Study "Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays 1-55

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Climate/Meteorology Nitrogen and Oxygen Term Paper

… Accordingly, an increase in pressure will cause an increase in density of the gas and a decrease in its volume."

6. The two types of barometers include Torricelli's and the aneroid barometers. The latter is used most commonly in the home and works with a vacuum rather than with the element mercury.

7. "Standard sea level pressure is said to be 76.0 cm or 29.92 inches or 1013.2 millibars. Scientists often use the kilopascal (kPa) as their preferred unit for measuring pressure."

8. The monsoons in Asia are caused by the Asiatic Low pressure systems that occur over that region of the globe.

9. Harmful effects of ozone depletion include increased risk for skin cancer due to exposure to UV light, increase in cataracts and other eye problems, lowered immune systems, and cooling of the Earth's stratosphere.

10. "Ozone is created naturally in the stratosphere by the combining of atomic oxygen (O) with molecular oxygen O2). This process is activated by sunlight. Ozone is destroyed naturally by the absorption of ultraviolet radiation."

Works Cited

Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Chapter 7: Introduction… [read more]

Climate Change in America Essay

… ¶ … American planning in the next 20 years?

More and more each day, there is becoming ample indication of the more ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments 20 years from now. The… [read more]

Air Pressure and Winds Term Paper

… Winds are the large-scale flow of gases through the atmosphere and the mass movement of air is characteristic when considering Earth. The masses know very little about winds in spite of the fact that they are one of the most… [read more]

Health Concept Analysis Health From a Nurse Term Paper

… Health


Health" From a Nurse Practitioner's Perspective


The word "health" is, among other things, a concept that relates in most cases to the survival and physical condition of a living entity, in this case, the human body.… [read more]

Geography, Weather, and Climate Geographic Features Aside Essay

… Geography, Weather, And Climate

Geographic features aside from elevation or latitude can influence a city's climate depending on how those features affect the flow of water vapor and hot or cold air. By comparing the cities of San Francisco and Denver, it is possible to see how the combination of the ocean and an extensive mountain range can give two cities at nearly the same latitude vastly different climates. San Francisco remains relatively moderate, climate-wise, whereas Denver is dramatically colder during much of the year, and sees much more precipitation.

San Francisco is at latitude 37.4 north, and its elevation is 7 feet. The maximum temperature for the years 1961-1990 was 106 degrees Fahrenheit, and the minimum low temperature for the same period was 24 degrees Fahrenheit. Rain was more common than snow during this time, with a yearly average of 19.7 inches of rain compared to .1 inches of average yearly snowfall. In contrast, Denver is at nearly the same latitude, 39.5, but its elevation is 5333 feet. Denver's maximum temperature for 1961-1990 was 103 degrees Fahrenheit, with a minimum of -25 degree Fahrenheit. Snow was far more common than rain in Denver, with only 15.4 inches of yearly average rainfall compared to an average of 60.4 inches of yearly snowfall.

Although San Francisco and Denver are at nearly the same latitude, they have dramatic differences when it comes to low temperatures and yearly snowfall. Denver has a minimum temperature nearly fifty degrees lower that San Francisco's, even though their maximum temperatures are only 3 degrees apart. In addition, Denver sees an average of roughly 60 inches of snowfall a year, compared to San Francisco's average of .1 inches per year (although San Francisco does get slightly more rain than… [read more]

Climate Change Regulation Research Paper

… These transportation units are responsible for producing 20% of the world total carbon dioxide and other emission that harms the Earth hemisphere.

Farming and Deforestation:

As the population is increasing, it needs more and more area to do farming and to settle down. More wood and wood products are required which has resulted in significant amount of deforestation. Trees and plantations play a vital role in recycling carbon dioxide oxygen, which is not harmful for atmosphere, but with the trees missing this recycling process has stopped and thus adversely affected the atmosphere. On the other hand, animal wastes used for farming also produce carbon dioxide, which is again harmful for the atmosphere (Archer, 2011).

Natural Activities:

Natural activities like change in Earths orbit and volcanic eruption has led to increase emission of carbon dioxide, which has harmed the Earths atmosphere.

Following were the natural and human factor responsible for altering the factors that are directly responsible for change in climate.

Methods to control Earth Environment:

There are two ways to control factors that are aversely affects Earths climate. First being the Regulatory-based policy and second being the Incentive-based policy.

Regulatory-based policy:

These policies have been used for long time in United States, which is responsible for regulating every institution to abide by these policies on reducing the risk of factors that can adversely effect the change in climate, and failure to do so will result in imposition of heavy fines. However, there are pros and cons to this policy.


This policy has a clear outcome and thus helps in regulating and monitoring the compliance process as failure to do so will result in heavy fines.


This policy is very costly in terms of monitoring and ensuring compliance and despite this it, still light fail to reach its objectives, as it requires information from its sources and the information provided may be incorrect or false. This policy is not cost effective. In addition, it offers no help or creativity of ideas to help reduce emission rate.

Incentive-based policy:

This policy enables the people to choose and move towards better production techniques and better low cost equipments that not only reduces emission but also are also quite effective in fulfilling their needs. Government can encourage by offering incentives and subsidies on these machines and increase taxes on less environment friendly products and machines thus discouraging its use. This system also has pros and cons.


This policy is cost effective and it encourages the people to move towards more eco friendly products and giving them a sense of responsibility to protect Earths environment.


The disadvantage of this policy may be that those who fail to adhere to these policies will be taxed and as a result prices of the good s will increase and the burden will be shifted towards the final consumers.

My Opinion:

If I was to get a chance in choosing which policy to be used I would choose both of them because both can complement… [read more]

Weather and Climate Research Proposal

… Weather and Climate

Comparison of Two Publications on Climate change

In his unique New York Times article, "On the Climate Change Beat, Doubt Gives Way to Certainty," retired Times reporter William K. Stevens recalls his work in climate change reporting,… [read more]

Climate Change and Disease Term Paper

… Climate Change and Disease

Global warming and its effect on climate change has been an environmental issue of much debate as of lately. Due to the severe nature of this problem, research has been conducted in order to establish a… [read more]

Weather Evidence Supporting and Opposing Research Paper

… The human perspective is likely too limited to see our weather patterns clearly enough to firmly argue that now we have global climate change.

The scientific and political communities agree that a change is happening. There is evidence that substantiates and has been interpreted by authorities showing that the Earth is experiencing a climate change and that has been happening for at least a century. There is additional evidence that some human activities confound this global climate change. There is a lack of evidence in favor of or directly purporting that humans are the only reason for the change.

The Earth's lifespan far exceeds the lifespan of any and every species that has lived upon it. The strength and resiliency of the Earth is a concept that the human imagination cannot adequately quantify, qualify, or even understand. Throughout the Earth's history, it has experienced and undergone massive environmental changes, many of which occurred long before the human race and proved far more severe than the effects of greenhouses gases thus far. There is a substantial amount of highly credible scientific evidence that illustrates that the Earth is undergoing another kind of global change.

By 2005 a widespread scientific consensus had emerged that serious, large -- scale disruption could occur around 2050, once average global temperature increase exceeds about 2 "C, leading to abrupt and irreversible changes…This new theory of "abrupt climate change" has overturned earlier predictions of gradual change and has prompted some scientists to warn that unmitigated climate change could lead to the complete collapse of civilisation…This "global dimming" effect is diminishing as we clean up air pollution. As a result global average temperature could rise by as much as 10 degrees Celsius [approximately 18 "F] by the close of the century -- a catastrophic increase. (Bensel & Turk, 2011)

The effects of this change range from melting ice caps, raised temperatures, expansion of deserts, rising sea levels, and increased frequency & intensity of extreme weather such as hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts, and heat waves.

Overall, the paper has argued not so much about the existence of evidence for or against the existence of global climate change. More so, the paper has demonstrated how there is evidence and data about the global climate patterns of modern times. This information exists and the greater argument is not about the existence, but rather, it is about who and how is interpreting this data. The global climate change issue proves as other research endeavors do, that data and evidence can be interpreted or presented to state whatever the user(s) of the data want or intend the data to say. There is a power to statistics and there is a fallibility to them. Scientists, politicians, and the media can make the evidence say whatever supports their objective or agenda. Evidence can also be manipulated to contradict any one position, too. The data available may very well be based on models of weather that are too limited in scope and lack adequate perspective to truly… [read more]

Arctic Climate Change Term Paper

… The Inuit have also become adaptable to their environment because of the diversity and flexibility in the usage of resources. They take chances in harvesting. They harvest whenever and wherever the conditions allow them. They are now really clever in identifying and taking advantage of particular conditions. The climate change gives them the opportunity of creating new situations. For instance, they get benefitted from the later ice freeze-up during autumn by making the fishing season longer. They wait for the occurrence of freezing and resume their normal activities (Ford, 2005).

The Inuit need to organize themselves to raise awareness regarding the magnitude of Arctic climate change. They must come forward to advocate action for the reduction of greenhouse gases. They must stop playing the part of the helpless victims (Nickels, 2004, p. 7).


Arctic, The. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database:

Fenge, T. (2006, January). Arctic Alarm: In the Arctic, Climate Change Isn't an Abstraction-It's Happening Now. Alternatives Journal,31, 25+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database:

Ford, J. (2005, September/October). Living with Climate Change in the Arctic. World Watch, 18, 18+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database:

Ford, J.D. (2009). Dangerous Climate Change and the Importance of Adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit Population. Environmental Research Letters, 4, Retrieved May 11, 2012 from

Melting Arctic Ice Threatens to Speed Up Climate Change. (2010).Perspectives in Public Health, 130(1), 4. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database:

Nickels, S. (2004, November/December). Climate Change Is a Daily Reality for Inuit. Alternatives Journal, 30, 7. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database:

Scientific Facts on Arctic Climate Change. (2012, April 14). Retrieved May 10, 2012 from [read more]

Concepts of Meteorology Research Paper

… Meterology

Weather in Gaithersburg, MD

There are many different factors that influence the weather anywhere in the world, and Gaithersburg, Maryland is no exception. At an elevation of approximately four-hundred-and-fifty feet, located in the proximity of the Potomac River and not incredibly distant form the Atlantic Ocean, a confluence of land and water weather patterns impact the city and alter is climate and temperature patterns. Analyzing this locality's weather requires and understanding of the global, regional, and local forces and patterns at work, and such an assessment will be provided below. A discussion of recent weather events and potential human impacts on climate and weather patterns in the area will also be provided at the end of this report, providing a comprehensive view of known and potential weather influences.

Gaithersburg, Maryland is located at a latitude of thirty-nine-point-fifteen (39.15) degrees North and a longitude of seventy-seven-point-twenty-one degrees West (National Weather Service, 2011). This places the city in the Northern Hemisphere, which is currently in the process of becoming tilted as far away from the Sun as it can get and is thus experiencing winter. Less direct sunlight and shorter days are the primary weather impacts of this global situation, causing lower temperatures and, in Gaithersburg as well as many other parts of the world, less precipitation and less overall "weather" due to less energy being existent in the system. With the average daily temperature range for this time of year stretching from twenty-seven degrees to forty-degrees Fahrenheit yet with precipitation extremely low (approaching zero), these expected global effects are definitely being seem (Weather Underground, 2011).

At the regional level, Gaithersburg, Maryland is best considered part of North America's Atlantic seaboard, which receives a continual (or near continual) influx of cold as the waters of the Atlantic complete a counter-clockwise path traveling West across the Arctic Circle, then South along the North American landmass (starting in Canada), and growing increasingly warmer as it sweeps past Florida before submerging and continuing the loop by heading East and then North again (Rowe et al., 2011). This influx of cold masses along with other more complex regional forces can create hurricanes and other less sever though still quite noticeable weather disturbances for Gaithersburg and other areas located on or near the Atlantic coast (Weather Underground, 2011). Wind patterns that move East across the continent, carrying dryer air from the Midwest, also seems to be a regional factor in the development of weather in Maryland and many other nearby communities.

At the local level, Gaithersburg's climate is also influenced by the nearby Potomac River,… [read more]

Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate Thesis

… Global Warming: An Overview of Theoretical Causes and Effects

It has been almost impossible in the past decade to avoid media mention of the issue of global warming. It seems as though it is impossible to watch an hour of… [read more]

Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate Thesis

… Warming Research

CO2: Global Carbon Dioxide Levels Linked to Human Activity ( Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere can be linked directly to the release of the gas by human beings since the rise of industrialization (zfacts 2007). This conclusion… [read more]

Local Climate Investigation Thesis

… Local Climate Investigation

Climate Investigation of Houston, Texas

Houston: temperature profile

The average low temperature in Houston is 72°F (22°C) in the summer and 40°F (4°C) in the winter. The average high temperature is 93°F (34°C) in the summer and 61°F (16°C) in the winter ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The highest recorded temperature in Houston was 106°F in 1962 and the lowest recorded temperature was 9°F in 1989 ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). The temperature rarely sinks below the freezing mark. The climate is classified as subtropical and humid, and is influenced by the winds that come from the Gulf of Mexico.

Houston: precipitation

Houston receives an annual average rainfall of about 50 inches ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The most precipitation on average occurs in June ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). It almost never snows in Houston, and on average snowfalls occur only ever few years, rather than on a regular basis. Exceptions do occur, of course, and in 2004 there was a legendary Christmas Eve snowstorm, which resulted in approximately 1-3 inches coating the city ("The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm," 2004, NWS).

Closest NWS office

Houston is located in the Southwest region of the United States, and the nearest National Weather Service serves the Houston/Galveston area. The NWS office has its origins in the region as early as 1870, and in 1960, one of the first WSR-57, Weather Surveillance Radars was installed. "After the installation of the radar, the Galveston office was the site of the first live television broadcast of a hurricane (by Dan Rather at CBS) in September of 1961 when Hurricane Carla struck the Texas coast" ("About our office," 2008, NWS).

Is there any special phenomenon either in the weather or related to the weather that affects your town?

Houston, because of its unstable climate and Gulf Coast location, is uniquely prone to damage from hurricanes. Its normally hot, humid weather makes flooding a frequent problem during storms as the ground may have trouble absorbing the moisture. The humid, volatile air mass also means that extreme weather may result when a strong cold front collides with the hot air mass, making the area prone to tornados.

For example, in 2002, Tropical Storm Allison caused 36 inches of rain to fall during a short span of time, killed 22 people and caused more than $5 billion in damage, (Turner 2004).… [read more]

Global Warming and Climate Change Term Paper

… ¶ … global warming and climate change, including the likely consequences of climate change. Global warming is a situation that could affect the entire planet in a few decades. According to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Web site, global warming… [read more]

Climate Extremes: Observations, Modeling Research Paper

… (2003). The author notes that aggregate numbers on global warming conceal the reality that warming is not evenly distributed -- there is abnormal warming at the poles, including the Antarctica Peninsula. The authors note that "climate proxies appear to show that RRR warming on the Antarctica Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia." The authors note two things -- one, that they are using a proxy because they do not have data spanning 2000 years in this region, anecdotal or otherwise, and that they cannot pinpoint a cause for this warming.

The thesis, therefore, is actually quite simple: The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing warming faster than other parts of Antarctica and faster than the global mean. They present their proxy evidence in support of this hypothesis. They also are cautious about drawing conclusions as to the cause of the warming that they found -- they do not have a mechanism by which they can attribute causation.

The significance is the research is that it contributes to a wider body of research that is analyzing climate change. The Easterling article shows how dozens of specific studies are aggregated into a broader body of evidence about the effects of climate change. The Vaughan study is one of hundreds of studies on the subject providing peer-reviewed evidence from which broader conclusions can be made.

I would ask the authors if they had evidence of a trend with respect to the Antarctic Peninsula. They have studied the past 2000 years, but where is this part of the world headed in the future. Is there evidence that the climate is going to continue to change more rapidly there, and if so what do they think the impacts of that will be?


Easterling, D., Meehl, G., Parmesan, C., Changnon, S., Karl, T. & Mearns, L. (2000). Climate extremes: Observations, modeling and impacts. Science. Vol. 289 (5487) 2068-2074

Vaughan, D., Marshall, G., Connolley, W., Parkinson, C., Mulvaney, R., Hodgson, D., King, J., Pudsey, C. & Turner, J. (2003). Recent rapid… [read more]

Polar Bears Gone? Climate Change, Global Warming Essay

… ¶ … Polar Bears Gone?

Climate change, global warming, El Nino, and disaster movies (2012, etc.) are a part of contemporary culture. Children, from a very young age, are exposed to the concept of climate change, but sometimes are not… [read more]

Reality of Climate Change: Viewpoint Article Critique

… ¶ … Reality of Climate Change:


Climate change has truly become an increasing concern all over the world as weather seems to be going haywire, and as it becomes more and more unrecognizable in its force. Since weather affects all people, no matter where they live, it is important to recognize the magnitude of these changes and analyze them. For this reason, the paragraphs below will provide a short critique of an article on climate change.

The article, written by Justin Gillis for the New York Times, gives the U.N viewpoint on climate change, based on a recent report that the organization published. The article begins by a description of the extreme weather around the world, and an assertion that this is due to human actions. The article quotes the U.N. document published on this issue recently to further state that this situation can only worsen in the coming decades. Then, it goes on to describe the report, noting that greenhouse gases lead to high temperature, as well as flooding, and that human actions overall are contributing to what should be now fully recognized as climate change, beyond a doubt.

The findings presented in the article are quoted from the U.N. report presented at the Kampala Panel on Climate Change, and have been presented as part of very clear research, as well as undeniable evidence from all around the world. Despite its seemingly stress on helpless nations that can do nothing in the face of climate change, the article does mention that some leaders have tried to change this situation in Durban, by addressing ways in which nations can begin to address these problems.

The major topics covered in this article are a focus upon human caused climate… [read more]

Weather Forecasting Major Advancements Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:2] Though such measures have been highly costly, the benefits of such predictions far outweigh the costs, according to NASA. For this reason, the organization states, [2: References in this paragraph taken from: NASA Facts (n.a.). (2011). Earth Observing System Aqua Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ]

"a more accurate 24-hour forecast of heavy rain and thunderstorms along a cold front could allow airline dispatchers enough time to reroute their airplanes appropriately and thereby help alleviate costly delays. Being able to pinpoint a wintertime low temperature in Florida could be the deciding factor in whether orange grove farmers make the correct decision regarding deployment or non-deployment of freeze prevention methods to save their crops."[footnoteRef:3] [3: References in this paragraph taken from: NASA Facts (n.a.). (2011). Earth Observing System Aqua Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ]

As one can see from these statements, it is very important to predict the weather, as it has always been, but not, one has the benefit and the aid of technology, which can certainly help.

Future advancements also include various things, such as other improvements in, for instance, accurate seven-day forecasts. Furthermore, meteorologists hope that with better predictions, airplanes, for instance, could move flight times to avoid storms and retailers could schedule workers for nice days or utilities could prepare for surging power demands.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Smith, A.D. (2009). Tech advancements improving accuracy in predicting weather. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ]

The advances written above are just some of the many advancements in the field. The Dr. G. Brant Foote National Center for Atmospheric Research paper, from 2001, for instance, provides many advancements, and details into these. Below are some graphics from this research.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Referenced from: Brant Foote, G. (2001). Advances in Weather Technology. National Center for Atmospheric Research.… [read more]

Weather Research Paper

… Publications like the "Farmer's Almanac" attempted to do what Lavoisier predicted but a true scientific approach did not emerge until modern times (Geiger, 1818).

World wide concern for weather forecasting was initiated because of the severe damage that was suffered… [read more]

Who Benefits From Extreme Weather? Essay

… ¶ … Benefits from Extreme Weather?

Making Weather a Selling Event

Heavy rains, tornados, massive snowfall amounts and the change of seasons can be a marketer's best friend. The use of weather as a means to change consumer behavior has been a practice many consumer products goods manufacturers rely on to increase the sales of their products. The best known is Campbell's Soup Company, which has successfully engrained rainy weather with consuming more soup to stay healthy (Dobson, 2003).

Weather Can Be a Marketers' Best Friend

Retailers located in the Midwest and Northern U.S. states also rely on the "stock up" metaphor during changes of seasons, as there are often major downpours, tornados, and in the winter, snow storms. This continues to be a very effective strategy during the winter months, when snow and ice can make travel just down a local street treacherous. The use of these metaphors and the appeal to consumers' being prepared for these events can led to up to three months or more of dried food provisions and paper goods being stockpiled in anticipated of a weather emergency (Schwartz, 1992). The use of weather as a marketing strategy has also been seen in the southern U.S., were the temperate climates are conducive to bugs and pests. Sales of bug repellents are greatest in these states as high humidity has been successfully linked with the threat of flying insect outbreaks (Schwartz, 1992).

There are entire companies devoted to studying the interrelationship of weather and consumer purchasing patterns. These companies include Automatic Forecasting Systems and Weather Predict, Inc. (Sivillo, Reilly, 2004). The services they provide include assisting food and beverage providers with demand planning based on weather patterns in… [read more]

Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions to Astronomy Thesis

… Johannes Kepler made important contributions to astronomy in the decades after Copernicus. His primary contribution was a modification or correction that he made to Copernicus's assumption that planets revolved around the sun in circular orbits: Kepler correctly argued that the… [read more]

Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century Term Paper

… Climate Change

Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century

During the 10th through the 14th Century, a warm climate predominated in Earth's weather. Called the Medieval Climate Optimum, it affected politics, religion, labor, finances, science and population changes among humans on the earth, by creating conditions ripe for the spread of disease, which in turn created human problems. This warming period was followed in 1425 through 1850 by what was called the little ice age.

Nils Stenseth, who headed up a 3-day conference on the Avian Bird Flu in 2005, said that in the past similar diseases have appeared during periods of warm weather. During the 14th century similar weather conditions seem to have aided the spread of the Bubonic plague, which killed around 34 million in Europe and Russia through birds, fleas and rats who carried the fleas. The disease did not disappear completely and some academics believe in 1665-66 it reappeared as the Great Plague of London. "The link is very important and it is also important to link it back to the Black Death in the 1300s because there were the kind of weather conditions then -- warmer and wetter -- that we predict for the future," Stenseth said. "After 1855, when it… [read more]

Risks of Climate Change Research Paper

… Increases in bushfire frequency and intensity have the potential to increase rates of damage to buildings and structures, especially those in non-urban areas.

Drier conditions may lead to increased ground movement and changes in groundwater. Higher temperatures and more solar… [read more]

Climate Change Projections Expected Impact Term Paper


Mitigation Strategies Explored

The work entitled "Food, Agriculture, and Climate Change: The U.S. And International Outlook (USGCRP, 1997) ask the question in relation to addresses the "projected climate changes" and how they "affect agriculture, food resources and the availability… [read more]

Climate Term Paper


10. A sub-tropical cyclone is a low pressure system that combines features from tropical and mid-latitude cyclones, and which can evolve into tropical cyclones, or hurricanes (from

11. Tropical cyclone winds rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere because of the patterns of wind flow affected by the Coriolis force.

12. Tropical cyclones are classified according to their wind speed; to be a hurricane a tropical storm must have winds of 118 kilometers an hour or more.

13. Hurricanes form over warm oceans because they are powered by the latent heat energy that is released from condensation and need a "constant supply of warm humid air," which "only exists over oceans with a temperature greater than 26.5° Celsius." (from [read more]

Climate Change Before the Industrial Term Paper

… Such high levels of methane would not be released naturally. The same is true for other greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide. However, by far the most notorious greenhouse gas that might be causing the earth to become consistently warmer over time is carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere by factories as well as automobiles. The combination of these human factors with the natural factors mentioned above, including variations in the Earth's orbit, could be causing more rapid and more severe climate change. Evidence for human-induced climate change includes El Nino and other new and odd weather patterns as well as the melting of the polar ice stores, and changes to certain ecosystems and lifestyles of animal and plant life around the planet. Human beings are not causing all the changes in climate but we are contributing to global warming and other climate changes. [read more]

Global Climate Change Term Paper

… Global climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges facing the world today. The steady yearly average temperature increases measured by scientists worldwide serve to destroy ozone which in turn pokes significant holes in the earth's ozone layer.… [read more]

ESL Lesson Plan Weather Term Paper

… Teaching Weather to ESL Students

Proficiency: Basic level of English proficiency

Grade Level: Ninth -- early high school/late junior high

Language arts (English), earth science, social sciences, and information technology

Lesson Objective: Students will create a five-day weather forecast based on the local news with comfort, making use of targeted vocabulary, grammatical constructions involving verbs as well as nouns relating to weather, and scientific concepts related to meteorology

Students will gain a greater proficiency accessing information, expressing their ideas on a basic conversational topic (weather) and become better able to work collectively in groups and to communicate in English between members of a team to produce a final media-related project

Materials: Tape of local news weather segment, newspaper, and recording camera if school has access to audio materials, and 'props' including a large table, a map, or any others depending on student creativity

Steps: First, the teacher will show a taped segment of a five-day forecast of the week's upcoming weather from a local news show. The teacher will engage in a short class discussion to prompt the students to express that they understand the weather, as expressed by the newscaster, and write the vocabulary words on the board. With a more advanced class, some more advanced science vocabulary and reasons for the weather can be discussed, such as seasonal averages and the effects of temperatures.

Next, the teacher will give the assignment. The teacher will distribute the weather pages of various newspapers to the class. The class must create a weather show. The class must use the weather vocabulary generated from the discussion in the show. The class must select, amongst themselves who will be the weather people -- perhaps two or three. The forecast for every day of the school week will be given. For instance -- Monday: Sunny and breezy. Tuesday: Rainy. Etc. Then, the other students will have to represent the weather. For instance, for a nice day, the students must actively demonstrate what they could do on a warm,… [read more]

History of the National Weather Service Term Paper

… National Weather Service (NWS) is a government agency that affects every resident of the United States in important ways. Because of its skill in predicting extreme weather such as hurricanes and tornadoes, potentially thousands of lives have been saved. However,… [read more]

Climate and Economy in Two Term Paper

… "

In 1998, El Nino had a profound effect on the tropical rainforest in South America. During this time, "a high-pressure dome dominated weather patterns over the region, causing high temperatures and extensive drought. Tropical forests received less than 10% of normal rainfall amounts, and the typically humid forest fuels became tinder-dry (Cochrane, 2001)." This produced a number of fires, and the effect on the economy of the area was in the billions.

These fires can have a lasting impact on the environment and economy of the area, since they also "increase global carbon dioxide levels and threaten the health of those exposed to the resulting particulates, as well as causing extensive and long-lasting damage to the affected forests (Cochrane, 2001)."

Ocean Effects

The climate changes also affect the fishing industry of the country. During El Nino, there are "shortages of cold-water fish species and an increase in the availability of species from tropical climates brought by the warm ocean currents (Lama, 2003). The warmer temperatures reduce the amount of plankton in the water, which can result in a loss of millions of tons of fish for fishermen in Peru. While there is an increase in the number of fish used by the fishmeal industry such as anchovy and hake, recent markets have seen a decrease in the price for these varieties, thus further effecting Lima's economy (Lama, 2003).


The changing climate has the potential to affect the economies of both Lima, Peru and Canberra, Australia. There are currently studies underway in both cities to determine ways the climate changes can be used to benefit their economies.


Australia Economy-Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate. (accessed 10 May 2004)

Capital City Functions. (accessed 10 May 2004).

Cochrane, Mark A. (2001, October). "In the line of fire. Understanding the Impacts of Tropical

Forest Fires." (accessed 10 May 2004). Environment.

Economic Overview. (accessed 10 May 2004).


Forecasting. (accessed 10 May 2004).

Lama, Abraham. (16 January, 2003). "Envirnonment-Peru: Country Prepares for Effects of El Nino." Inter-Press Service English News Wire. [read more]

Tomorrow Was an Excellent Film Movie Review

… The main flaw in this film is that the thermohaline circulation cannot change over only a few days as seen in the movie. This is because:

a) the oceans do not respond to changes in the amount of freshwater input

b) the atmosphere cannot change over the timescale of a few days

c) the volume of the oceans is huge and water has a high heat capacity

d) the volume of the oceans is huge and water has a low heat capacity

4. Which of the following statements is FALSE.

a) Hurricanes only form over the sea in tropical regions.

b) A 300 ft 'wind-driven storm surge' would require winds of over 1200 mph

c) The Gulf Stream current is responsible for moving warm, salty water from the North Atlantic back to the Equator

d) Only a large tsunami could result in the type of wave seen in the movie but the Atlantic Ocean is surrounded by passive continental margins so this is not likely.

5. A northern-hemisphere hurricane is a:

a) High pressure system where air circulates counter-clockwise due to Ekman transport

b) Low pressure system where air circulates clockwise due to Ekman transport

c) Low pressure system where air circulates counter-clockwise due to the Coriolis force

d) High pressure system where air circulates counter-clockwise due to the Coriolis force

6. If the thermohaline circulation were to shut down:

a) There would be strong regional cooling around the North Atlantic

b) There would be strong global warming

c) There would be global cooling

d) Large icesheets would reform rapidly all… [read more]

Climate Change -- Cause Research Paper

… NASA research shows "certain facts" that are not in dispute because with available science data, the current warming trends show the "big picture": a) "…scientific evidence for warming of the climate system is unequivocal"; and b) the "heat-trapping nature of… [read more]

Global Warming Trends and Impact Essay

… It is now believed that everyday activities such as mass production, transportation activities, and using electricity and aerosol products in our homes, all contribute to greenhouse gases. The one natural protection humans have -- trees that reduce greenhouse gases and produce oxygen -- have been devastated by human development and monetary ventures (Weart 44). Rainforests are estimated to be destroyed at the unprecedented rate of one and a half acres per second, and could be gone within the next 30 years (Prothero 19). The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (known as the IPCC) has now concluded that most of the increased temperature in the twentieth century is related to human industrialization (Weart 48).

The goal today among scientists, organizations, and activists is slowing the warming of the planet. It is believed that the overall rise in temperatures will be most apparent toward the poles and less in the tropics, there will be more warming in winter than in summer and storms and hurricanes will increase in frequency and intensity as oceans heat up (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 116). Global warming could also give rise to worldwide droughts and impact food production and supply. There are major threats to wildlife at the poles and the earth's coral reefs. Worst yet, is the prediction of United Nations Disaster Preparedness researchers that by 2020 nearly 50 million people worldwide could be forced to relocate each year due to weather (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114).

Based on the evidence, it is my opinion that global warming is a very real and serious threat. Experts recommend that every person take small steps to decrease their carbon footprint and impact on the plant. Referred to as "going green" it is very common today to see, hear and read about environmental precautions being taken by individuals, governments and corporations (Weart 41). We are seeking alternate forms of energy such as wind and solar power that are less damaging to the earth (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 118). Also, strategies such as carpooling, investing in hybrid cars, using public transportation, and recycling and reusing paper, plastic and aluminums help reduce waste, save trees, and lower greenhouse gases. Water and in-home energy conservation can be done by using programmable thermostats, replacing air filters, and weather-proofing and insulating our homes to preserve energy. All of these require a shift in our thinking, behavior and relationship with the earth, and can make a major difference in the battle against global warming.


Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.

Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122.… [read more]

Cryosphere and Economy Research Paper

… Cryosphere and Economy

The Cyroshpere describes collectively all forms of water that is frozen at the surface of the earth such as sea ice, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, rivers, snow cover permafrost, seasonal frozen ground and solid precipitation. Snow… [read more]

Climate Change Term Paper

… The most recent bill addressing climate change -- that was passed by the conservative-dominated House in September, 2012 -- omitted the "sense of Congress" clause (Geman, 2012). That clause asserted that "There is established scientific concern over warming of the climate system…" but the Republican-led House has not accepted that as fact. What Republicans are doing is packaging a bill to "block EPA rules" that seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the GOP has worked to block or delay federal policies that affect the coal industry (burning fossil fuels contributes mightily to global warming). The House Republicans call attempts to regulate coal emissions "The White House 'war' on coal" (Geman, p. 1). In other words, there is no political will in the Congress at this time to do anything about reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming.

Three policy changes that could slow global warming: One, the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil contributes have been proven to be a big part of the problem. Hence, new policies should be put in place to reduce the use of coal (and encourage solar energy production), or upgrade coal-burning plants to reduce emissions, or at lease change light bulbs to CFL bulbs (West, 2012). Two, policies that require automakers to produce cars that get better mileage will result in less fossil fuel usage; also, encouraging consumers to purchase hybrid vehicles by giving big tax breaks is another solution. And three, a policy that greatly restricts logging of forests makes practical and environmental sense. "In the next 24 hours, deforestation will release as much CO2 into the atmosphere as 8 million people flying from London to New York" (White, p. 1).

Works Cited

Didier, Suzanna. (2013). How Does Global Warming Affect Daily Life? National Geographic.

Retrieved January 11, 2013, from

Geman, Ben. (2012). House Republicans scrub climate change concerns from EPA bill.

The Hill. Retrieved January 11, 2013, from

Gosling, Simon N., Warren, Rachel, Arnell, Nigel W., Good, Peter, Caesar, John, Bernie, Dan,

Lowe, Jason A., van der Linden, Paul, O'Hanley, Jesse R., and Smith, Stephen M. (2011).

A review of recent developments in climate change science. Part II: The global-scale impacts of climate change. Progress in Physical Geography, 35(4), 443-464.

West, Larry. (2012). Top 10 Things You Can do to Reduce Global Warming.

Retrieved January… [read more]

Scientific Method and Climate Change Term Paper

… Global warming has effects on polar ice melt, weather patterns, agriculture, and sea levels.

Question / Hypothesis

In combination with the Earth's natural geologic functions, does globalization change the earth's environment, causing global warming?

We could further refine this by date range, specific type of environmental change, and/or the notion of overall climate patterns.

Design Experiment

Due to expertise and monetary resources, our experiment would be more of a comprehensive literature review of scientific studies.

Focus would be on peer-reviewed journals and books with scholarly bias.

Data Collection Stage

Using appropriate databases, find representative samples of current research on climate change.

Try to find arguments from both sides; also consider history of pollution, climate studies, etc.

Tabulate Data

Use appropriate data tables and measurements to identify and categorize studies.

Ensure that comparisons are like -- e.g. temperature changes over time measured in similar ways in similar locations. Verify data.


Analyze conclusions from a scholarly viewpoint.

Do we have enough data at present?

Accept or Reject Hypothesis

Based on conclusions, accept or reject hypothesis or look for more data.

If data remains inconclusive, continue search for more data.

Further Research

See above, but likely there will be ancillary questions because of vast number of variables (e.g. volcanism, distribution of carbon emissions, weather patterns, etc.)

Question may be unsolvable at this point due to a lack of sufficient longitudinal information.


Brahic, C. (October 12, 2007). "Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth: unscientific?" The

New Scientist. Cited in:

Burroughs, William (2007), Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach,

New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gore, A. (2006). An Inconvenient Truth. New York: Rodale Press.

Speth, G. ed. (2003). Worlds Apart: Globalization and the Environment. Washington, D.C.:

Island Press. [read more]

Wrong With This Picture? Essay

… 2b. Whether carbon emissions are resulting in global warming and climate change?

Despite claims to the contrary, global warming is perhaps the most complicated and serious issue facing the world today. The scientific community has almost universally proclaimed that the evidence points to the rising dangers from the ongoing buildup of greenhouse gases due to human related activity (Adger, 2001). As economies throughout the world continue to grow the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of the world's forests continues which contribute the rising dangers. Global emissions continue to climb while the nations of the world continue to debate whether a problem exists and, if the problem exists, how best to confront it. The United Nations has attempted to organize discussion initiatives to discuss how to address the problem but the debate between developing nations striving to move their economies forward and the needs of the larger industrialized nations continues in earnest. Meanwhile, only incremental progress is being made toward any real solution. The fact that the world's scientific community is in near agreement as to the existence of the problem should be sufficient evidence that a problem exists.

As indicated earlier, however, there are the skeptics that argue that global warming and climate change is much to do about nothing. Such skeptics see such claims as nothing more than science fiction but in examining the arguments offered by such skeptics to refute the existence of global warming it is essential that the motivations behind such arguments are examined. Like any major social issue there are always those who take issue in order to protect their own self-interest or to promote their own agenda. Such individuals are willing to preach against the effects of global warming and to offer information that is factually incorrect or to minimize the scientific evidence that is presented in an effort to sway segments of the population into believing that global warming is not a serious issue. The fact that the existence of global warming is still being debated is hard evidence that the detractors are successful in their efforts to create doubt among the general population.

Although the costs of combating the effect of global warming are extremely high, the costs of doing nothing are much higher. The fact that the international science community is in near agreement on the fact that global warming exists and that the world is in the middle of a period of severe climate change should be enough to motivate everyone to take a hard look at finding solutions. Nevertheless, to date, little has been done and there is little indication that anything worldwide is going to occur in the near future.


Adger, W.N. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 681-715.

Armitage, K.C. (2005). State of Denial: The United States and the politics of global warming. Globalizations,… [read more]

Human Ecology - Climate Change Article Review

… The two important references mentioned by the author have covered the changes and impacts seen by the societies after the climate change since many years. The main aim of the author is thereby to highlight the importance of the book.… [read more]

Russia-u.S. the Two Cities Term Paper

… Culture is predominantly Russian, but with some Asian outlook due to the city's situation north of China. Lake Baikal plays an important role in the culture of Irkutsk. The lake is over a mile deep and holds over 20% of the world's fresh water. It holds a lot of power, and is a center of shamanistic culture to which some Buryats adhere. The lake is an important reference point for the people of Irkutsk. It also provides them with their most revered food, omul.

Tampa's culture is a mix of mainstream American culture, with Cuban influences, a strong African-American community. There are a number of cultural artifacts in Tampa, including performing arts and in nearby St. Petersburg the Dali Museum. Tampa also contributes to more mainstream American culture as a center of the American heavy metal scene. Tampa's culinary culture highlights Cuban influences, and the city is proud of its Cuban sandwiches in particular, many locals claiming that they are better in Tampa than in either Miami or Havana.

The reason for choosing this pairing of cities is simple. I have been to Tampa and have an interest in Siberia. My experience in Tampa allowed me to understand a little bit of the local culture. The causeways and extensive water of the region seem to characterize life in the Tampa area to a significant degree. The city's position as a relatively minor city and regional center has not stopped it from developing all of the cultural elements of a major city, so Tampa feels like a small city that is very civilized, because it has an interesting and complex culture despite being provincial in nature.

The research on Irkutsk provided me with some insights. I think in terms of climate these two cities could not be more different, but there are some similarities elsewhere. Irkutsk is a provincial city like Tampa is, but has a relatively well-developed cultural scene for its size, again just like Tampa. That both cities started as forts in inclement areas and now have strong ties to air defense are two interesting similarities. It would be interesting to see what other similarities might exist -- both cities seem educated and relaxed, and both would be interesting places to visit. I can just imagine the Russians relaxing by the river like people in Tampa do by the bay.

Works Cited:

Babrs. (2006). History of Irkutsk. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from (2012). Irkutsk city, Russia. Retrieved March 29, 2012

US (2012). Tampa (city), Florida. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from

US Climate data. (2012). Tampa, Florida. U.S. Climate Data. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from

World Climates. (2012). Irkutsk climate. World Climates. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from [read more]

Weather Observation Project Term Paper

… Weather Observations: November 21st -- 25th

The observations made over the five day period from November 21st through November 25th did not yield any surprising results that questioned current meteorological knowledge or established patterns and trends in the area. Almost all temperatures recorded were within the normal minimum and maximum recorded temperature ranges for each day (which were actually the same for all five days of the observational period, from two degrees Celsius to eight degrees Celsius). Precipitation was light and was accompanied by expected cloud cover and by somewhat low pressure systems, and wind patterns were also in keeping with expectations, for the most part. Minor anomalies and more detailed descriptions of each day's weather are provided below with meteorological explanations provided.

Monday, November 21st

Temperatures climbed throughout the day as pressure showed a very slight decreasing trend, while relative humidity rose. Though light rain was observed at 16:00, the relative humidity was measured at only ninety-six percent and the temperature was measured as one degree higher than the dew point. Cloud cover was complete and consisted of nimbo-stratus clouds at both daylight observation times (10:00 and 16:00), and wind grew far brisker at night (22:00) despite the fact that the temperature continued to increase slightly; the lower pressure that accompanied this continuing temperature rise was significant enough to more than double the wind speed from the previous measurement. Wind blew predominantly from the east and southeast throughout the day, with slight shifts within this quadrant.

Tuesday, November 22nd

Lower pressure and higher temperatures defined the weather on Tuesday, with the day starting out warmer than the normal maximum (temperature was recorded nine degrees Celsius at 4:00 and at ten degrees Celsius at 10:00). Cloud over was light in the morning, with only two-eights of the sky covered by Cirrus clouds at 10:00, when the relative humidity was only seventy-five percent and winds had dropped to 17km/hr as opposed to the 54km/hr recorded at 4:00. The increase in temperature combined with a rise in pressure was responsible for the reduced humidity and the lower wind speeds in the morning, however the situation changed by 16:00 when the sky was… [read more]

Physical Geography Article Review

… Using information from Part 1 of your text, explain how changes in sea-surface temperature patterns relate to climate and weather patterns.

Changes in the sea surface temperature are related to the climate by creating a shift in how warm or cold the planet will be. This will have an impact on the total amounts precipitation in various regions of the world. As violent storms, (such as: hurricanes) will create tremendous amounts of rain for select areas. While others, will see little amounts of participation. This is the result of warmer ocean temperatures impacting the flow of warm and cold air. (Hardy)

The South Pole has the lowest annual average temperature on Earth. Amazingly though, when measured over an entire year, the South Pole receives an average of 12 hours of sunlight per day -- much the same as all other locations on Earth. Since the length of sunlight can't adequately explain the extreme cold, what does?

What explains the extremely cold weather is the total amounts of sunlight in Antarctica are limited to the summer months. During the winter months, there is little to no sunlight available. This cause the temperatures to decrease dramatically, which why the continent is so cold.

Why is it necessary to rethink our standard notions of north, east, south, and west at the South Pole? In other words, why can't those living at the South Pole use these directions in the same way that most of the rest of the world does?

The reason why there needs to be a rethinking of our sense of direction is because we are standing at the South Pole. This means that we cannot use the same sense of [read more]

Weather and Caves Windward and Leeward Sides Essay

… Weather and Caves

Windward and Leeward Sides of Mountains- Orographic precipitation, or a rain shadow effect, is an explanation of why the windward side of a mountain is typically rainy and the leeward side dry. The diagram shows that warm moist wind rises, cools and condenses, forming precipitation, which is then lost and the resulting clouds are dry on the opposite side of the mountain. The condition exists because warm moist air rises. As it rises, the decrease in atmospheric pressure (with increased altitude) causes the air to expand and reach dew point. At this dew point, moisture condenses onto the mountain, dumping rain, snow, etc. On the windward side. Then as the air descends on the leeward side, there is little moisture left. This, in combination with the air getting warmer because of compression, creates an arid region (Mountain Weather, 2011).

The actual process of this air mass moving from low to higher elevation, orographic lift, can actually raise the relative humidity in the clouds to 100% and induce precipitation. Orographic fog is sometimes also formed as the air rises up the slope. Depending on the shape of the mountain, where there is high wind, a banner cloud is formed downwind of the upper slopes of mountains that are isolated and very sleep (Alps, Himalayas, some of the Rockies, etc.). This type of cloud is created by the various vortices and local uplifting of the air in relation to the terrain, the most famous being the leeward side of the Matterhorn. In contrast, on the leeward side of the mountain, the warmer air flowing downward is called a foehn wind. Any suspended moisture quickly evaporates as the air descends, and there is a rather distinct cut-off line that tends to form along and parallel to the ridge line on the mountain range, often called the foehn wall. Lenticular clouds are stationary clouds that form downwind of mountains by leeward air, often shaped like lenses (see picture). Additionally, and most well-known in California during certain seasons, a Chinook wave and wind forms above the mountain range and pushes warm air rapidly off the leeward side into the resulting valley or plain (Clouds and Currents, 2010).

Part 2 -- Inquiry Strategy on Cave Formation - A cave, or cavern, is a natural underground space, and may include rock shelters, sea caves, and grottos. Caves are formed by a process called spelogenisis and by various geological processes: chemical erosion, water erosion, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, atmospheric influences, and even digging. However, most caves of any size are formed in limestone by dissolution. Dissolution is the process in which is, essentially, a chemical way of dissolving rock through water or other moisture until a cave is formed. Obviously, some rock and mineral types lend themselves to becoming caves more readily, and are usually comprised of… [read more]

Contrails and There Affect on Climate Research Paper

… Contrails and Their Affect on Climate

Contrails, which is the short form of condensation trails also known as vapor trails, are known as the artificial clouds that are formed from the exhaust of the aircraft and are visible from the… [read more]

Canadian Climate Change Foreign Policy Term Paper

… Climate Change

With the coming election, Canadians have the opportunity to set a course for federal government response to climate change policy. Over the past several years, it has become evident that the course of climate change policy in Canada… [read more]

Climate Change Global Warming Media Coverage Trend in a Newspaper Investigate Leaked CRU Emails Essay

… Climate Change Media

The Center for Science and Technology Policy Research has compiled a chart illustrating the coverage that climate change has received in the media around the world. The chart, which can be found in Appendix a, highlights that… [read more]

Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate Climate Change Research Proposal

… Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate Climate Change

Introduction of global climate change situation

The aim of this green paper is to improve carbon management, helping the transition towards a low- carbon economy in the UK. Although this green paper represents… [read more]

Human Activities on Global Climate Term Paper

… ¶ … human activities on global climate and how these activities result in the global climate change. The first portion of this paper basically concentrates on the debates that have risen with regards to the influence of human activities on… [read more]

Climate Change and General Crises in the Little ICE Age a Geographic Perspective Term Paper

… Climate change and general crisis in the Little Ice Age: a geographic perspective

The Little Ice Age (LIA) is considered by some researchers to extend over several generations of time. Estimates show that the period began around the 13th and… [read more]

Thematic Content Area Reading Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum to Label Strategies Research Paper

… Weather Lesson Plan

Introduction to Weather -- Part 1 -- Weather and Weather Systems (Multi-Day)

Grade Level -- Easily adaptable from 3-6 grades, depending on depth, vocabulary, and speed of lesson.

Science, part of unit on Earth science and systems.… [read more]

Joshua Tree the Desert Climate and Topology Research Paper

… ¶ … Joshua Tree

The desert climate and topology are harsh, extreme and inhospitable to many forms of vegetation. Those plant species which are able to weather the conditions produced by the desert form a unique ecosystem of species equipped with the tools to survive. Among the most distinct and visually compelling of desert species, the account here considers briefly the nature of the Joshua Tree. A member of the yucca genus, the tree boasts a configuration which allows it to be sustained during long, dry stretches and with no canopy protection from the hard desert sun. Conversely, its uncommon structure does make it a rare plant outside of the Southwestern United States. Here though, it can be seen in such well-preserved contexts as the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden in Claremont.

A species most frequently associated with the desert landscapes of Southern California, the Joshua Tree's care is generally facilitated by its own internal structure. Its survival in hot, dry climates is accommodated by an unusually long rooting system which allows it to draw water from deep below sandy and rocky surfaces. Accordingly, we find that the Joshua Tree's roots can reach up to as long as 11 meters, making them particularly apt to reaching water sources even during sustained times of drought or water scarcity. (Wikipedia, 1) Additionally, the Joshua Tree's trunk is dissimilar to that of most trees. Rather than a single solid body identifiable by its internal rings, the Joshua Tree's trunk is actually a stalk of tightly interwoven fibers that make the plant sturdy but not rigid. This proves critical to survival in the face of sandstorms or other extreme weather conditions. (Wikipedia, 1)

Though the plant only first appeared in formal documentation during the late 19th century, its use had been central to Native American life for centuries. Its 'bayonet' shaped leaves have made this a preferred way of yielding sandals, baskets… [read more]

Environmental Review the Carbon in the Atmosphere Book Review

… Environmental Review

The carbon in the atmosphere comes partially from ancient (and ongoing) volcanic activity, through the above-ground decomposition of organic material, and through the respiration of non-plant organisms. Plants pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere during photosynthesis; this carbon is transferred to other organisms when it is eaten, buried to become other substances (fossil fuels), or decomposed to release everything back to the atmosphere.

The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is collected by and dissolved in rainwater, forming carbonic acid and making rainwater slightly acidic even without unnatural levels of carbon or other pollution.

The large amounts of oxygen necessary to support much of the life on this planet likely originated from cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which began exhaling oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis sometime between three-and-a-half- and two-point-seven-billion years ago. This began in small amounts, but built up over time to the abundant levels there are today, that facilitate the existence of many complex organisms dependent on oxygen.

10) Large fires and volcanic eruptions are the most common and prevalent sources of natural air pollution; human industry and the burning of fossil fuels, particularly for the production of electricity, are the most common human sources of air pollution

11) There is evidence both in the fossil layer and in core samples from the polar ice caps that suggest there have been variations in the heat reaching the Earth from the Sun and lost from the Earth's surface

12) the heat in the Earth's atmosphere is spread through the process of circulation; differences in the solar radiation and heat delivered at the poles and the equator create imbalances in the pressures in the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth also contributes to the air currents that move heat around.

Chapter 12

8) Air that has circulated to high altitudes in the atmosphere settles back to lower altitudes at 30 degrees both North and South of the equator, and at the two poles.

9) in addition to the colder temperatures that would be experienced with the passing of a cold front, increased precipitation and thunderstorms can occur due to the lower pressure that occurs when the cold front lifts the warmer air mass that… [read more]

Global Climate Change the Increase of CO2 Essay

… Global Climate Change

The increase of CO2 emissions are expected to continue until 2150 when a decrease is expected to occur. The consequences are also expected to be dramatic. The continued melting of polar ice caps and glaciers will cause the sea levels to rise. This will result in greater flooding in areas already prone to flood and coastal cities globally may be forced to completely and permanently evacuate due to inhabitable conditions. In addition, agricultural changes will cause ecosystems to be effected due to rising temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns. If this is accompanied by problems growing major crop plants in traditional areas, there would be food shortages and famine. The cost of food would also rise. Another global consequence of global warming is extreme weather. Some evidence of increasing storm intensity already exists and this trend is likely to continue. Hurricanes reaching category 4 or 5 will continue to increase. All of these events are expected to be global in nature, regardless of location, wealth or development.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights includes additions made and agreed upon by the United Nations General Assembly. One such agreement is the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights which was adopted in December 1966. Article 12.2 of this Covenant requires parties to take specific steps to . . . include improving environmental and workplace health. Article 28 of the Covenant states that everyone is entitled to a social international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration can be fully realized.

Neither of the above Articles, nor any other Articles seem to address the protection of populations adversely affected by environmental changes although there is the requirement in Article 12.2 to take "specific steps to ...include improving environmental health." That could certainly be interpreted to mean that the signatory nations are required to improve environmental health however, it seems to apply to each specific nation and their citizens. The entitlement portion of Article 28 also gives a nod to entitling populations a social and international order that allows the rights and freedoms to be fully realized. Again, it implies a sort of idea of supporting the freedoms and rights but no specifics are made. Overall, while the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an impressive document, it seems to have virtually no bite. It also seems that many nations hold businesses and corporations to a standard that requires them to submit to laws regarding the environment but that is not a global position. For example, in Chernobyl when the nuclear reactor plant damaged the environment, lives etc., the Soviet Union covered it up and prohibited all inquiries. However, in the United States, the catastrophe at Three Mile Island was publicized and the clean up was extensive. Other man made environmental disasters have had similar outcomes depending on their location and nation. The Declaration should have more specific guidelines, however, attempting to do so would likely result in most… [read more]

Climate Change and Global Warming Essay

… Climate Change and Global Warming

During the past two decades, there has been an environment issue that has been developing with the climate. Some people are concerned with the fact that the earth is slowly becoming more warm than expected. For example, in the movie, "Heat," it is clear that there is a risk of dissolving the environment due to the affects of the climate change on the planet, which is increasing daily. From there, this film presents the idea that people need to be aware what is happening to society because the future is at risk of having major issues if global warming is not addressed properly. The movie points out that people must take notice of their environment before the affects of global warming destroy the planet, which will leave them for dead. At this point, the movie gave out a good presentation of global warming that gave real insight into the huge issue.

From there, the movie is very informative to the general public so that they can be aware of what is happening to the planet. It also points out that if a plan of action is not taking soon, the future for this planet is extremely bleak, which leaves nothing for future generations to build on or strive for. It is clear that this environmental issue would not have aroused studies and researches a few centuries ago because global warming was not a big concern until the twentieth century. This is due to the fact as time goes by, people notice the climate change that is increasing each year. Even though this study would have been conducted in other countries, almost all the world's countries and their people possess unifying attributes that make them distinct and unmistakable for any other nationality, race, culture and language. America possesses the probability of encountering this problem because of countless… [read more]

Lived Effects of Historic Climate Essay

… ¶ … Lived Effects of Historic Climate on the Wealth of Nations


The authors are attempting through their research to make a direct connection between the wealth and prosperity of nations when… [read more]

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