this time of year stretching from twenty-seven degrees to forty-degrees Fahrenheit yet with precipitation extremely low (approaching zero), these expected global effects are definitely being seem (Weather Underground, 2011).

At the regional level, Gaithersburg, Maryland is best considered part of North America's Atlantic seaboard, which receives a continual (or near continual) influx of cold as the waters of the Atlantic complete a counter-clockwise path traveling West across the Arctic Circle, then South along the North American landmass (starting in Canada), and growing increasingly warmer as it sweeps past Florida before submerging and continuing the loop by heading East and then North again (Rowe et al., 2011). This influx of cold masses along with other more complex regional forces can create hurricanes and other less sever though still quite noticeable weather disturbances for Gaithersburg and other areas located on or near the Atlantic coast (Weather Underground, 2011). Wind patterns that move East across the continent, carrying dryer air from the Midwest, also seems to be a regional factor in the development of weather in Maryland and many other nearby communities.

At the local level, Gaithersburg's climate is also influenced by the nearby Potomac River,…… [read more]

Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate Thesis

… Global Warming: An Overview of Theoretical Causes and Effects

It has been almost impossible in the past decade to avoid media mention of the issue of global warming. It seems as though it is impossible to watch an hour of… [read more]

Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate Thesis

… Warming Research

CO2: Global Carbon Dioxide Levels Linked to Human Activity (http://zfacts.com/p/194.html): Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere can be linked directly to the release of the gas by human beings since the rise of industrialization (zfacts 2007). This conclusion… [read more]

Local Climate Investigation Thesis

… Local Climate Investigation

Climate Investigation of Houston, Texas

Houston: temperature profile

The average low temperature in Houston is 72°F (22°C) in the summer and 40°F (4°C) in the winter. The average high temperature is 93°F (34°C) in the summer and 61°F (16°C) in the winter ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The highest recorded temperature in Houston was 106°F in 1962 and the lowest recorded temperature was 9°F in 1989 ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). The temperature rarely sinks below the freezing mark. The climate is classified as subtropical and humid, and is influenced by the winds that come from the Gulf of Mexico.

Houston: precipitation

Houston receives an annual average rainfall of about 50 inches ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The most precipitation on average occurs in June ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). It almost never snows in Houston, and on average snowfalls occur only ever few years, rather than on a regular basis. Exceptions do occur, of course, and in 2004 there was a legendary Christmas Eve snowstorm, which resulted in approximately 1-3 inches coating the city ("The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm," 2004, NWS).

Closest NWS office

Houston is located in the Southwest region of the United States, and the nearest National Weather Service serves the Houston/Galveston area. The NWS office has its origins in the region as early as 1870, and in 1960, one of the first WSR-57, Weather Surveillance Radars was installed. "After the installation of the radar, the Galveston office was the site of the first live television broadcast of a hurricane (by Dan Rather at CBS) in September of 1961 when Hurricane Carla struck the Texas coast" ("About our office," 2008, NWS).

Is there any special phenomenon either in the weather or related to the weather that affects your town?

Houston, because of its unstable climate and Gulf Coast location, is uniquely prone to damage from hurricanes. Its normally hot, humid weather makes flooding a frequent problem during storms as the ground may have trouble absorbing the moisture. The humid, volatile air mass also means that extreme weather may result when a strong cold front collides with the hot air mass, making the area prone to tornados.

For example, in 2002, Tropical Storm Allison caused 36 inches of rain to fall during a short span of time, killed 22 people and caused more than $5 billion in damage, (Turner 2004).…… [read more]

Global Warming and Climate Change Term Paper

… ¶ … global warming and climate change, including the likely consequences of climate change. Global warming is a situation that could affect the entire planet in a few decades. According to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Web site, global warming… [read more]

Climate Extremes: Observations, Modeling Research Paper

… (2003). The author notes that aggregate numbers on global warming conceal the reality that warming is not evenly distributed -- there is abnormal warming at the poles, including the Antarctica Peninsula. The authors note that "climate proxies appear to show that RRR warming on the Antarctica Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia." The authors note two things -- one, that they are using a proxy because they do not have data spanning 2000 years in this region, anecdotal or otherwise, and that they cannot pinpoint a cause for this warming.

The thesis, therefore, is actually quite simple: The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing warming faster than other parts of Antarctica and faster than the global mean. They present their proxy evidence in support of this hypothesis. They also are cautious about drawing conclusions as to the cause of the warming that they found -- they do not have a mechanism by which they can attribute causation.

The significance is the research is that it contributes to a wider body of research that is analyzing climate change. The Easterling article shows how dozens of specific studies are aggregated into a broader body of evidence about the effects of climate change. The Vaughan study is one of hundreds of studies on the subject providing peer-reviewed evidence from which broader conclusions can be made.

I would ask the authors if they had evidence of a trend with respect to the Antarctic Peninsula. They have studied the past 2000 years, but where is this part of the world headed in the future. Is there evidence that the climate is going to continue to change more rapidly there, and if so what do they think the impacts of that will be?


Easterling, D., Meehl, G., Parmesan, C., Changnon, S., Karl, T. & Mearns, L. (2000). Climate extremes: Observations, modeling and impacts. Science. Vol. 289 (5487) 2068-2074

Vaughan, D., Marshall, G., Connolley, W., Parkinson, C., Mulvaney, R., Hodgson, D., King, J., Pudsey, C. & Turner, J. (2003). Recent rapid…… [read more]

Polar Bears Gone? Climate Change, Global Warming Essay

… ¶ … Polar Bears Gone?

Climate change, global warming, El Nino, and disaster movies (2012, etc.) are a part of contemporary culture. Children, from a very young age, are exposed to the concept of climate change, but sometimes are not familiar with something to make that issue relevant for them. This is particularly true for younger students, who do not yet have a good concept of seasons, temperature variation, or what consequences the melting of polar ice might have. Using a framework, though, of a Polar Bear family and their home; we can structure a week long lesson plan to help them understand the very basics of the topics.

Level -- Adaptable K-2 depending on curriculum, group, and time.

Timing - Week long, multidisciplinary lesson that combines various core curriculum areas and ties together an ecological approach that shows students the world is neither static nor individualistic, but a holistic combination of many issues.

Lesson Objectives - by the end of the week-long lesson, students will:

1. Have a general understanding of the measurement of temperature in both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales.

2. Understand the term "habitat" and how it relates to the ecology of a region.

3. Understand the basic definition of the greenhouse effect based on class discussion, films, diagrams, and lecture.

4. Participate in group brainstorming sessions and class discussions related to the impact of the greenhouse effect and global warming.

5. Discuss the effect that a rise in temperature might have for the Polar Bear Family, indigenous populations, and then extrapolate to cities on the world's coasts.

6. Conduct research using primary sources to explore the issues of polar bear habitat and why it affects everyone.

7. Take a position about global warming and support this view with reasons, facts and examples.

8. Create a group project that supports a point-of-view; individual writing assignments to buttress the argument, and group presentations.

Related National Standards - Based on McREL National Content Knowledge, individual States may have different item numbers (See: http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/.)


Standard 1. Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle:

Level Pre-K

Knows vocabulary (e.g. rainy, windy, sunny) for different types of weather

Knows that weather conditions change

Knows that the environment changes over seasons and areas

Level I -- K-2

Knows that short-term weather conditions change daily, and understands basic weather patterns

Knows that water can be a liquid or solid and can be made to change from one form to another, but the amount of water is static

Stretch Goals

Knows that water exists in the air in different forms (clouds, rain, snow, etc.) and changes through processes (freezing, condensation, precipitation, evaporation).

Knows that the Sun provides light and heat, basic understanding of ozone layer

Standard 7. Understands biological evolution and the diversity of life

Level IK-2 -- Knows that some types of organisms that once lived on Earth have completely disappeared (e.g. dinosaurs, mammoths, certain plants).

Stretch Goal -- Understands concept of extinction and how environmental change can cause it to happen.… [read more]

Reality of Climate Change: Viewpoint Article Critique

… ¶ … Reality of Climate Change:


Climate change has truly become an increasing concern all over the world as weather seems to be going haywire, and as it becomes more and more unrecognizable in its force. Since weather affects all people, no matter where they live, it is important to recognize the magnitude of these changes and analyze them. For this reason, the paragraphs below will provide a short critique of an article on climate change.

The article, written by Justin Gillis for the New York Times, gives the U.N viewpoint on climate change, based on a recent report that the organization published. The article begins by a description of the extreme weather around the world, and an assertion that this is due to human actions. The article quotes the U.N. document published on this issue recently to further state that this situation can only worsen in the coming decades. Then, it goes on to describe the report, noting that greenhouse gases lead to high temperature, as well as flooding, and that human actions overall are contributing to what should be now fully recognized as climate change, beyond a doubt.

The findings presented in the article are quoted from the U.N. report presented at the Kampala Panel on Climate Change, and have been presented as part of very clear research, as well as undeniable evidence from all around the world. Despite its seemingly stress on helpless nations that can do nothing in the face of climate change, the article does mention that some leaders have tried to change this situation in Durban, by addressing ways in which nations can begin to address these problems.

The major topics covered in this article are a focus upon human caused climate…… [read more]

Weather Forecasting Major Advancements Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:2] Though such measures have been highly costly, the benefits of such predictions far outweigh the costs, according to NASA. For this reason, the organization states, [2: References in this paragraph taken from: NASA Facts (n.a.). (2011). Earth Observing System Aqua Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ]

"a more accurate 24-hour forecast of heavy rain and thunderstorms along a cold front could allow airline dispatchers enough time to reroute their airplanes appropriately and thereby help alleviate costly delays. Being able to pinpoint a wintertime low temperature in Florida could be the deciding factor in whether orange grove farmers make the correct decision regarding deployment or non-deployment of freeze prevention methods to save their crops."[footnoteRef:3] [3: References in this paragraph taken from: NASA Facts (n.a.). (2011). Earth Observing System Aqua Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ]

As one can see from these statements, it is very important to predict the weather, as it has always been, but not, one has the benefit and the aid of technology, which can certainly help.

Future advancements also include various things, such as other improvements in, for instance, accurate seven-day forecasts. Furthermore, meteorologists hope that with better predictions, airplanes, for instance, could move flight times to avoid storms and retailers could schedule workers for nice days or utilities could prepare for surging power demands.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Smith, A.D. (2009). Tech advancements improving accuracy in predicting weather. Physorg.com. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ]

The advances written above are just some of the many advancements in the field. The Dr. G. Brant Foote National Center for Atmospheric Research paper, from 2001, for instance, provides many advancements, and details into these. Below are some graphics from this research.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Referenced from: Brant Foote, G. (2001). Advances in Weather Technology. National Center for Atmospheric Research.…… [read more]

Weather Research Paper

… Publications like the "Farmer's Almanac" attempted to do what Lavoisier predicted but a true scientific approach did not emerge until modern times (Geiger, 1818).

World wide concern for weather forecasting was initiated because of the severe damage that was suffered… [read more]

Who Benefits From Extreme Weather? Essay

… ¶ … Benefits from Extreme Weather?

Making Weather a Selling Event

Heavy rains, tornados, massive snowfall amounts and the change of seasons can be a marketer's best friend. The use of weather as a means to change consumer behavior has been a practice many consumer products goods manufacturers rely on to increase the sales of their products. The best known is Campbell's Soup Company, which has successfully engrained rainy weather with consuming more soup to stay healthy (Dobson, 2003).

Weather Can Be a Marketers' Best Friend

Retailers located in the Midwest and Northern U.S. states also rely on the "stock up" metaphor during changes of seasons, as there are often major downpours, tornados, and in the winter, snow storms. This continues to be a very effective strategy during the winter months, when snow and ice can make travel just down a local street treacherous. The use of these metaphors and the appeal to consumers' being prepared for these events can led to up to three months or more of dried food provisions and paper goods being stockpiled in anticipated of a weather emergency (Schwartz, 1992). The use of weather as a marketing strategy has also been seen in the southern U.S., were the temperate climates are conducive to bugs and pests. Sales of bug repellents are greatest in these states as high humidity has been successfully linked with the threat of flying insect outbreaks (Schwartz, 1992).

There are entire companies devoted to studying the interrelationship of weather and consumer purchasing patterns. These companies include Automatic Forecasting Systems and Weather Predict, Inc. (Sivillo, Reilly, 2004). The services they provide include assisting food and beverage providers with demand planning based on weather patterns in…… [read more]

Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions to Astronomy Thesis

… Johannes Kepler made important contributions to astronomy in the decades after Copernicus. His primary contribution was a modification or correction that he made to Copernicus's assumption that planets revolved around the sun in circular orbits: Kepler correctly argued that the revolutions are elliptical in nature.

Galileo must be counted among the most important of all astronomers because of his insistence on the use of rigorous observation. The first person ever to use a telescope to make detailed observations of the galaxy, he discovered the rings of Saturn and the moons of Jupiter.

The British astronomer John Hadley (b. 1682) invented the first reflecting telescope, which allowed for all of the modern observations. His compatriot William Herschel brought about substantial improvements in telescope technology and with his reflecting telescope discovered Uranus and then the moons of Uranus and Saturn. He also discovered a number of deep-sky objects. He worked with his sister, Caroline Herschel -- one of the women who is often left out of the history of astronomy (Brock, 2007).

Finally, I believe that it is so hard for people to let go of the geocentric view of the galaxy because humans like to believe that we are supremely important. Because so many people lack a firm grounding in science they can hold to such beliefs because they do not understand the flaws in them. This is analogous to the ways in which people can doubt that global warming is both real and caused by human activities.

Question Two

Geoscience is a general term that comprises a number of related scientific disciplines, including geology, geochemistry, and geophysics and usually also oceanography and meteorology. Each of these sciences in different ways attend to the origins of our planet, the physical composition and form of Earth, the topological features of our planet, and the ways in which is has changed over time and continues to change. Geography blends the study of the Earth and its physical features with a study of the way in which these features affect humans and the ways in which humans in turn affect the Earth.

I believe that the greatest strength and weakness of geography are actually the same. It is both more holistic and more interdisciplinary than are sciences such as physics -- or geology. I think that this holistic focus -- which bridges the hard sciences and the social sciences -- causes other scientists to take geographers less seriously, which limits the ways in which geography can influence the international dialogue of science. At the same time, I think that the scientific aspects of geography cut off geographers from other social scientists such as anthropologists, with whom there should be a natural alliance. The result is a sort of orphaned science.

However, I also believe that a holistic approach is the only viable one for the discipline and has allowed it to make important advances in our understanding of our species (Harvey, 1997, p. 78).

Question Three

Climate is generally defined as the combination of… [read more]

Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century Term Paper

… Climate Change

Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century

During the 10th through the 14th Century, a warm climate predominated in Earth's weather. Called the Medieval Climate Optimum, it affected politics, religion, labor, finances, science and population changes among humans on the earth, by creating conditions ripe for the spread of disease, which in turn created human problems. This warming period was followed in 1425 through 1850 by what was called the little ice age.

Nils Stenseth, who headed up a 3-day conference on the Avian Bird Flu in 2005, said that in the past similar diseases have appeared during periods of warm weather. During the 14th century similar weather conditions seem to have aided the spread of the Bubonic plague, which killed around 34 million in Europe and Russia through birds, fleas and rats who carried the fleas. The disease did not disappear completely and some academics believe in 1665-66 it reappeared as the Great Plague of London. "The link is very important and it is also important to link it back to the Black Death in the 1300s because there were the kind of weather conditions then -- warmer and wetter -- that we predict for the future," Stenseth said. "After 1855, when it…… [read more]

Risks of Climate Change Research Paper

… Increases in bushfire frequency and intensity have the potential to increase rates of damage to buildings and structures, especially those in non-urban areas.

Drier conditions may lead to increased ground movement and changes in groundwater. Higher temperatures and more solar… [read more]

Climate Change Projections Expected Impact Term Paper

… gcrio.org/gwcc/booklet2.html

Mitigation Strategies Explored

The work entitled "Food, Agriculture, and Climate Change: The U.S. And International Outlook (USGCRP, 1997) ask the question in relation to addresses the "projected climate changes" and how they "affect agriculture, food resources and the availability of food in the U.S., and the availability of food in the U.S., and globally, over the next 25, 50, and 100 years?" (Woteki, 2002) It is further stated by Woteki (2002) that the following can be expected to result from the conditions brought about by climate change:

Global climate change is projected to have significant regional impacts on agriculture and the production of food and fiber for human use and consumption. Greenhouse warming is one of the complex factors that will shape global food production in the coming century, as the world faces the challenge of feeding a rapidly growing population, which is projected to double from 5.7 billion to over 10 billion by the middle of the next century. Through changes in temperature, water regimes, and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, global climate change will directly affect crops, soils, pests, and livestock. Both producers and consumers, within the United States and abroad, will experience the impacts of these changes. Farmers can respond to many of the direct effects of climate change by adjusting their practices, while food-buyers may find variations in the quantity, quality, and prices of produce in their local markets. The challenge for the world agricultural enterprise is not only to feed the growing population in the face of changing climate conditions, but to do so while preserving the rich resources of land and water on which we and future generations depend."

The IPCC or the Intergovernmental Panel in Climate Change, Second Assessment Report concludes that the production of agricultural appears to be globally sustainable in view of climatic shifts as "predicted by the global climate models (GCMs) for doubled-CO2 equilibrium scenarios. Stated is, "Current research suggests that the transient nature of climate change, potential alterations in climate extremes, and differential regional responses may temper positive outcomes." (Woteki, 2002) Approximately one quarter of the nation's agricultural crops and livestock is produced in the Midwest. The marginal changes in climate may produce impacts that are "disproportionately large" which are stated to be possible to, "severely diminish the comparative advantage of farmers and ranchers in the region and further stress irrigation water supplies.

Comparative advantages affected are stated as, "the ability of the agricultural research establishment to promote technical progress that increases farm productivity and reduces environmental damages, the relative growth of scientifically based agriculture in developing countries (e.g., Argentina, Brazil, Vietnam) that increasingly compete with Great Plains farmers, and the occurrence of extreme climate variations in the Great Plains that either stress or benefit farmers there relative to their competitors."


It is clear that threat from climate change are real and that warnings should be heeded by humankind. There are many organizations, agencies and corporations that claim to have the answer to climate change in relation to… [read more]

Climate Term Paper

… atl.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/hurricanes9.html).

10. A sub-tropical cyclone is a low pressure system that combines features from tropical and mid-latitude cyclones, and which can evolve into tropical cyclones, or hurricanes (from http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=subtropical-cyclone1).

11. Tropical cyclone winds rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere because of the patterns of wind flow affected by the Coriolis force.

12. Tropical cyclones are classified according to their wind speed; to be a hurricane a tropical storm must have winds of 118 kilometers an hour or more.

13. Hurricanes form over warm oceans because they are powered by the latent heat energy that is released from condensation and need a "constant supply of warm humid air," which "only exists over oceans with a temperature greater than 26.5° Celsius." (from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7u.html).… [read more]

Climate Change Before the Industrial Term Paper

… Such high levels of methane would not be released naturally. The same is true for other greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide. However, by far the most notorious greenhouse gas that might be causing the earth to become consistently warmer over time is carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere by factories as well as automobiles. The combination of these human factors with the natural factors mentioned above, including variations in the Earth's orbit, could be causing more rapid and more severe climate change. Evidence for human-induced climate change includes El Nino and other new and odd weather patterns as well as the melting of the polar ice stores, and changes to certain ecosystems and lifestyles of animal and plant life around the planet. Human beings are not causing all the changes in climate but we are contributing to global warming and other climate changes.… [read more]

Global Climate Change Term Paper

… Global climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges facing the world today. The steady yearly average temperature increases measured by scientists worldwide serve to destroy ozone which in turn pokes significant holes in the earth's ozone layer. Although most of the evidence points to only negative effects of this climate change, some effects are positive too. Regardless, more research must be done and a clear policy must be in place in the forthcoming years for industrialized nations to stymie the spread of poor environmental measures that result in the global warming situation.

The worldwide scientific community has come to an overwhelmingly powerful agreement with regard to the fundamental of Planet Earth's climate change.

The world is - without any question at all - warming, and warming significantly. This warming is primarily caused by the concatenation of carbon dioxide emissions and the release of other greenhouse gases from mankind's deleterious activities including but, of course, not limited to industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use, such as deforestation. No interruption of these disturbing historical trends of greenhouse gas emissions will cause further global warming over the remainder of the 21st century, with current projections of a global increase of 2.5°F to 10.4°F by 2100, with warming in the highly industrialized United States predicted to be much higher. (Pew, 1) "This warming will have real consequences for the United States and the world, for with that warming will also come additional sea-level rise that will gradually inundate coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns, increased risk of droughts and floods, threats to biodiversity, and a number of potential challenges for public health." (Pew, 1)


There exists immense worry that human activities are adversely impacting the heat/energy-exchange balance between our planet, the atmosphere and space, and inducing significant global climate change, often termed "global warming." Human activities, especially fossil fuels' burning, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other so-called "trace" greenhouse gases. If these particular gases continue to pervade the atmosphere at current rates, most researchers feel global warming would occur through intensification of Earth's natural heat-trapping "greenhouse effect." Possible impacts, however, might be seen either as positive or negative.

A hotter climate would most likely have far reaching effects on agriculture and forestry, managed and un-managed ecosystems, including natural habitats, human health, water resources, and the Earth's sea level depending on the climate's actual responses to the global warming. (Justus, 1)

Although correlative synergies between projected long-range global climate trends and record-setting warmth and several severe weather events of the past two decades have not been fully drawn, research has been focused on possible extremes of climate change and the need for more complete and pervasive comprehension of climate processes to better climate model forecasts.

The fundamental policymaking question is: Assuming scientific uncertainties about the magnitude, timing, rate and regional consequences of global climatic change, what can possibly be the appropriate policy reactions for United States and world decision-makers?

Fossil-fuel combustion is essentially the largest… [read more]

ESL Lesson Plan Weather Term Paper

… Teaching Weather to ESL Students

Proficiency: Basic level of English proficiency

Grade Level: Ninth -- early high school/late junior high

Language arts (English), earth science, social sciences, and information technology

Lesson Objective: Students will create a five-day weather forecast based on the local news with comfort, making use of targeted vocabulary, grammatical constructions involving verbs as well as nouns relating to weather, and scientific concepts related to meteorology

Students will gain a greater proficiency accessing information, expressing their ideas on a basic conversational topic (weather) and become better able to work collectively in groups and to communicate in English between members of a team to produce a final media-related project

Materials: Tape of local news weather segment, newspaper, and recording camera if school has access to audio materials, and 'props' including a large table, a map, or any others depending on student creativity

Steps: First, the teacher will show a taped segment of a five-day forecast of the week's upcoming weather from a local news show. The teacher will engage in a short class discussion to prompt the students to express that they understand the weather, as expressed by the newscaster, and write the vocabulary words on the board. With a more advanced class, some more advanced science vocabulary and reasons for the weather can be discussed, such as seasonal averages and the effects of temperatures.

Next, the teacher will give the assignment. The teacher will distribute the weather pages of various newspapers to the class. The class must create a weather show. The class must use the weather vocabulary generated from the discussion in the show. The class must select, amongst themselves who will be the weather people -- perhaps two or three. The forecast for every day of the school week will be given. For instance -- Monday: Sunny and breezy. Tuesday: Rainy. Etc. Then, the other students will have to represent the weather. For instance, for a nice day, the students must actively demonstrate what they could do on a warm,…… [read more]

History of the National Weather Service Term Paper

… National Weather Service (NWS) is a government agency that affects every resident of the United States in important ways. Because of its skill in predicting extreme weather such as hurricanes and tornadoes, potentially thousands of lives have been saved. However,… [read more]

Climate and Economy in Two Term Paper

… "

In 1998, El Nino had a profound effect on the tropical rainforest in South America. During this time, "a high-pressure dome dominated weather patterns over the region, causing high temperatures and extensive drought. Tropical forests received less than 10% of normal rainfall amounts, and the typically humid forest fuels became tinder-dry (Cochrane, 2001)." This produced a number of fires, and the effect on the economy of the area was in the billions.

These fires can have a lasting impact on the environment and economy of the area, since they also "increase global carbon dioxide levels and threaten the health of those exposed to the resulting particulates, as well as causing extensive and long-lasting damage to the affected forests (Cochrane, 2001)."

Ocean Effects

The climate changes also affect the fishing industry of the country. During El Nino, there are "shortages of cold-water fish species and an increase in the availability of species from tropical climates brought by the warm ocean currents (Lama, 2003). The warmer temperatures reduce the amount of plankton in the water, which can result in a loss of millions of tons of fish for fishermen in Peru. While there is an increase in the number of fish used by the fishmeal industry such as anchovy and hake, recent markets have seen a decrease in the price for these varieties, thus further effecting Lima's economy (Lama, 2003).


The changing climate has the potential to affect the economies of both Lima, Peru and Canberra, Australia. There are currently studies underway in both cities to determine ways the climate changes can be used to benefit their economies.


Australia Economy-Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate. (accessed 10 May 2004) www.photius.com/wfb/wfb1999/australia/australia_economy.html).

Capital City Functions. (accessed 10 May 2004). www.tomw.net.au/cnbst1.html).

Cochrane, Mark A. (2001, October). "In the line of fire. Understanding the Impacts of Tropical

Forest Fires." (accessed 10 May 2004). Environment. www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1076/8_43/79381950/print.jhtml).

Economic Overview. (accessed 10 May 2004). http://www.abareconomics.com/australiancommodities/ACMARCH%2004_


Forecasting. (accessed 10 May 2004). http://www.abareconomics.com/research/farmbusiness/climate.htm).

Lama, Abraham. (16 January, 2003). "Envirnonment-Peru: Country Prepares for Effects of El Nino." Inter-Press Service English News Wire.… [read more]

Tomorrow Was an Excellent Film Movie Review

… The main flaw in this film is that the thermohaline circulation cannot change over only a few days as seen in the movie. This is because:

a) the oceans do not respond to changes in the amount of freshwater input

b) the atmosphere cannot change over the timescale of a few days

c) the volume of the oceans is huge and water has a high heat capacity

d) the volume of the oceans is huge and water has a low heat capacity

4. Which of the following statements is FALSE.

a) Hurricanes only form over the sea in tropical regions.

b) A 300 ft 'wind-driven storm surge' would require winds of over 1200 mph

c) The Gulf Stream current is responsible for moving warm, salty water from the North Atlantic back to the Equator

d) Only a large tsunami could result in the type of wave seen in the movie but the Atlantic Ocean is surrounded by passive continental margins so this is not likely.

5. A northern-hemisphere hurricane is a:

a) High pressure system where air circulates counter-clockwise due to Ekman transport

b) Low pressure system where air circulates clockwise due to Ekman transport

c) Low pressure system where air circulates counter-clockwise due to the Coriolis force

d) High pressure system where air circulates counter-clockwise due to the Coriolis force

6. If the thermohaline circulation were to shut down:

a) There would be strong regional cooling around the North Atlantic

b) There would be strong global warming

c) There would be global cooling

d) Large icesheets would reform rapidly all…… [read more]

Climate Change -- Cause Research Paper

… NASA research shows "certain facts" that are not in dispute because with available science data, the current warming trends show the "big picture": a) "…scientific evidence for warming of the climate system is unequivocal"; and b) the "heat-trapping nature of… [read more]

Global Warming Trends and Impact Essay

… It is now believed that everyday activities such as mass production, transportation activities, and using electricity and aerosol products in our homes, all contribute to greenhouse gases. The one natural protection humans have -- trees that reduce greenhouse gases and produce oxygen -- have been devastated by human development and monetary ventures (Weart 44). Rainforests are estimated to be destroyed at the unprecedented rate of one and a half acres per second, and could be gone within the next 30 years (Prothero 19). The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (known as the IPCC) has now concluded that most of the increased temperature in the twentieth century is related to human industrialization (Weart 48).

The goal today among scientists, organizations, and activists is slowing the warming of the planet. It is believed that the overall rise in temperatures will be most apparent toward the poles and less in the tropics, there will be more warming in winter than in summer and storms and hurricanes will increase in frequency and intensity as oceans heat up (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 116). Global warming could also give rise to worldwide droughts and impact food production and supply. There are major threats to wildlife at the poles and the earth's coral reefs. Worst yet, is the prediction of United Nations Disaster Preparedness researchers that by 2020 nearly 50 million people worldwide could be forced to relocate each year due to weather (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114).

Based on the evidence, it is my opinion that global warming is a very real and serious threat. Experts recommend that every person take small steps to decrease their carbon footprint and impact on the plant. Referred to as "going green" it is very common today to see, hear and read about environmental precautions being taken by individuals, governments and corporations (Weart 41). We are seeking alternate forms of energy such as wind and solar power that are less damaging to the earth (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 118). Also, strategies such as carpooling, investing in hybrid cars, using public transportation, and recycling and reusing paper, plastic and aluminums help reduce waste, save trees, and lower greenhouse gases. Water and in-home energy conservation can be done by using programmable thermostats, replacing air filters, and weather-proofing and insulating our homes to preserve energy. All of these require a shift in our thinking, behavior and relationship with the earth, and can make a major difference in the battle against global warming.


Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.

Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122.…… [read more]

Cryosphere and Economy Research Paper

… Cryosphere and Economy

The Cyroshpere describes collectively all forms of water that is frozen at the surface of the earth such as sea ice, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, rivers, snow cover permafrost, seasonal frozen ground and solid precipitation. Snow… [read more]

Climate Change Term Paper

… The most recent bill addressing climate change -- that was passed by the conservative-dominated House in September, 2012 -- omitted the "sense of Congress" clause (Geman, 2012). That clause asserted that "There is established scientific concern over warming of the climate system…" but the Republican-led House has not accepted that as fact. What Republicans are doing is packaging a bill to "block EPA rules" that seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the GOP has worked to block or delay federal policies that affect the coal industry (burning fossil fuels contributes mightily to global warming). The House Republicans call attempts to regulate coal emissions "The White House 'war' on coal" (Geman, p. 1). In other words, there is no political will in the Congress at this time to do anything about reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming.

Three policy changes that could slow global warming: One, the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil contributes have been proven to be a big part of the problem. Hence, new policies should be put in place to reduce the use of coal (and encourage solar energy production), or upgrade coal-burning plants to reduce emissions, or at lease change light bulbs to CFL bulbs (West, 2012). Two, policies that require automakers to produce cars that get better mileage will result in less fossil fuel usage; also, encouraging consumers to purchase hybrid vehicles by giving big tax breaks is another solution. And three, a policy that greatly restricts logging of forests makes practical and environmental sense. "In the next 24 hours, deforestation will release as much CO2 into the atmosphere as 8 million people flying from London to New York" (White, p. 1).

Works Cited

Didier, Suzanna. (2013). How Does Global Warming Affect Daily Life? National Geographic.

Retrieved January 11, 2013, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com.

Geman, Ben. (2012). House Republicans scrub climate change concerns from EPA bill.

The Hill. Retrieved January 11, 2013, from http://thehill.com.

Gosling, Simon N., Warren, Rachel, Arnell, Nigel W., Good, Peter, Caesar, John, Bernie, Dan,

Lowe, Jason A., van der Linden, Paul, O'Hanley, Jesse R., and Smith, Stephen M. (2011).

A review of recent developments in climate change science. Part II: The global-scale impacts of climate change. Progress in Physical Geography, 35(4), 443-464.

West, Larry. (2012). Top 10 Things You Can do to Reduce Global Warming. About.com.

Retrieved January…… [read more]

Scientific Method and Climate Change Term Paper

… Global warming has effects on polar ice melt, weather patterns, agriculture, and sea levels.

Question / Hypothesis

In combination with the Earth's natural geologic functions, does globalization change the earth's environment, causing global warming?

We could further refine this by date range, specific type of environmental change, and/or the notion of overall climate patterns.

Design Experiment

Due to expertise and monetary resources, our experiment would be more of a comprehensive literature review of scientific studies.

Focus would be on peer-reviewed journals and books with scholarly bias.

Data Collection Stage

Using appropriate databases, find representative samples of current research on climate change.

Try to find arguments from both sides; also consider history of pollution, climate studies, etc.

Tabulate Data

Use appropriate data tables and measurements to identify and categorize studies.

Ensure that comparisons are like -- e.g. temperature changes over time measured in similar ways in similar locations. Verify data.


Analyze conclusions from a scholarly viewpoint.

Do we have enough data at present?

Accept or Reject Hypothesis

Based on conclusions, accept or reject hypothesis or look for more data.

If data remains inconclusive, continue search for more data.

Further Research

See above, but likely there will be ancillary questions because of vast number of variables (e.g. volcanism, distribution of carbon emissions, weather patterns, etc.)

Question may be unsolvable at this point due to a lack of sufficient longitudinal information.


Brahic, C. (October 12, 2007). "Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth: unscientific?" The

New Scientist. Cited in: http://www.newscientist.com/blog/environment/2007/10/al-gores-inconvenient-truth.html

Burroughs, William (2007), Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach,

New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gore, A. (2006). An Inconvenient Truth. New York: Rodale Press.

Speth, G. ed. (2003). Worlds Apart: Globalization and the Environment. Washington, D.C.:

Island Press.… [read more]

Wrong With This Picture? Essay

… 2b. Whether carbon emissions are resulting in global warming and climate change?

Despite claims to the contrary, global warming is perhaps the most complicated and serious issue facing the world today. The scientific community has almost universally proclaimed that the evidence points to the rising dangers from the ongoing buildup of greenhouse gases due to human related activity (Adger, 2001). As economies throughout the world continue to grow the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of the world's forests continues which contribute the rising dangers. Global emissions continue to climb while the nations of the world continue to debate whether a problem exists and, if the problem exists, how best to confront it. The United Nations has attempted to organize discussion initiatives to discuss how to address the problem but the debate between developing nations striving to move their economies forward and the needs of the larger industrialized nations continues in earnest. Meanwhile, only incremental progress is being made toward any real solution. The fact that the world's scientific community is in near agreement as to the existence of the problem should be sufficient evidence that a problem exists.

As indicated earlier, however, there are the skeptics that argue that global warming and climate change is much to do about nothing. Such skeptics see such claims as nothing more than science fiction but in examining the arguments offered by such skeptics to refute the existence of global warming it is essential that the motivations behind such arguments are examined. Like any major social issue there are always those who take issue in order to protect their own self-interest or to promote their own agenda. Such individuals are willing to preach against the effects of global warming and to offer information that is factually incorrect or to minimize the scientific evidence that is presented in an effort to sway segments of the population into believing that global warming is not a serious issue. The fact that the existence of global warming is still being debated is hard evidence that the detractors are successful in their efforts to create doubt among the general population.

Although the costs of combating the effect of global warming are extremely high, the costs of doing nothing are much higher. The fact that the international science community is in near agreement on the fact that global warming exists and that the world is in the middle of a period of severe climate change should be enough to motivate everyone to take a hard look at finding solutions. Nevertheless, to date, little has been done and there is little indication that anything worldwide is going to occur in the near future.


Adger, W.N. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 681-715.

Armitage, K.C. (2005). State of Denial: The United States and the politics of global warming. Globalizations,…… [read more]

Human Ecology - Climate Change Article Review

… The two important references mentioned by the author have covered the changes and impacts seen by the societies after the climate change since many years. The main aim of the author is thereby to highlight the importance of the book. The effects seen in the cultures of the societies are an important fact that makes the book more important. The specific theme of the book as mentioned by the author is that changes are seen in cultures being followed in the contemporary societies. Second strength of the article is additional research of Evert Van de Vliert that has been mentioned by the author. The book talks about two important factors that have an impact on the cultures in the societies; climate and wealth. The main focus of the Evert Van de Vliert has remained on the impact that the climate has on life satisfaction, levels of happiness, and levels of cooperation, social organization and patterns of work being followed in the society. One of the main strengths of the book as mentioned by the author is additional quantitative research conducted by Evert Van de Vliert on harsh conditions as posed by the climate on different kinds of social features of the society. The interaction between affluence of a country/community and the climate has also been researched quantitative.

One of the main weaknesses that can be observed after reading the article is that the review is not very detailed. More emphasis has been given to the additional facts as compared to the facts represented in the book.


Two ideas that were most engaging in the article included limited research carried out on the impact of climate changes on social structures, and secondly, an additional, more expansive and quantitative research as carried out by Evert Van de Vliert on the specific impact that the climate has on cultures of the societies. The fact mentioned by the author that the past researches have only focused on effects of climate on the societies overall is supported by some of the publications from the past that include Ellsworth Huntington's 'Civilization and Climate' published in 200. The latest publications supporting the relationships of climate and culture by Evert Van de Vliert include 'The Climate Connection: Climate Change and Modern Human Evolution' by Renee Hetherington and Robert G.B. Reid, published in 2010 and 'Wind, life, health: anthropological and historical perspectives, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Special Issue Book Series' by Elisabeth Hsu, Chris Low, published by 2008.


The article is important as the book reviewed in the article is an important addition in the climate research. How climate affects cultures in the society is the main topic of the article.


Hetherington, R., and Reid, G.B.R. (2010). The Climate Connection: Climate Change and Modern Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press.

Hsu, E., and Low, C. (2008). Wind, life, health: anthropological and historical perspectives, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Special Issue Book Series. Blackwell/Royal Anthropological Institute.

Huntington, E. (2001). Civilization and Climate. The Minerva Group,… [read more]

Russia-u.S. the Two Cities Term Paper

… Culture is predominantly Russian, but with some Asian outlook due to the city's situation north of China. Lake Baikal plays an important role in the culture of Irkutsk. The lake is over a mile deep and holds over 20% of the world's fresh water. It holds a lot of power, and is a center of shamanistic culture to which some Buryats adhere. The lake is an important reference point for the people of Irkutsk. It also provides them with their most revered food, omul.

Tampa's culture is a mix of mainstream American culture, with Cuban influences, a strong African-American community. There are a number of cultural artifacts in Tampa, including performing arts and in nearby St. Petersburg the Dali Museum. Tampa also contributes to more mainstream American culture as a center of the American heavy metal scene. Tampa's culinary culture highlights Cuban influences, and the city is proud of its Cuban sandwiches in particular, many locals claiming that they are better in Tampa than in either Miami or Havana.

The reason for choosing this pairing of cities is simple. I have been to Tampa and have an interest in Siberia. My experience in Tampa allowed me to understand a little bit of the local culture. The causeways and extensive water of the region seem to characterize life in the Tampa area to a significant degree. The city's position as a relatively minor city and regional center has not stopped it from developing all of the cultural elements of a major city, so Tampa feels like a small city that is very civilized, because it has an interesting and complex culture despite being provincial in nature.

The research on Irkutsk provided me with some insights. I think in terms of climate these two cities could not be more different, but there are some similarities elsewhere. Irkutsk is a provincial city like Tampa is, but has a relatively well-developed cultural scene for its size, again just like Tampa. That both cities started as forts in inclement areas and now have strong ties to air defense are two interesting similarities. It would be interesting to see what other similarities might exist -- both cities seem educated and relaxed, and both would be interesting places to visit. I can just imagine the Russians relaxing by the river like people in Tampa do by the bay.

Works Cited:

Babrs. (2006). History of Irkutsk. Thinkquest.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01907/history.htm

RussiaTrek.org. (2012). Irkutsk city, Russia. RussiaTrek.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012 http://russiatrek.org/irkutsk-city

US Census.gov. (2012). Tampa (city), Florida. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1271000.html

US Climate data. (2012). Tampa, Florida. U.S. Climate Data. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate.php?location=USFL0481

World Climates. (2012). Irkutsk climate. World Climates. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://www.world-climates.com/city-climate-irkutsk-russia-europe/… [read more]

Weather Observation Project Term Paper

… Weather Observations: November 21st -- 25th

The observations made over the five day period from November 21st through November 25th did not yield any surprising results that questioned current meteorological knowledge or established patterns and trends in the area. Almost all temperatures recorded were within the normal minimum and maximum recorded temperature ranges for each day (which were actually the same for all five days of the observational period, from two degrees Celsius to eight degrees Celsius). Precipitation was light and was accompanied by expected cloud cover and by somewhat low pressure systems, and wind patterns were also in keeping with expectations, for the most part. Minor anomalies and more detailed descriptions of each day's weather are provided below with meteorological explanations provided.

Monday, November 21st

Temperatures climbed throughout the day as pressure showed a very slight decreasing trend, while relative humidity rose. Though light rain was observed at 16:00, the relative humidity was measured at only ninety-six percent and the temperature was measured as one degree higher than the dew point. Cloud cover was complete and consisted of nimbo-stratus clouds at both daylight observation times (10:00 and 16:00), and wind grew far brisker at night (22:00) despite the fact that the temperature continued to increase slightly; the lower pressure that accompanied this continuing temperature rise was significant enough to more than double the wind speed from the previous measurement. Wind blew predominantly from the east and southeast throughout the day, with slight shifts within this quadrant.

Tuesday, November 22nd

Lower pressure and higher temperatures defined the weather on Tuesday, with the day starting out warmer than the normal maximum (temperature was recorded nine degrees Celsius at 4:00 and at ten degrees Celsius at 10:00). Cloud over was light in the morning, with only two-eights of the sky covered by Cirrus clouds at 10:00, when the relative humidity was only seventy-five percent and winds had dropped to 17km/hr as opposed to the 54km/hr recorded at 4:00. The increase in temperature combined with a rise in pressure was responsible for the reduced humidity and the lower wind speeds in the morning, however the situation changed by 16:00 when the sky was…… [read more]

Physical Geography Article Review

… Using information from Part 1 of your text, explain how changes in sea-surface temperature patterns relate to climate and weather patterns.

Changes in the sea surface temperature are related to the climate by creating a shift in how warm or cold the planet will be. This will have an impact on the total amounts precipitation in various regions of the world. As violent storms, (such as: hurricanes) will create tremendous amounts of rain for select areas. While others, will see little amounts of participation. This is the result of warmer ocean temperatures impacting the flow of warm and cold air. (Hardy)

The South Pole has the lowest annual average temperature on Earth. Amazingly though, when measured over an entire year, the South Pole receives an average of 12 hours of sunlight per day -- much the same as all other locations on Earth. Since the length of sunlight can't adequately explain the extreme cold, what does?

What explains the extremely cold weather is the total amounts of sunlight in Antarctica are limited to the summer months. During the winter months, there is little to no sunlight available. This cause the temperatures to decrease dramatically, which why the continent is so cold.

Why is it necessary to rethink our standard notions of north, east, south, and west at the South Pole? In other words, why can't those living at the South Pole use these directions in the same way that most of the rest of the world does?

The reason why there needs to be a rethinking of our sense of direction is because we are standing at the South Pole. This means that we cannot use the same sense of… [read more]

Weather and Caves Windward and Leeward Sides Essay

… Weather and Caves

Windward and Leeward Sides of Mountains- Orographic precipitation, or a rain shadow effect, is an explanation of why the windward side of a mountain is typically rainy and the leeward side dry. The diagram shows that warm moist wind rises, cools and condenses, forming precipitation, which is then lost and the resulting clouds are dry on the opposite side of the mountain. The condition exists because warm moist air rises. As it rises, the decrease in atmospheric pressure (with increased altitude) causes the air to expand and reach dew point. At this dew point, moisture condenses onto the mountain, dumping rain, snow, etc. On the windward side. Then as the air descends on the leeward side, there is little moisture left. This, in combination with the air getting warmer because of compression, creates an arid region (Mountain Weather, 2011).

The actual process of this air mass moving from low to higher elevation, orographic lift, can actually raise the relative humidity in the clouds to 100% and induce precipitation. Orographic fog is sometimes also formed as the air rises up the slope. Depending on the shape of the mountain, where there is high wind, a banner cloud is formed downwind of the upper slopes of mountains that are isolated and very sleep (Alps, Himalayas, some of the Rockies, etc.). This type of cloud is created by the various vortices and local uplifting of the air in relation to the terrain, the most famous being the leeward side of the Matterhorn. In contrast, on the leeward side of the mountain, the warmer air flowing downward is called a foehn wind. Any suspended moisture quickly evaporates as the air descends, and there is a rather distinct cut-off line that tends to form along and parallel to the ridge line on the mountain range, often called the foehn wall. Lenticular clouds are stationary clouds that form downwind of mountains by leeward air, often shaped like lenses (see picture). Additionally, and most well-known in California during certain seasons, a Chinook wave and wind forms above the mountain range and pushes warm air rapidly off the leeward side into the resulting valley or plain (Clouds and Currents, 2010).

Part 2 -- Inquiry Strategy on Cave Formation - A cave, or cavern, is a natural underground space, and may include rock shelters, sea caves, and grottos. Caves are formed by a process called spelogenisis and by various geological processes: chemical erosion, water erosion, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, atmospheric influences, and even digging. However, most caves of any size are formed in limestone by dissolution. Dissolution is the process in which is, essentially, a chemical way of dissolving rock through water or other moisture until a cave is formed. Obviously, some rock and mineral types lend themselves to becoming caves more readily, and are usually comprised of…… [read more]

Contrails and There Affect on Climate Research Paper

… Contrails and Their Affect on Climate

Contrails, which is the short form of condensation trails also known as vapor trails, are known as the artificial clouds that are formed from the exhaust of the aircraft and are visible from the… [read more]

Canadian Climate Change Foreign Policy Term Paper

… Climate Change

With the coming election, Canadians have the opportunity to set a course for federal government response to climate change policy. Over the past several years, it has become evident that the course of climate change policy in Canada… [read more]

Climate Change Global Warming Media Coverage Trend in a Newspaper Investigate Leaked CRU Emails Essay

… Climate Change Media

The Center for Science and Technology Policy Research has compiled a chart illustrating the coverage that climate change has received in the media around the world. The chart, which can be found in Appendix a, highlights that… [read more]

Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate Climate Change Research Proposal

… Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate Climate Change

Introduction of global climate change situation

The aim of this green paper is to improve carbon management, helping the transition towards a low- carbon economy in the UK. Although this green paper represents… [read more]

Human Activities on Global Climate Term Paper

… ¶ … human activities on global climate and how these activities result in the global climate change. The first portion of this paper basically concentrates on the debates that have risen with regards to the influence of human activities on… [read more]

Climate Change and General Crises in the Little ICE Age a Geographic Perspective Term Paper

… Climate change and general crisis in the Little Ice Age: a geographic perspective

The Little Ice Age (LIA) is considered by some researchers to extend over several generations of time. Estimates show that the period began around the 13th and… [read more]

Thematic Content Area Reading Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum to Label Strategies Research Paper

… Weather Lesson Plan

Introduction to Weather -- Part 1 -- Weather and Weather Systems (Multi-Day)

Grade Level -- Easily adaptable from 3-6 grades, depending on depth, vocabulary, and speed of lesson.

Science, part of unit on Earth science and systems.… [read more]

Joshua Tree the Desert Climate and Topology Research Paper

… ¶ … Joshua Tree

The desert climate and topology are harsh, extreme and inhospitable to many forms of vegetation. Those plant species which are able to weather the conditions produced by the desert form a unique ecosystem of species equipped with the tools to survive. Among the most distinct and visually compelling of desert species, the account here considers briefly the nature of the Joshua Tree. A member of the yucca genus, the tree boasts a configuration which allows it to be sustained during long, dry stretches and with no canopy protection from the hard desert sun. Conversely, its uncommon structure does make it a rare plant outside of the Southwestern United States. Here though, it can be seen in such well-preserved contexts as the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden in Claremont.

A species most frequently associated with the desert landscapes of Southern California, the Joshua Tree's care is generally facilitated by its own internal structure. Its survival in hot, dry climates is accommodated by an unusually long rooting system which allows it to draw water from deep below sandy and rocky surfaces. Accordingly, we find that the Joshua Tree's roots can reach up to as long as 11 meters, making them particularly apt to reaching water sources even during sustained times of drought or water scarcity. (Wikipedia, 1) Additionally, the Joshua Tree's trunk is dissimilar to that of most trees. Rather than a single solid body identifiable by its internal rings, the Joshua Tree's trunk is actually a stalk of tightly interwoven fibers that make the plant sturdy but not rigid. This proves critical to survival in the face of sandstorms or other extreme weather conditions. (Wikipedia, 1)

Though the plant only first appeared in formal documentation during the late 19th century, its use had been central to Native American life for centuries. Its 'bayonet' shaped leaves have made this a preferred way of yielding sandals, baskets…… [read more]

Environmental Review the Carbon in the Atmosphere Book Review

… Environmental Review

The carbon in the atmosphere comes partially from ancient (and ongoing) volcanic activity, through the above-ground decomposition of organic material, and through the respiration of non-plant organisms. Plants pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere during photosynthesis; this carbon is transferred to other organisms when it is eaten, buried to become other substances (fossil fuels), or decomposed to release everything back to the atmosphere.

The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is collected by and dissolved in rainwater, forming carbonic acid and making rainwater slightly acidic even without unnatural levels of carbon or other pollution.

The large amounts of oxygen necessary to support much of the life on this planet likely originated from cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which began exhaling oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis sometime between three-and-a-half- and two-point-seven-billion years ago. This began in small amounts, but built up over time to the abundant levels there are today, that facilitate the existence of many complex organisms dependent on oxygen.

10) Large fires and volcanic eruptions are the most common and prevalent sources of natural air pollution; human industry and the burning of fossil fuels, particularly for the production of electricity, are the most common human sources of air pollution

11) There is evidence both in the fossil layer and in core samples from the polar ice caps that suggest there have been variations in the heat reaching the Earth from the Sun and lost from the Earth's surface

12) the heat in the Earth's atmosphere is spread through the process of circulation; differences in the solar radiation and heat delivered at the poles and the equator create imbalances in the pressures in the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth also contributes to the air currents that move heat around.

Chapter 12

8) Air that has circulated to high altitudes in the atmosphere settles back to lower altitudes at 30 degrees both North and South of the equator, and at the two poles.

9) in addition to the colder temperatures that would be experienced with the passing of a cold front, increased precipitation and thunderstorms can occur due to the lower pressure that occurs when the cold front lifts the warmer air mass that…… [read more]

Global Climate Change the Increase of CO2 Essay

… Global Climate Change

The increase of CO2 emissions are expected to continue until 2150 when a decrease is expected to occur. The consequences are also expected to be dramatic. The continued melting of polar ice caps and glaciers will cause the sea levels to rise. This will result in greater flooding in areas already prone to flood and coastal cities globally may be forced to completely and permanently evacuate due to inhabitable conditions. In addition, agricultural changes will cause ecosystems to be effected due to rising temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns. If this is accompanied by problems growing major crop plants in traditional areas, there would be food shortages and famine. The cost of food would also rise. Another global consequence of global warming is extreme weather. Some evidence of increasing storm intensity already exists and this trend is likely to continue. Hurricanes reaching category 4 or 5 will continue to increase. All of these events are expected to be global in nature, regardless of location, wealth or development.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights includes additions made and agreed upon by the United Nations General Assembly. One such agreement is the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights which was adopted in December 1966. Article 12.2 of this Covenant requires parties to take specific steps to . . . include improving environmental and workplace health. Article 28 of the Covenant states that everyone is entitled to a social international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration can be fully realized.

Neither of the above Articles, nor any other Articles seem to address the protection of populations adversely affected by environmental changes although there is the requirement in Article 12.2 to take "specific steps to ...include improving environmental health." That could certainly be interpreted to mean that the signatory nations are required to improve environmental health however, it seems to apply to each specific nation and their citizens. The entitlement portion of Article 28 also gives a nod to entitling populations a social and international order that allows the rights and freedoms to be fully realized. Again, it implies a sort of idea of supporting the freedoms and rights but no specifics are made. Overall, while the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an impressive document, it seems to have virtually no bite. It also seems that many nations hold businesses and corporations to a standard that requires them to submit to laws regarding the environment but that is not a global position. For example, in Chernobyl when the nuclear reactor plant damaged the environment, lives etc., the Soviet Union covered it up and prohibited all inquiries. However, in the United States, the catastrophe at Three Mile Island was publicized and the clean up was extensive. Other man made environmental disasters have had similar outcomes depending on their location and nation. The Declaration should have more specific guidelines, however, attempting to do so would likely result in most…… [read more]

Climate Change and Global Warming Essay

… Climate Change and Global Warming

During the past two decades, there has been an environment issue that has been developing with the climate. Some people are concerned with the fact that the earth is slowly becoming more warm than expected. For example, in the movie, "Heat," it is clear that there is a risk of dissolving the environment due to the affects of the climate change on the planet, which is increasing daily. From there, this film presents the idea that people need to be aware what is happening to society because the future is at risk of having major issues if global warming is not addressed properly. The movie points out that people must take notice of their environment before the affects of global warming destroy the planet, which will leave them for dead. At this point, the movie gave out a good presentation of global warming that gave real insight into the huge issue.

From there, the movie is very informative to the general public so that they can be aware of what is happening to the planet. It also points out that if a plan of action is not taking soon, the future for this planet is extremely bleak, which leaves nothing for future generations to build on or strive for. It is clear that this environmental issue would not have aroused studies and researches a few centuries ago because global warming was not a big concern until the twentieth century. This is due to the fact as time goes by, people notice the climate change that is increasing each year. Even though this study would have been conducted in other countries, almost all the world's countries and their people possess unifying attributes that make them distinct and unmistakable for any other nationality, race, culture and language. America possesses the probability of encountering this problem because of countless…… [read more]

Lived Effects of Historic Climate Essay

… ¶ … Lived Effects of Historic Climate on the Wealth of Nations


The authors are attempting through their research to make a direct connection between the wealth and prosperity of nations when… [read more]

Climate Change in the Polar Term Paper

… Many people still do not take climate change seriously, and that is part of the problem in finding a solution. Perhaps if more of what is going on in the Polar Regions really became public knowledge, the people would truly see that climate change is already happening, and affecting the lives and livelihoods of many people. Many of the Native Americans in the Arctic survive on the animals that live there, and if the bears and seals disappear, they will have no way to sustain themselves. There have been some reports and publicity about the polar bears and their plight, but the Native Americans have not made nearly enough information available about what is happening to them and their villages. More people should be made aware, so they can see the very real effects of global warming, and see to expect much worse in the future.


Editors. (2009). Polar regions. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2009 from the EPA.gov Web site: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/polarregions.html.… [read more]

Climate Change Global Climate Change: Separating Science Essay

… Climate Change

Global Climate Change: Separating Science from Conjecture

The issue of climate change -- of human caused global warming, to be exact -- has been the subject of much debate among politicians and scientists alike. There is a growing consensus in the scientific community that the world is experiencing a warming trend that has lasted slightly longer than a century. The fact that this nearly coincides with the Industrial Revolution and the use of fossil fuels, which greatly increased the carbon content of the atmosphere, does not necessarily mean there is a causal link between industrialization and the current global warming trend. It is this fact that remains a great matter of debate amongst scientists, policy makers, and the public at large.

Knowing that the world has warmed slightly, it might seem unimportant to question why this warming has occurred. On the contrary, however, it is vital that the underlying causes for this warming trend be explored; if it is indeed the result of human industrial activity and carbon emissions, there could be severe consequences for continued emissions. It might even be possible to reverse the trend by developing methods to remove existing carbon from the atmosphere. On the other hand, undue changes to current fossil-fuel technologies would have extreme economic effects in both the developing and the developed world, severely impacting transportation and shipping and therefore the cost of goods. Many countries -- including the United States -- lack the infrastructure to provide energy and heat to homes without the use of fossil fuels, adding additional costs and political complications to an already contentious issue. This makes the question an essential one.


In order to determine the amount of scientifically verifiable fact that links the current warming trend to human activity, a search of several databases for recent scientific articles regarding the issue was conducted. EBSCO's Academic Search Complete was initially searched using the terms "climate change;" these results were narrowed by the addition of "fossil fuels," in order to reach articles that dealt specifically with the relationship between the two terms. In the BIOSIS database, the more politically charged term "global warming" was used, which yielded several articles that explored the natural warming and cooling trends of the planet vs. The possible human role in the current warming trend.


One simulated study came to somewhat conflicting conclusions. A computer model of China's carbon emissions and GDP using eleven sustainability factors and data previously collected predicted an initial climb in carbon emissions along with GDP, followed by a much more dramatic drop (Ojekunle et al. 2009). It also predicted greater energy efficiency at the time of the highest carbon output, which decreased as wages increased (Ojekunle et al. 2009). A separate modeling study that examined China and rural India predicted major carbon emission increases and global warming if aid was not provided to assist these countries in a shift to low-carbon energy producing technologies (Urban 2009).

Direct observational studies have come to their own conclusions. Recently… [read more]

Climate Change Summary of the 2007 Ipcc Essay

… Climate Change

Summary of the 2007 IPCC Status Report on Climate Change

According to the 2007 IPCC Status Report on Climate Change, there is no doubt that climate change is occurring. The summary is somewhat more nebulous when it comes to stating the definite causes and effects of this climate change, but a warming trend has definitely been noted by the various researchers and studies that contributed to this summary. In some sense, however, several of the effects of the warming trend are used as part of the evidence that such a trend is occurring. The change in population and/or migratory patterns of fish, algae, and plankton in high latitude oceans is cited in the summary, as well as many other biological changes linked to global warming and climate change. The conclusions that the warming trend is occurring is also based on direct measurements of surface temperatures on widespread points of the globe from 1970 to 2004, which are shown clearly on chart in the summary.

What is certain when it comes to climate change is that the average world temperature has increased by approximately one degree Celsius since 1970, and that sea levels have also shown a measurable rise over the same period. any of the effects of this trend can also be linked to global warming with certainty. Though the evidence in the summary is compelling, the causal relationship between human activity and climate change is still not entirely certain, nor are many of the projected effects of the current climate change or indeed the projections concerning the future of climate change. Though even the summary refrains from language that claims its conclusions as certain, the information it provides does contend that humans are most likely the source of climate change. Natural global…… [read more]

Global Warming Evidence for Global Climate Change Thesis

… Global Warming

Evidence for Global Climate Change

In our lifetime, we have experienced a period of relative stability in the earth's climate. At least it is stable when compared to the past. The earth's climate has been in a constant… [read more]

Science v. Society the Politics Term Paper

… Science v. Society

The Politics and Science of Global Warming

The debate -- or at times, the direct and hostile conflict -- between factions of politics and pure science is centuries or even millennia old. From Socrates being put to death for his pursuit of logical truths in defiance of his society's religious beliefs, to the persecution of Galileo for his scientific findings that countered Church doctrine, to modern debates such as stem cell research and global warming, there seems to be a constant and at times drastic lag between the progress of science and such progress's acceptance by civilization. This latter issue is more in line with the historical pattern; the debate surrounding stem cell research is purely ethical, whereas the religious factions that persecuted both Socrates and Galileo disputed facts. Though both men were prosecuted for moral or ethical breaches, these supposed breaches occurred because their teachings/assertions went against those of the religious establishment. It is not specifically (or at least not entirely) a religious faction that disbelieves the mounting evidence supporting human-caused global warming, but the effect is quite similar.

Just as with Galileo's research and findings regarding the heliocentric solar system, modern scientists' research that supports human-caused global warming is rejected as unfounded quack science by many. There is a significant difference in these situations, however; though the Church in Galileo's day had their "scientists" the methods they employed were not always scientific by today's standards. The same has been said both of and by scientists on both sides of the global warming issue, but the fact that the scientific method has been established for centuries (largely by Galileo and others of his era) clouds the reliability of such accusations. It has also changed the debate from one of idealism vs. rationalism to one of supposed rationalism vs. supposed rationalism, with political complications, too.

Just as the science used both to "prove" and "disprove" global warming is a matter of great debate, both sides of the issue are also accused of political and economic motives for their findings. Such arguments were also used to explain Galileo's departure from accepted doctrine, and he was certainly a man who enjoyed the limelight. The Church's position almost certainly came in large part from a desire to retain power and control over the sciences, so it is not unusual that each side could use the issue of motive against the other. In the global warming issue, the very existence of the phenomenon has been called into question due to the economic gain to the man who first identified the problem, Roger Revelle: "Revelle co-authored a scientific paper" proposing global warming, but "the thrust of the paper was a plea for funding for more studies. Funding, frankly, is where Revelle's mind was most of the time" (Coleman). This is just one of many accusations leveled against global warming advocates.

At the same time, there are obvious economic and therefore political repercussions for many companies and governments if…… [read more]

Buckley, Bruce, Edward J. Hopkins, and Richard Research Proposal

… Buckley, Bruce, Edward J. Hopkins, & Richard Whitaker. Weather: A Visual Guide. New York:

Firefly, 2004.

A good, introductory text that is nevertheless not 'dumbed down' for meteorology students. It would be a useful reference source even for individuals doing higher-level graduate work in weather science because of its breadth and clarity, as well as its ease of 'searchability.' Like a textbook or encyclopedia, the book deals with metrological phenomena in terms of broad topic overviews according to subject areas. Most entrees come with helpful photographs. In addition to discussing the causes of particular kinds of weather and weather-related natural disasters and weather extremes, global warming and the reasons for climate change are also addressed.

Fallen Tree Type Shelters." Bill's Outdoor Tree Pages: The Ozarks. Updated December 20, 2004. November 23, 2008. http://www.theozarks.com/Outdoors/ShelterFallenTree.htm.

Did you ever wonder what you would do if you were lost in the woods, and had nowhere to go to take shelter at night? Bill's Outdoor Tree Pages provides a comprehensive guide as to how to construct such structures from fallen brush and lean-to shelters from fallen trees. Of course, for many of us, the likelihood of being lost without recourse to a tent or camping gear is relatively slim (although not as slim as one might like to think, given recent reports of lost explorers in the news). Still, for nature and camping aficionados, the detailed presentation of the shelters makes it possible to replicate Bill's instructions quite easily. This is a fun site to visit if one needs to do so for fulfilling the requirements for a Boy Scout merit badge or Outward Bound program. It is something that is also good to know for a frequent camper, even if the knowledge will hopefully not be necessary, except under extreme conditions.

Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York: Perigree Books, 1959.

Golding's classic work of fiction tells the tale of some British boys who are abandoned on a deserted island due to a plane crash. The boys quickly devolve into their own, primitive society. The book is a metaphor for the human condition in a state of nature and one of the most controversial novels of the 20th century.

Jenkins, Mark. "Natural Shelters." Backpacker. 25.3 (1997):1-6. http://web.ebscohost.com.

Mark Jenkins provides a clear and comprehensive guide to a possibly frightening subject, namely what to do if you are lost while hiking in the woods. Jenkins provides instructions about how to create a makeshift shelter for the night using…… [read more]

Earth Science - Global Warming Science Article Term Paper

… Earth Science - Global Warming


The Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Purdue University recently announced some troubling findings published by its Climate and Extreme Weather

Initiative. Specifically, the organization studied future weather conditions conducive to the formation of severe conditions such as powerful thunderstorms featuring flooding, high winds, and tornadoes. The research combined the analyses of experts in the fields of climate modeling with those of experts who study the formation of severe storm conditions.

Climate modeling is a mechanism for studying the combined effects of hundreds of individual components such as ocean currents, atmospheric conditions, regional ography, and greenhouse gases, all of which contribute to changes in global weather formation. Climate modeling enables researchers to use sophisticated computer programs to synthesize data about previous weather conditions to predict future changes based on analyzing the interrelationships between those factors.

By combining the data from past instances of severe weather conditions with the ability of experts on storm formation, the researchers were able to draw certain troubling conclusions about the relative likelihood of potentially damaging severe weather events in the future as well as the relationship between current rates of global warming and their particular effects on specific regions such as those parts of the U.S. most affected by powerful thunderstorms, flooding, and tornadoes.

According to the study, global warming will increase the incidence of factors known to be associated with the development of severe weather events. More importantly, those changes will have much greater effect in specific regions of the country where their proximity to the Atlantic coastline and the Gulf of Mexico makes them more susceptible to changes in humidity along the…… [read more]

Kyoto Protocol and Climate Change Discernible Human Term Paper

… Kyoto Protocol and Climate Change

Discernible human influences now extend to other aspects of climate, including ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns" (AR4, 2007).

While the UNFCCC countries are dedicated to thwarting global warming in a theoretical way, the Kyoto Protocol signers, called Annex I parties, are attempting to doing something about it (Kyoto, 1998). Ten years ago they obligated themselves to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average 5% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012 in order to "minimize adverse effects, including the adverse effects of climate change" (Kyoto. 1998). Even though some of these nations may have only reduced their emissions by 5%, others have reduced them by 15%, in order to make the national limitation. As a result, some atmospheric cleanup has been effected in urban areas throughout the world. Global change is discernible and having a negligible effect. It will, however, take many more decades before global warming and other climate changes which are caused by greenhouse gases will begin to turn around.

The Kyoto Protocol includes a "flexible mechanism" which allows under-compensating economies to meet their limitations by purchasing GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emission reductions from those who have overcompensated and have excess allowances. These are called "carbon credits." To produce carbon credits for sale is desirable, compared to being obligated to purchase them because a country is producing too many GHG emissions (EIA, 1998). In the United States, because of the Kyoto Protocol, actual GDP losses are projected to "range from $102 to $437 billion dollars in 2010." Prices of offsets and carbon credits will skyrocket among those nations in the Annex I sector, setting the stage for a failure of the entire project. Seeing how as the effects on climate so far…… [read more]

Ecology Global Warming: From Milutin Term Paper

… Such discrepancies, however, are the mainstay of the anti-global warming group. If the world's scientists cannot even agree on whether the climate is warming, then there cannot be much of a problem. Or conversely, if the Earth's climate has actually… [read more]

Weather and Construction: Las Vegas Term Paper

… During the hot months the night time lows may only drop to eighty degrees.

The second major factor in the Las Vegas Valley is wind. Due to its location the city is often buffeted by major windstorms. At times wind speeds may reach an excess of fifty miles per hour, however most wind storms only provide winds up to thirty miles per hour. It is not uncommon for windstorms to damage property throughout the valley. The more extreme windstorms tend to cause numerous problems throughout the city.

A secondary factor which must be considered with the windstorms is dust. The amount of recent precipitation - particularly in the deserts surrounding the city - will determine whether or not the dust will be problematic throughout the metropolitan area. In the spring of 2002, one windstorm produced enough dust to decrease visibility in the city to less than a mile.

Construction work during a major windstorm may prove difficult but not impossible. Primary problems tend to revolve around temporary signs being blown down and difficulty with free hanging cranes. Generally those involved with work on the exterior of a high rise hotel casino will withhold their work until windstorms have subsided. Certainly dust may be problematic for visibility and overall comfort, but generally does not deter construction projects.

The last element is flash floods. Generally these are happen in the large washes which surround the city. At times roads and underpasses become flooded due to some sort of obstruction in a wash. However for the most part, actual construction sites will not be affected by any type of flash flood. The primary issue during an event such as this may be backups throughout the city because certain roads are closed to traffic. The streets of Las Vegas are notoriously slippery after any rain whatsoever, so aside from flood related back-ups there may also be accident related road closures. The difficulty a given worksite will generally have during flash-flooding will be getting its crew to the site.

Rain in Las Vegas is a somewhat unusual event. However, in the outlying mountains, particularly the Spring Mountains and the La Madre Mountains to the west, rain is a regular occurrence. Periodically heavy rains in these mountains and foothills can cause flash flood events in the city.

Most construction crews find Las Vegas to be a pleasant place to work. And why shouldn't they? For the vast majority of the year the weather is tolerable and there is more construction work available than anyone can possibly handle.


Acevedo, William. "Urban Land Use Change in the Las Vegas Valley." Las Vegas Growth from 1912. http://www.actressactor.com/las-vegas-shows/las-vegas-articles/las-vegas-growth.htm

Manning, Mary. "Monsoon Season Spawns Deluges." The Las Vegas Sun. 18 January 2000. http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/sun/2000/jun/18/510399096

Particulate Matter in Las Vegas, Nevada." Environmental Protection Agency. 20 December 2000. http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/vegaspm/factfinding.html

Climate of Las Vegas, Nevada." NOAA. [read more]



First, the global warming case. Please don't go crazy. You do not need to consult any other sources besides

You can probably do an adequate job of answering the questions in less than 10 pages, especially since I don't expect more than a few paragraphs on each question.

Do you consider cost-benefit analysis of the kind discussed above as a sensible approach to this problem? Why or why not? Include your thoughts about including environmental costs and the costs of reasonable compensation to developing economies.

This problem is so incredibly complex that any approach to try and get a sense of the scope of the problem is sensible. The scope of the problem is so large that it can generate a sense of apathy. Any approach that can overcome apathy and change people's behaviors should be welcomed. The cost-benefit approach however, should always be viewed with some skepticism since the potential a large margin of error in the estimates exists. However, the approach could be more accurate with individual choices rather than trying to aggregate the entire economy.

For example, you can easily conduct a cost-benefit approach to replacing a traditional light bulb with an LED light bulb and determine the payback period. The same methods can be applied to a variety of energy efficiency investments as well. However, the cost-benefit approach just isn't as accurate on a macro level.

In regards to compensating developing economies, the first world definitely has an obligation. For example, most of the carbon emissions that are stuck in the atmosphere today were from emission from the first countries to develop using fossil fuels. These emissions have a cumulative effect on climate change. Therefore, it is unfair to tell the third world that they cannot develop using the same means as the first world because it contributes to climate change. The majority of the emission were not created in third world but they are essentially being asked to pay the costs associated with sustainable development even though they were not responsible for the damages.

Yet, at the same time, even if the first world owes a debt to developing economies, the amount is certainly unclear. Most of the damage was done during previous generations. For example, a large percentage of the individuals most responsible for contributing to climate are no longer alive today; nor did they even understand the damage they were doing to the planet. Thus it is hard to hold the younger generations completely responsible for their ancestors mistakes. Therefore, there will undoubtedly have to be substantial compromises between the developing world and the developed world to come to an effective arrangement. Furthermore, since virtually everyone agrees that the costs increase as time goes on, the sooner a compromise can be reached the better.

After reviewing the discussions in Pricing the Future and the Stern Review, what do you think of their arguments in favor of a very small or even zero… [read more]

Listening Skills and Climate Change Research Paper

… Hence, it is important to note that climate change is not about weather per se; it is about the climate and its changing influence and impact on the planet and its people.

The Assignment -- A Free-write (only pencil and paper are needed)

Following the lecture students are given seven minutes to write down, in bullet points, the most important information they can recall from the lecture. They were not asked to take notes, so they are using recollection skills. In the second timed eight-minute window of time they are to create an essay explaining their own previously held position and/or offering a summation as to why people believe in climate change and why others do not. They may also offer a solution in order to convince the one in four doubters that climate change is real.

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Kolb's Learning Styles

Students are allowed to express their feelings in a concrete experience (the lecture and the challenge) in a personal way without being right or wrong. This is Kolb's learning style because it allows open-minded and intuitive responses to the material presented in the lecture (Nilson, 2010). This assignment also fits with Kolb's Learning Styles because it challenges students to observe a dilemma reflectively; in addition, differing points-of-view need to be critiqued and objectivity is important in this exercise, which follows Kolb's style

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Fleming and Mill's Style

In particular, students with auditory skills learn well when given information they can hear, and in this exercise there are no visuals, no videos, just the voice of the instructor reviewing the material. Also, this style of learning emphasizes logical and deductive relationships, and the subjects in the lecture cry out for logic and understanding.

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Felder and Silverman

Most learners can process material when it is either visual or verbal, and most students excel in one of the two formats. For those not as skilled with verbally presented material, this is an excellent opportunity to gain experience with listening skills. Also, this learning style emphasizes sequential assignments; a) listen to the lecture; b) make bullet points about what has been presented; and c) create a cogent essay as an assignment.


The research offered in this paper represents several ways in which instructors can challenge students to examine and critique critical contemporary issues such as climate change. In this exercise students are asked to listen closely and recall key points in the lecture. And because there are many learning styles, in another class session the same instructor may use visual aids to present his material. But whatever material the instructor presents, he or she should embrace a variety of strategies throughout the course so that all learning styles are emphasized. Presenting material in relevant and interesting ways is always the task of the instructor, no matter what the learning style of the student is.

Works Cited

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The… [read more]

Climate Change and Global Warming Attitudes Research Paper

… Data Presentation

10. Conclusions and Significance of Study

Literature Review

Climate change, which is at least partly due to human activities, poses a threat to the future of all species on this planet. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of roughly 400 parts per million in the atmosphere (CO2 Now, 2014). The current CO2 concentration is really scary considering many scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is another major scientific authority, believes that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur (IPCC, 2007). Some scientist believe that if drastic action isn't taken within the next few years then it could already be too late for some major threshold points to be crossed.

Figure 1 - Global Carbon Emissions

Climate change is at least partly due to human activities according to the scientific consensus. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of nearly 400 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere CO2. The current CO2 concentration is alarming considering some scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. Other groups, such as the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has previously stated that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur.

Findings from the 2007 IPCC Report states that climate that's already changing and impacting environment… [read more]

Climate Change, Divorced Research Paper

… d.). How climate change impacts the ski tourism industry is a relatively small issue to the impact on drinking water supplies, though. "The effects on natural systems will be widespread: from accelerated glacier melt, altered precipitation, runoff, and groundwater recharge patterns, to extreme droughts and floods, water quality changes, saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers and changes in water use," (The World Bank, 2014, p. 1). Water quality and availability is the most important casualty of climate change because of the universal importance of water.

Climate change affects the quality of water worldwide, because the hydrologic cycle is disrupted. Groundwater may come into contact with a greater amount of pesticides or factory runoff, when it cannot be absorbed rapidly enough ("Linking Climate Change and Water Resources," n.d.). Sediments, pathogens, and various other problems are already causing water to become more turbid, while rising sea levels is creting problems with drainage and wastewater disposal too ("Linking Climate Change and Water Resources," n.d.). As a result, a viscous cycle is created whereby more harmful chemicals are needed to treat water and make it potable for human beings. "The systems used to treat and move public water supplies require large amounts of energy, produced mainly by burning coal, natural gas, oil and other fossil fuels," ("The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources," n.d.).

Beverage corporations are exacerbating the problem by peddling bottled water as a solution. Unfortunately, drinking bottled water is the worst possible solution. The plastic used to create the bottles is directly contributing to global warming because it is a petroleum product and requires heavy factory emissions, and also, that water must be shipped rather than consumers relying on their local aquifers ("The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources," n.d.). Conservation of water is crucial at the level of business, as well as the consumer level. Businesses remain the greatest contributors to global climate change and also to the contamination of local water supplies, which is why strong steps to regulate business are necessary to prevent the adverse ramifications of climate change.

Water is likely to become the next most contentious political issue on the planet. The reasons for many land disputes around the world are related to water resources. Wars may be fought over access to clean drinking water. Climate change has already caused an increase in precipitation in some areas, coupled with decreasing precipitation in others. This will lead to stresses placed on transportation and irrigation systems. Landslides and droughts could even impact the very same region. Industrialized agriculture is a heavy culprit of water misuse, which is why widespread changes in how people use water and how people eat will help reduce the impact of climate change. Other issues, like acid rain, are also linked to global warming because pollutants from factories evaporates with the rain and later falls on sometimes distant regions as acidic rain. This contaminates water further. There are already millions of people without access to clean drinking water. Climate change may increase the… [read more]

Environment the 11th Hour (Film) Research Paper

… We are "all related" in the sense that all people come from the same "mother," which is earth (72)

The Indian way of life was in harmony with nature, built on respect for the earth and for people as well as for individual freedom (72).

Christian and European cultural hegemony has destroyed many Native American cultures (73)

However, it is not too late to return to more constructive Indian vision, which is more constructive and productive than the European model of consumerism and war (74).

People or Penguins

When discussing issues related to pollution, it is important to be specific instead of general (476).

It is possible to have a people-oriented version of pollution control and environmental activism, rather than preserving penguins "for their own sake" (477).

It is important to propose a people-centric vision because people are inherently selfish (477).

Generally, though, what is good for humans is also good for the environment and vice-versa because everything is connected (477).

When defining the objectives of environmentalism, it is important to define actual measures or levels of pollution that are acceptable: in other words, quantify it…… [read more]

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