Study "Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays 56-110

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Climate Change in the Polar Term Paper

… Many people still do not take climate change seriously, and that is part of the problem in finding a solution. Perhaps if more of what is going on in the Polar Regions really became public knowledge, the people would truly see that climate change is already happening, and affecting the lives and livelihoods of many people. Many of the Native Americans in the Arctic survive on the animals that live there, and if the bears and seals disappear, they will have no way to sustain themselves. There have been some reports and publicity about the polar bears and their plight, but the Native Americans have not made nearly enough information available about what is happening to them and their villages. More people should be made aware, so they can see the very real effects of global warming, and see to expect much worse in the future.

References

Editors. (2009). Polar regions. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2009 from the EPA.gov Web site: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/polarregions.html.… [read more]


Climate Change Global Climate Change: Separating Science Essay

… Climate Change

Global Climate Change: Separating Science from Conjecture

The issue of climate change -- of human caused global warming, to be exact -- has been the subject of much debate among politicians and scientists alike. There is a growing… [read more]


Climate Change Summary of the 2007 Ipcc Essay

… Climate Change

Summary of the 2007 IPCC Status Report on Climate Change

According to the 2007 IPCC Status Report on Climate Change, there is no doubt that climate change is occurring. The summary is somewhat more nebulous when it comes to stating the definite causes and effects of this climate change, but a warming trend has definitely been noted by the various researchers and studies that contributed to this summary. In some sense, however, several of the effects of the warming trend are used as part of the evidence that such a trend is occurring. The change in population and/or migratory patterns of fish, algae, and plankton in high latitude oceans is cited in the summary, as well as many other biological changes linked to global warming and climate change. The conclusions that the warming trend is occurring is also based on direct measurements of surface temperatures on widespread points of the globe from 1970 to 2004, which are shown clearly on chart in the summary.

What is certain when it comes to climate change is that the average world temperature has increased by approximately one degree Celsius since 1970, and that sea levels have also shown a measurable rise over the same period. any of the effects of this trend can also be linked to global warming with certainty. Though the evidence in the summary is compelling, the causal relationship between human activity and climate change is still not entirely certain, nor are many of the projected effects of the current climate change or indeed the projections concerning the future of climate change. Though even the summary refrains from language that claims its conclusions as certain, the information it provides does contend that humans are most likely the source of climate change. Natural global…… [read more]


Global Warming Evidence for Global Climate Change Thesis

… Global Warming

Evidence for Global Climate Change

In our lifetime, we have experienced a period of relative stability in the earth's climate. At least it is stable when compared to the past. The earth's climate has been in a constant… [read more]


Science v. Society the Politics Term Paper

… Science v. Society

The Politics and Science of Global Warming

The debate -- or at times, the direct and hostile conflict -- between factions of politics and pure science is centuries or even millennia old. From Socrates being put to death for his pursuit of logical truths in defiance of his society's religious beliefs, to the persecution of Galileo for his scientific findings that countered Church doctrine, to modern debates such as stem cell research and global warming, there seems to be a constant and at times drastic lag between the progress of science and such progress's acceptance by civilization. This latter issue is more in line with the historical pattern; the debate surrounding stem cell research is purely ethical, whereas the religious factions that persecuted both Socrates and Galileo disputed facts. Though both men were prosecuted for moral or ethical breaches, these supposed breaches occurred because their teachings/assertions went against those of the religious establishment. It is not specifically (or at least not entirely) a religious faction that disbelieves the mounting evidence supporting human-caused global warming, but the effect is quite similar.

Just as with Galileo's research and findings regarding the heliocentric solar system, modern scientists' research that supports human-caused global warming is rejected as unfounded quack science by many. There is a significant difference in these situations, however; though the Church in Galileo's day had their "scientists" the methods they employed were not always scientific by today's standards. The same has been said both of and by scientists on both sides of the global warming issue, but the fact that the scientific method has been established for centuries (largely by Galileo and others of his era) clouds the reliability of such accusations. It has also changed the debate from one of idealism vs. rationalism to one of supposed rationalism vs. supposed rationalism, with political complications, too.

Just as the science used both to "prove" and "disprove" global warming is a matter of great debate, both sides of the issue are also accused of political and economic motives for their findings. Such arguments were also used to explain Galileo's departure from accepted doctrine, and he was certainly a man who enjoyed the limelight. The Church's position almost certainly came in large part from a desire to retain power and control over the sciences, so it is not unusual that each side could use the issue of motive against the other. In the global warming issue, the very existence of the phenomenon has been called into question due to the economic gain to the man who first identified the problem, Roger Revelle: "Revelle co-authored a scientific paper" proposing global warming, but "the thrust of the paper was a plea for funding for more studies. Funding, frankly, is where Revelle's mind was most of the time" (Coleman). This is just one of many accusations leveled against global warming advocates.

At the same time, there are obvious economic and therefore political repercussions for many companies and governments if…… [read more]


Buckley, Bruce, Edward J. Hopkins, and Richard Research Proposal

… Buckley, Bruce, Edward J. Hopkins, & Richard Whitaker. Weather: A Visual Guide. New York:

Firefly, 2004.

A good, introductory text that is nevertheless not 'dumbed down' for meteorology students. It would be a useful reference source even for individuals doing higher-level graduate work in weather science because of its breadth and clarity, as well as its ease of 'searchability.' Like a textbook or encyclopedia, the book deals with metrological phenomena in terms of broad topic overviews according to subject areas. Most entrees come with helpful photographs. In addition to discussing the causes of particular kinds of weather and weather-related natural disasters and weather extremes, global warming and the reasons for climate change are also addressed.

Fallen Tree Type Shelters." Bill's Outdoor Tree Pages: The Ozarks. Updated December 20, 2004. November 23, 2008. http://www.theozarks.com/Outdoors/ShelterFallenTree.htm.

Did you ever wonder what you would do if you were lost in the woods, and had nowhere to go to take shelter at night? Bill's Outdoor Tree Pages provides a comprehensive guide as to how to construct such structures from fallen brush and lean-to shelters from fallen trees. Of course, for many of us, the likelihood of being lost without recourse to a tent or camping gear is relatively slim (although not as slim as one might like to think, given recent reports of lost explorers in the news). Still, for nature and camping aficionados, the detailed presentation of the shelters makes it possible to replicate Bill's instructions quite easily. This is a fun site to visit if one needs to do so for fulfilling the requirements for a Boy Scout merit badge or Outward Bound program. It is something that is also good to know for a frequent camper, even if the knowledge will hopefully not be necessary, except under extreme conditions.

Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York: Perigree Books, 1959.

Golding's classic work of fiction tells the tale of some British boys who are abandoned on a deserted island due to a plane crash. The boys quickly devolve into their own, primitive society. The book is a metaphor for the human condition in a state of nature and one of the most controversial novels of the 20th century.

Jenkins, Mark. "Natural Shelters." Backpacker. 25.3 (1997):1-6. http://web.ebscohost.com.

Mark Jenkins provides a clear and comprehensive guide to a possibly frightening subject, namely what to do if you are lost while hiking in the woods. Jenkins provides instructions about how to create a makeshift shelter for the night using…… [read more]


Earth Science - Global Warming Science Article Term Paper

… Earth Science - Global Warming

SCIENCE ARTICLE SUMMARY: GLOBAL WARMING

The Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Purdue University recently announced some troubling findings published by its Climate and Extreme Weather

Initiative. Specifically, the organization studied future weather conditions conducive to the formation of severe conditions such as powerful thunderstorms featuring flooding, high winds, and tornadoes. The research combined the analyses of experts in the fields of climate modeling with those of experts who study the formation of severe storm conditions.

Climate modeling is a mechanism for studying the combined effects of hundreds of individual components such as ocean currents, atmospheric conditions, regional ography, and greenhouse gases, all of which contribute to changes in global weather formation. Climate modeling enables researchers to use sophisticated computer programs to synthesize data about previous weather conditions to predict future changes based on analyzing the interrelationships between those factors.

By combining the data from past instances of severe weather conditions with the ability of experts on storm formation, the researchers were able to draw certain troubling conclusions about the relative likelihood of potentially damaging severe weather events in the future as well as the relationship between current rates of global warming and their particular effects on specific regions such as those parts of the U.S. most affected by powerful thunderstorms, flooding, and tornadoes.

According to the study, global warming will increase the incidence of factors known to be associated with the development of severe weather events. More importantly, those changes will have much greater effect in specific regions of the country where their proximity to the Atlantic coastline and the Gulf of Mexico makes them more susceptible to changes in humidity along the…… [read more]


Kyoto Protocol and Climate Change Discernible Human Term Paper

… Kyoto Protocol and Climate Change

Discernible human influences now extend to other aspects of climate, including ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns" (AR4, 2007).

While the UNFCCC countries are dedicated to thwarting global warming in a theoretical way, the Kyoto Protocol signers, called Annex I parties, are attempting to doing something about it (Kyoto, 1998). Ten years ago they obligated themselves to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average 5% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012 in order to "minimize adverse effects, including the adverse effects of climate change" (Kyoto. 1998). Even though some of these nations may have only reduced their emissions by 5%, others have reduced them by 15%, in order to make the national limitation. As a result, some atmospheric cleanup has been effected in urban areas throughout the world. Global change is discernible and having a negligible effect. It will, however, take many more decades before global warming and other climate changes which are caused by greenhouse gases will begin to turn around.

The Kyoto Protocol includes a "flexible mechanism" which allows under-compensating economies to meet their limitations by purchasing GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emission reductions from those who have overcompensated and have excess allowances. These are called "carbon credits." To produce carbon credits for sale is desirable, compared to being obligated to purchase them because a country is producing too many GHG emissions (EIA, 1998). In the United States, because of the Kyoto Protocol, actual GDP losses are projected to "range from $102 to $437 billion dollars in 2010." Prices of offsets and carbon credits will skyrocket among those nations in the Annex I sector, setting the stage for a failure of the entire project. Seeing how as the effects on climate so far…… [read more]


Ecology Global Warming: From Milutin Term Paper

… Such discrepancies, however, are the mainstay of the anti-global warming group. If the world's scientists cannot even agree on whether the climate is warming, then there cannot be much of a problem. Or conversely, if the Earth's climate has actually… [read more]


Weather and Construction: Las Vegas Term Paper

… During the hot months the night time lows may only drop to eighty degrees.

The second major factor in the Las Vegas Valley is wind. Due to its location the city is often buffeted by major windstorms. At times wind speeds may reach an excess of fifty miles per hour, however most wind storms only provide winds up to thirty miles per hour. It is not uncommon for windstorms to damage property throughout the valley. The more extreme windstorms tend to cause numerous problems throughout the city.

A secondary factor which must be considered with the windstorms is dust. The amount of recent precipitation - particularly in the deserts surrounding the city - will determine whether or not the dust will be problematic throughout the metropolitan area. In the spring of 2002, one windstorm produced enough dust to decrease visibility in the city to less than a mile.

Construction work during a major windstorm may prove difficult but not impossible. Primary problems tend to revolve around temporary signs being blown down and difficulty with free hanging cranes. Generally those involved with work on the exterior of a high rise hotel casino will withhold their work until windstorms have subsided. Certainly dust may be problematic for visibility and overall comfort, but generally does not deter construction projects.

The last element is flash floods. Generally these are happen in the large washes which surround the city. At times roads and underpasses become flooded due to some sort of obstruction in a wash. However for the most part, actual construction sites will not be affected by any type of flash flood. The primary issue during an event such as this may be backups throughout the city because certain roads are closed to traffic. The streets of Las Vegas are notoriously slippery after any rain whatsoever, so aside from flood related back-ups there may also be accident related road closures. The difficulty a given worksite will generally have during flash-flooding will be getting its crew to the site.

Rain in Las Vegas is a somewhat unusual event. However, in the outlying mountains, particularly the Spring Mountains and the La Madre Mountains to the west, rain is a regular occurrence. Periodically heavy rains in these mountains and foothills can cause flash flood events in the city.

Most construction crews find Las Vegas to be a pleasant place to work. And why shouldn't they? For the vast majority of the year the weather is tolerable and there is more construction work available than anyone can possibly handle.

Bibliography

Acevedo, William. "Urban Land Use Change in the Las Vegas Valley." Las Vegas Growth from 1912. http://www.actressactor.com/las-vegas-shows/las-vegas-articles/las-vegas-growth.htm

Manning, Mary. "Monsoon Season Spawns Deluges." The Las Vegas Sun. 18 January 2000. http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/sun/2000/jun/18/510399096

Particulate Matter in Las Vegas, Nevada." Environmental Protection Agency. 20 December 2000. http://www.epa.gov/region09/air/vegaspm/factfinding.html

Climate of Las Vegas, Nevada." NOAA. [read more]


PRICING THE FUTURE, THE AMERICAN CLIMATE PROSPECTUS Assessment

… PRICING THE FUTURE, THE AMERICAN CLIMATE PROSPECTUS, and THE STERN REVIEW.

First, the global warming case. Please don't go crazy. You do not need to consult any other sources besides

You can probably do an adequate job of answering the… [read more]


Listening Skills and Climate Change Research Paper

… Hence, it is important to note that climate change is not about weather per se; it is about the climate and its changing influence and impact on the planet and its people.

The Assignment -- A Free-write (only pencil and paper are needed)

Following the lecture students are given seven minutes to write down, in bullet points, the most important information they can recall from the lecture. They were not asked to take notes, so they are using recollection skills. In the second timed eight-minute window of time they are to create an essay explaining their own previously held position and/or offering a summation as to why people believe in climate change and why others do not. They may also offer a solution in order to convince the one in four doubters that climate change is real.

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Kolb's Learning Styles

Students are allowed to express their feelings in a concrete experience (the lecture and the challenge) in a personal way without being right or wrong. This is Kolb's learning style because it allows open-minded and intuitive responses to the material presented in the lecture (Nilson, 2010). This assignment also fits with Kolb's Learning Styles because it challenges students to observe a dilemma reflectively; in addition, differing points-of-view need to be critiqued and objectivity is important in this exercise, which follows Kolb's style

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Fleming and Mill's Style

In particular, students with auditory skills learn well when given information they can hear, and in this exercise there are no visuals, no videos, just the voice of the instructor reviewing the material. Also, this style of learning emphasizes logical and deductive relationships, and the subjects in the lecture cry out for logic and understanding.

Why the Assignment is Compatible with Felder and Silverman

Most learners can process material when it is either visual or verbal, and most students excel in one of the two formats. For those not as skilled with verbally presented material, this is an excellent opportunity to gain experience with listening skills. Also, this learning style emphasizes sequential assignments; a) listen to the lecture; b) make bullet points about what has been presented; and c) create a cogent essay as an assignment.

Discussion

The research offered in this paper represents several ways in which instructors can challenge students to examine and critique critical contemporary issues such as climate change. In this exercise students are asked to listen closely and recall key points in the lecture. And because there are many learning styles, in another class session the same instructor may use visual aids to present his material. But whatever material the instructor presents, he or she should embrace a variety of strategies throughout the course so that all learning styles are emphasized. Presenting material in relevant and interesting ways is always the task of the instructor, no matter what the learning style of the student is.

Works Cited

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The… [read more]


Climate Change and Global Warming Attitudes Research Paper

… Data Presentation

10. Conclusions and Significance of Study

Literature Review

Climate change, which is at least partly due to human activities, poses a threat to the future of all species on this planet. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of roughly 400 parts per million in the atmosphere (CO2 Now, 2014). The current CO2 concentration is really scary considering many scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is another major scientific authority, believes that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur (IPCC, 2007). Some scientist believe that if drastic action isn't taken within the next few years then it could already be too late for some major threshold points to be crossed.

Figure 1 - Global Carbon Emissions

Climate change is at least partly due to human activities according to the scientific consensus. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of nearly 400 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere CO2. The current CO2 concentration is alarming considering some scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. Other groups, such as the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has previously stated that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur.

Findings from the 2007 IPCC Report states that climate that's already changing and impacting environment… [read more]


Climate Change, Divorced Research Paper

… d.). How climate change impacts the ski tourism industry is a relatively small issue to the impact on drinking water supplies, though. "The effects on natural systems will be widespread: from accelerated glacier melt, altered precipitation, runoff, and groundwater recharge patterns, to extreme droughts and floods, water quality changes, saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers and changes in water use," (The World Bank, 2014, p. 1). Water quality and availability is the most important casualty of climate change because of the universal importance of water.

Climate change affects the quality of water worldwide, because the hydrologic cycle is disrupted. Groundwater may come into contact with a greater amount of pesticides or factory runoff, when it cannot be absorbed rapidly enough ("Linking Climate Change and Water Resources," n.d.). Sediments, pathogens, and various other problems are already causing water to become more turbid, while rising sea levels is creting problems with drainage and wastewater disposal too ("Linking Climate Change and Water Resources," n.d.). As a result, a viscous cycle is created whereby more harmful chemicals are needed to treat water and make it potable for human beings. "The systems used to treat and move public water supplies require large amounts of energy, produced mainly by burning coal, natural gas, oil and other fossil fuels," ("The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources," n.d.).

Beverage corporations are exacerbating the problem by peddling bottled water as a solution. Unfortunately, drinking bottled water is the worst possible solution. The plastic used to create the bottles is directly contributing to global warming because it is a petroleum product and requires heavy factory emissions, and also, that water must be shipped rather than consumers relying on their local aquifers ("The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources," n.d.). Conservation of water is crucial at the level of business, as well as the consumer level. Businesses remain the greatest contributors to global climate change and also to the contamination of local water supplies, which is why strong steps to regulate business are necessary to prevent the adverse ramifications of climate change.

Water is likely to become the next most contentious political issue on the planet. The reasons for many land disputes around the world are related to water resources. Wars may be fought over access to clean drinking water. Climate change has already caused an increase in precipitation in some areas, coupled with decreasing precipitation in others. This will lead to stresses placed on transportation and irrigation systems. Landslides and droughts could even impact the very same region. Industrialized agriculture is a heavy culprit of water misuse, which is why widespread changes in how people use water and how people eat will help reduce the impact of climate change. Other issues, like acid rain, are also linked to global warming because pollutants from factories evaporates with the rain and later falls on sometimes distant regions as acidic rain. This contaminates water further. There are already millions of people without access to clean drinking water. Climate change may increase the… [read more]


Environment the 11th Hour (Film) Research Paper

… We are "all related" in the sense that all people come from the same "mother," which is earth (72)

The Indian way of life was in harmony with nature, built on respect for the earth and for people as well as for individual freedom (72).

Christian and European cultural hegemony has destroyed many Native American cultures (73)

However, it is not too late to return to more constructive Indian vision, which is more constructive and productive than the European model of consumerism and war (74).

People or Penguins

When discussing issues related to pollution, it is important to be specific instead of general (476).

It is possible to have a people-oriented version of pollution control and environmental activism, rather than preserving penguins "for their own sake" (477).

It is important to propose a people-centric vision because people are inherently selfish (477).

Generally, though, what is good for humans is also good for the environment and vice-versa because everything is connected (477).

When defining the objectives of environmentalism, it is important to define actual measures or levels of pollution that are acceptable: in other words, quantify it…… [read more]


Hurricanes and Global Warming Essay

… Hurricanes and Global Warming

The 2005 season saw the largest number (27) of named storms (sustained winds over 17 m s -- 1) and the largest number (14) of hurricanes (sustained winds over 33 m s -- 1), and it was the only year with three category 5 storms (maximum sustained winds over 67 m s -- 1) (Anthes, et al., 2006). This has provided a strong incentive for researchers to better understand the relationship between tropical storms, hurricanes, and global warming. The costs of storms such as Katrina are in the hundreds of billion dollars and could potentially become more commonplace since the climate is a state of rapid warming.

Human activities have resulted in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and well as changing land use patterns. Greenhouse house gases accumulate in the atmosphere and increase the amount of heat trapped by the sun due to the properties of the GHGs. Land use patterns have resulted in a situation in which many heavily wood areas such as forests have been cleared for farm land among other uses. Trees and other vegetation helps soak up much of the carbon that is in the atmosphere and converts carbon dioxide into oxygen which indirectly reduces the greenhouse gas concentration.

The effects on global warming on storms has been somewhat downplayed recently in the media although the relationship is not fully understood. The idea has been presented that global warming does not have any significant relationship with hurricanes and other storm systems. However, this is misleading because there may be important aspects of the potential relationship are overlooked or downplayed. Furthermore, this could make society more vulnerable to hurricane damage and therefore, even though there is still a high level of uncertainty, researchers should take the potential relationship between climate change and storm frequency and intensity seriously.

Global and tropical atmospheric temperatures near the Earth's surface as well as in the atmosphere are increasing which also increases the amount of water vapor (Anthes, et al., 2006). Most researchers believe this is due…… [read more]


Wabash Watershed and Global Essay

… 5%. Increased disparity in different regions with respect to the amount of rainfall that is received is also a main issue in the problem caused by global warming and unsustainable use of water. The increase in precipitation is more in… [read more]


European Union's Emission Trading Term Paper

… What are two other options for achieving the stated purpose behind the EU ETS?

The Climate Marketplaces and Investment Association (CMIA) declares that it would want to view marketplace involvement by European Union policy makers to deal with the discrepancy within the auction time report. Particularly the CMIA want to experience a decrease in availability of 1.23 billion EUAs within the initial two years of Phase III, along with a restriction of 3 years towards the build up of excess emission permits (CMIA, 2012).

CMIA thinks that current EU ETS legislation alongside a background of unparalleled financial and also economic crisis has established an ill-balanced supply structure involving emission permits, which will continue within Phase III underscoring the ETS's capability to restrict emissions. If the over-supply scenario carries on, the reliability of the ETS as a good policy tool that will push all round emissions cutbacks - not to mention further reduced carbon funding is going to be essentially questioned. The reliability of the ETS itself is going to be progressively questioned, with severe effects for EU approach, global carbon marketplaces in general and most importantly the battle against global warming (CMIA, 2012).

The CMIA consequently suggests a supply control system which, via a modification involving the EU ETS Directive, might methodically eliminate from the marketplace numerous excess permits utilizing a transparent procedure. The actual recommendations offer to limit the build-up of excess emission permits within the EU ETS to no more than 3 years and also that any amount of permits over and above that limitation ought to be eliminated completely from later supply of sold amounts (CMIA, 2012).

The table beneath demonstrates the amount of EUAs to be taken off sold amounts every year utilizing the afore-mentioned procedure, within an emission situation provided by an industry researcher (CMIA, 2012).

References

CMIA. (2012). Climate Markets & Investment Association Press Release, October, 16th.

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (2008). EU action against climate change: The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. European Commissions.

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (2007). EU ETS Guidance Note 1 -- Guidance on Inclusion: Updated for Phase II. European Commission.

Impact Assessment. (2012). Title: EU ETS Small Emitter and Hospital Phase III Opt-Out,…… [read more]


Hurricane Sandy: Issues and Arguments Seen Narrowly Research Paper

… Hurricane Sandy: Issues and Arguments

Seen narrowly, Hurricane Sandy is a triumphant story. Let us begin with the forecast. Americans were specified a week's notice that Hurricane Sandy would move north, and then, as an alternative of veering safely out… [read more]


Global Warming Effects on Arctic Animals Research Paper

… ¶ … Earth passed through various processes of warming and cooling. Most parts of Canada and Europe was covered with glaciers during the Ice Age. The temperatures then was 5.4-9° Fahrenheit (3-5° Celsius) cooler in comparison to temperatures these days.… [read more]


Global Warming the Growing Consensus Research Paper

… In fact, this is accurate. It is routinely warmer on a day-to-day basis now, according to Wagner (2012) than it was 30 years ago and at all points prior. One of the great samples of evidence that the industrialization of the 20th century is chiefly responsible for the rise in daily temperatures is the fact that the earth's temperature is consistently higher over the last three decades than it has been in the earth's observable history. According to Wagner, "the last month with a below-average temperature on Earth was February, 1985." (p. 1)

This trend is reflected in the map here below:

This contributes to yet a third consequence which is a great threat to the sustainability of human life. Namely, the continued and rapid melting of the polar ice caps is simultaneously altering temperatures and ecologies in the world's oceans but also causing a gradual rise in sea level that threatens to significantly diminish the inhabitability of many coastal areas over time. Again, evidence in places such as New Orleans, devastated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, suggests that this may already be occurring.

Prospects:

Among the positive prospects regarding intervention with the effects of global warming, some scientists are cautiously optimistic that we have actually made some collective improvements over the last decade as a result of increased awareness of some of climate change's primary causes. Page (2012) tells that recent findings show the rise in annual temperatures has leveled out relative to the previous several decades. According to Page, "figures released by the UN's World Meteorological Organisation indicate that 2012 is set to be perhaps the ninth hottest globally since records began - but that planetary warming, which effectively stalled around 1998, has yet to resume at the levels seen in the 1980s and early 1990s." (Page, p. 1) One presumption is that the heightened emissions standards and most especially the elimination of aerosol containers using perfluorocarbons have helped to reduce the speed of climate change.

Still, it remains incumbent upon the world community to come together and establish an agreement that updates the Kyoto treaty and brings all industrial parties to the table on equal footing. As the article by Ritter denotes, our best prospects for addressing global climate change lay in the cooperation necessary to reduce abuses by industrialized nations and to provide the necessary support to developing nations. According to Ritter, current topics of importance in international global warming talks concern "how to help poor countries convert to cleaner energy sources and adapt to a shifting climate, as well as extending the expiring Kyoto Protocol, an agreement that limits the greenhouse emissions of industrialized countries." (Ritter, p. 1)

Conclusion:

Ultimately, it is incumbent upon leaders in both the global community and in stalwart nations such as the U.S. And China to collaborate in achieving meaningful and lasting standards. However, it can be positively observed that with a growing consensus that global warming does indeed exist, the opportunity for recovery can begin in earnest.

Works Cited:… [read more]


Hot, Well, Everywhere: The Reality of Global Essay

… ¶ … Hot, Well, Everywhere: The Reality of Global Warming

Global warming is almost as close to a scientific fact as it is possible to have. The scientific community overwhelmingly supports the two scientific conclusions that form the backbone of… [read more]


Global Warming Formal Outline Research Paper

… The United States has the funds necessary to alleviate some of the suffering caused by hurricanes like Sandy. However, Haiti does not. Another reason why global warming has a moral component is that people like Palmer and the energy tycoons… [read more]


Weathering Is a Process Term Paper

… This is the reason coastal areas are more vulnerable to hurricane weather, particularly during the hurricane season depending on the area. In the United States, for instance, the NW Pacific season is April -- January, while the North Atlantic season is June through November.

Over the past two centuries, hurricanes have cased over 2 million deaths, large areas of flooding that lead to infection, mosquito borne illness, devastation to crops and property, and the upsetting of regional environments. They affect fishing, tourism, and even global agriculture in that they redistribute precipitation over large areas.

One of the challenges affecting response to disasters like hurricanes is their unpredictable nature in terms of time and severity. Humans tend to congregate towards coastlines, and are therefore vulnerable to hurricanes and ancillary damage. Levees, flood control devices, early warning systems, and evacuation plans are sometimes effective, but the lack of cooperation and coordination between agencies often hinders disaster planning, as witnesses most recently by Hurricane Katrina. Historically, and proven by Katrina, the government's response is often slow and uncoordinated. Katrina, for instance, had an almost $100 billion effect on the economy, and taxed social services in several states. Of course, post-disaster there is another influx of capital in rebuilding issues, but it also appears that most experts believe that to adequately deal with the issues involved, greater communication and cooperation must occur between governmental agencies as well as quicker and more decisive response rates from the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Sources:

Hurricanes. (2011). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes

Brasch, Walter. (2005). 'Unacceptable': The Federal Government's Response

To Hurricane Katrina. Booksurge Publications

Reidy, Chris. (September 2, 2005). U.S. Economy to Feel Katrina's Force. Boston Globe.

Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2005/09/02 / us_economy_to_feel_katrinas_force.

REFERENCES

Chemical Weathering. (2010). Think Quest. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/

20035/chemical.htm

Coastal Change. (2011). U.S. Geological Society. Retrieved from: http://pubs.usgs.gov

/circ/c1075/change.html

Hurricanes. (2011). FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes

Ice, Snow and Glaciers: The Water Cycle. (2012). United States Geological Society. Retrieved from: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleice.html

Mechanical and Chemical Weathering. (2006). retrieved from: http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfjps/

1300/weathering.html

Shore Drift. (2010). Department of Ecology -- State of Washington. Retrieved from:

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/pugetsound/bluffs/drift.html

What is a River Delta?. (2009). Americaswetlandresources.com. Retrieved from:

http://www.americaswetlandresources.com/background_facts/detailedstory/RiverDelta.html

Brasch, Walter. (2005). 'Unacceptable': The Federal Government's Response To Hurricane Katrina. Booksurge Publications

Brown, P. (2007). Melting Ice Cap Triggering Earthquakes. The Guardian. Retrieved from:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/sep/08/climatechange

McLamb, E. (November 27, 2009). Human Impact: Tens of Millions Along World's River

Deltas. Ecology Global Network. Retrieved from: http://www.ecology.com / 2009/11/27/increasingly-vulnerable-flooding/

Reidy, Chris. (September 2, 2005). U.S. Economy to Feel Katrina's Force. Boston Globe.

Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2005/09/02 / us_economy_to_feel_katrinas_force.… [read more]


Statistical Research a Study Performed Case Study

… Null Hypothesis: The shifts in precipitation patters will not continue to change.

Method

Type of Research Design

The identified problem and questions will be resolved via a quantitative methodology in the form of an ex post facto design, looking at data for rainfall and the advancement of the ozone layer hole available from NOAA (Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic) Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Data) and NASA (Ozone Hole Watch).

Data Collection and Variables

This statistical project will collect data from NOAA.GOV and NASA.GOV websites, particularly concerning the following variables:

1. Ozone Layer Depletion

2. Precipitation

Data Analysis

The mean for the ozone hole in 1979 was 225.0 compared to 106.2 in 2011, indicating a decrease in the ozone hole. Temperatures are showing shifts to warmer temperatures with record highs in recent years. Precipitation results are showing less precipitation.

Conclusion

The results of analysis are showing a change in precipitation patterns. The earth is getting warmer as it has increased temperatures. Precipitation patterns are shifting for different regions. Where they are warmer with more drought-like conditions in the Northern Hemisphere, some areas are showing flooding with increased precipitation.

Bibliography

Significant Ozone Hole Remains Over Antarctica. (2011, Oct 21). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111020145106.htm

Kang, S. & . (2011, Apr 22). Study Links Ozone Hole to Weather Shifts. Retrieved from The Earth Institute Columbia University: http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2802

Karoly, D. (2012, Sep 14). The Antarctic ozone hole and climaste change: an anniversary worth celebrating. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.edu.au/the-antarctic-ozone-hole-and-climate-change-an-anniversary-worth-celebrating-9404

Ozone Hole Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from NASA: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html

Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic) Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Data. (n.d.). Retrieved from NOAA: http://www.ozonelayer.noaa.gov/data/antarctic.htm… [read more]


Geology Case Study

… S. have been declining significantly. Have the number of observed tornadoes gone down as well? Is there any relationship between these two variables? What does this tell us about cause-and-effect relationships? Over this time period, how has the impact of… [read more]


Food Prices Heading Essay

… Even as heat destroyed the wheat crop in northern Europe, catastrophic rain storms drowned the wheat crops in Australia, limiting both internal and external harvests, even as similar increases in the average rainfall as well as the severity of storms to cause similar damage in Pakistan. Unusually hot periods have also led to drought in China, which in turn will lead to a reduced wheat harvest in that country (Peters, 2011).

It should be noted here that the term "global warming" has been changed to "climate change" to reflect the fact that the changes in the world's climate brought about by the human use of fuels and processes that increase the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere increase both temperature itself as well as a plethora of consequences that follow directly from that rise in temperatures. These consequences increase both the frequency and severity of rainstorms as well as heat waves and droughts.

These conditions are felt in very different ways by those individuals who are directly affected by them; however, the results on food costs are very similar.

Peters (2011) summarizes this point: Whether these extreme weather events and others represent just random bad luck or are harbingers of more numerous such events in the future remains an open question, but considerable evidence falls on the side of more frequent severe weather events for planet Earth.

An assessment from the non-profit organization Oxfam (which focuses on the issue of food supply and costs) mirrors the above:

"The huge potential impact of extreme weather events on future food prices is missing from today's climate change debate. The world needs to wake up to the drastic consequences facing our food system of climate inaction." (The Telegraph, 2012).

The relationship between climate change and food prices can be seen to be a rational one, as graphed below and as described above. One might initially surmise that such a relationship would be a linear one because climate change and food costs both rise (or potentially fall) at the same time in ways that may seem linear because they occur at the same time.

However, the relationship between these two values rises at different rates so that (for example) a 10% rise in climate change (proxied by either rises in temperature or similar factors) does not translate to a 10% rise in the price of food. This is true even if one selects a single vector of price change in food costs, such as the price of specific food categories such as grain.

The following bar graph from Oxfam outlines one aspect of the relationship between climate change and food prices:

(Green, 2012).

It should be noted that the previous graph (as is also true for the following bar graph) assesses the relationship between climate change and food costs in terms of geography. This is an essential part of any accurate analysis given that food prices are necessarily a local function:

(Green, 2012).

Such a relationship is clear, although it is also true that the… [read more]


Changing Behavior to Reduce Global Warming Essay

… Behavioral Changes: Reducing the Effects of Global Climate Change

What is Global Warming?

The world's climate has been changing since the late 19th century and it has been changing dramatically for the past fifty years, according to the Environmental Protection… [read more]


Hsiang Et Al. ) and Glazebrook ) Essay

… ¶ … Hsiang et al. (2011) and Glazebrook (2011).

Hsiang, SM and Meng, KC and Canes, MA (2011).Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nat u r e Vol (476).

In this article, Hsiang et al. (2011) argue out the proposition that civil conflicts are indeed associated with the global climate. According to the paper, there has been several propositions that the global climatic changes have been responsible for the various episodes of civil unrest, violence as well as the general collapse of human civilizations. The paper indicates that dispute this proposition, no previous study has been able to prove that violence can be a function of the global climatic changes. However, the authors stated categorically that just a random number of global weather patterns and events can be correlated with cases of conflict. In this work, the authors attempt to directly associate the various planetary-scale changes to the climate with the global patterns of civil unrest and conflicts via the examination of the main interannual mode of the global modern climate, namely the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).The authors points out that historians have long argued out that the incidents of ENSO may have played a part or rather influenced the global patterns of war and civil conflicts in the past. This hypothesis is indeed extended to the modern era by the authors and then tested quantitatively. The authors employed data gathered between 1950 and 2004 in showing that the probability of a new war or civil conflicts starting from the tropics is doubled in the years of El Nino years relative to the years of La Nina. This outcome indicates that the mode of ENSO may have a major role in close to twenty one percent (21%) of all the recorded civil conflicts from 1950. This is then regarded by the authors and the general body of academia as the very initial demonstration that the there is a relationship between the stability of the contemporary, modern societies and the global climatic conditions. According to Hsiang et al. (2011), the idea that the global climatic conditions may influence the level of peace in the global societies has been a motivation for several research works. They proposed that the global climatic conditions may affects certain interacting variables related to the environment that may in…… [read more]


Ethical Issue With Respect to Climate Change Term Paper

… ¶ … ethical issue with respect to climate change is the government needing to consider the condition of human life, the well being of people, and other species on a global level in the future. At the end, it is… [read more]


El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Research Paper

… El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an artifact of the relationship between the atmosphere and the ocean. El Nino and La Nina represent opposite extremes in the ENSO cycle (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). It is related to air pressure, wind, and ocean currents, and happens "every 3 to 7 years and alternate with the opposite phases of below-average temperatures in the eastern tropical Paci-c (La Nina)" (Trenberth, et al., 2007). The impacts are very strong in the northern winter months (November-March), though not limited to the Northern Hemisphere (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

(Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998)

ENSO's warm phase (El Nino) involves warming of tropical Pacific surface waters from near the International Date Line to the west coast of South America (Trenberth, et al., 2007). These waters are usually cooler off of South America, bringing an upwelling from the deep ocean (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). The cold water is usually rich in nutrients, which supports lots of sea life, and so major fisheries (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). Normally, there is significant rainfall in the eastern Pacific from the warm, humid water and western South America is dry (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

ENSO's warm phase is the result of a weakening of the usually strong Sea Surface Temperature (SST) differential across the equatorial Pacific (Trenberth, et al., 2007). During ENSO's nine to twelve month warm phase (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005) (though it lasted for 3 years from 1939 to 1941 (Trenberth, et al., 2007)), the normally constant trade winds in the central and western Pacific slow (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). The air pressure changes from higher in the eastern Pacific and lower in the western Pacific to the opposite and this is called the Southern Oscillation (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). The cold waters in the eastern Pacific stop coming up, while the western Pacific waters get colder (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). Because the nutrients are no longer there, there are no more fish, and the fisheries collapse during ENSO's warm phase (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998).

Because the warm water slips towards the east and South America, the warm humid rain goes with it, and Peru, Ecuador, southern Brazil, central Argentina, and equatorial eastern Africa get flooded (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998), leading to disease, particularly bacterial diseases like cholera (Pascual, Xavier, Ellner, Colwell, & Bouma, 2000). Southeastern Asia (including India), southeastern Africa, Japan, southern Alaska, and western/central Canada, southeastern Brazil, south-central Africa, and southeastern Australia get a dry heatwave from December to February, instead of their monsoons (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In the meantime, it is cold in December through February along the Gulf coast (Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

Because the ocean affects the atmosphere, global air circulation changes (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In fact, the trade winds weaken (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). In North America, the temperatures are warmer than usual in the north central states because the…… [read more]


Briefing Note to Canadian Prime Research Paper

… My best suggestions that should have priority include the following: a) take steps immediately to curtain GHG emissions by implementing policies that require vehicles to get better mileage; b) push for the development of renewable, non-polluting energy (wind, solar, geothermal, among other technologies); c) carefully review the independent, empirical research on the carbon emissions that result from tar sands crude oil development, and take action to restrict the further expansion of this environmentally disastrous project; d) protect the iconic Boreal Forest against logging, mining, and other exploitative intrusions; and e) collaborate with President Obama and other leaders worldwide on the development of technologies for the future that can mitigate the damage we have already done to our planet.

Thank you very sincerely for your consideration of the ideas and issues I have presented. I look forward to working with you in our government to create a better, cleaner, and safer environment for our citizens, their children and their future grandchildren, who will continue to trust us to do the right thing for Canada.

Works Cited

Environment Canada. (2011). Canada's Emissions Trends. Retrieved November 18, 2011,

http://www.ec.gc.ca/Publications/E197D5E7-1AE3-4A06-B4FC-CB74EAAAA60F/CanadasEmissionsTrends.pdf.

Leahy, Stephen. (2011). Canada cuts environment spending. Guardian Environment Network /

The Guardian. Retrieved November 18, 2011, from http://www.guardian.co.uk.

Martyn, Chris. (2011). Getting Real -- How Do Canadians View the Environment and Energy?

Ipsos. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.ipsos-na.com.

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2011). The Consequences of Global Warming on Wildlife: Rising temperatures ravage coral reefs and melt the habitats of polar bears and Antarctic penguins. Retrieved November 17, 2011, from http://www.nrdc.org.

Rice, Aaron. (2009). Many Canadians Satisfied with Environmental Efforts: 54% are

Satisfied, 45% are dissatisfied. Gallup Poll. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.gallup.com.

Scolnick,…… [read more]


Understanding Interdisciplinary Studies Assessment

… Interdisciplinary Studies

How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach?

Reasoning: The global warming theory takes into account a number of scientific and sociological/anthropological disciplines: chemistry, physics, ecology, meteorology, vulcanology, biology, oceanography; as well as history, anthropology (medical, cultural, etc.), medicine, resource management, geography, political science, international relations, and more.

Step Questions:

Begin with an interdisciplinary question

How should the theory of global warming be managed from an interdisciplinary approach?

Identify key and subsidiary phenomena

First, is global warming a fact or theoretical phenomena; Do we have enough data to actually make determinations about climate, since climate trends move at a geologic pace?

Ascertain what theories and methods are particularly relevant to the question at hand.

Human industrialization theory, natural climatic occurrences over time; volcanism.

4. Perform a detailed literature survey.

See Appendix A

5. Identify relevant disciplines and disciplinary perspectives.

Each discipline focuses on a particular aspect of the issue; if we think of meteorology or ecology as the central hub, we would find that each additional discipline was a spoke in the wheel of interdisciplinary study.

6. If some relevant phenomena (or links among these), theories, or methods in 2 or 3 have received little or no attention; encourage the performance of such research.

History of Pollution examines human impact on climate change; ecology examines interactions between aspects of the biological and chemical environment and consequences.

7. Evaluate the results of previous research.

Global warming is the gradual increase of the earth's median temperature for surface air and oceans. Although controversial, global warming consistently measured since the mid-20th century has resulted in environmental impacts that may be disastrous to the environment. While scientists agree that solar variation and volcanic activity have had an…… [read more]


Insurance in Illinois Hurricanes Research Paper

… The loans, which are not a standard term-life offering but can be opted-into when setting up a policy, are intended to assist in rebuilding efforts not covered by property insurance (Pasha 2005).

The case of the Carbondale 'Hurricane" raises interesting points of consideration for handling insurance-related needs around the threat of hurricanes in Illinois (Associated Press 2009). Most of the major storm damage in the state is not attributable to actual hurricane, but to remnants of tropical systems, non-tropical severe storms, such as derechos, and heavy seasonal hail. Standard hurricane policies such as what are seen in the more hurricane-prone American South do not meet the needs of people experiencing severe weather in the American Midwest.

Based on the data concerning the rain and hail impacts of several severe storm systems discussed earlier in this paper, it seems that comprehensive flood and/or wind damage insurance is far more pertinent to the needs of Illinois residents. If the damage does not come from a storm classified by meteorology experts as a hurricane or tropical storm system, there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding whether or not insurance companies will cover the damage. Therefore, Illinois residents would be best served by coverage which covers damage types rather than cause of damage. Comprehensive property and life insurance along with wind and flooding insurance should be sufficient for an average Illinois resident, with crop-related insurance for farmers as an additional necessary measure.

Resources

Associated Press (2008). "Thousands Still Without Power in Illinois." WTHI-TV. http://www.wthitv.com/Global/story.asp?S=9009105&nav=menu593_2.

Angel, James, R. (2005) Tropical storms reduced drought in Illinois in 2005. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science July, 2006 Volume: 99 Source Issue: 3-4.

CBS/AP (2008). "Millions Still In Dark Over Ike Recovery." CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/18/national/main4457061.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-30.

Changnon, Stanley A. (1996)

"Effects of Recent Weather Extremes on the Insurance Industry: Major Implications for the Atmospheric Sciences" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

Changnon, Stanley A. Temporal Fluctuations of Hail in Illinois

Illinois State Water Survey Atmospheric Sciences Division Champaign, Illinois

Coyne, Tom (2008). "Indiana storm death toll up to 7." Journal and Courier. http://jconline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080915/NEWS09/80915022.

____. (2010) "Weiss Ratings: Homeowners Offered Few Choices of Hurricane Insurance"

Money and Markets June 2010

Kunkel, K.E., S.A. Changnon, C.G. Lonnquist and J.R. Angel. 1990: A Real-Time Climate Information System for the Midwestern United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71, 1601-1609.

Lehrer, Eli et al. (2009) Property and Casualty Insurance 2009 Report Card, The Heartland Institute.

Lehrer, Eli. (2010) "2010 Property and Casualty Insurance Report Card," The Heartland Institute.

Larson, J., Y. Zhou, R.W. Higgins, 2005. Characteristics of landfalling tropical cyclones in the United States and Mexico: climatology and interannual variability. Journal of Climate, 18, 12471262.

Merrill, R.T., (1993): "Tropical Cyclone Structure" - Chapter 2, Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland.

Neumann, C.J., B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie, and G.R. Hammer, 1999. Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1998. National Climatic Data Center, 256 pp. [Data resides at… [read more]


Climate Change Anthropogenic Global Warming Theory the Hockey Stick Argument Essay

… Rapid growth of the global economy profoundly effects modern economic development and stability, labor, and, most especially, the environment. In combination with the Earth's natural geologic functions, the process of human globalization radically transforms local issues into national and international… [read more]


Government Regulation of Climate Change Term Paper

… Global Warming: Evidence and Remedies

As the evidence for global warming mounted over the years, accusations of 'foot dragging' by the United States increased in the world community. The most notable manifestation of U.S. inaction was its refusal to sign the Kyoto Treaty, in which 140 nations resolved to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 5.2% less than they were in 1990, by 2012 (Ifill 2005). For many years, vocal and powerful political forces within the United States denied the existence of global warming at all. Now that evidence for an increase in the earth's temperature is unequivocal, those who deny the phenomenon state that it cannot be man-made but is naturally generated the result of natural shifts in the earth's climate. However, "the heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19th century" (Climate change, 2010, NASA).

Furthermore, "all three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase" (Climate change, 2010, NASA). Melting ice caps, increasing ocean temperatures, more severe storms, and fundamental and sudden shifts in a variety of the earth's ecosystems have been the result of this sudden, human-generated climate change.

"Projections of future climate change anticipate an additional warming of 2.0 to 11.5 "F (1.1 to 6.4 "C) over the 21st century, on top of the 1.4 "F already observed over the past 100 years" (Climate change, 2010, National Academy of Sciences). As a result, droughts in areas where the source of water availability are glaciers or snowpack; flooding in rain-prone areas, higher storm surges; and ocean acidification are all likely to occur. But the problem with fighting environmental problems and setting goals to radically reduce emissions is that many individuals are not science-literate enough to draw immediate connections between events such as Hurricane Katrina and the more severe storms this winter in the American Northeast with climate change -- a heat wave may occur and people may talk about the need to combat global warming, but once the immediate phenomenon abates, it is hard for people to understand what is ultimately an incremental, long-term effect on the earth.

It is difficult, cognitively speaking for people to make great sacrifices for what cannot provide tangible rewards in the 'here and now.' Making sacrifices to reduce greenhouse gases will be painful in the short-term, and may only be enjoyed by later generations. That is why government must step in with incentives and regulations to combat global warming. "Many factors enter into the decision to favor either policies that lean more toward economic incentives (EI) and toward direct regulation, commonly referred to as…… [read more]


Game Theory and Alternative International Climate Architectures Research Paper

… ¶ … international framework seeking to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, I will demonstrate steps to be taken in an effort to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change solely on the basis of multi-lateral arrangements without infringing upon the rights of the self-governed. This will diminish, lessen, and ultimately relieve the production of greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity. I would like to suggest that this is not possible without significant buy-in at the local levels; that citizens of developed countries must recognize the effort as non-zero-sum with the benefits outweighing the transactional costs to taxpayers.

Globally, the far greater majority of accomplished scientists no longer aim to prove or disprove the existence of the all-encompassing catastrophe imposed by global warming. Nor do they argue about tedious labels, human inequity or human rights, and whether climate change will continue to cause disturbance or nullify itself. In fact, there are reciprocal advantages concerning each side of the equation; one side, of course, being theoretical human rights alongside the practical doctrine accompanying every traditional or cultural regard toward accountability; the other, the standing concepts of the international human rights policy, stressing objectivity and impartiality, which advocates such fairness from more of an all-encompassing standpoint. Therefore, every attempt to prove or disprove that global warming is the fault of one nation over the other falls by the wayside.

Instead, countries worldwide must communally agree upon International Policy Architectures; this will produce workable, effective, enforceable multilateral agreements that will ultimately result in the climate change mitigation, the action of reducing the severity, seriousness, and painfulness. This is the only way we will collectively have a chance at learning how to infiltrate and lawfully employ reparation of the harm posed by the overabundance of carbon and focus on greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gases are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. Also from Wikipedia, Scientific opinion on climate change is given by synthesis reports, scientific bodies of national or international standing, and surveys of opinion among climate scientists. This neither includes the views of individual scientists, individual universities, or laboratories, nor self-selected lists of individuals such as petitions. Only with cooperative solutions to the threat of climate change will we see the necessary change required for human advancement, which will come solely from the survival of our species.

As an option, a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as…… [read more]


Global Climate Change Essay

… ¶ … Small Price for a Large Benefit' which was published on New York Times on Twentieth February of this year by Robert Frank. The link for this article is http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/business/economy/21view.html. Robert Frank says that predictions concerning climate change are extremely doubtful. The planners of a climate change meeting that was held last December in Copenhagen Danmark were unable to come up with accords to restrict global warming to three point six degrees Fahrenheit by the year two thousand nine hundred and ninety nine. Robert further adds that even a small upsurge in temperature would cause lethal destruction. In accordance with the latest approximations from the Integrated Global Systems Model at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the median prediction is for a rise of nine degrees Fahrenheit by the year two thousand nine hundred and nine if effectual countermeasures are lacking. That prediction though, may underestimate the escalation.

The same model suggests that there is a ten percent probability that the mean global temperature will climb by more than twelve point four degrees by the year two thousand and one hundred. It also suggests that there is a three percent possibility that global temperature will rise by more than fourteen point four degrees. If this happens, surely a disaster will occur. Scientists suggest that even the three point six-degree escalation shall imply extensive loss of human, animal and plant life. Thus it is hardly pessimistic to view the threat of inaction as terrifying. In comparison, the threat of taking action should terrify no one. Essentially, the threat is that if present approximations become pessimistic, the money used to control greenhouse gases which are responsible for the high temperatures wouldn't have been required to save the world. Nevertheless that money should have barred considerable destruction.

Scientific Explanation of Global Temperature Change

Basically, as the energy flows inside or out of the atmospheric system, temperature changes will result. The mean temperature of the atmospheric system shall stay equal only if the…… [read more]


Plow Bib Annotated Bibliography Allen, Robert Seaman Annotated Bibliography

… Plow Bib

Annotated Bibliography

Allen, Robert; Seaman, Scott and DeLascio, John. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal Volume 76, No. 1 (2009), pp. 12-9.

This article details the media and public attention to and coverage of the global warming issue, framing the question as much in political terms as in scientific concepts. The implications and major players in the area of global warming warnings and conclusions are discussed as the central features of the issue. This's in direct contrast to Ruddiman's own apolitical and balanced assessment of the issue.

Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." Heartlander February 2003.

This article discusses various pieces of scientific evidence -- largely a lack of consensus among scientists -- that suggest that human beings are not the cause of any perceived warming trend, and that such a trend might not even exist. This article also details the benefits to humanity of a warmer Earth. There is some overlap with Ruddiman's observations, but vastly different conclusions.

Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009.

This book is aimed at younger readers, but contains a clear, concise, and accurate overview of the issue of global warming from a scientific standpoint. It essentially addresses the issue as one of certain anthropogenic causes, and focuses on the modern use of fossil fuels as the primary method by which humans contribute to global warming. It is not as technical or as detailed as Ruddiman's work, nor does it address the same basic audience, but again much of the foundational science is the same.

Schmitt, Douglas. "The Truth About Global Warming." The Advocate Volume 67, Part 6, pp. 789-97.

While acquiescing to some of Ruddiman's points about the current warming trend the Earth is experiencing, Schmitt questions many of his…… [read more]


Copenhagen COP15 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference Essay

… Geography

Copenhagen - COP15-15th United Nations Climate Change Conference

From December 7-18, more than 15,000 people including Government officials and advisers from 192 nations, civil society and the media from nearly every country in the world, came together in the… [read more]


Remote Sensing Satellite Images and Climate Change Thesis

… Remote Sensing (satellite Images) and Climate Change

The objective of this work is to evaluate the role that remote sensing (satellite images) has played in studies of climate change. This work will focus on the terrestrial essential climate variables and… [read more]


Performance Assessment of Flood Protection System Thesis

… Flood Assessment in the Nerang River Catchment

Performance Assessment of Flood Protection System (Floodplain Catchments)

One of the first signs of global warming will be a rise in water levels around the world. Flooding will increase in many areas already… [read more]


Flooding in the Kickapoo River Drainage Basin and Southwestern Wisconsin Thesis

… Southwestern Wisconsin: Flooding Due to Natural and Human-Created Vulnerabilities

The areas of Southwestern Wisconsin located near the Kickapoo River saw record flood totals in June of 2008. The immediate cause of the flood was a series of storms in which… [read more]


Climate Change Everything Changes in This Era Thesis

… Climate Change

Everything changes in this era of rapid technological developments. More and better machineries are being developed to ease our everyday chores, but also to make our leisure time more pleasurable. Then, with globalization and market liberalization, organizations based… [read more]


Seasons: Weather in Charlotte Bront's Jane Eyre Research Proposal

… ¶ … Seasons: Weather in Charlotte Bront's Jane Eyre

The most successful authors use several literary techniques to add depth and texture to their novels. Charlotte Bront engages us with narrative sequences in Jane Eyre by linking them to the… [read more]


Monsoons What Is a Monsoon? Term Paper

… Monsoons

What is a monsoon? The major weather disturbance known as a "monsoon" is actually in reference to a seasonal wind shift, not necessarily a brooding storm pattern, although most people think of "monsoon" as a huge hurricane-like event that… [read more]


Climate and Civilization in Chapter Three Term Paper

… Climate and Civilization

In Chapter three of his book Earth in the Balance, former vice president Al Gore makes the point that our civilization is heavily dependent on stability in the climate. For the last ten thousand years, we have experienced the same sort of climate with very few changes. In order for our civilization to continue, we must avoid climate change at all costs. What a lot of people do not realize is the fact that climate changes in one part of the world can have dire consequences in a completely different part of the world. This has been demonstrated again and again throughout history, as Gore shows by pointing out the disastrous crop shortages that occurred in Europe in 1816 as the result of a volcano's eruption on the other side of the planet. What is more, if the change in climate is manmade -- and thus a lot more sudden than the changes caused by natural disasters -- the consequences for our planet may be very serious indeed. If that is not enough, then Gore goes on to explain that drastic changes in the climate that have been caused by natural disaster have had a detrimental effect on political and social unrest in effected countries, and can lead to famines. Finally, Gore points out that climate change has caused mass migration to occur, effectively putting populations greatly at risk.

Gore's thesis is incredibly complex, but his reasoning is sound throughout the course of the chapter. He illustrates point by point the reasons why climate change puts civilizations in danger, and then provides examples from throughout history. His examples are strong and persuasive. For instance, in his discussion of mass migration…… [read more]


Analyzing 2 Viewpoints Term Paper

… Science and Skepticism: Climate Change Modeling

It has become apparent, since the release of the IPCC report on climate change, that there is a growing consensus in the scientific community that the effects of global warming are real and that… [read more]


Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Circulation Term Paper

… Oceanography

The Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Currents

The Pentagon Report was released to the world media in 2004 predicting that the north Atlantic current would stop in the near future, bringing global catastrophe. It is known that in… [read more]


World Geography Term Paper

… Geography

Explain the core concepts of geography

Perhaps the most fundamental concept of geography is that the nature of the earth, and the way that it has evolved in terms of its climate, structure, and terrain, has had a fundamental impact on human and animal agriculture, living conditions, the use of available land for living quarters, and the clothes and food people wear and eat. Another equally fundamental concept, however, is that the life forms that have evolved as the result of geographical developments have had a fundamental impact upon the development of the earth. For example, a human society in a cold, snowy climate will eat differently and build differently structured homes than human societies in warmer and more temperate climates. The ability of a species to survive or to dominate an area will affect the vegetation of an area, and impact the earth's atmosphere, depending on what that species consumes. And of course, the greenhouse effect and the development of modern industry have had a dramatic effect upon the earth's temperatures, across all climates.

The earth's surface is shape by two forces, give some examples of each.

The earth is shaped by both external and internal pressures. The external pressures include erosion, the movement of the glaciers, sediment deposits and the wearing away of such deposits, fire, rains (such as major hurricane storms), and changes in temperature (such as global warming, which has resulted in greater vegetation in some areas or the ability of certain species that eat plants to survive in greater numbers in some areas and reduce the amount of plant life in the territory) ("Earth's surface," 2007, Discovery Magazine). Internal forces include the movement of the tectonic plates on the earth's molten layer, which resulted in the current formation of the continents, as opposed to their original configuration as a unified surface mass ("Earth's surface," 2007, Discovery Magazine).

Explain the major factors that determines the climate of a place

Climate is influenced by a location's latitude, elevation, nearby water, ocean currents, topography, vegetation, and where the winds blow from,…… [read more]


Disaster Emergency Management Term Paper

… Disaster Management

Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and volcanic activity cause extensive loss to life and property. They can impact the economy and the prosperity of the region tremendously. In recent times, the extent of damage from a… [read more]


Global Warming and Crop Production Term Paper

… Global Warming and Crop Production

As global warming makes temperatures rise witnessed will be a decrease in crop production.

It is reported in a Science Daily report entitled: "Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production?" that scientists from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada have predicted, "crops will be at a greater risk of winter damage in the future even though the climate will be warmer." (2002) in a December 2006 news report it is stated that the decrease in monsoons in the country of India "raises the concern of more potential floods and other natural disasters. Monsoons are needed to nourish crops and supply water for farming communities." (Science Daily, 4 Dec. 2006) the problem stated is that the delicate balance that exists with the occurrence of the monsoons has experienced disruption due to factors associated with global warming. In yet another report released December 2006 stated is that "higher temperatures could cause a 40% drop ion some of California's most popular crops by mid-century according to a new research in the journal Agricultural and Forest Meteorology."

II. Discussion of the Independent and Dependent Variable

In attempting to assess the affects of global warming upon crop production there will be a dependent variable, which is that of the temperatures within the area or region that the study takes place. Since the hypothesis states temperatures as the reason that crop production will experience a decrease then proving the hypothesis is 'dependent' upon the variability in the temperature and its' effects upon crop production. In this study, the independent variable will be that of rainfall amounts as related to seasonal rainfall variances and rainfall variances out-of-season in the area or region in the study.

Stated in the work entitled: "What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin" is the fact that there are several: "...credible scenarios" (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007) that could be faced in the state of Wisconsin and…… [read more]


Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall Term Paper

… ¶ … Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall in the Amazon

For studying the Earth's atmosphere, satellites have become indispensable even though it has only been 30 years since the first meteorological satellites were launched. Meteorological satellites view the Earth together… [read more]


Pacific Islands Term Paper

… Pacific Islands

Of the 25,000 plus islands that grace the Pacific Ocean, only a relatively few are inhabited by human beings. A large number of the Pacific Islands are tiny, with few if any natural resources. The Pacific Islands, which are often collectively referred to as Oceania, consist of two basic island types: high and low. The high islands are volcanic, their elevation created by volcanoes rising from the sea. The low islands are built upon coral reefs or atolls, and in terms of land mass are smaller than the high islands. Moreover, the high islands are far more conducive to human culture. Their rich volcanic soils make for fertile agricultural grounds. Most of the Pacific Islands are poor in natural resources such as ores or coal, but high in their yield of lush tropical fruits and vegetables. While many of the Pacific Islands are equatorial, with a tropical or subtropical climate, some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean lie far from the equator and have temperate or even cold climates. However, most of those islands are not considered to be a part of Oceania, such as the Aleutian Islands off of Alaska, and the Sakhalin and Kuril Islands that belong to Russia. Japan is also technically a Pacific Island, but is not considered to be a part of Oceania. Oceania is typically divided into three distinct island groups: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. While the three groups share some cultural, geographic, and historical elements, the Pacific Islands demonstrate an incredibly diverse group of societies.

The most populated of the Pacific Island groups is Melanesia, which literally means "black islands." Most of Melanesia's islands are high volcanic islands. New Guinea, which is the largest Pacific Island, is part of Melanesia and is itself divided into two: Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands are also a part of Melanesia. As many as 900 linguistic groups and countless unique civilizations developed in Melanesia over the course of several thousand years. However, after contact with Europeans, many of the social groups merged.…… [read more]


Testing the Effects of Disaster Term Paper

… 1%

8 tornadoes or 28.6%

18 rain storms or 64.3%

Experiment 2: The 28 day cycle for the second experiment produced:

5 sunny days or 17.9%

8 tornadoes or 28.6%

15 rain storms or 53.6%

Experiment 3: The 28 day… [read more]

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