"Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays

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Geology Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. have been declining significantly. Have the number of observed tornadoes gone down as well? Is there any relationship between these two variables? What does this tell us about cause-and-effect relationships? Over this time period, how has the impact of tornadic storms on U.S. society changed and why?

A 2012 U.S. Tornado Climatology Report states that there were an average… [read more]

Food Prices Heading Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,299 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Even as heat destroyed the wheat crop in northern Europe, catastrophic rain storms drowned the wheat crops in Australia, limiting both internal and external harvests, even as similar increases in the average rainfall as well as the severity of storms to cause similar damage in Pakistan. Unusually hot periods have also led to drought in China, which in turn will lead to a reduced wheat harvest in that country (Peters, 2011).

It should be noted here that the term "global warming" has been changed to "climate change" to reflect the fact that the changes in the world's climate brought about by the human use of fuels and processes that increase the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere increase both temperature itself as well as a plethora of consequences that follow directly from that rise in temperatures. These consequences increase both the frequency and severity of rainstorms as well as heat waves and droughts.

These conditions are felt in very different ways by those individuals who are directly affected by them; however, the results on food costs are very similar.

Peters (2011) summarizes this point: Whether these extreme weather events and others represent just random bad luck or are harbingers of more numerous such events in the future remains an open question, but considerable evidence falls on the side of more frequent severe weather events for planet Earth.

An assessment from the non-profit organization Oxfam (which focuses on the issue of food supply and costs) mirrors the above:

"The huge potential impact of extreme weather events on future food prices is missing from today's climate change debate. The world needs to wake up to the drastic consequences facing our food system of climate inaction." (The Telegraph, 2012).

The relationship between climate change and food prices can be seen to be a rational one, as graphed below and as described above. One might initially surmise that such a relationship would be a linear one because climate change and food costs both rise (or potentially fall) at the same time in ways that may seem linear because they occur at the same time.

However, the relationship between these two values rises at different rates so that (for example) a 10% rise in climate change (proxied by either rises in temperature or similar factors) does not translate to a 10% rise in the price of food. This is true even if one selects a single vector of price change in food costs, such as the price of specific food categories such as grain.

The following bar graph from Oxfam outlines one aspect of the relationship between climate change and food prices:

(Green, 2012).

It should be noted that the previous graph (as is also true for the following bar graph) assesses the relationship between climate change and food costs in terms of geography. This is an essential part of any accurate analysis given that food prices are necessarily a local function:

(Green, 2012).

Such a relationship is clear, although it is also true that the… [read more]

Changing Behavior to Reduce Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Behavioral Changes: Reducing the Effects of Global Climate Change

What is Global Warming?

The world's climate has been changing since the late 19th century and it has been changing dramatically for the past fifty years, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Temperatures are rising, glaciers are melting around the world, the ice cap in the Arctic is melting, ocean… [read more]

Hsiang Et Al. ) and Glazebrook ) Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Hsiang et al. (2011) and Glazebrook (2011).

Hsiang, SM and Meng, KC and Canes, MA (2011).Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nat u r e Vol (476).

In this article, Hsiang et al. (2011) argue out the proposition that civil conflicts are indeed associated with the global climate. According to the paper, there has been several propositions that the global climatic changes have been responsible for the various episodes of civil unrest, violence as well as the general collapse of human civilizations. The paper indicates that dispute this proposition, no previous study has been able to prove that violence can be a function of the global climatic changes. However, the authors stated categorically that just a random number of global weather patterns and events can be correlated with cases of conflict. In this work, the authors attempt to directly associate the various planetary-scale changes to the climate with the global patterns of civil unrest and conflicts via the examination of the main interannual mode of the global modern climate, namely the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).The authors points out that historians have long argued out that the incidents of ENSO may have played a part or rather influenced the global patterns of war and civil conflicts in the past. This hypothesis is indeed extended to the modern era by the authors and then tested quantitatively. The authors employed data gathered between 1950 and 2004 in showing that the probability of a new war or civil conflicts starting from the tropics is doubled in the years of El Nino years relative to the years of La Nina. This outcome indicates that the mode of ENSO may have a major role in close to twenty one percent (21%) of all the recorded civil conflicts from 1950. This is then regarded by the authors and the general body of academia as the very initial demonstration that the there is a relationship between the stability of the contemporary, modern societies and the global climatic conditions. According to Hsiang et al. (2011), the idea that the global climatic conditions may influence the level of peace in the global societies has been a motivation for several research works. They proposed that the global climatic conditions may affects certain interacting variables related to the environment that may in…… [read more]

Ethical Issue With Respect to Climate Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,022 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … ethical issue with respect to climate change is the government needing to consider the condition of human life, the well being of people, and other species on a global level in the future. At the end, it is how prepared are we to take into account the responsibilities in regards to the welfare of individuals in other countries… [read more]

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an artifact of the relationship between the atmosphere and the ocean. El Nino and La Nina represent opposite extremes in the ENSO cycle (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). It is related to air pressure, wind, and ocean currents, and happens "every 3 to 7 years and alternate with the opposite phases of below-average temperatures in the eastern tropical Paci-c (La Nina)" (Trenberth, et al., 2007). The impacts are very strong in the northern winter months (November-March), though not limited to the Northern Hemisphere (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

(Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998)

ENSO's warm phase (El Nino) involves warming of tropical Pacific surface waters from near the International Date Line to the west coast of South America (Trenberth, et al., 2007). These waters are usually cooler off of South America, bringing an upwelling from the deep ocean (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). The cold water is usually rich in nutrients, which supports lots of sea life, and so major fisheries (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). Normally, there is significant rainfall in the eastern Pacific from the warm, humid water and western South America is dry (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

ENSO's warm phase is the result of a weakening of the usually strong Sea Surface Temperature (SST) differential across the equatorial Pacific (Trenberth, et al., 2007). During ENSO's nine to twelve month warm phase (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005) (though it lasted for 3 years from 1939 to 1941 (Trenberth, et al., 2007)), the normally constant trade winds in the central and western Pacific slow (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). The air pressure changes from higher in the eastern Pacific and lower in the western Pacific to the opposite and this is called the Southern Oscillation (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). The cold waters in the eastern Pacific stop coming up, while the western Pacific waters get colder (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). Because the nutrients are no longer there, there are no more fish, and the fisheries collapse during ENSO's warm phase (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

Because the warm water slips towards the east and South America, the warm humid rain goes with it, and Peru, Ecuador, southern Brazil, central Argentina, and equatorial eastern Africa get flooded (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998), leading to disease, particularly bacterial diseases like cholera (Pascual, Xavier, Ellner, Colwell, & Bouma, 2000). Southeastern Asia (including India), southeastern Africa, Japan, southern Alaska, and western/central Canada, southeastern Brazil, south-central Africa, and southeastern Australia get a dry heatwave from December to February, instead of their monsoons (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In the meantime, it is cold in December through February along the Gulf coast (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

Because the ocean affects the atmosphere, global air circulation changes (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In fact, the trade winds weaken (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In North America, the temperatures are warmer than usual in the north central states because the…… [read more]

Briefing Note to Canadian Prime Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,784 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


My best suggestions that should have priority include the following: a) take steps immediately to curtain GHG emissions by implementing policies that require vehicles to get better mileage; b) push for the development of renewable, non-polluting energy (wind, solar, geothermal, among other technologies); c) carefully review the independent, empirical research on the carbon emissions that result from tar sands crude oil development, and take action to restrict the further expansion of this environmentally disastrous project; d) protect the iconic Boreal Forest against logging, mining, and other exploitative intrusions; and e) collaborate with President Obama and other leaders worldwide on the development of technologies for the future that can mitigate the damage we have already done to our planet.

Thank you very sincerely for your consideration of the ideas and issues I have presented. I look forward to working with you in our government to create a better, cleaner, and safer environment for our citizens, their children and their future grandchildren, who will continue to trust us to do the right thing for Canada.

Works Cited

Environment Canada. (2011). Canada's Emissions Trends. Retrieved November 18, 2011,


Leahy, Stephen. (2011). Canada cuts environment spending. Guardian Environment Network /

The Guardian. Retrieved November 18, 2011, from http://www.guardian.co.uk.

Martyn, Chris. (2011). Getting Real -- How Do Canadians View the Environment and Energy?

Ipsos. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.ipsos-na.com.

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2011). The Consequences of Global Warming on Wildlife: Rising temperatures ravage coral reefs and melt the habitats of polar bears and Antarctic penguins. Retrieved November 17, 2011, from http://www.nrdc.org.

Rice, Aaron. (2009). Many Canadians Satisfied with Environmental Efforts: 54% are

Satisfied, 45% are dissatisfied. Gallup Poll. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.gallup.com.

Scolnick,…… [read more]

Understanding Interdisciplinary Studies Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Interdisciplinary Studies

How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach?

Reasoning: The global warming theory takes into account a number of scientific and sociological/anthropological disciplines: chemistry, physics, ecology, meteorology, vulcanology, biology, oceanography; as well as history, anthropology (medical, cultural, etc.), medicine, resource management, geography, political science, international relations, and more.

Step Questions:

Begin with an interdisciplinary question

How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach?

Identify key and subsidiary phenomena

First, is global warming a fact or theoretical phenomena; Do we have enough data to actually make determinations about climate, since climate trends move at a geologic pace?

Ascertain what theories and methods are particularly relevant to the question at hand.

Human industrialization theory, natural climatic occurrences over time; volcanism.

4. Perform a detailed literature survey.

See Appendix A

5. Identify relevant disciplines and disciplinary perspectives.

Each discipline focuses on a particular aspect of the issue; if we think of meteorology or ecology as the central hub, we would find that each additional discipline was a spoke in the wheel of interdisciplinary study.

6. If some relevant phenomena (or links among these), theories, or methods in 2 or 3 have received little or no attention; encourage the performance of such research.

History of Pollution examines human impact on climate change; ecology examines interactions between aspects of the biological and chemical environment and consequences.

7. Evaluate the results of previous research.

Global warming is the gradual increase of the earth's median temperature for surface air and oceans. Although controversial, global warming consistently measured since the mid-20th century has resulted in environmental impacts that may be disastrous to the environment. While scientists agree that solar variation and volcanic activity have had an…… [read more]

Insurance in Illinois Hurricanes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,110 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The loans, which are not a standard term-life offering but can be opted-into when setting up a policy, are intended to assist in rebuilding efforts not covered by property insurance (Pasha 2005).

The case of the Carbondale 'Hurricane" raises interesting points of consideration for handling insurance-related needs around the threat of hurricanes in Illinois (Associated Press 2009). Most of the major storm damage in the state is not attributable to actual hurricane, but to remnants of tropical systems, non-tropical severe storms, such as derechos, and heavy seasonal hail. Standard hurricane policies such as what are seen in the more hurricane-prone American South do not meet the needs of people experiencing severe weather in the American Midwest.

Based on the data concerning the rain and hail impacts of several severe storm systems discussed earlier in this paper, it seems that comprehensive flood and/or wind damage insurance is far more pertinent to the needs of Illinois residents. If the damage does not come from a storm classified by meteorology experts as a hurricane or tropical storm system, there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding whether or not insurance companies will cover the damage. Therefore, Illinois residents would be best served by coverage which covers damage types rather than cause of damage. Comprehensive property and life insurance along with wind and flooding insurance should be sufficient for an average Illinois resident, with crop-related insurance for farmers as an additional necessary measure.


Associated Press (2008). "Thousands Still Without Power in Illinois." WTHI-TV. http://www.wthitv.com/Global/story.asp?S=9009105&nav=menu593_2.

Angel, James, R. (2005) Tropical storms reduced drought in Illinois in 2005. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science July, 2006 Volume: 99 Source Issue: 3-4.

CBS/AP (2008). "Millions Still In Dark Over Ike Recovery." CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/18/national/main4457061.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-30.

Changnon, Stanley A. (1996)

"Effects of Recent Weather Extremes on the Insurance Industry: Major Implications for the Atmospheric Sciences" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

Changnon, Stanley A. Temporal Fluctuations of Hail in Illinois

Illinois State Water Survey Atmospheric Sciences Division Champaign, Illinois

Coyne, Tom (2008). "Indiana storm death toll up to 7." Journal and Courier. http://jconline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080915/NEWS09/80915022.

____. (2010) "Weiss Ratings: Homeowners Offered Few Choices of Hurricane Insurance"

Money and Markets June 2010

Kunkel, K.E., S.A. Changnon, C.G. Lonnquist and J.R. Angel. 1990: A Real-Time Climate Information System for the Midwestern United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71, 1601-1609.

Lehrer, Eli et al. (2009) Property and Casualty Insurance 2009 Report Card, The Heartland Institute.

Lehrer, Eli. (2010) "2010 Property and Casualty Insurance Report Card," The Heartland Institute.

Larson, J., Y. Zhou, R.W. Higgins, 2005. Characteristics of landfalling tropical cyclones in the United States and Mexico: climatology and interannual variability. Journal of Climate, 18, 12471262.

Merrill, R.T., (1993): "Tropical Cyclone Structure" - Chapter 2, Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland.

Neumann, C.J., B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie, and G.R. Hammer, 1999. Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1998. National Climatic Data Center, 256 pp. [Data resides at… [read more]

Climate Change Anthropogenic Global Warming Theory the Hockey Stick Argument Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Rapid growth of the global economy profoundly effects modern economic development and stability, labor, and, most especially, the environment. In combination with the Earth's natural geologic functions, the process of human globalization radically transforms local issues into national and international problems, heightening very serious challenges, such as pollution, global warming, and overpopulation (Levin, 2009). Pollution is not a new global… [read more]

Government Regulation of Climate Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Global Warming: Evidence and Remedies

As the evidence for global warming mounted over the years, accusations of 'foot dragging' by the United States increased in the world community. The most notable manifestation of U.S. inaction was its refusal to sign the Kyoto Treaty, in which 140 nations resolved to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 5.2% less than they were in 1990, by 2012 (Ifill 2005). For many years, vocal and powerful political forces within the United States denied the existence of global warming at all. Now that evidence for an increase in the earth's temperature is unequivocal, those who deny the phenomenon state that it cannot be man-made but is naturally generated the result of natural shifts in the earth's climate. However, "the heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19th century" (Climate change, 2010, NASA).

Furthermore, "all three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase" (Climate change, 2010, NASA). Melting ice caps, increasing ocean temperatures, more severe storms, and fundamental and sudden shifts in a variety of the earth's ecosystems have been the result of this sudden, human-generated climate change.

"Projections of future climate change anticipate an additional warming of 2.0 to 11.5 "F (1.1 to 6.4 "C) over the 21st century, on top of the 1.4 "F already observed over the past 100 years" (Climate change, 2010, National Academy of Sciences). As a result, droughts in areas where the source of water availability are glaciers or snowpack; flooding in rain-prone areas, higher storm surges; and ocean acidification are all likely to occur. But the problem with fighting environmental problems and setting goals to radically reduce emissions is that many individuals are not science-literate enough to draw immediate connections between events such as Hurricane Katrina and the more severe storms this winter in the American Northeast with climate change -- a heat wave may occur and people may talk about the need to combat global warming, but once the immediate phenomenon abates, it is hard for people to understand what is ultimately an incremental, long-term effect on the earth.

It is difficult, cognitively speaking for people to make great sacrifices for what cannot provide tangible rewards in the 'here and now.' Making sacrifices to reduce greenhouse gases will be painful in the short-term, and may only be enjoyed by later generations. That is why government must step in with incentives and regulations to combat global warming. "Many factors enter into the decision to favor either policies that lean more toward economic incentives (EI) and toward direct regulation, commonly referred to as…… [read more]

Game Theory and Alternative International Climate Architectures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … international framework seeking to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, I will demonstrate steps to be taken in an effort to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change solely on the basis of multi-lateral arrangements without infringing upon the rights of the self-governed. This will diminish, lessen, and ultimately relieve the production of greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity. I would like to suggest that this is not possible without significant buy-in at the local levels; that citizens of developed countries must recognize the effort as non-zero-sum with the benefits outweighing the transactional costs to taxpayers.

Globally, the far greater majority of accomplished scientists no longer aim to prove or disprove the existence of the all-encompassing catastrophe imposed by global warming. Nor do they argue about tedious labels, human inequity or human rights, and whether climate change will continue to cause disturbance or nullify itself. In fact, there are reciprocal advantages concerning each side of the equation; one side, of course, being theoretical human rights alongside the practical doctrine accompanying every traditional or cultural regard toward accountability; the other, the standing concepts of the international human rights policy, stressing objectivity and impartiality, which advocates such fairness from more of an all-encompassing standpoint. Therefore, every attempt to prove or disprove that global warming is the fault of one nation over the other falls by the wayside.

Instead, countries worldwide must communally agree upon International Policy Architectures; this will produce workable, effective, enforceable multilateral agreements that will ultimately result in the climate change mitigation, the action of reducing the severity, seriousness, and painfulness. This is the only way we will collectively have a chance at learning how to infiltrate and lawfully employ reparation of the harm posed by the overabundance of carbon and focus on greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gases are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. Also from Wikipedia, Scientific opinion on climate change is given by synthesis reports, scientific bodies of national or international standing, and surveys of opinion among climate scientists. This neither includes the views of individual scientists, individual universities, or laboratories, nor self-selected lists of individuals such as petitions. Only with cooperative solutions to the threat of climate change will we see the necessary change required for human advancement, which will come solely from the survival of our species.

As an option, a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as…… [read more]

Global Climate Change Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Small Price for a Large Benefit' which was published on New York Times on Twentieth February of this year by Robert Frank. The link for this article is http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/business/economy/21view.html. Robert Frank says that predictions concerning climate change are extremely doubtful. The planners of a climate change meeting that was held last December in Copenhagen Danmark were unable to come up with accords to restrict global warming to three point six degrees Fahrenheit by the year two thousand nine hundred and ninety nine. Robert further adds that even a small upsurge in temperature would cause lethal destruction. In accordance with the latest approximations from the Integrated Global Systems Model at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the median prediction is for a rise of nine degrees Fahrenheit by the year two thousand nine hundred and nine if effectual countermeasures are lacking. That prediction though, may underestimate the escalation.

The same model suggests that there is a ten percent probability that the mean global temperature will climb by more than twelve point four degrees by the year two thousand and one hundred. It also suggests that there is a three percent possibility that global temperature will rise by more than fourteen point four degrees. If this happens, surely a disaster will occur. Scientists suggest that even the three point six-degree escalation shall imply extensive loss of human, animal and plant life. Thus it is hardly pessimistic to view the threat of inaction as terrifying. In comparison, the threat of taking action should terrify no one. Essentially, the threat is that if present approximations become pessimistic, the money used to control greenhouse gases which are responsible for the high temperatures wouldn't have been required to save the world. Nevertheless that money should have barred considerable destruction.

Scientific Explanation of Global Temperature Change

Basically, as the energy flows inside or out of the atmospheric system, temperature changes will result. The mean temperature of the atmospheric system shall stay equal only if the…… [read more]

Plow Bib Annotated Bibliography Allen, Robert Seaman Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Plow Bib

Annotated Bibliography

Allen, Robert; Seaman, Scott and DeLascio, John. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal Volume 76, No. 1 (2009), pp. 12-9.

This article details the media and public attention to and coverage of the global warming issue, framing the question as much in political terms as in scientific concepts. The implications and major players in the area of global warming warnings and conclusions are discussed as the central features of the issue. This's in direct contrast to Ruddiman's own apolitical and balanced assessment of the issue.

Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." Heartlander February 2003.

This article discusses various pieces of scientific evidence -- largely a lack of consensus among scientists -- that suggest that human beings are not the cause of any perceived warming trend, and that such a trend might not even exist. This article also details the benefits to humanity of a warmer Earth. There is some overlap with Ruddiman's observations, but vastly different conclusions.

Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009.

This book is aimed at younger readers, but contains a clear, concise, and accurate overview of the issue of global warming from a scientific standpoint. It essentially addresses the issue as one of certain anthropogenic causes, and focuses on the modern use of fossil fuels as the primary method by which humans contribute to global warming. It is not as technical or as detailed as Ruddiman's work, nor does it address the same basic audience, but again much of the foundational science is the same.

Schmitt, Douglas. "The Truth About Global Warming." The Advocate Volume 67, Part 6, pp. 789-97.

While acquiescing to some of Ruddiman's points about the current warming trend the Earth is experiencing, Schmitt questions many of his…… [read more]

Copenhagen COP15 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,673 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Copenhagen - COP15-15th United Nations Climate Change Conference

From December 7-18, more than 15,000 people including Government officials and advisers from 192 nations, civil society and the media from nearly every country in the world, came together in the Danish capital, Copenhagen in one of the most significant gatherings in history. It is being referred to as the most… [read more]

Remote Sensing Satellite Images and Climate Change Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,569 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Remote Sensing (satellite Images) and Climate Change

The objective of this work is to evaluate the role that remote sensing (satellite images) has played in studies of climate change. This work will focus on the terrestrial essential climate variables and place particular emphasis on how remote sensing is used as a tool for the detection of changes in ice-sheets and… [read more]

Performance Assessment of Flood Protection System Thesis

Thesis  |  30 pages (9,418 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Flood Assessment in the Nerang River Catchment

Performance Assessment of Flood Protection System (Floodplain Catchments)

One of the first signs of global warming will be a rise in water levels around the world. Flooding will increase in many areas already prone to flooding, in addition, new floodplains will be created, placing humans and property at risk. The escalating impact of… [read more]

Flooding in the Kickapoo River Drainage Basin and Southwestern Wisconsin Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,407 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Southwestern Wisconsin: Flooding Due to Natural and Human-Created Vulnerabilities

The areas of Southwestern Wisconsin located near the Kickapoo River saw record flood totals in June of 2008. The immediate cause of the flood was a series of storms in which seven southern counties received more than a foot of rainfall during the first half of the month. Precipitation records were… [read more]

Climate Change Everything Changes in This Era Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,223 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Climate Change

Everything changes in this era of rapid technological developments. More and better machineries are being developed to ease our everyday chores, but also to make our leisure time more pleasurable. Then, with globalization and market liberalization, organizations based their growth on the benefits of several countries' comparative advantage, most commonly cheaper resources. Customers now have a wide palette… [read more]

Seasons: Weather in Charlotte Bront's Jane Eyre Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,987 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Seasons: Weather in Charlotte Bront's Jane Eyre

The most successful authors use several literary techniques to add depth and texture to their novels. Charlotte Bront engages us with narrative sequences in Jane Eyre by linking them to the moods, emotions, and events that occur in the novel. Light and dark become symbols of pain and pleasure. In addition,… [read more]

Monsoons What Is a Monsoon? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,335 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



What is a monsoon? The major weather disturbance known as a "monsoon" is actually in reference to a seasonal wind shift, not necessarily a brooding storm pattern, although most people think of "monsoon" as a huge hurricane-like event that usually is reported in Asia. Textbook authors McKnight and Hess explain in Physical Geography how monsoons occur. A monsoon (from the Arabic word "mausim" which simply means "season") occurs when trade winds reverse; in summer when there is a flow of wind from the ocean to land ("onshore flow"); and a monsoon can occur during winter months when winds are flowing from land to the ocean ("offshore flow"). In the summer, where there is a low-pressure center over a landmass, that warm air attracts the cooler moist air over the ocean, and draws it in, McKnight goes on. Cool air is always drawn to warm air, and when the cool air also happens to be moist, it causes precipitation, and sometimes too much at one time.

Why are monsoons important to study? This is important for weather scientists to study, McKnight asserts, because "More than half of the world's population" lives in regions that have frequent monsoons roaring onshore. The rains that monsoons produce are vital in Asia, for example, for the production of foods (such as rice and corn). In south Asia, monsoons hit most often in the summer, and they are a double-edged sword, because they bring moisture to the region, important for cash crops and for citizen survival; but they also bring damaging winds and floods, which costs lives and money.

In August 2006, for example, a monsoon blew out of the Indian Ocean and into Pakistan and killed 192 people while damaging 18,000 houses, according to Xinhua News Agency. Over 190 people were also injured in the monsoon. Flooding in the provincial capital of Peshawar, Pakistan, damaged 8,407 houses and left 51 people dead.

One of the emergencies that goes along with a monsoon's flooding is the need to set up "mass vaccination" shelters to help prevent communicable diseases; flooding brings impurities, dead animals and toxic substances into the homes and on the streets of communities and diseases such as typhoid and tetanus can harm large numbers of people. The Xinhua News Agency explains that the heavy rains from monsoons occur between the period from the beginning of July through September.

Meanwhile, the journal Science News published an article in 2002 that reports, "Asian monsoons have been intensifying over the last 400 years." Reportedly, they are expected to continue to become more intense, causing "severe flooding and erosion" that may in some cases affect up to "half the world's population." Monsoon storms carry important quantities of rain to "billions of people in India, China, Bangladesh" and other Asian countries. As was mentioned earlier, when trade winds "reverse direction" they carry very moist air inland where it is very hot and dry.

Gerald a. Meehi works with the National Center for Atmospheric Research group in Boulder, Colorado;… [read more]

Climate and Civilization in Chapter Three Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Climate and Civilization

In Chapter three of his book Earth in the Balance, former vice president Al Gore makes the point that our civilization is heavily dependent on stability in the climate. For the last ten thousand years, we have experienced the same sort of climate with very few changes. In order for our civilization to continue, we must avoid climate change at all costs. What a lot of people do not realize is the fact that climate changes in one part of the world can have dire consequences in a completely different part of the world. This has been demonstrated again and again throughout history, as Gore shows by pointing out the disastrous crop shortages that occurred in Europe in 1816 as the result of a volcano's eruption on the other side of the planet. What is more, if the change in climate is manmade -- and thus a lot more sudden than the changes caused by natural disasters -- the consequences for our planet may be very serious indeed. If that is not enough, then Gore goes on to explain that drastic changes in the climate that have been caused by natural disaster have had a detrimental effect on political and social unrest in effected countries, and can lead to famines. Finally, Gore points out that climate change has caused mass migration to occur, effectively putting populations greatly at risk.

Gore's thesis is incredibly complex, but his reasoning is sound throughout the course of the chapter. He illustrates point by point the reasons why climate change puts civilizations in danger, and then provides examples from throughout history. His examples are strong and persuasive. For instance, in his discussion of mass migration…… [read more]

Analyzing 2 Viewpoints Term Paper

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Science and Skepticism: Climate Change Modeling

It has become apparent, since the release of the IPCC report on climate change, that there is a growing consensus in the scientific community that the effects of global warming are real and that there is a significantly high degree of certainty that those effects can be traced back to anthropogenic causes. Yet despite… [read more]

Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Circulation Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5



The Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Currents

The Pentagon Report was released to the world media in 2004 predicting that the north Atlantic current would stop in the near future, bringing global catastrophe. It is known that in the past the ocean currents have been affected by changes in climate, although the lack of direct observations make it… [read more]

World Geography Term Paper

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Explain the core concepts of geography

Perhaps the most fundamental concept of geography is that the nature of the earth, and the way that it has evolved in terms of its climate, structure, and terrain, has had a fundamental impact on human and animal agriculture, living conditions, the use of available land for living quarters, and the clothes and food people wear and eat. Another equally fundamental concept, however, is that the life forms that have evolved as the result of geographical developments have had a fundamental impact upon the development of the earth. For example, a human society in a cold, snowy climate will eat differently and build differently structured homes than human societies in warmer and more temperate climates. The ability of a species to survive or to dominate an area will affect the vegetation of an area, and impact the earth's atmosphere, depending on what that species consumes. And of course, the greenhouse effect and the development of modern industry have had a dramatic effect upon the earth's temperatures, across all climates.

The earth's surface is shape by two forces, give some examples of each.

The earth is shaped by both external and internal pressures. The external pressures include erosion, the movement of the glaciers, sediment deposits and the wearing away of such deposits, fire, rains (such as major hurricane storms), and changes in temperature (such as global warming, which has resulted in greater vegetation in some areas or the ability of certain species that eat plants to survive in greater numbers in some areas and reduce the amount of plant life in the territory) ("Earth's surface," 2007, Discovery Magazine). Internal forces include the movement of the tectonic plates on the earth's molten layer, which resulted in the current formation of the continents, as opposed to their original configuration as a unified surface mass ("Earth's surface," 2007, Discovery Magazine).

Explain the major factors that determines the climate of a place

Climate is influenced by a location's latitude, elevation, nearby water, ocean currents, topography, vegetation, and where the winds blow from,…… [read more]

Disaster Emergency Management Term Paper

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Disaster Management

Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and volcanic activity cause extensive loss to life and property. They can impact the economy and the prosperity of the region tremendously. In recent times, the extent of damage from a natural disaster was evident when Hurricane Wilma, Katherine and Emily hit the U.S. In 2005.

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster… [read more]

Global Warming and Crop Production Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Global Warming and Crop Production

As global warming makes temperatures rise witnessed will be a decrease in crop production.

It is reported in a Science Daily report entitled: "Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production?" that scientists from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada have predicted, "crops will be at a greater risk of winter damage in the future even though the climate will be warmer." (2002) in a December 2006 news report it is stated that the decrease in monsoons in the country of India "raises the concern of more potential floods and other natural disasters. Monsoons are needed to nourish crops and supply water for farming communities." (Science Daily, 4 Dec. 2006) the problem stated is that the delicate balance that exists with the occurrence of the monsoons has experienced disruption due to factors associated with global warming. In yet another report released December 2006 stated is that "higher temperatures could cause a 40% drop ion some of California's most popular crops by mid-century according to a new research in the journal Agricultural and Forest Meteorology."

II. Discussion of the Independent and Dependent Variable

In attempting to assess the affects of global warming upon crop production there will be a dependent variable, which is that of the temperatures within the area or region that the study takes place. Since the hypothesis states temperatures as the reason that crop production will experience a decrease then proving the hypothesis is 'dependent' upon the variability in the temperature and its' effects upon crop production. In this study, the independent variable will be that of rainfall amounts as related to seasonal rainfall variances and rainfall variances out-of-season in the area or region in the study.

Stated in the work entitled: "What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin" is the fact that there are several: "...credible scenarios" (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007) that could be faced in the state of Wisconsin and…… [read more]

Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall in the Amazon

For studying the Earth's atmosphere, satellites have become indispensable even though it has only been 30 years since the first meteorological satellites were launched. Meteorological satellites view the Earth together with their land- and ocean-sensing cousins, on a global perspective which is unmatched and unmatchable by any other observational system.… [read more]

Pacific Islands Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pacific Islands

Of the 25,000 plus islands that grace the Pacific Ocean, only a relatively few are inhabited by human beings. A large number of the Pacific Islands are tiny, with few if any natural resources. The Pacific Islands, which are often collectively referred to as Oceania, consist of two basic island types: high and low. The high islands are volcanic, their elevation created by volcanoes rising from the sea. The low islands are built upon coral reefs or atolls, and in terms of land mass are smaller than the high islands. Moreover, the high islands are far more conducive to human culture. Their rich volcanic soils make for fertile agricultural grounds. Most of the Pacific Islands are poor in natural resources such as ores or coal, but high in their yield of lush tropical fruits and vegetables. While many of the Pacific Islands are equatorial, with a tropical or subtropical climate, some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean lie far from the equator and have temperate or even cold climates. However, most of those islands are not considered to be a part of Oceania, such as the Aleutian Islands off of Alaska, and the Sakhalin and Kuril Islands that belong to Russia. Japan is also technically a Pacific Island, but is not considered to be a part of Oceania. Oceania is typically divided into three distinct island groups: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. While the three groups share some cultural, geographic, and historical elements, the Pacific Islands demonstrate an incredibly diverse group of societies.

The most populated of the Pacific Island groups is Melanesia, which literally means "black islands." Most of Melanesia's islands are high volcanic islands. New Guinea, which is the largest Pacific Island, is part of Melanesia and is itself divided into two: Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands are also a part of Melanesia. As many as 900 linguistic groups and countless unique civilizations developed in Melanesia over the course of several thousand years. However, after contact with Europeans, many of the social groups merged.…… [read more]

Testing the Effects of Disaster Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



8 tornadoes or 28.6%

18 rain storms or 64.3%

Experiment 2: The 28 day cycle for the second experiment produced:

5 sunny days or 17.9%

8 tornadoes or 28.6%

15 rain storms or 53.6%

Experiment 3: The 28 day cycle for the third experiment produced:

4 cloudy days or 14.3%

4 tornadoes or 14.3%

20 rain storms or 71.4%

Experiment 4: The 28 day cycle for the fourth experiment produced:

5 sunny days or 17.9%

4 tornadoes or 14.2%

19 rain storms or 67.9%

Experiment 5: The 28 day cycle for the fifth experiment produced:

2 sunny days or 7.2%

6 tornadoes or 21.4%

20 rain storms or 71.4%

Results section

The results of the five experiments that monitored the 100-year generation of white, brown and black moths with a disaster frequency set to often in the Population Genetic Lab simulation available in Biology 1409 demonstrated that weather does in fact have a major effect on natural life.

The experiment conducted showed that if there is an increase in the disaster frequencies, that phenomenon will lead to the extinction of certain moth genotypes.

Two of the three moth genotypes, brown and white, did go extinct based on these settings. However, since the black moth survived, further experimentation would be in order to quantify what factors lead them to survive or why the other two genotypes did not survive.

Discussion section

When most people think of animals becoming extinct, most people envision herds of buffalo or the Dodo bird. Rarely would the average person choose a genotype such as a moth. Moths seem to play no important role in the big picture in the minds of most. But that is very far from the truth. All living creatures leave a mark on the planet and when any species goes into a state of extinction, then other life from are affected.

This particular series of experiments monitored how a simple change in weather could alter the living patterns of black, white and brown moth types. The experiment altered weather patterns through computer simulation and those weather patterns were used to monitor 100 generations of moth reproduction. Through scientific theory and repetition, a series of five experiments were run to very if the original hypothesis held true. The objective was to create a valid research model that either confirmed or dismissed the point that if 98% of a 28 day cycle of weather was consisted of either rain and/or tornadoes, certain moth genotypes would become extinct over a 100-year generation.

Insect extinction has been a recognized phenomenon for centuries. The reason insects such as moths are important are because they have many roles in nature. Consider that they are food, they pollinate flowers, some are carnivores and all moths take up air and space. So if weather patterns occurred similar to the computer animations, brown and white moths would disappear in around 100 generations and nature would have to find new species to fulfill the moth's mission. However, these were only simulations… [read more]

Television Can Influence Kids Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (668 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I would also like to spend at least one summer working as a Storm Chaser, to get more in the field experience, and to really experience tornados and tornado watching first hand. Someday, I would like to be one of the NWS experts that the Weather Channel uses for their special reports and analysis. I know this is a lofty goal, but I feel that because of my interest and background that I can achieve it if I work hard. I also feel [ADD} University is the best choice to achieve my goals. The science program at >>>> is well-known and respected, and so is the journalism program. I think my career would be well served by attending ..../

I feel that I have a lot to bring to the University, too. I have a .... GPA in high school, and I have already begun exploring college level classes through a special program at my school. My teachers have encouraged my interest in science, and I belong to several clubs and organizations at school, including the science club. I plan to become similarly involved in clubs and organizations during my college years, and I hope to share my deep interest in science and weather to other students who might have overlooked this fascinating and always evolving subject.

I find weather and the science of weather quite fascinating, and cannot wait to continue my education in my chosen field. Eventually, I may continue my education at the masters or PhD. level to continue growth and opportunity in my career. That is how television has influenced me. It has encouraged me to learn more about my chosen field, and to look toward the future with hope and determination. Television is entertaining, enlightening, and to some people even addictive. To me, it is the doorway to my future, and a pathway toward discovery and new awakenings.

I hope you will consider and accept my application to attend .... I look forward to…… [read more]

Public Management and Administration Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Kulzick, 2000)

Additionally, when engaged in a synthesis of these diverse needs, one must be careful not to create political infighting between for instance the scientists and the 'policy wonks' in the organization, or even those scientists who might have a bias towards one area of interest in contrast to another. For instance, a chemical environmentalist might consider an area of crisis more in need of immediate address than, say, a meteorologist. One organizational remedy to this is to create a 'clustered' organizational model, where there is little hierarchy. The downside to this, however, is that the different sectors, none of which has official predominance, can engage in very separate research objectives, with little supervision. Thus a more holistic or flat organizational model of human resources might be most superior, where there is constant interaction between participants, almost no hierarchy of interests or leadership, and a focus on a common objective, regardless of specific discipline.

In the final evaluation of the problem, it must be stressed entire water supply system of the U.S. -- our dams, our reservoirs, our aqueducts -- has been designed and built on the assumption that tomorrow's climate is going to look like the past climate. But one can no longer assume that the future is going to look like the past. In fact, the fundamental assumption of life on the planet must change, and we must assume that future of water is going to look quite different than the past in terms of climate. The earth's precipitation patterns, our temperatures, our storm patterns are going to be different and the organization must find the best ways to weather these changes, in the most efficient manner possible. It will require a large organization, that is objective yet diverse in its make up with little hierarchy, so it can be prepared to deal with the changes in climate and accept climate change as a real part of the future. (Glieck, cited by Brad Kloza, 2004)

Works Cited

Kloza, Brad. (2004) Wet Water Shortage. Science Central. Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/view.php3?article_id=218391704

Kulzick, Raymond (2001) "Organizational Types." Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.kulzick.com/milesot.htm… [read more]

Arctic Climate Change Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Arctic sea ice consists of two types of ice. The first is old ice that has existed for thousands of years, since at least the last Ice Age, and the second is new ice that forms each year. The older ice is thick, while the new ice is thinner. The retreat of the Arctic sea ice is being driven by reductions in the older, thicker ice. New ice typically thaws each summer anyway, so the reduction in summer ice cover is strongly related to the thawing of the older, thicker sea ice.

Climate change is responsible for this melting. The Arctic climate is warming at a faster rate than the overall global climate. More heat is being brought into the Arctic through the atmosphere and ocean currents, so the increase in heat globally is a contributing factor. Corell (2013) also explains that there are several local factors contributing to the rapid decline of this ice. The more ice melts, the more ice will melt, because this is a feedback loop. Ice reflects light, while dark surface absorbs it. Thus, the more ice melts, the more dark surface exists to absorb solar energy and the warmer the region gets locally. Furthermore, dark carbon deposited in the Arctic also attracts more solar radiation, contributing further to the accelerated warming of the Arctic climate. Water evaporation is also a greenhouse gas, so the more water evaporates, it will also accelerate warming at the local level.


Climate change in the Arctic is having a significant effect on its natural systems. Changes in the climate mean changes in the seasons, which affect the delicate balance of life in that environment. Misalignment of timing between reproduction and the emergence of food can threaten many species.

Another impact is that southern species are beginning to move into Arctic habitats, the red fox for example displacing the Arctic fox. Animals are also being forced to…… [read more]

Civil Infrastructure Security and Operational Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Another essential aspect affecting infrastructure projects, which will progressively face many governments in the future is climate change. Over the next several years, climate change will result in both increasing sea levels and more frequent and extreme stormy weather, with the associated advanced level of storm surge. Changes in climate may thus undercut the stability of some areas of settlement in the lack of coastal security facilities. In some places, it may affect the stability of current settlement and housing infrastructure and lead to resettlement or migration, developing new demands for infrastructure. It may also cause an improved risk of frequent flooding, demanding both emergency and infrastructural recovery outlays. The disturbance of the venture environment is an issue for all infrastructure projects. The level of disturbance in the venture environment is likely to be attributable partly to the prolonged lead times of many infrastructure projects, with the significant chance of political, policy, and demographic changes in the project's lifetime (Sorvari & Seppala, 2010).

Important lesson learnt

The course resources suggest that the three elements can be adopted in various infrastructure projects in identifying the particular risks that may happen so that appropriate planning for these threats can be performed. As the readings have revealed, climate change, economic factors, and financing are paramount to the success of diverse infrastructure projects. I have also learnt that funding decisions should not be made early. If such decisions are not based on valid business case and practical research, projects often get into complications, and under-performance can often be tracked back to the preliminary poor funding decision. Therefore, choices about funding should not be made too early, but after the creation of a valid business case and feasibility analysis to minimize the impact on projects.


Sorvari, J. & Seppala, J. (2010). "A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites," Science of the Total Environment, 408 (8) March, pp. 1786-1799.

Sun, Y., Fang, D., Wang, S., Dai, M., & Lv, X. (2008). "Safety risk identification and assessment for Beijing Olympic venues construction,"…… [read more]

Flooding Mitigation Plan for Miami Gardens Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,906 words)
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The response to the previously described hazard scenario in the City of Miami Gardens is dependent on the specific location and risk assessment of the hazard. However, response to this scenario can be carried out in the following proposed measures. First, the established Mitigation Strategy Working Groups should formulate Emergency Operations Team with members from different fields of expertise. Secondly, the Emergency Operations Team should be prepared to activate 24-hour Emergency Operations Center and initiatives upon the occurrence of the hazard. The development of the Emergency Operations Team is fueled by the fact that it will serve as the focal point for providing critical information related to the emergency. Third, the Emergency Operations Team should develop plans to clean up, start drying wet areas, and return operations back to normal ("Flood Emergency Response Plan," 2004).

Fourth, evacuation routes should be clearly identified while evacuation shelters remain opened, staffed, and equipped. The firth recommendation is that schools and other public institutions in the affected areas should be closed. Sixth, power plants in the City of Miami Gardens should be provided with adequate information that they will use to devise appropriate protective measures against power loss. Local businesses should also be advised on the necessary measures to undertake to lessen the effect of the floods.

In conclusion, the City of Miami Gardens is increasingly vulnerable to flooding because of its location and the frequent extreme weather conditions. Based on past flooding events, the hazard usually has considerable negative impacts on the community including affecting the human population and causing business disruptions. Therefore, it is important to develop and constantly review a hazard mitigation plan that enhances the city's emergency preparedness and response to flooding incidents.


"Flood Awareness." (n.d.). Miami Gardens. Retrieved from City of Miami Gardens, Florida

website: http://www.miamigardens-fl.gov/flood/flood.html

"Flood Emergency Response Plan." (2004). FM Global. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.fmglobal.com/shamrock/p0589.pdf

"Floor Risk Assessment." (2014, May). Floodplain Mitigation Plan. Retrieved from Town of Cutler Bay, Florida website: http://www.cutlerbay-fl.gov/announcement/1403186000_DRAFT%20Floodplain%20Mitigation%20Plan_Cutler%20Bay%20Risk%20Assessment%20Section.pdf

"The Local Mitigation Strategy." (2012, June 30). Hazard Mitigation for Miami-Dade County

and its Municipalities, Departments and Private Sector Partners. Retrieved from Miami-Dade County Government website: http://www.miamidade.gov/fire/library/part-1-strategy.pdf

"Working Together." (n.d.). Local Mitigation Strategies for Flooding. Retrieved June 23, 2014,

from http://mitigation.eeri.org/files/resources-for-success/00056.pdf… [read more]

Bt Group in UK Essay

Essay  |  18 pages (4,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Environment Sustainability (Greenhouse Gas Management)

What is Environment Sustainability?

Our perspective

Challenge of Climate Change

Natural Causes of Climate Change

Nitrous Oxide No Laughing Matter

Social Sustainability (Supply Chain Management)

What is Social Sustainability?

Economic Sustainability

What is Economic Sustainability?

Greenhouse Gas Management

Social Sustainability (Supply Chain Management)

Economic Sustainability

Managing Sustainability: BT Group in UK

This is a report… [read more]

Arguments in Favor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Far more research would need to be made, from multiple cities around the world, and then tested against rural areas to show that there is a link between the buildup of urban areas, changes of weather patterns linked that buildup, and that all of this contributes to our current views on climate change. As a first step, this research is limited as well, because it does not take into account all of the possible variables, but it does show that an increase in cloud cover resulting from urbanization of the ecosystem would not have resulted in a temperature increase because there is no link between cloud cover and temperature change in winter.

Please consider funding more studies of this nature in order to better understand how different factors contribute to our understanding of how urbanization affects our climate.

Hypothesis testing requires a data set, and then it requires a null and alternative hypothesis. Such tests can seek to determine a correlation between two variables, known as the dependent and independent variables. An example of a hypothesis to be tested is whether sunny days in New York are correlated with warmth. This test compares days that are sunny with days that are cloudy, adjusted for the season. The null hypothesis will be that sunny days are hotter than cloudy ones in the summer, but colder than cloudy ones in the winter. The alternative hypothesis is the vice versa of the null hypothesis. Seasons will be defined by the calendar seasons, and the temperatures will be the daily mean in Fahrenheit.

There are different statistics that help researchers to make conclusions. One is the z-statistic, which compares the sample mean to the population mean. The population mean can be the daily mean temperature for the season, and in this case there are two sample means, one for sunny days and one for cloudy days. Another test statistic is the p-value, which illustrates whether or not the observed difference is statistically significant. A significance level needs to be set, and then the p-value will indicate whether the test is statistically significant or not.


No author (2014). Introduction to hypothesis testing. San Jose State University. Retrieved March 30, 2014…… [read more]

Perturbed by Humanity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


" The full negative fallout of what has been done to the earth will only be felt by future generations, a fact which will likely result in an even greater, unfortunate but inevitable incentive to focus on short-term economic benefits vs. long-term environmental preservation.

In fact, some environmental activists are even throwing up their hands, effectively declaring the human-generated nature of the change to be irreversible. "Although absorption of heat by the oceans is temporarily concealing the magnitude of the environmental changes that have been initiated, they will be permanent, in the sense of lasting for millions of years. This is the time scale of natural remediation processes. The CO2 added to the atmosphere-ocean system by human activity will remain in the system indefinitely." At minimum, this indicates that radical actions are required to stop adding to the problem. "An approach to a stable equilibrium state of the environment, and avoidance of an eventual extreme greenhouse effect, will be possible only with complete cessation of CO2 emissions that are not fully compensated by sequestration."

However, the changing environmental conditions spawned by global warming might, because of their negative consequences, spur some motivation to change. Perhaps the most obvious physically observed environmental impact of climate change is that of sea levels: "sea level rise will accelerate dramatically as ocean temperatures approach equilibrium with the atmosphere and increased greenhouse heat is transferred to the polar ice caps," causing them to melt. This will create higher ocean levels, a greater risk of flooding, and also more moisture in the atmosphere, potentially leading to more severe storms. This poses an immediate risk to human life as well as has the potential to generate tremendous economic…… [read more]

Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The nature of the precipitation has also changed because of human activity, including the increase in acid rain that has threatened the availability of fresh drinking water in regions of the globe whose inhabitants are already facing shortages of that nature. Acid rain also destroys viable farmland and severely reduces the crop yield in some of the most impoverished areas of the world. Climate change threatens wealthier parts of the world as well and the visual evidence of the continuing and accelerating melting Antarctic continental ice shelves will eventually cause large portions of the North American eastern seaboard to become submerged in the same manner as the Italian city of Venice. Britain faces a similar fate and has already had to invest tremendous public funds to install mechanical barriers to protect the British coast from the Atlantic Ocean swells.

Probably the only way to reverse the consequences of climate change would be for the nations of the world to adopt a coordinated and comprehensive strategy of reducing carbon emissions by replacing fossil-fuel energy production methods with clean renewable energy sources. One of the most problematic concerns in that regard is that China is just now beginning to reach the point where billions of people who were previously too poor to afford energy produced by burning fossil fuels are now starting to add to the damage. Ultimately, if we cannot manage to implement a worldwide solution, our efforts to do so just in the Western Hemisphere may be too little too late.

Source Consulted

Muller R.A. (2008). Physics for Future Presidents: The Science behind the Headlines.

New York: W.W.…… [read more]

Atmosphere Atmospheric Circulation Is Initiated Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As the rising air cools, cloud and rain develop.

The highly seasonal rainfall in the tropical dry forests and the tropical savanna biomes are attributed to atmospheric circulation and seasonal changes in the sauna's orientation. In fact, it is the global circulation patterns that create the predictable regional climate zones. At the equator's low pressure belts and at 50 to 60 degree north and south latitudes there are abundant precipitations. At latitudes around 30 degree north and south, dry air descend from the high pressure belt similar to that which happens in a see breeze circulation. This dry air that descends from the high pressure belt produces arid zones that include Earth's major deserts. Because Coriolis Effect prevents mass and heat from moving readily to polar latitudes, temperatures decline and pressures increase sharply between middle latitudes and the Polar Regions (Chou & Neelin, 2004).

The sharp pressure gradient creates powerful jet stream winds flowing from west to east at the boundary area. The jet stream winds transport heat as they shift northward and southward. These jet stream winds bring much of the weather system activity in the middle latitudes and to be specific the tropics. In many parts of the globe, atmospheric dynamics and ocean circulation patterns interact to create distinct climate cycles that occur over longer periods than a single storm. Temperatures and precipitation vary by latitude and the tropics are therefore the warmest and the wettest regions in the globe while subtropical high pressure zones create dry zones at about 30 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. Temperatures and precipitation are lowest at the poles. The conditions create biomes. Biomes are broad geographic zones whose plants and animals are adapted to different climate patterns.


Chou, C. & Neelin, J.D. (2004). Regional Tropical Precipitation Change Mechanisms in ECHAM4/OPYC3 under Global Warming.…… [read more]

Global Warming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,339 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Kejriwal, 2010)

Furthermore, as the glaciers and other ice caps continue to melt, the world will get short on its fresh water reserves. The fresh water reserves are currently reducing as well. (Kejriwal, 2010)

Global Warming and International Economy

The global economy is also getting disturbed as a result of global warming. Firstly, global warming causes the cost of production… [read more]

Global Warming Is Real Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This is indeed a motivation to bear in mind when it comes to examining the often bizarre reluctance of certain critics and dissenters of global warming.

Debate Two: Tax Cuts for the Upper Income

Too many citizens see tax cuts for the wealthy as something that would be damaging to the all around economy. However, this viewpoint is inaccurate and also misleading. Has many economists have demonstrates, tax cuts for those with a higher level of income would have almost no noticeable impact on the economy.

For instance, in regards to the fiscal cliff, economists have found that Bush-era tax cuts for the very wealthy would have a very minimal impact on the economy as well. "Letting the high-income Bush tax cuts lapse, for example, generates $42 billion in 2013 but hardly hurts GDP at all. By contrast, the defense cuts amount to $24 billion but hurts growth by 0.4% -- quadruple the high-income cuts' impact" (Matthews, 2012). This type of data may surprise many, but it showcases some truly counter-intuitive findings which, while they may be surprising, can only be used as leverage to strategically revitalize the economy at large.

While the average citizen might express staunch opposition for tax cuts for the top percentage of earners in America, one needs to bear in mind the bigger picture: giving the top 5% more leniency and leverage with tax breaks means that they will be in more of a position to spend and to use their money in ways which benefits the economy. "If tax cuts for high-income earners generate substantial real economic activity and job creation, then we should expect to see two things in the data. First, employment growth should be stronger in the years after tax cuts for these earners. Second, parts of the country with a larger share of high-income earners should experience stronger employment growth after national tax cuts for these taxpayers, because the places where they live receive a larger share of the national tax cuts" (Thoma, 2012). This excerpt demonstrates how taxing the extremely wealthy in a more lenient and minimized fashion has a direct impact on the economy, leading toward increased spending of the very rich, a factor which can't help but have a positive impact on the greater economy. This stimulus can't help but cause the consistent production of the creation of jobs, more so, some argue, than tax cuts to the very poor. Thus, when considering tax cuts for top incomes, one needs to look more thoroughly at the bigger picture.


Nasa.gov. (2013). Climate change: How do we know?. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence

Markman, A. (2013, May 21). Who rejects evidence of global climate change?. Retrieved

from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ulterior-motives/201305/who-rejects-evidence-global-climate-change

Matthews, D. (2012, November 8). Cbo: Letting upper-income tax cuts expire would barely hurt economy. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/11/08/cbo-letting-upper-income-tax-cuts-expire-would-barely-hurt-economy/

Thoma, M. (2012, October 9). Do tax cuts stimulate…… [read more]

Society Has Dealt Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


However, this future might be too far away and the natural world might be irrecoverably damaged until that time.

Urgent action is believed to be the only solution to alleviating the catastrophic events that global warming has on society. It is nice to see government imposing serious taxes and humanity as a whole trying to help nature. However, the reality is that someone has to step up and make it possible for the whole world to understand that the time is now or never. The message needs to be more aggressive in order for people to actually be able to understand it. The effects of global warming need to be marketed in order for society as a whole to acknowledge that it needs to form a united front in trying to reverse these respective consequences.

Through introducing explicit commercials displaying the harmful effects that the process has on the world and on people in particular, individuals are likely to express more interest in changing their opinions. People have to understand that there is no future as long as they continue to choose profits instead of choosing the natural world. By introducing information concerning how each person can contribute to saving the environment, society in general is more likely to have the masses accept that the only solution for them is to join a process meant to help the natural world recover.

Works cited:

Maslin, Mark, "Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future," (MBI Publishing Company, 2007)

Spencer, Roy W., "The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists," (Encounter…… [read more]

Personal, Local, or National Issue Application Essay

Application Essay  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The possibilities of states individually can hardly cover the actual needs in terms of financial costs and legal implications that the protection of the Amazonian forests taken as example require. In this sense, the United Nations Environment (UNEP) together with the Global Environment Fund have created the protected areas system that have enabled parts of the forests to be considered restricted from human intervention. Such initiatives have been taken at a global level through such international organizations including Europe and Africa in particular.

Secondly, the essence of international organization is the free will of the member states and at the same time the binding nature of the Constituent Act, be it a Charter, a Constitution, or any other international law document. Therefore, once a state becomes a member states, its obligations include, among other particular issues, the respect for the international law or the Conference documents. Therefore, from the very beginning the action grounds are common. In the case of the organizations or agencies in the UN system such as UNEP, states are automatically mobilized and requested to take action as a result of their membership to the system as well as to the acts that are taken at the level of the UNEP.

Finally, the role of international organizations in climate change is important because it provides a strong alarm sign for the global public. The magnitude of the actions and the capacity to mobilize financial resources and ensure delivery of local and regional projects concerning climate change raises awareness for the subjects under discussion. For instance, the protected areas initiative tackles issues of deforestation or poor management of forests and ecosystems at local level. Yet, more and more countries are joining such initiatives and more and more people are becoming aware of the importance of the protected areas when they visit a national park, thus taking more care on the potential negative impact human presence may have on the environment.

Overall, climate change is an extremely important subject and among the priorities of the political and public agenda. The role of international organizations and in particular of the UN system is…… [read more]

Environmental Are Vital Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,082 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


There was also a differentiation in lack of commitment to the protocol by developing nations. This is because of the essence of being the outside party in the contribution towards the climate change. This is evident through rapid increase in the economic group in the context of nations such as India and China not listed as the industrialized nations in the Kyoto Protocol. The United States passed the Byrd-Hagel Resolution in 1997. The main aspect of this resolution by the senate of the United States was to limit its adherence to the protocols in relation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992 and negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997.

This is because of the omission of the developing nations in the commitment towards the protocols. The condition by the United States' senate was for the inclusion of the developing nations within the similar timeframe to the industrialized nations with reference to limitation of the emission of the greenhouse gases because of the essence of global warming and its influences. The senate also sought the examination of the effects of the protocols on the economy of the United States. This is through demanding of detailed explanations on the relevant legislations, financial costs, and economic implications of the protocol on the economy of the United States (Kumazawa 2012).

In 2005, there was massive and significant support of the Kyoto protocol as a public policy towards minimization of the emission of the greenhouse gases on the atmosphere thus affecting climatic conditions with reference to effects of global warming. This is through considerable support from the European Community and Russia. This was vital following the adoption of the major economic players formerly known as the developing nations (non-Annex 1) into the protocol. In critical examination, it is evident that the carbon emissions in the context of China are closely exceeding those of the United States because of the rapid essence of industrialization. This addressed the fears expressed in the aspect of the Byrd-Hagel resolution by the senate of the United States (Yoshida 2011).


Global warming is one of the threats affecting the development and growth of the human beings, plants, and animals. This critical environmental issue requires adoption and implementation of the accurate and quality measures towards minimization. From a sociological perspective, global warming affects social structures and order through negative influence on the political, economic, and social aspects of the society. It is therefore ideal for the various components and institutions within the society to focus on the minimization of the levels of the greenhouse gases essential for the increase in the level of global temperatures.


Hernandez-Deckers, D., & von Storch, J. (2012). Impact of the Warming Pattern on Global

Energetics. Journal Of Climate, 25(15), 5223-5240

Weart, S. (2011). Global warming: How skepticism became denial. Bulletin Of The Atomic

Scientists, 67(1), 41-50.

Carey, J. (2012). Global Warming: Faster Than Expected?. Scientific American, 307(5), 50-


Kvaloy, B., Finseraas, H., & Listhaug, O. (2012). The publics' concern for… [read more]

Hurricane Andrew Is a Storm Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Canada, Japan, and The UN also contributed aid in support for the recovery of Bahamas. Additionally, The American Red Cross offered tents, sheets, and cots to Bahamas. The United States gave Florida and Louisiana $11.1 billion as aid. President Bush also declared Florida as a disaster area in support for Florida. Governor Chiles asked the Florida state to raise taxes as a way of raising funds to aid the recovery of Florida after the destruction. The congress passed a resolution to offer aid package for recovery (Smith, Stanley & Mccarty 35). In his mission to aid people in Florida, Director Kate Hale criticized the federal government for delaying in delivering aid. As a result, President Bush promised assistance, which came almost immediately. FEMA also provided aid after the destruction to Louisiana and Florida. However, many people criticized FEMA for failing to respond immediately to the disaster. At that time, its primary role was to distribute loans and grants for rebuilding areas after disasters. There was no need for foreign aid at first but storms increased the need for aid. This is because the storm caused much destruction in most areas. In September 23, President Bush passed the Congress' resolution into law for aiding Florida.


Hurricane Andrew remains to be the worst natural disaster that affected the U.S. This is because of the extent of damage that the hurricane caused. Moreover, it also caused many losses to many companies in its path. Urbanization in the U.S. causes hurricanes thus increasing disaster susceptibility.

Work cited

Pimm, Stuart L., and Gary E. Davis. "Hurricane Andrew. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 224-229. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Zhang, Yang, and Walter Gillis Peacock. "Planning For Housing Recovery? Lessons Learned From Hurricane Andrew." Journal Of The American Planning Association 76.1…… [read more]

Global Warming Fact or Fiction A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Global Warming: Fact or Fiction

Developing and industrialized countries have had to contend with crowded landfills, polluted waters, and poor air quality. However, the general increase in temperatures and the accompanying climate change have painted some bleak future for humans and other living creatures on the earth's surface. Scientists are unanimous that the rapid rise in earth's temperature is occasioned by human activity (Painter, 2013). The atmosphere contains gases that trap heat from the sun and prevent the heat from escaping into space. This is known as greenhouse effect and the gases that trap the sun rays are called greenhouse gases. Examples of greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. These gases make the earth's surface warm and life on earth bearable.

The significant rise on earth's temperature is because of the greenhouse gases that trap sun rays on the earth's atmosphere. Natural processes on earth like the decay of plant and animal matter produce carbon dioxide create greenhouse gases (Painter, 2013). The carbon dioxide produced is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis a process that keeps the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere stable. The burning of fossil fuels and deforestation also makes the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to rise significantly because forests that can absorb tons of carbon dioxide are eliminated.

Other than the above mentioned factors, levels of greenhouse gases can also increase as a result of use of certain fertilizers that produce nitrous oxide (Painter, 2013). There are other greenhouse gases that are human creations that have been introduced into the atmosphere. These categories of greenhouse gases are called hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), and sulfur hexafluoride. These categories of gases are released during aluminum production and electrical transmission. Emphasis will be laid on opposing viewpoints on impacts of global warming (Gale Cengage, 2010).

II. Negative effects of global warming

A. Climate patterns

Global warming has devastating effects on livelihoods of plants and animals. Global warming affects climate patterns. Stronger and frequent hurricanes have been due to warmer oceans. Increases in temperatures have resulted into frequent heat waves in different regions of the earth. There have also been devastating droughts and wildfires. These are all attributed to global warming.

B. Rise in sea level

The rise in air and water temperatures makes ice caps and glaciers to melt hence the rise in sea level. There are fears that this will cause some severe flooding in coastal areas all over the world. Areas that are likely to be severely affected are low-lying islands in the Pacific Ocean which will most likely remain inhabitable and the residents declared stateless. In fact, experts estimate that by the year 2100 the seal level will rise by nineteen inches. In June 2011, the Arctic ice cup was the second lowest in the satellite record. This was consistent with the…… [read more]

Global Warming Effects on the Ecosystem Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … pollution is not a new issue in the natural history of the earth, since the 18th century and the advent of the Industrial Revolution, more and more carbon and toxic properties have been released into Earth's atmosphere. Combining earth's natural geologic functions (volcanos, dust storms, etc.) with the rapid growth of the human population, industry, urban areas and most especially automobiles, many scientists believe there has been a gradual increase in the earth's median temperatures for both the air (climate) and ocean temperature. This is controversial because from a geological scale, 100-200 years of measurement may not be indicative of major changes, but minor fluctuations. Similarly, we have only been measuring temperature in a way that is meaningful for 60-75 years. Still, the data does show that after the 1950s, the combined effects of greenhouse gases from industry and automobiles began to warm the earth, with results ranging from weather anomalies to melting ice caps and climate change in certain parts of the world (Climate Change Science, 2001).

II. Thesis -- While scientifically controversial, the rapid industrialization and modernization of the global community appears to have an effect on the rising median land and sea temperatures on Earth. This has resulted in serious ecological issues in almost every place on the globe and, if not corrected, may change the natural history of our planet.

III. Major Points

A. Natural contaminants have been released into the Earth's atmosphere, water and soil and have had a detrimental effect. Human impact has also been negative, with history showing us that many civilizations decimated their forests, dumped toxic chemicals into the soil or water, and made certain areas uninhabitable or unfit for agriculture (Markham, 1994).

B. Since the Industrial Revolution, though, various problems associated with human excess waste and toxic chemicals have contributed to a phenomenon known as global warming. Because the earth's eco-system is in such balance, effects in one area or region also affect others. Warming oceans, for instance, affect the melting of glacial ice, which in turn has an effect on weather patterns. Similarly, temperature fluctuations on land and sea affect agriculture, what certain species eat, and…… [read more]

Human and Economic Costs of Flooding Dissertation

Dissertation  |  9 pages (2,396 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … human and economic costs of flooding on cities has been well documented, but the recent floods that hit northeastern England from September 25 to September 28, 2012 were among the worst in decades and in some cases, were unprecedented in the level of flooding that was involved. Hundreds of homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed and transportation… [read more]

Global Warming Effects Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


When the environment becomes unbreakable, the species try to move out and look for places elsewhere. However, there are some unique kinds of animals and species of plants and marine life that are not suitable for adaptation elsewhere rather than their source of origination. When they are deprived of all kinds of places to settle in at, they start dying out and their reproduction is severely affected to the point where they become absolutely rare and eventually extinct. The level and threat of this extinction is multiplying by many times as the implications of global warming keeps going up. Some cold water fish, seals and bears are examples of the species that require cold regions for their survival and their habitats have been severely affected in the past years which have led them to the point of extinction.


Judging from the above evidences, it is pretty clear that the human activities are increasing the extent of vulnerability of the environment and the well being of the world itself. It is not just bringing implications on a particular region but this is now spreading further and increasing the severity of issues. Unless this is controlled and brought under sustainable measures, things will keep getting out of hand and worsening the conditions for humans, animals, insects, marine life, forests and will threaten our survival through different elements. Our source of shelter will be questioned by the increasing water levels and occurrence of natural disasters, food availability will be threatened much more than it is right now and we shall soon be deprived of clean, fresh drinking water as well with the pace of current things (Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004).


Allen, C. (2009). Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems . Washington D.C. .

(2008). Ecological Impacts of Climate Change. Washington D.C.

(2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. United Kingdom.

J.T. Price, R.L. (2005). Ecosystems, their Properties, Goods, and Services. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Washington: University of Cambridge Press.

Karl, M.P. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States.

Kimball, M.H. (2008). The Effects of Climate Change…… [read more]

Doug Macdougall's Book "Why Geology Matters," Gives Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Doug MacDougall's book "Why Geology Matters," gives us a clear and succinct treatment and understanding of the way that scientists tried to figure out past climate changes and his book is written in such a way that laymen readers can easily understand and enjoy the subject.

Not everyone can make such a potentially dense and UN interesting subject as interesting as the former professor emeritus of Cripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla can. It takes a special gift to do so, and MacDougall seems to have this gift.

The author concludes that the planet's climate changes all the time, but the changes are so indiscernible and slow that we cannot perceive it. These changes however occur on an accumulative basis. We may very well be contributing to a warmer climate and an eroding of the ozone layer by pumping tens of millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Very soon this will aggregate into one massive climate change and it is our descendants who will experience this rapid change in the atmosphere.

Much of the debate over global warning has become radicalized and ugly, but MacDougall sticks to the facts and is readable for his objectivity. He veers away from name-calling and guilt-casting, is balanced and wins the reader precisely because he sticks to scientific data and shows the reader reasons for his arguments. He also tells the reader precisely what we do and do not know being appealing precisely due to his honesty and lack of partisanship. Skeptics of science can appreciate his lack of moralizing and his honesty on the existent gaps in the science. Only towards the end does MacDougall briefly blimp over the different political issues that have generated them over global warming, but this too he does in a detached an objective manner.

MacDougall persuades by his hefty arsenal of facts that are thoroughly cited and documented in clear fashion: carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and oceans are 30% higher than they were at the start of the Industrial Revolution a century and a half ago. Examples come from evidence that includes ice cores dug from glaciers in…… [read more]

Landslides Real Estate: Mass Movements Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


S. is expected to experience above normal rainfall levels (EPA sec. "Future Precipitation and Storm Levels). This is relevant to Western Washington because laboratory experiments by Germer and Braun have revealed that rising water tables may represent a significant landslide risk (477). The implications of this finding is that in addition to the landslide risk posed by strong storms, above normal rainfall levels in general can increase landslide risk. For example, generally wet weather and frequent minor rainfalls could combine to increase the water table and thus destabilize slopes from below. Western Washington may therefore experience an increase in landslide activity in the future if rainfall levels continue to increase due to global warming.

Works Cited

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). "Future Climate Change." EPA.gov, 2012. Web. 6 Dec. 2012.

Germer, Kai and Braun, Juergen. "Effects of Saturation on Slope Stability: Laboratory Experiments Utilizing External Load." Vadose Zone Journal 10.2 (2011): 477-486.

Smith, Keith and Petley, David N. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.

USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). "Landslide Hazards of Seattle, WA, and Vicinity." Landslides.USGS.gov, 2012.…… [read more]

Ability of Plants to Respond Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Besides, the Greenland is expected to record positive temperature deviations of about 6 to 8 degrees in the coming 100 years. However, temperatures are only expected to increase by approximately 2 to 5 degrees in the West Greenland and precipitation in the same area is expected to rise by 20 to 30% by the next century. In this regard, this… [read more]

Sinkholes Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


But there are more extensive problems related to thawing permafrost. Thawing permafrost can also result in irregular land, leading to leaning buildings and unsafe foundations for the buildings. Trees may fall over when the permafrost thaws, causing damage and even casualties. Beneath the surface, any pipes can easily be damaged due to the permafrost thawing. Infrastructure damage can be astounding,… [read more]

Sandbags Outside the NYSE (Strasburg Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (497 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There were cases of algorithms going awry earlier and many investors feared wild changes without human intervention to monitor this market. The hurricanes effects on the stock market are incredibly interest for a variety of reasons. For example, assuming the threats regarding extreme weather events and climate change are real, and then this situation could be a common occurrence in the future. To maintain the integrity of the stock exchange, a new backup plan or a new location may be necessary to ensure its future stability.

One interesting development that the storm will have on international business is how worldwide markets respond to the NYSE closing. The NYSE leads the way for other stock markets around the world and many international investors look to the NYSE for cues about developments that could affect their investment strategies. However, without the NYSE to lead the way, international investors will be on their own in regards to trying to make sense of international developments. It is interesting to see how much uncertainty is created by the closure of the NYSE in regards to the short-term perspective involving what the other worldwide markets do as well as what long-term uncertainties might also develop regarding the disaster management plan and the role an all-electronic exchange might have in the future.

Works Cited

Strasburg, J., J. Cheng and J. Bunge. "Behind Decision to Close Markets." 29 October 2012. The Wall…… [read more]

Floods Are an Overflow Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR8qfhdv0UvHzxKQsI8D1gJ06Ec72uZAtyhZzjc8VhjQb9k80MQ8z2n0mGv and/or http://crooksandliars.com/files/uploads/2008/06/illinois-levees.jpg

Flood Control, Part 3

Different regions have adapted flood control based on their economic wealth, type and frequency of flooding, and the density of population near flood-prone areas.

Americas -- Usually miles of levees, flood gates, and drainage systems

Asia -- Some building of massive dams, but deforestation contributes to more flooding

Europe -- Artificial barriers, dams,… [read more]

Tuscaloosa Alabama Tornado Event in the U.S Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Tuscaloosa Alabama tornado event in the U.S.

Tuscaloosa Alabama tornado event

The Tuscaloosa tornado is one of the biggest tornadoes that have ever hit the Alabama area and caused destruction to the extent it did. The paper looks at the finer details of the destructive nature of the tornado and the response that the rescue and recovery team put forth. There is as well an analysis of the extent of the preparedness of the Alabama people and the local government incase such a thing happens again or even a disaster of a bigger magnitude would occur.

Natural disasters are mostly unforeseen and when they strike the results are fatal accompanied by massive destruction of property and infrastructure. Though there could be warning systems, the populace is rarely adequately prepared for the effects or the magnitude of any natural disaster and this was the case with Alabama when Tornado struck on April 25-28, 2011 bringing massive destruction.

Morbidity and mortality of the Tuscaloosa tornado

The tornado tore through six states destroying property and bringing death in its wake. National Geographic News (2011) indicates that the Tornado was of F5 storm in the Fujita Scale with winds speeds in excess of 260 miles per hour. It is categorized as a queer kind of tornado since it sustained its strength for abnormally long distance, estimated to over 300 miles, which is not normal for tornadoes.

The Tuscaloosa twister swept through six states namely Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Georgia as well as Tennessee killing 338 people as documented by CDC (2012). It was categorized as the third deadliest tornado in the American History, this happening with the advanced warning systems available as well as the advanced tornado detection systems and the wide media coverage. CDC pegs this high toll of deaths to the age of the people who were victims of the tornado which was on average 55 years and that made it difficult for them to move out of the way of the storm in good time. There were also 26.6% of the 338 dead people who were in mobile homes hence giving them little protection. 89.5% of the dead people were reported to be from F4 to F5 tornado during this event, an indication that a majority of the people never stayed off the path of the tornado.

Among all the six states affected by the tornado, it was Alabama that suffered the biggest brunt of the disaster. Vital infrastructure f Tuscaloosa were destroyed, more than 7,000 buildings damaged in Alabama, 10% of the local business in Tuscaloosa were grounded which is around 650 of the 6,200 businesses within the city. These businesses employed 7,200 people within the city and that means an annual payroll of $270 million will not be realized (Larry Copeland, 2011).

Local, State, and Federal Response

The response of the local government, the state agencies and the federal agencies response to the tornado was generally impressive. It noted that the lessons learnt from the Katrina tragedy and the BR… [read more]

Heat Deaths and Illnesses Post Katrina Reforms Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Heat Deaths and Illnesses/Post-Katrina Reforms

Heat related deaths are completely preventable. All a person needs to avoid dying from the heat is to remain at a temperature where that person can function normally and not be injured by the weather. However, even with that common knowledge there are many people who die every year of the heat (Harmon, 2010). Some of these deaths take place because there are people who do not listen to weather forecasts and take them seriously. They go out in the heat and run or jog or work, and they fail to take proper precautions. Sometimes, heat related deaths occur because people do not have enough money to have air conditioning and fans. They keep their doors and windows closed even when it is incredibly hot because they live in neighborhoods where there is lot of crime. They do not trust or know their neighbors, and they do not feel that leaving their doors and windows open is something that is safe in any way for them. Not everyone who dies from the heat has these kinds of problems, but they are common (Harmon, 2010).

Education is part of what can be done to ensure that people do not die from the heat (Harmon, 2010). When people do not realize the dangers and they do not take proper precautions in the heat (like taking frequent breaks, drinking a lot of water, and getting to a place that is shaded or that has air conditioning), they can get very sick and even die (Harmon, 2010). For people who are housebound, help is needed to get them out and to a cooling station. It is also possible to get air conditioners and fans for these people, so they do not have to leave their homes but can cool down and avoid becoming very sick from the heat. There is no possible way to stop every heat related death, however, because there will always be people who will not worry about the weather report or who will think it will not happen to them. There are also people who are far too proud to ask for help, and they can also end up dying because of the heat.

Hurricane Katrina was a devastating storm that struck New Orleans, Louisiana. New Orleans is a city built below sea level and right on the Gulf of Mexico…… [read more]

Warning Systems Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The Flood Alerts Map employs an array of Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS)

The Japanese Earthquake early warning

The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a warning that is issued after detection of an Earthquake in Japan (JMA,2012).These tips are issued by the main issuing authority (Japan Meteorological Agency).The JMA also issues tips as well as information how to react to these warnings (JMA,2007).

The JMA has 2 Earthquake Early Warning schemes. The first one is for use by advanced users while the second one is for the general public. Using the P-Wave that is detected by a total of two or more of the 4,235 seismometers that are installed throughout the country, the authority automatically performs an analysis and a prediction on the possible position of the epicenter and then subsequently warns people through radio and TV. If an earthquake of seismic scale 5- lower or higher expected, then an Earthquake Early Warning (alert) is issued to the Japanese general public.

Example of whether this warning system worked to save both lives and property

The system was very effective in the prediction of the March 2011 earthquake that hit Japan (Nusca,2011).It helped in saving lives and property in major Japanese towns and villages.


Brown, M (2012. Live UK flood warning map uses Environment Agency data).Available online at http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-07/09/flood-map

Cloke HL, Pappenberger F. 2008. Evaluating forecasts for extreme events for hydrological applications: an approach for screening unfamiliar performance measures. Meteorological Applications 15(1): 181 -- 197.

Environment Agency (2012). The flood warning service.Available online at http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/homeandleisure/floods/58417.aspx

Japanese Meteorological Authority (2012). What is an Earthquake Early Warning? (?

(Kinkyu Jishin Sokuho) in Japanese). Available online at http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/Activities/eew1.html

Japanese Meteorological Authority (2007). A New Advance Earthquake Alert.Available online at http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/Activities/EEW_Starting_1_October_2007_Dos_and_Donts.pdf

Nusca, A (2011). How Japan's early warning system detected the earthquake .Available online at http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/smart-takes/how-japans-early-warning-system-detected-the-earthquake/14829

Reynard NS, Prudhomme C, Crooks SM. 2004. The flood characteristics of large UK rivers: potential effects of changing climate and land use. Climatic Change 48(2 -- 3): 343 -- 359.… [read more]

Emergency and Disaster Management: Hurricanes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,413 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


According to the director of the Disaster Recovery Unit in the Office of Community Development, Michael Taylor, "There are still thousands of homeowners who have applied to the program and are awaiting their awards" (as qtd. In Muhammad, 2007).

FEMA also undertook considerable efforts to provide housing to the individuals and households that had been displaced by the hurricane. Among… [read more]

Environment From a Christian Perspective Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Laurel Kearns writes in the peer-reviewed Sociology of Religion that it was against the "anti-environmentalism of the Reagan administration" that Christians -- who, ironically were courted by Reagan -- began to become focused on the environment. Kearns asserts that some churches are interested in becoming "creation awareness centers" rather than "barren edifices surrounded by parking lots" (Kearns, 1996, p. 3). The "anti-science bias" that many Christians (in particular evangelicals) have previously embraced (i.e., doubts about evolution and climate change) must be replaced with common sense applications that are based on real science, Kearns explains.


While Kearns' assertions were offered in 1996, ten years later (Goodstein, 2006) an article in The New York Times reports that Christian leaders are getting organized and getting united when it comes to the environment. The Times reported that 86 evangelical Christian leaders "…have decided to back a major initiative to fight global warming" (Goodstein, p. 1). In fact among the 86 leaders were the presidents of 39 evangelical colleges and leaders of other Christian groups including pastors of "mega-churches" like Rick Warren of Saddleback Church. Pastor Duane Litfin, president of Wheaton College in Illinois (an "influential evangelical institution") said that Christians "…have not paid as much attention to climate change as we should, and that's why I'm willing to step up" (Goodstein, pg. 1).

Not all evangelical leaders signed on to the statement that endorses the idea of Christians taking action to mitigate global climate change. Some in fact have tried to "derail" action taken by the 86 evangelical leaders, Goodstein writes. Indeed, an opposition group of evangelical leaders -- called the "Interfaith Stewardship Alliance" -- argued in their petition, "…the science is not settled" on whether global climate change was real and on whether humans were causing it. Still, while so much empirical evidence is available that humans are producing the greenhouse gases that heat up the planet -- and that humans can help reduce those greenhouse gases by using less electricity -- the "Evangelical Climate Initiative" went ahead with their marketing ideas and produced radio and television commercials to advance their beliefs (Goodstein, p. 2).


David Neff writes in Christianity Today that "…Christians have consistently been end-of-the-world people" more interested in the "…second coming of Christ" than in the environment. That said, Neff believes that "…our present environment is God's gift to us" and hence, Christians should respect, cherish, and protect that gift. Christianity has been noted over the millennia for its "unbounded optimism about human resourcefulness," and now is the time for that optimism to transition into environmental action and sustainable practices (Neff, 2008).


Neff recalls that Ronald Reagan's Secretary of the Interior, James Watt, who was an evangelical Christian, famously remarked (in testimony before the U.S. Congress) "…protecting natural resources was unimportant in light of the imminent return of Jesus Christ" (Neff, p. 1). That is of course an absurd position to take, but no more absurd than the bumper sticker seen in Boise Idaho that offered rebuttal… [read more]

Global Warming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


If you wait another 10 years you would have to reduce emissions by 15% a year. That would be almost impossible" (Gray 2012).

There have been some positive developments on the political level as well as in terms of personal consumption to fight global warming. "Since the U.S. government imposed its first minimum mileage standards in 1974, they have been progressively strengthened. Last year, the Obama Administration and automakers agreed to gradually increase the average mileage of U.S. cars to 54 miles per gallon, starting with an average 35 miles per gallon by 2016" ("Global warming: It's real," Patriot-News Editorial Board, 2012). Some recent consumer trends have shown a shift in favor of the public's commitment to environmentally-friendly policies. Switching to electric or hybrid driving vehicles has grown in popularity, particularly given the increased price of gas. The success of the Toyota Prius was unexpected but now almost all of the major car manufacturers today have a hybrid fleet. Even GM, once the purveyor of gas-guzzling cars has produced the Chevy Volt ("2012 Chevy Volt," GM, 2012). Electric cars "charged from the electricity grid produce lower global warming emissions than the average compact gasoline-powered vehicle (with a fuel economy of 27 miles per gallon) -- even when the electricity is produced primarily from coal in regions with the 'dirtiest' electricity grids" ("State of change," Union of Concerned Scientists, 2012). With clean electric grids dominated by wind and solar energy, the impact is nearly zero from electric cars.

Reducing meat consumption, however, has been a harder 'sell,' particularly in the developing world, where increased prosperity inevitably leads to increased meat consumption (Goldenberg 2012). "Some scientists are at work growing artificial meat which would avoid the fertilizers and manure responsible for climate change" (Goldenberg 2012). Fish and chicken leave a smaller carbon footprint than cattle, since cows and other ruminant livestock require extensive grazing land and deforestation. Simply not eating animal products at all (vegetarianism and veganism) is another option embraced by some environmentalists (Goldenberg 2012).

The precise policy prescription of achieving the goals of lower fossil fuel consumption, less reliance upon gas-powered cars, and reduced meat consumption remain debatable even amongst environmentally-committed scientists and policy makers. Lower emissions targets and incentivizing or requiring environmentally-friendly behavior continues to vary widely from nation to nation, and global warming denials on a political level have a great deal of traction in the United States, making it difficult to pass sweeping climate change legislation. "America's vigorous anti-climate science campaigns, amplified by political rhetoric and, so far, defeating federal legislative efforts, has dismayed European and other leaders grappling with the highly destructive impacts of rapidly advancing climate change" (Blakemore 2012). The Obama Administration has vowed to make supporting green technology a critical component of improving the economic outlook of the United States, and virtually all major companies have 'sustainability' platforms on their public websites but the outlook remains decidedly mixed in terms of seeking to undo the effects of global warming.

Works Cited

"2012 Chevy Volt."… [read more]

Global Warming Daniel Botkin Delivers a Wholly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,174 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Global Warming

Daniel Botkin delivers a wholly ineffective argument in favor of ignoring the impact of global warming, and he uses a number of slick rhetorical devices to distract the reader from the heart of the message. Yet, it is exactly in the heart of that message that we find the compelling reason to set aside short-term self-interest long enough to act in the best interests of the planet. In the grand scheme of things, Botkin is right in that the planet and most life on it will carry on just fine. The problem with climate change is that we -- human beings -- are among the species most at risk from climate change. The best way to frame the argument that we should take action to stem climate change is not the red herring argument that we are pitting our own interests against the planet's. The accurate way of framing this debate is the best one, and the most effective one -- we need to take action to stem climate change because if we do not, we are choosing short-run self-interest over long-run self-interest. In doing so, we are failing to make the rational, survival-based decisions that other species are already making to keep themselves alive.

To make this point, we can begin with one of Botkin's sloppy arguments. He argues that because the Vikings made a warming trend in the middle ages work to their advantage, we do not need to worry much about rising sea levels. This conveniently ignores the fact that we are not Vikings. We do not live in sod houses that can easily be moved to higher ground. We live by the hundreds of millions in cities permanently affixed to the seaside. Flooding of coastal areas is one of the biggest risks we face as the result of climate change. The ten cities most at risk from climate-change related flooding are Mumbai, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Miami, Saigon, Calcutta, New York, Osaka, Alexandria and New Orleans (Vigran, 2008). That is eight of the world's most powerful and vibrant cities, with a combined population in the range of 125 million people. And that is just the ten most at-risk cities. It is ludicrous to equate the relocation of a few hundred Vikings with the relocation of the largest and most powerful cities -- along with billions of their residents.

Botkin notes that mockingbirds came to New York not for better weather, but because one of their food sources had set up shop in New York City. He probably -- if he is serious about his academic bona fides -- should have asked the question of how that plant came to recently settle in New York. Plants, and other creatures that form the lower rungs of the food chain, respond directly to climate stimulus. When one element of the ecosystem changes, all the other elements must change along with it. There may be cases where the realignment goes smoothly, there is also a significant risk that the realignment… [read more]

Forgotten Aspect of Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,004 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


7 inches and that polar ice has shown a notable decline in recent years: "Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost about 152 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of ice between 2002 and 2005" (Jenkins 20120).

The phrase 'global warming' used by Gore and others to describe this phenomenon, however, is somewhat unfortunate, I think. Every time there is an unusual burst of warmth, of course, I hear my friends complain about global warming, and they state that Al Gore's film An Inconvenient Truth is correct. However, during times of bitter cold, there are just as many jokes about Al Gore being wrong. But warming is only part of the equation -- more severe storms due to increased moisture from melting ice is another symptom of global warming. Fundamentally, human beings are unwilling to change their habits, and have short attention spans. They are looking for reasons not to change, rather than reasons to change.

On an individual level, there are small steps human beings can take to stop climate change. Eating less meat is one of them. "Global demand for meat has multiplied in recent years... assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy and other grains, a dependency that has led to the destruction of vast swaths of the world's tropical rain forests" (Bittman 2008). "Livestock production generates nearly a fifth of the world's greenhouse gases -- more than transportation" (Bittman 2008). This desire for meat is likely to increase in the developing world, as more people grow affluent enough to inject meat into their diet.

Transportation emissions are also likely to increase, given that more people are buying and using cars, despite improved fuel efficiency standards. In the United States, although environmentalists have tried to pressure automotive companies to improve emission standards and the price of gas is creating economic pressure to produce hybrid vehicles, there is limited public transportation in most areas and few people 'car pool.' A true effort to reduce emissions by a nation would require much higher gas taxes than people are willing to support, and probably a tax on meat and other environmentally unfriendly products as well. And even one nation alone cannot create change. Nations must work together, which has proven quite difficult, given that the developing world often understandably resents that the nations which have benefitted from industrialization in the past now expect them to curtain their behaviors. Gore compares fighting global warming to preparing to battle the enemy of World War II, but global warming may be an even more difficult fight in the long run, given that all nations must unite, not just a few, and the rationing and sacrifices expected of the average citizen are permanent rather than temporary.


Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York…… [read more]

Wildfire Is an Uncontrolled Fire Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


But for safety reasons they should not wait until a fire is spotted. Instead planned evacuation during the wildfire season would be a more prudent policy. Of course this seems a bit awkward and certainly one cannot imagine entire communities leaving during the potential wildfire season. Moreover, it is most likely that many who stay will not make preparations.

Collins (2009) suggests that preventative measures should be a more important consideration in areas where wildfires are problematic. First law enforcement, fire departments, and community leaders can provide education for home and business owners in areas prone to experiencing the effects of wildfires. There are two factors that determine a home's or business' ability to survive the effects of wildfires: (a) the use of fire-resistant roofing material and (b) the creation of a wildfire defense zone (McCaffrey, 2002). Home owners and business owners should use fire-resistant roofing material for houses or buildings near forests or grasslands. Community leaders and local fire departments could impose regulations and enforce regarding the avoidance of flammable materials such as shake or wood roof shingles. Local fire and police can educate businesses and citizens to be ready for wildfires by building and maintaining defensible fire zones around their domiciles and teach, review, and enforce fire-protection measures so communities are prepared before a fire occurs. Removal of potential flammable products can be initiated by police and fire departments (Collins, 2009; McCaffrey, 2002). Formal evacuation plans should also be put in place by police, fire, and EM departments in susceptible areas.

Other more extreme measures could be enacted by police and fire personal. These include more controversial techniques is controlled burning which is allowing or starting controlled smaller fires in areas to reduce the total flammable matter accessible for a potential wildfire (McCaffrey, 2002). These practices can reduce the overall damage from wildfires. Of course better training and up-to-date methods and firefighting equipment can also be important. In the long run minimizing the potential damage from wildfires requires the cooperation of individuals, businesses, local and national government agencies, police, and fire departments.


Collins, M. (2009). Hell on earth: The rise of more dangerous wildfires forces communities worldwide to think how they handle infernos. Government Technology's Emergency

Management, 4 (6), 22-30.

McCaffrey, S. (2002). For want of defensible space a forest is lost: Homeowners and the wildfire hazard and mitigation in the residential wildland intermix at incline village, Nevada.

Berkeley: University of California Press.

Pechony. O. & Shindell, D.T. (2010) Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 107,

19167 -- 19170.…… [read more]

Resiliency in Creativity Challenges Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


(Bain, 2010)

Peterson (2011) write that when one attempts to find the solution to a problem, they must begin by focusing on facts that are obvious and solutions that are familiar to see if the answer can be identified. This is stated as a left-brain process. When the answers are not readily identified the right and left-brain hemisphere activate together and "neural networks on the right side scan remote memories that could be vaguely relevant." (Peterson, 2011) Peterson (2011) states that there is a broad range of information that generally is not attuned to that makes itself available to the brain's left hemisphere which seeks patterns that are undiscovered, meanings that are alternative and abstractions of a high level. The left-brain has to react quickly to hone in on the ideas and connections pulling the various threads of information together and bonding them in a singular thought, which then enters upon the individual's consciousness. This is described as "the 'aha' moment of insight, often followed by a spark of pleasure as the brain recognizes the novelty of what it's come up with." (Peterson, 2011)


This study has examined the literature on resilience and creativity and has found that challenging times and situations results in the individual creatively coping and thereby developing personal resilience. This has also been found to be true for the organization as well. Necessity it has been said is the mother of invention, although this writer does not know who coined that phrase it certainly rings true in light of the information gained in this particular study.

The most challenging times and events bring out the best in most people as they construct methods of coping and effectively dealing with the challenges that present. It would appear that instead of sinking into the depths of despair or depression that the individual with positively oriented thinking processes and coping skills instead allows themselves the freedom to reach deep and to find nontraditional solutions to challenges and barriers that present in their lives.


Bain, Brianna (2010) Resilience and Creativity. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/briannabain/resilience-and-creativity

Elkin, Bruce (2011) Thriving in Challenging Times; Building Personal Resilience and Creativity. Retrieved from: http://bruceelkin.hubpages.com/hub/Staying-Up-In-Down-Times

Peterson,…… [read more]

Flooding There Are Many Natural Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Changing rivers and streams causes them to overrun their banks and flood areas near them, and it also harms ecosystems that belong to birds, plants, and animals. These creatures are affected by the flooding just as human beings are, and they are not always able to pack up and move to higher ground in the same way people can. Something… [read more]

Global Warming Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  15 pages (4,496 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


This descriptive Analysis takes a holistic view of the city in terms of inputs, flow through the system, and outputs. Urban metabolism will be used in conjunction with sustainability of those resources and flows as part of the model development for this research the study.

Urban pathology is it method of diagnosing problems within the city structure. It can be… [read more]

Greenhouse Effect and Global Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Today the world over there is a conscious effort to reverse the effect of Global Warming, and for the first time it has been realized that the efforts needs to take into consideration the fact that more than individual efforts, it is on the Governmental Levels that things need to be changed. Only when the pressure is put on the Governmental level, will a change come that can have a true mark on the carbon footprint, or on the emissions caused by industries, which are a major contributor to Greenhouse gases.

On an international, laws and regulations are now in place to tackle the crisis and the most major breakthrough in this regard has been the signing, implementation and putting in effect the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been signed by 34 countries, with the realization that it is the industrialized nations that are the major producer of carbon or greenhouse gases, and therefore through a systematic process of reducing their carbon footprint.

Besides this a lot of creative and over the edge ideas are also being developed or are already underway to reverse the effects of Global Warming. Some of these concepts include the Storage of CO2 gases deep into the earth through old oilrigs into the Earth's core, in place of the oil that has been drilled out over the years. Another innovative idea is the covering of the Glaciers with a special cover that would prevent them from melting, by reflecting off the sun's ray. The process if already under way on a small scale in Greenland and observations are being noted about how successful a solution this might prove to be.

Creation of Artificial trees are also a much raved about idea, where artificial trees would be designed that would work on the same principals as a real tree. The trees, when the design is finished, can be placed anywhere, and would suck the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Top Ten mega projects to reverse Global Warming).

But until then it is important that we take the simple steps that we can and contribute in any way possible. The simple steps that one can take in an individual capacity include the use of efficient lighting and energy saving, less carbon emission by preferring walking or public transport over private transportation mode, switching to greener modes of energy production and a serious reconsideration of our addiction with oil.

Everything requires respect, and so does our Planet! For many centuries now, the human progress while no doubt has been a wonderful blessing for us all, has meant the steady destruction of this planet for the sake of resources and raw materials. The Earth has been reduced to the status of a provider rather than the creator of life. The entire balance of the eco-system has been turned topsy- turvy, whose results and consequences are finally appearing before us.

Still somewhere, there is a bit of hope that things can still be controlled for the better; however this… [read more]

Professional and Polished Garden Design Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Polished Garden

2,000 words approx.

Creating the Professional and Polished Xeriscaped Garden in Claremont

My friend Jay Pocock of Claremont let me take a snapshot of his lawn and talk to him about water usage and xeriscaping. Because of a recent hike in his water bill, Jay was definitely interested in hearing what I had to say about beautifying his… [read more]

Climate Change Global Warming: Fact Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This is why significant investment in science and technology is important to the private world as well as public government agencies, so that discoveries can be made which will be financially beneficial.

Concluding Opinions

In conclusion there are two divergent beliefs on the topic of global warming, those who follow science and believe in it, and those who oppose science and who follow their own individual beliefs. Both of these points are valid opinions for a good debate, however I believe in the 21st century the debate is more like, how much should be done as a result of global warming, rather than arguing whether global warming does indeed exist.

Science has been conclusive on this subject and only growing more so each day. Most politicians have even understood the need for changes to fuel standards and alternative fuel sources. Since the Japan Earthquake in 2011, nuclear power plants have been in the spotlight for being dangerous sources of energy, prompting scientists to even more rigorous research into better ways to produce energy. Strides have been made in solar and electric power, and batteries are more advanced and well understood than ever. The future of climate change may be in debate, but there is no argument over the benefits of technology both to help industry and to promote a cleaner Earth.

Works Cited:

"The Basics of Global Warming - Science of Global Warming - Environmental Defense Fund." Environmental Defense Fund - Finding the Ways That Work. Web. 25 July 2011. .

Klein, Naomi. Global Warming, Fact or Fiction. Web. 25 July 2011. .

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Web. 25 July 2011. .… [read more]

Is Global Warming Skepticism Just Smoke and Mirrors? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Global warming has been promoted as one of the most serious potential threats to human civilizations in the near future. On one hand, there is substantial evidence that human activity has contributed greatly to the observed changes in the global climate. On the other hand, it is also apparent that much of the supposed evidence is either unreliable or "cherry picked" to support the position of those with established positions on the issue. Former President Al Gore produced a very popular but controversial movie titled An Inconvenient Truth but much of the substance of that movie has also been criticized as presenting a biased perspective that distorts the issue and promotes an alarmist response.

One of the most dramatic pieces of evidence presented to support the theory of global warming is the measurable and significant erosion of the Arctic (and other) glaciers (Muller, 2008). Televised images of tremendous chunks of ice breaking off the continental shelf and reports of the ice melting at a rate of 36 cubic miles per year are presented to support the conclusion that the global temperature is rising (Muller, 2008). Meanwhile, according to scientists, the fact that glaciers are melting so fast does not support the global warming conclusion; in fact, it directly contradicts it. Specifically, increasing atmospheric temperatures would increase the rate of evaporation of large volumes of water. That evaporation would, in turn, return to earth as precipitation that would increase the size of the glaciers rather than decreasing them (Muller, 2008). Likewise, according to scientists, much of the information presented by Gore's An Inconvenient Truth in connection with unstable weather (such as increasingly common and severe tornados, hurricanes, and flooding) was "cherry picked" in ways that distorted any statistical significance of those phenomena (Muller, 2008).

On the other hand, there is irrefutable evidence that the average atmospheric temperature of the planet is, indeed,…… [read more]

Origins and Applications of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Gum Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,671 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Origins and applications of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement commonly known as GUM is a document produced by the Joint Commission for the Guides in Meteorology (JCGM). The work demonstrates a standardized manner of recording, for comparison measurement uncertainty, with the initial focus on meteorology… [read more]

National Public Radio, "Scientists Debate Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is not the responsibility of technology to clean up the flaws in our society.

Furthermore, and more importantly, there are potential issues that are associated with this since it is still in experimental phases. Even if the procedure is perfected in experimental procedures there is absolutely no guarantee that this would successful on a global scale and the risk of it causing drought, famine or the like would be absolutely detrimental.

The "Physical Geography Intro" further highlights the type of conflicts that are present in the National Public Radio article including the conflict over knowledge and facts, self-interest and value. First, the conflict over knowledge and facts is evident in this article since it absolutely not certain how this type of geoengeneeering will end as the results are not certain and it seems highly theoretical phase. Second, this can also be seen as a self-interest conflict in that everyone in the world is acting in their self-interest to skip over doing the hard work of doing their individual part of halting global warming. Finally, this also seems to be a value conflict as there are many differing opinions as to what is important- technology and the ability to halt global warming or the potential complications about this theory actually being executed.

After reviewing this information, it seems that citizens of the globe should a take more active role in halting global warming rather than leaving it…… [read more]

Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Despite this limited positive assessment of UNFCCC's value, Haas takes a much harder line and argues that the resources expended on negotiating and ratifying the Kyoto Protocol have diverted needed attention away from other environmental issues like biodiversity and water quality (3). In fact, Haas suggests that the rhetoric that countries now use when speaking about controlling greenhouse gas emissions belies a 'business as usual' domestic policy that does little to address climate change (3). Haas goes so far as to suggest the global climate change regime process did not work and that real change will only come with more local efforts. Suggestions include meaningful government investment in research and development programs that produce alternative energy sources, k-12 education programs, and regional, national, state, and local autonomous efforts to limit and reduce emissions (5-6).

The truth probably lies somewhere in between, since it would be hard to separate the influence of the global climate change regime over the past half century from the emergence of state and regional efforts to reduce emissions. In spite of this difference, both Betsill and Haas express pessimism about the chances that the Kyoto Protocol will realize any of its goals. An explanation for its failure can be found in Arild Underdal's "law of least ambitious program," which states the least interested party or parties determines the terms of any agreement (Victor, 90). With respect to the Kyoto Protocol, this would be the United States and its insistence on the broad use of "flexible mechanisms" to achieve CO2 emission targets (Betsill, 112). Flexible mechanisms consist of legal transactions that allow the exportation of emission reduction responsibility through carbon trading and clean energy investments in other countries (Betsill, 114).

Other factors that argue against the eventual success of the Kyoto Protocol are attempts to develop large worldwide coalitions. Victor argues that above a certain threshold the complexity of individual, competing interests becomes so great that negotiating an agreement or achieving compliance is impossible, and that smaller coalitions stand a better chance of achieving the desired goals (95). Victor suggests a coalition of the biggest CO2 producers in the world, including the European Union, China, and India, would reduce the complexity of the negotiations required to craft a viable and enforceable agreement (95). The inclusion of India and China brings two major developing economies into the negotiations which will likely require concessions that could serve as a template for crafting similar agreements between uninvited countries. Another alternative to the establishment of institutions like the UNFCCC, which tend to take a legalistic approach, is the use of non-binding agreements that encourage parties to set ambitious goals (Victor, 97).


Regardless of what strategy is eventually found to bring about reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, the predicted failure of the Kyoto Protocol suggests the decades of investment into this agreement may have wasted precious resources and political capital that could have been better spent elsewhere. Victor suggests a return to the science of diplomacy and negotiation strategies and alternative… [read more]

Experienced a Series of Extreme Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,122 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


After all, many companies rely on the existence of fossil fuel, from those responsible for mining or drilling for such energy sources to those who refine or convert such sources into petroleum to power vehicles or electricity. Then there are the people who use fossil fuels, which includes just about everyone on this planet. To suggest that using such kinds… [read more]

Global Warming in Australia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Global Warming in Australia

The issue of globalization and its effects on the world has become an ever-increasing subject for debate. Although it is considered that only highly industrialized countries and regions are affected by this process of globalizations, areas such as Australia are not out of reach either. In this sense, the global warming phenomenon is increasing and spreading throughout the world, regardless of the geographical area.

The effects of global warming in Australia are an alarm signal for its dwellers. There are several areas of interest that have experienced the effects of global warming lately in Australia.

An important segment of the Australian life is related to the actual quality of life in major cities such as Sydney. In this sense, the signals in reference to the way in which life could change in the next decades in Sydney are alarming. More precisely, a 2007 report pointed out that life in "Sydney could be completely transformed by the year 2070. In just one generation, Sydney could slide into a near permanent state of drought. There could be a dramatic rise in deadly bushfires. Temperatures would rise 10 or 15 degrees Fahrenheit, or more. Heat-related deaths would soar from nearly 200 to more than 1,200 a year" (Litke 2007)Therefore, it can be pointed out that one of the first changes to be seen in terms of global warming for Australia would be a change in the climatic behavior of the continent. This is not necessarily a particular consequence, but for Australia it is essential as the temperature and the climate are already unbearable in certain parts of the year. Such a change in temperatures would also impact other segments of life, from the human to the animal life.

Another consequence of global warming for Australia is, as mentioned above, related to the wildlife, the vegetation and the particular areas for survival of plants. More precisely, given the change in the temperature of the air, certain species of plants and animals would no longer be able to adapt in their natural habitat. This represents a major concern for the wildlife specialists as this lack of possibility to adapt implies even the extinction of certain species. Thus, "Such species will need to follow their climatic envelopes by migrating to cooler and moister environments, usually uphill or southwards in the southern hemisphere. There is some evidence that plants and animals are already responding to warmer temperatures. The treeline (above which there are no trees) near Mount Hotham in the Victorian Alps has reportedly moved up in altitude by 40 meters in recent years"(NOVA Science in the News 2005). Such changes point out that while some species tend to adapt, others cannot. Also, it suggests that the issue of global warming and its potential effects on the Australian land are is no longer a mere subject for further discussions, it represents a clear threat to the…… [read more]

Community it Affects Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … community it affects and describe the problem in detail what the problem is, whom it affects, why it is an important issue, and so on.. You might begin this with an informal response to surface what you think about it, which can lead to an initial argument position. In my experience, big problems are easier to work with than more local ones, so you might start out with something like global warming, America's obesity epidemic, or child poverty and decide what we should do about it. You get to be the decider in this paper. Some problems will not have viable solutions (like pandemics, global natural disasters like global warming, drug abuse or fundamentalist terrorism), yet you can still argue for how such a problem might be solved or addressed or argue that people can do something to alleviate it in their own lives or you might conclude that it can really be solved. Whatever position you take, be sure to give a little space to alternate views.

Taxing global warming


Global warming is one of the most debated topics today, considering the aftermath that is left as a result of the fact that earth's temperature has experienced a significant increase in the recent decades. Society as a whole is affected by the process, with people from all over the world reporting in a series of anomalies occurring because of the sudden change in temperature. Contemporary attempts in reducing greenhouse gasses emissions or pollution as a whole have had little to no effect in stopping or at least in ameliorating global warming.

Governments from around the world have kept a traditional perspective in regard to the subject they "followed the "standard model" when creating international environmental treaties: set commitments first, defer procedures for enforcement until later, and rely on "soft" (or nonexistent) measures for enforcing compliance" (Victor 147).

In spite of the fact that some countries have expressed little interest in ameliorating global warming, most of them are expected to change their position in the coming years, with or without their desire to do so. Global warming affects everyone, meaning that the countries that are currently indifferent in regard to it will gradually come to understand the imminent threat and will practically be forced to get actively engaged in fighting against the process (Victor vii). The earth's climate is presently experiencing change mainly as a result of the fact that society has blindly polluted the atmosphere and cut down exaggerated amounts of trees that were essential to reducing greenhouse gasses.

II. Thesis

Immediate action needs to be taken in order to remedy conditions. The masses are willing to pay in exchange of being comfortable, even if this comfort has terrible effects on the environment. More and more people buy and use pollutant devices that they do not actually need, but that they consider essential in building a state of comfort. In order to prevent and profit from this situation, governments need to increase taxes on every luxurious… [read more]

New York Times Like Profile on Australian American Inventor Saul Griffith Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,379 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


New York Times Like Profile of Saul Griffith

Over the last several years, a host of individuals began to become more concerned about the impact of climate change. In some cases, you would see various people contribute mass amounts of financial resources to addressing the underlying problem. While at other times, there are those individuals who will go beyond: traditional thinking and will work to develop ideas that many did not think was possible. Such is the case with Saul Griffith, the Australian born -American inventor, who has had a major impact upon how most people live their daily lives. A good example of this can be seen with his development of the uses of flexible surfaces and pourable resin in eyeglasses. This is important, because these two basic components would improve the durability of eyes glass, by preventing the frames from becoming damaged (where it increased the ability of the lens to withstand extreme impacts). As a result, his invention would innovate the way that everyone would live their daily lives, by using compounds that improved durability of glasses. Over the course of time, this would have an impact upon society through the use of these compounds on regular basis (which helps to save consumers money and provide them with a superior product). However, over the last few years, Griffith has been changing the overall focus of his research, with him becoming increasingly concerned about the total impact that global warming is having on the ecosystem. To fully understand how these different views have affected Griffith requires: looking at his life, the products that he has developed to address these challenges and the total impact of his efforts. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying effects that Griffith's research is having on addressing various environmental issues. ("Saul Griffith") ("Short Bio Saul Griffith")

The Life of Saul Griffith

Saul Griffith was born and educated in Australia. Early on he had passion for research, with his parents being intellectuals that were focused on the value that education can provide. As a result, Griffith would study and graduate from the top colleges in Australia. To include: the University of New South Wales (where he received his BMETE) and University of Sydney (receiving a Masters degree in Engineering). At which point, Griffith would continue with his research by studying for his PHD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During the course of his research, he would develop a way to address various challenges affecting eye glass. Where, he used different compounds (flexible surfaces and pourable resin) to create more durable frames. These elements are important, because they are showing how Griffith would use: the basic principles of engineering and research to understand, how to address various challenges facing society. This is significant, because it shows how innovative research would give Griffith a passion for addressing various problems affecting a host of individuals. ("Saul Griffith") ("Short Bio Saul Griffith")

The Products that He had Developed to Address these… [read more]

Environment US Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (435 words)
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¶ … reaching climate change legislation in the United States is dependent on a multitude of domestic and international actors, and appears to be a diminishing possibility every day as political and practical barriers continue to be erected and strengthened against such legislation. Republican opposition to such a bill, especially in the Senate, has been quite stringent, and several Democratic members of Congress have also joined in opposition to the passing of cap-and-trade and other emissions-oriented legislation. Certain industries and states that support them also strongly oppose changes to emission standards and levels, and without the financial and legal support of Congress other federal agencies are essentially powerless. Internationally, other countries are failing to ratify international legislation (namely an extension to the Kyoto Protocol) for a variety of reasons, including the current economic climate and -- in the case of emerging economies like China and India -- the fact that they were not major polluters in the past and so did not contribute to the current problem to the same degree. Without international agreement, especially among the world's largest polluters, there can be no real effective change in the emissions rates or pace of climate change occurring on the planet.

From a Liberal perspective, climate change poses a very real and very practical threat to national and…… [read more]

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