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Climate/Meteorology Nitrogen and Oxygen Are

Accordingly, an increase in pressure will cause an increase in density of the gas and a decrease in its volume." 6. The two types of barometers include Torricelli's and the aneroid barometers. The latter is used most commonly in the home and works with a vacuum rather than with the element mercury. 7. "Standard sea level pressure is said to be 76.0 cm or 29.92 inches or 1013.2 millibars. Scientists often use the kilopascal (kPa) as their preferred unit for measuring pressure." 8. The monsoons in Asia are caused by the Asiatic Low pressure systems that occur over that region of the globe. 9. Harmful effects of ozone depletion include increased risk for skin cancer due to exposure to UV light, increase in cataracts and other eye problems, lowered immune systems, and cooling of the Earth's stratosphere. 10. "Ozone is created naturally in the stratosphere by the combining of atomic oxygen (O) with molecular oxygen O2). This process is activated by sunlight. Ozone is destroyed naturally by the absorption of ultraviolet radiation." Works Cited Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Chapter 7: Introduction……

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Climate Change in America

¶ … American planning in the next 20 years? More and more each day, there is becoming ample indication of the more ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments 20 years from now. The answers of both flora and fauna expand a collection of environments and structural hierarchies, from the species to the community…

Pages: 11  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Air Pressure and Winds

Winds are the large-scale flow of gases through the atmosphere and the mass movement of air is characteristic when considering Earth. The masses know very little about winds in spite of the fact that they are one of the most important concepts keeping the world function normally. Solar energy warms air and makes it rise, thus making it possible for…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Health Concept Analysis Health From a Nurse

Health CONCEPT ANALYSIS Health" From a Nurse Practitioner's Perspective Health The word "health" is, among other things, a concept that relates in most cases to the survival and physical condition of a living entity, in this case, the human body. This analysis will embrace and encompass the varied and diverse approaches to understanding and defining "health" as a concept. Health…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Geography, Weather, and Climate Geographic Features Aside

Geography, Weather, And Climate Geographic features aside from elevation or latitude can influence a city's climate depending on how those features affect the flow of water vapor and hot or cold air. By comparing the cities of San Francisco and Denver, it is possible to see how the combination of the ocean and an extensive mountain range can give two cities at nearly the same latitude vastly different climates. San Francisco remains relatively moderate, climate-wise, whereas Denver is dramatically colder during much of the year, and sees much more precipitation. San Francisco is at latitude 37.4 north, and its elevation is 7 feet. The maximum temperature for the years 1961-1990 was 106 degrees Fahrenheit, and the minimum low temperature for the same period was 24 degrees Fahrenheit. Rain was more common than snow during this time, with a yearly average of 19.7 inches of rain compared to .1 inches of average yearly snowfall. In contrast, Denver is at nearly the same latitude, 39.5, but its elevation is 5333 feet. Denver's maximum temperature for 1961-1990 was 103 degrees Fahrenheit, with a minimum of -25 degree Fahrenheit. Snow was far more common than rain in Denver, with only 15.4 inches of yearly average rainfall compared to an average of 60.4 inches of yearly snowfall. Although San Francisco and Denver are at nearly the same latitude, they have dramatic differences when it comes to low temperatures and yearly snowfall. Denver has a minimum temperature nearly fifty degrees lower that San Francisco's, even though their maximum temperatures are only 3 degrees apart. In addition, Denver sees an average of roughly 60 inches of snowfall a year, compared to San Francisco's average of .1 inches per year (although San Francisco does get slightly more rain than……

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Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate Comparison of Two Publications on Climate change In his unique New York Times article, "On the Climate Change Beat, Doubt Gives Way to Certainty," retired Times reporter William K. Stevens recalls his work in climate change reporting, documenting how scientific knowledge on the topic has changed from his first days in the newsroom until today. Published on February 6, 2007, this article draws primarily on the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change's 2007 report for its information regarding the science behind climate change today in contrast to the science behind climate change years ago. Stevens begins his article with an anecdote of life in the Times newsroom. He recalls that whenever a cold front would hit, other reporters would spend some humor on the climate change reporter, saying something to the tune of "so much for global warming." Stevens comments that a joke like that would probably not be heard today. He worked for the paper until 2000, when a minority of people were convinced that global warming was a result of humans' actions. Today, he argues, little doubt exists that humans have a serious impact on global warming. One of the primary arguments that Stevens uses to support this claim is the vast amount of political attention that the issue receives. For instance, Stevens notes the attention paid to global warming in the 2008 election, especially recalling the importance that conservative Republican John McCain assigned to the issue. A similar scene "back in the day" would have been "unimaginable," according to Stevens. In addition to the politics and widespread attention paid to the issue, Stevens cites the most recent publication of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, in addition to its progression of reports. According to Stevens, this panel commented that human involvement in the climate change crisis could occur "easily" in the 1990s. More recently, the panel noted that human involvement in climate change is "likely." Finally, Stevens mentions the 2007 report's long list of ways in which climate change is having an affect on the globe. Included in this list is an increase in temperature and drought paired with a decrease in precipitation, as well as an increase in hurricanes like Katrina. His final statement is a wish of luck to those who will be around to see climate change and its affects on population and planet. In contrast to Stevens' article, which is just…

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Climate Change Regulation Climate Change

These transportation units are responsible for producing 20% of the world total carbon dioxide and other emission that harms the Earth hemisphere. Farming and Deforestation: As the population is increasing, it needs more and more area to do farming and to settle down. More wood and wood products are required which has resulted in significant amount of deforestation. Trees and plantations play a vital role in recycling carbon dioxide oxygen, which is not harmful for atmosphere, but with the trees missing this recycling process has stopped and thus adversely affected the atmosphere. On the other hand, animal wastes used for farming also produce carbon dioxide, which is again harmful for the atmosphere (Archer, 2011). Natural Activities: Natural activities like change in Earths orbit and volcanic eruption has led to increase emission of carbon dioxide, which has harmed the Earths atmosphere. Following were the natural and human factor responsible for altering the factors that are directly responsible for change in climate. Methods to control Earth Environment: There are two ways to control factors that are aversely affects Earths climate. First being the Regulatory-based policy and second being the Incentive-based policy. Regulatory-based policy: These policies have been used for long time in United States, which is responsible for regulating every institution to abide by these policies on reducing the risk of factors that can adversely effect the change in climate, and failure to do so will result in imposition of heavy fines. However, there are pros and cons to this policy. Pros: This policy has a clear outcome and thus helps in regulating and monitoring the compliance process as failure to do so will result in heavy fines. Cons: This policy is very costly in terms of monitoring and ensuring compliance and despite this it, still light fail to reach its objectives, as it requires information from its sources and the information provided may be incorrect or false. This policy is not cost effective. In addition, it offers no help or creativity of ideas to help reduce emission rate. Incentive-based policy: This policy enables the people to choose and move towards better production techniques and better low cost equipments that not only reduces emission but also are also quite effective in fulfilling their needs. Government can encourage by offering incentives and subsidies on these machines and increase taxes on less environment friendly products and machines thus discouraging its use. This system also…

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Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate

Global Warming: An Overview of Theoretical Causes and Effects It has been almost impossible in the past decade to avoid media mention of the issue of global warming. It seems as though it is impossible to watch an hour of the evening new or open a newspaper without at least a brief mention of some aspects of the global warming…

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Global Warming's Effect on the Weather and Climate

Warming Research CO2: Global Carbon Dioxide Levels Linked to Human Activity (http://zfacts.com/p/194.html): Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere can be linked directly to the release of the gas by human beings since the rise of industrialization (zfacts 2007). This conclusion is based on indirect measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide until the 1940s, when direct measurements were taken, and takes into…

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Local Climate Investigation

Local Climate Investigation Climate Investigation of Houston, Texas Houston: temperature profile The average low temperature in Houston is 72°F (22°C) in the summer and 40°F (4°C) in the winter. The average high temperature is 93°F (34°C) in the summer and 61°F (16°C) in the winter ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The highest recorded temperature in Houston was 106°F in 1962 and the lowest recorded temperature was 9°F in 1989 ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). The temperature rarely sinks below the freezing mark. The climate is classified as subtropical and humid, and is influenced by the winds that come from the Gulf of Mexico. Houston: precipitation Houston receives an annual average rainfall of about 50 inches ("Houston," 2008, EPA). The most precipitation on average occurs in June ("Monthly weather for Houston," 2008, the Weather Channel). It almost never snows in Houston, and on average snowfalls occur only ever few years, rather than on a regular basis. Exceptions do occur, of course, and in 2004 there was a legendary Christmas Eve snowstorm, which resulted in approximately 1-3 inches coating the city ("The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm," 2004, NWS). Closest NWS office Houston is located in the Southwest region of the United States, and the nearest National Weather Service serves the Houston/Galveston area. The NWS office has its origins in the region as early as 1870, and in 1960, one of the first WSR-57, Weather Surveillance Radars was installed. "After the installation of the radar, the Galveston office was the site of the first live television broadcast of a hurricane (by Dan Rather at CBS) in September of 1961 when Hurricane Carla struck the Texas coast" ("About our office," 2008, NWS). Is there any special phenomenon either in the weather or related to the weather that affects your town? Houston, because of its unstable climate and Gulf Coast location, is uniquely prone to damage from hurricanes. Its normally hot, humid weather makes flooding a frequent problem during storms as the ground may have trouble absorbing the moisture. The humid, volatile air mass also means that extreme weather may result when a strong cold front collides with the hot air mass, making the area prone to tornados. For example, in 2002, Tropical Storm Allison caused 36 inches of rain to fall during a short span of time, killed 22 people and caused more than $5 billion in damage, (Turner 2004).……

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Global Warming and Climate Change, Including the

¶ … global warming and climate change, including the likely consequences of climate change. Global warming is a situation that could affect the entire planet in a few decades. According to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Web site, global warming can be defined as "an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Concepts of Meteorology

Meterology Weather in Gaithersburg, MD There are many different factors that influence the weather anywhere in the world, and Gaithersburg, Maryland is no exception. At an elevation of approximately four-hundred-and-fifty feet, located in the proximity of the Potomac River and not incredibly distant form the Atlantic Ocean, a confluence of land and water weather patterns impact the city and alter is climate and temperature patterns. Analyzing this locality's weather requires and understanding of the global, regional, and local forces and patterns at work, and such an assessment will be provided below. A discussion of recent weather events and potential human impacts on climate and weather patterns in the area will also be provided at the end of this report, providing a comprehensive view of known and potential weather influences. Gaithersburg, Maryland is located at a latitude of thirty-nine-point-fifteen (39.15) degrees North and a longitude of seventy-seven-point-twenty-one degrees West (National Weather Service, 2011). This places the city in the Northern Hemisphere, which is currently in the process of becoming tilted as far away from the Sun as it can get and is thus experiencing winter. Less direct sunlight and shorter days are the primary weather impacts of this global situation, causing lower temperatures and, in Gaithersburg as well as many other parts of the world, less precipitation and less overall "weather" due to less energy being existent in the system. With the average daily temperature range for this time of year stretching from twenty-seven degrees to forty-degrees Fahrenheit yet with precipitation extremely low (approaching zero), these expected global effects are definitely being seem (Weather Underground, 2011). At the regional level, Gaithersburg, Maryland is best considered part of North America's Atlantic seaboard, which receives a continual (or near continual) influx of cold as the waters of the Atlantic complete a counter-clockwise path traveling West across the Arctic Circle, then South along the North American landmass (starting in Canada), and growing increasingly warmer as it sweeps past Florida before submerging and continuing the loop by heading East and then North again (Rowe et al., 2011). This influx of cold masses along with other more complex regional forces can create hurricanes and other less sever though still quite noticeable weather disturbances for Gaithersburg and other areas located on or near the Atlantic coast (Weather Underground, 2011). Wind patterns that move East across the continent, carrying dryer air from the Midwest, also seems to be…

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Climate Change and Disease

Climate Change and Disease Global warming and its effect on climate change has been an environmental issue of much debate as of lately. Due to the severe nature of this problem, research has been conducted in order to establish a connection between the act of climate change and that of the spread of diseases. Because of the dramatic shifting climates in parts of the world that are used to maintaining stable temperatures, the spread of potentially hazardous diseases can essentially increase. In order to establish a solid connection between these two factors, the implications involved with the facilitation of disease spread as a direct result of the change in climate is to be analyzed. For decades, warnings about the potential risks that ignoring environmental issues would bring had been emphasized. However, despite the numerous attempts at making the public more aware of these environmental situations, people have chosen not to pay any attention to the problem. By doing this and choosing this particular attitude toward climate change, the problems that could have been avoided had this issue been taken more seriously earlier, are now coming to light. As a result of global warming, climates have shifted in areas that are only used to receiving a particular type of weather (University of Texas). For some time, these abnormal and previously unseen shifts have been becoming more of a normal occurrence. With the normality in extreme temperature and weather shifts, comes the increased risk of infectious disease (Smith). The spread of disease has been facilitated by the development and growth of global warming. The mechanisms involved in the process of climate change are what have been contributing to the growth in the occurrence of the spread of disease around the world. Climate change entails the sudden shifting of temperatures in areas that are not used to experiencing such a drastic change. In areas where cold and freezing temperatures used to be a normal occurrence, there are now days that freezing points are not even achieved. That means that these areas are now quite warmer than they should be. This is a recipe for the spread of diseases (Hasham). Mosquitos are popular carriers of various illnesses, especially malaria and the West Nile Virus (NRDC). These diseased mosquitos in fact are able to travel for longer periods of time and farther distances if the temperatures allow them to. With an increase in the temperature…

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Weather Evidence Supporting & Opposing

The human perspective is likely too limited to see our weather patterns clearly enough to firmly argue that now we have global climate change. The scientific and political communities agree that a change is happening. There is evidence that substantiates and has been interpreted by authorities showing that the Earth is experiencing a climate change and that has been happening for at least a century. There is additional evidence that some human activities confound this global climate change. There is a lack of evidence in favor of or directly purporting that humans are the only reason for the change. The Earth's lifespan far exceeds the lifespan of any and every species that has lived upon it. The strength and resiliency of the Earth is a concept that the human imagination cannot adequately quantify, qualify, or even understand. Throughout the Earth's history, it has experienced and undergone massive environmental changes, many of which occurred long before the human race and proved far more severe than the effects of greenhouses gases thus far. There is a substantial amount of highly credible scientific evidence that illustrates that the Earth is undergoing another kind of global change. By 2005 a widespread scientific consensus had emerged that serious, large -- scale disruption could occur around 2050, once average global temperature increase exceeds about 2 "C, leading to abrupt and irreversible changes…This new theory of "abrupt climate change" has overturned earlier predictions of gradual change and has prompted some scientists to warn that unmitigated climate change could lead to the complete collapse of civilisation…This "global dimming" effect is diminishing as we clean up air pollution. As a result global average temperature could rise by as much as 10 degrees Celsius [approximately 18 "F] by the close of the century -- a catastrophic increase. (Bensel & Turk, 2011) The effects of this change range from melting ice caps, raised temperatures, expansion of deserts, rising sea levels, and increased frequency & intensity of extreme weather such as hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts, and heat waves. Overall, the paper has argued not so much about the existence of evidence for or against the existence of global climate change. More so, the paper has demonstrated how there is evidence and data about the global climate patterns of modern times. This information exists and the greater argument is not about the existence, but rather, it is about who and how is interpreting this…

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Arctic Climate Change and Its

The Inuit have also become adaptable to their environment because of the diversity and flexibility in the usage of resources. They take chances in harvesting. They harvest whenever and wherever the conditions allow them. They are now really clever in identifying and taking advantage of particular conditions. The climate change gives them the opportunity of creating new situations. For instance, they get benefitted from the later ice freeze-up during autumn by making the fishing season longer. They wait for the occurrence of freezing and resume their normal activities (Ford, 2005). The Inuit need to organize themselves to raise awareness regarding the magnitude of Arctic climate change. They must come forward to advocate action for the reduction of greenhouse gases. They must stop playing the part of the helpless victims (Nickels, 2004, p. 7). References Arctic, The. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117003688 Fenge, T. (2006, January). Arctic Alarm: In the Arctic, Climate Change Isn't an Abstraction-It's Happening Now. Alternatives Journal,31, 25+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015434890 Ford, J. (2005, September/October). Living with Climate Change in the Arctic. World Watch, 18, 18+. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938862 Ford, J.D. (2009). Dangerous Climate Change and the Importance of Adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit Population. Environmental Research Letters, 4, Retrieved May 11, 2012 from http://climatehealthconnect.org/sites/climatehealthconnect.org/files/resources/1748-9326_4_2_024006.pdf Melting Arctic Ice Threatens to Speed Up Climate Change. (2010).Perspectives in Public Health, 130(1), 4. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044785568 Nickels, S. (2004, November/December). Climate Change Is a Daily Reality for Inuit. Alternatives Journal, 30, 7. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008235477 Scientific Facts on Arctic Climate Change. (2012, April 14). Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/arctic-climate-change/index.htm…

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Who Benefits From Extreme Weather?

¶ … Benefits from Extreme Weather? Making Weather a Selling Event Heavy rains, tornados, massive snowfall amounts and the change of seasons can be a marketer's best friend. The use of weather as a means to change consumer behavior has been a practice many consumer products goods manufacturers rely on to increase the sales of their products. The best known is Campbell's Soup Company, which has successfully engrained rainy weather with consuming more soup to stay healthy (Dobson, 2003). Weather Can Be a Marketers' Best Friend Retailers located in the Midwest and Northern U.S. states also rely on the "stock up" metaphor during changes of seasons, as there are often major downpours, tornados, and in the winter, snow storms. This continues to be a very effective strategy during the winter months, when snow and ice can make travel just down a local street treacherous. The use of these metaphors and the appeal to consumers' being prepared for these events can led to up to three months or more of dried food provisions and paper goods being stockpiled in anticipated of a weather emergency (Schwartz, 1992). The use of weather as a marketing strategy has also been seen in the southern U.S., were the temperate climates are conducive to bugs and pests. Sales of bug repellents are greatest in these states as high humidity has been successfully linked with the threat of flying insect outbreaks (Schwartz, 1992). There are entire companies devoted to studying the interrelationship of weather and consumer purchasing patterns. These companies include Automatic Forecasting Systems and Weather Predict, Inc. (Sivillo, Reilly, 2004). The services they provide include assisting food and beverage providers with demand planning based on weather patterns in……

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Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions to Astronomy

Johannes Kepler made important contributions to astronomy in the decades after Copernicus. His primary contribution was a modification or correction that he made to Copernicus's assumption that planets revolved around the sun in circular orbits: Kepler correctly argued that the revolutions are elliptical in nature. Galileo must be counted among the most important of all astronomers because of his insistence on the use of rigorous observation. The first person ever to use a telescope to make detailed observations of the galaxy, he discovered the rings of Saturn and the moons of Jupiter. The British astronomer John Hadley (b. 1682) invented the first reflecting telescope, which allowed for all of the modern observations. His compatriot William Herschel brought about substantial improvements in telescope technology and with his reflecting telescope discovered Uranus and then the moons of Uranus and Saturn. He also discovered a number of deep-sky objects. He worked with his sister, Caroline Herschel -- one of the women who is often left out of the history of astronomy (Brock, 2007). Finally, I believe that it is so hard for people to let go of the geocentric view of the galaxy because humans like to believe that we are supremely important. Because so many people lack a firm grounding in science they can hold to such beliefs because they do not understand the flaws in them. This is analogous to the ways in which people can doubt that global warming is both real and caused by human activities. Question Two Geoscience is a general term that comprises a number of related scientific disciplines, including geology, geochemistry, and geophysics and usually also oceanography and meteorology. Each of these sciences in different ways attend to the origins of our planet, the physical composition and form of Earth, the topological features of our planet, and the ways in which is has changed over time and continues to change. Geography blends the study of the Earth and its physical features with a study of the way in which these features affect humans and the ways in which humans in turn affect the Earth. I believe that the greatest strength and weakness of geography are actually the same. It is both more holistic and more interdisciplinary than are sciences such as physics -- or geology. I think that this holistic focus -- which bridges the hard sciences and the social sciences -- causes other scientists to…

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Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century

Climate Change Problems Caused by Climate Change in the 14th Century During the 10th through the 14th Century, a warm climate predominated in Earth's weather. Called the Medieval Climate Optimum, it affected politics, religion, labor, finances, science and population changes among humans on the earth, by creating conditions ripe for the spread of disease, which in turn created human problems. This warming period was followed in 1425 through 1850 by what was called the little ice age. Nils Stenseth, who headed up a 3-day conference on the Avian Bird Flu in 2005, said that in the past similar diseases have appeared during periods of warm weather. During the 14th century similar weather conditions seem to have aided the spread of the Bubonic plague, which killed around 34 million in Europe and Russia through birds, fleas and rats who carried the fleas. The disease did not disappear completely and some academics believe in 1665-66 it reappeared as the Great Plague of London. "The link is very important and it is also important to link it back to the Black Death in the 1300s because there were the kind of weather conditions then -- warmer and wetter -- that we predict for the future," Stenseth said. "After 1855, when it……

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Reality of Climate Change: Viewpoint Climate Change

¶ … Reality of Climate Change: Viewpoint Climate change has truly become an increasing concern all over the world as weather seems to be going haywire, and as it becomes more and more unrecognizable in its force. Since weather affects all people, no matter where they live, it is important to recognize the magnitude of these changes and analyze them. For this reason, the paragraphs below will provide a short critique of an article on climate change. The article, written by Justin Gillis for the New York Times, gives the U.N viewpoint on climate change, based on a recent report that the organization published. The article begins by a description of the extreme weather around the world, and an assertion that this is due to human actions. The article quotes the U.N. document published on this issue recently to further state that this situation can only worsen in the coming decades. Then, it goes on to describe the report, noting that greenhouse gases lead to high temperature, as well as flooding, and that human actions overall are contributing to what should be now fully recognized as climate change, beyond a doubt. The findings presented in the article are quoted from the U.N. report presented at the Kampala Panel on Climate Change, and have been presented as part of very clear research, as well as undeniable evidence from all around the world. Despite its seemingly stress on helpless nations that can do nothing in the face of climate change, the article does mention that some leaders have tried to change this situation in Durban, by addressing ways in which nations can begin to address these problems. The major topics covered in this article are a focus upon human caused climate……

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Polar Bears Gone? Climate Change, Global Warming,

¶ … Polar Bears Gone? Climate change, global warming, El Nino, and disaster movies (2012, etc.) are a part of contemporary culture. Children, from a very young age, are exposed to the concept of climate change, but sometimes are not familiar with something to make that issue relevant for them. This is particularly true for younger students, who do not yet have a good concept of seasons, temperature variation, or what consequences the melting of polar ice might have. Using a framework, though, of a Polar Bear family and their home; we can structure a week long lesson plan to help them understand the very basics of the topics. Level -- Adaptable K-2 depending on curriculum, group, and time. Timing - Week long, multidisciplinary lesson that combines various core curriculum areas and ties together an ecological approach that shows students the world is neither static nor individualistic, but a holistic combination of many issues. Lesson Objectives - by the end of the week-long lesson, students will: 1. Have a general understanding of the measurement of temperature in both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. 2. Understand the term "habitat" and how it relates to the ecology of a region. 3. Understand the basic definition of the greenhouse effect based on class discussion, films, diagrams, and lecture. 4. Participate in group brainstorming sessions and class discussions related to the impact of the greenhouse effect and global warming. 5. Discuss the effect that a rise in temperature might have for the Polar Bear Family, indigenous populations, and then extrapolate to cities on the world's coasts. 6. Conduct research using primary sources to explore the issues of polar bear habitat and why it affects everyone. 7. Take a position about global warming and support this view with reasons, facts and examples. 8. Create a group project that supports a point-of-view; individual writing assignments to buttress the argument, and group presentations. Related National Standards - Based on McREL National Content Knowledge, individual States may have different item numbers (See: http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/.) Science: Standard 1. Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle: Level Pre-K Knows vocabulary (e.g. rainy, windy, sunny) for different types of weather Knows that weather conditions change Knows that the environment changes over seasons and areas Level I -- K-2 Knows that short-term weather conditions change daily, and understands basic weather patterns Knows that water can be a liquid or solid and can be…

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ESL Lesson Plan Weather

Teaching Weather to ESL Students Proficiency: Basic level of English proficiency Grade Level: Ninth -- early high school/late junior high Language arts (English), earth science, social sciences, and information technology Lesson Objective: Students will create a five-day weather forecast based on the local news with comfort, making use of targeted vocabulary, grammatical constructions involving verbs as well as nouns relating to weather, and scientific concepts related to meteorology Students will gain a greater proficiency accessing information, expressing their ideas on a basic conversational topic (weather) and become better able to work collectively in groups and to communicate in English between members of a team to produce a final media-related project Materials: Tape of local news weather segment, newspaper, and recording camera if school has access to audio materials, and 'props' including a large table, a map, or any others depending on student creativity Steps: First, the teacher will show a taped segment of a five-day forecast of the week's upcoming weather from a local news show. The teacher will engage in a short class discussion to prompt the students to express that they understand the weather, as expressed by the newscaster, and write the vocabulary words on the board. With a more advanced class, some more advanced science vocabulary and reasons for the weather can be discussed, such as seasonal averages and the effects of temperatures. Next, the teacher will give the assignment. The teacher will distribute the weather pages of various newspapers to the class. The class must create a weather show. The class must use the weather vocabulary generated from the discussion in the show. The class must select, amongst themselves who will be the weather people -- perhaps two or three. The forecast for every day of the school week will be given. For instance -- Monday: Sunny and breezy. Tuesday: Rainy. Etc. Then, the other students will have to represent the weather. For instance, for a nice day, the students must actively demonstrate what they could do on a warm,……

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History of the National Weather Service

National Weather Service (NWS) is a government agency that affects every resident of the United States in important ways. Because of its skill in predicting extreme weather such as hurricanes and tornadoes, potentially thousands of lives have been saved. However, most people don't realize that the NWS has a somewhat checkered history. Government leaders have been interested in predicting and…

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Global Climate Change Is One of the

Global climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges facing the world today. The steady yearly average temperature increases measured by scientists worldwide serve to destroy ozone which in turn pokes significant holes in the earth's ozone layer. Although most of the evidence points to only negative effects of this climate change, some effects are positive too. Regardless, more research must be done and a clear policy must be in place in the forthcoming years for industrialized nations to stymie the spread of poor environmental measures that result in the global warming situation. The worldwide scientific community has come to an overwhelmingly powerful agreement with regard to the fundamental of Planet Earth's climate change. The world is - without any question at all - warming, and warming significantly. This warming is primarily caused by the concatenation of carbon dioxide emissions and the release of other greenhouse gases from mankind's deleterious activities including but, of course, not limited to industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use, such as deforestation. No interruption of these disturbing historical trends of greenhouse gas emissions will cause further global warming over the remainder of the 21st century, with current projections of a global increase of 2.5°F to 10.4°F by 2100, with warming in the highly industrialized United States predicted to be much higher. (Pew, 1) "This warming will have real consequences for the United States and the world, for with that warming will also come additional sea-level rise that will gradually inundate coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns, increased risk of droughts and floods, threats to biodiversity, and a number of potential challenges for public health." (Pew, 1) Body There exists immense worry that human activities are adversely impacting the heat/energy-exchange balance between our planet, the atmosphere and space, and inducing significant global climate change, often termed "global warming." Human activities, especially fossil fuels' burning, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other so-called "trace" greenhouse gases. If these particular gases continue to pervade the atmosphere at current rates, most researchers feel global warming would occur through intensification of Earth's natural heat-trapping "greenhouse effect." Possible impacts, however, might be seen either as positive or negative. A hotter climate would most likely have far reaching effects on agriculture and forestry, managed and un-managed ecosystems, including natural habitats, human health, water resources, and the Earth's sea level depending on the climate's actual responses…

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Climate Change Before the Industrial

Such high levels of methane would not be released naturally. The same is true for other greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide. However, by far the most notorious greenhouse gas that might be causing the earth to become consistently warmer over time is carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere by factories as well as automobiles. The combination of these human factors with the natural factors mentioned above, including variations in the Earth's orbit, could be causing more rapid and more severe climate change. Evidence for human-induced climate change includes El Nino and other new and odd weather patterns as well as the melting of the polar ice stores, and changes to certain ecosystems and lifestyles of animal and plant life around the planet. Human beings are not causing all the changes in climate but we are contributing to global warming and other climate changes.…

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Climate the Best-Known and Most

atl.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/hurricanes9.html). 10. A sub-tropical cyclone is a low pressure system that combines features from tropical and mid-latitude cyclones, and which can evolve into tropical cyclones, or hurricanes (from http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=subtropical-cyclone1). 11. Tropical cyclone winds rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere because of the patterns of wind flow affected by the Coriolis force. 12. Tropical cyclones are classified according to their wind speed; to be a hurricane a tropical storm must have winds of 118 kilometers an hour or more. 13. Hurricanes form over warm oceans because they are powered by the latent heat energy that is released from condensation and need a "constant supply of warm humid air," which "only exists over oceans with a temperature greater than 26.5° Celsius." (from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7u.html).…

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Climate Change Projections Expected Impact

gcrio.org/gwcc/booklet2.html Mitigation Strategies Explored The work entitled "Food, Agriculture, and Climate Change: The U.S. And International Outlook (USGCRP, 1997) ask the question in relation to addresses the "projected climate changes" and how they "affect agriculture, food resources and the availability of food in the U.S., and the availability of food in the U.S., and globally, over the next 25, 50, and 100 years?" (Woteki, 2002) It is further stated by Woteki (2002) that the following can be expected to result from the conditions brought about by climate change: Global climate change is projected to have significant regional impacts on agriculture and the production of food and fiber for human use and consumption. Greenhouse warming is one of the complex factors that will shape global food production in the coming century, as the world faces the challenge of feeding a rapidly growing population, which is projected to double from 5.7 billion to over 10 billion by the middle of the next century. Through changes in temperature, water regimes, and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, global climate change will directly affect crops, soils, pests, and livestock. Both producers and consumers, within the United States and abroad, will experience the impacts of these changes. Farmers can respond to many of the direct effects of climate change by adjusting their practices, while food-buyers may find variations in the quantity, quality, and prices of produce in their local markets. The challenge for the world agricultural enterprise is not only to feed the growing population in the face of changing climate conditions, but to do so while preserving the rich resources of land and water on which we and future generations depend." The IPCC or the Intergovernmental Panel in Climate Change, Second Assessment Report concludes that the production of agricultural appears to be globally sustainable in view of climatic shifts as "predicted by the global climate models (GCMs) for doubled-CO2 equilibrium scenarios. Stated is, "Current research suggests that the transient nature of climate change, potential alterations in climate extremes, and differential regional responses may temper positive outcomes." (Woteki, 2002) Approximately one quarter of the nation's agricultural crops and livestock is produced in the Midwest. The marginal changes in climate may produce impacts that are "disproportionately large" which are stated to be possible to, "severely diminish the comparative advantage of farmers and ranchers in the region and further stress irrigation water supplies. Comparative advantages affected are stated as,…

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Risks of Climate Change the

Increases in bushfire frequency and intensity have the potential to increase rates of damage to buildings and structures, especially those in non-urban areas. Drier conditions may lead to increased ground movement and changes in groundwater. Higher temperatures and more solar radiation could amplify degradation of materials. II. KEY IMPACTS ON WATER SUPPLY AND RESOURCES Key impacts stated for case studies…

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Weather Forecasting Major Advancements in

[footnoteRef:2] Though such measures have been highly costly, the benefits of such predictions far outweigh the costs, according to NASA. For this reason, the organization states, [2: References in this paragraph taken from: NASA Facts (n.a.). (2011). Earth Observing System Aqua Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ] "a more accurate 24-hour forecast of heavy rain and thunderstorms along a cold front could allow airline dispatchers enough time to reroute their airplanes appropriately and thereby help alleviate costly delays. Being able to pinpoint a wintertime low temperature in Florida could be the deciding factor in whether orange grove farmers make the correct decision regarding deployment or non-deployment of freeze prevention methods to save their crops."[footnoteRef:3] [3: References in this paragraph taken from: NASA Facts (n.a.). (2011). Earth Observing System Aqua Series. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ] As one can see from these statements, it is very important to predict the weather, as it has always been, but not, one has the benefit and the aid of technology, which can certainly help. Future advancements also include various things, such as other improvements in, for instance, accurate seven-day forecasts. Furthermore, meteorologists hope that with better predictions, airplanes, for instance, could move flight times to avoid storms and retailers could schedule workers for nice days or utilities could prepare for surging power demands.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Smith, A.D. (2009). Tech advancements improving accuracy in predicting weather. Physorg.com. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from . ] The advances written above are just some of the many advancements in the field. The Dr. G. Brant Foote National Center for Atmospheric Research paper, from 2001, for instance, provides many advancements, and details into these. Below are some graphics from this research.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Referenced from: Brant Foote, G. (2001). Advances in Weather Technology. National Center for Atmospheric Research.……

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Weather Is One of Those

Publications like the "Farmer's Almanac" attempted to do what Lavoisier predicted but a true scientific approach did not emerge until modern times (Geiger, 1818). World wide concern for weather forecasting was initiated because of the severe damage that was suffered by the French fleet during the Crimean War (1853-56) (Royle, 2000). The damage caused the French fleet caused concern throughout…

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Climate and Economy in Two

" In 1998, El Nino had a profound effect on the tropical rainforest in South America. During this time, "a high-pressure dome dominated weather patterns over the region, causing high temperatures and extensive drought. Tropical forests received less than 10% of normal rainfall amounts, and the typically humid forest fuels became tinder-dry (Cochrane, 2001)." This produced a number of fires, and the effect on the economy of the area was in the billions. These fires can have a lasting impact on the environment and economy of the area, since they also "increase global carbon dioxide levels and threaten the health of those exposed to the resulting particulates, as well as causing extensive and long-lasting damage to the affected forests (Cochrane, 2001)." Ocean Effects The climate changes also affect the fishing industry of the country. During El Nino, there are "shortages of cold-water fish species and an increase in the availability of species from tropical climates brought by the warm ocean currents (Lama, 2003). The warmer temperatures reduce the amount of plankton in the water, which can result in a loss of millions of tons of fish for fishermen in Peru. While there is an increase in the number of fish used by the fishmeal industry such as anchovy and hake, recent markets have seen a decrease in the price for these varieties, thus further effecting Lima's economy (Lama, 2003). Conclusion The changing climate has the potential to affect the economies of both Lima, Peru and Canberra, Australia. There are currently studies underway in both cities to determine ways the climate changes can be used to benefit their economies. References Australia Economy-Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate. (accessed 10 May 2004) www.photius.com/wfb/wfb1999/australia/australia_economy.html). Capital City Functions. (accessed 10 May 2004). www.tomw.net.au/cnbst1.html). Cochrane, Mark A. (2001, October). "In the line of fire. Understanding the Impacts of Tropical Forest Fires." (accessed 10 May 2004). Environment. www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1076/8_43/79381950/print.jhtml). Economic Overview. (accessed 10 May 2004). http://www.abareconomics.com/australiancommodities/ACMARCH%2004_ EconOverview.pdf). Forecasting. (accessed 10 May 2004). http://www.abareconomics.com/research/farmbusiness/climate.htm). Lama, Abraham. (16 January, 2003). "Envirnonment-Peru: Country Prepares for Effects of El Nino." Inter-Press Service English News Wire.…

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Climate Extremes: Observations, Modeling and

(2003). The author notes that aggregate numbers on global warming conceal the reality that warming is not evenly distributed -- there is abnormal warming at the poles, including the Antarctica Peninsula. The authors note that "climate proxies appear to show that RRR warming on the Antarctica Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia." The authors note two things -- one, that they are using a proxy because they do not have data spanning 2000 years in this region, anecdotal or otherwise, and that they cannot pinpoint a cause for this warming. The thesis, therefore, is actually quite simple: The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing warming faster than other parts of Antarctica and faster than the global mean. They present their proxy evidence in support of this hypothesis. They also are cautious about drawing conclusions as to the cause of the warming that they found -- they do not have a mechanism by which they can attribute causation. The significance is the research is that it contributes to a wider body of research that is analyzing climate change. The Easterling article shows how dozens of specific studies are aggregated into a broader body of evidence about the effects of climate change. The Vaughan study is one of hundreds of studies on the subject providing peer-reviewed evidence from which broader conclusions can be made. I would ask the authors if they had evidence of a trend with respect to the Antarctic Peninsula. They have studied the past 2000 years, but where is this part of the world headed in the future. Is there evidence that the climate is going to continue to change more rapidly there, and if so what do they think the impacts of that will be? References Easterling, D., Meehl, G., Parmesan, C., Changnon, S., Karl, T. & Mearns, L. (2000). Climate extremes: Observations, modeling and impacts. Science. Vol. 289 (5487) 2068-2074 Vaughan, D., Marshall, G., Connolley, W., Parkinson, C., Mulvaney, R., Hodgson, D., King, J., Pudsey, C. & Turner, J. (2003). Recent rapid……

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Climate Change and Global Warming

Climate Change and Global Warming During the past two decades, there has been an environment issue that has been developing with the climate. Some people are concerned with the fact that the earth is slowly becoming more warm than expected. For example, in the movie, "Heat," it is clear that there is a risk of dissolving the environment due to the affects of the climate change on the planet, which is increasing daily. From there, this film presents the idea that people need to be aware what is happening to society because the future is at risk of having major issues if global warming is not addressed properly. The movie points out that people must take notice of their environment before the affects of global warming destroy the planet, which will leave them for dead. At this point, the movie gave out a good presentation of global warming that gave real insight into the huge issue. From there, the movie is very informative to the general public so that they can be aware of what is happening to the planet. It also points out that if a plan of action is not taking soon, the future for this planet is extremely bleak, which leaves nothing for future generations to build on or strive for. It is clear that this environmental issue would not have aroused studies and researches a few centuries ago because global warming was not a big concern until the twentieth century. This is due to the fact as time goes by, people notice the climate change that is increasing each year. Even though this study would have been conducted in other countries, almost all the world's countries and their people possess unifying attributes that make them distinct and unmistakable for any other nationality, race, culture and language. America possesses the probability of encountering this problem because of countless……

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Global Climate Change the Increase of CO2

Global Climate Change The increase of CO2 emissions are expected to continue until 2150 when a decrease is expected to occur. The consequences are also expected to be dramatic. The continued melting of polar ice caps and glaciers will cause the sea levels to rise. This will result in greater flooding in areas already prone to flood and coastal cities globally may be forced to completely and permanently evacuate due to inhabitable conditions. In addition, agricultural changes will cause ecosystems to be effected due to rising temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns. If this is accompanied by problems growing major crop plants in traditional areas, there would be food shortages and famine. The cost of food would also rise. Another global consequence of global warming is extreme weather. Some evidence of increasing storm intensity already exists and this trend is likely to continue. Hurricanes reaching category 4 or 5 will continue to increase. All of these events are expected to be global in nature, regardless of location, wealth or development. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights includes additions made and agreed upon by the United Nations General Assembly. One such agreement is the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights which was adopted in December 1966. Article 12.2 of this Covenant requires parties to take specific steps to . . . include improving environmental and workplace health. Article 28 of the Covenant states that everyone is entitled to a social international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration can be fully realized. Neither of the above Articles, nor any other Articles seem to address the protection of populations adversely affected by environmental changes although there is the requirement in Article 12.2 to take "specific steps to ...include improving environmental health." That could certainly be interpreted to mean that the signatory nations are required to improve environmental health however, it seems to apply to each specific nation and their citizens. The entitlement portion of Article 28 also gives a nod to entitling populations a social and international order that allows the rights and freedoms to be fully realized. Again, it implies a sort of idea of supporting the freedoms and rights but no specifics are made. Overall, while the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an impressive document, it seems to have virtually no bite. It also seems that many nations hold businesses and corporations…

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Climate Change Global Warming Media Coverage Trend in a Newspaper Investigate Leaked CRU Emails

Climate Change Media The Center for Science and Technology Policy Research has compiled a chart illustrating the coverage that climate change has received in the media around the world. The chart, which can be found in Appendix a, highlights that for the most part climate change coverage has increased over the past five years, with a notable spike in late…

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Human Activities on Global Climate and How

¶ … human activities on global climate and how these activities result in the global climate change. The first portion of this paper basically concentrates on the debates that have risen with regards to the influence of human activities on global climate and the response to the climate change from various sectors. In this analysis, the paper discusses how proponents…

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Climate Change and General Crises in the Little ICE Age a Geographic Perspective

Climate change and general crisis in the Little Ice Age: a geographic perspective The Little Ice Age (LIA) is considered by some researchers to extend over several generations of time. Estimates show that the period began around the 13th and 14th centuries; another period in consideration is between the mid-16th and the mid-19th century (Grove, 1988). The significance of doing…

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Thematic Content Area Reading Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum to Label Strategies

Weather Lesson Plan Introduction to Weather -- Part 1 -- Weather and Weather Systems (Multi-Day) Grade Level -- Easily adaptable from 3-6 grades, depending on depth, vocabulary, and speed of lesson. Science, part of unit on Earth science and systems. Long-Term Goal -- Basis for larger unit on Globalism and Global Climate Change. Students will be introduced to basic weather…

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Joshua Tree the Desert Climate and Topology

¶ … Joshua Tree The desert climate and topology are harsh, extreme and inhospitable to many forms of vegetation. Those plant species which are able to weather the conditions produced by the desert form a unique ecosystem of species equipped with the tools to survive. Among the most distinct and visually compelling of desert species, the account here considers briefly the nature of the Joshua Tree. A member of the yucca genus, the tree boasts a configuration which allows it to be sustained during long, dry stretches and with no canopy protection from the hard desert sun. Conversely, its uncommon structure does make it a rare plant outside of the Southwestern United States. Here though, it can be seen in such well-preserved contexts as the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden in Claremont. A species most frequently associated with the desert landscapes of Southern California, the Joshua Tree's care is generally facilitated by its own internal structure. Its survival in hot, dry climates is accommodated by an unusually long rooting system which allows it to draw water from deep below sandy and rocky surfaces. Accordingly, we find that the Joshua Tree's roots can reach up to as long as 11 meters, making them particularly apt to reaching water sources even during sustained times of drought or water scarcity. (Wikipedia, 1) Additionally, the Joshua Tree's trunk is dissimilar to that of most trees. Rather than a single solid body identifiable by its internal rings, the Joshua Tree's trunk is actually a stalk of tightly interwoven fibers that make the plant sturdy but not rigid. This proves critical to survival in the face of sandstorms or other extreme weather conditions. (Wikipedia, 1) Though the plant only first appeared in formal documentation during the late 19th century, its use had been central to Native American life for centuries. Its 'bayonet' shaped leaves have made this a preferred way of yielding sandals, baskets……

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Environmental Review the Carbon in the Atmosphere

Environmental Review The carbon in the atmosphere comes partially from ancient (and ongoing) volcanic activity, through the above-ground decomposition of organic material, and through the respiration of non-plant organisms. Plants pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere during photosynthesis; this carbon is transferred to other organisms when it is eaten, buried to become other substances (fossil fuels), or decomposed to release everything back to the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is collected by and dissolved in rainwater, forming carbonic acid and making rainwater slightly acidic even without unnatural levels of carbon or other pollution. The large amounts of oxygen necessary to support much of the life on this planet likely originated from cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which began exhaling oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis sometime between three-and-a-half- and two-point-seven-billion years ago. This began in small amounts, but built up over time to the abundant levels there are today, that facilitate the existence of many complex organisms dependent on oxygen. 10) Large fires and volcanic eruptions are the most common and prevalent sources of natural air pollution; human industry and the burning of fossil fuels, particularly for the production of electricity, are the most common human sources of air pollution 11) There is evidence both in the fossil layer and in core samples from the polar ice caps that suggest there have been variations in the heat reaching the Earth from the Sun and lost from the Earth's surface 12) the heat in the Earth's atmosphere is spread through the process of circulation; differences in the solar radiation and heat delivered at the poles and the equator create imbalances in the pressures in the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth also contributes to the air currents that move heat around. Chapter 12 8) Air that has circulated to high altitudes in the atmosphere settles back to lower altitudes at 30 degrees both North and South of the equator, and at the two poles. 9) in addition to the colder temperatures that would be experienced with the passing of a cold front, increased precipitation and thunderstorms can occur due to the lower pressure that occurs when the cold front lifts the warmer air mass that……

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Canadian Climate Change Foreign Policy

Climate Change With the coming election, Canadians have the opportunity to set a course for federal government response to climate change policy. Over the past several years, it has become evident that the course of climate change policy in Canada differs dramatically with the constitution of the Parliament. Under the Chretien/Martin Liberal governments, the Kyoto Protocol provided the framework for…

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