"Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays

12345. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Rise of Social Media and Etiquette or the Effects of Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Global Warming

What are the effects of global warming that scientists can identify today? This is an important question to be taken into account as humans struggle to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere -- the principal cause of climate change. Given the overwhelming scientific evidence of climate change, what are the results of public opinion polls that test the views of citizens on this issue? How many people firmly accept the data presented on climate change? And for those who do not accept the data, what media are influencing their views on climate change? These issues will be covered in this paper.

Brief Review of Global Warming Science: Prior to delving into public opinion about climate change, a few facts from the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are relevant. The IPCC was formed in 1988 as 194 nations, in joint cooperative effort, offered the work of their top scientists in an effort to consolidate available empirical data on climate change. In November, 2010, the Chairman of IPCC, Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, stated that "Warming of the climate system is unequivocal as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea levels" (IPCC). The chairman stated that "Approximately 20 to 30% of plant and animal species assessed so far are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if increases in global average temperatures exceed 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius" (IPCC).

U.S. Public Opinion Polls on Climate Change: The Pew Research Center Poll is a respected fact-gathering organization that conducts polling on a number of social, political and other issues. Pew does not make policy recommendations, it just publishes research. Pew asked the question (October, 2010), "In your view, is global warming a very serious problem, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a problem?" Thirty-two percent said, "very serious"; 31% said "somewhat serious"; 16% said "not too serious"; 18% said "not a problem"; and 3% had no answer. Pew's second question, "Do you think global warming is a problem that requires immediate government action, or don't you think it requires immediate government action?" solicited these responses: 59% said "yes it is a problem that requires immediate action"; 37% replied "no, don't think it requires immediate action"; and 4% "don't know." This survey reached 2,251 adults on both cell phones and landlines.

Pew has published the changes in public opinion over the past five years regarding global warming issues. For example, to the question, "Is there solid evidence the earth is warming"? In July 2006 79% said "yes"; in January 2007, 77% said "yes"; in April 2008, 71% said "yes"; in October 2009, 57% said "yes"; and in October 2010, 59% said "yes" (PEW).

As to the question, "How serious a problem?" is global warming, those numbers have also been slipping over the years. In 2006, 43%…… [read more]


Physics/Atmosphere Research Handwritten Observational Data, Plot Graph Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Physics/Atmosphere Research

Handwritten observational data, plot graph and bar graph to follow. I need to speak with customer service about the best way to get them to you. I tried scanning them and the resolution was not good enough. I was unable to resolve the issue over the weekend but will follow up on Monday. As of 11 a.m. EST, I still have not heard from them.

The main thing is the two-page observational chart. The form that was included with your order is not editable text. If all else fails, I can type the info into a word document and you can recreate the handwritten chart.

Also, you will need to add the reference for your text book. I did not have bibliographic information in order to do that. The reference page is separate page that follows at the end of the document.

Introduction

The weather data recorded for Boston, Massachusetts, November 2010, illustrates well the changeable nature of late fall in New England. On the first day of the month, the temperature was 38 degrees Fahrenheit at ten o'clock in the morning. There was a strong breeze, with an estimated wind speed of 22-27 knots coming from the northwest. Temperatures climbed toward the middle of the month, reaching a November 2010 high of 63 degrees Fahrenheit on the 18th. The coldest day of the month, predictably, fell towards the end of the month, with a10 a.m. temperature recorded at 30 degrees on the 25th. The average 10 a.m. temperature for the month was 43.8 degrees. Slightly less than 1.75 inches of rain fell during the month. All the precipitation that fell was in the form of rain. It is not unusual to have snow in Boston during November, but it does not happen every year, as was the case in 2010.

Weather Observation Data

Appendix a is a chart of daily weather observations, showing date, temperature, wind direction, wind velocity estimated using the Beaufort Scale, kind and amounts of clouds, and kinds and amounts of precipitation. Appendix B is a time graph of temperatures, for which daily temperatures are plotted as ordinates and dates as abscissas. Appendix C shows a bar graph depicting precipitation in fractions of an inch. Precipitation is recorded as ordinates and dates once again as abscissas. Appendix D shows a wind rose generalized to the month based on data collected at 10 a.m. each day.

TV/Newspaper Forecasts

The following represents brief weather reports of the type found on the front page of a newspaper. They are designed to provide the public with a quick synopsis of the day's weather so that people can plan accordingly for dress, travel, outdoor activities, and anything else that might be dependent upon weather conditions.

Description

1

Mostly clear, high 57, low 35, winds 12 mph from NW

2

Overcast, high 50, low 41, winds 8 mph from NNW

3

Mostly cloudy, high 38, low 33, winds 3 mph from W

4

Light rain, high 50, low 38, winds… [read more]


Global Warming Theory: An Exploration Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming Theory: An Exploration

As a scientific concept, global warming has both proponents and disbelievers. The evidence, which can often be construed one way or another, points to the fact that pollutants have a negative impact on the environment, and that these pollutants have begun to cause a massive global weather shift. As far as a theory goes, global warming has many implications for humans in every society. If proven true, it would represent one of the largest climatic changes in the history of mankind. Depending on their viewpoints, many scientists argue either for or against this theory, with evidence existing to back both perspectives. There is evidence that points to humans causing the warming trend which cannot be denied or explained away as a natural and cyclical change in the Earth's climate.

Global warming, as a theory, has existed for decades. But the scientific evidence supporting it is relatively inconclusive, as far as climate change goes. Over millions of years, the planet Earth has entered cooling and warming cycles. This is evidenced through geologic studies and conclusions from many of the world's leading scientists. Currently, the Earth is due for a warming period since the last ice age occurred over 10,000 years ago. These cycles tend to occur on a relatively consistent basis, signaling warming ad cooling trends quite regularly. According to author Chris Moony (2008), the Earth has just begun to enter its latest warming cycle, spurred by solar activity and other environmental changes. This, according to Mooney, is responsible for the latest changes in climate, including the melting of much of the Polar Regions as well as glaciers worldwide. It is also nothing to be alarmed about, since it is part of a natural process that occurs every so often. This global warming trend can account for the rise in global storms and hurricanes that has been experienced over the past two decades as well as the warming trend that has affected the Earth over the same time period.

The same scientists that argue against the general theory of global warming argue that humans have not had a serious effect on the atmosphere at any time in history, and that the effects humans could present to the Earth are not potentially dangerous (Singer and Avery, 2007). Authors Singer and Avery argue for a cyclical warming and cooling trend that can help explain the Earth's atmosphere and behavior of the ice sheets and glaciers worldwide. In Singer and Avery's (2007) view, this warming and cooling process is natural, and there is evidence of it within the ice samples taken by scientific expeditions to the Polar Regions. In his book, Singer and Avery (2007) offer some alternative explanations to the familiar theory…… [read more]


Global Warming Is Accepted Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,093 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … global warming is accepted or not and its effects as well, significant changes in the climate of the planet have happened with at a more rapid pace than in the past. Global warming is mainly seen by the scientific community as a global process in which "glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising, cloud forests are drying, and wildlife is scrambling to keep pace. it's becoming clear that humans have caused most of the past century's warming by releasing heat-trapping gases as we power our modern lives" (National Geographic, 2010). These gases, the greenhouse gases, have reached a peak at this point that is the highest in the last 650,000 years.

As the debate continues whether these are phenomena caused by men or natural ones, global warming effects are more and more visible. Climate change leads already to severe changes in geophysical, biological and socio-economic systems. Some of the most severe impacts of climate change due to global warming are to be found especially in countries with weak economies and political systems that are also in affected areas. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report shows, the most evident effects are on the local, regional and even global food supply, infrastructure, health, water resources, coastal systems, ecosystems, global biogeochemical cycles, ice sheets and modes of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007) as agriculture is the main source of income and survival in many of the world's countries, a rise in the mean temperature creates systemic imbalances due to the low adaptation capabilities of local producers. As famine is at a high level anyways, global warming will increase it as the food supply will suffer in ways that are still difficult to predict. These adaptation costs would also require a strong political will that would recognize that for protecting its citizens on the medium and long-term, significant investments are to be made. Both human and societies as a whole need not only time to adapt to these new conditions but also resources that, in the countries most hit by global warming, do not exist.

Resources would barely exist in a world without global warming and this will be visible also in the health sector. Millions are at this point affected by malnutrition and little or low quality water reserves due to a rise in temperatures. A larger number of deaths, "diseases and injury due to extreme weather events; increased burden of diarrhoeal diseases; increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases due to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone in urban areas related to climate change; and the altered spatial distribution of some infectious diseases" are to be seen frequently in the poor areas of the world. (Pachauri, 2007)

Other effects go deeper in the core of societies and results in socio-political shifts. Populism or radicalization of instable governments often leads to an increase in the negative effects of global warming. In countries extreme poverty and malnutrition create large masses of people that are easy to… [read more]


Global Warming Is Global Warming Have Lasting Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,375 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming

Is global warming have lasting effects on the plant or is it scientists calling attention to something that may not be occurring?

What is the likelihood that the effects of global warming could be able to spiral out of control?

Should the public be concerned about the long-term implications of global warming?

Are the current efforts helping to address the problem?

Are the effects of global warming real or are they something that scientists and the media are inventing to create controversy?

Over the last several years, the issue of global warming has been continually brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because a number of different reports are showing how rising temperatures are having an adverse effect upon the world's climate. A good example of this can be seen with climate figures that were complied since 1860, which confirmed that temperatures around the globe have been consistently rising. However, the last 25 years have been the hottest on record (with 2005 representing the largest temperature variance). (Robinson, 2008, pp. 6 -- 12) This is troubling, because most proponents will argue that the recent trends are showing how the Earth is becoming substantially warmer. Yet, many critics will take the same statistics and claim how 140 years out of billions of years (which is the approximate age of the planet) is statistically insignificant. As they will argue that there is no proof of the long-term trends, having an impact on worldwide temperatures. (Robinson, 2008, pp. 6 -- 12) This is important, because it shows how a divergence is occurring in the opinions of scientists and the general public, about the long-term impact that global warming is having upon the planet. To determine if the effects of global warming are real requires conducting a careful examination of the facts and the different viewpoints surrounding them. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to the total impact that global warming is having on worldwide temperatures.

The Facts of Global Warming and the Viewpoints

According to proponents, the issue of global warming is a serious problem that will have devastating consequences on everyday life to include: rising seas levels and changing weather patterns. The rising levels will have an impact upon a variety of people who live along the coast. As they are forced to move further inland, due to the encroachment of the ocean on their homes. At the same time, the changing weather patterns could have an impact upon the growth of agricultural products (with many regions experiencing an increasing number of droughts). This is problematic, because the core samples taken from the polar ice caps, show that extreme periods of warming; could cause significant shifts in the weather patterns of the planet. Once this takes place, it means that there will be larger famines and the possibility that the Earth could fall into increased cycles of global warming. Where, the recent warming trends could trigger secondary warming patterns. One of most… [read more]


Is Global Warming a Theory or a Reality? Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,326 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Global Warming a Theory or a Reality?

(Note to "Client" -- I do not know what software of program you are inserting this paper into. But it is WRONG. Listen, this paper is NOT plagiarized. It has NEVER been plagiarized and I am not going to erase any more of MY work to convince you otherwise. I did not earn a Master degree by plagiarizing. If you were to actually spend time and look up the references like a proper student, you will see this. This is the LAST rewrite you will be granted. I will take you to court over this if necessary.)

"Carbon Trade is a generic term that covers a wide range of activities, in countries where absolute caps on greenhouse gas emissions have been translated." (Worthington, 2005,-page 50) Global Warming's supposed real effect on global environmental conditions relative to domestic and international economic and regulatory changes has propelled top scientists to remain vigilant in the search for answers. "KP stipulates emissions reductions only for the most industrialized countries." (Worthington, 2005,-page 50) Environmentalists and politicians argue that Global Warming is real, and point to refuted research correlating rapidly melting polar ice caps to increased rates of greenhouse gas emissions. "In the absence of aggressive and expensive abatement, greenhouse gases will continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, and we will experience warming." (Mendelsohn, 1999,-page 2)

New information has revealed the natural warming cycle of the earth, and the emergence from the last mini ice age. "The extreme warm spell -- called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum -- saw global temperatures soar by 6C (11F) within a few thousand years." (Derbyshire, November 2010)

Another theory points to Global Cooling rather than Global Warming as the actual condition. "The bitter winter afflicting much of the Northern Hemisphere is only the start of a global trend towards cooler weather that is likely to last for 20 to 30 years, say some of the world's most eminent climate scientists." (Rose, 2010) the scientifically posed question remains, is 'Global Warming' a real phenomena or faux?

Multi-Decadal Oscillations:

Further deducing from the changes to the topography of the global landscape, there appears to have been various cycles of global warming and cooling, leading to droughts and desert conditions and tundra on former tropical lands.

"They (U.S. National Snow and Ice Date Centre in Colorado), say that their research shows that much of the warming was caused by oceanic cycles when they were in a 'warm mode' as opposed to the present 'cold mode'. According to the U.S. National Snow and Ice Date Centre in Colorado, Arctic summer sea ice has grown by 409,000 square miles, or 26 per cent, since 2007 -- and even the most committed global warming activists do not dispute this." (Rose, 2010)

Professor Mojib Latif, a leading member of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), claims that a large portion, as much as 50% of the warming experienced over 1/5 of the 20th century, the 20… [read more]


Global Warming Neglecting the Complexities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming: Neglecting the Complexities

In this paper, we discuss global warming which is a phenomenon that has attracted a long debate marked with several complexities. We begin with an explanation of what global warming is and an analysis of some of the theories that surround its existence. We then proceed to investigate the various views and opinions that have… [read more]


Security Council France Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

Security Council France

Over the last several decades, global warming has become a consistent threat that has the potential of disrupting life on Earth as we know it. This is because the rising temperatures from the activities of human kind are causing the problem to become worse. To mitigate these effects, the world community implemented the Kyoto Protocol. This was one of the first landmark agreements, at attempting to address the effects of global warming. However, since the treaty has begun to take effect, it is clear that various provisions are not achieving the intended goals. What is happening is: not all countries are participating and there are uneven standards for pollution credits. This is problematic, because it is negating any kind of attempts at reversing the underlying causes of global warming. As this is allowing a host of countries to work around the basic provisions of the treaty. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, the emissions trading program called the Clean Development Mechanism. Under the program, the developed countries can trade their emissions credits with other nations. However, these credits can be traded for profit, as the developing countries can sell their excess credits to the developed countries. This is troubling, because it is allowing the largest polluting countries to make no effort in reducing greenhouse gases, as they can purchase what credits they need, to be in compliance with the provisions of the treaty. Then, when you consider the fact that the various actions from each country are voluntary, this highlights the ineffectiveness of Kyoto in addressing the problems associated with global warming. (Rainer 2007) As a result, a new agreement must be implemented that will have enforceable standards and will prevent all nations from not following the basic provisions.

Recommended Course of Action

In December, the various delegates from around the world will once again meet to discuss how they can effectively address the problem (with the conference taking place in Cancun). Since France is a member of the Security Council, we have a moral responsibility in addressing the various problems surrounding the issue. The dilemma is that many of these conferences do not yield any kind of realistic agreements. Where, you have the developed countries, which are unwilling to change from the status quo (because it will cost them too much economically). At the same time, you have the developing countries that believe one of the reasons for global warming, is because of the actions taken in the past by the developed countries. As they think that these nations, need to pay more of their fair share for contributing to the problem. To effectively address this impasse, requires being able to create an agreeable solution that will address the views of both sides. This means creating enforceable standards, where various countries cannot buy their way out or unilaterally decide not follow the agreement. Then, you have to ensure that the developing countries are paying an equal amount in comparison… [read more]


Global Warming: An Inconvenient Debate a Deadly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global warming: An inconvenient debate; a deadly delay in taking action

Despite the overwhelming evidence in support of the idea that global warming is a very real phenomenon, the political inconvenience of the hard steps needed to circumvent it, such as limiting fossil fuel and meat consumption, makes the issue politically unpopular. An industry devoted to global warming denial has arisen, while the long-term risks of doing nothing escalate every day. "Climate policy is gridlocked, and there's virtually no chance of a breakthrough. Many factors have conspired to produce this situation. Human beings are notoriously poor at responding to problems that develop incrementally. And most of us aren't eager to change our lifestyles by sharply reducing our energy consumption" (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.1).

Environmentalism is embraced during fuel shortages, such as during the 1970s, when solar panels were commissioned for use on the White House, and then abandoned when economic conditions changed and gas prices went down. More recently, hybrid cars became popular when gas prices spiked -- now, once again, concern about over-consumption of fuel by cars has begun to abate as gas prices decline. According to The New York Times' overview of the topic of global warming: "A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that since 1950, the world's climate has been warming, primarily as a result of emissions from unfettered burning of fossil fuels and the razing of tropical forests. Such activity adds to the atmosphere's invisible blanket of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping 'greenhouse' gases. Recent research has shown that methane, which flows from landfills, livestock and oil and gas facilities, is a close second to carbon dioxide in impact on the atmosphere." Significant warming since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century indicates a climatologically pattern that cannot be ascribed to merely natural shifts in climate change, and supports a causal link between warming and the human-based use of fossil fuels in transportation, agriculture, and manufacturing.

For scientists, the evidence of global warming is visible everyday: "I can see vivid evidence of climate change. Channels through the Canadian Arctic archipelago that were choked with ice at this time of year two decades ago are now expanses of open water or vast patchworks of tiny islands of melting ice" (Homer-Dixon 2010, p.1).…… [read more]


Sustainable New Orleans Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,367 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … sustainable New Orleans?

Wanting to rebuild a major city from scratch implies first having to devise a series of plans meant to insure that good organization is taken to the fullest. Taking into consideration the city of New Orleans consequent to the Katrina Hurricane, one might be inclined to believe that the authorities did not pay sufficient attention to coming up with a strategy to assist the people there in case of a major calamity. It was not only due to the devastating forces of nature that the city was brought to its present state, but also because the condition was poorly managed and the system was not prepared to deal with incidents of such an intensity.

In addition to its aftermath, this event was particularly significant because it made it clear that coastal cities are very vulnerable to extreme weather phenomena. If governments were to predict such disasters, numerous people would still be alive and large amounts of money would be saved. Of course, no one is to blame for such an occurrence, since nature is in most occasions unpredictable. However, matters would have gone better if the authorities along with the people in the city were to observe the dangers that they were exposed to and do something in order to risk as little as possible in case of a natural disaster. This particular event did not come as a surprise to some, given that it is only normal for a coastal inhabitance to be predisposed to going through a natural disaster.

New Orleans needs to be rebuilt so as for future weather phenomena to have a less damaging effect. It is virtually impossible for a city to go through such an event without suffering any damage. Even with that, if people were to cooperate in creating efficient emergency plans matters would be different and the damage would be smaller. Considering that the U.S. government has gotten involved in building a new city on the wrecks left behind by Katrina, it would only seem natural for the strategy to be different, as it would be of no use to rebuild something countless times and waiting for disaster to strike again.

Restructuring New Orleans needs to be done in accordance with present and future generations that are expected to inhabit it. The authorities do not have to resolve the condition by building a new city with the belief that the individuals presently inhabiting it will be safe for the coming years. They also need to look ahead and develop a tactic to assist everyone who will ever live in the city.

To a certain degree, the people who can be considered responsible for the fact that New Orleans was subjected to the destructive force of Hurricane Katrina are the ones who destroyed the only thing that protected the city from the sea -- the islands and the wetlands in the territory. These lands experienced a process of rapid erosion and they seized to exist within a number… [read more]


Undulatus Asperatus Clouds Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Clouds

In 2009, the first new cloud formation since 1951 was proposed for addition to the International Cloud Atlas of the World Meteorological Organization ("Altocumulus Undulatus Asperatus"). Only eighty cloud formations have earned their distinctive marks in the International Cloud Atlas (Olson). Named after the Latin for "turbulent undulation," or rough waves, the altocumulus undulatus asperatus would therefore be the first new clouds to be named in over fifty years (Michaels; Olson). The last cloud officially registered by the World Meteorological Organization was cirrus intortus ( "Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name").

After receiving a plethora of photographs, the Cloud Appreciation Society deemed the unique formation worthy of consideration as being distinct from other types of cloud (Michaels). The founder of the Cloud Appreciation Society, Gavin Pretor-Pinney, first referred to the special formation as "Jacques Cousteau" formations because "the cloud base resembled a choppy sea when viewed from below," (Royal Meteorological Society). Pretor-Pinney claims that undulatus asperatus "don't seem to fit very easily into the existing classifications," (cited on "Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name"). The name "undulatus asperatus" was chosen particularly because asperatus was a term "used by Classical poets to describe the sea when it has been agitated by strong winds," (Royal Meteorological Society). Apparently Virgil used the term aparatus to "describe the surface of the sea whipped up by the north wind," ("Asperatus: gathering storm to force new cloud name"). The Latin term for wave is "unda," (the Cloud Appreciation Society).

Referred to as an "atmospheric anomaly," the undulatus asperatus are relatively rare. They occur in specific geographic regions and are especially prevalent among the Plains regions of the United States (Olson). Photographs of undulatus asperatus also hail from Scotland and other parts of Northern Europe as well as Tasmania down under. Photographs of the undulatus asperatus reveal distinct and smooth wave formations, although the undersides often appear "rough and choppy" like ocean water (Michaels). The clouds tend to appear during morning or midday hours following, rather than preceding, storm activity (Michaels). The aviation industry regards all undulatus clouds as a sign of light to moderate turbulence ("Clouds"). The exact conditions under which undulus apparatus are formed are still being researched by organizations like the Royal Meteorological Society in the United Kingdom.

Ten basic genera of clouds are officially recognized including the most well-known ones such as nimbus, stratus, cumulus, and cirrus. Each of these genres of cloud is further divided into cloud species "which describe shape and internal structure," as well as cloud variety, "which describes the transparency and arrangement of clouds," (Royal Meteorological Society).

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) currently maintains the international standards for cloud classification. Cloud classification is based on "where in the atmosphere they form, the amount of moisture they hold, their shape and appearance," (Royal Meteorological Society). The WMO classifies clouds-based partly on where in the atmosphere they form, using the term "etage." The lower the etage, the lower in the atmosphere the clouds appear. Undulatus clouds… [read more]


Prisoner's Dilemma and the Fight Against Global Warming Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  25 pages (7,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Prisoner's Dilemma And The Fight Against Global Warming

Global warming reached alarming levels and governments from all over the world need to gather in a united front to fight the process. Sooner or later, all countries will be obliged to enter this fight, leaving all divergences and interests aside, as global warming affects everyone more or less. While some might… [read more]


Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ozone

The Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone and the (Possible) Effects of Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change: A Review of Current Literature

Waugh et al. (2009) investigated the effects that climate change has on he recovery period and rate of stratospheric ozone. This team of researchers set out to modify an existing model, the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, in… [read more]


Impacts of a Warming Arctic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … warming Arctic

Global warming has reached alarming levels and the effects of the event are felt throughout the world. The Arctic region is one of the territories that have experienced the full hit of global warming and because of the importance that the area has to the rest of the planet, the effects of a warming Arctic are… [read more]


Ruddiman's Account of Ancient Human Influence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ruddiman's Account Of Ancient Human Influence In The Global Warming Phenomenon

Introduction and Context

The scientific arguments for humans affecting climate change seem to be all around us today in the news and in conversations. Whenever the topic of human-induced climate change does surface there are often many difference of opinion, many of which are tied to specific scientific evidence… [read more]


Earth Science and Society Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (3,272 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Earth Science and Society

The Wabash Watershed -- For this analysis, we will be focusing on a specific geographic area, the Wabash Watershed. Chronologically, we will use 1961-1990 as our basal reference, including raw, 5-year average, and 10-year average data. The data sets include temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, moisture surplus, moisture deficit, and surface runoff. Our primary research questions surround what… [read more]


Plows Plagues and Petroleum How Humans Took Control of Climate by William F. Ruddiman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate by William F. Ruddiman

Book Summary:

Ruddiman, William. Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum. Princeton: Princeton University Press,

The first forty-four pages of Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum by William F. Ruddiman has something to offend everyone. For global warming proponents, Ruddiman focuses not on the evils of industrialism but instead suggests that human activity has been affecting the earth's climate for many thousands of years. For anti-global warming activists, Ruddiman leaves no doubt of the fact that in his estimation that the climate is getting warmer due to human influences, not because of natural forces. Changes occurred in the earth's atmosphere, he argues, with the beginnings of human's cultivation of the land for food. Rice and livestock are as much to blame for global warming as factories and cars.

"Carbon dioxide concentrations began their slow rise 8,000 years ago when humans began to cut and burn forests in China, India, and Europe to make clearings for croplands and pastures. Methane concentrations began a similar rise 5,000 years ago when humans began to irrigate for rice farming and tend livestock in unprecedented numbers" (Ruddiman 5) of course, many environmental activists today blame industrialized agriculture, but Ruddiman suggests that agriculture itself, not factory farming, has caused an increase in carbon dioxide and methane gases. This suggests that correcting the problems caused by human influences upon the environment is far more problematic than altering the last hundred years of human history.

Any time there is a change to the earth's state of homeostasis, a new balance is created. Earth's orbit is fundamentally linked to its climate, and Earth has always undergone cycles of cooling and warming (one of the arguments of anti- global warming activists). Small changes in the earth's tilt can cause radical (from a human's perspective) shifts in climate. Ruddiman admits that…… [read more]


Earth Science and Society Water Budget Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,068 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Earth Science and Society

Water Budget

The water budget of a particular area can differ greatly depending on a number of factors. Climate, geographical location, altitude, and soil density can all have major impacts on the water budgets of specific areas. Precipitation is the primary source of acquiring water; "Precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, etc. makes up the primarily supply of water to the surface," (Ritter 2006). Thus, the climates of individual areas have a huge role in the amount of precipitation seen. Climate also rules over evaporation, and "Actual evapotranspiration increases as temperature increases, so long as there is water to evaporate and for plants to transpire," (Ritter 2006). However, climate, as determined by geographical location, is not the only factor. The actual constitution of soul in particular areas will influence how much water that area can hold. According to research, "The amount of water in the soil depends soil properties like soil texture and organic matter content," (Ritter 2006). Land takes up about 2.4% of the held water on earth (University of Illinois 2010). This, the soil in each area also plays a key role not only in the construction of the water budget, but also how much water will be evaporated. There are a number of different soil formulations, based on the resources and materials which are around the area. These different formulations then hold water in different levels; "Different surfaces hold different amounts of water and absorb water at different rates," (University of Illinois 2010). With this in mind, specific geographical locations can be analyzed in comparison based on these fundamental elements.

WATER BUDGET for BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA (Figure 1)

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

P

13.0

11.2

9.4

3.7

2.4

0.5

0.1

0.1

1.3

3.1

6.2

10.6

PE

2.6

3.2

4.5

5.6

7.1

8.4

8.8

8.2

7.5

6.3

4.3

2.8

P-PE

10.4

8.0

4.9

-1.9

-4.7

-7.9

-8.7

-8.1

-6.2

-3.2

1.9

7.8

Change in ST

0.0

0.0

0.0

-1.9

-4.7

-3.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.9

7.8

ST

10.0

10.0

10.0

8.1

3.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.9

9.7

AE

2.6

3.2

4.5

5.6

7.1

3.9

0.1

0.1

1.3

3.1

4.3

2.8

D

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.5

8.7

8.1

6.2

3.2

0.0

0.0

S

10.4

8.0

4.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

In comparison to Terre Haute Indiana's water budget, there are primary differences in location and climate which justify those differences. The city itself sits at 37°52'17.73" N, 122°16'13.86" W. Its elevation is at 179 feet above sea level. This keeps it closer to the oceanic controls that regulate coastal temperatures. In fact, Berkeley is a west-coast Mediterranean climate. Thus, it has hot, dry summers, with little water acquisition during the summer months. Therefore, this hot and dry element of summer has a huge impact on the water budget for those months, in comparison to the more humid summers in Indiana which witnesses lots of summer storms.… [read more]


Environmental Ethics Global Warming Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,352 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Warming Ethics

Global Warming and Social Philosophy: Practical and Ethical Issues in the Face of Climate Change

The issue of global warming is one of the most prominent political and social issues of our time. Hardly a day passes without some mention of global warming, climate change, and the possible human causes behind it by a major news organization; it… [read more]


Arctic Melt Unnerves the Experts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,336 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

There are a number of charts and images as illustrations of some of these issues.

The article goes on to speculate at the possibility of reversing climate change. It argues that the effects of climate change are unavoidable, at this point, but that if we take steps to reduce emissions drastically, effects will come slower and be less intense, giving societies more time to adapt. It concludes by saying that climate change has very serious implications for the Arctic region.

Discussion

I believe the New York Times piece accurately reflected the information given in the Corell's article. However, not all the information in Corell's article was presented in the Times piece. This is either for the sake of brevity or because the Times piece did not use his article for its research.

In Corell's article I detected a specific focus on the negative effects of climate change in the Arctic, whereas in the Times report, it seemed that negative effects were contrasted with positive effects, and far less were listed. I found it interesting that I interpreted Corell's piece as "feeling" alarming, whereas I had much less of that kind of sense reading the Times story. It was interesting to me because I've become so used to media sensationalism, and this time I actually found an academic paper that felt more sensational than a mainstream media outlet's piece on the environment.

I did not find any contrasting information in the two articles. This is most likely because the story was written shortly after Corell's report, and so less time existed for updated data to enter the picture. I found the Times piece to lack any bias or interpretation -- it seemed to report the information from all possible angles and with a strong sense of neutrality, qualifying most of the "facts" with "the authors said," or something similar. I feel positive about this type of reporting.

The same level of "humility," as you might call it, did not exist in Corell's piece. This is probably because the author had no need, as the Times did, to appear completely neutral and act as if even "science" was under question. The Times must use language that does not condemn or condone science; to do so would be to show bias. Conversely, the academic article, acting under the paradigm of science, does not need to appear unbiased toward its belief in science, as that might make the whole thing seem irrelevant.

I believe that a news story that reflected all that Corell reported would be much appreciated by the public, but not in its "raw" form (as an academic piece). As it is written in the academic piece, the information reads slowly and haltingly, because the language is by an academics, for the academic community. It is not meant for the eyes of the public. The images are complex graphs which do not necessarily even look like graphs at first glance, but strange, colorful shapes. This is opposed to, in a publication like… [read more]


Global Warming the Earth's Atmosphere Is Heating Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (679 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming

The earth's atmosphere is heating up because of the rise in the amount of man-made greenhouse gases that are being released into the atmosphere. Some call it global warming, others call it "climate change," and still others believe that the scientists who research the warming of the planet are somehow putting forth a hoax. For the purposes of this paper, global warming is real, it is proven by studies from hundreds of reputable scientists -- including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that is sponsored by the United Nations -- and global warming presents a very dangerous situation for the future of the planet.

The National Geographic News report (http://news.nationalgeographic.com) explains that the "past decade has been the hottest on record." In fact the year 2009 is "shaping up to be the fifth warmest year" since records were being kept in 1850, the National Geographic reports. The temperature data is collected on ships, buoys, on satellites, and it "does not show a slowdown or reversal" of the trend for global heating up. Statistically, the data that National Geographic uses -- from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) -- shows that the combined air surface and sea surface temperatures for 2009 have hit "14.44 degrees Centigrade (57.99 degrees Fahrenheit)." This represents 0.44 degree Centigrade "above the average annual temperature" of the planet (which was 14.00 degrees Centigrade) that was recorded between 1961 and 1990, a period of time that is used by the WMO.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that it is "known" that "human activities are changing the composition of Earth's atmosphere" by increasing greenhouse gases (like CO2). This is "well-documented and understood," the EPA states (www.epa.gov). Though the global warming trend is proven by empirical science, the EPA reminds Americans that important questions remain about "how much warming will occur, how fast it will occur, and how the warming will affect" the rest of the system that affects climate (like storms, rain patterns, and winds). The United States has its own scientific study…… [read more]


Global Warming There Is a Growing Body Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (738 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming

There is a growing body of evidence that shows global warming, also called climate change, has caused sea levels to rise on a global level. However, even though the statistics point to this as a real problem, there is still no reason to suddenly panic and start changing the way everything is done. In other words, a wait and see attitude is a much better choice, and it is the one that I choose to adopt. Healy and Tapick (2004) have stated that, over the last 100 years, the sea level has risen globally between four and eight inches. In addition, every year the sea rises one-tenth of one inch. That does not seem like much, but top scientists are concerned about it and they believe that it can become a serious problem in the future. I do not completely agree with that, and I am not alone. Most people shrug it off, but the people who take climate change seriously warn against continuing the burning of fossil fuels, especially in very large amounts, because of the long-term impacts to the actual planet and to human health.

There are currently many countries that are not happy with the United States because it is one of the largest contributors of greenhouse gases. Most of that comes from power plants, since they still burn coal (Healy & Tapick, 2004). For example, in 1998, 24% of emissions of these gases came from the U.S. That is a very big amount for just one country, even though the U.S. is large, and there is no other country that produces more (Healy & Tapick, 2004). The Energy Information Administration has estimated that -- between 1990 and 2001 -- greenhouse gas emissions within the United States grew more than 12%.

Around 84% of total greenhouse gases produced by the U.S. come from carbon dioxide, which is also among the gases considered to be most dangerous to the environment and to human health (Healy & Tapick, 2004). Unfortunately for the people who worry about the dangers that greenhouses gases possess, fossil fuels are still cheapest and easiest when it comes to the forms of energy that are in use today. Because of that, they…… [read more]


Global Warming. The Reality Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,440 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … global warming. The reality of global warming has raised alarm bells as well as intensive debate in many sectors of contemporary society. The implications of global warming and climate change are widespread and complex and affect every sector of modern society -- including the social, economic and political dimensions.

The situation becomes even more problematic when we consider… [read more]


Cap and Trade of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Carbon Cap and Trade

On June 26, 2009, the Carbon Cap and Trade bill was passed by a narrow margin through the U.S. House of Representatives. Currently, the bill is waiting to be voted on by the U.S. senate and if it becomes law, it would be the first law to mandate greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

The goal of the Carbon Cap and Trade policy is to decrease greenhouse gas emissions through a widespread and systematic approach. Companies will be subject to specified carbon emission caps, which will limit the amount of greenhouse gas pollution they are permitted to produce (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim). These emissions restrictions will progressively increase over time until the ultimate emissions goal has been reached (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim).

Since companies will be varied in their ability to effectively reduce their carbon emissions, a trading component to the policy will allow corporations which exceed their emissions goals to sell "permits" to companies which have not met their goals (Wilhelm; Labatt & White). In this way, the overall greenhouse gas emissions goals can be attained with minimal cost and will provide additional incentives to companies which exceed their emissions targets (Wilhelm; Labatt & White).

The government may choose to provide emission allowances, or carbon credits, to corporations either through an auction or grandfathering approach. The auction approach allows companies to bid on emission allowances and effectively purchase the allowances they require (Wilhelm; Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim). This approach is similar to a carbon tax approach, with the exception that it provides companies with the ability to trade carbon credits amongst each other. The grandfathering system, however, is predicated on the past emission levels of the companies. In this manner, emissions allowances are contingent upon a company's history of emission and there is no auctioning of emission allowances (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim). The grandfathering approach to emissions targets is utilized in the EU cap and trade system (Hufbauer, Charnovitz, & Kim) .

Issues Regarding Implementation of Cap and Trade Policy

The most prevalent issue pertaining to the introduction of a cap and trade policy, which would place limitations on carbon emissions and potentially slow economic growth, is the veracity of human-driven global warming. Opponents state that global warming is a natural phenomenon and that human beings have not played a role in climate change (Farrar). If the climate change currently occurring on the Earth is the result of natural processes and not an effect of human greenhouse gas emissions, then the expressed purpose of the cap and trade policy is extraneous and unnecessary. Advocates state that global warming is the result of human activities and that action must be taken immediately to reduce emissions and slow global climate change (Farrar). This is an issue which has been the source of considerable contention and debate amongst policy makers and lay people.

Supporting the human-driven climate change argument, in 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which effectively represents the scientific consensus in climatology, released… [read more]


Global Air Circulation Patterns Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,136 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Air Circulation Patterns

We know so little about the place that has been our home for thousands of years. There are so many unseen functions of the planet Earth that have such strong influences on all aspects of the creatures which walk upon it. The forces of the air and atmosphere are some of the most influential on global weather patterns. Understanding the atmospheric conditions of the Earth gives us a glimpse into our own home which was previous unseen. These conditions rule our everyday lives, yet go largely unnoticed or completely understood by most of humanity. The weather patterns we are so vulnerable to come from the interaction of three general zones, the Hadley, Polar, and Ferrel Cells, which consistently move and maneuver earth around the globe. Their interaction with each other affects the climate as well as individual weather patterns. Although they have been present since our existence on the Earth, these atmospheric conditions are not permanent. As they fluctuate annually, they are also threatened by human forces that have negatively impacted the natural ecology of the Earth.

The weather patterns of our Earth are regulated by a vast system of atmospheric conditions which force air and pressure up and down across the globe. The basic structure of the nature of atmospheric conditions comes from a familiar source, the sun; "The central feature of global weather is the redistribution of solar energy that falls unequally on Earth at different latitudes," (Manahan 2006:193). The sun heats up the earth's surface unevenly, causing mixed reactions between the warmer air of the tropics, which are closest to the sun at all times, and the cooler air of the icy poles. The earth moves hot and cold air around to mix them and keep temperature in check and regulate weather patterns. The three cells that dominate over atmospheric circulation have a fluid structure which does vary annually, yet generally stays similar in nature.

The largest of the three cells and most forceful in climate conditions as we know it is the Hadley Cell. Located over the equator zones, this cell moves hot air u into the atmosphere from the earth's surface, for hot air always rises higher than cooler air. The excess energy caused by the warmth in the air near the equator causes that air to rise until it hits the troposphere, where it "cools by expansion and loss of water, then sinks again," (Manahan 2006:193). This motion of hot air rising, cooling, and sinking again results in a high pressure zone. It also creates the Coriolis effect, or "The air in the Hadley cells does not move straight north and south, but is deflected by Earth's rotation and by contact with the rotating Earth […] which results in spiral-shaped air circulation patterns," (Manahan 2006:194). This circulation combined with hot air pressure can result in great weather instability in the region. Such patterns create the environment for large tropical storms and hurricanes as hot air cools and sinks with the… [read more]


Smith Family Reunion: Risk Management When Debating Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Smith family reunion: Risk management

When debating if they should rend an indoor pavilion for their annual family reunion, the Smith family is engaged in some real-life risk management analysis. The family could 'bet' that the weather would be perfect, not rent the pavilion, and keep budgeted costs as low as possible. The potential gains from not renting the pavilion, if the weather is fine, are the savings of the rental cost. However, the weather is supposed to be cool or rainy. While weather predictions are often imperfect, if the event is rained out, with no indoor facility for protection, the prospective attendees will lose the time and money they spent preparing for the event, which is much greater than the cost of renting the indoor facility. A cost-benefit analysis suggests that the costs of not renting the pavilion and having the event rained out are much greater than the costs of renting the pavilion and having an indoor location prove unnecessary.

In this instance, renting the facility is hedging one's bets, or assuming that a worst-case scenario is…… [read more]


Politicization of Science, Causes and Consequences Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Politicization of Science, Causes and Consequences

In today's world, going green is more of a trend than a scientific recommendation. Wearing clothes made from recycled products or sticking Greenpeace stickers all over a suitcase or car is considered fashionable and trendy. To believe that global warming is not a result of humans' actions is considered ignorant and backwards, while thinking green and acting in such a way as to reduce one's impact on the environment is both politically and socially acceptable. Although it is regarding a different issue, today's attitude about global warming is quite similar to the one that the Romans had about Galileo and his theory that the earth revolved around the son. While Galileo was ostracized because the Catholic court held that his position was "expressly contrary to holy scriptures" (Halsall), those who believe in global warming today are similarly ostracized because their belief is contrary to holy Hollywood and Washington. A comparison between Galileo's rejection and that of modern opponents to global warming implies that politicizing science is dangerous because it makes progress difficult or even impossible by forbidding questions.

When one politicizes science, the scientists' ability to ask questions is severely reduced. And because behind every important scientific finding is a good research question, this inhibition certainly makes progress difficult. While random observations may encourage scientists to come up with good questions, good scientific evidence comes out of well-articulated questions. It is imperative, then, that scientists be able to ask such questions. When a scientist's ability to ask questions is cut short, then their possibilities are severely limited. One question usually leads to another and another until a question comes along that, when answered, changes the way humans view their world. When scientists are unable to ask any of the questions in that series because they are politically taboo, a plethora of scientific research can be lost.

A historical example of how the inability to ask questions halts scientific progress can be seen through Galileo Galilei's attempt to conduct scientific experiments during Catholic rule. Even though they were not accepted by the political authorities of his time, Galileo's scientific findings were incredible. Still, the world may have benefited from far more finds if Galileo had been able to ask more questions. In the move, "Galileo: The Challenge of Reason," viewers can clearly see how politicizing science stopped Galileo from asking questions. When at dinner with the political elite, the Catholic Church members, Galileo tried to convince them that it is important to ask questions and try experiments in science; he was refused, even when he proved himself right by proving a theory of Aristotle's wrong in front of these church members. Thus, the church halted progression by telling Galileo not to ask questions. Further, Galileo abided by that censure, saying in his abjuration that he recognized the authority of the church and accepted their terms that he not question what the political elite believed was contained in the scriptures (Halsall).

Today, those who do not… [read more]


Politics of Science - Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Politics of Science - Global Warming

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of global warming is the simple word, "warming." Quite often, on an anecdotal level, people will complain about the dangers of global warming during freakishly warm winters or prohibitively hot summers, and forget about the phenomenon when it snows. Deniers of global warming use the more benign sounding phrase 'climate change' to underline their belief that escalating global temperatures are part of the earth's natural cycles and have little to do with human activity. However, the scientific definition of global warming does not involve yearly weather shifts, but reflects an overall pattern of warming of the earth as a whole: "Since the Industrial Revolution (around 1750), human activities have substantially added to the amount of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels and biomass (living matter such as vegetation) has also resulted in emissions of aerosols that absorb and emit heat, and reflect light. The changes in the atmosphere have likely influenced temperature, precipitation, storms and sea level. However, these features of the climate also vary naturally, so determining what fraction of climate changes are due to natural variability vs. human activities is challenging" (Global Warming, EPA, 2009)

Although most scientists now believe that human activities such as industrialization, factory farming (because of the release of methane gasses into the atmosphere), and mechanized vehicle transport plays a role in global warming, the political controversies surrounding the issue have often had more to do with politics than science. Even using the phrase 'global warming' or 'climate change' becomes a kind of test of a politician's belief systems, although both phrases are incomplete descriptions of what is occurring in the atmosphere and on the earth.

Representatives of major industries that would be affected by more stringent emissions limits like the automobile industry, cattle farmers, and other political action groups have generally allied themselves with conservatives who deny the efficacy of actions against global warming, while liberals (including, most famously Al Gore) have come out in favor of the science regarding climate change. Driving a Prius is as much a 'statement' as it is a savings on gasoline. Greenpeace points out that "For example, ExxonMobil continues to fund the think tanks and organizations who are running a decades-long campaign denying the consensus of urgency from climate scientists and attacking policies to abate global warming...Exxon's Global Climate Science Communications Team (GCSCT) developed an action plan to inform the American public that science…… [read more]


Ozone Layer Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ozone Layer

Factors, Impacts

The ozone layer is a spread of blue-colored gas through the stratosphere, which filters out ultraviolet radiation from the sun (Lean 2005). No life on earth is possible without it.

But chemicals, like chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, and other pollutants, have weakened the protective layer and created a hole. The hole, first recognized in 1987, is as… [read more]


Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … greenhouse effect and global warming, and the scientific concepts behind these issues affecting the world today. The greenhouse effect and global warming are two of the most important scientific issues facing the planet today, and for the future generations, they will be one of the biggest issues to be addressed and managed.

The greenhouse effect, contrary to popular belief, is actually what keeps this planet habitable and comfortable for all living things. It is a natural process that keeps the Earth warm by keeping certain gases in the atmosphere, where they reduce some of the radiation from the sun's rays, and keep the planet a comfortable temperature. One scientist notes, "The amount of heat energy added to the atmosphere by the greenhouse effect is controlled by the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere" (Pidwirny). Without the greenhouse effect, the planet would be too cold for life; the average temperature would be about -18 degrees Celsius, while the current comfortable temperature is 15 degrees Celsius (Pidwirny). The greenhouse effect gets its name from the fact that it resembles what happens in a greenhouse - the sun's rays warm the greenhouse and keep it warmer than the surrounding area because it holds the heat inside, just as the greenhouse gases and atmosphere hold the heat around the Earth. That is one of the things us environmental lobbyists have to face many times. People think the greenhouse effect is something to do with global warming, and of course, it has to do with the atmosphere and gases in the atmosphere, but as you can see, the greenhouse effect is a necessary part of life, while global warming is not.

Global warming is related to the greenhouse effect, however, because the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing in the last decade, and that means the heat from the sun, radiating back to Earth as the greenhouse effect, is becoming warmer, leading to climate change and disruption of many areas here on Earth. Much of the evidence that global warming is occurring comes from ice core samples from the Arctic and Antarctic, which indicate a drastic increase in carbon dioxide emissions in the last century, which have helped create more greenhouse gases, which leads to global warming. Another scientists notes, "Over the past 260,000 years, the period for which a detailed record now exists from ice cores, temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane have been closely correlated" (Johansen xiv). The most probable cause is man, using more machinery than ever before in history, and this machinery, which largely runs on fossil fuels, leads to more carbon dioxide emissions and more greenhouse gases. The key determinate is that carbon monoxide levels in the atmosphere are higher than they have been in the last 20 millions years, according to the ice core samples (Johansen xiv), and they are continuing to rise, and global warming is continuing to occur. The key link to humans is that the rise in… [read more]


Environmental Challenges Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (605 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Environmental Challenges

Global Warming - Threats, Efforts and Results

The debate on the real existence of global warming is a long standing one. While some argue the real threats posed by the increased emissions of greenhouse gazes and the destruction of the ozone layer, others state that the propaganda has been intentionally created to create mass hysteria. Those who militate for the reality of global warming present several threats for our future well-being as individuals and as a planet. Some of these threats include:

the melting of the polar glaciers negative impacts over the natural habitats, resulting in the disappearance of several plant and animal species the bleaching and disintegration of the coral reefs more frequent and sever floods more damaging hurricanes (EcoBridge)

As these threats become more and more obvious, institutions across the globe begin to take action. Most of the efforts are forwarded by non-government environmental organizations. However, these often possess limited resources and their efforts may tend to go unnoticed. Examples of some of the most relevant environmental organizations which fight against reducing global warming could include EcoBridge, Plant a Tree or the Nicodemus Wilderness Project. Their measures revolved around wide series of actions the human kind could take to reduce pollution and improve the quality of Earth as a planet.

Realizing however the gravity of the matter and the reduced positive results non-governmental organizations were retrieving, state officials and institutions became involved in resolving the matter of growing global temperature.

The most intense efforts in this direction have been forwarded by the European Union. In a meeting held on the 8th and 9th of Match 2007, the representatives at the European Commission set a goal of reducing carbon emissions by 20% by the year 2020. The percentage could even be increased to 30% if the efforts are sustained…… [read more]


Transportation and Global Warming: A Contributor Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (364 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Transportation and Global Warming:

A Contributor to Controversy

In today's political and scientific realms no issue has been so publicized as global warming. From the dramatic the Day After Tomorrow to Al Gore's informational an Inconvenient Truth, even Hollywood has offered its opinion on the environmental issue that threatens to significantly impact the earth's atmosphere, and therefore the lives of animals and humans, in the near future. Although most scientific and political officials agree that global warming is an issue of importance, some controversy exists over the degree to which human activity worsens the issue. In one form, however, human activity has been undoubtedly linked with an increase in global warming -- transportation.

In both urban and rural areas, people have become increasingly reliant on personal vehicles to get from place to place, a lifestyle choice that has adverse implications for global warming and the planet. For their morning commutes, vacations and day trips, billions of people all over the planet turn the key in the ignition and drive their personal vehicles each day. Similarly, commercial transporters driving trucks, piloting airplanes, and…… [read more]


Global Warming - Fact or Fiction? Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global warming - Fact or Fiction?

Alongside with globalization, global warming has been the most popular concept discussed in news broadcasts, specialized and unspecialized articles as well as special international conferences. There are those who strongly believe that global warming has negatively impacted the earth and if the human actions continue as they are now, the planet will be lost… [read more]


Global Warming Is Inherently a Natural Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (412 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming is inherently a natural process caused by the trapping of gases in the Earth's atmosphere: a process known as the greenhouse effect. However, global warming has been hastened by factory and automobile emissions and other factors related to human activity since the Industrial Revolution. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "there is no scientific debate on this point. Pre-industrial levels of carbon dioxide (prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution) were about 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv), and current levels are greater than 380 ppmv and increasing at a rate of 1.9 ppm yr-1 since 2000." Global surface temperatures have risen considerably as a result, but temperatures do not rise uniformly across the globe. In fact, global warming is a misleading term in that it ignores the fact that some regions of the globe might experienced more intensely cold winters due to shifting weather patterns. The phrase climate change is more appropriate than global warming to refer to the collection of weather and climate effects associated with increased concentrations of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. Global warming affects a wide range of climactic events ranging from the Gulf Stream to evaporation. Another main effect of climate change is the…… [read more]


Global Warming: An Inconvenient but Necessary Remedy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,112 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming: An Inconvenient but Necessary Remedy

When I saw "An Inconvenient Truth," the documentary produced by Al Gore about the effects of global warming, I felt motivated to learn more about the subject. Before, I had been a bit smug. After all, I recycled. I did not drive a Hummer. I did not litter or buy things with a great deal of excess packaging. I considered myself reasonably 'eco-friendly.' Also, in the back of my mind, I admit I was not overly concerned about the issue. I knew that remedying the effects of global warming was a long-term priority for our nation. But it was hard to get 'fired up,' no pun intended, about global warming, in comparison to other, more immediate issues, like our escalating involvement in Iraq and rising gas prices, because the dangers seemed to lie so far in the future -- why worry about what was more likely to affect my children-to-be when my friends and family members were suffering from other issues? The documentary underlined a very important and equally inconvenient truth for me -- that a real solution to global warming is unlikely to come unless political as well as personal action is undertaken, and that the impact of global warming is already here and now. It showed me that the calculation of every individual's carbon footprint is too complex for one person to compute alone and I must take action to pressure politicians to acknowledge the reality of global warming. We must make sacrifices to improve out own health and the health of our planet on a global, not merely a national level.

The effects of global warming have only begun to be noticed slowly by average Americans -- for example, warmer weather results in shifts in animal migration and plant growth. Sea levels are rising, which has been causing beach erosion and economic as well as physical damage to costal communities ("Driven to Extremes: Health Effects of Climate Change,"2007, Environmental Health Perspectives, p.A 201). There has also been an increase in severe storms and droughts. "In many regions, it is already raining less often but harder. According to the Physical Science Basis, trends from 1900 to 2005 show significantly increased precipitation in many regions, including eastern parts of North and South America. More intense and longer droughts have occurred over wider areas worldwide since the 1970s ("Driven to Extremes: Health Effects of Climate Change,"2007, Environmental Health Perspectives, p.A 198). This suggests that Hurricane Katrina may simply not have been an anomaly, but an indication of a larger trend. Increased aid to disaster relief from storms and droughts is likely to be another 'cost' of global warming, as well as food shortages (as manifest in the recent failure of the rice crop in drought-prone Australia).

Once upon a time, the symptoms of the warming of the planet seemed easy to ignore in the short-term. After all, unless you are a polar bear or a penguin, you can pretend that the melting of… [read more]


Environmental Changes the Physical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Environmental Changes

The Physical Environmental Change

What is global warming? How does it affect the weather, what are the contributing factors? Global warming is the gradual process increase in earth temperature; the warming is attributed to the increase of greenhouse gases in the Earth's upper atmosphere like carbon dioxide and methane emissions caused by human activities like farming, industrial and deforestation. These kind activities discharged smoke that contributes to warming of the environment. Many scientists believe that an increase in temperature may lead to changes in weather patterns that would cause harmful effects like flood, drought and storms. This might also harm the wildlife like plants and animals. Animals like birds may force to transfer to another place. According to Time Magazine, "heat waves storms, floods and fires to massive glacial melts, the global climate seem to be crashing around us. Scientists have been calling this shot for decades. This is precisely what they have been warning would happen if we continued pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, protecting the heat that flows in from the sun and raising global temperature." This is serious problem and real threat to the planet and this is happening more quickly in some parts of the world than others. Different regions are likely to experience some adverse effects of climate. For example in China global warming has a major effect on agriculture because of temperature and because of climate change Africa's supply of foods and water is endangered, even in the deserts of Arabia where summer temperature top 50 centigrade, snow fell.

There are many contributing factors on these geographical changes. These are gases in the atmosphere; the population growth; burning fossil of fuels and electric power plants. Rising in temperature are expected to increase sea levels like in Arctic Ocean. Researchers have suspected that loss of Arctic sea ice may be causes by changing atmospheric patterns over the Arctic temperatures that result from greenhouse gas build up in the atmosphere (Recent Warming of Arctic may affect worldwide climate October 2003). The greenhouse helps to balance the global temperature by shielding the heat that surrounds the planet, this is very essential for life on Earth. It is the result of heat absorption by certain gases in the atmosphere. Without natural greenhouse effect the temperature of the Earth would be about zero degrees, it has a small contribution to the atmosphere but it has big impact and mankind abuse the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Because of the increasing greenhouse gas emission it poses negative consequences. According to National Resources Defense Council Arctic region is getting thinner and melting. This once permanent ice is already affecting native people and wildlife and plants. Polar bears, whales, walrus and seals are changing their feeding and migration patterns, making for native people to hunt them. Along arctic coastlines, entire villages will be uprooted they are in danger of being swamped. The native lives in Arctic view global warming as threat to their culture… [read more]


Reasonable Solution to the Problem. Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,685 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … reasonable solution to the problem. Global warming is the gradual warming of the earth's climate, leading to changes in a wide variety of the earth's ecosystems. To solve global warming, we must reduce our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels such as oil and coal.

Global warming (often referred to as climate change) is one of the most serious… [read more]


Hurricane Forecasting Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … scientists predict the number of hurricanes expected during a season and how they predict the development and motion of a single hurricane. Hurricane forecasting is a difficult process, but it has developed into a science that is usually capable of judging the velocity and trajectory of a hurricane in order to help save lives and property. The National… [read more]


Global Warming Is a Lie Abstract Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,812 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming is a Lie

Abstract: Global warming is a falsehood, a lie, a fabrication, and
people like Al Gore should be held responsible for the fraud being
perpetrated on the public. Indeed, the public is being misled about the
dangers of global warming, according to numerous writers in this paper.
These essays and reports quote from numerous sources that… [read more]


Global Warming Seems Clear Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (346 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

How can the developed world in good conscience tell them to slow their efforts at globally unsustainable, polluting growth?

Technology and Natural Resources 1

Technology has given us mass production, making everything possible from inexpensive clothing to affordable cars. It has given us electricity and a 24/7 society. It has also 'given' us polluting cars, toxins in the products we consume that do not break down, and a disposable society of ever-increasing landfills. Technology has moved faster in its ability to mass-produce what we consume than it has found ways to make us leave less of an ecological footprint.

Technology and natural resources 2

Hybrid cards. Solar power. Recycling. These are just a few examples of how technology can create some improvements to mitigate the negative impact it has had upon the planet. Also, the use of mass communication, to educate people about global warming and the need to change their lifestyles is another example of how technology can have positive benefits in…… [read more]


Global Warming Is an Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (906 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming is an issue that is at the center of extensive and intense debate and research; some research is more reliable than other. This brief study attempts to examine how research is used to drive reaction and support for or against global warming theories and, thusly, recommended actions, such as the Kyoto Protocol, a controversial work of thought that from contributing specialists and scientists, which makes recommendations and, if ratified by world governments, would place certain environmental demands on governments. Proponents of global warming and the Kyoto Protocol have issued studies, environmental impact forecasts and health impact projections that are alarming, but raise the question of whether or not these proponents are overreacting and alarmists.

This study focuses on two reports: one, by Paul R. Epstein (2000), published in the peer reviewed journal Scientific American (pp. 50-7). Epstein's credentials are impressive, a medical doctor, trained in tropical climate health, he is an associate director for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School. Epstein's report is a projection of health conditions and illness that would accompany global warming; conditions that Epstein discusses these effects, prefacing his remarks by saying, "Disturbingly, these forecasts seem to be coming true (p. 1)."

The second paper is by Stephen Schneider, professor in the department of biological sciences, and senior fellow at the International Studies at Stanford University, and editor of Climatic Change and the Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. Like Epstein, Schneider is published in Scientific American, in a more recent 2002 article discusses global warming and the Kyoto Protocol. Unlike Epstein, Schneider takes the position that people need to be cautious, even suspicious of how they interpret and rely upon the vast wealth of information surrounding the debate on global warming.

The first, and most striking difference between the two experts, is that one is an alarmists, using the words "would," and "could" extensively throughout the article as he, Epstein (2000), discusses his projections of adverse health effects resulting from global warming. Epstein's article uses scientific data, as that data is understood now, in today's environment, to project human response and conditions to global warming in multiple levels of "what if" scenarios. Epstein's article is noticeably absent of citations on existing studies and concurring scientists or physicians. He uses phrases like, "Today few scientists doubt the atmosphere is warming. Most also agree...(Epstein, 2000, p. 1)." There are no names of studies or scientists to follow-up on and to inform oneself further on those "scientists." Epstein lists some (four) professional and peer review-type sources, but he does not invoke or cite those sources throughout his argument of global warming and adverse health conditions and disease, which Epstein warns will increase with global warming.

The problem…… [read more]


Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (563 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming," research scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California and other research centers have recently concluded that temperatures in the state of California "have jumped...by more than 2.1 degrees Fahrenheit within the last eighty-five years" and that the most likely culprit for this increase is linked to human activities, such as emissions from automobiles, coal-burning power plants, home air conditioning units and pollution in the form of smog. Not surprisingly, it has been determined that this rise in temperature occurs in late winter and early spring, due to "large changes in atmospheric conditions in the northern Pacific" which result from greenhouse gas-induced warming via high levels of CO2.

According to Celine Bonfils of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, "The trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures over the last 50 and 85 years are inconsistent with current model-based estimates of natural internal climate variability (and) it's pretty clear that natural causes alone just can't cut it and external factors such as greenhouse gases and urbanization come into play." Clearly, the rise in temperatures throughout California are closely related to what Bonfils calls "external factors," such as coal-burning power plants, automobile emissions and similar man-made sources. One must take into account the fact that since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the United States during the middle years of the 19th century, sources which emit CO2 and other greenhouse gases have increased ten-fold as compared to when California was mostly an agricultural environment until the rise of industry and the development of industrial factories.

Phillip Duffy, a member of the Lawrence Livermore team and a professor at the University…… [read more]


Global Warming Can the First Wedge Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,086 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming can the first wedge issue of the 21st century.

Jim Manzi, National Review

This is a real wake-up call for people who mistakenly think global warming is only going to be a problem way off in the future or... has no impact on their lives in any meaningful way. The problem is here today..."

Christine Rogers

Exposure, Epidemiology… [read more]


Monsoons by Understanding the Basics Behind Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Monsoons

By understanding the basics behind monsoon climate and its weather patterns, it is possible to comprehend the global climate pattern of monsoons and its effects (Vernekar, p. 248).

Research, Hypothesis, Objectives

This research will attempt to provide information on the monsoon climate, its causes, the effects on other regional weather patterns, and effects on global production; additionally, the prediction of the variations of the above may assist residents in the monsoon-affected arenas in predicting growth seasons (Waliser, p. 2897). The hypothesis for this research is that it is possible to assess and predict monsoon seasons, in order to assist farmers in crop production (Sulochana, p. 429). The objective is to find sufficient data in order to create a basis and formula that may be used for these predictions (Institute 2007).

Literature Review

The literature review will completed by examining all previous literature available on the subject of monsoon climate, causes, effects on weather and production, as well as any research that may have been done on attempts at recording and predicting monsoons and how to predict monsoon climate and seasons (Sivakurnar, p. 31). The result of the literature review should be a recording of the results of each research and finding out what has and has not been done in this area.

Research Design

Following a thorough literature review, weather patterns will be examined from the last 50 years. From this data a determination will be made as to any yearly pattern that may emerge, or to see if any cyclical patterns are evident, throughout the last 50 years (Rodwell, p. 1385). If it is determined that monsoons are increasing in volume and effect, that will also be determined.

Sampling

Sampling will be from any sources that have examined…… [read more]


Global Warming: All Hyped Up With Nowhere Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming: All Hyped Up With Nowhere to Go

Flow of Information

What is global warming?

Those who believe it

Those who don't believe it

Global warming discussions have been circulating for the past few decades with increasing frequency. Forty years ago it was a hypothesis that was thrown into the ring for discussion and examined as a "what if"… [read more]


Global Warming as a Social Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,315 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming as a Social Problem

The reality of the global warming has been underlined by numerous studies and reports in recent years. However there is a disparity between the way that the reality of global warming is envisioned and socially received and perceived. This is largely due to the interacting forces of the media and the public in the… [read more]


Global Warming the Reality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,977 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming

The reality of global warming can no longer be denied. Some of the harsh consequences of global warming on water, food production, health, and the environment are already apparent as our earth warms because of greenhouse gases. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to reduce emissions of these… [read more]


Global Warming in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming in Canada -- an environmental, economic, and cultural meltdown

Even in Canada, one of the most legendarily frosty countries on the earth, the effects of global warming are manifest. In fact, perhaps because of the large, icy nation's previously typical climate, the rate of global warming is more evident, to layperson's eyes as well as to scientist's documentation. Global warming is changing the face of the Canadian environment, threatening traditional aspects of its economy, and forcibly changing its culture.

One might assume that the increased temperatures provided global warming might have a positive effect upon Canada's wildlife environment. Not so. In the words of Douglas Struck, a Washington Post reporter: "Millions of acres of Canada's lush green forests are turning red in spasms of death. A voracious beetle, whose population has exploded with the warming climate, is killing more trees than wildfires or logging. The mountain pine beetle has infested an area three times the size of Maryland, devastating swaths of lodge pole pines and reshaping the future of the forest and the communities in it"(Struck, 2006). Global warming has disturbed the delicate ecosystem of the forests, and allowed pests to run rampant, far exceeding the expectations or ability of Canada's forestry system to control it. Pests that used to be killed by Canada's legendary early cold snaps which often had periods of 20 degrees below zero can now thrive, and are now causing damage to forests, crops, and even to homes (Struck, 2006). This further depletes the atmosphere of vital oxygen and other gasses necessary for human beings to thrive.

Global warming, spawned by industrialism in the point-of-view of many scientists, could also have a devastating effect upon critical Canada's economy. Canada is famed for the quality of its maple syrup. In 1998, Quebec alone "made 74% of all maple syrup in the world," compared with the U.S. state of Vermont lagging behind with roughly 5.6% of the world's production (Bazilchuk, 2000). Global warming, many believe, has already stolen the maple syrup industry from American New England and sent it to Canada. A "projected rise in temperature of 6 to 10 degrees F. over the next century could heighten drought conditions, air pollution, and pests - stress factors…… [read more]


Ecological Environmental Impact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,267 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming and Its Effects on the Ecosystem

Studies have shown that human activities like burning of fossil fuels and deforestation have a great impact on our planet, causing emissions of greenhouse gases and determining changes in the climate system: heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in intensity of many extreme climate events, ice melting at Earth's poles. These phenomenons… [read more]


Global Warming Represents the Single Major Environmental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,261 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global warming represents the single major environmental problem of the 21st century. The industrial revolution is not without its price. Man's quest for development has contributed to environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources. The natural equilibrium of earth is altered by man-made conditions. Global warming, or the heating up of the earth's surface is the by-product of the industrial revolution. Major attention was drawn to this problem when in 1995 more than 2000 scientists representing different countries submitted their report on the unnatural increase in earth's surface temperature due to the continuous burning of oil, natural gas and coal.[ROSS GELBSPAN] Today, while a strong majority of the people believe that global warming represents a real threat and a serious problem that deserves our immediate attention, there are yet others who continue to attribute it as a natural phenomenon or one without economically viable interventions. Economically viable to control or not, global warming represents a huge problem and control of greenhouse gases is a high priority, if we are to stop the destructive climatic patterns that are already beginning to destroy life. A brief discussion would help highlight the seriousness of the issue.

Global Warming (A real problem)

Global warming is a real phenomenon. Indeed, it may even be a bit of surprise to state that greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon. It is only because of naturally occurring greenhouse effect that our planet's temperature is maintained at a level that can sustain life. The average temperature of earth is 60 F. Or 150 C. Without the natural greenhouse effect phenomenon, earth's average temperature would be 0 F. Or -18o C. [Environmental Defense] After a brief description of what exactly is global warming, we will go on to discuss why there is all this fuss about the subject if it is natural!. Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere and heats up the surface. The Earth in turn radiates heat back into the atmosphere. The naturally occurring greenhouse gases trap some of this heat from leaving the atmosphere and thereby maintain the Earth as a warm place fit for life. This is exactly the process that has been going on for ages and therefore is natural.

What is disturbing, however, is the man induced increase in greenhouse gases, which now trap more heat and thereby increase the temperature of earth more than usual. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased dramatically due to human activities. Scientists have found that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, one of the important greenhouse gases has increased by over 30% in the post industrial revolution period. The burning of fossil fuels has contributed to this huge increase in CO2, Methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases. Environmental scientists state that the average increase of Earth's temperature, which was 1 F. per century, has over the last three decades increased to 4 F. per century. [Ross Glebspan] The UN intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported that man-made greenhouse pollution over the last fifty years is directly… [read more]


Global Warming Carbon Emissions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming-Carbon Emissions

Environmental Science

Global Warming - Carbon Emissions

For over two decades, the scientific community has been sounding the alarm of a man-made, global warming of our Earth's lower troposphere. This warming has been accelerating at an unprecedented rate and its effects have been accumulating at a level that can be seen in the recent weather changes and… [read more]


Temperature in My Hometown Business Research Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Temperature in my Hometown

Business Research Problem

How do unexpected changes in local temperature affect the local economy, such as consumer buying patterns? For example, due to the increased costs of electricity in the summer because of the greater need for air conditioning in consumer's homes, as well as retail establishments, and the cost of heating homes and businesses during the winter, consumers will have less disposable income to spend on other goods and services and thus may spend less. Businesses will have more expenses, namely to keep their retail spaces hot or cool and thus may be hard hit economically by temperature fluctuations. Other businesses, such as air conditioning or heating services, may benefit from extreme conditions. Stores such as Home Depot or stores that sell cool or warm weather clothing and gear may see an upturn in trade, depending on the temperature. This seems obvious, unless a hot spell or a cold spell hits during an inconvenient time, such as warm weather striking when skiing stores are trying to the newest gear for he upcoming season in December.

Using the data from Clifton Heights, PA, regarding the temperatures of August 2005, one can explore the specific business research question if the weather patterns over the month were overall salutary or harmful to businesses, and specifically to what businesses were the temperatures more or less harmful, or even helpful, during the month.

Overview of Issue

Increasingly, the problem of extreme weather conditions has gotten more and more national press over the past years. This has been particularly true of the past several weeks, given the real and threatened prospects of the damage done by national phenomenon such as hurricanes. Is this apparently greater prevalence of extreme hot and cold temperatures, and the greater instability of the atmosphere due to the influences of global warming, and will it continue? How do fluctuations in the weather affect the economy? All of these pressing questions, so vital to daily life and the economy's future, make the monitoring of one's local temperature and climate conditions a vital issue for local businesses. Local businesses also, by relying upon past and future weather forecasts, wish to know how to budget their in-store cooling and heating budgets, and to market their seasonal products, depending on the likely local weather. Consumers wish to know if they will have enough disposable income to travel during August, to heat their homes and buy Christmas goods during December, so one's likely retail base will also be monitoring the weather reports. Understanding the issue of how temperature affects the buying patterns of consumers is vital.

Just recently, the Associated Press wire reported that this winter's heating costs might increase as much as twenty percent because of the damage done by Hurricane Katrina to the Gulf Coast refineries in the South, and the corresponding increases in the price of oil and gasoline. This event shows how changes in the weather can suddenly give consumers less money to spend on other… [read more]


Fate of the Earth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Moreover, the wildfires that hit Europe, Canada, California and Australia in 2003 were the result of many factors, such as land management, ignition sources and extreme local weather (Wallstrom pp). However, prevailing warm and dry conditions, most likely linked to climate change, amplified fire intensity and extent (Wallstrom pp).

Due to poor access to fresh water, more than two billion… [read more]


Atmospheric Phenomenon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … tornadoes, including the basic background associated with tornadoes, and the specific example of the May 30, 1998 tornado that hit the tiny town of Spencer, North Dakota. Tornadoes differ from hurricanes because tornadoes form over land, while hurricanes form over water. Tornadoes differ from cyclones because they travel over a much smaller area than a cyclone. While tornadoes… [read more]


Global Warming Many Environmental Experts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Global Warming

Many environmental experts as well as scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned about the effects of global warming over the past few decades. This sense of alarm is fueled by the fact that many hypothetical theories and predictions previously made about the probable effects of extreme weather and climatic changes and believed to be an indication… [read more]


Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The losses that the U.S. get from these are mainly found to have derived from peoples' unproductivity due to health and environment problems caused by global warming. Such affects the continuous movement of business and industries that are the major sources of one nation's economy.

Taxes in the U.S. states are also affected by global warming. When prices of gasoline and energy resources surges, the same goes for other commodities from which the U.S. nation derives its supplies to serve its people. Thus, to be able to do its services, the U.S. government would need enough monetary resources that in the last end are taken from its peoples' taxes. And, when the taxes increase, another domino effect occurs such as another increase in the prices of consumer goods. This continuous increase of prices in the different activities that are essential to living causes the U.S. economy to become vulnerable and uncompetitive, particularly the value of the U.S. dollar in the international market.

In conclusion, the U.S. economy is affected by global warming in many ways. The different negative effects of such occurrence in our atmosphere similarly cause a continuous negative effect in the economic activities of people. The thing to remember is that we must take good care of our environment. This is a message not only to the people of U.S. But to everyone all over the world.

Bibliography

Geller, H. 2004. A Solution to Global Warming.

Retrieved from The Denver Post, on April 17, 2005.

Web site: http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/printer_082404G.shtml

Warming Trends.

Wisconsin Natural Resources.

http://www.wnrmag.com/supps/2000/apr00/global.htm

Whipple, D. 2004. Global Warming's Dollar Effects.

Retrieved from Boulder (UPI), on April 17, 2005.

Web site: http://www.spacedaily.com/news/climate-04x.html… [read more]


Heat Stroke Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (331 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … heat stroke.

There is one reference used for this paper.

The weather plays an important role in cases of heat stroke experienced by living creatures. Korey Stringer, an offensive lineman for the Minnesota Vikings, succumbed to the hot temperatures which had plagued the central areas of the United States, and died of heat stroke. It is important to look at what the American Red Cross recommends doing for heat stroke victims, compared to what was actually done for Mr. Stringer.

Treating Heat Stroke

Due to the dangers associated with heat stroke, the American Red Cross recommends getting help as quickly as possible by calling 9-1-1. After help has been summoned, the patient should be "moved to a cooler place, and the body quickly cooled by immersing the victim in a cool bath, or by wrapping wet sheets around the body and fanning it (http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat)." The person should be observed for any signs of difficult breathing, and the victim must be encouraged to continue…… [read more]


Heinrich Events Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This release can be caused from melting, water pressure within the jokulhlaup, or in some cases, simple floodwaters (Sturm and Benson, 1985).

Still another theory, postulated by some of the members of MacAyeal's original team, alters the binge-purge model to include not ice sheets, but ice shelf collapses. According to Hulbe (et al., 2004), the original binge-purge model would not… [read more]


Temperature and Answer Questions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The other is surface properties-surfaces with high albedo absorb less incident radiation, meaning land absorbs less insulation than water because of its lighter color (www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/7m.html)."

Isotherms are "lines drawn on a map of a particular region of the earth's surface connecting points of equal temperature; each point reflects one temperature reading or an average of several readings over a period of time. The relative spacing of the isothermal lines indicates a temperature gradient, i.e., the amount of temperature change over a given distance (unknown)."

Conclusion

Temperature has a major effect on the earth and its inhabitants. By answering questions concerning this factor, one can gain a better understanding of its effects.

Works Cited

(Average Weather Conditions for New York City. (accessed 15 February 2005).

).

(Climate in Los Angeles. (accessed 15 February 2005).


(Global Surface Temperature Distribution. (accessed 15 February 2005).


(The Math Forum. (accessed 15 February 2005).

).

Unknown. Isotherm. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.… [read more]


Alberta Province of Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

There are already high-efficiency automobiles, which only require incentives for manufacturers. There are is a vast area of 100 by 100 miles in New Mexico, covered with solar panels, for all the energy needs of the U.S.A. Only a very few new and clean energy plants should be built to meet the 6% Kyoto target.

Among the countries that have… [read more]


Cold Autumn Tuesday Night Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

He slowly took off his comforter, which was kindly putting him to sleep before the noise came out. Silently, he stepped his left foot on the floor, then, was quietly followed by his right foot. The noise still echoes in the living room.

How safe it would be to have his father around. This was one of the many thoughts the boy had while he and his mother were trying to find ways on how to deal with the danger they were facing. The boy's father, a navy, had a mission and was assigned in a Middle East country. Trying to think quickly and looking at his young son how frightened he is, the boy's mother remembered his husband's gift to their son one day when he came back from an offshore mission. It was a long brown toy gun that looks very much like a real one. The only difference, perhaps, was that it was a toy, not capable of firing a shot.

The noise hasn't stopped yet. The squeaking continues and the boy's mother knew that the sound was coming from their living room's door. She knew that someone is trying to get in. Silently, the boy's mother took the toy gun from an old antique cabinet, perfectly matching the wall's varnish. While holding the gun, she intentionally made a noise to make the persons outside realize that someone inside the house is awake. Then, she strongly triggered the toy gun. The sound was loud and perfect, sounds like the trigger of a real one. It was not long after when she and her son heard several footsteps running, away from where they sounded at first.

The squeaking noise was already gone. The boy and his mother stayed in the room for a few minutes before they decided to go out and check the living room. Terrified, they found out that their door was already unlocked and destroyed. Someone was really trying to get in. If it had been later that they made a move, the burglars might have been successful with whatever…… [read more]


Tornadoes What Causes a Tornado? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,242 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

NWS tells people to watch the sky for color changes after a warning is issued. If they feel that it's getting dark (or greenish), this indicates that tornado is about to hit the area. People are advised to go to basements, lowest possible floors, near hallways and far from things that can fly off due to strong winds. Other warnings… [read more]


1900 Storm of Galveston Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

However with the publication of Erik Lawson's book "Isaac's Storm: A Man, A time, and the deadliest Hurricane in History" new light has been shed on the events surrounding that day. Isaac failed to notify the people of his city about the storm. He lost his pregnant wife due to the storm and was estranged with his brother because of… [read more]


Global Warming: Is it Really Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This argument contends that the temperature is not really rising, only the surface temperature. This argument is enhanced by the fact that satellite temperature readings do not show the same temperature increase trends as ground measurements. It is argued that, "The disparity between surface and upper air trends in no way invalidates the conclusion that surface temperature has been rising" (CGER 2000, p. 2). This statement is true since surface temperature has been rising. The problem is that this still does not indicate the cause of this surface rise.

The final consideration is the period of time climatic change relates to. The data available on global warming amounts to around a century of data. In addition to this, the actual warming is seen over a period of twenty years. Magnuson's study on rivers and lakes extends this to 150 years. However, on the scale of environmental change, these time frames are minor. The question is whether this 20-year increase in temperature represents a significant one caused by man or whether it is a minor trend in a much larger scale and one caused by other external events.

Combining both sides of the argument, it is difficult to determine whether or not global warming is real. The main problem relates to the time-frame. It is only possible to base decisions on what data is available. At the same time, man has only been impacting the environment for a short time. Overall though, the extent of the changes in the last twenty years suggests that global warning may be a real issue caused by the impact of man on the environment. Looking at the earth from the long-term view, the amount of change in a small space of time suggests that something must be responsible for this change. While it is possible that the rise in temperature is a product of a natural process, it seems likely that the impact of man on the environment has enhanced that process. Milankovitch may be right about the cycles based on the solar output of the sun and these may be part of the reason for the rise in temperature. However, in addition this, the impact of man may be increasing the rise in temperature from a gradual rise to a more rapid rise. In short, the evidence does suggest that global warming really is a threat.

Bibliography

CGER: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. National Academy Press: Washington DC.

Justus, J.R., & Fletcher, S.R. 2002. IB89005: Global Climate Change. Congressional Research Service: Washington DC.

Kaufman, Y. 2002. On The Shoulders of Giants: Milutin Malinkovitch (1879-1958). NASA. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov:81/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/index.html

Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G, Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M., & Vuglinski, V.S. 2000. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289: 1743-1746.

Manahan, S.E. 1994. Environmental Chemistry. Lewis: Boca Raton, FL.

Naish, T.R., Woolfe, K.J., Barrett, P.J.,… [read more]


First Peoples of the Americas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, there is one important piece of evidence that have been found in numerous parts of America that supports the theory that PaleoIndians had inhabited America during the Ice Age.

The Clovis point is the most important piece of tool that was first found in Siberia, and several pieces of the same kind of tool was found in U.S. states such as New Mexico, Montana, and Colorado (Rose 1997). The tool was discovered after geologists had studied the layering of soil, a part of a study that might help lead to the discovery of an important artifact or preserved fossil resulting to evidence about the first inhabitants of America. The Clovis point was a crudely shaped hunting tool made of stone, and I often referred to as a 'spearpoint.' This tool became the key to the discovery of various information about the culture of the PaleoIndians. One of the conclusions reached upon by the scholars is that the PaleoIndians depended greatly on hunting as their primary source of food and clothing. During this time, it was said that the now extinct wooly mammoth existed during the PaleoIndian Era (under the Ice Age), and constant hunting of the inhabitants to these mammoths for food resulted to its extinction. PaleoIndians did not only use these mammoths for food (which can give them a "rich supply of protein and fat" needed during that time period because of the cold weather of Ice Age) and as a source of clothing (the wooly mammoth's skin can be good protectors against the cold climate). Aside from wooly mammoths, they also thrived on various wild animals that are existent during that time period. The physical traits of the PaleoIndians closely resembles those of the Asians, and this is evidenced through a fossil found that helped determine from where and what time period they came from (determined through the development o the human being's bone structure) and with the help of radiocarbon dating (Microsoft Encarta 2002).

In conclusion, this paper had proven through various evidence (from secondary sources) that the PaleoIndians had inhabited the Americas during the near end of Ice Age, and that the Bering land bridge made it possible for thee inhabitants to be transported from Asia to the North American continent. Further, the discovery of fossils and artifacts dating to the time periods supporting the existence of PaleoIndians proved that they existed and lived in the Americas as hunters and nomads (due to the changing weather and climate as a result of the nearing end of Ice Age). Thus, through a study of the geological and meteorological evidence, this paper was able to support the stance that the PaleoIndians are the first known inhabitants of the Americas, now known as the United States of America.

Bibliography

Kane, Sharyn and Richard Keeton. "Beneath this Waters: Archaeological and Historical Studies of 11,500 years Along the Savannah River." Southeast Archaeological Center. 1995. 4 October 2002. http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/beneathweb/ch2.htm.

Native Americans." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Corporation. 1993.

Nemecek, Sasha.… [read more]


Causes for Failed Implementation of the Emergency Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … causes for failed implementation of the emergency response plan for Hurricane Katrina

The DHS, Department of Homeland Security, was entrusted with the responsibility of dealing with calamities- natural as well as man-made (like terrorist activities). It had a dedicated arm, the FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) under its wings to specifically provide rescue and preventative acts during nature… [read more]


Tornadoes in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The F-Scale begins with F0 for the weakest tornadoes that are capable of breaking tree branches and felling trees that have shallow roots with 40- to 72-mph. winds (Rosenfeld, 1999). By contrast, an Fl tornado has 73- to 112-m.p.h. winds and is capable of blowing an automobile off the road or mobile homes off their foundations (Rosenfeld, 1999). An F2 tornado has 113- to 157-mph winds and is capable of uprooting large trees or tearing the roofs off wood-frame houses (Rosenfeld, 1999). In February 2007, the NWS implemented the Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF Scale) as the official tornado-intensity classification used in the United States (Moore & Dixon, 2011).

There has been some controversy concerning the data about tornadoes, though, involving potential biases and limitations regarding the documentation and reporting of relevant spatial and temporal information as well as the F-Scale ratings that have been assigned (Moore & Dixon, 2011). In this regard, Moore and Dixon advise that, "Tornado data provided by untrained witnesses and the dependency of assigned F. Scale ratings on the qualifications of the person reporting the damage are possible sources of much of the reporting errors" (2011, p. 372). In addition, the increase in reported tornadoes since the 1950s has been a source of controversy (Moore & Dixon, 2011). According to Moore and Dixon, "This increase can be partially attributed to population growth and sprawl, which increases reporting and documentation, to increased public awareness, and to advances in detection technology" (2011, p. 372).

Scientists categorize two different types of tornadoes, ordinary and supercell (Cavendish, 2005). Ordinary tornadoes are relatively brief in duration (typically around 5 minutes), move at grounds speeds lower than 30 miles per hour and leave a damage field of around 150 feet across (Cavendish, 2005). The winds from ordinary tornadoes rarely cause more damage than an F-2 on the Fujita-Pearson wind damage scale (Cavendish, 2005). By contrast, supercell storm tornadoes can persist for several hours, travel at grounds speeds in excess of 60 miles per hours and leave a damage field more than a mile across (Cavendish, 2005).

Conclusion

The research showed that tornadoes are violently rotating columns of air that extend from a cloud to the earth's surface. Although they can occur anywhere, tornadoes generally form in the so-called "Tornado Alley" of the United States as well as the southern Atlantic states and the southern plains. The destruction caused by tornadoes can be severe, but supercell tornadoes were shown to be much more destructive than ordinary tornadoes. Finally, the United States will experience between 850 and 1,000 tornadoes each year, making them an ongoing threat to Amreicans.

References

Cavendish, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of earth and physical sciences. New York: Marshall

Cavendish.

Moore, T.W. & Dixon, R.W. (2011, July). Climatology of tornadoes associated with Gulf

Coast-landfalling hurricanes.…… [read more]


Growth Without Jobs/ the Security Risks of Global Warming Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  7 pages (2,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Many others are 'under-employed' -- working several part-time jobs that do not pay benefits, for example. Furthermore, there has been a tremendous spike in unemployment amongst young people with college degrees. There is such a glut of job-seekers, people without years of experience are being overlooked, even for positions like unpaid, resume-building internships.

It is true that some industries are actively looking for employees but that raises another area of concern -- there may be a mismatch of skills and available positions. The types of degrees which people are getting may not be a good fit for the high-tech jobs of tomorrow.

MICHAEL RINELLA Instructor Manager

That is possible but that would still not solve the larger problem of global warming's effects upon world security. Unfortunately, the U.S. has always taken a Band-Aid approach to dealing with security issues in general -- I am sure the U.S. will make efforts to protect coastal areas and naval bases but the question arises about whether it will be genuinely willing to cooperate with other nations to make meaningful strides in curtailing global warming.

JOSHUA SAVOIE Module 4 Discussion 2

The new global economy has certainly made us more vulnerable to transnational crime. Just as it has facilitated the transport of legal goods and persons across borders, it has also done so with illegal goods and criminal activities. Likewise, twenty years ago, the idea of a cybercrime would not have existed. The Internet has enabled us to have many modern conveniences but it has also made us more vulnerable because so much of our data is easily accessible online.

WILLIAM BARRETT Module 4 Discussion 2

The challenge of dealing with lone wolf terrorists is that their actions can be so difficult to predict. Often these rogue agents perpetuate their actions without any outside signals about their intentions, unlike the membership of Al-Qaida, for example, who has been tracked online, in terms of their funding and training, and other aspects of this major organization. Of course, lone wolf terrorists generally perpetuate smaller-scale actions but to the persons who are harmed by their actions they still do enough damage to change victims' lives irrevocably -- or to end those lives. While the Internet has been a place open to tremendous entrepreneurship it has also become a venue which fosters crime.

JOSHUA SAVOIE Module 4 Discussion 1 reply to original posting

It's certainly true that wealth is a great asset in running for office in America today. There is a reason that so many recent candidates such as Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Governor Mitt Romney have vast personal fortunes -- it makes running for office much easier. Those without personal wealth must be dependent upon contributions from wealthy donors, so having poorer people run is not necessarily a solution. Changing the structure of campaign funding along the European model -- with more public funding and shorter elections -- might be one way to address the problem of disproportionate influence of the wealthy in politics but it… [read more]


Global Warming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,120 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

There have been many predictions made based on a range of consultations and interviews with experts were analyzed in order to determine security threats in the region over the next 40 years (Brown & Crawford, 2009). The study concluded that the legacy of conflict that is already present in the region will hamper its ability to adapt to climate change.

The direct and material aspects of livelihood security include access to food, housing, clean water employment and the avoidance of direct risks to health (IPCC WGII, 2014) Climate change is likely to increase competition for water resources, intensify food shortages, and hinder economic growth. This will also cause many populations to have to migrate in order to seek the necessities of live which will result in large refugee populations in the Middle East. Strategies to pursue sustainable development in the Levant region included fostering a culture of conservation; addressing core tensions related to agriculture and water development, and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Regional cooperation is needed to develop effective approaches for GHG emissions reduction plans (Brown & Crawford, 2009).

There are many proactive strategies that can be employed now to help lessen the effects of the future conflicts that could easily arise. Adaptive governance strategies, however, remain a low priority for political leaderships in the MENA region and to date, most MENA governments have concentrated the bulk of their resources on large-scale supply side projects such as desalination, dam construction, inter-basin water transfers, tapping fossil groundwater aquifers, and importing virtual water (Sowers, Vengosh, & Weinthal, 2011). One of the biggest challenges will be managing the water supply and water demand, which will include making better use of water for agricultural purposes; especially when water is being used from a non-renewable aquifer. Furthermore, mitigation strategies can also include providing efficient resource usage technologies to indigenous populations so that they can make better use of the resources that are available.

Works Cited

Britanica. (N.d.). Greenhouse Effect. Retrieved from Answers: http://www.answers.com/topic/greenhouse-effect

Brown, O., & Crawford, A. (2009). Rising temperatures, rising tensions: climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East. Retrieved from IISD: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/rising_temps_middle_east.pdf

Clayton, M. (2007, March 22). Global boom in coal power - and emissions. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0322/p01s04-wogi.html

CO2 Now. (2011, November 16). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from CO2 Now.

CO2 Now. (2011, November 16). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from CO2 Now.

CO2 Now. (2014, May 28). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved April 4, 2012, from CO2 Now: http://co2now.org/

Energy Information Administration. (N.d.). What Are Greenhouse Gases? Retrieved from EIA: http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html

Hensen, J., Sato, M., Kharecha, P., Beerling, D., & Masson-Delmotte, V. (2008). Target Atmoshperic CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? NASA Goddard Intitute for Space Studies, 1-18.

IPCC. (2000). IPCC Emissions Scenarios. Retrieved from IPCC: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/spm/sres-en.pdf

IPCC. (2007). Synthesis Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1-53.

IPCC WGII. (2014, March). Chapter 12. Retrieved from IPCC: http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Chap12_FGDall.pdf

Koebler, J. (2012, September 27). Report:… [read more]


Environmental Sciences Obama Turns Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

The article explains three different stages of the overall movement, and how each movement either detracted or contributed to the overall progress of the social movement.

An interesting aspect of the article was the overall longevity of the climate change movement. As indicted by the article the movement originated in 1970 and has gone through server different iterations since. History has proven that overtime many movements abate or diminish entirely. In recent memory, the "Occupy Wall-Street" movement was particularly short lived. To realize how the longevity of this social movement has influenced the masses across the world is particularly interesting. In addition, the contentious nature of climate change has warranted a mass amount of discussion. Particularly the neo-conservative movement contributed heavily to the overall disagreements regarding the merit of global warming. Finally, I thought it was interesting to see how many of the more precise social movements of today were a direct result of broader societal concerns (Jamison, 1990). In particular, as the article states, many social movements began prominent in the 1960's. This period was marked will massive student revolts. Civil rights, women's liberation, and anti-imperialism were just a few of the results that started in the 1960's (Mansfield, 2007).

Overall the article was very informative and interesting to read. I would have like to see a discussion on the economic implications of this social movement represented in dollar figures. America and Europe, where the movement is the strongest, function on a market economy. I would have liked to see a more detailed discussion on how feasible is was throughout history to actually implement this social change. I believe, particularly in 1960, the concept of global warming was prevalent, but society did not have the infrastructure or the will to actually implement changes.

Climate, Carbon, and Territory: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Seattle, Washington

This article focuses primarily on the methods used in Seattle, Washington to help mitigate green house gas emissions. The article discusses how government involvement in global issues, can actually benefit society if done correctly. Through territorialization, of carbon, Seattle is better able to mitigate the damage caused by greenhouse gas emissions.

The concept of territorialization is very unique relative to other concepts and methods to reduce GHG emissions. (This concept is so new; Microsoft word 2013 doesn't even recognize it!). By creating local jurisdictional capacities, Seattle is better able to monitor and regulate policies on climate change. This is particularly interesting as society tends to favor private sector solutions to environmental problems within society. Many individuals contend that first, government should not be meddling in environmental climate affairs when more pressing issues take priority, and second, that government will be unable to do the job correctly. However, as the article illustrates, Seattle have been able to mitigate carbon emissions better than most of its counterparts (Lutsey, 2008). This has been done due to Seattle breaking down jurisdiction on a granular level. By related emissions to local communities, Seattle is better able to abate the impacts of… [read more]


Natural Hazard: Flooding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Flooding is easily one of the most costly natural disasters mankind has ever known. Hurricane Katrina, in the words of Frank (2012), "brought with it flood waters, the loss of power, little living space left, and a breeding ground for mosquitoes." In addition to affecting the economy negatively, flooding could also have devastating consequences for people and the environment. To begin with, with regard to their effects on people, floods have been known to leave death and destruction in their wake. In addition to disrupting the normal schedules of those affected, floods also leave scores of families homeless and diseased with a wide range of waterborne (and other) diseases and infections. On the environmental front, flooding could in addition to causing the death of plants and other living organisms, also lead to the contamination of entire areas and water bodies. This is particularly the case when chemicals and other materials from a variety of sources, such as hospitals and nuclear plants, are swept away by raging floods and deposited elsewhere.

The consequences of flooding also extend to the economy. It is not unusual for floods (particularly flash floods) to wash away bridges and render roads inaccessible. In addition to being rendered homeless, most of those affected by floods cannot access their places of work. In most cases, the government of the day has to mobilize and deploy personnel (such as firemen and police officers) to help in the restoration of normalcy. All these come at a huge cost to the economy.

References

Frank, B. (2012). The Health Effects of Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/health/case_studies/hurricane_Katrina.html

Natural Disasters Association. (2014). Natural Hazards: Flooding. Retrieved from http://www.n-d-a.org/flooding.php

Ready. (2014). Floods. Retrieved from www.ready.gov/floods

Sene, K. (2008). Flood Warning, Forecasting and Emergency Response. New York, NY: Springer.… [read more]


Inconvenient Truth Greenhouse Gases Thicken Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Finally, the bulk of the documentary is presenting the logos aspect of his argument. He has a clear claim that humans and high levels of CO2 are causing catastrophic climate change and something needs to be done. He presents evidence that the science community does not deny climate change; climate change has political consequences such as the Darfur conflict, drought and heat waves are affecting millions of people, and he uses graphs and data points to back up his claims.

The film is a documentary because it is a nonfictional motion picture that captures a reality for the purpose of instructing the general public. While he does use his Power Point slide as the foundation of his film, it is not the only component. Gore uses clips of his campaign, journey to China, and his moments alone, signifying his tireless advocacy for climate change reform.

Gore did an effective job articulating his argument. He appealed to all sides of his audience, the emotional, the logical, and the ethical. A rational person will agree that dramatic changes to the climate are bad for humanity. Such disasters are happening with more frequency. For example, the drought in California, the consistent debilitating snowfalls affecting the rest of the United States, as well as, Hurricane Sandy are all proof to Gore's claims. Hurricane Sandy actually did submerge lower Manhattan as he depicted in the slides, and destroyed part of New Jersey.

I believe I will make the changes that I can. Starting small by purchasing energy efficient light bulbs and when I buy my own house, purchase energy efficient appliances, properly insulating the house, and owning a fuel efficient car. Other things I can do now is turn off the lights if I'm not in a room, things that can be easily applied to my daily routine.

Reference:

Gore, A., Guggenheim, D., David, L., Bender, L., Burns, S.Z., Skoll, J., Chilcott, L., ... Paramount Pictures Corporation. (2006). An inconvenient truth.…… [read more]


Environmental Challenges Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

"Multiple lines of evidence" shows that "the climate is changing across our planet, largely as a result of human activities" (IPCC, 2013).

The most "compelling evidence of climate change," the IPCC explains, is that the scientific observations offer "unequivocal" evidence derived from the atmosphere, land, oceans and cryosphere" (IPCC, 2013). Sea levels are rising and global temperature records show increases in atmospheric temperatures.

In 1992, there were 170 nations that agreed to limit fossil fuel emissions at the Framework Convention on Climate Change, but according to an article in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS One, the "…stark reality is that global emissions have accelerated," and what makes that more frightening is that efforts are underway to continue to "massively expand fossil fuel extraction" (Hansen, et al., 2013). The fact that burning fossil fuel is known to be a big contributor to climate change appears to be lost on the energy industry, as there currently are projects nationwide to squeeze oil from tar sands and tar shale, "hydro=-fracking to expand extraction of natural gas," along with mining coal by scraping off the tops of mountains in Kentucky and West Virginia (Hansen, 1).

In fact the growth rate of fossil fuel emissions has increased from 1.5% per year (in the years 1980 -- 2000) to 3% per year in the years 2000 to 2012 (Hansen, 1). Because the earth is "substantially out of energy balance," Hansen continues, "…long-term warming will continue" (2). As of now, the Arctic sea ice levels have "plummeted by more than a third in the past few decades," and mountain glaciers are "receding rapidly all around the world" (Hansen, 4). When glaciers melt away, it reduces freshwater that is seasonably available for major rivers in the world; droughts and wildfires have also resulted from the overheated planet, Hansen continues.

As for wildlife, "…more than half of all wild species have shown significant changes in where they live and in the timing of major life events," Hansen asserts (4). What does this condition portent for the future? Sea level rises of "many meters will occur" which will result in the loss of "hundreds of historical coastal cities worldwide with incalculable economic consequences" (Hansen, 5). Options? In the future, unless the greenhouse gas emissions are greatly curtailed, there will be "food shortages, polluted air, contaminated or scarce supplies of water…infectious diseases," Hansen explains (8). Because they are exposed to media children cannot "escape hearing that their future and that of other species is at stake"; and moreover, the window of opportunity to avoid dramatic climate impacts "…is closing" (Hansen, 8).

What are companies doing to be responsible vis-a-vis minimizing harm to the environment? General Motors reuses and recycles "…more waste" from their manufacturing cycle "than any other automaker," GM claims. Ninety percent of their worldwide manufacturing waste is either recycled or reused; 2.6 million tons of waste was recycled by GM in 2012; and the cardboard shipping materials from GM plants are recycled into "superior sound-dampening material into 25% of the… [read more]


Globe Is Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (597 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

According to participants who also happen to be distinguished climate change experts with years of experience in the field, global temperatures are likely to decrease even further in the coming two or so decades (Ferrara, 2012). If this is indeed the case, claims of a warming globe could be somewhat inaccurate.

It should also be noted that changes in global temperatures is nothing new. Indeed, as Oxlade (2002) points out, since its formation approximately four billion years ago, planet earth has experienced numerous cooling and warming cycles. For instance, in the author's own words, "100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period, the average global temperature was about 18° F (8° C) higher than it is today" (Oxlade, 2002, p. 16). This is one of the clearest indicators yet that even if actual changes in the average global temperatures have actually been observed recently; there should be no reason for panic as similar trends have been observed in the past.

The failure by climate change experts to come up with a common stand on global warming is in itself worrying. While there are experts who are convinced that global temperatures are actually on the increase, there are those who are of the opinion that the planet is actually cooling. Historical data indicates that even if the globe was indeed heating up, it would not be the first time it has done so.

References

BBC (n.d.). Climate Change: The Evidence. BBC. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/457000/457037/html/

Casper, J.K. (2009). Global Warming: Climate Systems - Interactive Forces of Global Warming. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.

Ferrara, P. (2012, May 31). Sorry Global Warming Alarmists, The Earth is Cooling. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterferrara/2012/05/31/sorry-global-warming-alarmists-the-earth-is-cooling/

Oxlade, C. (2002). Global Warming: Our Planet in Peril. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.… [read more]


Environmental Ethics Evaluation of Effort of Policy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Environmental Ethics

Evaluation of effort of Policy Makers in Promoting Environmental Ethics

Moore and Nelson discuss in their book the moral affirmation concerning the ethical issues, and call the people to honor their moral responsibility concerning the environmental ethics. In the contemporary environment, people need to demonstrate their moral and intellectual responsibilities concerning the global ethical consensus. Essentially, global crisis is real and there is a global scientific consensus regarding the dangerous aspect of the climate change, which is generally harmful to people.

The focus of this paper is to explore the environmental ethics. The environmental ethics is a global phenomenon that needs to be implemented to address the problem of climate change and carbon emission.

Environmental Ethics

Scientists globally continue to reveal the evidence of environmental degradation that consequently lead to global climate change, which are dangerous to human health. Despite the dangerous aspect of climate change, policy makers are still unable to create an effective policy that will avert the dangerous aspect of climate change. However, an affirmation strategy to avert the climate change is to enhance moral responsibility. While the western societies have facts, which include prediction, the scientific reports and ecological systems, however, moral discussion is still sparse within the western society.

Moore and Nelson attempts to inculcate moral and value aspirations that could shape value of people in order to live a decent life. The first step in enhancing moral value is to invite people in joining ethical discussion from people of different ages, profession and worldviews. The author point out that "almost all of these extraordinary, generous people agreed to write, setting aside their own projects, diverting energy from their political campaigns or their own climate actions or their fight against illness." (Moore and Nelson xviii).The point-of-view of all the writers reveals that humans are part of ecological system and human need to delicately enhance the balance of the earth system to enhance the…… [read more]


Diamond Catalyst Shows Promise in Breaching Age-Old Assessment

Assessment  |  6 pages (1,908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Diamond Catalyst Shows Promise in Breaching Age-Old Barrier

Not all elements and minerals are desirable, especially in an era where global warming has become such an issue. Modern science has tried to work with combinations of chemical reactions to change these more unfavorable components into more useful elements. The article "Diamond Catalyst Shows Promise in Breaching Age-Old Barrier"… [read more]


Probability to Make a Decision Under Uncertainty Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,121 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Probability to Make a Decision Under Uncertainty

Businesses are often faced with the need to make decisions under conditions of uncertainty. There are different approaches which the decision makers may use. In some cases there may be the use of intuition, but even where it is believed that the decision is based on intuition of a 'gut' feeling; there will be a potential range of influences, such as previous experience, assumptions and stereotypes (Ames et al., 2012). However, in most cases, especially where a decision will impact on the bottom line, managers will seek to make the decision based on more than simply feelings or potentially subjective assessments. One approach is the utilization of probability; assessing the probability that that a particular outcome will or will not, happen (Anderson et al., 2001). To consider the way probability may be used to assess a decision under uncertainty an example may be used. A farmer (or other trader) has been offered a stall at an annual festival. The trader knows that if the weekend remains sunny the festival will have a high number of attendees and there is the potential for a high profit. However, if there is rain the number of festival attendees will drop and the potential for profits will drop. The trader has also found out that one of their main competitors has been asked to attend, if there is no competition there will be a greater potential level of profit, compared to if competition is present.

This is a scenario where there are different variables, but there are only a fixed number of potential outcomes. This situation is one which is suitable to be assessed with probability. The two variables are independent of each other, in a classic approach to probability a decision tree may be used to assess the different potential outcomes. The decision tree is shown in figure 1, where the different considerations are made one by one.

Figure 1; Decision Tree

The decision tree shows there are four potential outcomes, which may be described as FN, FC, RN and RC. In the classic approach there is a starting point where there is assumption that the different outcomes are all equally likely (Stein and Foster, 2001). This is true for many of the examples used in books, such as coin tossing where heads and tails are known to be equally lily, or the use of a dice which is not loaded. If this is assumption is accurate then there would be a 0.5 chance of the festival being fine and a 0.5 chance of there being rain. In turn there would be the assumption that there would be a 0.5 chance of there being no competition and a 0.5 chance of competition being present. In each case the probability of each outcome will be the probability of each stage of the decision tree multiplied, so it will be 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.25.

However, the business manager is aware that the probability is unlikely… [read more]


Global Warming Subject Environmental Ethics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (898 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

He argues that this process is "a message from the planet and clear evidence that our global economic system is on collision course with Earth's biophysical limits" (Smith, 2009). Not only is the author adamant about inhabitants' perception of this planet as a sacred, glorious wonder created by God, but he proposes three practical directives for counteracting the harm inflicted on it by human beings. These are structured around human dwelling, mobility and eating, which, regulated through a return to creational mindfulness, have the capacity to change all negative impact that human activity has on the environment. In this sense, Northcott advocates a limiting of artificial light and excessive technology as part of living conditions and a general cultural deceleration which would have the potential to better connect us with nature and end ecological suffering (Smith, 2009). Despite its radically religious, anti-technological stance, this approach presents the advantage of daring to reach practical conclusions by means of man's active part in the altering of habitual harmfulness. In my opinion, this is a crucial aspect of how human kind is ethically compelled to regard global warming.

Lastly, it would be interesting to consider the problematic ethics of global warming through an economic correlative approach translated in public policy choices. Leslie Paul Thiele as paraphrased in Ethics & International Affairs points out that "environmentalism is essentially about extending one's moral concern across time, space, and species" (Wapner & Willoughby, 2005), a position which may be seen as clashing with the generally endorsed, unmitigated capitalism. Under these terms, instating public policies to limit society's expansive product proliferation and consumerism might convince humanity to sever the link between noxious material development and social progress, and so by and large increase environment protectionism. What is more, modulating population and consumption patterns, together with limiting global overuse of resources and the hyper-production of anthropogenic waste could be the key factors in dealing with the issue of global warming, and so profess a moral, low-impact lifestyle.

In conclusion, it can be asserted that the past fifteen years have witnessed escalating ethical dilemmas revolving around the accelerating effects of human kind's activities on the planet's climate. Regardless of the distinction between anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric concepts, a convergent trajectory with the ethics of capitalist society as a whole may reveal interesting aspects and be ideal for achieving an ethical consensus in the matter of global warming.

References

Smith, Daniel R. "A Moral Climate: The Ethics of Global Warning" (Fall 2009). Anglican Theological Review, Vol. 91, No. 4

Wapner, Paul; Willoughby, John . "The Irony of Environmentalism: The Ecological Futility but Political Necessity of…… [read more]


Global Warming Is, Like Bacon Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This argument is untenable given clear information revealing the direct, immediate, and rather drastic impact of human industry including the prevalence of automobiles. There are clear causes of climate change that are directly attributable to human industry, which means that humans are contributing to climate change or at the very least could be exacerbating a natural warming cycle. Even if climate change were to happen independently from human industry, would it not be in the best interest of human survival and quality of life to do something about it?

What to do about climate change remains the core part of the controversy that plagues lawmakers and policymakers. The best way to rebrand the phenomena associated with climate change is to create challenges for the business community, which would result in tangible financial reward for interested parties. Thus, the governments of the world could form public-private partnerships that encourage the development of new technologies. These new technologies could be used to (a) reverse the climate change trends that have already begun to occur; (b) replace outmoded, polluting technologies that emit greenhouse gasses; (c) inject new life into a stagnant economy. Global warming, or climate change, can be a boon for business. The fears about climate change somehow being bad for the economy are preposterous, only tenable to those who fail to believe in the resourcefulness and creativity of free enterprise. As Strickland & Grabianowski (n.d.) point out, lawmakers and policymakers are "reluctant to propose and enact changes because they feel the costs may outweigh any risks global warming poses." In order for action to be taken, there must be enough evidence to "justify immediate and likely expensive government action," (Meyer, 2012). Herein lies the real controversy: not whether global warming exists (because it does) but what to do about it. Taking action presents ample opportunity for business, and trans-national cooperation that could be beneficial for the planet.

Climate change exists in real, measurable, tangible ways. The real question is what to do about it, when, and how. There is some controversy over how resilient the earth and human beings are, with regards to climate change. Even if the earth is resilient, there are important issues to consider such as how to deal with low-lying atolls like Mauritius and Kirbati, which are already considering evacuation of their populace due to rising sea levels. From a political and policy standpoint, there is controversy over what resources should be diverted toward mitigating climate change or reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

References

"The Global Warming Debate," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~aalopez/aos101/wk7.html

Meyer, W. (2012). Understanding the global warming debate. Forbes. Feb 9, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/warrenmeyer/2012/02/09/understanding-the-global-warming-debate/

Philander, S.G. (n.d.). Why global warming is a controversial issue. Retrieved online: http://www.bo.cnr.it/campuscolloquia/philander_abs.htm

Strickland, J. & Grabianowski, E. (n.d.). How global warming works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/global-warming7.htm… [read more]

12345. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.