"Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays

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Disaster Emergency Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,923 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Disaster Management

Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and volcanic activity cause extensive loss to life and property. They can impact the economy and the prosperity of the region tremendously. In recent times, the extent of damage from a natural disaster was evident when Hurricane Wilma, Katherine and Emily hit the U.S. In 2005.

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster… [read more]

Global Warming and Crop Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Global Warming and Crop Production

As global warming makes temperatures rise witnessed will be a decrease in crop production.

It is reported in a Science Daily report entitled: "Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production?" that scientists from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada have predicted, "crops will be at a greater risk of winter damage in the future even though the climate will be warmer." (2002) in a December 2006 news report it is stated that the decrease in monsoons in the country of India "raises the concern of more potential floods and other natural disasters. Monsoons are needed to nourish crops and supply water for farming communities." (Science Daily, 4 Dec. 2006) the problem stated is that the delicate balance that exists with the occurrence of the monsoons has experienced disruption due to factors associated with global warming. In yet another report released December 2006 stated is that "higher temperatures could cause a 40% drop ion some of California's most popular crops by mid-century according to a new research in the journal Agricultural and Forest Meteorology."

II. Discussion of the Independent and Dependent Variable

In attempting to assess the affects of global warming upon crop production there will be a dependent variable, which is that of the temperatures within the area or region that the study takes place. Since the hypothesis states temperatures as the reason that crop production will experience a decrease then proving the hypothesis is 'dependent' upon the variability in the temperature and its' effects upon crop production. In this study, the independent variable will be that of rainfall amounts as related to seasonal rainfall variances and rainfall variances out-of-season in the area or region in the study.

Stated in the work entitled: "What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin" is the fact that there are several: "...credible scenarios" (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007) that could be faced in the state of Wisconsin and…… [read more]

Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,794 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall in the Amazon

For studying the Earth's atmosphere, satellites have become indispensable even though it has only been 30 years since the first meteorological satellites were launched. Meteorological satellites view the Earth together with their land- and ocean-sensing cousins, on a global perspective which is unmatched and unmatchable by any other observational system.… [read more]

Understanding Interdisciplinary Studies Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Interdisciplinary Studies

How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach?

Reasoning: The global warming theory takes into account a number of scientific and sociological/anthropological disciplines: chemistry, physics, ecology, meteorology, vulcanology, biology, oceanography; as well as history, anthropology (medical, cultural, etc.), medicine, resource management, geography, political science, international relations, and more.

Step Questions:

Begin with an interdisciplinary question

How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach?

Identify key and subsidiary phenomena

First, is global warming a fact or theoretical phenomena; Do we have enough data to actually make determinations about climate, since climate trends move at a geologic pace?

Ascertain what theories and methods are particularly relevant to the question at hand.

Human industrialization theory, natural climatic occurrences over time; volcanism.

4. Perform a detailed literature survey.

See Appendix A

5. Identify relevant disciplines and disciplinary perspectives.

Each discipline focuses on a particular aspect of the issue; if we think of meteorology or ecology as the central hub, we would find that each additional discipline was a spoke in the wheel of interdisciplinary study.

6. If some relevant phenomena (or links among these), theories, or methods in 2 or 3 have received little or no attention; encourage the performance of such research.

History of Pollution examines human impact on climate change; ecology examines interactions between aspects of the biological and chemical environment and consequences.

7. Evaluate the results of previous research.

Global warming is the gradual increase of the earth's median temperature for surface air and oceans. Although controversial, global warming consistently measured since the mid-20th century has resulted in environmental impacts that may be disastrous to the environment. While scientists agree that solar variation and volcanic activity have had an…… [read more]

Ethical Issue With Respect to Climate Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,022 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … ethical issue with respect to climate change is the government needing to consider the condition of human life, the well being of people, and other species on a global level in the future. At the end, it is how prepared are we to take into account the responsibilities in regards to the welfare of individuals in other countries… [read more]

Briefing Note to Canadian Prime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,784 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


My best suggestions that should have priority include the following: a) take steps immediately to curtain GHG emissions by implementing policies that require vehicles to get better mileage; b) push for the development of renewable, non-polluting energy (wind, solar, geothermal, among other technologies); c) carefully review the independent, empirical research on the carbon emissions that result from tar sands crude oil development, and take action to restrict the further expansion of this environmentally disastrous project; d) protect the iconic Boreal Forest against logging, mining, and other exploitative intrusions; and e) collaborate with President Obama and other leaders worldwide on the development of technologies for the future that can mitigate the damage we have already done to our planet.

Thank you very sincerely for your consideration of the ideas and issues I have presented. I look forward to working with you in our government to create a better, cleaner, and safer environment for our citizens, their children and their future grandchildren, who will continue to trust us to do the right thing for Canada.

Works Cited

Environment Canada. (2011). Canada's Emissions Trends. Retrieved November 18, 2011,


Leahy, Stephen. (2011). Canada cuts environment spending. Guardian Environment Network /

The Guardian. Retrieved November 18, 2011, from http://www.guardian.co.uk.

Martyn, Chris. (2011). Getting Real -- How Do Canadians View the Environment and Energy?

Ipsos. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.ipsos-na.com.

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2011). The Consequences of Global Warming on Wildlife: Rising temperatures ravage coral reefs and melt the habitats of polar bears and Antarctic penguins. Retrieved November 17, 2011, from http://www.nrdc.org.

Rice, Aaron. (2009). Many Canadians Satisfied with Environmental Efforts: 54% are

Satisfied, 45% are dissatisfied. Gallup Poll. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.gallup.com.

Scolnick,…… [read more]

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an artifact of the relationship between the atmosphere and the ocean. El Nino and La Nina represent opposite extremes in the ENSO cycle (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). It is related to air pressure, wind, and ocean currents, and happens "every 3 to 7 years and alternate with the opposite phases of below-average temperatures in the eastern tropical Paci-c (La Nina)" (Trenberth, et al., 2007). The impacts are very strong in the northern winter months (November-March), though not limited to the Northern Hemisphere (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

(Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998)

ENSO's warm phase (El Nino) involves warming of tropical Pacific surface waters from near the International Date Line to the west coast of South America (Trenberth, et al., 2007). These waters are usually cooler off of South America, bringing an upwelling from the deep ocean (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). The cold water is usually rich in nutrients, which supports lots of sea life, and so major fisheries (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). Normally, there is significant rainfall in the eastern Pacific from the warm, humid water and western South America is dry (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

ENSO's warm phase is the result of a weakening of the usually strong Sea Surface Temperature (SST) differential across the equatorial Pacific (Trenberth, et al., 2007). During ENSO's nine to twelve month warm phase (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005) (though it lasted for 3 years from 1939 to 1941 (Trenberth, et al., 2007)), the normally constant trade winds in the central and western Pacific slow (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). The air pressure changes from higher in the eastern Pacific and lower in the western Pacific to the opposite and this is called the Southern Oscillation (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). The cold waters in the eastern Pacific stop coming up, while the western Pacific waters get colder (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). Because the nutrients are no longer there, there are no more fish, and the fisheries collapse during ENSO's warm phase (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

Because the warm water slips towards the east and South America, the warm humid rain goes with it, and Peru, Ecuador, southern Brazil, central Argentina, and equatorial eastern Africa get flooded (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998), leading to disease, particularly bacterial diseases like cholera (Pascual, Xavier, Ellner, Colwell, & Bouma, 2000). Southeastern Asia (including India), southeastern Africa, Japan, southern Alaska, and western/central Canada, southeastern Brazil, south-central Africa, and southeastern Australia get a dry heatwave from December to February, instead of their monsoons (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In the meantime, it is cold in December through February along the Gulf coast (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

Because the ocean affects the atmosphere, global air circulation changes (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In fact, the trade winds weaken (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In North America, the temperatures are warmer than usual in the north central states because the…… [read more]

Hsiang Et Al. ) and Glazebrook ) Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Hsiang et al. (2011) and Glazebrook (2011).

Hsiang, SM and Meng, KC and Canes, MA (2011).Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nat u r e Vol (476).

In this article, Hsiang et al. (2011) argue out the proposition that civil conflicts are indeed associated with the global climate. According to the paper, there has been several propositions that the global climatic changes have been responsible for the various episodes of civil unrest, violence as well as the general collapse of human civilizations. The paper indicates that dispute this proposition, no previous study has been able to prove that violence can be a function of the global climatic changes. However, the authors stated categorically that just a random number of global weather patterns and events can be correlated with cases of conflict. In this work, the authors attempt to directly associate the various planetary-scale changes to the climate with the global patterns of civil unrest and conflicts via the examination of the main interannual mode of the global modern climate, namely the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).The authors points out that historians have long argued out that the incidents of ENSO may have played a part or rather influenced the global patterns of war and civil conflicts in the past. This hypothesis is indeed extended to the modern era by the authors and then tested quantitatively. The authors employed data gathered between 1950 and 2004 in showing that the probability of a new war or civil conflicts starting from the tropics is doubled in the years of El Nino years relative to the years of La Nina. This outcome indicates that the mode of ENSO may have a major role in close to twenty one percent (21%) of all the recorded civil conflicts from 1950. This is then regarded by the authors and the general body of academia as the very initial demonstration that the there is a relationship between the stability of the contemporary, modern societies and the global climatic conditions. According to Hsiang et al. (2011), the idea that the global climatic conditions may influence the level of peace in the global societies has been a motivation for several research works. They proposed that the global climatic conditions may affects certain interacting variables related to the environment that may in…… [read more]

Changing Behavior to Reduce Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Behavioral Changes: Reducing the Effects of Global Climate Change

What is Global Warming?

The world's climate has been changing since the late 19th century and it has been changing dramatically for the past fifty years, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Temperatures are rising, glaciers are melting around the world, the ice cap in the Arctic is melting, ocean… [read more]

Television Can Influence Kids Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I would also like to spend at least one summer working as a Storm Chaser, to get more in the field experience, and to really experience tornados and tornado watching first hand. Someday, I would like to be one of the NWS experts that the Weather Channel uses for their special reports and analysis. I know this is a lofty goal, but I feel that because of my interest and background that I can achieve it if I work hard. I also feel [ADD} University is the best choice to achieve my goals. The science program at >>>> is well-known and respected, and so is the journalism program. I think my career would be well served by attending ..../

I feel that I have a lot to bring to the University, too. I have a .... GPA in high school, and I have already begun exploring college level classes through a special program at my school. My teachers have encouraged my interest in science, and I belong to several clubs and organizations at school, including the science club. I plan to become similarly involved in clubs and organizations during my college years, and I hope to share my deep interest in science and weather to other students who might have overlooked this fascinating and always evolving subject.

I find weather and the science of weather quite fascinating, and cannot wait to continue my education in my chosen field. Eventually, I may continue my education at the masters or PhD. level to continue growth and opportunity in my career. That is how television has influenced me. It has encouraged me to learn more about my chosen field, and to look toward the future with hope and determination. Television is entertaining, enlightening, and to some people even addictive. To me, it is the doorway to my future, and a pathway toward discovery and new awakenings.

I hope you will consider and accept my application to attend .... I look forward to…… [read more]

Testing the Effects of Disaster Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



8 tornadoes or 28.6%

18 rain storms or 64.3%

Experiment 2: The 28 day cycle for the second experiment produced:

5 sunny days or 17.9%

8 tornadoes or 28.6%

15 rain storms or 53.6%

Experiment 3: The 28 day cycle for the third experiment produced:

4 cloudy days or 14.3%

4 tornadoes or 14.3%

20 rain storms or 71.4%

Experiment 4: The 28 day cycle for the fourth experiment produced:

5 sunny days or 17.9%

4 tornadoes or 14.2%

19 rain storms or 67.9%

Experiment 5: The 28 day cycle for the fifth experiment produced:

2 sunny days or 7.2%

6 tornadoes or 21.4%

20 rain storms or 71.4%

Results section

The results of the five experiments that monitored the 100-year generation of white, brown and black moths with a disaster frequency set to often in the Population Genetic Lab simulation available in Biology 1409 demonstrated that weather does in fact have a major effect on natural life.

The experiment conducted showed that if there is an increase in the disaster frequencies, that phenomenon will lead to the extinction of certain moth genotypes.

Two of the three moth genotypes, brown and white, did go extinct based on these settings. However, since the black moth survived, further experimentation would be in order to quantify what factors lead them to survive or why the other two genotypes did not survive.

Discussion section

When most people think of animals becoming extinct, most people envision herds of buffalo or the Dodo bird. Rarely would the average person choose a genotype such as a moth. Moths seem to play no important role in the big picture in the minds of most. But that is very far from the truth. All living creatures leave a mark on the planet and when any species goes into a state of extinction, then other life from are affected.

This particular series of experiments monitored how a simple change in weather could alter the living patterns of black, white and brown moth types. The experiment altered weather patterns through computer simulation and those weather patterns were used to monitor 100 generations of moth reproduction. Through scientific theory and repetition, a series of five experiments were run to very if the original hypothesis held true. The objective was to create a valid research model that either confirmed or dismissed the point that if 98% of a 28 day cycle of weather was consisted of either rain and/or tornadoes, certain moth genotypes would become extinct over a 100-year generation.

Insect extinction has been a recognized phenomenon for centuries. The reason insects such as moths are important are because they have many roles in nature. Consider that they are food, they pollinate flowers, some are carnivores and all moths take up air and space. So if weather patterns occurred similar to the computer animations, brown and white moths would disappear in around 100 generations and nature would have to find new species to fulfill the moth's mission. However, these were only simulations… [read more]

Pacific Islands Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pacific Islands

Of the 25,000 plus islands that grace the Pacific Ocean, only a relatively few are inhabited by human beings. A large number of the Pacific Islands are tiny, with few if any natural resources. The Pacific Islands, which are often collectively referred to as Oceania, consist of two basic island types: high and low. The high islands are volcanic, their elevation created by volcanoes rising from the sea. The low islands are built upon coral reefs or atolls, and in terms of land mass are smaller than the high islands. Moreover, the high islands are far more conducive to human culture. Their rich volcanic soils make for fertile agricultural grounds. Most of the Pacific Islands are poor in natural resources such as ores or coal, but high in their yield of lush tropical fruits and vegetables. While many of the Pacific Islands are equatorial, with a tropical or subtropical climate, some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean lie far from the equator and have temperate or even cold climates. However, most of those islands are not considered to be a part of Oceania, such as the Aleutian Islands off of Alaska, and the Sakhalin and Kuril Islands that belong to Russia. Japan is also technically a Pacific Island, but is not considered to be a part of Oceania. Oceania is typically divided into three distinct island groups: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. While the three groups share some cultural, geographic, and historical elements, the Pacific Islands demonstrate an incredibly diverse group of societies.

The most populated of the Pacific Island groups is Melanesia, which literally means "black islands." Most of Melanesia's islands are high volcanic islands. New Guinea, which is the largest Pacific Island, is part of Melanesia and is itself divided into two: Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands are also a part of Melanesia. As many as 900 linguistic groups and countless unique civilizations developed in Melanesia over the course of several thousand years. However, after contact with Europeans, many of the social groups merged.…… [read more]

Weathering Is a Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is the reason coastal areas are more vulnerable to hurricane weather, particularly during the hurricane season depending on the area. In the United States, for instance, the NW Pacific season is April -- January, while the North Atlantic season is June through November.

Over the past two centuries, hurricanes have cased over 2 million deaths, large areas of flooding that lead to infection, mosquito borne illness, devastation to crops and property, and the upsetting of regional environments. They affect fishing, tourism, and even global agriculture in that they redistribute precipitation over large areas.

One of the challenges affecting response to disasters like hurricanes is their unpredictable nature in terms of time and severity. Humans tend to congregate towards coastlines, and are therefore vulnerable to hurricanes and ancillary damage. Levees, flood control devices, early warning systems, and evacuation plans are sometimes effective, but the lack of cooperation and coordination between agencies often hinders disaster planning, as witnesses most recently by Hurricane Katrina. Historically, and proven by Katrina, the government's response is often slow and uncoordinated. Katrina, for instance, had an almost $100 billion effect on the economy, and taxed social services in several states. Of course, post-disaster there is another influx of capital in rebuilding issues, but it also appears that most experts believe that to adequately deal with the issues involved, greater communication and cooperation must occur between governmental agencies as well as quicker and more decisive response rates from the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Hurricanes. (2011). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes

Brasch, Walter. (2005). 'Unacceptable': The Federal Government's Response

To Hurricane Katrina. Booksurge Publications

Reidy, Chris. (September 2, 2005). U.S. Economy to Feel Katrina's Force. Boston Globe.

Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2005/09/02 / us_economy_to_feel_katrinas_force.


Chemical Weathering. (2010). Think Quest. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/


Coastal Change. (2011). U.S. Geological Society. Retrieved from: http://pubs.usgs.gov


Hurricanes. (2011). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes

Ice, Snow and Glaciers: The Water Cycle. (2012). United States Geological Society. Retrieved from: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleice.html

Mechanical and Chemical Weathering. (2006). retrieved from: http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfjps/


Shore Drift. (2010). Department of Ecology -- State of Washington. Retrieved from:


What is a River Delta?. (2009). Americaswetlandresources.com. Retrieved from:


Brasch, Walter. (2005). 'Unacceptable': The Federal Government's Response To Hurricane Katrina. Booksurge Publications

Brown, P. (2007). Melting Ice Cap Triggering Earthquakes. The Guardian. Retrieved from:


McLamb, E. (November 27, 2009). Human Impact: Tens of Millions Along World's River

Deltas. Ecology Global Network. Retrieved from: http://www.ecology.com / 2009/11/27/increasingly-vulnerable-flooding/

Reidy, Chris. (September 2, 2005). U.S. Economy to Feel Katrina's Force. Boston Globe.

Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2005/09/02 / us_economy_to_feel_katrinas_force.… [read more]

Hot, Well, Everywhere: The Reality of Global Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Hot, Well, Everywhere: The Reality of Global Warming

Global warming is almost as close to a scientific fact as it is possible to have. The scientific community overwhelmingly supports the two scientific conclusions that form the backbone of global warming theories: 1) the earth is getting warmer more rapidly than it has in prior known periods of warming and 2) human behavior has contributed and is continuing to contribute to this acceleration in warming. Despite the evidence and the strong support that the theory finds in various parts of the scientific community, there is real resistance to the idea of global warming. Not only do people refuse to accept the idea that human activity is causing an impact on the Earth, but many even go so far as to suggest that the world is not getting warmer. Some people may acknowledge that global warming is occurring and that human activity is driving this change, but then suggest that global warming is not a bad thing. This paper examines the arguments for and against global warming and comes to the conclusion that global warming is a scientific fact, that human activity is contributing to global warming, and that climate change is already having and will continue to have a negative impact on humans.

In order to demonstrate that climate change is occurring, first it is important to show that there has, in fact, been climate change. The reality is that, on the whole, Earth is getting warmer. "Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and is projected to rise another 2 to 11.5°F over the next hundred years. Small changes in the average temperature of the planet can translate to large and potentially dangerous shifts in climate and weather" (EPA). However, demonstrating that the Earth is getting warmer is not enough to demonstrate climate change; there have been several well-documented warming and cooling periods since man has begun writing history. Furthermore, by examining things like tree rings and coral reefs, scientists are able to reconstruct historical temperatures and these reconstructions show variations in global temperatures. Because of these changes, skeptics of climate change suggest that global warming is simply an alarmist theory and that these temperature fluctuations are within the range of what has been experienced historically. However, those arguments are not supported by the scientific evidence. The original "hockey stick" research demonstrated a sharp upturn in temperatures beginning in the 20th century, which was historically unprecedented and that global temperatures over the last few decades are the warmest in over 1000 years (Cook, "Hockey Stick"). Moreover, though there have been some valid criticism of the original research, independent researchers have verified the results; not only is the Earth warmer than it has been in over 1,000 years, it is warming at a rate that is much faster than in prior periods of warmth.

Even those who acknowledge that the Earth's climate is changing may be reluctant to acknowledge that humans are changing the climate.… [read more]

Global Warming the Growing Consensus Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,170 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In fact, this is accurate. It is routinely warmer on a day-to-day basis now, according to Wagner (2012) than it was 30 years ago and at all points prior. One of the great samples of evidence that the industrialization of the 20th century is chiefly responsible for the rise in daily temperatures is the fact that the earth's temperature is consistently higher over the last three decades than it has been in the earth's observable history. According to Wagner, "the last month with a below-average temperature on Earth was February, 1985." (p. 1)

This trend is reflected in the map here below:

This contributes to yet a third consequence which is a great threat to the sustainability of human life. Namely, the continued and rapid melting of the polar ice caps is simultaneously altering temperatures and ecologies in the world's oceans but also causing a gradual rise in sea level that threatens to significantly diminish the inhabitability of many coastal areas over time. Again, evidence in places such as New Orleans, devastated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, suggests that this may already be occurring.


Among the positive prospects regarding intervention with the effects of global warming, some scientists are cautiously optimistic that we have actually made some collective improvements over the last decade as a result of increased awareness of some of climate change's primary causes. Page (2012) tells that recent findings show the rise in annual temperatures has leveled out relative to the previous several decades. According to Page, "figures released by the UN's World Meteorological Organisation indicate that 2012 is set to be perhaps the ninth hottest globally since records began - but that planetary warming, which effectively stalled around 1998, has yet to resume at the levels seen in the 1980s and early 1990s." (Page, p. 1) One presumption is that the heightened emissions standards and most especially the elimination of aerosol containers using perfluorocarbons have helped to reduce the speed of climate change.

Still, it remains incumbent upon the world community to come together and establish an agreement that updates the Kyoto treaty and brings all industrial parties to the table on equal footing. As the article by Ritter denotes, our best prospects for addressing global climate change lay in the cooperation necessary to reduce abuses by industrialized nations and to provide the necessary support to developing nations. According to Ritter, current topics of importance in international global warming talks concern "how to help poor countries convert to cleaner energy sources and adapt to a shifting climate, as well as extending the expiring Kyoto Protocol, an agreement that limits the greenhouse emissions of industrialized countries." (Ritter, p. 1)


Ultimately, it is incumbent upon leaders in both the global community and in stalwart nations such as the U.S. And China to collaborate in achieving meaningful and lasting standards. However, it can be positively observed that with a growing consensus that global warming does indeed exist, the opportunity for recovery can begin in earnest.

Works Cited:… [read more]

Global Warming Effects on Arctic Animals Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,090 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Earth passed through various processes of warming and cooling. Most parts of Canada and Europe was covered with glaciers during the Ice Age. The temperatures then was 5.4-9° Fahrenheit (3-5° Celsius) cooler in comparison to temperatures these days. The last Ice Age ended 20,000 years ago. Temperatures today are higher than they should be. "Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.08°F (0.6°C) in the past one hundred years." (Stuart Baker, page 4) Global warming is causing negative changes in weather configuration.

The Arctic Region gathers "the North Pole and the land and sea north of the Arctic Circle." (Idem, page 5) the word "arctic" comes from the Greeks. They named this region Arktikos; "the country of the Great Bear." (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, page 4) the Arctic Ocean represents the smallest ocean on Earth, and most of it is covered with ice. The North Pole is, in fact, a fraction from the Arctic Ocean. The ice partly melts during the summer and returns to its normal state during the winter.

The greenhouse effect is the main cause because of which global warming exists. "Greenhouse gases trap the heat from the Sun in the Earth's atmosphere. This heat leads to an increase in the Earth's surface temperature." (Stuart Baker, page 6) Although parts of these gasses are natural, human activities sustain them in a negative way. Because of pollution greenhouse gases amounts have risen significantly.

In the Arctic global warming is more obvious because ice there is more vulnerable. Even if the temperature suffers a small change, ice is affected. In the Arctic temperature raises faster than in other places. Scientist claim that a 2°C rise would translate into a 5-6°C rise at the North Pole.

The melting of the ice negatively affects arctic animals and implicitly humans who are living there. "Ice edges are the principal habitat for marine organisms and the melting of the annual sea ice each year at the Arctic during spring leads to a productivity bloom. It has been noted that some Arctic species arrive during spring from great distances for the food sources that flourish along the edge of the melting ice." (Threat to Polar Animals Due to Global Warming)

Sea ice, which is melting because of the global warming, represents the nursery for krill. These crustaceans are the main food for penguins, whales and other Arctic animals. If sea ice disappears so does the krill and these will cause also the disappearance of the Arctic animals that were feeding with them. Research showed that the number of krill is lower with 80 per cent since 1970 (Adam).

"Polar bears live and hunt in snowbound lands and ice flows surrounding the North Pole. Their thick white fur and layers of fat protect them against the bitter Arctic cold. They are found on the arctic coasts and islands of the five countries around the North Pole -- the United States (Alaska), Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and Russia. It is the only species that still… [read more]

Hurricane Sandy: Issues and Arguments Seen Narrowly Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Hurricane Sandy: Issues and Arguments

Seen narrowly, Hurricane Sandy is a triumphant story. Let us begin with the forecast. Americans were specified a week's notice that Hurricane Sandy would move north, and then, as an alternative of veering safely out to the Atlantic, would come onto dry land anywhere near New Jersey and gradually work inland before restructuring and moving north through Canada. Social media experts took notice.

Then there is the emergency backup. Emergency managers enjoyed fullest advantage of their week to get ready We saw an extraordinary mobilization at federal, state, and neighborhood levels, together with private-sector collaboration with respect to significant infrastructure: the power grid, connections, gas and water utilities, sewerage, and a lot more. There was a little unevenness around the edges (Serna, 2012). The usual emergency actions were besieged by the severity of events at quite a few points (Hurricane Sandy: Covering the Storm). There was a number of political-level friction across state borders and sandwiched between state- and local levels. Nevertheless, the response kept extraordinary focus, combining with media exposure to keep the U.S. death toll as little as fifty (Kirkland, E&E reporter).

Sum it all up? America is emerging more skilled -- and becoming better fast -- at emergency response to disasters of increasing geographical accomplishment, cost, and complexity.

But we can and ought to do more. Fifty lives lost to Sandy, despite the fact that smaller than the seventy deaths accounted from the Caribbean, on the other hand represents too much anguish and suffering. That premature estimate of $10-$20B in losses has before now shot up to $5-12B insured losses and taken as whole costs of $32-60B (Hurricane Sandy: Covering the Storm). Any final accounting will in all probability show the price of this disaster to be more equivalent to Hurricane Katrina than Hurricane Irene. An immense hit even for the U.S. $12T-dollar economy just as it's lastly beginning to recover from the financial-sector reeducation of 2008. The scene of a long-lasting stream of such events in the upcoming of ever-greater magnitude? Intolerable. In short America requires a similar national effort and supplementary long-term investment in decreasing the want for emergency comeback on such an impressive scale (Strasser, 2012).

The want for emergency response will never diminish. But we should not disconnect ourselves from the idea that emergencies will essentially keep on to growing in range, magnitude and impact, just because our society is on the increase in numbers, in property experience, and in economic activity (Serna, 2012). We can raise our society's flexibility to these events. We can decrease the geographical degree and the populace adversely affected by potential events (Kirkland, E&E reporter).

We in fact have an unblemished example, one we can build on:

Profit-making aviation. Over the precedent fifty years, property damage to natural hazards has been growing exponentially. Experts have exposed this to be the consequence of growing population and assets exposure in dangerous areas. Although it is also the consequence of a malfunction to learn from experience;… [read more]

Food Prices Heading Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,299 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Even as heat destroyed the wheat crop in northern Europe, catastrophic rain storms drowned the wheat crops in Australia, limiting both internal and external harvests, even as similar increases in the average rainfall as well as the severity of storms to cause similar damage in Pakistan. Unusually hot periods have also led to drought in China, which in turn will lead to a reduced wheat harvest in that country (Peters, 2011).

It should be noted here that the term "global warming" has been changed to "climate change" to reflect the fact that the changes in the world's climate brought about by the human use of fuels and processes that increase the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere increase both temperature itself as well as a plethora of consequences that follow directly from that rise in temperatures. These consequences increase both the frequency and severity of rainstorms as well as heat waves and droughts.

These conditions are felt in very different ways by those individuals who are directly affected by them; however, the results on food costs are very similar.

Peters (2011) summarizes this point: Whether these extreme weather events and others represent just random bad luck or are harbingers of more numerous such events in the future remains an open question, but considerable evidence falls on the side of more frequent severe weather events for planet Earth.

An assessment from the non-profit organization Oxfam (which focuses on the issue of food supply and costs) mirrors the above:

"The huge potential impact of extreme weather events on future food prices is missing from today's climate change debate. The world needs to wake up to the drastic consequences facing our food system of climate inaction." (The Telegraph, 2012).

The relationship between climate change and food prices can be seen to be a rational one, as graphed below and as described above. One might initially surmise that such a relationship would be a linear one because climate change and food costs both rise (or potentially fall) at the same time in ways that may seem linear because they occur at the same time.

However, the relationship between these two values rises at different rates so that (for example) a 10% rise in climate change (proxied by either rises in temperature or similar factors) does not translate to a 10% rise in the price of food. This is true even if one selects a single vector of price change in food costs, such as the price of specific food categories such as grain.

The following bar graph from Oxfam outlines one aspect of the relationship between climate change and food prices:

(Green, 2012).

It should be noted that the previous graph (as is also true for the following bar graph) assesses the relationship between climate change and food costs in terms of geography. This is an essential part of any accurate analysis given that food prices are necessarily a local function:

(Green, 2012).

Such a relationship is clear, although it is also true that the… [read more]

Environment the 11th Hour (Film) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


We are "all related" in the sense that all people come from the same "mother," which is earth (72)

The Indian way of life was in harmony with nature, built on respect for the earth and for people as well as for individual freedom (72).

Christian and European cultural hegemony has destroyed many Native American cultures (73)

However, it is not too late to return to more constructive Indian vision, which is more constructive and productive than the European model of consumerism and war (74).

People or Penguins

When discussing issues related to pollution, it is important to be specific instead of general (476).

It is possible to have a people-oriented version of pollution control and environmental activism, rather than preserving penguins "for their own sake" (477).

It is important to propose a people-centric vision because people are inherently selfish (477).

Generally, though, what is good for humans is also good for the environment and vice-versa because everything is connected (477).

When defining the objectives of environmentalism, it is important to define actual measures or levels of pollution that are acceptable: in other words, quantify it…… [read more]

Hurricanes and Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hurricanes and Global Warming

The 2005 season saw the largest number (27) of named storms (sustained winds over 17 m s -- 1) and the largest number (14) of hurricanes (sustained winds over 33 m s -- 1), and it was the only year with three category 5 storms (maximum sustained winds over 67 m s -- 1) (Anthes, et al., 2006). This has provided a strong incentive for researchers to better understand the relationship between tropical storms, hurricanes, and global warming. The costs of storms such as Katrina are in the hundreds of billion dollars and could potentially become more commonplace since the climate is a state of rapid warming.

Human activities have resulted in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and well as changing land use patterns. Greenhouse house gases accumulate in the atmosphere and increase the amount of heat trapped by the sun due to the properties of the GHGs. Land use patterns have resulted in a situation in which many heavily wood areas such as forests have been cleared for farm land among other uses. Trees and other vegetation helps soak up much of the carbon that is in the atmosphere and converts carbon dioxide into oxygen which indirectly reduces the greenhouse gas concentration.

The effects on global warming on storms has been somewhat downplayed recently in the media although the relationship is not fully understood. The idea has been presented that global warming does not have any significant relationship with hurricanes and other storm systems. However, this is misleading because there may be important aspects of the potential relationship are overlooked or downplayed. Furthermore, this could make society more vulnerable to hurricane damage and therefore, even though there is still a high level of uncertainty, researchers should take the potential relationship between climate change and storm frequency and intensity seriously.

Global and tropical atmospheric temperatures near the Earth's surface as well as in the atmosphere are increasing which also increases the amount of water vapor (Anthes, et al., 2006). Most researchers believe this is due…… [read more]

Wabash Watershed and Global Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


5%. Increased disparity in different regions with respect to the amount of rainfall that is received is also a main issue in the problem caused by global warming and unsustainable use of water. The increase in precipitation is more in tropical regions that already have adequate water reserves in form of rivers, lakes, and sea. On the other hand, the… [read more]

European Union's Emission Trading Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


What are two other options for achieving the stated purpose behind the EU ETS?

The Climate Marketplaces and Investment Association (CMIA) declares that it would want to view marketplace involvement by European Union policy makers to deal with the discrepancy within the auction time report. Particularly the CMIA want to experience a decrease in availability of 1.23 billion EUAs within the initial two years of Phase III, along with a restriction of 3 years towards the build up of excess emission permits (CMIA, 2012).

CMIA thinks that current EU ETS legislation alongside a background of unparalleled financial and also economic crisis has established an ill-balanced supply structure involving emission permits, which will continue within Phase III underscoring the ETS's capability to restrict emissions. If the over-supply scenario carries on, the reliability of the ETS as a good policy tool that will push all round emissions cutbacks - not to mention further reduced carbon funding is going to be essentially questioned. The reliability of the ETS itself is going to be progressively questioned, with severe effects for EU approach, global carbon marketplaces in general and most importantly the battle against global warming (CMIA, 2012).

The CMIA consequently suggests a supply control system which, via a modification involving the EU ETS Directive, might methodically eliminate from the marketplace numerous excess permits utilizing a transparent procedure. The actual recommendations offer to limit the build-up of excess emission permits within the EU ETS to no more than 3 years and also that any amount of permits over and above that limitation ought to be eliminated completely from later supply of sold amounts (CMIA, 2012).

The table beneath demonstrates the amount of EUAs to be taken off sold amounts every year utilizing the afore-mentioned procedure, within an emission situation provided by an industry researcher (CMIA, 2012).


CMIA. (2012). Climate Markets & Investment Association Press Release, October, 16th.

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (2008). EU action against climate change: The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. European Commissions.

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (2007). EU ETS Guidance Note 1 -- Guidance on Inclusion: Updated for Phase II. European Commission.

Impact Assessment. (2012). Title: EU ETS Small Emitter and Hospital Phase III Opt-Out,…… [read more]

Global Warming Formal Outline Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,409 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The United States has the funds necessary to alleviate some of the suffering caused by hurricanes like Sandy. However, Haiti does not. Another reason why global warming has a moral component is that people like Palmer and the energy tycoons are lying about it: raising a question about morality in business ethics. Finally, global warming and climate change are moral… [read more]

Statistical Research a Study Performed Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Null Hypothesis: The shifts in precipitation patters will not continue to change.


Type of Research Design

The identified problem and questions will be resolved via a quantitative methodology in the form of an ex post facto design, looking at data for rainfall and the advancement of the ozone layer hole available from NOAA (Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic) Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Data) and NASA (Ozone Hole Watch).

Data Collection and Variables

This statistical project will collect data from NOAA.GOV and NASA.GOV websites, particularly concerning the following variables:

1. Ozone Layer Depletion

2. Precipitation

Data Analysis

The mean for the ozone hole in 1979 was 225.0 compared to 106.2 in 2011, indicating a decrease in the ozone hole. Temperatures are showing shifts to warmer temperatures with record highs in recent years. Precipitation results are showing less precipitation.


The results of analysis are showing a change in precipitation patterns. The earth is getting warmer as it has increased temperatures. Precipitation patterns are shifting for different regions. Where they are warmer with more drought-like conditions in the Northern Hemisphere, some areas are showing flooding with increased precipitation.


Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm

Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802

Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404

Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html

Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic) Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Data. (n.d.). Retrieved from NOAA: http://www.ozonelayer.noaa.gov/data/antarctic.htm… [read more]

Geology Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. have been declining significantly. Have the number of observed tornadoes gone down as well? Is there any relationship between these two variables? What does this tell us about cause-and-effect relationships? Over this time period, how has the impact of tornadic storms on U.S. society changed and why?

A 2012 U.S. Tornado Climatology Report states that there were an average… [read more]

Insurance in Illinois Hurricanes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The loans, which are not a standard term-life offering but can be opted-into when setting up a policy, are intended to assist in rebuilding efforts not covered by property insurance (Pasha 2005).

The case of the Carbondale 'Hurricane" raises interesting points of consideration for handling insurance-related needs around the threat of hurricanes in Illinois (Associated Press 2009). Most of the major storm damage in the state is not attributable to actual hurricane, but to remnants of tropical systems, non-tropical severe storms, such as derechos, and heavy seasonal hail. Standard hurricane policies such as what are seen in the more hurricane-prone American South do not meet the needs of people experiencing severe weather in the American Midwest.

Based on the data concerning the rain and hail impacts of several severe storm systems discussed earlier in this paper, it seems that comprehensive flood and/or wind damage insurance is far more pertinent to the needs of Illinois residents. If the damage does not come from a storm classified by meteorology experts as a hurricane or tropical storm system, there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding whether or not insurance companies will cover the damage. Therefore, Illinois residents would be best served by coverage which covers damage types rather than cause of damage. Comprehensive property and life insurance along with wind and flooding insurance should be sufficient for an average Illinois resident, with crop-related insurance for farmers as an additional necessary measure.


Associated Press (2008). "Thousands Still Without Power in Illinois." WTHI-TV. http://www.wthitv.com/Global/story.asp?S=9009105&nav=menu593_2.

Angel, James, R. (2005) Tropical storms reduced drought in Illinois in 2005. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science July, 2006 Volume: 99 Source Issue: 3-4.

CBS/AP (2008). "Millions Still In Dark Over Ike Recovery." CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/18/national/main4457061.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-30.

Changnon, Stanley A. (1996)

"Effects of Recent Weather Extremes on the Insurance Industry: Major Implications for the Atmospheric Sciences" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

Changnon, Stanley A. Temporal Fluctuations of Hail in Illinois

Illinois State Water Survey Atmospheric Sciences Division Champaign, Illinois

Coyne, Tom (2008). "Indiana storm death toll up to 7." Journal and Courier. http://jconline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080915/NEWS09/80915022.

____. (2010) "Weiss Ratings: Homeowners Offered Few Choices of Hurricane Insurance"

Money and Markets June 2010

Kunkel, K.E., S.A. Changnon, C.G. Lonnquist and J.R. Angel. 1990: A Real-Time Climate Information System for the Midwestern United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71, 1601-1609.

Lehrer, Eli et al. (2009) Property and Casualty Insurance 2009 Report Card, The Heartland Institute.

Lehrer, Eli. (2010) "2010 Property and Casualty Insurance Report Card," The Heartland Institute.

Larson, J., Y. Zhou, R.W. Higgins, 2005. Characteristics of landfalling tropical cyclones in the United States and Mexico: climatology and interannual variability. Journal of Climate, 18, 12471262.

Merrill, R.T., (1993): "Tropical Cyclone Structure" - Chapter 2, Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland.

Neumann, C.J., B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie, and G.R. Hammer, 1999. Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1998. National Climatic Data Center, 256 pp. [Data resides at… [read more]

Public Management and Administration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Kulzick, 2000)

Additionally, when engaged in a synthesis of these diverse needs, one must be careful not to create political infighting between for instance the scientists and the 'policy wonks' in the organization, or even those scientists who might have a bias towards one area of interest in contrast to another. For instance, a chemical environmentalist might consider an area of crisis more in need of immediate address than, say, a meteorologist. One organizational remedy to this is to create a 'clustered' organizational model, where there is little hierarchy. The downside to this, however, is that the different sectors, none of which has official predominance, can engage in very separate research objectives, with little supervision. Thus a more holistic or flat organizational model of human resources might be most superior, where there is constant interaction between participants, almost no hierarchy of interests or leadership, and a focus on a common objective, regardless of specific discipline.

In the final evaluation of the problem, it must be stressed entire water supply system of the U.S. -- our dams, our reservoirs, our aqueducts -- has been designed and built on the assumption that tomorrow's climate is going to look like the past climate. But one can no longer assume that the future is going to look like the past. In fact, the fundamental assumption of life on the planet must change, and we must assume that future of water is going to look quite different than the past in terms of climate. The earth's precipitation patterns, our temperatures, our storm patterns are going to be different and the organization must find the best ways to weather these changes, in the most efficient manner possible. It will require a large organization, that is objective yet diverse in its make up with little hierarchy, so it can be prepared to deal with the changes in climate and accept climate change as a real part of the future. (Glieck, cited by Brad Kloza, 2004)

Works Cited

Kloza, Brad. (2004) Wet Water Shortage. Science Central. Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/view.php3?article_id=218391704

Kulzick, Raymond (2001) "Organizational Types." Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.kulzick.com/milesot.htm… [read more]

Climate Change, Divorced Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,247 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


d.). How climate change impacts the ski tourism industry is a relatively small issue to the impact on drinking water supplies, though. "The effects on natural systems will be widespread: from accelerated glacier melt, altered precipitation, runoff, and groundwater recharge patterns, to extreme droughts and floods, water quality changes, saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers and changes in water use," (The World Bank, 2014, p. 1). Water quality and availability is the most important casualty of climate change because of the universal importance of water.

Climate change affects the quality of water worldwide, because the hydrologic cycle is disrupted. Groundwater may come into contact with a greater amount of pesticides or factory runoff, when it cannot be absorbed rapidly enough ("Linking Climate Change and Water Resources," n.d.). Sediments, pathogens, and various other problems are already causing water to become more turbid, while rising sea levels is creting problems with drainage and wastewater disposal too ("Linking Climate Change and Water Resources," n.d.). As a result, a viscous cycle is created whereby more harmful chemicals are needed to treat water and make it potable for human beings. "The systems used to treat and move public water supplies require large amounts of energy, produced mainly by burning coal, natural gas, oil and other fossil fuels," ("The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources," n.d.).

Beverage corporations are exacerbating the problem by peddling bottled water as a solution. Unfortunately, drinking bottled water is the worst possible solution. The plastic used to create the bottles is directly contributing to global warming because it is a petroleum product and requires heavy factory emissions, and also, that water must be shipped rather than consumers relying on their local aquifers ("The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources," n.d.). Conservation of water is crucial at the level of business, as well as the consumer level. Businesses remain the greatest contributors to global climate change and also to the contamination of local water supplies, which is why strong steps to regulate business are necessary to prevent the adverse ramifications of climate change.

Water is likely to become the next most contentious political issue on the planet. The reasons for many land disputes around the world are related to water resources. Wars may be fought over access to clean drinking water. Climate change has already caused an increase in precipitation in some areas, coupled with decreasing precipitation in others. This will lead to stresses placed on transportation and irrigation systems. Landslides and droughts could even impact the very same region. Industrialized agriculture is a heavy culprit of water misuse, which is why widespread changes in how people use water and how people eat will help reduce the impact of climate change. Other issues, like acid rain, are also linked to global warming because pollutants from factories evaporates with the rain and later falls on sometimes distant regions as acidic rain. This contaminates water further. There are already millions of people without access to clean drinking water. Climate change may increase the… [read more]

Climate Change and Global Warming Attitudes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Data Presentation

10. Conclusions and Significance of Study

Literature Review

Climate change, which is at least partly due to human activities, poses a threat to the future of all species on this planet. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of roughly 400 parts per million in the atmosphere (CO2 Now, 2014). The current CO2 concentration is really scary considering many scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is another major scientific authority, believes that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur (IPCC, 2007). Some scientist believe that if drastic action isn't taken within the next few years then it could already be too late for some major threshold points to be crossed.

Figure 1 - Global Carbon Emissions

Climate change is at least partly due to human activities according to the scientific consensus. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of nearly 400 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere CO2. The current CO2 concentration is alarming considering some scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. Other groups, such as the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has previously stated that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur.

Findings from the 2007 IPCC Report states that climate that's already changing and impacting environment… [read more]

Listening Skills and Climate Change Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,149 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Hence, it is important to note that climate change is not about weather per se; it is about the climate and its changing influence and impact on the planet and its people.

The Assignment -- A Free-write (only pencil and paper are needed)

Following the lecture students are given seven minutes to write down, in bullet points, the most important information they can recall from the lecture. They were not asked to take notes, so they are using recollection skills. In the second timed eight-minute window of time they are to create an essay explaining their own previously held position and/or offering a summation as to why people believe in climate change and why others do not. They may also offer a solution in order to convince the one in four doubters that climate change is real.

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Kolb's Learning Styles

Students are allowed to express their feelings in a concrete experience (the lecture and the challenge) in a personal way without being right or wrong. This is Kolb's learning style because it allows open-minded and intuitive responses to the material presented in the lecture (Nilson, 2010). This assignment also fits with Kolb's Learning Styles because it challenges students to observe a dilemma reflectively; in addition, differing points-of-view need to be critiqued and objectivity is important in this exercise, which follows Kolb's style

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Fleming and Mill's Style

In particular, students with auditory skills learn well when given information they can hear, and in this exercise there are no visuals, no videos, just the voice of the instructor reviewing the material. Also, this style of learning emphasizes logical and deductive relationships, and the subjects in the lecture cry out for logic and understanding.

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Felder and Silverman

Most learners can process material when it is either visual or verbal, and most students excel in one of the two formats. For those not as skilled with verbally presented material, this is an excellent opportunity to gain experience with listening skills. Also, this learning style emphasizes sequential assignments; a) listen to the lecture; b) make bullet points about what has been presented; and c) create a cogent essay as an assignment.


The research offered in this paper represents several ways in which instructors can challenge students to examine and critique critical contemporary issues such as climate change. In this exercise students are asked to listen closely and recall key points in the lecture. And because there are many learning styles, in another class session the same instructor may use visual aids to present his material. But whatever material the instructor presents, he or she should embrace a variety of strategies throughout the course so that all learning styles are emphasized. Presenting material in relevant and interesting ways is always the task of the instructor, no matter what the learning style of the student is.

Works Cited

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The… [read more]

Game Theory and Alternative International Climate Architectures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … international framework seeking to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, I will demonstrate steps to be taken in an effort to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change solely on the basis of multi-lateral arrangements without infringing upon the rights of the self-governed. This will diminish, lessen, and ultimately relieve the production of greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity. I would like to suggest that this is not possible without significant buy-in at the local levels; that citizens of developed countries must recognize the effort as non-zero-sum with the benefits outweighing the transactional costs to taxpayers.

Globally, the far greater majority of accomplished scientists no longer aim to prove or disprove the existence of the all-encompassing catastrophe imposed by global warming. Nor do they argue about tedious labels, human inequity or human rights, and whether climate change will continue to cause disturbance or nullify itself. In fact, there are reciprocal advantages concerning each side of the equation; one side, of course, being theoretical human rights alongside the practical doctrine accompanying every traditional or cultural regard toward accountability; the other, the standing concepts of the international human rights policy, stressing objectivity and impartiality, which advocates such fairness from more of an all-encompassing standpoint. Therefore, every attempt to prove or disprove that global warming is the fault of one nation over the other falls by the wayside.

Instead, countries worldwide must communally agree upon International Policy Architectures; this will produce workable, effective, enforceable multilateral agreements that will ultimately result in the climate change mitigation, the action of reducing the severity, seriousness, and painfulness. This is the only way we will collectively have a chance at learning how to infiltrate and lawfully employ reparation of the harm posed by the overabundance of carbon and focus on greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gases are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. Also from Wikipedia, Scientific opinion on climate change is given by synthesis reports, scientific bodies of national or international standing, and surveys of opinion among climate scientists. This neither includes the views of individual scientists, individual universities, or laboratories, nor self-selected lists of individuals such as petitions. Only with cooperative solutions to the threat of climate change will we see the necessary change required for human advancement, which will come solely from the survival of our species.

As an option, a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as…… [read more]


Assessment  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



First, the global warming case. Please don't go crazy. You do not need to consult any other sources besides

You can probably do an adequate job of answering the questions in less than 10 pages, especially since I don't expect more than a few paragraphs on each question.

Do you consider cost-benefit analysis of the kind discussed above as a sensible approach to this problem? Why or why not? Include your thoughts about including environmental costs and the costs of reasonable compensation to developing economies.

This problem is so incredibly complex that any approach to try and get a sense of the scope of the problem is sensible. The scope of the problem is so large that it can generate a sense of apathy. Any approach that can overcome apathy and change people's behaviors should be welcomed. The cost-benefit approach however, should always be viewed with some skepticism since the potential a large margin of error in the estimates exists. However, the approach could be more accurate with individual choices rather than trying to aggregate the entire economy.

For example, you can easily conduct a cost-benefit approach to replacing a traditional light bulb with an LED light bulb and determine the payback period. The same methods can be applied to a variety of energy efficiency investments as well. However, the cost-benefit approach just isn't as accurate on a macro level.

In regards to compensating developing economies, the first world definitely has an obligation. For example, most of the carbon emissions that are stuck in the atmosphere today were from emission from the first countries to develop using fossil fuels. These emissions have a cumulative effect on climate change. Therefore, it is unfair to tell the third world that they cannot develop using the same means as the first world because it contributes to climate change. The majority of the emission were not created in third world but they are essentially being asked to pay the costs associated with sustainable development even though they were not responsible for the damages.

Yet, at the same time, even if the first world owes a debt to developing economies, the amount is certainly unclear. Most of the damage was done during previous generations. For example, a large percentage of the individuals most responsible for contributing to climate are no longer alive today; nor did they even understand the damage they were doing to the planet. Thus it is hard to hold the younger generations completely responsible for their ancestors mistakes. Therefore, there will undoubtedly have to be substantial compromises between the developing world and the developed world to come to an effective arrangement. Furthermore, since virtually everyone agrees that the costs increase as time goes on, the sooner a compromise can be reached the better.

After reviewing the discussions in Pricing the Future and the Stern Review, what do you think of their arguments in favor of a very small or even zero… [read more]

Earth Science and Society Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Earth Science and Society

The Wabash Watershed -- For this analysis, we will be focusing on a specific geographic area, the Wabash Watershed. Chronologically, we will use 1961-1990 as our basal reference, including raw, 5-year average, and 10-year average data. The data sets include temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, moisture surplus, moisture deficit, and surface runoff. Our primary research questions surround what… [read more]

Ruddiman's Account of Ancient Human Influence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Ruddiman's Account Of Ancient Human Influence In The Global Warming Phenomenon

Introduction and Context

The scientific arguments for humans affecting climate change seem to be all around us today in the news and in conversations. Whenever the topic of human-induced climate change does surface there are often many difference of opinion, many of which are tied to specific scientific evidence… [read more]

Impacts of a Warming Arctic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … warming Arctic

Global warming has reached alarming levels and the effects of the event are felt throughout the world. The Arctic region is one of the territories that have experienced the full hit of global warming and because of the importance that the area has to the rest of the planet, the effects of a warming Arctic are… [read more]

Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



The Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone and the (Possible) Effects of Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change: A Review of Current Literature

Waugh et al. (2009) investigated the effects that climate change has on he recovery period and rate of stratospheric ozone. This team of researchers set out to modify an existing model, the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, in… [read more]

Prisoner's Dilemma and the Fight Against Global Warming Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  25 pages (7,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Prisoner's Dilemma And The Fight Against Global Warming

Global warming reached alarming levels and governments from all over the world need to gather in a united front to fight the process. Sooner or later, all countries will be obliged to enter this fight, leaving all divergences and interests aside, as global warming affects everyone more or less. While some might… [read more]

Community it Affects Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … community it affects and describe the problem in detail what the problem is, whom it affects, why it is an important issue, and so on.. You might begin this with an informal response to surface what you think about it, which can lead to an initial argument position. In my experience, big problems are easier to work with than more local ones, so you might start out with something like global warming, America's obesity epidemic, or child poverty and decide what we should do about it. You get to be the decider in this paper. Some problems will not have viable solutions (like pandemics, global natural disasters like global warming, drug abuse or fundamentalist terrorism), yet you can still argue for how such a problem might be solved or addressed or argue that people can do something to alleviate it in their own lives or you might conclude that it can really be solved. Whatever position you take, be sure to give a little space to alternate views.

Taxing global warming


Global warming is one of the most debated topics today, considering the aftermath that is left as a result of the fact that earth's temperature has experienced a significant increase in the recent decades. Society as a whole is affected by the process, with people from all over the world reporting in a series of anomalies occurring because of the sudden change in temperature. Contemporary attempts in reducing greenhouse gasses emissions or pollution as a whole have had little to no effect in stopping or at least in ameliorating global warming.

Governments from around the world have kept a traditional perspective in regard to the subject they "followed the "standard model" when creating international environmental treaties: set commitments first, defer procedures for enforcement until later, and rely on "soft" (or nonexistent) measures for enforcing compliance" (Victor 147).

In spite of the fact that some countries have expressed little interest in ameliorating global warming, most of them are expected to change their position in the coming years, with or without their desire to do so. Global warming affects everyone, meaning that the countries that are currently indifferent in regard to it will gradually come to understand the imminent threat and will practically be forced to get actively engaged in fighting against the process (Victor vii). The earth's climate is presently experiencing change mainly as a result of the fact that society has blindly polluted the atmosphere and cut down exaggerated amounts of trees that were essential to reducing greenhouse gasses.

II. Thesis

Immediate action needs to be taken in order to remedy conditions. The masses are willing to pay in exchange of being comfortable, even if this comfort has terrible effects on the environment. More and more people buy and use pollutant devices that they do not actually need, but that they consider essential in building a state of comfort. In order to prevent and profit from this situation, governments need to increase taxes on every luxurious… [read more]

New York Times Like Profile on Australian American Inventor Saul Griffith Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


New York Times Like Profile of Saul Griffith

Over the last several years, a host of individuals began to become more concerned about the impact of climate change. In some cases, you would see various people contribute mass amounts of financial resources to addressing the underlying problem. While at other times, there are those individuals who will go beyond: traditional thinking and will work to develop ideas that many did not think was possible. Such is the case with Saul Griffith, the Australian born -American inventor, who has had a major impact upon how most people live their daily lives. A good example of this can be seen with his development of the uses of flexible surfaces and pourable resin in eyeglasses. This is important, because these two basic components would improve the durability of eyes glass, by preventing the frames from becoming damaged (where it increased the ability of the lens to withstand extreme impacts). As a result, his invention would innovate the way that everyone would live their daily lives, by using compounds that improved durability of glasses. Over the course of time, this would have an impact upon society through the use of these compounds on regular basis (which helps to save consumers money and provide them with a superior product). However, over the last few years, Griffith has been changing the overall focus of his research, with him becoming increasingly concerned about the total impact that global warming is having on the ecosystem. To fully understand how these different views have affected Griffith requires: looking at his life, the products that he has developed to address these challenges and the total impact of his efforts. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying effects that Griffith's research is having on addressing various environmental issues. ("Saul Griffith") ("Short Bio Saul Griffith")

The Life of Saul Griffith

Saul Griffith was born and educated in Australia. Early on he had passion for research, with his parents being intellectuals that were focused on the value that education can provide. As a result, Griffith would study and graduate from the top colleges in Australia. To include: the University of New South Wales (where he received his BMETE) and University of Sydney (receiving a Masters degree in Engineering). At which point, Griffith would continue with his research by studying for his PHD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During the course of his research, he would develop a way to address various challenges affecting eye glass. Where, he used different compounds (flexible surfaces and pourable resin) to create more durable frames. These elements are important, because they are showing how Griffith would use: the basic principles of engineering and research to understand, how to address various challenges facing society. This is significant, because it shows how innovative research would give Griffith a passion for addressing various problems affecting a host of individuals. ("Saul Griffith") ("Short Bio Saul Griffith")

The Products that He had Developed to Address these… [read more]

Environment US Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … reaching climate change legislation in the United States is dependent on a multitude of domestic and international actors, and appears to be a diminishing possibility every day as political and practical barriers continue to be erected and strengthened against such legislation. Republican opposition to such a bill, especially in the Senate, has been quite stringent, and several Democratic members of Congress have also joined in opposition to the passing of cap-and-trade and other emissions-oriented legislation. Certain industries and states that support them also strongly oppose changes to emission standards and levels, and without the financial and legal support of Congress other federal agencies are essentially powerless. Internationally, other countries are failing to ratify international legislation (namely an extension to the Kyoto Protocol) for a variety of reasons, including the current economic climate and -- in the case of emerging economies like China and India -- the fact that they were not major polluters in the past and so did not contribute to the current problem to the same degree. Without international agreement, especially among the world's largest polluters, there can be no real effective change in the emissions rates or pace of climate change occurring on the planet.

From a Liberal perspective, climate change poses a very real and very practical threat to national and…… [read more]

Physics/Atmosphere Research Handwritten Observational Data, Plot Graph Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Physics/Atmosphere Research

Handwritten observational data, plot graph and bar graph to follow. I need to speak with customer service about the best way to get them to you. I tried scanning them and the resolution was not good enough. I was unable to resolve the issue over the weekend but will follow up on Monday. As of 11 a.m. EST, I still have not heard from them.

The main thing is the two-page observational chart. The form that was included with your order is not editable text. If all else fails, I can type the info into a word document and you can recreate the handwritten chart.

Also, you will need to add the reference for your text book. I did not have bibliographic information in order to do that. The reference page is separate page that follows at the end of the document.


The weather data recorded for Boston, Massachusetts, November 2010, illustrates well the changeable nature of late fall in New England. On the first day of the month, the temperature was 38 degrees Fahrenheit at ten o'clock in the morning. There was a strong breeze, with an estimated wind speed of 22-27 knots coming from the northwest. Temperatures climbed toward the middle of the month, reaching a November 2010 high of 63 degrees Fahrenheit on the 18th. The coldest day of the month, predictably, fell towards the end of the month, with a10 a.m. temperature recorded at 30 degrees on the 25th. The average 10 a.m. temperature for the month was 43.8 degrees. Slightly less than 1.75 inches of rain fell during the month. All the precipitation that fell was in the form of rain. It is not unusual to have snow in Boston during November, but it does not happen every year, as was the case in 2010.

Weather Observation Data

Appendix a is a chart of daily weather observations, showing date, temperature, wind direction, wind velocity estimated using the Beaufort Scale, kind and amounts of clouds, and kinds and amounts of precipitation. Appendix B is a time graph of temperatures, for which daily temperatures are plotted as ordinates and dates as abscissas. Appendix C shows a bar graph depicting precipitation in fractions of an inch. Precipitation is recorded as ordinates and dates once again as abscissas. Appendix D shows a wind rose generalized to the month based on data collected at 10 a.m. each day.

TV/Newspaper Forecasts

The following represents brief weather reports of the type found on the front page of a newspaper. They are designed to provide the public with a quick synopsis of the day's weather so that people can plan accordingly for dress, travel, outdoor activities, and anything else that might be dependent upon weather conditions.



Mostly clear, high 57, low 35, winds 12 mph from NW


Overcast, high 50, low 41, winds 8 mph from NNW


Mostly cloudy, high 38, low 33, winds 3 mph from W


Light rain, high 50, low 38, winds… [read more]

Global Warming Theory: An Exploration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (908 words)
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Global Warming Theory: An Exploration

As a scientific concept, global warming has both proponents and disbelievers. The evidence, which can often be construed one way or another, points to the fact that pollutants have a negative impact on the environment, and that these pollutants have begun to cause a massive global weather shift. As far as a theory goes, global warming has many implications for humans in every society. If proven true, it would represent one of the largest climatic changes in the history of mankind. Depending on their viewpoints, many scientists argue either for or against this theory, with evidence existing to back both perspectives. There is evidence that points to humans causing the warming trend which cannot be denied or explained away as a natural and cyclical change in the Earth's climate.

Global warming, as a theory, has existed for decades. But the scientific evidence supporting it is relatively inconclusive, as far as climate change goes. Over millions of years, the planet Earth has entered cooling and warming cycles. This is evidenced through geologic studies and conclusions from many of the world's leading scientists. Currently, the Earth is due for a warming period since the last ice age occurred over 10,000 years ago. These cycles tend to occur on a relatively consistent basis, signaling warming ad cooling trends quite regularly. According to author Chris Moony (2008), the Earth has just begun to enter its latest warming cycle, spurred by solar activity and other environmental changes. This, according to Mooney, is responsible for the latest changes in climate, including the melting of much of the Polar Regions as well as glaciers worldwide. It is also nothing to be alarmed about, since it is part of a natural process that occurs every so often. This global warming trend can account for the rise in global storms and hurricanes that has been experienced over the past two decades as well as the warming trend that has affected the Earth over the same time period.

The same scientists that argue against the general theory of global warming argue that humans have not had a serious effect on the atmosphere at any time in history, and that the effects humans could present to the Earth are not potentially dangerous (Singer and Avery, 2007). Authors Singer and Avery argue for a cyclical warming and cooling trend that can help explain the Earth's atmosphere and behavior of the ice sheets and glaciers worldwide. In Singer and Avery's (2007) view, this warming and cooling process is natural, and there is evidence of it within the ice samples taken by scientific expeditions to the Polar Regions. In his book, Singer and Avery (2007) offer some alternative explanations to the familiar theory…… [read more]

Global Warming Is Accepted Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … global warming is accepted or not and its effects as well, significant changes in the climate of the planet have happened with at a more rapid pace than in the past. Global warming is mainly seen by the scientific community as a global process in which "glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising, cloud forests are drying, and wildlife is scrambling to keep pace. it's becoming clear that humans have caused most of the past century's warming by releasing heat-trapping gases as we power our modern lives" (National Geographic, 2010). These gases, the greenhouse gases, have reached a peak at this point that is the highest in the last 650,000 years.

As the debate continues whether these are phenomena caused by men or natural ones, global warming effects are more and more visible. Climate change leads already to severe changes in geophysical, biological and socio-economic systems. Some of the most severe impacts of climate change due to global warming are to be found especially in countries with weak economies and political systems that are also in affected areas. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report shows, the most evident effects are on the local, regional and even global food supply, infrastructure, health, water resources, coastal systems, ecosystems, global biogeochemical cycles, ice sheets and modes of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007) as agriculture is the main source of income and survival in many of the world's countries, a rise in the mean temperature creates systemic imbalances due to the low adaptation capabilities of local producers. As famine is at a high level anyways, global warming will increase it as the food supply will suffer in ways that are still difficult to predict. These adaptation costs would also require a strong political will that would recognize that for protecting its citizens on the medium and long-term, significant investments are to be made. Both human and societies as a whole need not only time to adapt to these new conditions but also resources that, in the countries most hit by global warming, do not exist.

Resources would barely exist in a world without global warming and this will be visible also in the health sector. Millions are at this point affected by malnutrition and little or low quality water reserves due to a rise in temperatures. A larger number of deaths, "diseases and injury due to extreme weather events; increased burden of diarrhoeal diseases; increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases due to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone in urban areas related to climate change; and the altered spatial distribution of some infectious diseases" are to be seen frequently in the poor areas of the world. (Pachauri, 2007)

Other effects go deeper in the core of societies and results in socio-political shifts. Populism or radicalization of instable governments often leads to an increase in the negative effects of global warming. In countries extreme poverty and malnutrition create large masses of people that are easy to… [read more]

Is Global Warming a Theory or a Reality? Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Global Warming a Theory or a Reality?

(Note to "Client" -- I do not know what software of program you are inserting this paper into. But it is WRONG. Listen, this paper is NOT plagiarized. It has NEVER been plagiarized and I am not going to erase any more of MY work to convince you otherwise. I did not earn a Master degree by plagiarizing. If you were to actually spend time and look up the references like a proper student, you will see this. This is the LAST rewrite you will be granted. I will take you to court over this if necessary.)

"Carbon Trade is a generic term that covers a wide range of activities, in countries where absolute caps on greenhouse gas emissions have been translated." (Worthington, 2005,-page 50) Global Warming's supposed real effect on global environmental conditions relative to domestic and international economic and regulatory changes has propelled top scientists to remain vigilant in the search for answers. "KP stipulates emissions reductions only for the most industrialized countries." (Worthington, 2005,-page 50) Environmentalists and politicians argue that Global Warming is real, and point to refuted research correlating rapidly melting polar ice caps to increased rates of greenhouse gas emissions. "In the absence of aggressive and expensive abatement, greenhouse gases will continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, and we will experience warming." (Mendelsohn, 1999,-page 2)

New information has revealed the natural warming cycle of the earth, and the emergence from the last mini ice age. "The extreme warm spell -- called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum -- saw global temperatures soar by 6C (11F) within a few thousand years." (Derbyshire, November 2010)

Another theory points to Global Cooling rather than Global Warming as the actual condition. "The bitter winter afflicting much of the Northern Hemisphere is only the start of a global trend towards cooler weather that is likely to last for 20 to 30 years, say some of the world's most eminent climate scientists." (Rose, 2010) the scientifically posed question remains, is 'Global Warming' a real phenomena or faux?

Multi-Decadal Oscillations:

Further deducing from the changes to the topography of the global landscape, there appears to have been various cycles of global warming and cooling, leading to droughts and desert conditions and tundra on former tropical lands.

"They (U.S. National Snow and Ice Date Centre in Colorado), say that their research shows that much of the warming was caused by oceanic cycles when they were in a 'warm mode' as opposed to the present 'cold mode'. According to the U.S. National Snow and Ice Date Centre in Colorado, Arctic summer sea ice has grown by 409,000 square miles, or 26 per cent, since 2007 -- and even the most committed global warming activists do not dispute this." (Rose, 2010)

Professor Mojib Latif, a leading member of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), claims that a large portion, as much as 50% of the warming experienced over 1/5 of the 20th century, the 20… [read more]

Global Warming Is Global Warming Have Lasting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Global Warming

Is global warming have lasting effects on the plant or is it scientists calling attention to something that may not be occurring?

What is the likelihood that the effects of global warming could be able to spiral out of control?

Should the public be concerned about the long-term implications of global warming?

Are the current efforts helping to address the problem?

Are the effects of global warming real or are they something that scientists and the media are inventing to create controversy?

Over the last several years, the issue of global warming has been continually brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because a number of different reports are showing how rising temperatures are having an adverse effect upon the world's climate. A good example of this can be seen with climate figures that were complied since 1860, which confirmed that temperatures around the globe have been consistently rising. However, the last 25 years have been the hottest on record (with 2005 representing the largest temperature variance). (Robinson, 2008, pp. 6 -- 12) This is troubling, because most proponents will argue that the recent trends are showing how the Earth is becoming substantially warmer. Yet, many critics will take the same statistics and claim how 140 years out of billions of years (which is the approximate age of the planet) is statistically insignificant. As they will argue that there is no proof of the long-term trends, having an impact on worldwide temperatures. (Robinson, 2008, pp. 6 -- 12) This is important, because it shows how a divergence is occurring in the opinions of scientists and the general public, about the long-term impact that global warming is having upon the planet. To determine if the effects of global warming are real requires conducting a careful examination of the facts and the different viewpoints surrounding them. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to the total impact that global warming is having on worldwide temperatures.

The Facts of Global Warming and the Viewpoints

According to proponents, the issue of global warming is a serious problem that will have devastating consequences on everyday life to include: rising seas levels and changing weather patterns. The rising levels will have an impact upon a variety of people who live along the coast. As they are forced to move further inland, due to the encroachment of the ocean on their homes. At the same time, the changing weather patterns could have an impact upon the growth of agricultural products (with many regions experiencing an increasing number of droughts). This is problematic, because the core samples taken from the polar ice caps, show that extreme periods of warming; could cause significant shifts in the weather patterns of the planet. Once this takes place, it means that there will be larger famines and the possibility that the Earth could fall into increased cycles of global warming. Where, the recent warming trends could trigger secondary warming patterns. One of most… [read more]

Global Warming Neglecting the Complexities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Global Warming: Neglecting the Complexities

In this paper, we discuss global warming which is a phenomenon that has attracted a long debate marked with several complexities. We begin with an explanation of what global warming is and an analysis of some of the theories that surround its existence. We then proceed to investigate the various views and opinions that have… [read more]

Security Council France Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Security Council France

Over the last several decades, global warming has become a consistent threat that has the potential of disrupting life on Earth as we know it. This is because the rising temperatures from the activities of human kind are causing the problem to become worse. To mitigate these effects, the world community implemented the Kyoto Protocol. This was one of the first landmark agreements, at attempting to address the effects of global warming. However, since the treaty has begun to take effect, it is clear that various provisions are not achieving the intended goals. What is happening is: not all countries are participating and there are uneven standards for pollution credits. This is problematic, because it is negating any kind of attempts at reversing the underlying causes of global warming. As this is allowing a host of countries to work around the basic provisions of the treaty. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, the emissions trading program called the Clean Development Mechanism. Under the program, the developed countries can trade their emissions credits with other nations. However, these credits can be traded for profit, as the developing countries can sell their excess credits to the developed countries. This is troubling, because it is allowing the largest polluting countries to make no effort in reducing greenhouse gases, as they can purchase what credits they need, to be in compliance with the provisions of the treaty. Then, when you consider the fact that the various actions from each country are voluntary, this highlights the ineffectiveness of Kyoto in addressing the problems associated with global warming. (Rainer 2007) As a result, a new agreement must be implemented that will have enforceable standards and will prevent all nations from not following the basic provisions.

Recommended Course of Action

In December, the various delegates from around the world will once again meet to discuss how they can effectively address the problem (with the conference taking place in Cancun). Since France is a member of the Security Council, we have a moral responsibility in addressing the various problems surrounding the issue. The dilemma is that many of these conferences do not yield any kind of realistic agreements. Where, you have the developed countries, which are unwilling to change from the status quo (because it will cost them too much economically). At the same time, you have the developing countries that believe one of the reasons for global warming, is because of the actions taken in the past by the developed countries. As they think that these nations, need to pay more of their fair share for contributing to the problem. To effectively address this impasse, requires being able to create an agreeable solution that will address the views of both sides. This means creating enforceable standards, where various countries cannot buy their way out or unilaterally decide not follow the agreement. Then, you have to ensure that the developing countries are paying an equal amount in comparison… [read more]

Sustainable New Orleans Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … sustainable New Orleans?

Wanting to rebuild a major city from scratch implies first having to devise a series of plans meant to insure that good organization is taken to the fullest. Taking into consideration the city of New Orleans consequent to the Katrina Hurricane, one might be inclined to believe that the authorities did not pay sufficient attention to coming up with a strategy to assist the people there in case of a major calamity. It was not only due to the devastating forces of nature that the city was brought to its present state, but also because the condition was poorly managed and the system was not prepared to deal with incidents of such an intensity.

In addition to its aftermath, this event was particularly significant because it made it clear that coastal cities are very vulnerable to extreme weather phenomena. If governments were to predict such disasters, numerous people would still be alive and large amounts of money would be saved. Of course, no one is to blame for such an occurrence, since nature is in most occasions unpredictable. However, matters would have gone better if the authorities along with the people in the city were to observe the dangers that they were exposed to and do something in order to risk as little as possible in case of a natural disaster. This particular event did not come as a surprise to some, given that it is only normal for a coastal inhabitance to be predisposed to going through a natural disaster.

New Orleans needs to be rebuilt so as for future weather phenomena to have a less damaging effect. It is virtually impossible for a city to go through such an event without suffering any damage. Even with that, if people were to cooperate in creating efficient emergency plans matters would be different and the damage would be smaller. Considering that the U.S. government has gotten involved in building a new city on the wrecks left behind by Katrina, it would only seem natural for the strategy to be different, as it would be of no use to rebuild something countless times and waiting for disaster to strike again.

Restructuring New Orleans needs to be done in accordance with present and future generations that are expected to inhabit it. The authorities do not have to resolve the condition by building a new city with the belief that the individuals presently inhabiting it will be safe for the coming years. They also need to look ahead and develop a tactic to assist everyone who will ever live in the city.

To a certain degree, the people who can be considered responsible for the fact that New Orleans was subjected to the destructive force of Hurricane Katrina are the ones who destroyed the only thing that protected the city from the sea -- the islands and the wetlands in the territory. These lands experienced a process of rapid erosion and they seized to exist within a number… [read more]

Rise of Social Media and Etiquette or the Effects of Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Global Warming

What are the effects of global warming that scientists can identify today? This is an important question to be taken into account as humans struggle to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere -- the principal cause of climate change. Given the overwhelming scientific evidence of climate change, what are the results of public opinion polls that test the views of citizens on this issue? How many people firmly accept the data presented on climate change? And for those who do not accept the data, what media are influencing their views on climate change? These issues will be covered in this paper.

Brief Review of Global Warming Science: Prior to delving into public opinion about climate change, a few facts from the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are relevant. The IPCC was formed in 1988 as 194 nations, in joint cooperative effort, offered the work of their top scientists in an effort to consolidate available empirical data on climate change. In November, 2010, the Chairman of IPCC, Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, stated that "Warming of the climate system is unequivocal as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea levels" (IPCC). The chairman stated that "Approximately 20 to 30% of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if increases in global average temperatures exceed 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius" (IPCC).

U.S. Public Opinion Polls on Climate Change: The Pew Research Center Poll is a respected fact-gathering organization that conducts polling on a number of social, political and other issues. Pew does not make policy recommendations, it just publishes research. Pew asked the question (October, 2010), "In your view, is global warming a very serious problem, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a problem?" Thirty-two percent said, "very serious"; 31% said "somewhat serious"; 16% said "not too serious"; 18% said "not a problem"; and 3% had no answer. Pew's second question, "Do you think global warming is a problem that requires immediate government action, or don't you think it requires immediate government action?" solicited these responses: 59% said "yes it is a problem that requires immediate action"; 37% replied "no, don't think it requires immediate action"; and 4% "don't know." This survey reached 2,251 adults on both cell phones and landlines.

Pew has published the changes in public opinion over the past five years regarding global warming issues. For example, to the question, "Is there solid evidence the earth is warming"? In July 2006 79% said "yes"; in January 2007, 77% said "yes"; in April 2008, 71% said "yes"; in October 2009, 57% said "yes"; and in October 2010, 59% said "yes" (PEW).

As to the question, "How serious a problem?" is global warming, those numbers have also been slipping over the years. In 2006, 43%…… [read more]

Global Warming in Australia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Global Warming in Australia

The issue of globalization and its effects on the world has become an ever-increasing subject for debate. Although it is considered that only highly industrialized countries and regions are affected by this process of globalizations, areas such as Australia are not out of reach either. In this sense, the global warming phenomenon is increasing and spreading throughout the world, regardless of the geographical area.

The effects of global warming in Australia are an alarm signal for its dwellers. There are several areas of interest that have experienced the effects of global warming lately in Australia.

An important segment of the Australian life is related to the actual quality of life in major cities such as Sydney. In this sense, the signals in reference to the way in which life could change in the next decades in Sydney are alarming. More precisely, a 2007 report pointed out that life in "Sydney could be completely transformed by the year 2070. In just one generation, Sydney could slide into a near permanent state of drought. There could be a dramatic rise in deadly bushfires. Temperatures would rise 10 or 15 degrees Fahrenheit, or more. Heat-related deaths would soar from nearly 200 to more than 1,200 a year" (Litke 2007)Therefore, it can be pointed out that one of the first changes to be seen in terms of global warming for Australia would be a change in the climatic behavior of the continent. This is not necessarily a particular consequence, but for Australia it is essential as the temperature and the climate are already unbearable in certain parts of the year. Such a change in temperatures would also impact other segments of life, from the human to the animal life.

Another consequence of global warming for Australia is, as mentioned above, related to the wildlife, the vegetation and the particular areas for survival of plants. More precisely, given the change in the temperature of the air, certain species of plants and animals would no longer be able to adapt in their natural habitat. This represents a major concern for the wildlife specialists as this lack of possibility to adapt implies even the extinction of certain species. Thus, "Such species will need to follow their climatic envelopes by migrating to cooler and moister environments, usually uphill or southwards in the southern hemisphere. There is some evidence that plants and animals are already responding to warmer temperatures. The treeline (above which there are no trees) near Mount Hotham in the Victorian Alps has reportedly moved up in altitude by 40 meters in recent years"(NOVA Science in the News 2005). Such changes point out that while some species tend to adapt, others cannot. Also, it suggests that the issue of global warming and its potential effects on the Australian land are is no longer a mere subject for further discussions, it represents a clear threat to the…… [read more]

Global Warming: An Inconvenient Debate a Deadly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Global warming: An inconvenient debate; a deadly delay in taking action

Despite the overwhelming evidence in support of the idea that global warming is a very real phenomenon, the political inconvenience of the hard steps needed to circumvent it, such as limiting fossil fuel and meat consumption, makes the issue politically unpopular. An industry devoted to global warming denial has arisen, while the long-term risks of doing nothing escalate every day. "Climate policy is gridlocked, and there's virtually no chance of a breakthrough. Many factors have conspired to produce this situation. Human beings are notoriously poor at responding to problems that develop incrementally. And most of us aren't eager to change our lifestyles by sharply reducing our energy consumption" (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.1).

Environmentalism is embraced during fuel shortages, such as during the 1970s, when solar panels were commissioned for use on the White House, and then abandoned when economic conditions changed and gas prices went down. More recently, hybrid cars became popular when gas prices spiked -- now, once again, concern about over-consumption of fuel by cars has begun to abate as gas prices decline. According to The New York Times' overview of the topic of global warming: "A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that since 1950, the world's climate has been warming, primarily as a result of emissions from unfettered burning of fossil fuels and the razing of tropical forests. Such activity adds to the atmosphere's invisible blanket of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping 'greenhouse' gases. Recent research has shown that methane, which flows from landfills, livestock and oil and gas facilities, is a close second to carbon dioxide in impact on the atmosphere." Significant warming since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century indicates a climatologically pattern that cannot be ascribed to merely natural shifts in climate change, and supports a causal link between warming and the human-based use of fossil fuels in transportation, agriculture, and manufacturing.

For scientists, the evidence of global warming is visible everyday: "I can see vivid evidence of climate change. Channels through the Canadian Arctic archipelago that were choked with ice at this time of year two decades ago are now expanses of open water or vast patchworks of tiny islands of melting ice" (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.1).…… [read more]

Plows Plagues and Petroleum How Humans Took Control of Climate by William F. Ruddiman Essay

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Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate by William F. Ruddiman

Book Summary:

Ruddiman, William. Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum. Princeton: Princeton University Press,

The first forty-four pages of Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum by William F. Ruddiman has something to offend everyone. For global warming proponents, Ruddiman focuses not on the evils of industrialism but instead suggests that human activity has been affecting the earth's climate for many thousands of years. For anti-global warming activists, Ruddiman leaves no doubt of the fact that in his estimation that the climate is getting warmer due to human influences, not because of natural forces. Changes occurred in the earth's atmosphere, he argues, with the beginnings of human's cultivation of the land for food. Rice and livestock are as much to blame for global warming as factories and cars.

"Carbon dioxide concentrations began their slow rise 8,000 years ago when humans began to cut and burn forests in China, India, and Europe to make clearings for croplands and pastures. Methane concentrations began a similar rise 5,000 years ago when humans began to irrigate for rice farming and tend livestock in unprecedented numbers" (Ruddiman 5) of course, many environmental activists today blame industrialized agriculture, but Ruddiman suggests that agriculture itself, not factory farming, has caused an increase in carbon dioxide and methane gases. This suggests that correcting the problems caused by human influences upon the environment is far more problematic than altering the last hundred years of human history.

Any time there is a change to the earth's state of homeostasis, a new balance is created. Earth's orbit is fundamentally linked to its climate, and Earth has always undergone cycles of cooling and warming (one of the arguments of anti- global warming activists). Small changes in the earth's tilt can cause radical (from a human's perspective) shifts in climate. Ruddiman admits that…… [read more]

Undulatus Asperatus Clouds Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



In 2009, the first new cloud formation since 1951 was proposed for addition to the International Cloud Atlas of the World Meteorological Organization ("Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). Only eighty cloud formations have earned their distinctive marks in the International Cloud Atlas (Olson). Named after the Latin for "turbulent undulation," or rough waves, the altocumulus undulatus asperatus would therefore be the first new clouds to be named in over fifty years (Michaels; Olson). The last cloud officially registered by the World Meteorological Organization was cirrus intortus ( "Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name").

After receiving a plethora of photographs, the Cloud Appreciation Society deemed the unique formation worthy of consideration as being distinct from other types of cloud (Michaels). The founder of the Cloud Appreciation Society, Gavin Pretor-Pinney, first referred to the special formation as "Jacques Cousteau" formations because "the cloud base resembled a choppy sea when viewed from below," (Royal Meteorological Society). Pretor-Pinney claims that undulatus asperatus "don't seem to fit very easily into the existing classifications," (cited on "Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name"). The name "undulatus asperatus" was chosen particularly because asperatus was a term "used by Classical poets to describe the sea when it has been agitated by strong winds," (Royal Meteorological Society). Apparently Virgil used the term aparatus to "describe the surface of the sea whipped up by the north wind," ("Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name"). The Latin term for wave is "unda," (the Cloud Appreciation Society).

Referred to as an "atmospheric anomaly," the undulatus asperatus are relatively rare. They occur in specific geographic regions and are especially prevalent among the Plains regions of the United States (Olson). Photographs of undulatus asperatus also hail from Scotland and other parts of Northern Europe as well as Tasmania down under. Photographs of the undulatus asperatus reveal distinct and smooth wave formations, although the undersides often appear "rough and choppy" like ocean water (Michaels). The clouds tend to appear during morning or midday hours following, rather than preceding, storm activity (Michaels). The aviation industry regards all undulatus clouds as a sign of light to moderate turbulence ("Clouds"). The exact conditions under which undulus apparatus are formed are still being researched by organizations like the Royal Meteorological Society in the United Kingdom.

Ten basic genera of clouds are officially recognized including the most well-known ones such as nimbus, stratus, cumulus, and cirrus. Each of these genres of cloud is further divided into cloud species "which describe shape and internal structure," as well as cloud variety, "which describes the transparency and arrangement of clouds," (Royal Meteorological Society).

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) currently maintains the international standards for cloud classification. Cloud classification is based on "where in the atmosphere they form, the amount of moisture they hold, their shape and appearance," (Royal Meteorological Society). The WMO classifies clouds-based partly on where in the atmosphere they form, using the term "etage." The lower the etage, the lower in the atmosphere the clouds appear. Undulatus clouds… [read more]

Earth Science and Society Water Budget Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,068 words)
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Earth Science and Society

Water Budget

The water budget of a particular area can differ greatly depending on a number of factors. Climate, geographical location, altitude, and soil density can all have major impacts on the water budgets of specific areas. Precipitation is the primary source of acquiring water; "Precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, etc. makes up the primarily supply of water to the surface," (Ritter 2006). Thus, the climates of individual areas have a huge role in the amount of precipitation seen. Climate also rules over evaporation, and "Actual evapotranspiration increases as temperature increases, so long as there is water to evaporate and for plants to transpire," (Ritter 2006). However, climate, as determined by geographical location, is not the only factor. The actual constitution of soul in particular areas will influence how much water that area can hold. According to research, "The amount of water in the soil depends soil properties like soil texture and organic matter content," (Ritter 2006). Land takes up about 2.4% of the held water on earth (University of Illinois 2010). This, the soil in each area also plays a key role not only in the construction of the water budget, but also how much water will be evaporated. There are a number of different soil formulations, based on the resources and materials which are around the area. These different formulations then hold water in different levels; "Different surfaces hold different amounts of water and absorb water at different rates," (University of Illinois 2010). With this in mind, specific geographical locations can be analyzed in comparison based on these fundamental elements.





















































Change in ST

































































In comparison to Terre Haute Indiana's water budget, there are primary differences in location and climate which justify those differences. The city itself sits at 37°52'17.73" N, 122°16'13.86" W. Its elevation is at 179 feet above sea level. This keeps it closer to the oceanic controls that regulate coastal temperatures. In fact, Berkeley is a west-coast Mediterranean climate. Thus, it has hot, dry summers, with little water acquisition during the summer months. Therefore, this hot and dry element of summer has a huge impact on the water budget for those months, in comparison to the more humid summers in Indiana which witnesses lots of summer storms.… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Global Warming Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,352 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Warming Ethics

Global Warming and Social Philosophy: Practical and Ethical Issues in the Face of Climate Change

The issue of global warming is one of the most prominent political and social issues of our time. Hardly a day passes without some mention of global warming, climate change, and the possible human causes behind it by a major news organization; it… [read more]

Arctic Melt Unnerves the Experts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,336 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


There are a number of charts and images as illustrations of some of these issues.

The article goes on to speculate at the possibility of reversing climate change. It argues that the effects of climate change are unavoidable, at this point, but that if we take steps to reduce emissions drastically, effects will come slower and be less intense, giving societies more time to adapt. It concludes by saying that climate change has very serious implications for the Arctic region.


I believe the New York Times piece accurately reflected the information given in the Corell's article. However, not all the information in Corell's article was presented in the Times piece. This is either for the sake of brevity or because the Times piece did not use his article for its research.

In Corell's article I detected a specific focus on the negative effects of climate change in the Arctic, whereas in the Times report, it seemed that negative effects were contrasted with positive effects, and far less were listed. I found it interesting that I interpreted Corell's piece as "feeling" alarming, whereas I had much less of that kind of sense reading the Times story. It was interesting to me because I've become so used to media sensationalism, and this time I actually found an academic paper that felt more sensational than a mainstream media outlet's piece on the environment.

I did not find any contrasting information in the two articles. This is most likely because the story was written shortly after Corell's report, and so less time existed for updated data to enter the picture. I found the Times piece to lack any bias or interpretation -- it seemed to report the information from all possible angles and with a strong sense of neutrality, qualifying most of the "facts" with "the authors said," or something similar. I feel positive about this type of reporting.

The same level of "humility," as you might call it, did not exist in Corell's piece. This is probably because the author had no need, as the Times did, to appear completely neutral and act as if even "science" was under question. The Times must use language that does not condemn or condone science; to do so would be to show bias. Conversely, the academic article, acting under the paradigm of science, does not need to appear unbiased toward its belief in science, as that might make the whole thing seem irrelevant.

I believe that a news story that reflected all that Corell reported would be much appreciated by the public, but not in its "raw" form (as an academic piece). As it is written in the academic piece, the information reads slowly and haltingly, because the language is by an academics, for the academic community. It is not meant for the eyes of the public. The images are complex graphs which do not necessarily even look like graphs at first glance, but strange, colorful shapes. This is opposed to, in a publication like… [read more]

Global Warming the Earth's Atmosphere Is Heating Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (679 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Global Warming

The earth's atmosphere is heating up because of the rise in the amount of man-made greenhouse gases that are being released into the atmosphere. Some call it global warming, others call it "climate change," and still others believe that the scientists who research the warming of the planet are somehow putting forth a hoax. For the purposes of this paper, global warming is real, it is proven by studies from hundreds of reputable scientists -- including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that is sponsored by the United Nations -- and global warming presents a very dangerous situation for the future of the planet.

The National Geographic News report (http://news.nationalgeographic.com) explains that the "past decade has been the hottest on record." In fact the year 2009 is "shaping up to be the fifth warmest year" since records were being kept in 1850, the National Geographic reports. The temperature data is collected on ships, buoys, on satellites, and it "does not show a slowdown or reversal" of the trend for global heating up. Statistically, the data that National Geographic uses -- from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) -- shows that the combined air surface and sea surface temperatures for 2009 have hit "14.44 degrees Centigrade (57.99 degrees Fahrenheit)." This represents 0.44 degree Centigrade "above the average annual temperature" of the planet (which was 14.00 degrees Centigrade) that was recorded between 1961 and 1990, a period of time that is used by the WMO.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that it is "known" that "human activities are changing the composition of Earth's atmosphere" by increasing greenhouse gases (like CO2). This is "well-documented and understood," the EPA states (www.epa.gov). Though the global warming trend is proven by empirical science, the EPA reminds Americans that important questions remain about "how much warming will occur, how fast it will occur, and how the warming will affect" the rest of the system that affects climate (like storms, rain patterns, and winds). The United States has its own scientific study…… [read more]

Global Warming There Is a Growing Body Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (738 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Global Warming

There is a growing body of evidence that shows global warming, also called climate change, has caused sea levels to rise on a global level. However, even though the statistics point to this as a real problem, there is still no reason to suddenly panic and start changing the way everything is done. In other words, a wait and see attitude is a much better choice, and it is the one that I choose to adopt. Healy and Tapick (2004) have stated that, over the last 100 years, the sea level has risen globally between four and eight inches. In addition, every year the sea rises one-tenth of one inch. That does not seem like much, but top scientists are concerned about it and they believe that it can become a serious problem in the future. I do not completely agree with that, and I am not alone. Most people shrug it off, but the people who take climate change seriously warn against continuing the burning of fossil fuels, especially in very large amounts, because of the long-term impacts to the actual planet and to human health.

There are currently many countries that are not happy with the United States because it is one of the largest contributors of greenhouse gases. Most of that comes from power plants, since they still burn coal (Healy & Tapick, 2004). For example, in 1998, 24% of emissions of these gases came from the U.S. That is a very big amount for just one country, even though the U.S. is large, and there is no other country that produces more (Healy & Tapick, 2004). The Energy Information Administration has estimated that -- between 1990 and 2001 -- greenhouse gas emissions within the United States grew more than 12%.

Around 84% of total greenhouse gases produced by the U.S. come from carbon dioxide, which is also among the gases considered to be most dangerous to the environment and to human health (Healy & Tapick, 2004). Unfortunately for the people who worry about the dangers that greenhouses gases possess, fossil fuels are still cheapest and easiest when it comes to the forms of energy that are in use today. Because of that, they…… [read more]

Global Warming. The Reality Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,440 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … global warming. The reality of global warming has raised alarm bells as well as intensive debate in many sectors of contemporary society. The implications of global warming and climate change are widespread and complex and affect every sector of modern society -- including the social, economic and political dimensions.

The situation becomes even more problematic when we consider… [read more]

Cap and Trade of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Carbon Cap and Trade

On June 26, 2009, the Carbon Cap and Trade bill was passed by a narrow margin through the U.S. House of Representatives. Currently, the bill is waiting to be voted on by the U.S. senate and if it becomes law, it would be the first law to mandate greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

The goal of the Carbon Cap and Trade policy is to decrease greenhouse gas emissions through a widespread and systematic approach. Companies will be subject to specified carbon emission caps, which will limit the amount of greenhouse gas pollution they are permitted to produce (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim). These emissions restrictions will progressively increase over time until the ultimate emissions goal has been reached (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim).

Since companies will be varied in their ability to effectively reduce their carbon emissions, a trading component to the policy will allow corporations which exceed their emissions goals to sell "permits" to companies which have not met their goals (Wilhelm; Labatt & White). In this way, the overall greenhouse gas emissions goals can be attained with minimal cost and will provide additional incentives to companies which exceed their emissions targets (Wilhelm; Labatt & White).

The government may choose to provide emission allowances, or carbon credits, to corporations either through an auction or grandfathering approach. The auction approach allows companies to bid on emission allowances and effectively purchase the allowances they require (Wilhelm; Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim). This approach is similar to a carbon tax approach, with the exception that it provides companies with the ability to trade carbon credits amongst each other. The grandfathering system, however, is predicated on the past emission levels of the companies. In this manner, emissions allowances are contingent upon a company's history of emission and there is no auctioning of emission allowances (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim). The grandfathering approach to emissions targets is utilized in the EU cap and trade system (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim) .

Issues Regarding Implementation of Cap and Trade Policy

The most prevalent issue pertaining to the introduction of a cap and trade policy, which would place limitations on carbon emissions and potentially slow economic growth, is the veracity of human-driven global warming. Opponents state that global warming is a natural phenomenon and that human beings have not played a role in climate change (Farrar). If the climate change currently occurring on the Earth is the result of natural processes and not an effect of human greenhouse gas emissions, then the expressed purpose of the cap and trade policy is extraneous and unnecessary. Advocates state that global warming is the result of human activities and that action must be taken immediately to reduce emissions and slow global climate change (Farrar). This is an issue which has been the source of considerable contention and debate amongst policy makers and lay people.

Supporting the human-driven climate change argument, in 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which effectively represents the scientific consensus in climatology, released… [read more]

Global Air Circulation Patterns Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Global Air Circulation Patterns

We know so little about the place that has been our home for thousands of years. There are so many unseen functions of the planet Earth that have such strong influences on all aspects of the creatures which walk upon it. The forces of the air and atmosphere are some of the most influential on global weather patterns. Understanding the atmospheric conditions of the Earth gives us a glimpse into our own home which was previous unseen. These conditions rule our everyday lives, yet go largely unnoticed or completely understood by most of humanity. The weather patterns we are so vulnerable to come from the interaction of three general zones, the Hadley, Polar, and Ferrel Cells, which consistently move and maneuver earth around the globe. Their interaction with each other affects the climate as well as individual weather patterns. Although they have been present since our existence on the Earth, these atmospheric conditions are not permanent. As they fluctuate annually, they are also threatened by human forces that have negatively impacted the natural ecology of the Earth.

The weather patterns of our Earth are regulated by a vast system of atmospheric conditions which force air and pressure up and down across the globe. The basic structure of the nature of atmospheric conditions comes from a familiar source, the sun; "The central feature of global weather is the redistribution of solar energy that falls unequally on Earth at different latitudes," (Manahan 2006:193). The sun heats up the earth's surface unevenly, causing mixed reactions between the warmer air of the tropics, which are closest to the sun at all times, and the cooler air of the icy poles. The earth moves hot and cold air around to mix them and keep temperature in check and regulate weather patterns. The three cells that dominate over atmospheric circulation have a fluid structure which does vary annually, yet generally stays similar in nature.

The largest of the three cells and most forceful in climate conditions as we know it is the Hadley Cell. Located over the equator zones, this cell moves hot air u into the atmosphere from the earth's surface, for hot air always rises higher than cooler air. The excess energy caused by the warmth in the air near the equator causes that air to rise until it hits the troposphere, where it "cools by expansion and loss of water, then sinks again," (Manahan 2006:193). This motion of hot air rising, cooling, and sinking again results in a high pressure zone. It also creates the Coriolis effect, or "The air in the Hadley cells does not move straight north and south, but is deflected by Earth's rotation and by contact with the rotating Earth […] which results in spiral-shaped air circulation patterns," (Manahan 2006:194). This circulation combined with hot air pressure can result in great weather instability in the region. Such patterns create the environment for large tropical storms and hurricanes as hot air cools and sinks with the… [read more]

Smith Family Reunion: Risk Management When Debating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Smith family reunion: Risk management

When debating if they should rend an indoor pavilion for their annual family reunion, the Smith family is engaged in some real-life risk management analysis. The family could 'bet' that the weather would be perfect, not rent the pavilion, and keep budgeted costs as low as possible. The potential gains from not renting the pavilion, if the weather is fine, are the savings of the rental cost. However, the weather is supposed to be cool or rainy. While weather predictions are often imperfect, if the event is rained out, with no indoor facility for protection, the prospective attendees will lose the time and money they spent preparing for the event, which is much greater than the cost of renting the indoor facility. A cost-benefit analysis suggests that the costs of not renting the pavilion and having the event rained out are much greater than the costs of renting the pavilion and having an indoor location prove unnecessary.

In this instance, renting the facility is hedging one's bets, or assuming that a worst-case scenario is…… [read more]

Politicization of Science, Causes and Consequences Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Politicization of Science, Causes and Consequences

In today's world, going green is more of a trend than a scientific recommendation. Wearing clothes made from recycled products or sticking Greenpeace stickers all over a suitcase or car is considered fashionable and trendy. To believe that global warming is not a result of humans' actions is considered ignorant and backwards, while thinking green and acting in such a way as to reduce one's impact on the environment is both politically and socially acceptable. Although it is regarding a different issue, today's attitude about global warming is quite similar to the one that the Romans had about Galileo and his theory that the earth revolved around the son. While Galileo was ostracized because the Catholic court held that his position was "expressly contrary to holy scriptures" (Halsall), those who believe in global warming today are similarly ostracized because their belief is contrary to holy Hollywood and Washington. A comparison between Galileo's rejection and that of modern opponents to global warming implies that politicizing science is dangerous because it makes progress difficult or even impossible by forbidding questions.

When one politicizes science, the scientists' ability to ask questions is severely reduced. And because behind every important scientific finding is a good research question, this inhibition certainly makes progress difficult. While random observations may encourage scientists to come up with good questions, good scientific evidence comes out of well-articulated questions. It is imperative, then, that scientists be able to ask such questions. When a scientist's ability to ask questions is cut short, then their possibilities are severely limited. One question usually leads to another and another until a question comes along that, when answered, changes the way humans view their world. When scientists are unable to ask any of the questions in that series because they are politically taboo, a plethora of scientific research can be lost.

A historical example of how the inability to ask questions halts scientific progress can be seen through Galileo Galilei's attempt to conduct scientific experiments during Catholic rule. Even though they were not accepted by the political authorities of his time, Galileo's scientific findings were incredible. Still, the world may have benefited from far more finds if Galileo had been able to ask more questions. In the move, "Galileo: The Challenge of Reason," viewers can clearly see how politicizing science stopped Galileo from asking questions. When at dinner with the political elite, the Catholic Church members, Galileo tried to convince them that it is important to ask questions and try experiments in science; he was refused, even when he proved himself right by proving a theory of Aristotle's wrong in front of these church members. Thus, the church halted progression by telling Galileo not to ask questions. Further, Galileo abided by that censure, saying in his abjuration that he recognized the authority of the church and accepted their terms that he not question what the political elite believed was contained in the scriptures (Halsall).

Today, those who do not… [read more]

Politics of Science - Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Politics of Science - Global Warming

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of global warming is the simple word, "warming." Quite often, on an anecdotal level, people will complain about the dangers of global warming during freakishly warm winters or prohibitively hot summers, and forget about the phenomenon when it snows. Deniers of global warming use the more benign sounding phrase 'climate change' to underline their belief that escalating global temperatures are part of the earth's natural cycles and have little to do with human activity. However, the scientific definition of global warming does not involve yearly weather shifts, but reflects an overall pattern of warming of the earth as a whole: "Since the Industrial Revolution (around 1750), human activities have substantially added to the amount of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels and biomass (living matter such as vegetation) has also resulted in emissions of aerosols that absorb and emit heat, and reflect light. The changes in the atmosphere have likely influenced temperature, precipitation, storms and sea level. However, these features of the climate also vary naturally, so determining what fraction of climate changes are due to natural variability vs. human activities is challenging" (Global Warming, EPA, 2009)

Although most scientists now believe that human activities such as industrialization, factory farming (because of the release of methane gasses into the atmosphere), and mechanized vehicle transport plays a role in global warming, the political controversies surrounding the issue have often had more to do with politics than science. Even using the phrase 'global warming' or 'climate change' becomes a kind of test of a politician's belief systems, although both phrases are incomplete descriptions of what is occurring in the atmosphere and on the earth.

Representatives of major industries that would be affected by more stringent emissions limits like the automobile industry, cattle farmers, and other political action groups have generally allied themselves with conservatives who deny the efficacy of actions against global warming, while liberals (including, most famously Al Gore) have come out in favor of the science regarding climate change. Driving a Prius is as much a 'statement' as it is a savings on gasoline. Greenpeace points out that "For example, ExxonMobil continues to fund the think tanks and organizations who are running a decades-long campaign denying the consensus of urgency from climate scientists and attacking policies to abate global warming...Exxon's Global Climate Science Communications Team (GCSCT) developed an action plan to inform the American public that science…… [read more]

Ozone Layer Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Ozone Layer

Factors, Impacts

The ozone layer is a spread of blue-colored gas through the stratosphere, which filters out ultraviolet radiation from the sun (Lean 2005). No life on earth is possible without it.

But chemicals, like chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, and other pollutants, have weakened the protective layer and created a hole. The hole, first recognized in 1987, is as… [read more]

Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … greenhouse effect and global warming, and the scientific concepts behind these issues affecting the world today. The greenhouse effect and global warming are two of the most important scientific issues facing the planet today, and for the future generations, they will be one of the biggest issues to be addressed and managed.

The greenhouse effect, contrary to popular belief, is actually what keeps this planet habitable and comfortable for all living things. It is a natural process that keeps the Earth warm by keeping certain gases in the atmosphere, where they reduce some of the radiation from the sun's rays, and keep the planet a comfortable temperature. One scientist notes, "The amount of heat energy added to the atmosphere by the greenhouse effect is controlled by the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere" (Pidwirny). Without the greenhouse effect, the planet would be too cold for life; the average temperature would be about -18 degrees Celsius, while the current comfortable temperature is 15 degrees Celsius (Pidwirny). The greenhouse effect gets its name from the fact that it resembles what happens in a greenhouse - the sun's rays warm the greenhouse and keep it warmer than the surrounding area because it holds the heat inside, just as the greenhouse gases and atmosphere hold the heat around the Earth. That is one of the things us environmental lobbyists have to face many times. People think the greenhouse effect is something to do with global warming, and of course, it has to do with the atmosphere and gases in the atmosphere, but as you can see, the greenhouse effect is a necessary part of life, while global warming is not.

Global warming is related to the greenhouse effect, however, because the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing in the last decade, and that means the heat from the sun, radiating back to Earth as the greenhouse effect, is becoming warmer, leading to climate change and disruption of many areas here on Earth. Much of the evidence that global warming is occurring comes from ice core samples from the Arctic and Antarctic, which indicate a drastic increase in carbon dioxide emissions in the last century, which have helped create more greenhouse gases, which leads to global warming. Another scientists notes, "Over the past 260,000 years, the period for which a detailed record now exists from ice cores, temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane have been closely correlated" (Johansen xiv). The most probable cause is man, using more machinery than ever before in history, and this machinery, which largely runs on fossil fuels, leads to more carbon dioxide emissions and more greenhouse gases. The key determinate is that carbon monoxide levels in the atmosphere are higher than they have been in the last 20 millions years, according to the ice core samples (Johansen xiv), and they are continuing to rise, and global warming is continuing to occur. The key link to humans is that the rise in… [read more]

Environmental Challenges Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (605 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Environmental Challenges

Global Warming - Threats, Efforts and Results

The debate on the real existence of global warming is a long standing one. While some argue the real threats posed by the increased emissions of greenhouse gazes and the destruction of the ozone layer, others state that the propaganda has been intentionally created to create mass hysteria. Those who militate for the reality of global warming present several threats for our future well-being as individuals and as a planet. Some of these threats include:

the melting of the polar glaciers negative impacts over the natural habitats, resulting in the disappearance of several plant and animal species the bleaching and disintegration of the coral reefs more frequent and sever floods more damaging hurricanes (EcoBridge)

As these threats become more and more obvious, institutions across the globe begin to take action. Most of the efforts are forwarded by non-government environmental organizations. However, these often possess limited resources and their efforts may tend to go unnoticed. Examples of some of the most relevant environmental organizations which fight against reducing global warming could include EcoBridge, Plant a Tree or the Nicodemus Wilderness Project. Their measures revolved around wide series of actions the human kind could take to reduce pollution and improve the quality of Earth as a planet.

Realizing however the gravity of the matter and the reduced positive results non-governmental organizations were retrieving, state officials and institutions became involved in resolving the matter of growing global temperature.

The most intense efforts in this direction have been forwarded by the European Union. In a meeting held on the 8th and 9th of Match 2007, the representatives at the European Commission set a goal of reducing carbon emissions by 20% by the year 2020. The percentage could even be increased to 30% if the efforts are sustained…… [read more]

Transportation and Global Warming: A Contributor Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (364 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Transportation and Global Warming:

A Contributor to Controversy

In today's political and scientific realms no issue has been so publicized as global warming. From the dramatic the Day After Tomorrow to Al Gore's informational an Inconvenient Truth, even Hollywood has offered its opinion on the environmental issue that threatens to significantly impact the earth's atmosphere, and therefore the lives of animals and humans, in the near future. Although most scientific and political officials agree that global warming is an issue of importance, some controversy exists over the degree to which human activity worsens the issue. In one form, however, human activity has been undoubtedly linked with an increase in global warming -- transportation.

In both urban and rural areas, people have become increasingly reliant on personal vehicles to get from place to place, a lifestyle choice that has adverse implications for global warming and the planet. For their morning commutes, vacations and day trips, billions of people all over the planet turn the key in the ignition and drive their personal vehicles each day. Similarly, commercial transporters driving trucks, piloting airplanes, and…… [read more]

Global Warming - Fact or Fiction? Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Global warming - Fact or Fiction?

Alongside with globalization, global warming has been the most popular concept discussed in news broadcasts, specialized and unspecialized articles as well as special international conferences. There are those who strongly believe that global warming has negatively impacted the earth and if the human actions continue as they are now, the planet will be lost… [read more]

Global Warming Is Inherently a Natural Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (412 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Global Warming is inherently a natural process caused by the trapping of gases in the Earth's atmosphere: a process known as the greenhouse effect. However, global warming has been hastened by factory and automobile emissions and other factors related to human activity since the Industrial Revolution. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "there is no scientific debate on this point. Pre-industrial levels of carbon dioxide (prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution) were about 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv), and current levels are greater than 380 ppmv and increasing at a rate of 1.9 ppm yr-1 since 2000." Global surface temperatures have risen considerably as a result, but temperatures do not rise uniformly across the globe. In fact, global warming is a misleading term in that it ignores the fact that some regions of the globe might experienced more intensely cold winters due to shifting weather patterns. The phrase climate change is more appropriate than global warming to refer to the collection of weather and climate effects associated with increased concentrations of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. Global warming affects a wide range of climactic events ranging from the Gulf Stream to evaporation. Another main effect of climate change is the…… [read more]

Global Warming: An Inconvenient but Necessary Remedy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,112 words)
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Global Warming: An Inconvenient but Necessary Remedy

When I saw "An Inconvenient Truth," the documentary produced by Al Gore about the effects of global warming, I felt motivated to learn more about the subject. Before, I had been a bit smug. After all, I recycled. I did not drive a Hummer. I did not litter or buy things with a great deal of excess packaging. I considered myself reasonably 'eco-friendly.' Also, in the back of my mind, I admit I was not overly concerned about the issue. I knew that remedying the effects of global warming was a long-term priority for our nation. But it was hard to get 'fired up,' no pun intended, about global warming, in comparison to other, more immediate issues, like our escalating involvement in Iraq and rising gas prices, because the dangers seemed to lie so far in the future -- why worry about what was more likely to affect my children-to-be when my friends and family members were suffering from other issues? The documentary underlined a very important and equally inconvenient truth for me -- that a real solution to global warming is unlikely to come unless political as well as personal action is undertaken, and that the impact of global warming is already here and now. It showed me that the calculation of every individual's carbon footprint is too complex for one person to compute alone and I must take action to pressure politicians to acknowledge the reality of global warming. We must make sacrifices to improve out own health and the health of our planet on a global, not merely a national level.

The effects of global warming have only begun to be noticed slowly by average Americans -- for example, warmer weather results in shifts in animal migration and plant growth. Sea levels are rising, which has been causing beach erosion and economic as well as physical damage to costal communities ("Driven to Extremes: Health Effects of Climate Change,"2007, Environmental Health Perspectives, p.A 201). There has also been an increase in severe storms and droughts. "In many regions, it is already raining less often but harder. According to the Physical Science Basis, trends from 1900 to 2005 show significantly increased precipitation in many regions, including eastern parts of North and South America. More intense and longer droughts have occurred over wider areas worldwide since the 1970s ("Driven to Extremes: Health Effects of Climate Change,"2007, Environmental Health Perspectives, p.A 198). This suggests that Hurricane Katrina may simply not have been an anomaly, but an indication of a larger trend. Increased aid to disaster relief from storms and droughts is likely to be another 'cost' of global warming, as well as food shortages (as manifest in the recent failure of the rice crop in drought-prone Australia).

Once upon a time, the symptoms of the warming of the planet seemed easy to ignore in the short-term. After all, unless you are a polar bear or a penguin, you can pretend that the melting of… [read more]

Environmental Changes the Physical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Environmental Changes

The Physical Environmental Change

What is global warming? How does it affect the weather, what are the contributing factors? Global warming is the gradual process increase in earth temperature; the warming is attributed to the increase of greenhouse gases in the Earth's upper atmosphere like carbon dioxide and methane emissions caused by human activities like farming, industrial and deforestation. These kind activities discharged smoke that contributes to warming of the environment. Many scientists believe that an increase in temperature may lead to changes in weather patterns that would cause harmful effects like flood, drought and storms. This might also harm the wildlife like plants and animals. Animals like birds may force to transfer to another place. According to Time Magazine, "heat waves storms, floods and fires to massive glacial melts, the global climate seem to be crashing around us. Scientists have been calling this shot for decades. This is precisely what they have been warning would happen if we continued pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, protecting the heat that flows in from the sun and raising global temperature." This is serious problem and real threat to the planet and this is happening more quickly in some parts of the world than others. Different regions are likely to experience some adverse effects of climate. For example in China global warming has a major effect on agriculture because of temperature and because of climate change Africa's supply of foods and water is endangered, even in the deserts of Arabia where summer temperature top 50 centigrade, snow fell.

There are many contributing factors on these geographical changes. These are gases in the atmosphere; the population growth; burning fossil of fuels and electric power plants. Rising in temperature are expected to increase sea levels like in Arctic Ocean. Researchers have suspected that loss of Arctic sea ice may be causes by changing atmospheric patterns over the Arctic temperatures that result from greenhouse gas build up in the atmosphere (Recent Warming of Arctic may affect worldwide climate October 2003). The greenhouse helps to balance the global temperature by shielding the heat that surrounds the planet, this is very essential for life on Earth. It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere. Without natural greenhouse effect the temperature of the Earth would be about zero degrees, it has a small contribution to the atmosphere but it has big impact and mankind abuse the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Because of the increasing greenhouse gas emission it poses negative consequences. According to National Resources Defense Council Arctic region is getting thinner and melting. This once permanent ice is already affecting native people and wildlife and plants. Polar bears, whales, walrus and seals are changing their feeding and migration patterns, making for native people to hunt them. Along arctic coastlines, entire villages will be uprooted they are in danger of being swamped. The native lives in Arctic view global warming as threat to their culture… [read more]

Reasonable Solution to the Problem. Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,685 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … reasonable solution to the problem. Global warming is the gradual warming of the earth's climate, leading to changes in a wide variety of the earth's ecosystems. To solve global warming, we must reduce our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels such as oil and coal.

Global warming (often referred to as climate change) is one of the most serious… [read more]

Hurricane Forecasting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
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¶ … scientists predict the number of hurricanes expected during a season and how they predict the development and motion of a single hurricane. Hurricane forecasting is a difficult process, but it has developed into a science that is usually capable of judging the velocity and trajectory of a hurricane in order to help save lives and property. The National… [read more]

Global Warming Is a Lie Abstract Term Paper

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Global Warming is a Lie

Abstract: Global warming is a falsehood, a lie, a fabrication, and
people like Al Gore should be held responsible for the fraud being
perpetrated on the public. Indeed, the public is being misled about the
dangers of global warming, according to numerous writers in this paper.
These essays and reports quote from numerous sources that… [read more]

Global Warming Seems Clear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


How can the developed world in good conscience tell them to slow their efforts at globally unsustainable, polluting growth?

Technology and Natural Resources 1

Technology has given us mass production, making everything possible from inexpensive clothing to affordable cars. It has given us electricity and a 24/7 society. It has also 'given' us polluting cars, toxins in the products we consume that do not break down, and a disposable society of ever-increasing landfills. Technology has moved faster in its ability to mass-produce what we consume than it has found ways to make us leave less of an ecological footprint.

Technology and natural resources 2

Hybrid cards. Solar power. Recycling. These are just a few examples of how technology can create some improvements to mitigate the negative impact it has had upon the planet. Also, the use of mass communication, to educate people about global warming and the need to change their lifestyles is another example of how technology can have positive benefits in…… [read more]

Global Warming Is an Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (906 words)
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Global Warming is an issue that is at the center of extensive and intense debate and research; some research is more reliable than other. This brief study attempts to examine how research is used to drive reaction and support for or against global warming theories and, thusly, recommended actions, such as the Kyoto Protocol, a controversial work of thought that from contributing specialists and scientists, which makes recommendations and, if ratified by world governments, would place certain environmental demands on governments. Proponents of global warming and the Kyoto Protocol have issued studies, environmental impact forecasts and health impact projections that are alarming, but raise the question of whether or not these proponents are overreacting and alarmists.

This study focuses on two reports: one, by Paul R. Epstein (2000), published in the peer reviewed journal Scientific American (pp. 50-7). Epstein's credentials are impressive, a medical doctor, trained in tropical climate health, he is an associate director for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School. Epstein's report is a projection of health conditions and illness that would accompany global warming; conditions that Epstein discusses these effects, prefacing his remarks by saying, "Disturbingly, these forecasts seem to be coming true (p. 1)."

The second paper is by Stephen Schneider, professor in the department of biological sciences, and senior fellow at the International Studies at Stanford University, and editor of Climatic Change and the Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. Like Epstein, Schneider is published in Scientific American, in a more recent 2002 article discusses global warming and the Kyoto Protocol. Unlike Epstein, Schneider takes the position that people need to be cautious, even suspicious of how they interpret and rely upon the vast wealth of information surrounding the debate on global warming.

The first, and most striking difference between the two experts, is that one is an alarmists, using the words "would," and "could" extensively throughout the article as he, Epstein (2000), discusses his projections of adverse health effects resulting from global warming. Epstein's article uses scientific data, as that data is understood now, in today's environment, to project human response and conditions to global warming in multiple levels of "what if" scenarios. Epstein's article is noticeably absent of citations on existing studies and concurring scientists or physicians. He uses phrases like, "Today few scientists doubt the atmosphere is warming. Most also agree...(Epstein, 2000, p. 1)." There are no names of studies or scientists to follow-up on and to inform oneself further on those "scientists." Epstein lists some (four) professional and peer review-type sources, but he does not invoke or cite those sources throughout his argument of global warming and adverse health conditions and disease, which Epstein warns will increase with global warming.

The problem…… [read more]

Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming," research scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California and other research centers have recently concluded that temperatures in the state of California "have jumped...by more than 2.1 degrees Fahrenheit within the last eighty-five years" and that the most likely culprit for this increase is linked to human activities, such as emissions from automobiles, coal-burning power plants, home air conditioning units and pollution in the form of smog. Not surprisingly, it has been determined that this rise in temperature occurs in late winter and early spring, due to "large changes in atmospheric conditions in the northern Pacific" which result from greenhouse gas-induced warming via high levels of CO2.

According to Celine Bonfils of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, "The trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures over the last 50 and 85 years are inconsistent with current model-based estimates of natural internal climate variability (and) it's pretty clear that natural causes alone just can't cut it and external factors such as greenhouse gases and urbanization come into play." Clearly, the rise in temperatures throughout California are closely related to what Bonfils calls "external factors," such as coal-burning power plants, automobile emissions and similar man-made sources. One must take into account the fact that since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the United States during the middle years of the 19th century, sources which emit CO2 and other greenhouse gases have increased ten-fold as compared to when California was mostly an agricultural environment until the rise of industry and the development of industrial factories.

Phillip Duffy, a member of the Lawrence Livermore team and a professor at the University…… [read more]

Global Warming Can the First Wedge Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,086 words)
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Global Warming can the first wedge issue of the 21st century.

Jim Manzi, National Review

This is a real wake-up call for people who mistakenly think global warming is only going to be a problem way off in the future or... has no impact on their lives in any meaningful way. The problem is here today..."

Christine Rogers

Exposure, Epidemiology… [read more]

Global Warming: All Hyped Up With Nowhere Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Global Warming: All Hyped Up With Nowhere to Go

Flow of Information

What is global warming?

Those who believe it

Those who don't believe it

Global warming discussions have been circulating for the past few decades with increasing frequency. Forty years ago it was a hypothesis that was thrown into the ring for discussion and examined as a "what if"… [read more]

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