"Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays

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Global Warming as a Social Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,315 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Global Warming as a Social Problem

The reality of the global warming has been underlined by numerous studies and reports in recent years. However there is a disparity between the way that the reality of global warming is envisioned and socially received and perceived. This is largely due to the interacting forces of the media and the public in the… [read more]

Global Warming the Reality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,977 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Global Warming

The reality of global warming can no longer be denied. Some of the harsh consequences of global warming on water, food production, health, and the environment are already apparent as our earth warms because of greenhouse gases. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to reduce emissions of these… [read more]

Global Warming in Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Global Warming in Canada -- an environmental, economic, and cultural meltdown

Even in Canada, one of the most legendarily frosty countries on the earth, the effects of global warming are manifest. In fact, perhaps because of the large, icy nation's previously typical climate, the rate of global warming is more evident, to layperson's eyes as well as to scientist's documentation. Global warming is changing the face of the Canadian environment, threatening traditional aspects of its economy, and forcibly changing its culture.

One might assume that the increased temperatures provided global warming might have a positive effect upon Canada's wildlife environment. Not so. In the words of Douglas Struck, a Washington Post reporter: "Millions of acres of Canada's lush green forests are turning red in spasms of death. A voracious beetle, whose population has exploded with the warming climate, is killing more trees than wildfires or logging. The mountain pine beetle has infested an area three times the size of Maryland, devastating swaths of lodge pole pines and reshaping the future of the forest and the communities in it"(Struck, 2006). Global warming has disturbed the delicate ecosystem of the forests, and allowed pests to run rampant, far exceeding the expectations or ability of Canada's forestry system to control it. Pests that used to be killed by Canada's legendary early cold snaps which often had periods of 20 degrees below zero can now thrive, and are now causing damage to forests, crops, and even to homes (Struck, 2006). This further depletes the atmosphere of vital oxygen and other gasses necessary for human beings to thrive.

Global warming, spawned by industrialism in the point-of-view of many scientists, could also have a devastating effect upon critical Canada's economy. Canada is famed for the quality of its maple syrup. In 1998, Quebec alone "made 74% of all maple syrup in the world," compared with the U.S. state of Vermont lagging behind with roughly 5.6% of the world's production (Bazilchuk, 2000). Global warming, many believe, has already stolen the maple syrup industry from American New England and sent it to Canada. A "projected rise in temperature of 6 to 10 degrees F. over the next century could heighten drought conditions, air pollution, and pests - stress factors…… [read more]

Ecological Environmental Impact Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,267 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Global Warming and Its Effects on the Ecosystem

Studies have shown that human activities like burning of fossil fuels and deforestation have a great impact on our planet, causing emissions of greenhouse gases and determining changes in the climate system: heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in intensity of many extreme climate events, ice melting at Earth's poles. These phenomenons… [read more]

Global Warming Represents the Single Major Environmental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,261 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Global warming represents the single major environmental problem of the 21st century. The industrial revolution is not without its price. Man's quest for development has contributed to environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources. The natural equilibrium of earth is altered by man-made conditions. Global warming, or the heating up of the earth's surface is the by-product of the industrial revolution. Major attention was drawn to this problem when in 1995 more than 2000 scientists representing different countries submitted their report on the unnatural increase in earth's surface temperature due to the continuous burning of oil, natural gas and coal.[ROSS GELBSPAN] Today, while a strong majority of the people believe that global warming represents a real threat and a serious problem that deserves our immediate attention, there are yet others who continue to attribute it as a natural phenomenon or one without economically viable interventions. Economically viable to control or not, global warming represents a huge problem and control of greenhouse gases is a high priority, if we are to stop the destructive climatic patterns that are already beginning to destroy life. A brief discussion would help highlight the seriousness of the issue.

Global Warming (A real problem)

Global warming is a real phenomenon. Indeed, it may even be a bit of surprise to state that greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon. It is only because of naturally occurring greenhouse effect that our planet's temperature is maintained at a level that can sustain life. The average temperature of earth is 60 F. Or 150 C. Without the natural greenhouse effect phenomenon, earth's average temperature would be 0 F. Or -18o C. [Environmental Defense] After a brief description of what exactly is global warming, we will go on to discuss why there is all this fuss about the subject if it is natural!. Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere and heats up the surface. The Earth in turn radiates heat back into the atmosphere. The naturally occurring greenhouse gases trap some of this heat from leaving the atmosphere and thereby maintain the Earth as a warm place fit for life. This is exactly the process that has been going on for ages and therefore is natural.

What is disturbing, however, is the man induced increase in greenhouse gases, which now trap more heat and thereby increase the temperature of earth more than usual. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased dramatically due to human activities. Scientists have found that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, one of the important greenhouse gases has increased by over 30% in the post industrial revolution period. The burning of fossil fuels has contributed to this huge increase in CO2, Methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases. Environmental scientists state that the average increase of Earth's temperature, which was 1 F. per century, has over the last three decades increased to 4 F. per century. [Ross Glebspan] The UN intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported that man-made greenhouse pollution over the last fifty years is directly… [read more]

Experienced a Series of Extreme Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,122 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


After all, many companies rely on the existence of fossil fuel, from those responsible for mining or drilling for such energy sources to those who refine or convert such sources into petroleum to power vehicles or electricity. Then there are the people who use fossil fuels, which includes just about everyone on this planet. To suggest that using such kinds… [read more]

Origins and Applications of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Gum Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,671 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Origins and applications of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement commonly known as GUM is a document produced by the Joint Commission for the Guides in Meteorology (JCGM). The work demonstrates a standardized manner of recording, for comparison measurement uncertainty, with the initial focus on meteorology… [read more]

Is Global Warming Skepticism Just Smoke and Mirrors? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Global warming has been promoted as one of the most serious potential threats to human civilizations in the near future. On one hand, there is substantial evidence that human activity has contributed greatly to the observed changes in the global climate. On the other hand, it is also apparent that much of the supposed evidence is either unreliable or "cherry picked" to support the position of those with established positions on the issue. Former President Al Gore produced a very popular but controversial movie titled An Inconvenient Truth but much of the substance of that movie has also been criticized as presenting a biased perspective that distorts the issue and promotes an alarmist response.

One of the most dramatic pieces of evidence presented to support the theory of global warming is the measurable and significant erosion of the Arctic (and other) glaciers (Muller, 2008). Televised images of tremendous chunks of ice breaking off the continental shelf and reports of the ice melting at a rate of 36 cubic miles per year are presented to support the conclusion that the global temperature is rising (Muller, 2008). Meanwhile, according to scientists, the fact that glaciers are melting so fast does not support the global warming conclusion; in fact, it directly contradicts it. Specifically, increasing atmospheric temperatures would increase the rate of evaporation of large volumes of water. That evaporation would, in turn, return to earth as precipitation that would increase the size of the glaciers rather than decreasing them (Muller, 2008). Likewise, according to scientists, much of the information presented by Gore's An Inconvenient Truth in connection with unstable weather (such as increasingly common and severe tornados, hurricanes, and flooding) was "cherry picked" in ways that distorted any statistical significance of those phenomena (Muller, 2008).

On the other hand, there is irrefutable evidence that the average atmospheric temperature of the planet is, indeed,…… [read more]

Professional and Polished Garden Design Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Polished Garden

2,000 words approx.

Creating the Professional and Polished Xeriscaped Garden in Claremont

My friend Jay Pocock of Claremont let me take a snapshot of his lawn and talk to him about water usage and xeriscaping. Because of a recent hike in his water bill, Jay was definitely interested in hearing what I had to say about beautifying his… [read more]

National Public Radio, "Scientists Debate Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (547 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is not the responsibility of technology to clean up the flaws in our society.

Furthermore, and more importantly, there are potential issues that are associated with this since it is still in experimental phases. Even if the procedure is perfected in experimental procedures there is absolutely no guarantee that this would successful on a global scale and the risk of it causing drought, famine or the like would be absolutely detrimental.

The "Physical Geography Intro" further highlights the type of conflicts that are present in the National Public Radio article including the conflict over knowledge and facts, self-interest and value. First, the conflict over knowledge and facts is evident in this article since it absolutely not certain how this type of geoengeneeering will end as the results are not certain and it seems highly theoretical phase. Second, this can also be seen as a self-interest conflict in that everyone in the world is acting in their self-interest to skip over doing the hard work of doing their individual part of halting global warming. Finally, this also seems to be a value conflict as there are many differing opinions as to what is important- technology and the ability to halt global warming or the potential complications about this theory actually being executed.

After reviewing this information, it seems that citizens of the globe should a take more active role in halting global warming rather than leaving it…… [read more]

Flooding There Are Many Natural Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Changing rivers and streams causes them to overrun their banks and flood areas near them, and it also harms ecosystems that belong to birds, plants, and animals. These creatures are affected by the flooding just as human beings are, and they are not always able to pack up and move to higher ground in the same way people can. Something… [read more]

Global Warming Daniel Botkin Delivers a Wholly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,174 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Global Warming

Daniel Botkin delivers a wholly ineffective argument in favor of ignoring the impact of global warming, and he uses a number of slick rhetorical devices to distract the reader from the heart of the message. Yet, it is exactly in the heart of that message that we find the compelling reason to set aside short-term self-interest long enough to act in the best interests of the planet. In the grand scheme of things, Botkin is right in that the planet and most life on it will carry on just fine. The problem with climate change is that we -- human beings -- are among the species most at risk from climate change. The best way to frame the argument that we should take action to stem climate change is not the red herring argument that we are pitting our own interests against the planet's. The accurate way of framing this debate is the best one, and the most effective one -- we need to take action to stem climate change because if we do not, we are choosing short-run self-interest over long-run self-interest. In doing so, we are failing to make the rational, survival-based decisions that other species are already making to keep themselves alive.

To make this point, we can begin with one of Botkin's sloppy arguments. He argues that because the Vikings made a warming trend in the middle ages work to their advantage, we do not need to worry much about rising sea levels. This conveniently ignores the fact that we are not Vikings. We do not live in sod houses that can easily be moved to higher ground. We live by the hundreds of millions in cities permanently affixed to the seaside. Flooding of coastal areas is one of the biggest risks we face as the result of climate change. The ten cities most at risk from climate-change related flooding are Mumbai, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Miami, Saigon, Calcutta, New York, Osaka, Alexandria and New Orleans (Vigran, 2008). That is eight of the world's most powerful and vibrant cities, with a combined population in the range of 125 million people. And that is just the ten most at-risk cities. It is ludicrous to equate the relocation of a few hundred Vikings with the relocation of the largest and most powerful cities -- along with billions of their residents.

Botkin notes that mockingbirds came to New York not for better weather, but because one of their food sources had set up shop in New York City. He probably -- if he is serious about his academic bona fides -- should have asked the question of how that plant came to recently settle in New York. Plants, and other creatures that form the lower rungs of the food chain, respond directly to climate stimulus. When one element of the ecosystem changes, all the other elements must change along with it. There may be cases where the realignment goes smoothly, there is also a significant risk that the realignment… [read more]

Temperature and Answer Questions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (444 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The other is surface properties-surfaces with high albedo absorb less incident radiation, meaning land absorbs less insulation than water because of its lighter color (www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/7m.html)."

Isotherms are "lines drawn on a map of a particular region of the earth's surface connecting points of equal temperature; each point reflects one temperature reading or an average of several readings over a period of time. The relative spacing of the isothermal lines indicates a temperature gradient, i.e., the amount of temperature change over a given distance (unknown)."


Temperature has a major effect on the earth and its inhabitants. By answering questions concerning this factor, one can gain a better understanding of its effects.

Works Cited

(Average Weather Conditions for New York City. (accessed 15 February 2005).


(Climate in Los Angeles. (accessed 15 February 2005).

(Global Surface Temperature Distribution. (accessed 15 February 2005).

(The Math Forum. (accessed 15 February 2005).


Unknown. Isotherm. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.… [read more]

Atmospheric Phenomenon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … tornadoes, including the basic background associated with tornadoes, and the specific example of the May 30, 1998 tornado that hit the tiny town of Spencer, North Dakota. Tornadoes differ from hurricanes because tornadoes form over land, while hurricanes form over water. Tornadoes differ from cyclones because they travel over a much smaller area than a cyclone. While tornadoes… [read more]

Heinrich Events Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This release can be caused from melting, water pressure within the jokulhlaup, or in some cases, simple floodwaters (Sturm and Benson, 1985).

Still another theory, postulated by some of the members of MacAyeal's original team, alters the binge-purge model to include not ice sheets, but ice shelf collapses. According to Hulbe (et al., 2004), the original binge-purge model would not… [read more]

Heat Stroke Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (331 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … heat stroke.

There is one reference used for this paper.

The weather plays an important role in cases of heat stroke experienced by living creatures. Korey Stringer, an offensive lineman for the Minnesota Vikings, succumbed to the hot temperatures which had plagued the central areas of the United States, and died of heat stroke. It is important to look at what the American Red Cross recommends doing for heat stroke victims, compared to what was actually done for Mr. Stringer.

Treating Heat Stroke

Due to the dangers associated with heat stroke, the American Red Cross recommends getting help as quickly as possible by calling 9-1-1. After help has been summoned, the patient should be "moved to a cooler place, and the body quickly cooled by immersing the victim in a cool bath, or by wrapping wet sheets around the body and fanning it (http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat)." The person should be observed for any signs of difficult breathing, and the victim must be encouraged to continue…… [read more]

Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The losses that the U.S. get from these are mainly found to have derived from peoples' unproductivity due to health and environment problems caused by global warming. Such affects the continuous movement of business and industries that are the major sources of one nation's economy.

Taxes in the U.S. states are also affected by global warming. When prices of gasoline and energy resources surges, the same goes for other commodities from which the U.S. nation derives its supplies to serve its people. Thus, to be able to do its services, the U.S. government would need enough monetary resources that in the last end are taken from its peoples' taxes. And, when the taxes increase, another domino effect occurs such as another increase in the prices of consumer goods. This continuous increase of prices in the different activities that are essential to living causes the U.S. economy to become vulnerable and uncompetitive, particularly the value of the U.S. dollar in the international market.

In conclusion, the U.S. economy is affected by global warming in many ways. The different negative effects of such occurrence in our atmosphere similarly cause a continuous negative effect in the economic activities of people. The thing to remember is that we must take good care of our environment. This is a message not only to the people of U.S. But to everyone all over the world.


Geller, H. 2004. A Solution to Global Warming.

Retrieved from The Denver Post, on April 17, 2005.

Web site: http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/printer_082404G.shtml

Warming Trends.

Wisconsin Natural Resources.


Whipple, D. 2004. Global Warming's Dollar Effects.

Retrieved from Boulder (UPI), on April 17, 2005.

Web site: http://www.spacedaily.com/news/climate-04x.html… [read more]

Fate of the Earth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Moreover, the wildfires that hit Europe, Canada, California and Australia in 2003 were the result of many factors, such as land management, ignition sources and extreme local weather (Wallstrom pp). However, prevailing warm and dry conditions, most likely linked to climate change, amplified fire intensity and extent (Wallstrom pp).

Due to poor access to fresh water, more than two billion… [read more]

Global Warming Many Environmental Experts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Global Warming

Many environmental experts as well as scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned about the effects of global warming over the past few decades. This sense of alarm is fueled by the fact that many hypothetical theories and predictions previously made about the probable effects of extreme weather and climatic changes and believed to be an indication… [read more]

Temperature in My Hometown Business Research Problem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Temperature in my Hometown

Business Research Problem

How do unexpected changes in local temperature affect the local economy, such as consumer buying patterns? For example, due to the increased costs of electricity in the summer because of the greater need for air conditioning in consumer's homes, as well as retail establishments, and the cost of heating homes and businesses during the winter, consumers will have less disposable income to spend on other goods and services and thus may spend less. Businesses will have more expenses, namely to keep their retail spaces hot or cool and thus may be hard hit economically by temperature fluctuations. Other businesses, such as air conditioning or heating services, may benefit from extreme conditions. Stores such as Home Depot or stores that sell cool or warm weather clothing and gear may see an upturn in trade, depending on the temperature. This seems obvious, unless a hot spell or a cold spell hits during an inconvenient time, such as warm weather striking when skiing stores are trying to the newest gear for he upcoming season in December.

Using the data from Clifton Heights, PA, regarding the temperatures of August 2005, one can explore the specific business research question if the weather patterns over the month were overall salutary or harmful to businesses, and specifically to what businesses were the temperatures more or less harmful, or even helpful, during the month.

Overview of Issue

Increasingly, the problem of extreme weather conditions has gotten more and more national press over the past years. This has been particularly true of the past several weeks, given the real and threatened prospects of the damage done by national phenomenon such as hurricanes. Is this apparently greater prevalence of extreme hot and cold temperatures, and the greater instability of the atmosphere due to the influences of global warming, and will it continue? How do fluctuations in the weather affect the economy? All of these pressing questions, so vital to daily life and the economy's future, make the monitoring of one's local temperature and climate conditions a vital issue for local businesses. Local businesses also, by relying upon past and future weather forecasts, wish to know how to budget their in-store cooling and heating budgets, and to market their seasonal products, depending on the likely local weather. Consumers wish to know if they will have enough disposable income to travel during August, to heat their homes and buy Christmas goods during December, so one's likely retail base will also be monitoring the weather reports. Understanding the issue of how temperature affects the buying patterns of consumers is vital.

Just recently, the Associated Press wire reported that this winter's heating costs might increase as much as twenty percent because of the damage done by Hurricane Katrina to the Gulf Coast refineries in the South, and the corresponding increases in the price of oil and gasoline. This event shows how changes in the weather can suddenly give consumers less money to spend on other… [read more]

Environment From a Christian Perspective Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Laurel Kearns writes in the peer-reviewed Sociology of Religion that it was against the "anti-environmentalism of the Reagan administration" that Christians -- who, ironically were courted by Reagan -- began to become focused on the environment. Kearns asserts that some churches are interested in becoming "creation awareness centers" rather than "barren edifices surrounded by parking lots" (Kearns, 1996, p. 3). The "anti-science bias" that many Christians (in particular evangelicals) have previously embraced (i.e., doubts about evolution and climate change) must be replaced with common sense applications that are based on real science, Kearns explains.


While Kearns' assertions were offered in 1996, ten years later (Goodstein, 2006) an article in The New York Times reports that Christian leaders are getting organized and getting united when it comes to the environment. The Times reported that 86 evangelical Christian leaders "…have decided to back a major initiative to fight global warming" (Goodstein, p. 1). In fact among the 86 leaders were the presidents of 39 evangelical colleges and leaders of other Christian groups including pastors of "mega-churches" like Rick Warren of Saddleback Church. Pastor Duane Litfin, president of Wheaton College in Illinois (an "influential evangelical institution") said that Christians "…have not paid as much attention to climate change as we should, and that's why I'm willing to step up" (Goodstein, pg. 1).

Not all evangelical leaders signed on to the statement that endorses the idea of Christians taking action to mitigate global climate change. Some in fact have tried to "derail" action taken by the 86 evangelical leaders, Goodstein writes. Indeed, an opposition group of evangelical leaders -- called the "Interfaith Stewardship Alliance" -- argued in their petition, "…the science is not settled" on whether global climate change was real and on whether humans were causing it. Still, while so much empirical evidence is available that humans are producing the greenhouse gases that heat up the planet -- and that humans can help reduce those greenhouse gases by using less electricity -- the "Evangelical Climate Initiative" went ahead with their marketing ideas and produced radio and television commercials to advance their beliefs (Goodstein, p. 2).


David Neff writes in Christianity Today that "…Christians have consistently been end-of-the-world people" more interested in the "…second coming of Christ" than in the environment. That said, Neff believes that "…our present environment is God's gift to us" and hence, Christians should respect, cherish, and protect that gift. Christianity has been noted over the millennia for its "unbounded optimism about human resourcefulness," and now is the time for that optimism to transition into environmental action and sustainable practices (Neff, 2008).


Neff recalls that Ronald Reagan's Secretary of the Interior, James Watt, who was an evangelical Christian, famously remarked (in testimony before the U.S. Congress) "…protecting natural resources was unimportant in light of the imminent return of Jesus Christ" (Neff, p. 1). That is of course an absurd position to take, but no more absurd than the bumper sticker seen in Boise Idaho that offered rebuttal… [read more]

Global Warming Carbon Emissions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,003 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Global Warming-Carbon Emissions

Environmental Science

Global Warming - Carbon Emissions

For over two decades, the scientific community has been sounding the alarm of a man-made, global warming of our Earth's lower troposphere. This warming has been accelerating at an unprecedented rate and its effects have been accumulating at a level that can be seen in the recent weather changes and… [read more]

Monsoons by Understanding the Basics Behind Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



By understanding the basics behind monsoon climate and its weather patterns, it is possible to comprehend the global climate pattern of monsoons and its effects (Vernekar, p. 248).

Research, Hypothesis, Objectives

This research will attempt to provide information on the monsoon climate, its causes, the effects on other regional weather patterns, and effects on global production; additionally, the prediction of the variations of the above may assist residents in the monsoon-affected arenas in predicting growth seasons (Waliser, p. 2897). The hypothesis for this research is that it is possible to assess and predict monsoon seasons, in order to assist farmers in crop production (Sulochana, p. 429). The objective is to find sufficient data in order to create a basis and formula that may be used for these predictions (Institute 2007).

Literature Review

The literature review will completed by examining all previous literature available on the subject of monsoon climate, causes, effects on weather and production, as well as any research that may have been done on attempts at recording and predicting monsoons and how to predict monsoon climate and seasons (Sivakurnar, p. 31). The result of the literature review should be a recording of the results of each research and finding out what has and has not been done in this area.

Research Design

Following a thorough literature review, weather patterns will be examined from the last 50 years. From this data a determination will be made as to any yearly pattern that may emerge, or to see if any cyclical patterns are evident, throughout the last 50 years (Rodwell, p. 1385). If it is determined that monsoons are increasing in volume and effect, that will also be determined.


Sampling will be from any sources that have examined…… [read more]

Warning Systems Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (738 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The Flood Alerts Map employs an array of Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS)

The Japanese Earthquake early warning

The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a warning that is issued after detection of an Earthquake in Japan (JMA,2012).These tips are issued by the main issuing authority (Japan Meteorological Agency).The JMA also issues tips as well as information how to react to these warnings (JMA,2007).

The JMA has 2 Earthquake Early Warning schemes. The first one is for use by advanced users while the second one is for the general public. Using the P-Wave that is detected by a total of two or more of the 4,235 seismometers that are installed throughout the country, the authority automatically performs an analysis and a prediction on the possible position of the epicenter and then subsequently warns people through radio and TV. If an earthquake of seismic scale 5- lower or higher expected, then an Earthquake Early Warning (alert) is issued to the Japanese general public.

Example of whether this warning system worked to save both lives and property

The system was very effective in the prediction of the March 2011 earthquake that hit Japan (Nusca,2011).It helped in saving lives and property in major Japanese towns and villages.


Brown, M (2012. Live UK flood warning map uses Environment Agency data).Available online at http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-07/09/flood-map

Cloke HL, Pappenberger F. 2008. Evaluating forecasts for extreme events for hydrological applications: an approach for screening unfamiliar performance measures. Meteorological Applications 15(1): 181 -- 197.

Environment Agency (2012). The flood warning service.Available online at http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/homeandleisure/floods/58417.aspx

Japanese Meteorological Authority (2012). What is an Earthquake Early Warning? (?

(Kinkyu Jishin Sokuho) in Japanese). Available online at http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/Activities/eew1.html

Japanese Meteorological Authority (2007). A New Advance Earthquake Alert.Available online at http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/Activities/EEW_Starting_1_October_2007_Dos_and_Donts.pdf

Nusca, A (2011). How Japan's early warning system detected the earthquake .Available online at http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/smart-takes/how-japans-early-warning-system-detected-the-earthquake/14829

Reynard NS, Prudhomme C, Crooks SM. 2004. The flood characteristics of large UK rivers: potential effects of changing climate and land use. Climatic Change 48(2 -- 3): 343 -- 359.… [read more]

Heat Deaths and Illnesses Post Katrina Reforms Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Heat Deaths and Illnesses/Post-Katrina Reforms

Heat related deaths are completely preventable. All a person needs to avoid dying from the heat is to remain at a temperature where that person can function normally and not be injured by the weather. However, even with that common knowledge there are many people who die every year of the heat (Harmon, 2010). Some of these deaths take place because there are people who do not listen to weather forecasts and take them seriously. They go out in the heat and run or jog or work, and they fail to take proper precautions. Sometimes, heat related deaths occur because people do not have enough money to have air conditioning and fans. They keep their doors and windows closed even when it is incredibly hot because they live in neighborhoods where there is lot of crime. They do not trust or know their neighbors, and they do not feel that leaving their doors and windows open is something that is safe in any way for them. Not everyone who dies from the heat has these kinds of problems, but they are common (Harmon, 2010).

Education is part of what can be done to ensure that people do not die from the heat (Harmon, 2010). When people do not realize the dangers and they do not take proper precautions in the heat (like taking frequent breaks, drinking a lot of water, and getting to a place that is shaded or that has air conditioning), they can get very sick and even die (Harmon, 2010). For people who are housebound, help is needed to get them out and to a cooling station. It is also possible to get air conditioners and fans for these people, so they do not have to leave their homes but can cool down and avoid becoming very sick from the heat. There is no possible way to stop every heat related death, however, because there will always be people who will not worry about the weather report or who will think it will not happen to them. There are also people who are far too proud to ask for help, and they can also end up dying because of the heat.

Hurricane Katrina was a devastating storm that struck New Orleans, Louisiana. New Orleans is a city built below sea level and right on the Gulf of Mexico…… [read more]

Tuscaloosa Alabama Tornado Event in the U.S Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Tuscaloosa Alabama tornado event in the U.S.

Tuscaloosa Alabama tornado event

The Tuscaloosa tornado is one of the biggest tornadoes that have ever hit the Alabama area and caused destruction to the extent it did. The paper looks at the finer details of the destructive nature of the tornado and the response that the rescue and recovery team put forth. There is as well an analysis of the extent of the preparedness of the Alabama people and the local government incase such a thing happens again or even a disaster of a bigger magnitude would occur.

Natural disasters are mostly unforeseen and when they strike the results are fatal accompanied by massive destruction of property and infrastructure. Though there could be warning systems, the populace is rarely adequately prepared for the effects or the magnitude of any natural disaster and this was the case with Alabama when Tornado struck on April 25-28, 2011 bringing massive destruction.

Morbidity and mortality of the Tuscaloosa tornado

The tornado tore through six states destroying property and bringing death in its wake. National Geographic News (2011) indicates that the Tornado was of F5 storm in the Fujita Scale with winds speeds in excess of 260 miles per hour. It is categorized as a queer kind of tornado since it sustained its strength for abnormally long distance, estimated to over 300 miles, which is not normal for tornadoes.

The Tuscaloosa twister swept through six states namely Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Georgia as well as Tennessee killing 338 people as documented by CDC (2012). It was categorized as the third deadliest tornado in the American History, this happening with the advanced warning systems available as well as the advanced tornado detection systems and the wide media coverage. CDC pegs this high toll of deaths to the age of the people who were victims of the tornado which was on average 55 years and that made it difficult for them to move out of the way of the storm in good time. There were also 26.6% of the 338 dead people who were in mobile homes hence giving them little protection. 89.5% of the dead people were reported to be from F4 to F5 tornado during this event, an indication that a majority of the people never stayed off the path of the tornado.

Among all the six states affected by the tornado, it was Alabama that suffered the biggest brunt of the disaster. Vital infrastructure f Tuscaloosa were destroyed, more than 7,000 buildings damaged in Alabama, 10% of the local business in Tuscaloosa were grounded which is around 650 of the 6,200 businesses within the city. These businesses employed 7,200 people within the city and that means an annual payroll of $270 million will not be realized (Larry Copeland, 2011).

Local, State, and Federal Response

The response of the local government, the state agencies and the federal agencies response to the tornado was generally impressive. It noted that the lessons learnt from the Katrina tragedy and the BR… [read more]

Floods Are an Overflow Essay

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gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR8qfhdv0UvHzxKQsI8D1gJ06Ec72uZAtyhZzjc8VhjQb9k80MQ8z2n0mGv and/or http://crooksandliars.com/files/uploads/2008/06/illinois-levees.jpg

Flood Control, Part 3

Different regions have adapted flood control based on their economic wealth, type and frequency of flooding, and the density of population near flood-prone areas.

Americas -- Usually miles of levees, flood gates, and drainage systems

Asia -- Some building of massive dams, but deforestation contributes to more flooding

Europe -- Artificial barriers, dams,… [read more]

Doug Macdougall's Book "Why Geology Matters," Gives Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (714 words)
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Doug MacDougall's book "Why Geology Matters," gives us a clear and succinct treatment and understanding of the way that scientists tried to figure out past climate changes and his book is written in such a way that laymen readers can easily understand and enjoy the subject.

Not everyone can make such a potentially dense and UN interesting subject as interesting as the former professor emeritus of Cripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla can. It takes a special gift to do so, and MacDougall seems to have this gift.

The author concludes that the planet's climate changes all the time, but the changes are so indiscernible and slow that we cannot perceive it. These changes however occur on an accumulative basis. We may very well be contributing to a warmer climate and an eroding of the ozone layer by pumping tens of millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Very soon this will aggregate into one massive climate change and it is our descendants who will experience this rapid change in the atmosphere.

Much of the debate over global warning has become radicalized and ugly, but MacDougall sticks to the facts and is readable for his objectivity. He veers away from name-calling and guilt-casting, is balanced and wins the reader precisely because he sticks to scientific data and shows the reader reasons for his arguments. He also tells the reader precisely what we do and do not know being appealing precisely due to his honesty and lack of partisanship. Skeptics of science can appreciate his lack of moralizing and his honesty on the existent gaps in the science. Only towards the end does MacDougall briefly blimp over the different political issues that have generated them over global warming, but this too he does in a detached an objective manner.

MacDougall persuades by his hefty arsenal of facts that are thoroughly cited and documented in clear fashion: carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and oceans are 30% higher than they were at the start of the Industrial Revolution a century and a half ago. Examples come from evidence that includes ice cores dug from glaciers in…… [read more]

Human and Economic Costs of Flooding Dissertation

Dissertation  |  9 pages (2,396 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … human and economic costs of flooding on cities has been well documented, but the recent floods that hit northeastern England from September 25 to September 28, 2012 were among the worst in decades and in some cases, were unprecedented in the level of flooding that was involved. Hundreds of homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed and transportation… [read more]

Global Warming Effects on the Ecosystem Essay

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¶ … pollution is not a new issue in the natural history of the earth, since the 18th century and the advent of the Industrial Revolution, more and more carbon and toxic properties have been released into Earth's atmosphere. Combining earth's natural geologic functions (volcanos, dust storms, etc.) with the rapid growth of the human population, industry, urban areas and most especially automobiles, many scientists believe there has been a gradual increase in the earth's median temperatures for both the air (climate) and ocean temperature. This is controversial because from a geological scale, 100-200 years of measurement may not be indicative of major changes, but minor fluctuations. Similarly, we have only been measuring temperature in a way that is meaningful for 60-75 years. Still, the data does show that after the 1950s, the combined effects of greenhouse gases from industry and automobiles began to warm the earth, with results ranging from weather anomalies to melting ice caps and climate change in certain parts of the world (Climate Change Science, 2001).

II. Thesis -- While scientifically controversial, the rapid industrialization and modernization of the global community appears to have an effect on the rising median land and sea temperatures on Earth. This has resulted in serious ecological issues in almost every place on the globe and, if not corrected, may change the natural history of our planet.

III. Major Points

A. Natural contaminants have been released into the Earth's atmosphere, water and soil and have had a detrimental effect. Human impact has also been negative, with history showing us that many civilizations decimated their forests, dumped toxic chemicals into the soil or water, and made certain areas uninhabitable or unfit for agriculture (Markham, 1994).

B. Since the Industrial Revolution, though, various problems associated with human excess waste and toxic chemicals have contributed to a phenomenon known as global warming. Because the earth's eco-system is in such balance, effects in one area or region also affect others. Warming oceans, for instance, affect the melting of glacial ice, which in turn has an effect on weather patterns. Similarly, temperature fluctuations on land and sea affect agriculture, what certain species eat, and…… [read more]

Global Warming Fact or Fiction A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  3 pages (944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Global Warming: Fact or Fiction

Developing and industrialized countries have had to contend with crowded landfills, polluted waters, and poor air quality. However, the general increase in temperatures and the accompanying climate change have painted some bleak future for humans and other living creatures on the earth's surface. Scientists are unanimous that the rapid rise in earth's temperature is occasioned by human activity (Painter, 2013). The atmosphere contains gases that trap heat from the sun and prevent the heat from escaping into space. This is known as greenhouse effect and the gases that trap the sun rays are called greenhouse gases. Examples of greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. These gases make the earth's surface warm and life on earth bearable.

The significant rise on earth's temperature is because of the greenhouse gases that trap sun rays on the earth's atmosphere. Natural processes on earth like the decay of plant and animal matter produce carbon dioxide create greenhouse gases (Painter, 2013). The carbon dioxide produced is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis a process that keeps the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere stable. The burning of fossil fuels and deforestation also makes the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to rise significantly because forests that can absorb tons of carbon dioxide are eliminated.

Other than the above mentioned factors, levels of greenhouse gases can also increase as a result of use of certain fertilizers that produce nitrous oxide (Painter, 2013). There are other greenhouse gases that are human creations that have been introduced into the atmosphere. These categories of greenhouse gases are called hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), and sulfur hexafluoride. These categories of gases are released during aluminum production and electrical transmission. Emphasis will be laid on opposing viewpoints on impacts of global warming (Gale Cengage, 2010).

II. Negative effects of global warming

A. Climate patterns

Global warming has devastating effects on livelihoods of plants and animals. Global warming affects climate patterns. Stronger and frequent hurricanes have been due to warmer oceans. Increases in temperatures have resulted into frequent heat waves in different regions of the earth. There have also been devastating droughts and wildfires. These are all attributed to global warming.

B. Rise in sea level

The rise in air and water temperatures makes ice caps and glaciers to melt hence the rise in sea level. There are fears that this will cause some severe flooding in coastal areas all over the world. Areas that are likely to be severely affected are low-lying islands in the Pacific Ocean which will most likely remain inhabitable and the residents declared stateless. In fact, experts estimate that by the year 2100 the seal level will rise by nineteen inches. In June 2011, the Arctic ice cup was the second lowest in the satellite record. This was consistent with the…… [read more]

Personal, Local, or National Issue Application Essay

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The possibilities of states individually can hardly cover the actual needs in terms of financial costs and legal implications that the protection of the Amazonian forests taken as example require. In this sense, the United Nations Environment (UNEP) together with the Global Environment Fund have created the protected areas system that have enabled parts of the forests to be considered restricted from human intervention. Such initiatives have been taken at a global level through such international organizations including Europe and Africa in particular.

Secondly, the essence of international organization is the free will of the member states and at the same time the binding nature of the Constituent Act, be it a Charter, a Constitution, or any other international law document. Therefore, once a state becomes a member states, its obligations include, among other particular issues, the respect for the international law or the Conference documents. Therefore, from the very beginning the action grounds are common. In the case of the organizations or agencies in the UN system such as UNEP, states are automatically mobilized and requested to take action as a result of their membership to the system as well as to the acts that are taken at the level of the UNEP.

Finally, the role of international organizations in climate change is important because it provides a strong alarm sign for the global public. The magnitude of the actions and the capacity to mobilize financial resources and ensure delivery of local and regional projects concerning climate change raises awareness for the subjects under discussion. For instance, the protected areas initiative tackles issues of deforestation or poor management of forests and ecosystems at local level. Yet, more and more countries are joining such initiatives and more and more people are becoming aware of the importance of the protected areas when they visit a national park, thus taking more care on the potential negative impact human presence may have on the environment.

Overall, climate change is an extremely important subject and among the priorities of the political and public agenda. The role of international organizations and in particular of the UN system is…… [read more]

Hurricane Andrew Is a Storm Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,610 words)
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Canada, Japan, and The UN also contributed aid in support for the recovery of Bahamas. Additionally, The American Red Cross offered tents, sheets, and cots to Bahamas. The United States gave Florida and Louisiana $11.1 billion as aid. President Bush also declared Florida as a disaster area in support for Florida. Governor Chiles asked the Florida state to raise taxes as a way of raising funds to aid the recovery of Florida after the destruction. The congress passed a resolution to offer aid package for recovery (Smith, Stanley & Mccarty 35). In his mission to aid people in Florida, Director Kate Hale criticized the federal government for delaying in delivering aid. As a result, President Bush promised assistance, which came almost immediately. FEMA also provided aid after the destruction to Louisiana and Florida. However, many people criticized FEMA for failing to respond immediately to the disaster. At that time, its primary role was to distribute loans and grants for rebuilding areas after disasters. There was no need for foreign aid at first but storms increased the need for aid. This is because the storm caused much destruction in most areas. In September 23, President Bush passed the Congress' resolution into law for aiding Florida.


Hurricane Andrew remains to be the worst natural disaster that affected the U.S. This is because of the extent of damage that the hurricane caused. Moreover, it also caused many losses to many companies in its path. Urbanization in the U.S. causes hurricanes thus increasing disaster susceptibility.

Work cited

Pimm, Stuart L., and Gary E. Davis. "Hurricane Andrew. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 224-229. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Zhang, Yang, and Walter Gillis Peacock. "Planning For Housing Recovery? Lessons Learned From Hurricane Andrew." Journal Of The American Planning Association 76.1…… [read more]

Environmental Are Vital Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,082 words)
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There was also a differentiation in lack of commitment to the protocol by developing nations. This is because of the essence of being the outside party in the contribution towards the climate change. This is evident through rapid increase in the economic group in the context of nations such as India and China not listed as the industrialized nations in the Kyoto Protocol. The United States passed the Byrd-Hagel Resolution in 1997. The main aspect of this resolution by the senate of the United States was to limit its adherence to the protocols in relation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992 and negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997.

This is because of the omission of the developing nations in the commitment towards the protocols. The condition by the United States' senate was for the inclusion of the developing nations within the similar timeframe to the industrialized nations with reference to limitation of the emission of the greenhouse gases because of the essence of global warming and its influences. The senate also sought the examination of the effects of the protocols on the economy of the United States. This is through demanding of detailed explanations on the relevant legislations, financial costs, and economic implications of the protocol on the economy of the United States (Kumazawa 2012).

In 2005, there was massive and significant support of the Kyoto protocol as a public policy towards minimization of the emission of the greenhouse gases on the atmosphere thus affecting climatic conditions with reference to effects of global warming. This is through considerable support from the European Community and Russia. This was vital following the adoption of the major economic players formerly known as the developing nations (non-Annex 1) into the protocol. In critical examination, it is evident that the carbon emissions in the context of China are closely exceeding those of the United States because of the rapid essence of industrialization. This addressed the fears expressed in the aspect of the Byrd-Hagel resolution by the senate of the United States (Yoshida 2011).


Global warming is one of the threats affecting the development and growth of the human beings, plants, and animals. This critical environmental issue requires adoption and implementation of the accurate and quality measures towards minimization. From a sociological perspective, global warming affects social structures and order through negative influence on the political, economic, and social aspects of the society. It is therefore ideal for the various components and institutions within the society to focus on the minimization of the levels of the greenhouse gases essential for the increase in the level of global temperatures.


Hernandez-Deckers, D., & von Storch, J. (2012). Impact of the Warming Pattern on Global

Energetics. Journal Of Climate, 25(15), 5223-5240

Weart, S. (2011). Global warming: How skepticism became denial. Bulletin Of The Atomic

Scientists, 67(1), 41-50.

Carey, J. (2012). Global Warming: Faster Than Expected?. Scientific American, 307(5), 50-


Kvaloy, B., Finseraas, H., & Listhaug, O. (2012). The publics' concern for… [read more]

Society Has Dealt Essay

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However, this future might be too far away and the natural world might be irrecoverably damaged until that time.

Urgent action is believed to be the only solution to alleviating the catastrophic events that global warming has on society. It is nice to see government imposing serious taxes and humanity as a whole trying to help nature. However, the reality is that someone has to step up and make it possible for the whole world to understand that the time is now or never. The message needs to be more aggressive in order for people to actually be able to understand it. The effects of global warming need to be marketed in order for society as a whole to acknowledge that it needs to form a united front in trying to reverse these respective consequences.

Through introducing explicit commercials displaying the harmful effects that the process has on the world and on people in particular, individuals are likely to express more interest in changing their opinions. People have to understand that there is no future as long as they continue to choose profits instead of choosing the natural world. By introducing information concerning how each person can contribute to saving the environment, society in general is more likely to have the masses accept that the only solution for them is to join a process meant to help the natural world recover.

Works cited:

Maslin, Mark, "Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future," (MBI Publishing Company, 2007)

Spencer, Roy W., "The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists," (Encounter…… [read more]

Global Warming Is Real Research Paper

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This is indeed a motivation to bear in mind when it comes to examining the often bizarre reluctance of certain critics and dissenters of global warming.

Debate Two: Tax Cuts for the Upper Income

Too many citizens see tax cuts for the wealthy as something that would be damaging to the all around economy. However, this viewpoint is inaccurate and also misleading. Has many economists have demonstrates, tax cuts for those with a higher level of income would have almost no noticeable impact on the economy.

For instance, in regards to the fiscal cliff, economists have found that Bush-era tax cuts for the very wealthy would have a very minimal impact on the economy as well. "Letting the high-income Bush tax cuts lapse, for example, generates $42 billion in 2013 but hardly hurts GDP at all. By contrast, the defense cuts amount to $24 billion but hurts growth by 0.4% -- quadruple the high-income cuts' impact" (Matthews, 2012). This type of data may surprise many, but it showcases some truly counter-intuitive findings which, while they may be surprising, can only be used as leverage to strategically revitalize the economy at large.

While the average citizen might express staunch opposition for tax cuts for the top percentage of earners in America, one needs to bear in mind the bigger picture: giving the top 5% more leniency and leverage with tax breaks means that they will be in more of a position to spend and to use their money in ways which benefits the economy. "If tax cuts for high-income earners generate substantial real economic activity and job creation, then we should expect to see two things in the data. First, employment growth should be stronger in the years after tax cuts for these earners. Second, parts of the country with a larger share of high-income earners should experience stronger employment growth after national tax cuts for these taxpayers, because the places where they live receive a larger share of the national tax cuts" (Thoma, 2012). This excerpt demonstrates how taxing the extremely wealthy in a more lenient and minimized fashion has a direct impact on the economy, leading toward increased spending of the very rich, a factor which can't help but have a positive impact on the greater economy. This stimulus can't help but cause the consistent production of the creation of jobs, more so, some argue, than tax cuts to the very poor. Thus, when considering tax cuts for top incomes, one needs to look more thoroughly at the bigger picture.


Nasa.gov. (2013). Climate change: How do we know?. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence

Markman, A. (2013, May 21). Who rejects evidence of global climate change?. Retrieved

from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/ulterior-motives/201305/who-rejects-evidence-global-climate-change

Matthews, D. (2012, November 8). Cbo: Letting upper-income tax cuts expire would barely hurt economy. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/11/08/cbo-letting-upper-income-tax-cuts-expire-would-barely-hurt-economy/

Thoma, M. (2012, October 9). Do tax cuts stimulate…… [read more]

Global Warming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,339 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Kejriwal, 2010)

Furthermore, as the glaciers and other ice caps continue to melt, the world will get short on its fresh water reserves. The fresh water reserves are currently reducing as well. (Kejriwal, 2010)

Global Warming and International Economy

The global economy is also getting disturbed as a result of global warming. Firstly, global warming causes the cost of production… [read more]

Atmosphere Atmospheric Circulation Is Initiated Essay

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As the rising air cools, cloud and rain develop.

The highly seasonal rainfall in the tropical dry forests and the tropical savanna biomes are attributed to atmospheric circulation and seasonal changes in the sauna's orientation. In fact, it is the global circulation patterns that create the predictable regional climate zones. At the equator's low pressure belts and at 50 to 60 degree north and south latitudes there are abundant precipitations. At latitudes around 30 degree north and south, dry air descend from the high pressure belt similar to that which happens in a see breeze circulation. This dry air that descends from the high pressure belt produces arid zones that include Earth's major deserts. Because Coriolis Effect prevents mass and heat from moving readily to polar latitudes, temperatures decline and pressures increase sharply between middle latitudes and the Polar Regions (Chou & Neelin, 2004).

The sharp pressure gradient creates powerful jet stream winds flowing from west to east at the boundary area. The jet stream winds transport heat as they shift northward and southward. These jet stream winds bring much of the weather system activity in the middle latitudes and to be specific the tropics. In many parts of the globe, atmospheric dynamics and ocean circulation patterns interact to create distinct climate cycles that occur over longer periods than a single storm. Temperatures and precipitation vary by latitude and the tropics are therefore the warmest and the wettest regions in the globe while subtropical high pressure zones create dry zones at about 30 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. Temperatures and precipitation are lowest at the poles. The conditions create biomes. Biomes are broad geographic zones whose plants and animals are adapted to different climate patterns.


Chou, C. & Neelin, J.D. (2004). Regional Tropical Precipitation Change Mechanisms in ECHAM4/OPYC3 under Global Warming.…… [read more]

Global Warming Effects Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


When the environment becomes unbreakable, the species try to move out and look for places elsewhere. However, there are some unique kinds of animals and species of plants and marine life that are not suitable for adaptation elsewhere rather than their source of origination. When they are deprived of all kinds of places to settle in at, they start dying out and their reproduction is severely affected to the point where they become absolutely rare and eventually extinct. The level and threat of this extinction is multiplying by many times as the implications of global warming keeps going up. Some cold water fish, seals and bears are examples of the species that require cold regions for their survival and their habitats have been severely affected in the past years which have led them to the point of extinction.


Judging from the above evidences, it is pretty clear that the human activities are increasing the extent of vulnerability of the environment and the well being of the world itself. It is not just bringing implications on a particular region but this is now spreading further and increasing the severity of issues. Unless this is controlled and brought under sustainable measures, things will keep getting out of hand and worsening the conditions for humans, animals, insects, marine life, forests and will threaten our survival through different elements. Our source of shelter will be questioned by the increasing water levels and occurrence of natural disasters, food availability will be threatened much more than it is right now and we shall soon be deprived of clean, fresh drinking water as well with the pace of current things (Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004).


Allen, C. (2009). Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems . Washington D.C. .

(2008). Ecological Impacts of Climate Change. Washington D.C.

(2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. United Kingdom.

J.T. Price, R.L. (2005). Ecosystems, their Properties, Goods, and Services. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Washington: University of Cambridge Press.

Karl, M.P. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States.

Kimball, M.H. (2008). The Effects of Climate Change…… [read more]

Landslides Real Estate: Mass Movements Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (393 words)
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S. is expected to experience above normal rainfall levels (EPA sec. "Future Precipitation and Storm Levels). This is relevant to Western Washington because laboratory experiments by Germer and Braun have revealed that rising water tables may represent a significant landslide risk (477). The implications of this finding is that in addition to the landslide risk posed by strong storms, above normal rainfall levels in general can increase landslide risk. For example, generally wet weather and frequent minor rainfalls could combine to increase the water table and thus destabilize slopes from below. Western Washington may therefore experience an increase in landslide activity in the future if rainfall levels continue to increase due to global warming.

Works Cited

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). "Future Climate Change." EPA.gov, 2012. Web. 6 Dec. 2012.

Germer, Kai and Braun, Juergen. "Effects of Saturation on Slope Stability: Laboratory Experiments Utilizing External Load." Vadose Zone Journal 10.2 (2011): 477-486.

Smith, Keith and Petley, David N. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.

USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). "Landslide Hazards of Seattle, WA, and Vicinity." Landslides.USGS.gov, 2012.…… [read more]

Ability of Plants to Respond Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Besides, the Greenland is expected to record positive temperature deviations of about 6 to 8 degrees in the coming 100 years. However, temperatures are only expected to increase by approximately 2 to 5 degrees in the West Greenland and precipitation in the same area is expected to rise by 20 to 30% by the next century. In this regard, this… [read more]

Sinkholes Essay

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But there are more extensive problems related to thawing permafrost. Thawing permafrost can also result in irregular land, leading to leaning buildings and unsafe foundations for the buildings. Trees may fall over when the permafrost thaws, causing damage and even casualties. Beneath the surface, any pipes can easily be damaged due to the permafrost thawing. Infrastructure damage can be astounding,… [read more]

Sandbags Outside the NYSE (Strasburg Essay

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There were cases of algorithms going awry earlier and many investors feared wild changes without human intervention to monitor this market. The hurricanes effects on the stock market are incredibly interest for a variety of reasons. For example, assuming the threats regarding extreme weather events and climate change are real, and then this situation could be a common occurrence in the future. To maintain the integrity of the stock exchange, a new backup plan or a new location may be necessary to ensure its future stability.

One interesting development that the storm will have on international business is how worldwide markets respond to the NYSE closing. The NYSE leads the way for other stock markets around the world and many international investors look to the NYSE for cues about developments that could affect their investment strategies. However, without the NYSE to lead the way, international investors will be on their own in regards to trying to make sense of international developments. It is interesting to see how much uncertainty is created by the closure of the NYSE in regards to the short-term perspective involving what the other worldwide markets do as well as what long-term uncertainties might also develop regarding the disaster management plan and the role an all-electronic exchange might have in the future.

Works Cited

Strasburg, J., J. Cheng and J. Bunge. "Behind Decision to Close Markets." 29 October 2012. The Wall…… [read more]

Emergency and Disaster Management: Hurricanes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,413 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


According to the director of the Disaster Recovery Unit in the Office of Community Development, Michael Taylor, "There are still thousands of homeowners who have applied to the program and are awaiting their awards" (as qtd. In Muhammad, 2007).

FEMA also undertook considerable efforts to provide housing to the individuals and households that had been displaced by the hurricane. Among… [read more]

Global Warming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,349 words)
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If you wait another 10 years you would have to reduce emissions by 15% a year. That would be almost impossible" (Gray 2012).

There have been some positive developments on the political level as well as in terms of personal consumption to fight global warming. "Since the U.S. government imposed its first minimum mileage standards in 1974, they have been progressively strengthened. Last year, the Obama Administration and automakers agreed to gradually increase the average mileage of U.S. cars to 54 miles per gallon, starting with an average 35 miles per gallon by 2016" ("Global warming: It's real," Patriot-News Editorial Board, 2012). Some recent consumer trends have shown a shift in favor of the public's commitment to environmentally-friendly policies. Switching to electric or hybrid driving vehicles has grown in popularity, particularly given the increased price of gas. The success of the Toyota Prius was unexpected but now almost all of the major car manufacturers today have a hybrid fleet. Even GM, once the purveyor of gas-guzzling cars has produced the Chevy Volt ("2012 Chevy Volt," GM, 2012). Electric cars "charged from the electricity grid produce lower global warming emissions than the average compact gasoline-powered vehicle (with a fuel economy of 27 miles per gallon) -- even when the electricity is produced primarily from coal in regions with the 'dirtiest' electricity grids" ("State of change," Union of Concerned Scientists, 2012). With clean electric grids dominated by wind and solar energy, the impact is nearly zero from electric cars.

Reducing meat consumption, however, has been a harder 'sell,' particularly in the developing world, where increased prosperity inevitably leads to increased meat consumption (Goldenberg 2012). "Some scientists are at work growing artificial meat which would avoid the fertilizers and manure responsible for climate change" (Goldenberg 2012). Fish and chicken leave a smaller carbon footprint than cattle, since cows and other ruminant livestock require extensive grazing land and deforestation. Simply not eating animal products at all (vegetarianism and veganism) is another option embraced by some environmentalists (Goldenberg 2012).

The precise policy prescription of achieving the goals of lower fossil fuel consumption, less reliance upon gas-powered cars, and reduced meat consumption remain debatable even amongst environmentally-committed scientists and policy makers. Lower emissions targets and incentivizing or requiring environmentally-friendly behavior continues to vary widely from nation to nation, and global warming denials on a political level have a great deal of traction in the United States, making it difficult to pass sweeping climate change legislation. "America's vigorous anti-climate science campaigns, amplified by political rhetoric and, so far, defeating federal legislative efforts, has dismayed European and other leaders grappling with the highly destructive impacts of rapidly advancing climate change" (Blakemore 2012). The Obama Administration has vowed to make supporting green technology a critical component of improving the economic outlook of the United States, and virtually all major companies have 'sustainability' platforms on their public websites but the outlook remains decidedly mixed in terms of seeking to undo the effects of global warming.

Works Cited

"2012 Chevy Volt."… [read more]

Forgotten Aspect of Global Warming Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 2


7 inches and that polar ice has shown a notable decline in recent years: "Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost about 152 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of ice between 2002 and 2005" (Jenkins 20120).

The phrase 'global warming' used by Gore and others to describe this phenomenon, however, is somewhat unfortunate, I think. Every time there is an unusual burst of warmth, of course, I hear my friends complain about global warming, and they state that Al Gore's film An Inconvenient Truth is correct. However, during times of bitter cold, there are just as many jokes about Al Gore being wrong. But warming is only part of the equation -- more severe storms due to increased moisture from melting ice is another symptom of global warming. Fundamentally, human beings are unwilling to change their habits, and have short attention spans. They are looking for reasons not to change, rather than reasons to change.

On an individual level, there are small steps human beings can take to stop climate change. Eating less meat is one of them. "Global demand for meat has multiplied in recent years... assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy and other grains, a dependency that has led to the destruction of vast swaths of the world's tropical rain forests" (Bittman 2008). "Livestock production generates nearly a fifth of the world's greenhouse gases -- more than transportation" (Bittman 2008). This desire for meat is likely to increase in the developing world, as more people grow affluent enough to inject meat into their diet.

Transportation emissions are also likely to increase, given that more people are buying and using cars, despite improved fuel efficiency standards. In the United States, although environmentalists have tried to pressure automotive companies to improve emission standards and the price of gas is creating economic pressure to produce hybrid vehicles, there is limited public transportation in most areas and few people 'car pool.' A true effort to reduce emissions by a nation would require much higher gas taxes than people are willing to support, and probably a tax on meat and other environmentally unfriendly products as well. And even one nation alone cannot create change. Nations must work together, which has proven quite difficult, given that the developing world often understandably resents that the nations which have benefitted from industrialization in the past now expect them to curtain their behaviors. Gore compares fighting global warming to preparing to battle the enemy of World War II, but global warming may be an even more difficult fight in the long run, given that all nations must unite, not just a few, and the rationing and sacrifices expected of the average citizen are permanent rather than temporary.


Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York…… [read more]

Wildfire Is an Uncontrolled Fire Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


But for safety reasons they should not wait until a fire is spotted. Instead planned evacuation during the wildfire season would be a more prudent policy. Of course this seems a bit awkward and certainly one cannot imagine entire communities leaving during the potential wildfire season. Moreover, it is most likely that many who stay will not make preparations.

Collins (2009) suggests that preventative measures should be a more important consideration in areas where wildfires are problematic. First law enforcement, fire departments, and community leaders can provide education for home and business owners in areas prone to experiencing the effects of wildfires. There are two factors that determine a home's or business' ability to survive the effects of wildfires: (a) the use of fire-resistant roofing material and (b) the creation of a wildfire defense zone (McCaffrey, 2002). Home owners and business owners should use fire-resistant roofing material for houses or buildings near forests or grasslands. Community leaders and local fire departments could impose regulations and enforce regarding the avoidance of flammable materials such as shake or wood roof shingles. Local fire and police can educate businesses and citizens to be ready for wildfires by building and maintaining defensible fire zones around their domiciles and teach, review, and enforce fire-protection measures so communities are prepared before a fire occurs. Removal of potential flammable products can be initiated by police and fire departments (Collins, 2009; McCaffrey, 2002). Formal evacuation plans should also be put in place by police, fire, and EM departments in susceptible areas.

Other more extreme measures could be enacted by police and fire personal. These include more controversial techniques is controlled burning which is allowing or starting controlled smaller fires in areas to reduce the total flammable matter accessible for a potential wildfire (McCaffrey, 2002). These practices can reduce the overall damage from wildfires. Of course better training and up-to-date methods and firefighting equipment can also be important. In the long run minimizing the potential damage from wildfires requires the cooperation of individuals, businesses, local and national government agencies, police, and fire departments.


Collins, M. (2009). Hell on earth: The rise of more dangerous wildfires forces communities worldwide to think how they handle infernos. Government Technology's Emergency

Management, 4 (6), 22-30.

McCaffrey, S. (2002). For want of defensible space a forest is lost: Homeowners and the wildfire hazard and mitigation in the residential wildland intermix at incline village, Nevada.

Berkeley: University of California Press.

Pechony. O. & Shindell, D.T. (2010) Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 107,

19167 -- 19170.…… [read more]

Resiliency in Creativity Challenges Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


(Bain, 2010)

Peterson (2011) write that when one attempts to find the solution to a problem, they must begin by focusing on facts that are obvious and solutions that are familiar to see if the answer can be identified. This is stated as a left-brain process. When the answers are not readily identified the right and left-brain hemisphere activate together and "neural networks on the right side scan remote memories that could be vaguely relevant." (Peterson, 2011) Peterson (2011) states that there is a broad range of information that generally is not attuned to that makes itself available to the brain's left hemisphere which seeks patterns that are undiscovered, meanings that are alternative and abstractions of a high level. The left-brain has to react quickly to hone in on the ideas and connections pulling the various threads of information together and bonding them in a singular thought, which then enters upon the individual's consciousness. This is described as "the 'aha' moment of insight, often followed by a spark of pleasure as the brain recognizes the novelty of what it's come up with." (Peterson, 2011)


This study has examined the literature on resilience and creativity and has found that challenging times and situations results in the individual creatively coping and thereby developing personal resilience. This has also been found to be true for the organization as well. Necessity it has been said is the mother of invention, although this writer does not know who coined that phrase it certainly rings true in light of the information gained in this particular study.

The most challenging times and events bring out the best in most people as they construct methods of coping and effectively dealing with the challenges that present. It would appear that instead of sinking into the depths of despair or depression that the individual with positively oriented thinking processes and coping skills instead allows themselves the freedom to reach deep and to find nontraditional solutions to challenges and barriers that present in their lives.


Bain, Brianna (2010) Resilience and Creativity. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/briannabain/resilience-and-creativity

Elkin, Bruce (2011) Thriving in Challenging Times; Building Personal Resilience and Creativity. Retrieved from: http://bruceelkin.hubpages.com/hub/Staying-Up-In-Down-Times

Peterson,…… [read more]

Global Warming Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  15 pages (4,496 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


This descriptive Analysis takes a holistic view of the city in terms of inputs, flow through the system, and outputs. Urban metabolism will be used in conjunction with sustainability of those resources and flows as part of the model development for this research the study.

Urban pathology is it method of diagnosing problems within the city structure. It can be… [read more]

Greenhouse Effect and Global Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Today the world over there is a conscious effort to reverse the effect of Global Warming, and for the first time it has been realized that the efforts needs to take into consideration the fact that more than individual efforts, it is on the Governmental Levels that things need to be changed. Only when the pressure is put on the Governmental level, will a change come that can have a true mark on the carbon footprint, or on the emissions caused by industries, which are a major contributor to Greenhouse gases.

On an international, laws and regulations are now in place to tackle the crisis and the most major breakthrough in this regard has been the signing, implementation and putting in effect the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been signed by 34 countries, with the realization that it is the industrialized nations that are the major producer of carbon or greenhouse gases, and therefore through a systematic process of reducing their carbon footprint.

Besides this a lot of creative and over the edge ideas are also being developed or are already underway to reverse the effects of Global Warming. Some of these concepts include the Storage of CO2 gases deep into the earth through old oilrigs into the Earth's core, in place of the oil that has been drilled out over the years. Another innovative idea is the covering of the Glaciers with a special cover that would prevent them from melting, by reflecting off the sun's ray. The process if already under way on a small scale in Greenland and observations are being noted about how successful a solution this might prove to be.

Creation of Artificial trees are also a much raved about idea, where artificial trees would be designed that would work on the same principals as a real tree. The trees, when the design is finished, can be placed anywhere, and would suck the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Top Ten mega projects to reverse Global Warming).

But until then it is important that we take the simple steps that we can and contribute in any way possible. The simple steps that one can take in an individual capacity include the use of efficient lighting and energy saving, less carbon emission by preferring walking or public transport over private transportation mode, switching to greener modes of energy production and a serious reconsideration of our addiction with oil.

Everything requires respect, and so does our Planet! For many centuries now, the human progress while no doubt has been a wonderful blessing for us all, has meant the steady destruction of this planet for the sake of resources and raw materials. The Earth has been reduced to the status of a provider rather than the creator of life. The entire balance of the eco-system has been turned topsy- turvy, whose results and consequences are finally appearing before us.

Still somewhere, there is a bit of hope that things can still be controlled for the better; however this… [read more]

Climate Change Global Warming: Fact Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This is why significant investment in science and technology is important to the private world as well as public government agencies, so that discoveries can be made which will be financially beneficial.

Concluding Opinions

In conclusion there are two divergent beliefs on the topic of global warming, those who follow science and believe in it, and those who oppose science and who follow their own individual beliefs. Both of these points are valid opinions for a good debate, however I believe in the 21st century the debate is more like, how much should be done as a result of global warming, rather than arguing whether global warming does indeed exist.

Science has been conclusive on this subject and only growing more so each day. Most politicians have even understood the need for changes to fuel standards and alternative fuel sources. Since the Japan Earthquake in 2011, nuclear power plants have been in the spotlight for being dangerous sources of energy, prompting scientists to even more rigorous research into better ways to produce energy. Strides have been made in solar and electric power, and batteries are more advanced and well understood than ever. The future of climate change may be in debate, but there is no argument over the benefits of technology both to help industry and to promote a cleaner Earth.

Works Cited:

"The Basics of Global Warming - Science of Global Warming - Environmental Defense Fund." Environmental Defense Fund - Finding the Ways That Work. Web. 25 July 2011. .

Klein, Naomi. Global Warming, Fact or Fiction. Web. 25 July 2011. .

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Web. 25 July 2011. .… [read more]

Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Despite this limited positive assessment of UNFCCC's value, Haas takes a much harder line and argues that the resources expended on negotiating and ratifying the Kyoto Protocol have diverted needed attention away from other environmental issues like biodiversity and water quality (3). In fact, Haas suggests that the rhetoric that countries now use when speaking about controlling greenhouse gas emissions belies a 'business as usual' domestic policy that does little to address climate change (3). Haas goes so far as to suggest the global climate change regime process did not work and that real change will only come with more local efforts. Suggestions include meaningful government investment in research and development programs that produce alternative energy sources, k-12 education programs, and regional, national, state, and local autonomous efforts to limit and reduce emissions (5-6).

The truth probably lies somewhere in between, since it would be hard to separate the influence of the global climate change regime over the past half century from the emergence of state and regional efforts to reduce emissions. In spite of this difference, both Betsill and Haas express pessimism about the chances that the Kyoto Protocol will realize any of its goals. An explanation for its failure can be found in Arild Underdal's "law of least ambitious program," which states the least interested party or parties determines the terms of any agreement (Victor, 90). With respect to the Kyoto Protocol, this would be the United States and its insistence on the broad use of "flexible mechanisms" to achieve CO2 emission targets (Betsill, 112). Flexible mechanisms consist of legal transactions that allow the exportation of emission reduction responsibility through carbon trading and clean energy investments in other countries (Betsill, 114).

Other factors that argue against the eventual success of the Kyoto Protocol are attempts to develop large worldwide coalitions. Victor argues that above a certain threshold the complexity of individual, competing interests becomes so great that negotiating an agreement or achieving compliance is impossible, and that smaller coalitions stand a better chance of achieving the desired goals (95). Victor suggests a coalition of the biggest CO2 producers in the world, including the European Union, China, and India, would reduce the complexity of the negotiations required to craft a viable and enforceable agreement (95). The inclusion of India and China brings two major developing economies into the negotiations which will likely require concessions that could serve as a template for crafting similar agreements between uninvited countries. Another alternative to the establishment of institutions like the UNFCCC, which tend to take a legalistic approach, is the use of non-binding agreements that encourage parties to set ambitious goals (Victor, 97).


Regardless of what strategy is eventually found to bring about reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, the predicted failure of the Kyoto Protocol suggests the decades of investment into this agreement may have wasted precious resources and political capital that could have been better spent elsewhere. Victor suggests a return to the science of diplomacy and negotiation strategies and alternative… [read more]

Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The nature of the precipitation has also changed because of human activity, including the increase in acid rain that has threatened the availability of fresh drinking water in regions of the globe whose inhabitants are already facing shortages of that nature. Acid rain also destroys viable farmland and severely reduces the crop yield in some of the most impoverished areas of the world. Climate change threatens wealthier parts of the world as well and the visual evidence of the continuing and accelerating melting Antarctic continental ice shelves will eventually cause large portions of the North American eastern seaboard to become submerged in the same manner as the Italian city of Venice. Britain faces a similar fate and has already had to invest tremendous public funds to install mechanical barriers to protect the British coast from the Atlantic Ocean swells.

Probably the only way to reverse the consequences of climate change would be for the nations of the world to adopt a coordinated and comprehensive strategy of reducing carbon emissions by replacing fossil-fuel energy production methods with clean renewable energy sources. One of the most problematic concerns in that regard is that China is just now beginning to reach the point where billions of people who were previously too poor to afford energy produced by burning fossil fuels are now starting to add to the damage. Ultimately, if we cannot manage to implement a worldwide solution, our efforts to do so just in the Western Hemisphere may be too little too late.

Source Consulted

Muller R.A. (2008). Physics for Future Presidents: The Science behind the Headlines.

New York: W.W.…… [read more]

First Peoples of the Americas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, there is one important piece of evidence that have been found in numerous parts of America that supports the theory that PaleoIndians had inhabited America during the Ice Age.

The Clovis point is the most important piece of tool that was first found in Siberia, and several pieces of the same kind of tool was found in U.S. states such as New Mexico, Montana, and Colorado (Rose 1997). The tool was discovered after geologists had studied the layering of soil, a part of a study that might help lead to the discovery of an important artifact or preserved fossil resulting to evidence about the first inhabitants of America. The Clovis point was a crudely shaped hunting tool made of stone, and I often referred to as a 'spearpoint.' This tool became the key to the discovery of various information about the culture of the PaleoIndians. One of the conclusions reached upon by the scholars is that the PaleoIndians depended greatly on hunting as their primary source of food and clothing. During this time, it was said that the now extinct wooly mammoth existed during the PaleoIndian Era (under the Ice Age), and constant hunting of the inhabitants to these mammoths for food resulted to its extinction. PaleoIndians did not only use these mammoths for food (which can give them a "rich supply of protein and fat" needed during that time period because of the cold weather of Ice Age) and as a source of clothing (the wooly mammoth's skin can be good protectors against the cold climate). Aside from wooly mammoths, they also thrived on various wild animals that are existent during that time period. The physical traits of the PaleoIndians closely resembles those of the Asians, and this is evidenced through a fossil found that helped determine from where and what time period they came from (determined through the development o the human being's bone structure) and with the help of radiocarbon dating (Microsoft Encarta 2002).

In conclusion, this paper had proven through various evidence (from secondary sources) that the PaleoIndians had inhabited the Americas during the near end of Ice Age, and that the Bering land bridge made it possible for thee inhabitants to be transported from Asia to the North American continent. Further, the discovery of fossils and artifacts dating to the time periods supporting the existence of PaleoIndians proved that they existed and lived in the Americas as hunters and nomads (due to the changing weather and climate as a result of the nearing end of Ice Age). Thus, through a study of the geological and meteorological evidence, this paper was able to support the stance that the PaleoIndians are the first known inhabitants of the Americas, now known as the United States of America.


Kane, Sharyn and Richard Keeton. "Beneath this Waters: Archaeological and Historical Studies of 11,500 years Along the Savannah River." Southeast Archaeological Center. 1995. 4 October 2002. http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/beneathweb/ch2.htm.

Native Americans." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Corporation. 1993.

Nemecek, Sasha.… [read more]

Global Warming: Is it Really Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This argument contends that the temperature is not really rising, only the surface temperature. This argument is enhanced by the fact that satellite temperature readings do not show the same temperature increase trends as ground measurements. It is argued that, "The disparity between surface and upper air trends in no way invalidates the conclusion that surface temperature has been rising" (CGER 2000, p. 2). This statement is true since surface temperature has been rising. The problem is that this still does not indicate the cause of this surface rise.

The final consideration is the period of time climatic change relates to. The data available on global warming amounts to around a century of data. In addition to this, the actual warming is seen over a period of twenty years. Magnuson's study on rivers and lakes extends this to 150 years. However, on the scale of environmental change, these time frames are minor. The question is whether this 20-year increase in temperature represents a significant one caused by man or whether it is a minor trend in a much larger scale and one caused by other external events.

Combining both sides of the argument, it is difficult to determine whether or not global warming is real. The main problem relates to the time-frame. It is only possible to base decisions on what data is available. At the same time, man has only been impacting the environment for a short time. Overall though, the extent of the changes in the last twenty years suggests that global warning may be a real issue caused by the impact of man on the environment. Looking at the earth from the long-term view, the amount of change in a small space of time suggests that something must be responsible for this change. While it is possible that the rise in temperature is a product of a natural process, it seems likely that the impact of man on the environment has enhanced that process. Milankovitch may be right about the cycles based on the solar output of the sun and these may be part of the reason for the rise in temperature. However, in addition this, the impact of man may be increasing the rise in temperature from a gradual rise to a more rapid rise. In short, the evidence does suggest that global warming really is a threat.


CGER: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. National Academy Press: Washington DC.

Justus, J.R., & Fletcher, S.R. 2002. IB89005: Global Climate Change. Congressional Research Service: Washington DC.

Kaufman, Y. 2002. On The Shoulders of Giants: Milutin Malinkovitch (1879-1958). NASA. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov:81/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/index.html

Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G, Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M., & Vuglinski, V.S. 2000. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289: 1743-1746.

Manahan, S.E. 1994. Environmental Chemistry. Lewis: Boca Raton, FL.

Naish, T.R., Woolfe, K.J., Barrett, P.J.,… [read more]

1900 Storm of Galveston Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However with the publication of Erik Lawson's book "Isaac's Storm: A Man, A time, and the deadliest Hurricane in History" new light has been shed on the events surrounding that day. Isaac failed to notify the people of his city about the storm. He lost his pregnant wife due to the storm and was estranged with his brother because of… [read more]

Tornadoes What Causes a Tornado? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,242 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


NWS tells people to watch the sky for color changes after a warning is issued. If they feel that it's getting dark (or greenish), this indicates that tornado is about to hit the area. People are advised to go to basements, lowest possible floors, near hallways and far from things that can fly off due to strong winds. Other warnings… [read more]

Cold Autumn Tuesday Night Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


He slowly took off his comforter, which was kindly putting him to sleep before the noise came out. Silently, he stepped his left foot on the floor, then, was quietly followed by his right foot. The noise still echoes in the living room.

How safe it would be to have his father around. This was one of the many thoughts the boy had while he and his mother were trying to find ways on how to deal with the danger they were facing. The boy's father, a navy, had a mission and was assigned in a Middle East country. Trying to think quickly and looking at his young son how frightened he is, the boy's mother remembered his husband's gift to their son one day when he came back from an offshore mission. It was a long brown toy gun that looks very much like a real one. The only difference, perhaps, was that it was a toy, not capable of firing a shot.

The noise hasn't stopped yet. The squeaking continues and the boy's mother knew that the sound was coming from their living room's door. She knew that someone is trying to get in. Silently, the boy's mother took the toy gun from an old antique cabinet, perfectly matching the wall's varnish. While holding the gun, she intentionally made a noise to make the persons outside realize that someone inside the house is awake. Then, she strongly triggered the toy gun. The sound was loud and perfect, sounds like the trigger of a real one. It was not long after when she and her son heard several footsteps running, away from where they sounded at first.

The squeaking noise was already gone. The boy and his mother stayed in the room for a few minutes before they decided to go out and check the living room. Terrified, they found out that their door was already unlocked and destroyed. Someone was really trying to get in. If it had been later that they made a move, the burglars might have been successful with whatever…… [read more]

Alberta Province of Canada Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There are already high-efficiency automobiles, which only require incentives for manufacturers. There are is a vast area of 100 by 100 miles in New Mexico, covered with solar panels, for all the energy needs of the U.S.A. Only a very few new and clean energy plants should be built to meet the 6% Kyoto target.

Among the countries that have… [read more]

Perturbed by Humanity Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


" The full negative fallout of what has been done to the earth will only be felt by future generations, a fact which will likely result in an even greater, unfortunate but inevitable incentive to focus on short-term economic benefits vs. long-term environmental preservation.

In fact, some environmental activists are even throwing up their hands, effectively declaring the human-generated nature of the change to be irreversible. "Although absorption of heat by the oceans is temporarily concealing the magnitude of the environmental changes that have been initiated, they will be permanent, in the sense of lasting for millions of years. This is the time scale of natural remediation processes. The CO2 added to the atmosphere-ocean system by human activity will remain in the system indefinitely." At minimum, this indicates that radical actions are required to stop adding to the problem. "An approach to a stable equilibrium state of the environment, and avoidance of an eventual extreme greenhouse effect, will be possible only with complete cessation of CO2 emissions that are not fully compensated by sequestration."

However, the changing environmental conditions spawned by global warming might, because of their negative consequences, spur some motivation to change. Perhaps the most obvious physically observed environmental impact of climate change is that of sea levels: "sea level rise will accelerate dramatically as ocean temperatures approach equilibrium with the atmosphere and increased greenhouse heat is transferred to the polar ice caps," causing them to melt. This will create higher ocean levels, a greater risk of flooding, and also more moisture in the atmosphere, potentially leading to more severe storms. This poses an immediate risk to human life as well as has the potential to generate tremendous economic…… [read more]

Arguments in Favor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (764 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Far more research would need to be made, from multiple cities around the world, and then tested against rural areas to show that there is a link between the buildup of urban areas, changes of weather patterns linked that buildup, and that all of this contributes to our current views on climate change. As a first step, this research is limited as well, because it does not take into account all of the possible variables, but it does show that an increase in cloud cover resulting from urbanization of the ecosystem would not have resulted in a temperature increase because there is no link between cloud cover and temperature change in winter.

Please consider funding more studies of this nature in order to better understand how different factors contribute to our understanding of how urbanization affects our climate.

Hypothesis testing requires a data set, and then it requires a null and alternative hypothesis. Such tests can seek to determine a correlation between two variables, known as the dependent and independent variables. An example of a hypothesis to be tested is whether sunny days in New York are correlated with warmth. This test compares days that are sunny with days that are cloudy, adjusted for the season. The null hypothesis will be that sunny days are hotter than cloudy ones in the summer, but colder than cloudy ones in the winter. The alternative hypothesis is the vice versa of the null hypothesis. Seasons will be defined by the calendar seasons, and the temperatures will be the daily mean in Fahrenheit.

There are different statistics that help researchers to make conclusions. One is the z-statistic, which compares the sample mean to the population mean. The population mean can be the daily mean temperature for the season, and in this case there are two sample means, one for sunny days and one for cloudy days. Another test statistic is the p-value, which illustrates whether or not the observed difference is statistically significant. A significance level needs to be set, and then the p-value will indicate whether the test is statistically significant or not.


No author (2014). Introduction to hypothesis testing. San Jose State University. Retrieved March 30, 2014…… [read more]

Bt Group in UK Essay

Essay  |  18 pages (4,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Environment Sustainability (Greenhouse Gas Management)

What is Environment Sustainability?

Our perspective

Challenge of Climate Change

Natural Causes of Climate Change

Nitrous Oxide No Laughing Matter

Social Sustainability (Supply Chain Management)

What is Social Sustainability?

Economic Sustainability

What is Economic Sustainability?

Greenhouse Gas Management

Social Sustainability (Supply Chain Management)

Economic Sustainability

Managing Sustainability: BT Group in UK

This is a report… [read more]

Flooding Mitigation Plan for Miami Gardens Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,906 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



The response to the previously described hazard scenario in the City of Miami Gardens is dependent on the specific location and risk assessment of the hazard. However, response to this scenario can be carried out in the following proposed measures. First, the established Mitigation Strategy Working Groups should formulate Emergency Operations Team with members from different fields of expertise. Secondly, the Emergency Operations Team should be prepared to activate 24-hour Emergency Operations Center and initiatives upon the occurrence of the hazard. The development of the Emergency Operations Team is fueled by the fact that it will serve as the focal point for providing critical information related to the emergency. Third, the Emergency Operations Team should develop plans to clean up, start drying wet areas, and return operations back to normal ("Flood Emergency Response Plan," 2004).

Fourth, evacuation routes should be clearly identified while evacuation shelters remain opened, staffed, and equipped. The firth recommendation is that schools and other public institutions in the affected areas should be closed. Sixth, power plants in the City of Miami Gardens should be provided with adequate information that they will use to devise appropriate protective measures against power loss. Local businesses should also be advised on the necessary measures to undertake to lessen the effect of the floods.

In conclusion, the City of Miami Gardens is increasingly vulnerable to flooding because of its location and the frequent extreme weather conditions. Based on past flooding events, the hazard usually has considerable negative impacts on the community including affecting the human population and causing business disruptions. Therefore, it is important to develop and constantly review a hazard mitigation plan that enhances the city's emergency preparedness and response to flooding incidents.


"Flood Awareness." (n.d.). Miami Gardens. Retrieved from City of Miami Gardens, Florida

website: http://www.miamigardens-fl.gov/flood/flood.html

"Flood Emergency Response Plan." (2004). FM Global. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.fmglobal.com/shamrock/p0589.pdf

"Floor Risk Assessment." (2014, May). Floodplain Mitigation Plan. Retrieved from Town of Cutler Bay, Florida website: http://www.cutlerbay-fl.gov/announcement/1403186000_DRAFT%20Floodplain%20Mitigation%20Plan_Cutler%20Bay%20Risk%20Assessment%20Section.pdf

"The Local Mitigation Strategy." (2012, June 30). Hazard Mitigation for Miami-Dade County

and its Municipalities, Departments and Private Sector Partners. Retrieved from Miami-Dade County Government website: http://www.miamidade.gov/fire/library/part-1-strategy.pdf

"Working Together." (n.d.). Local Mitigation Strategies for Flooding. Retrieved June 23, 2014,

from http://mitigation.eeri.org/files/resources-for-success/00056.pdf… [read more]

Civil Infrastructure Security and Operational Safety Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Another essential aspect affecting infrastructure projects, which will progressively face many governments in the future is climate change. Over the next several years, climate change will result in both increasing sea levels and more frequent and extreme stormy weather, with the associated advanced level of storm surge. Changes in climate may thus undercut the stability of some areas of settlement in the lack of coastal security facilities. In some places, it may affect the stability of current settlement and housing infrastructure and lead to resettlement or migration, developing new demands for infrastructure. It may also cause an improved risk of frequent flooding, demanding both emergency and infrastructural recovery outlays. The disturbance of the venture environment is an issue for all infrastructure projects. The level of disturbance in the venture environment is likely to be attributable partly to the prolonged lead times of many infrastructure projects, with the significant chance of political, policy, and demographic changes in the project's lifetime (Sorvari & Seppala, 2010).

Important lesson learnt

The course resources suggest that the three elements can be adopted in various infrastructure projects in identifying the particular risks that may happen so that appropriate planning for these threats can be performed. As the readings have revealed, climate change, economic factors, and financing are paramount to the success of diverse infrastructure projects. I have also learnt that funding decisions should not be made early. If such decisions are not based on valid business case and practical research, projects often get into complications, and under-performance can often be tracked back to the preliminary poor funding decision. Therefore, choices about funding should not be made too early, but after the creation of a valid business case and feasibility analysis to minimize the impact on projects.


Sorvari, J. & Seppala, J. (2010). "A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites," Science of the Total Environment, 408 (8) March, pp. 1786-1799.

Sun, Y., Fang, D., Wang, S., Dai, M., & Lv, X. (2008). "Safety risk identification and assessment for Beijing Olympic venues construction,"…… [read more]

Arctic Climate Change Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Arctic sea ice consists of two types of ice. The first is old ice that has existed for thousands of years, since at least the last Ice Age, and the second is new ice that forms each year. The older ice is thick, while the new ice is thinner. The retreat of the Arctic sea ice is being driven by reductions in the older, thicker ice. New ice typically thaws each summer anyway, so the reduction in summer ice cover is strongly related to the thawing of the older, thicker sea ice.

Climate change is responsible for this melting. The Arctic climate is warming at a faster rate than the overall global climate. More heat is being brought into the Arctic through the atmosphere and ocean currents, so the increase in heat globally is a contributing factor. Corell (2013) also explains that there are several local factors contributing to the rapid decline of this ice. The more ice melts, the more ice will melt, because this is a feedback loop. Ice reflects light, while dark surface absorbs it. Thus, the more ice melts, the more dark surface exists to absorb solar energy and the warmer the region gets locally. Furthermore, dark carbon deposited in the Arctic also attracts more solar radiation, contributing further to the accelerated warming of the Arctic climate. Water evaporation is also a greenhouse gas, so the more water evaporates, it will also accelerate warming at the local level.


Climate change in the Arctic is having a significant effect on its natural systems. Changes in the climate mean changes in the seasons, which affect the delicate balance of life in that environment. Misalignment of timing between reproduction and the emergence of food can threaten many species.

Another impact is that southern species are beginning to move into Arctic habitats, the red fox for example displacing the Arctic fox. Animals are also being forced to…… [read more]

Plows Plagues and Petroleum by William F. Ruddiamn Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (4,273 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Ruddiman Plows

Annotation of W.F. Ruddiman, Plows, Plagues & Petroleum

Ruddiman's principal claim is that human effect on climate change did not begin in the 1800s as most scientists accept, but began thousands of years before in slow gradual changes whose impact equals that of the Industrial Revolution. He supports this claim in various ways. First, he uses… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Ethical Responsibility Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Environmental Ethics

Ethical responsibility to the environment must be approached from two perspectives: first, the responsibility a man has to himself, his generation, and future generations to preserve a rich and life-sustaining biosphere; second, the responsibility a man has to the heritage of natural life and beauty passed on to him by his forbearers. Today, both the human and natural worlds are in danger due to the unethical practices of generations past which, sadly, continue today. The single most pressing issue in environmental ethics is the destruction of our biosphere by global warming, a process which is steadily deforming man's common natural heritage, while simultaneously degrading the planet's ability to support the human race in the first place. Recent studies show the gradual way in which global warming works -- gradual yet inexorable -- a process that allows humans to sit, like the proverbial frog, comfortably in the pot while around them the water rolls to a boil. To behave ethically, humanity will have to radically alter its industrial, corporate, political, and personal practices in order to insure that future generations will be able to live comfortably amid the rich natural heritage of our planet; but the question goes beyond an ethical concern to the danger imposed to millions, billons -- countless -- lives, by changing natural conditions.

The fact is that, in large part, it is impossible to look to the institutions of humanity -- governments and corporations -- to lead away from the danger. In the past these institutions have been primary movers of the damage; fueled by humanity's insatiable greed they cut forests, dredged up oil, burned coal, built cars, and burned down ecosystems. Though today a global-scale effort is being made on the institutional level to reverse the paradigm and practices which have led humanity to this crux, it seems elementary that one does not trust the chickens to the fox's care.

Where institutional regime has failed, it falls to the individual to save himself and his people by behaving ethically and responsibly with regard to the planet. This type of behavior begins with an apprehension of the natural heritage passed down, by which appreciation and concern are fostered. Since the industrial revolution it has been harder and harder for each successive generation to come face-to-face with nature and it is always easier to turn a blind eye to what one does not see, taste, feel, or know.

As an avid hiker, I have made a point of pursuing first hand experience of man's natural heritage, and can feel the loss more viscerally when it is reported that a wilderness has been desecrated, that an ancient oak has been torn down, that a sea has been slicked. Some time ago, I had the opportunity to take a seven day trip down the eastern seaboard's Appalachian Trail; before and after that I remained an aficionado of natural spaces, even in my own natural habit -- an urban setting -- wherein places where the wilderness encroaches are still… [read more]

Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming

As of late, global warming has been in the headlines. After Climategate questioned current assumptions about the main driver in Earth's climate, original decrees that "debate is over" have not held as much sway as beforehand. (Petre) Many persons claim that, in fact, the sun is the main driver of climate change. That sunspots cause noticeable shifts in our climate. Man-made global warming, the prominent theory of today, says that specific gases, especially carbon dioxide, drive climate. (Marshal)

As specific greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) capture energy from the sun, the planet's temperature rises. This is called the greenhouse effect. These gases keep Earth's average temperature approximately 60 degrees warmer than it otherwise would be. The heat would leave the atmosphere, in the direction of space, without greenhouse gases. Before the greenhouse effect begins to take effect, solar radiation must be absorbed by the Earth's surface by first passing through the atmosphere. Some of the solar radiation, to be sure, is reflected by the earth and its atmosphere. (EPA)


Ways in which to help mitigate the effects of global warming include adaptation through sustainable development -- through the implementation of alternative energies, although currently these technologies are too crudely developed to replace cheap oil -- cooperation among individuals, corporations and governments. Important questions to ask are: What is the relation between levels of sustainability and greenhouse gas emission What is the pace of change?

Sustainable development has numerous aspects. What is economically and socially viable? What truly helps to mitigate environmental impacts, such as carbon and plastic footprints? Limiting climate change creates the opportunity to bolster environmental capital; for example, ecosystems and environmental resources. Measures such as these would help to protect human systems and habitats. By reorienting an economy in such way as to prevent climate change, negative effects of rising temperatures -- like exacerbated poverty -- can be avoided. (Stop Global Warming)

In our individual lives, much can be done to lessen our carbon footprint, to live frugally…… [read more]

Environmental Issues Global Warming Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … theoretical way using five scholarly sources the practical/social obligations, the need for appropriate actions, and the optimal ethical decision-making processes existing in environmental issues. The environment affects all aspects of life in one way or another irrespective of level within the society and global warming will remain the great concern (West, n.d). As the paper demonstrates, global warming… [read more]

Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: William F. Ruddiman Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: William F. Ruddiman's Evidence for Long-Term Anthropogenic Climate Change

A family huddles together for warmth in a the center of an especially thin-walled thatch hut, the sputtering fire little warmth to combat the wind that finds its cold and hungry way into every possible corner of the one-roomed home. Wrapped in a blanket that is woven… [read more]

Hydrological Hazard or Water Resource Issue Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hydrological Hazard or Water Resource Issue

Extreme weather phenomena frequently take place in various places from around the world, and while some of them are forecasted, others take people by surprise, taking a high toll on their lives. The severe rainfalls from the island of Madeira, Portugal, have killed tens of people through the flooding and the landslides that followed as a result. Madeira is a well-known tourist destination and the people located the island at the time when the disaster took place had been enjoying a carnival week. Partying had just started in the streets of the island's capital, Funchal, when an Atlantic storm hit the coasts.

It had been raining for a few days and the locals had been complaining that the abundance of rain was highly unusual. The floods and mudslides on the 20th of February, 2010, had obviously been the result of an extreme weather event. The weather struck with great speed, making it virtually impossible for people to respond in due time and eventually causing the death of more than 40 people. In addition to the victims the rescue teams had found, the natural disaster had left a large number of people injured while others have been reported missing. The rescuers had been obstructed by the fall of electricity, phone signal and phone lines. Moreover, they could not act properly because of the strong winds and because several bridges and roads had been destroyed.

The devastating flooding in Madeira has been a very surprising weather event, given the fact that the locals had not experienced a weather phenomenon of such proportions for more than a century. The island is generally renowned for its gentle weather and for the predominance of sunny weather during winter time. The storm had actually been compared by some with monsoons from the southern Asian regions.

The best explanation for the growth in precipitations would be that an active cold front advanced near the…… [read more]

Evacuation Plan for Hurricane Andrew in Miami Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Project management/Evacuation

Natural disasters can be devastating to people and property. Hurricanes can be particularly devastating and regions affected by hurricanes may take many years to recover. The threat posed by hurricanes must be taken seriously. One of the primary issues surrounding hurricanes is the ability to properly evacuate a region prior to the hurricane occurring. The purpose of this… [read more]

Study of International Negotiation Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (868 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


International Negotiation and Cross-Cultural Realities

Globalization has had a direct bearing on the way that we conduct business, not just by expanding the geographical and logistical realities with which a multinational corporation must concern itself but also by altering the landscape of human interaction by immersing infinite cultures and identities into a single economic scheme. The result is the set of challenges unique to this new era of commercial enterprising, particularly as they relate to the initiation of negotiation. To an extent that the research on this subject reveals, negotiation in the international environment is driven by the interaction of business cultures and the mutual respect adhered to the rules of these respective cultures. Indeed, managing a negotiation is a process often more inclined by the semantic framework of the proceedings than what either side has at stake. It is not a matter of imbalance, necessarily, that determines one's ultimate decision. Rather, it is the reference point that either side uses to assess exactly what it stands to gain or lose. A consideration of the process of negotiation on the international level reveals a broad spectrum of negotiation circumstances and outcomes, including the navigation of global trade laws, the establishment of geopolitical compromises, the mediation of labor disputes and the navigation of currency exchange. With this complex set of conditions, negotiations must be facilitated by a clear sense of the differing interests, cultures and economic agendas which have been brought to the table.


This means that first and foremost, partners in a negotiation must be conscientious of the needs and expectations of all actors and stakeholders invested in the process. These parties are often expansive and varied. Though it is perhaps a tendency for most people to picture negotiations as a tense engagement of just a small handful of decision-makers in a boardroom, there is typically far too much at stake in international negotation to allow for such a modest set of actors. For instance, in cases where two firms from different nations might be negotiating the terms of a corporate merger, it is likely that many thousands of people will be impacted by the outcome. If an American firm seeks to negotiate the purchase of a production and factory operation in India, the outcome of negotiations will have a bearing on the scores of employees both at the American company and the Indian production facilities, on the environment and communities surrounding the facilities and even on the broader economies and political conditions in both countries. This means, as the text by Changing Minds (2002) reports, the number of actors in representation of…… [read more]

Environmental Forces Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … rise if the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the social, political, and technological changes have inexorably changed the earth's environment in numerous ways. The 20th century, in fact, has seen incredible dramatic changes in so many areas (economic, political, and cultural) that a once segmented and structured global environment is moving closer and closer to a one-world… [read more]

Government Roles in Disaster Recovery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Government Roles in Disaster Recovery

Each branch of the government (local, state and federal) plays a role in emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. At all three levels, accurate knowledge of the emergency will aid each level of government in knowing their limits and whether or not a higher level of response is necessary. Planning is crucial at all levels of… [read more]

Two Non-Profit Organization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Dalit Freedom Network" Mission Statement: The Dalit Freedom Network partners with the Dalits in their quest for freedom, justice, and human dignity by mobilizing human, intellectual, and financial resources.

While this mission statement is certainly succinct, it is a bit too vague to be considered all-encompassing. It is specific in the community it seeks to serve (the Dalits, the "outcastes" of Indian society) but is not specific in services it provides. It does not delineate exactly which "resources" it mobilizes or how it goes about mobilizing them.

One could guess from their target community what the organization's geographic operating area is -- namely, India -- but the mission statement does not make this clear, nor does it give any hint whether the organization is in fact based in India or whether it merely operates there from headquarters elsewhere. A search of the organization's website shows that the Dalit Freedom Network is in fact an international organization with headquarters in Washington, D.C.

The mission statement is in line with the organization's activities, but only by virtue of its vagueness. Specifically, Dalit Freedom Network devotes much of its resources and advocacy to stopping the human trafficking of Dalits.

If I were to change the Dalit Freedom Network's mission statement, I would add the fact that it is a U.S.-based international organization, and I would tailor the goal to include the rallying of specific resources to end the practice of human trafficking of Dalits within India.

Carbonica Mission Statement: Our mission is to combat global warming. We do this by planting trees.

Global warming is the big issue of modern times. Climate change affects us all, because we all need to live on this planet and protect its future.

Human-made emissions from burning fossil fuels have escalated to enormous levels.

Our species' carbon footprint is so huge that we are influencing the evolution of our planet to such an extent that global warming may in the next decades become irreversible.

Our mission is to act fast. In Carbonica we believe that the only way to combat global warming is by combining a low-carbon economy with a programme of managed forestry on an unprecedented scale. We believe that by restoring vast areas of rainforest it is possible to recapture carbon from the atmosphere at a significant rate.

Only if our effort is on a sufficiently large scale, can we make a difference and reverse global warming, by recapturing the billions of tonnes of carbon that are already in the atmosphere. Our mission is to plant trees and…… [read more]

Atmospheric Issues Global Warming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Global warming is a phenomenon that has many opinions, from the scientific, to the political, to the ridiculous. A major rift between the more rational arguments has been the question of whether global warming is actually occurring or if the earth is simply in a geologic time of natural warming. However, scientists have noted that the warming of our earth's… [read more]

Expert Panel on Global Warming Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Expert Panel on Global Warming

According to the many sources the five most immediate dangers of global warming are: 1) the melting of the polar ice caps, 2) the effects on the economy, 3) the increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves, 4) the likelihood that warmer waters will generate more hurricanes, and 5) the spread of disease (Simmons).

Three experts have been invited to sit on a panel to discuss this question, "What is the impact of global warming on our community and what will the consequences be here, where we live?" These experts are Dr. James Hansen, Dr. Kathleen Miller, and Dr. Thomas J. Wilbank.

James Hansen was formally trained in physics and astronomy. He attended the University of Iowa attended where he earned a B.A. In Physics and Mathematics with highest distinction in 1963, an M.S. In Astronomy in 1965 and a Ph.D. In Physics, in 1967. From 1962 to 1966 Hansen participated in the NASA graduate traineeship. Between 1965 and 1966, he was a visiting student at the Institute of Astrophysics at the University of Kyoto and in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Tokyo. In1967 Dr. Hansen began work at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. During the late 1960's and early 1970's Hansen studied the atmosphere of Venus where he hypothesized that the hot surface was the result of aerosols trapping the internal energy of the planet. More recent studies have suggested that several billion years ago Venus's atmosphere was much more like Earth's than it is now, and that there were probably substantial quantities of liquid water on the surface, but a runaway greenhouse effect was caused by the evaporation of that original water, which generated a critical level of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere. This research early in his career lead Dr. Hansen to look at Earth's atmosphere in the 1980's. Today he is considered a leading expert on global warming.

Dr. Kathleen Miller is an expert on the economic and social impacts of climate change. An economist, Dr.…… [read more]

Bloomington Economic Development Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (804 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Community Development Objectives for Bloomington

Xinxin Zhang

Objective is to create a community organization in Bloomington that provides local representation to the worldwide 350.org group. The 350.org group believes that the atmosphere can only support a level of up to 350 parts per million of carbon dioxide. This estimate is based off some of the latest reports provided by top scientists at NASA and other organizations. This level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is important because it is a primary driver of climate change. Therefore reducing the emission levels is a necessary step to return to 350 parts per million. Our current level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is already 387 parts per million and rising exponentially. This project is important because it will have an impact on the local community in regards to employing sustainable development initiatives to help secure a better future. However, another important task for the group will be to help to educate the community as to what the problem is in terms of the actual science and create awareness among people who don't really understand what climate change is all about. This group also acts as an activist group that pressure politicians to take action on climate change. On October 10, 2010 (10/10/10) the group organized what was called the largest worldwide political demonstration in history.

2) the first step will be to choose the platform for communications. This is an incredibly important step because it will dictate how the group communicates with itself for the duration of the group's existence. There are several social networking sites that could be used for this purpose including Meetup.com and Facebook.com as well as several other options. This step will be entirely the responsibility of the group's founder.

The second step will start recruiting members on an individual basis. Once enough members and recruited to form a small group of five members or more, then a process involving collaboration will begin. This is important because it will expedite the group's formation much faster than the founder can do alone.

The third step will be to have the small group will have its first meeting to brainstorm on how to create awareness on a greater level. The group should also choose the date for the first official group meeting of the local community 350.org group. Then the group should then plan to post flyers, post announcements in newspaper and…… [read more]

Does Human Activity Cause Global Warming? Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Human Activity Cause Global Warming?

SCI 102 Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

Does the data available about the earth's average temperatures support the contention that the earth is getting warmer? Do the temperature data and data about carbon dioxide and fossil fuel emissions suggest that the warming trend is due to greenhouse gases, and is related to human activities?

Overall, the existing data available supports the contention that the earth is getting warmer, and the preponderance of the evidence suggests it is due to human-related causes.

Global warming is one of the most contentious scientific issues of modern times. Until recently, many individuals disputed that the earth was getting warmer at all. Now, it is hard to deny that almost all existing evidence indicates that the earth's temperatures are steadily increasing. But the controversy rages on: whether climate change is due to man-made interference in the environment through industrialization is still a politically-charged issue. However, most scientists think that the debate, factually speaking is decided.

The question of causality is critical in the global warming debate, given that there is little human beings can do at present to alter the climate if the warming trend is part of a natural environmental change, as occurred in the opposite direction during the Ice Age. However, if the modern lifestyle of cars, industrial production, and heavy fossil fuel consumption is at the root of the phenomena, it is incumbent -- morally and logistically -- that human beings alter their lifestyles to improve the fate of the planet for future generations. "Because a warmer climate means more evaporation of water from land and oceans" this would result in "longer and more severe droughts in some areas and more flooding in others…because a warmer world means the continued melting of glaciers and polar ice, it leads to rising sea levels -- which threaten places prone to flooding, as well as places vulnerable to sea surges during hurricanes" (Kakutani 2010).

However, members of the developing world argue that limits upon industrial growth are unfair, given they have not enjoyed the economic and lifestyle benefits of industrialization like the West. According to the New York Times, "At the heart of the international debate is a momentous tussle between rich and poor countries over who steps up first…… [read more]

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