"Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays 351-407

X Filters 

Hurricane Response Essay

… A fourth part of the strategy will be to elicit help from the national guard from the state who can in turn ask the federal government for assistance should it be needed. Such was done in Katrina (albeit delayed by bureaucratic waste) and the same can be done for this new disaster even if it is not necessary for all that long. A full court press of help should be started immediately and it should not stop, at the very least, until all body search efforts are done and the area is being repopulated with the people of the area without restriction. The National Guard can be the people that guard the perimeter and police looters while the local police and search and rescue people do their jobs. Regardless of who is involved, the use of more aggressive means such as teargas and such will be avoided but that is always an option if things get really dicey in certain areas.

To avoid public relations disasters, what is being done with the above and why it is being done will be communicated heavily to the populace. Residents can be informed when their areas will be open for return and they will also be told how to inform law enforcement that their house is clear of people. A missing person line will be set up and that can be used to collect information on who might be missing in the damage path. Those names will be listed on a website so that "missing" people that are not in danger can phone in and make it known where they are and that they are safe. Done to the proper extent, the true gravity of whom all is missing and where they could be will all be covered fairly well.


The action plans above are not complex but they are hard to pull off well. However, it is important that they are both explained and implemented across the board and with consistency so as to prove that there are teeth behind the demands. However, it should also be clear that there are very good reasons behind the directives and that it is all about keeping the area secure and finding people alive and well as quickly and efficiently as possible. For the event that there are more dead bodies, the identification of those bodies will be expedited.


Dao, J. (2005, September 1). New Orleans Is Awaiting Deliverance. The New York

Times. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/02/


Fussell, E. (2010, January 1). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New

Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. National Institute of Health. Retrieved July 28,

2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862006/

Greenhill, J. (2012, November 4). ARMY.MIL, The Official Homepage of the United

States Army. National Guard relieves suffering after Hurricane Sandy. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.army.mil/article/90599/National_Guard_relieves_

suffering_after_Hurricane_Sandy/… [read more]

Stafford Act: Support for Its Reformation Essay

… This implies that nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical incidents are not classified as major disasters under the Act (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). The President, under such laws as the National Emergencies Act, the Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Act, possesses power to respond to interferences or disruptions that trigger the release of hazardous substances; however, these laws do not offer financial aid to the affected jurisdictions (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). The Stafford Act accords a serving President power to declare an emergency in such cases, but then the aid would only be limited to $5milion unless the President dictates an expansion (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). These illustrations demonstrate the need to amend the Stafford Act to incorporate the aforementioned incidents, because then, the federal government would have the flexibility to declare the same a major disaster and to subsequently release the relevant aid (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007).

Insurance: federal policy requires that an individual or business be compensated first by insurance. The Stafford Act prevents duplication by ensuring that disaster victims who receive compensation from insurance do not receive federal assistance (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). Worryingly, insurance companies are moving to minimize losses, and in so doing, leaving victims stranded and unable to rebuild (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). Following Katrina, for instance, most victims who had hurricane, and not flood coverage, were left devastated, with companies that had offered insurance arguing that the damage could not be directly attributed to a hurricane, but to floods (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). Furthermore, large-scale disasters can overwhelm insurance companies, resulting in massive delays in payments. For instance, $24.3 billion in insured losses was due to be paid to Katrina victims in Louisiana; yet one year after Katrina, only $12.5 billion had been paid out (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). To this end, the regulations of the Stafford Act have to be modified so that cash assistance, and caps on housing assistance can be advanced to qualified homeowners without them having to avail insurance coverage proof (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). This way, devastated families can begin the process of recovery, and then the assistance can "be reimbursed to the government when insurance coverage is received, or through income taxes" (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007, p. 20).

Coverage for Private Utilities: we often do not realize how important utilities are, until their functionality is under threat. One way of saving lives and minimizing suffering after a disaster is restoring damaged utilities. Unfortunately, the Stafford Act only covers non-profit, or public utility providers, and fails to account for such critical resources as communications systems, water, and electricity, when such are provided by a profit-motivated, private company (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). Following the 9/11 attack, for instance, Verizon, a private company; and Con Edison, a public-private enterprise, both of whose infrastructure was severely damaged, had to bear their own reconstruction costs, despite providing essential and emergency services (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007). In this regard, the Stafford Act ought to be amended to offer… [read more]

Asthma Bib Entry Chulada Essay

… The study wanted to better understand the situation in order to increase the efficiency of asthma in the city of New Orleans, while also potentially serving as a model for other cities to follow as well that were also exposed to the dramatic impact of Hurricane Katrina. All participants on the research and were highly qualified to conduct examinations in their fields. The study used reliable method to implement intervention and record the observations. It is strong and the fact that all researchers were highly equipped to do their part in the study. Physicians work specifically in pediatrics asthma, while home environmental examinations were conducted by professionals as well. Thus, the study shows how advanced NP roles can play a part in innovative research. By choosing a specialty, NPs can help increase their efficiency in working within their field. The model for the study also came from a strong source, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The aim of the study is also significant because of the impact that Hurricane Katrina did have. It is taking into account both environmental and social structures that were negatively affected by the hurricanes destruction. This creates a comprehensive situation that is very well-rounded and thought out.

However, there are some weak elements of the city as well. For example, there is limited discussion of the actual statistical measurements of the observed data. The authors do not spell out the methodology in a clear enough manner so that it may be repeated by future studies. This becomes problematic, because the study did want to provide a model for other research to use. Additionally, in the discussion section the author's choose to go back towards the background, repeating what was already stated in the first page. This confuses the real discussion of the results of the study.


Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.

Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand…… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina When Former New Essay

… Indeed, there are several challenges to the U.S. crisis management system:

Huge geographic area -- covering numerous biomes, types of natural disasters (from ice to tsunami, etc.).

Fifty States with thousands of local and municipal police, fire, and local governmental… [read more]

Brainstorming Essay

… The pattern continues in the second sentence where the writer presupposes what the reader will "assume." The first example is not bad but it's not really a transition. It is just another "reason" that supposedly builds on something prior. There is no clear segue from one point to another…it is just another point for a prior-mentioned topic. The second item is also not a good transition as it is just one sentence in a broader point. Item four is just a point of analysis and opinion. The firth item is by far the best example of a transition because it shows that it identifies a new point (environmental regulations) and why it is important (global warming)

Assignment Five - Conclusion

The second of the two conclusions seems to do a better job because there are no concocted questions or statement…just a stark and blunt statement of what the major points of the story are and this will much more likely lead to the conclusions that are asserted in the first example. The first conclusion is being much more assertive and aggressive in forcing a certain interpretation while the second is much more reserved and fact-based while at the same time making the same point.… [read more]

Hurricane Sandy Communication by FHA Natural Disasters Professional Writing

… Hurricane Sandy Communication by FHA

Natural disasters are no strange phenomenon to the United States, and especially to the coastal areas. Indeed, hurricanes and earthquakes are a frequent phenomenon, with some occurring as often as once per year. Disaster aid organizations in conjunction with the government and housing agencies are therefore an important component of the life and sustenance Americans enjoy today. Sometimes, however, even these entities are baffled by the sheer scale of destruction caused by disasters that are unexpectedly severe. This was the case with Hurricane Sandy. Although warnings helped the majority of citizens retain their lives, Sandy wreaked complete destruction on uncountable homes, leaving many homeless, without electricity, and without running water. In addition, many were in confusion regarding the relocation, rebuilding, and insurance claims processes.

Statement of problem

The hurricane was closely followed by a myriad of press reports regarding the above-mentioned confusion regarding homes and their owners. The crux of the problem was the scale of the disaster. Both government agencies and insurance companies found themselves inundated with the sheer need of those affected (CBS, 2012). In New Jersey and New York, the states hardest hit by the hurricane, more than 880,000 homes and businesses were left without power and damaged to some extent.

Although disaster agency FEMA had, by that time, offered some $200 million in emergency housing assistance, the government seemed slow to create a specific long-term plan for all those in need.

Another CBS (2012) article states that insurance adjusters would also be slow to evaluate the damages sustained by insured home owners, with wait times of two weeks and more. In addition, many home owners were not given any specific information or instructions regarding what to do in the short-term.

Adding to the confusion was a lack of consistency in accounts regarding the numbers of people in need of relocation and housing assistance (Barron, Lipton & Rivera, 2012). Estimates ranged to extreme degrees, from 10,000 to 40,000 people in need of such assistance. While waiting for clarity of information, families did see the benefit of relocation programs, some of which involved hotel stage until such time as sufficient repairs could be made to homes.

Although much was done to help the families in need, great confusion and uncertainty remained even weeks after the hurricane hit. Much of this might have been mitigated by means of more effective and consistent communication, not only from official agencies and insurance companies to citizens, but also among the agencies and companies themselves.

Theoretical background

In terms of the theory, agencies such as the Federal Housing Administration (FHA, 2013)…… [read more]

Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina Case Study

… 146). Likewise, Sylves (2008) emphasizes that, "In the wake of the poor government response to the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, many questions have been asked about why the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), along with a host of other… [read more]

Risks and Vulnerability Factors County Research Paper

… As such, this information is valuable to insurance companies in determining rates and the degree of risk involved in doing so. Additionally, it helps government officials in those counties know approximately how much funds and other resources they need to dedicate to counteracting any noxious effects of environmental disasters. Moreover, there is a comparative aspect of the Social Vulnerability Index, since it allows counties to view their level of preparation in conjunction with those of surrounding counties. In such a way, can insurance and governmental officials also compare their resource allocation and rates.

The Social Vulnerability Index for Tennessee's Shelby County from 2006-2010 was -2.588143, while the national percentile from those years was 14.41%. The Social Vulnerability Index for Vermont's Orleans County from this same time period was 0.200921; the national percentile during this time was 54.92%.


Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute (2012). "The Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States, Version 10.0 [Online Database]." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.sheldus.org

Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute. (2012). "Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI®) for the…… [read more]

Disaster Management Lessons Learned Research Paper

… They did not sit first and develop a strategy on how to make these evacuations. The objectives of such a strategy are to identify the categories of individuals that must be evacuated first, on reducing the time required by these… [read more]

Aar Sandy Essay

… This is precisely what Krisberg (2006) points out, noting a "shortage of health care professionals and a "fragmented public health system" as being primary problems (p. 2-3).

I have the honor of knowing a cadre of emergency workers on Long Island. Their experiences with Hurricane Sandy has revealed to me in practice what we have learned through this course. For one, my colleagues on Long Island noted two main issues that made the response and relief effort more successful than it was after Katrina. On Long Island, anyway, the relief had the quality of being coordinated. Coordination -- of services, or personnel, and of local vs. external resources -- is probably the most important critical factor that determines the effectiveness of a disaster management program. In towns like Huntington, Long Island, where my colleagues work, a disaster preparedness system had already been in place. The system had been tested, its kinks worked out with relative thoroughness. Enhancing the coordination of relief services requires a commitment to change, and that means welcoming information technology into our fray. It is not enough to have a team of personnel with Red Cross certification, if that team cannot communicate with one another, share ideas, experiences, and resources. Therefore, coordination depends on communication. Successful communication in turn depends on what my colleagues call the "well oiled machine" of their local community's public health service system. One arm knows what the other arm is doing, and can communicate that information to the head. The second issue my colleagues addressed related to the success of the disaster relief was the fact that their organization had no staffing shortages. This is not something all healthcare service departments and organizations can boast about, yet.


Baldwin, K.M. (2005). Welcome to Texas. Clinical Nurse Specialist.

Iverson, E. (2012). Hurricane Sandy aftermath: Why FEMA needs to have a clearer mission moving forward. Policymic.

Krisberg, K. (2006). Health workers struggling to meet needs a year after Katrina: Gulf Coast communities work to recover.

Ripley,…… [read more]

Psychological Impact of Katrina Research Paper

… The survivors can also develop dissociative symptoms such as de-realization, depersonalization, and even dissociative amnesia. They can get depressed and have difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep and even lack concentration. They can have an impaired functioning for instance impairment… [read more]

Local Team Response Communication Hitches Essay

… Local Team Response

Communication hitches in the Oklahoma City bombing

At 9:02 A.M., Wednesday, April 19, 1995 Oklahoma city became a victim of terrorist attack. This took place at the Alfred P. Murrah building which housed several government agencies as well as a good number of visitors (the Oklahoma Department of Civil Emergency Management, 1995).

There were several issues that came up as to contributing to the inefficiencies that were experienced during the search and rescue process. One of the central issues was the communication aspect. This paper looks at the communication issues that plagued the search and rescue (SAR) teams that responded to the incident.

The first problem that was noted was the difficulty in passing information from one SAR to another. It is noted that due to this lack of quick communication, critical information on the search and rescue were passed through couriers that were equipped with golf carts as there were no interoperable communication channels (Oklahoma Office of Homeland Security, 2012).

It was also noted that due to the confusion that ensued from the blast as well as communications that were not emergency related, the communication between responders was highly limited. It is indicated that during the initial 12 to 18 hours after the incident, the cellular phones circuit were overloaded hence limiting quick communication among the SARs. This was also made worse by other non-emergency calls clogging the standard phone lines and in effect hindering quick communication (Oklahoma Office of Homeland Security, 2012: Pp 38-39).

The SAR also suffered a general weakness in passing information among the rescuers that responded. This was occasioned by the relocation of the Incident Command Post three different times coupled by the numerous local, state as well as federal agencies. This great number saw the presence of at least seven Mobile Command Posts that coordinated numerous support functions. This paradoxically meant there was fragmented information forwarded by the seven different MCPs hence great confusion between agencies. The multiple chains of communication delayed delivery or availing of service or items requested.

2. Hurricane Katrina

This has been the worst hurricane situation in the entire history of the U.S.A. since the destruction on property and loss of lives was of immeasurable magnitude. Following the meteorological reports about the impending hurricane, President Bush declared the hurricane an Incident of National Significance (INS). Interestingly, the Department of Homeland Security Secretary general, Michael Chertoff did not seem to realize the significance of the declaration by the president. He ended up declaring another INS several days later and even then did not activate the national Response Plan (NRP) and the Catastrophic Incident Annex (CIA) in particular despite being the only person who can declare this (Department of Homeland Security, 2004: Pp 1). This decision, he later tried to clarify was based on the fact that CIA was meant for no-notice events like terrorism attacks. It is however noted in the CIA supplement that it is also meant for short-notice incidences and explicitly picks out hurricanes to be… [read more]

Manmade Disasters Seen Research Paper

… As well, seven of the sixteen acute care hospitals in the metropolitan New Orleans area have permanently closed due to damage. Every one of the fifty Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) in the United States was activated, three mobile military hospitals and several ship-borne hospitals, totaling 789 beds, were also deployed. Innumerable nursing homes were damaged or destroyed. Approximately 1.2 million residents required temporary or permanent relocation. The U.S. House of Representatives Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and the Response to Hurricane Katrina found a "litany of mistakes, misjudgments, lapses, and absurdities" at all levels of government. As a result, due to poor disaster training, many individuals lost their lives during these devastating events. Lives could have been saved if proper disaster training had been in place years before these events took place.

There are several strengths and weaknesses to having disaster training exercises. One important advantage would be that many lives would be spared, unlike the case during Hurricane Katrina and Sept. 11. From an opposing point-of-view, many lives can be taken from having poor disaster training exercises. One importance weakness of disaster training exercises is the labor that is involved in it. Since it is a volunteer service, workers cannot be compensated for the time and effort put into the training program. This same concept is applied to relief workers. One cannot be compensated for saving someone's life or rescuing a cat from a burning tree. Despite not receiving pay for performing such heroic…… [read more]

Global Warming Research Paper

… Global Warming

Over the past few decades, scientific research has documented a gradual increase in the global temperatures attributable to increased release of heat trapping natural gases. From the ensuing debates, global warming is an increase in temperatures of the globe Gifford R., 2007.

This has occurred in the past years owing to increased human and natural activities. A consensus has however, not been arrived at as to the side that bears the most claim for realizing the heat trapping gases. This paper address both sides of the arguments presented in debates and discuss any measures human beings can take to stop global warming.

Signs of global warming are everywhere and, we cannot be afforded to ignore or overlook them. The choices humans make in reference to needs and desires affect us and the world alike. The relationship between nature and human behaviors contributing to global warming need ought to be clarified in order to arrive at sustainable levels of coexistence. The current harm done to the environment though irreversible it is curable. The urgent need is to identify those aspects that are within the control of humans and heal the earth preventing any substantial disaster.

Green house effect gases

Green house effect comes about as a result of five core factors namely; Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Chlorofluorocarbons and water vapor. Water vapor occurs as a natural process and, although it has no significant contribution towards global warming it plays a role to increasing global temperatures.

Carbon dioxide is a minor component of the atmosphere but a plays a pivotal role in natural cleansing process. The processes that lead to release of Carbon into the universe is not harmful as far as there are counter measures to reabsorb it. Green house effect occurs when excess release of carbon dioxide gas release exceeds atmosphere's capacity to clean it up. Methane is a hydrocarbon gas naturally produced and also through human activities.

Methane has a severe capacity to bring about the green house effect compared to carbon on a molecular basis. A molecule of Methane has more potential to trap radiated heat than carbon dioxide. Nitrous occurs on the earth's atmosphere following cultivation practices involving the use of industrial fertilizers, growth of nitric acid producing plants and burning fossil fuels. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a synthetic compound produced from industrial process. There are regulations by the international community against its production owing to the destruction it does to the Ozone layer.

Human Causes of Global Warming

Among the factors that have come out as causes of global warming include green house gases brought about by human activities.…… [read more]

Global Warming Reduction Essay

… Turning off lights when rooms are not in use also reduces the electricity consumed. Opening curtains to let sunlight into the house during daytime hours helps as well. Drying clothes outside on the clothes line reduces electricity from running a clothes dryer and additional electricity used to cool.

Regular maintenance on vehicles and other forms of transportation also reduce greenhouse gasses. Regular maintenance helps the vehicle to run smoother and releases fewer gasses into the air. Carpooling, riding bikes, and walking reduces the driving of vehicles, and consequently fewer gasses.

Recycling efforts and reusing materials is also a way to reduce greenhouse gasses from industrial processes. Everything that can be reused, such as shopping bags, jars, plastic bags, paper, old clothes etc. reduces the need to manufacture more, reducing the industrial processes of those items. Reusing products around the home cuts the overall expense of these items and recycling them when they cannot be used again reduces the costs of manufacturing new products.

Often times, clothes are thrown out that can be used by someone else. They can be given to someone in need or donated to charities that assist the needy. Worn clothes can be used for cleaning rags or to make craft items, such as quilts or used as stuffing in pillows. Plastic bags and glass jars can be used to store meal leftovers or freeze foods. Glass jars with good sealable lids can be used for home canning. Plastic milk jugs can be used for crafts, such as bird feeders, and be reused for fresh drinking water in the refrigerator.

Bibliography mtrguanlau. (2011, May 22). Possible Ways We Can Contribute To Stop Global Warming. Retrieved from Expertscolumn: http://experts.com/content/possible-ways-we-can-contribute-stop-global-warming

Rey, M. (2011, Feb 11). Factors Contributing to Global Warming. Retrieved from EZine Articles: http://ezinearticles.com/?Factors-Contributing-To-Global-Warming&id=5907578… [read more]

Forests Conservation Forest Conservation Global Essay

… Also, a noticeable decrease in rainfall would be observed due to deforestation as rain falls occur due to transpiration breathing of plants. If forests are deprived of evaporative cooling, the process of transpiration would not take place properly as the land would get dried and as a result the global warming will definitely increase (Global Warming 2001).

There can be many causes of deforestation; it can be due to means of agriculture i.e., forests are cut down in order to grow crops, or it can be urban construction, for usage as firewood which is used for fuel and heating purposes, and there can be several other commercial purposes too. Although these all seem to be of great importance for humans, but forests and trees have equal or more important than all these necessities. If forests are not conserved, the land would become dry and infertile as all the nutrients get lost. Also, many species of animals die and become extinct as their natural habitat is being destroyed by man for his own purposes. Another drastic effect is of excess flooding as trees play a part of hurdles in the way of heavy rains. When these are not there, there are more chances of floods and destruction of settlements. Hence overall, it can be concluded that trees and plants are our lifelines, without these we cannot survive, we cannot even breathe as they produce oxygen for us. Let the forests survive if we want ourselves to survive (Mumoki 2006).


Forests, jungles, woods & their trees. WWF Global. Retrieved on 7/7/2012 from:


Global Warming. One Cool Forest, One Hot Grassland. (December 18, 2001). Retrieved from: http://whyfiles.org/080global_warm/5.html

Harmon, D.E. (2009). Al Gore and global warming. New York: Rosen Pub.

Mumoki, F. THE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION ON OUR ENVIRONMENT TODAY. (July 18, 2006). Retrieved from: http://www.tigweb.org/youth-media/panorama/article.html?ContentID=7611… [read more]

Safety Hurricane Katrina Research Paper

… Measures put in place by NDMS to counter disasters; they include strong medical leadership. Medical disaster teams should be run by medical experts qualified for disaster management. There has been a stable medical funding, in addition to the budget estimates.


Hazard efforts need to be improved by; carrying out modernized flood mapping country wide, and more accurate to mitigate future disasters. Detailed analysis and elevation should be well stored as data, which can be used by DHS. This information can be used in handling other disasters effectively. Lidar software used in evaluation has helped in detecting earthquake in forested areas, and it has been remarkably effective. Government should come up with organizations that deal with surprise events like disasters, which occur, in large scale. This will prevent crisis between government resources and public demands like compensation, insurance, subsidies and incentives.

Government should put in place hazard regulations and standards, which are costly effective. Collapse of a building or destruction of a business can cause negative external losses to the economy apart from losses caused to the owner. These losses are not covered with insurance policies hence can cause damage to the economy. There should be mental health professionals who engage directly with disaster planning teams to mitigate the effects of catastrophes. After action reports given to FEMA, should be implemented since many have not been enforced. FEMA should monitor state compliance and implementation.

Broad-based community preparedness

It is necessary to include support of the broader community in risk preparedness and mitigation. This is because it takes the public and private people to manage the disaster. Communicating to the community on the different disaster preparedness, will change the way they react and behave during and after a tragedy. Their involvement will help in creating sound policies when they seek a return of their investments; they help in making cost-effective decisions will be of benefit to them, while reducing the risks involved.

Geographic and socioeconomic considerations

There has been flood plain mapping projects on high-risk areas to help in evaluation of data for preparedness. Best mapping methods like lidar technology, which use laser measurements collected from aircraft, is used for analysis because it is accurate and cheap. FEMA uses the technology for flood map update or when it requires new data. Political consideration in hazard preparedness ensured there was an empowered, strong federal agency in the position of leadership. FEMA was given direct access to the white house to give them the authority and credibility to perform its functions.

Many socio economic issues are put into consideration on hazard preparedness of Hurricanes. The hazard analysis was comparing the costs to the benefits and the direct and indirect impacts to the economy by comparison of the cost of implementing new systems and policies to the benefit of mitigating disastrous catastrophes. Residents in low-income areas are considered; subsidies are provided to them to enable them purchase insurance cover. There is consideration of strategy of equal treatment; this will be based on sex, age… [read more]

Planning Efforts to Reduce Future Research Paper

… A disaster like Katrina had a big impact on the consumer behavior and also the supply chain. This shows that the markets were largely affected, and with awareness, this would be curbed. The government will be prepared to meet the losses that come with hurricanes like Katrina with the awareness programs. New Orleans had been built on a marsh. This means it is below sea level, which is a dangerous location. Its geographic location influenced the effects of Katrina because of the Mississippi river and Lake Borgne (LaJoie, Ginny, Paul, 2010). Levees had been built to cater for the occasional floods, but they failed with the hurricane.

The government had to build better barriers after this disaster. These assessments warn the governments of many being left homeless, and this ensures there are relocation homes available in case they are needed. The preparedness involves availing evacuation facilities needed. Some assessments like the one done on Hurricane Pam in 2002 showed that transportation would be a major problem. This made the federal government put a high level attention into the infrastructure With the Katrina assessment, the mayor ordered a compulsory evacuation, and it was successful though too few (Mackenzie & Levendis, 2010).

Hazard analysis should be enhanced because unfortunately, the most affected people are the vulnerable, low income class. They are not able to live in the disaster free zones due to their low income. The hazards should be communicated to the people to create awareness. The worst is the health hazards that come with the stagnant waters. There are also exposed rocks that have dangerous, chemicals which affect their health. The air gets polluted, and it is hazardous to the people in these regions. Other hazards like being left homeless should be addressed to enable adherence to orders when they are forced to evacuate. Economic hazards should also be stressed on so that the government can set aside enough funds to cater for the affected people.

The community should be broadly involved since they are the victims. It is important for them to give their opinions. This way the government will gather enough information on the areas to be looked into. Education on disaster management should be well delivered to everyone especially those in the risky zones. The community is the governments eyes and hence the need to involve them in decision making (Shaughness, White & Brendler, 2010).

Hurricane Katrina affected the areas that were below sea-level. It proved that the government had not taken enough protection on the area, and that levees that had been built by the American corps were not able to stop the destruction. In the economic factor, the government would need to improve on the awareness and improvement. This is because Katrina proved that the Bush government was not ready and could not cater fast enough for the affected people. The government's political system does not seem to be ready even after Katrina because Haiti has proved it. The earthquake in Haiti had a poor response… [read more]

Misuse of Funds Essay

… In the New Orleans region, for instance, residents reported frenziedly attempting to call the Red Cross outlets and receiving no response. Another small, predominately Native American community of Dulac reported that they only received supplies form the Red Cross a month after Hurricane Rita had overwhelmed them.

In the meantime, other accusations involved unnecessary spending of the Red Cross on items such as expensive hotel rooms, excessive travel costs and unnecessary food. Other criticisms have swirled around the Red Cross spending more than a million dollars on celebrity endorsements and promotion whilst cutting their staff.

According to Komp (2007)

Charity Navigator, a watchdog group that provides information on charities to potential donors, [reported that] the organization spent more than $170 million on administrative costs and about $111 million on fundraising expenses in 2004. Interim CEO Jack McGuire makes a salary of $416,010. The organization spent about $2.8 billion on programs. (http://newstandardnews.net/content/index.cfm/items/2873)

Criticisms like these have caused high-ranking personnel from the Red Cross to either resign or be fired. Marsha Evans quit after Hurricane Katrina, citing problems with the board of directors, whilst her predecessor Bernadine Healy, resigned as a result of accusations that alleged that she mismanaged the September 11 funds that had been specifically earmarked for families of victims killed in the attack.

The Red Cross has irretrievably and possibly irreversibly damaged its reputation with the public- at least with those who are aware of its misdemeanors. Had the Red Cross committed errors of competence, it may have been able to reverse its reputation -- or it may be able to do so in the future. However, since its errors involve… [read more]

Disaster Classification Classifying Disasters Research Paper

… technological disasters vs. purposeful attacks, for example -- and can also be used to compare different instances of specific types of disasters -- one earthquake vs. another earthquake (FEMA, 2012). When it come sto comparing two different disasters from two different broad classes, however, this system is inadequate.

Classifying disasters based on their expected effects can fill this gap (Aceves et al., 2007). A three-part classification system with two levels of precaution and a third level of evacuation is meant to measure the broad expected impact of a disaster on a human population (Aceves et al., 2007). Combining these methods allows for a comparison matrix to be constructed.




Anth. Acc.

Anth. Purp.

Prec. 1

Prec. 2


Disaster 1

Disaster 2

Disaster 3

Disaster 4


Aceves, F., Rudolf, A. & Peralta, J. (2007). Disasters: A simplified systematic scale (SSS) for classifying magnitudes of hurricanes and earthquakes. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the ISSS.

FEMA. (2012). Hazard…… [read more]

Role of Media in Disasters Research Paper

… , 2006, p.73). This depiction minimized the plight of people affected by the hurricane by robbing them of their autonomy and independence; instead of being celebrated for their resilience, they were instead doubly-victimized -- first by the hurricane and then by their portrayal as helpless victims in the media.

The media's portrayal of young black men as a violent pack of marauders intent on scavenging amongst the remains of New Orleans did not come out of the blue. Instead, it built upon a well-established foundation of media bias that tends to demonize urban youth by virtue of their color and socioeconomic status. The portrayal of this group of citizens played a large role in contributing to an us (the military, everyone outside of Louisiana) versus them (hurricane victims, black youth) mentality that allowed the general public to accept the militarization of New Orleans with little outcry or resistance. As Tierney and colleagues (2006) point out, the official response to the hurricane was "as if the United States were facing an armed urban insurgency rather than a catastrophic disaster" (p.74), a framework which allowed for the implementation of strict controls on both the public and the media.

The disaster in New Orleans and surrounding areas illustrates the need for calm, evaluative, and critical response from the media to emergency situations. The public often has no other access to information about public crisis and disasters except what they encounter through media outlets, and will take their cues from such reports accordingly. Thus, it is essential in an age when information is so readily available through the Internet that those reporting on emergency events consider the manner in which their information will be interpreted by the public, and resist the urge to sensationalize the human element of disasters into easily-digestible stereotypes.


Tierney, K., Bevc, C, & Kuligowski, E. (2006, Jan.). Metaphors matter: Disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in Hurricane Katrina. The ANNALS of the American

Academy of…… [read more]

Persuasive Speech on How Global Warming Is Fictional Not Factual Essay

… Warming Speech

Preparation Outline

The Amazing Fiction of Global Warming

Within a few generations, global warming will lead to the complete destruction of human civilization as we know it, according to many scientists

There is not any strong evidence that… [read more]

Emergency Management and Public Safety Communications Term Paper

… Katrina Communications

Failures in Public Communication Responses to Emergency Situations: A Return to Hurricane Katrina

Though Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States more than half a decade ago, the nation, its populations, and the many agencies and organizations involved in responding to emergency situations are all still learning from the lessons of this major natural disaster. Heavy criticisms have been levied against the federal government, certain specific individual leaders, and the organizations involved in providing disaster relief for this affected by Hurricane Katrina, and the emergency response and disaster preparedness structures and systems that were implemented in the wake of the hurricane have been cited as needing major adjustments. A variety of problems, from a lack of adequate resources to their inefficient deployment, have been cited as specific problems with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other agencies involved in disaster response and relief.

One of the specific problems that has been noted when it comes to the response to Hurricane Katrina is the lack of effective communication that occurred following the disaster. Better communication would have resulted in a more accurate initial assessment of the situation and a better coordination of available resources once the extent of the disaster was known. The following pages will examine the communications systems that were in place during the response to Hurricane Katrina and the failures and successes of these communications systems and their utilization in order to determine how better public communications systems can be developed.

Communications Failures and Infrastructure Issues

Communications are extremely important during disaster response and relief efforts for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is ensuring that the right resources are deployed and implemented in the most effective manner possible. Many specific instances of communications failures in this regard have been cited in the response to Hurricane Katrina that might seem simple and rather mundane but that truly have profound and far-reaching effects. Generators that had been requested to restore function to pipelines, for instance, were diverted by FEMA agents to power hospitals, and while this represents a proper assessment of need it did not reflect the most efficient use of resources -- FEMA agents should have been aware that there were plentiful generators available, and that other business infrastructure could have been maintained and supported while emergency measures were implemented (U.S. Congress 2006).

Ineffective resource use at this basic level contributed to further miscommunication and mis-assessments of the situation, making relief and response efforts far less prevalent and effective than they could have been. Other large scale communication deficiencies contributed to making Hurricane Katrina a bigger disaster than necessary; lack of solid and comprehensive local, regional, and federal communications systems as well as a lack of integration between the various communications systems and protocols that did exist were noted as specific and widespread communication failures during the entire disaster response (Mountjoy 2005). Had local resources been able to communicate with federal agencies more easily, the response could have been… [read more]

Emergency Operation Center for a Coastal Town Application Essay

… ¶ … Emergency Operation Center for a coastal town. This town is vulnerable to hurricanes, and needs a center to manage operations if a hurricane occurs. An emergency operations center provides protection for emergency management personnel who continue to operate the government and support services during an emergency, such as a hurricane. It must be in a safe location, and it can be compact to large and stand-alone. The location in question is vulnerable to hurricanes, and it needs a new emergency operations center design.

Planning a well-running emergency operation center takes coordination and an understanding of what disasters the center could face. In a hurricane prone area, it should be located well away from the coast, where there can be a danger of flooding when hurricanes occur. It should have a minimum of windows, which can blow out during a hurricane, and it should have underground, secure utilities to ensure that communications and operations can continue when the power goes out. It should be designed to be discreet, so it is not obvious to the public, and it should be in a protected area. It has to be secure, and access should be controlled. If possible, it should be located near other emergency services, such as fire or medical responders, and it should be in a location that is easy to access by the emergency staff members. It should also be constructed to resist hurricanes due to specific building standards.

The center also needs sleeping and eating areas, and needs to be self-contained, so staff members can live in the center during an emergency. It needs to have excellent communications equipment, so news about the disaster can be broadcast to the public. The communications team should have contacts to local media, so they can pass on news about services and other issues during the emergency.

Planning the center…… [read more]

Carbonless Global Warming Business Proposal

… ¶ … Fictional nonprofit designed to promote low-carbon and carbon-Free living

Environmentalism has become increasingly trendy in the past decades. Recycling; carrying reusable shopping bags; and buying Energy Star-rated products and hybrid vehicles have been embraced by the mainstream public as fashion statements. However, our organization believes that it is not enough to take such small steps to combat the devastating impact of global warming. Instead, we are working to promote a truly carbon-free lifestyle in every facet of the lifestyles of residents of the developed world. Our new nonprofit organization 'Carbon Free -- You and Me' attempts to promote a variety of carbon-free lifestyle changes and initiatives to the general population.

Major programs and services

Promoting Meatless Mondays (or cutting down meat consumption to one or two days per week given that methane is a significant greenhouse gas and cows are one of the post potent sources of methane emission); encouraging the installation of solar panels to reduce the use of fossil-fuels when heating a home; using wind energy; reducing consumption of material goods by buying used clothing; and supporting environmentally-friendly businesses and research with government grants are all part of the Carbon Free mission (Top 50 things to do to stop global warming, 2010, Global Warming Facts).

The organization also has a substantial educational component, and will disseminate information to schools to educate children about the carbon-free lifestyle. It will also sponsor contests for students to encourage them to become excited about a less carbon-dependent existence, like a new 'environmentally friendly' invention contest. Encouraging children to walk and ride a bike to school where it is safe is also another way to introduce carbon-free living to young people.

Reason for action

Global warming is one of the greatest challenges…… [read more]

Management Application Essay

… Management

In this presentation, I would introduce the two main types of flooding associated with hurricanes -- coastal flooding and flash flooding. I would explain what each of these flooding types is, how they are created, what types of damage they are capable of, and how they can either be prevented or the impacts ameliorated.

Coastal flooding is associated with a storm surge, a condition that arises when a hurricane or tropical storm results in higher than normal tidal action. Coastal flooding from storm surge was the primary cause of devastation associated with Hurricane Katrina, and has the potential for devastation. The damage from coastal flooding typically is on lowland areas, so the potential for damage to our town from coastal flooding is in part dependent on geography (NRC, 1994). In the presentation I would show a map of our region, highlighting the areas according to their coastal flooding risk.

The most common defense against coastal flooding is structural, in the form of dykes and levees, locks, reservoirs and other such defenses intended to contain excess water and keep it out of low-lying areas. The presentation will outline the strength of these defenses in our area, based on the understanding that storm surge can exceed fifteen feet of height, and based on the age and expected structural integrity of our region's current defenses. A computer model will be used to illustrate the ability of our system to handle storms of a variety of different strengths, up to Category 5. Such models, including MIKE 11 and HEC-UNET, will augment the presentation by providing a clear visual picture of the types of damage that can be expected with hurricane-associated coastal flooding (Chowdhury & Kjelds, 2002).

Flash flooding is associated with severe rainfall, and can occur with a hurricane or tropical storm. The natural and man-made drainage systems are inundated with water beyond their capacity. These types of floods can arise quickly and can…… [read more]

Non-Profit Organization for Global Warming Business Proposal

… Moreover, they must trust to donate money and time online. Therefore, we first need a professional webpage.

Although most people prefer to use internet to communicate, face-to-face or phone conversation are still more trustable. In addition, organizing people, collecting tree and donations would not be possible without a physical location. Therefore, the second need of our organization would be a building with several full-time and part-time personals, and assigned vehicles.

The tentative yearly budget for our organizations would e as follows.

Renting a building $120 000

Media and advertisement expenses (including office needs) $25,000

Personal and vehicle expenses $300,000

Fulltime Administrator Assistant


Part-time Accountant

Two officers

Travels and Seminars $75,000

Misc $50,000

The Carbonless Organization seeks support of $570,000 to rent a building, provide awareness to the community and plant trees. Renting a building will provide us to accommodate people for awareness education and storage for the donations and trees. The professional aesthetic web page will help us to reach a wide range of audience and accelerate donations and social awareness. Networks like Facebook, Myspace and Linkedin will be used to reach different age and occupation groups. Our organization is in the process of establishment and your support will help us to stop "GLOBAL WARMING."

Nevertheless, our organization is open to the opportunities to get together with other non-profit organizations and share the facilities and duties. Therefore, we would like to know whether you are aware or willing to act together. Carbonless is very excited to opportunity to increase the awareness for the global warming by planting trees and educations. We would be more than happy to discuss further details and opportunities.



http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-in-depth/all_reports/observedimpacts/execsumm.cfm… [read more]

Risk Perception and Communication Application Essay

… Risk Perception and Communication

Human nature and human consciousness are incredible dimensions. While they generally help the individual, they also often dictate behavior which is not in the advantage of the individual. Human nature for instance allows women to recover and forget the trauma of giving birth, but they also led individuals to believe that the evils of the world will not happen to them. Smokers continue to smoke because they do not believe that illness would strike them. Careless drivers continue to be careless because they believe accidents would not happen to them. People continue to be live unprotected in areas where tornado hazards are prone to happen because they believe they are protected by the large hill on the west of the town. How to convince them they are wrong? And what sources to use in this endeavor? The two unbeatable sources -- history and science.

From a scientific standpoint, the belief that hills could protect towns or cities against tornados is catalogued simply as a myth and it is a result of false hopes as well as circumstantial events.

"The idea that one's town is "protected" is a combination of wishful thinking, short memory, the rarity of tornadoes, and a distorted sense of "here" and "there." Proof of protection has been offered by a very simple statement of fact. The town has never been hit by a tornado, but 10 tornadoes have touched down "outside" of town in the past 30 years. The occurrence information may be fact, but the conclusion that the town must be "protected" does not logically follow" (The Tornado Project, 1999).

Aside from hope, a limited recollection and the alignment of various situations in a favorable context, the perception of hills protecting the town could also be explained by the reduced understanding of the other elements in the equation, such as:

The impact, namely the lack of impact, rivers and lakes…… [read more]

Responsible for Emergency Planning in Miami Application Essay

… ¶ … responsible for emergency planning in Miami, an area that is vulnerable to hurricanes. You devise a plan

Emergency planning in Miami

Miami is a region highly subjected to the risks of hurricanes and whenever the calamity strikes, significant material and human damages are registered. In order to minimize the damages, it is necessary to construct a solid emergency plan. This plan would contain elements such as:

Steps to be taken before the calamity strikes, such as the use of technology to foresee the hurricane, its point of impact and its intensity

Steps to be taken to evacuate the population from the affected regions

Measures of insuring humans, animals, properties and goods

Offering training to the individuals so that they know what to do when the hurricane threatens to hit

The selection of community leaders and their superior training so that they can control the situation on the spot, at least until the emergency teams arrive

Measures of reaching and rescuing people in isolated locations

Proving the evacuated and/or isolated people with basic commodities -- shelter, food and water

Assessing the hurricane in order to document it and draw new lessons.

The emergency plan is in fact extremely complex and integrates actions to be taken before, during and in the aftermath of the disaster. While the construction of the plan is rather simple, its implementation is conditioned by financial constraints. In order to raise the necessary funds, three specific sources would be approached: the community, the corporations and the local governments.

a) The local governments

The local governments have the direct responsibility of ensuring the safety of the population. As the plan is completed, it would be presented to the local authorities who would…… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina How it Affected Both Community and Individuals Families Research Paper

… Hurricane Katrina, one of the most devastating storms to hit the U.S. coast, overwhelmed the city of New Orleans, leaving it underwater with nearly two thousand of its citizens dead. The storm resulted in a failure of the levees, which… [read more]

Public Administration Term Paper

… Public Administration

The field of public administration is littered with bureaucrats who believed that they were taking the most ethical actions. Yet, once an incident occurs, it is clear that the activities that took place before and after the incident… [read more]

Role of Volunteer Agencies in the Response of Hurricane Katrina Thesis

… Hurricane Katrina was one of the most devastating natural disasters to ever occur in the United States (Mills et al., 2007). The extent of the destruction visited upon New Orleans, Alabama and Mississippi was unprecedented and so was the lack… [read more]

Utilitarian Ethical Issues Rule Utilitarianism and Non Research Proposal

… Utilitarian Ethical Issues

Rule Utilitarianism and Non-Essential Environmental Destruction:

A rule utilitarian global conservationist would oppose the proposed vacation to Sweden because it violates the rule against unnecessary contribution to the global warming problem. That rule would prohibit any recreational jet flight, precisely because that mode of transportation contributes to the global warming problem to a degree that is completely out of proportion to any conceivable need or benefit of vacationing. The strictest rule utilitarian conservationist might oppose any use of jet-powered flight for any reason, challenging the characterization of what is truly necessary. Under that approach, the harm caused by jet-powered travel to the environment should justify a rule prohibiting it completely, regardless of the purported benefit or purpose involved.

The rule utilitarian global conservationist might allow jet travel for certain purposes such as international relief missions, diplomatic negotiations, and other important functions; but the rule utilitarian conservationist would prohibit jet travel that is exclusively for recreational purposes, international ceremonial purposes, and also for many forms of commercial purposes.

The underlying reasoning of the rule utilitarian would be that global warming is a legitimate and ever-increasing threat to human life, animal life, and the health to the entire planetary ecosystem. Therefore, every effort must be made toward conservation of resources and toward reducing unnecessary carbon emissions. The propose vacation to Sweden would violate that rule.

Act Utilitarianism and Non-Essential Environmental Destruction:

An act utilitarian global conservationist might also oppose the proposed unnecessary contribution to global warming on the basis of the same underlying principle or concern as the…… [read more]

Humans Concern Essay

… Human Concern

Global Warming: A Problem of Chemistry

Whether it's in a speech from the White House or Capital Hill or in a news ticker at the bottom of CNN's screen, the topic of global warming is being discussed nearly everywhere. It is a political problem, with pundits on both sides arguing in favor or against policy. But before global warming was a political problem, it was a problem of chemistry.

Ozone (O3) is a compound formed of oxygen atoms that is located, primarily, in the stratosphere above the earth ("The Ozone Layer" para.1, "Chemical of the Week" par. 1), which plays an important role in both regulating the temperature of the earth and the ultra violent light that the earth is exposed to. Constantly created and destroyed through chemical reactions in the stratosphere, the ozone layer often changes sizes; it can also be greatly affected by seasons, solar energy, etc.

But although the Ozone layer is constantly building and rebuilding due to these natural chemical reactions, Ozone's interaction with other elements and compounds can be dangerous. When a "thinning of the ozone layer" was discovered…… [read more]

New Orleans Research Proposal

… New Orleans is a city still ill-Equipped to face future storms.

From the federal, state, and local government to the geography of New Orleans and its unstable levees, Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005 was a disaster in more ways… [read more]

Aviation Risks: Pilot Hypoxia the High Altitude Thesis

… Aviation Risks: Pilot Hypoxia

The high altitude environment is hostile to human life and to most other life forms that have not evolved in high altitude environments. At altitudes above 5,000 feet, atmospheric pressure begins to drop below the levels… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina Research Proposal

… Hurricane Katrina

On August 29th, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the southern coast of the United States with devastating effect. The hurricane made landfall on the Gulf Coast, destroying lives and leveling homes. It was reported that more than 1,800 people lost their lives, and more than $81 billion dollars in damages occurred. Hurricane Katrina, of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest, in the history of the United States.

As a result, efforts to assist those affected by Hurricane Katrina still continue, as those impacted by the terrible hurricane continue to work to regain the health and livelihood that they had before the storm (Hurricane Katrina, n.d.).

Failed Leadership in Aftermath

Hurricane Katrina not only devastated the city of New Orleans and much of the Gulf Coast of the U.S., it initiated a bitter debate about the leadership, or lack thereof, exhibited by government officials before, during and after the storm. Called into question have been the actions of an array of leaders: President Bush, Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Babineaux Blanco, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, and former Federal Emergency Management Agency director Michael Brown (, 2005).

Widespread Dissatisfaction at all Levels

There was widespread dissatisfaction with the early governmental response to Hurricane Katrina. The normal process of government response to a natural disaster is a bottom up movement starting with local government then moving up to states and, finally, reaching the federal government. With Hurricane Katrina the initial response proceeded slowly and with uncertainty.

Local government, overwhelmed by the disaster, failed to take the immediate steps necessary to avoid chaos. The omissions percolated up. At the state level, Gov. Blanco did not declare martial law or a state of emergency. She also declined the White House's offer to bring in National Guard troops. The federal government took little action in the initial days after the storm. President Bush pledged assistance, but stressed that "recovery will take years." These delays and hesitations at all levels opened the doors for chaos in the most critical recovery time.

Finally, FEMA shifted its focus from natural disasters to counter-terrorism. Structural changes also took place as FEMA moved in to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security -- taking away FEMA's independence as an agency (Schneider, 2005).

Relief Efforts

Less than three months after Hurricane Katrina ravaged New Orleans, relief legislation remained dormant in Washington and despair grew among officials who feared that Congress and the Bush administration were losing interest in their plight.

As evidence, the state and local officials cited an array of stalled bills and policy changes they said were crucial to rebuilding the city and persuading some of its hundreds of thousands of evacuated residents to return, including measures to finance long-term hurricane protection, revive small businesses and compensate the uninsured. Congressional leaders were scrambling to rein in spending, and many…… [read more]

Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth Research Proposal

… ¶ … Inconvenient Truth: The Science behind it

Director Davis Guggenheim's (2006) documentary featuring former Vice President, Al Gore, an Inconvenient Truth, documents the former vice president's campaign against global warming. The documentary is, according to the film's producer, based on a Power Point presentation that Al Gore has been giving for years, and, together, they decided that they could reach many more people by creating a documentary film based on the Power Point presentation. Any number of big name actors and Hollywood elite endorsed the documentary, in which Al Gore claims "puts the science front and center."

Gore claims that, "Scientific consensus is that we are causing global warming." We watch the documentary eagerly, looking for the science that confirms those very strong opening statements, and the science that the former vice president claims is at the center of the evidence that global warming is occurring, and that we, people of the world, are causing it. The immediate thought is that there is good science in this documentary, because there must be to make such bold, out front declarations such as science is front and center, and that a scientific consensus reveals a response to mankind is global warming. Right away we suspect that there is good chemistry to support these strong contentions; right away, no less than 30 minutes into this 100 minute documentary, and it becomes clear as to the science that is driving this documentary that has engaged the names of big celebrities like Tom Hanks, and Leonardo Di Caprio.

The science, unfortunately, is less chemistry and more psychology as the documentary has very little chemistry - rather, no chemistry - and is replete with emotional appeals to animal lovers, and environmentalists without a clue as to scientific hypothesis, testing, or conclusions, but with a lot of good intentions. There is no scientific proof of anything in this documentary; even though a handful of scientists concur with Gore that mankind must be the source of global warming.

The soft voice of Al Gore opens the film with the words, "You look at that river," which is gently flowing, and then, "you remember" that those quiet and…… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina Public Policy Thesis

… Hurricane Katrina: Public Policy


Hurricane Katrina represents one of the biggest natural disasters in history. As such, its impact on the environment was significant to the extreme. According to Esworthy et al. (2006), almost every aspect of the environment in the area was affected. Mitigation measures had to be implemented in terms of large-scale, visual impacts such as clearing away debris and rubble, to microscopic-scale impacts such as drinking water contamination.

According to Esworthy et al., the sheer scale of the cleaning effort affected all sectors of the government and the private sector. In terms of management, this presented a significant challenge. In addition to the question of whether federal and private sector institutions were adequate for the task at hand, a further concern was the adequacy of infrastructure such as landfill capacity, health and safety issues, and waste management.

The above issues also have an ecological impact on the environment. This concern manifests itself in two aspects: the effects of the hurricane itself, and the effects of the clean-up effort. In terms of the first, Katrina has caused contamination by means of hazardous materials and human remains. Because of the scale of the disaster, it was also difficult to separate hazardous from non-hazardous wastes. In terms of the second, the very measures taken to mitigate the immediate impacts of the hurricane could have long-term ecological impacts, which should also be estimated and mitigated.

A particularly important issue regarding the environment and the clean-up process was maintaining the flow of information to the public. The public needed not only to be informed, but also involved in the clean-up process. This would both relieve the authorities in charge of the process, and empower members of the public during a time of unmitigated loss of both property and lives. Taking action would mitigate the resulting emotions.


Like the environment, all aspects of the economy have also been influenced by the destruction of hurricane Katrina. Specifically, Chris Isidore (2005), mentions the areas of home construction, trade, agriculture and livestock in addition to energy price issues and the value of the dollar in this regard. Indeed, Isidore mentions the possibility of wider-scale economic impacts on the country as a whole resulting from the disaster.

Isidore mentions that the real estate market had been a major driver of the U.S. economy before the disaster. With the destruction and rebuilding costs after the disaster, there are several impacts. On the one hand, interests rates have fallen sharply, resulting in lower mortgage rates across the country. On the other hand, shortages resulting from an increased demand for building goods could spike prices, and the import of building materials could result in a further supply problem as a result of the closed Gulf ports.

The closed Gulf also significantly impacted trade, according to Isidore. At the time, the estimate by the American Farm Bureau Federation was a probable loss of $500 million in exports for U.S. producers. This could have more long-term results… [read more]

Global Warming Public Policy Thesis

… Global Warming: Public Policy

The liberalists sustain the idea according to which the market finds its own resources to regulate itself, thanks to the market forces. However, in some cases, this assumption is not valid, it affects some of the common interests at a global level for mankind and these are areas where the governments intervene with restrictions and regulations that will limit the effects of the companies' activities. One such example is the global warming process: a real threat to the environment and to the natural world, an area where government coercion was necessary to lay down the rules by which companies could restrict their activities that affect nature (Clark, Lee 2004).

While it initially seems like an effect that impacts the natural world and the environment, global warming is much deeper than that and, in fact, backfires into affecting other branches of the economy. Indeed, this is why we can argue that, while not affecting economic growth for companies operating in some sectors of the economy (the industrial segment), global warming produces negative effects for companies in, say, the insurance business, which find themselves covering disasters produced by hurricanes and storms, direct consequences of global warming (Nordhaus, Shellenberger 2005). Government restrictions to combat global warming will thus not only positively affect the environment, but will also have a direct impact on some of the connected industries, affected by global warming.

On the other hand, arguments against severe government restrictions also point out the fact that this will tend to limit economic growth over the next period of time. Whether we like it or not, economic growth is also based on energy consumption and cannot be based solely on services or tertiary activities. To what degree conclusions such as the one in the Kyoto Protocol limiting energy consumption and emissions are the true solution, given the impact they could have on the overall economy by limiting economic growth and, thus, brining disaster through a different manner at a global level? (Samuelson 2006).

At the same time, it is also useful to point out that some of the most important stakeholders are, in fact, the moralists who look at the issue from a purely environmentalists perspective and for whom the main goal is to save a particular specie of animal (Samuelson 2006). We should point out that the issue…… [read more]

Surviving Katrina: Reviving Mardi Gras the Horrible Thesis

… ¶ … Surviving Katrina: Reviving Mardi Gras

The horrible tragedy of Hurricane Katrina destroyed more than property damage, it took many people's lives and livelihoods. A once flourishing town, New Orleans stood as a modern day ghost town for several months after the hurricane, and many areas still show massive amounts of property damage. Yet, even after the tragedy, many people have begun the hard work to restore their once vibrant community, including the revival of their infamous Mardi Gras festivities. Yet is it possible? Can New Orleans bring Mardi Gras back in the wake of such a tragedy without loosing its successful flare?

Mardi Gras is actually a quasi-religious ceremony which essentially lets Catholics have a little fun before entering into the period of Lent, which dedicated Catholics give up luxuries as a sacrifice. The term, in French "Fat Tuesday," denotes a day to live it up before giving u such things as meat or wine after Ash Wednesday. It was a time to play before you resumed your role as a dedicated Catholic. Originating in Europe, the Carnival atmosphere we associate with it today took well to the Creole inhabitants of formerly French held Louisiana. Due to its high level of French speaking residents, New Orleans made the celebration of Mardi Gras one of its specialties after its first celebration in 1699. In the modern context, Mardi Gras has been an important source of income for the state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans. Today, the residents of New Orleans go all out for their costumes, parades, and other celebrations.

Yet, one major set back to those beloved celebrations -- Hurricane Katrina. As it ravished the Gulf Coast in August 2005, it left New Orleans sunk under massive amounts of water. After thousands dead and millions of dollars in property damage, many were wondering if Mardi Gras would ever return to the streets of the French Quarter. Even high ranking officials such as Lt. Governor Landrieu believed Mardi Gras had a good possibility of disappearing into the pages of New Orleans already rich history. Many believed it was disrespectful to continue on the tradition so soon after Katrina's disastrous wrath. Others questioned if the practice would ever return in full force at all with the negative image of the area portrayed by the media.

However, residents of New Orleans have proven to the world that they are not letting their 300 century old tradition to die so easily. Hurricane Katrina took…… [read more]

Al Gore Wins a Nobel Prize Term Paper

… Al Gore Wins a Nobel Prize

In October, 2007, former Vice President of the United States, Al Gore, was awarded a shared Nobel Peace Prize for his work on global warming. In a New American article by William P. Hoar, the question of why Gore was awarded such a distinguished prize was examined. It was, posited Hoar, honoring Gore for his life-long commitment to the issue of global warming, which, admittedly, until recently, few people had taken him seriously about. The issue of global warming has come to the forefront of public attention because in fact, irrefutably, the polar glaciers are melting, and areas where glaciers that formed thousands of years ago are in fact seeing newly created land mass as those glaciers have disappeared. This history melting glaciers and Gore's concern about the polar glaciers are discussed by Gore at length in the documentary directed by Davis Guggenheim, and starring Al Gore. Gore has, he says, dedicated his life to talking about global warming.

Still, there has been much controversy over his documentary, an Inconvenient Truth (2006), which brought him the Nobel Peace Prize, along with the UN scientists who signed off on what the opposing science expressed in the Great Global Warming Swindle (2007) have said is bad science. It is what Dan M. Kahan (2007) writing for the Stanford Law Review calls the "cognitively illiberal state.

Dan Kahan goes on to explain how Al Gore, a non-scientist, but a skilled orator and a man who has great public appeal, and an appeal that increases the more the public become weary of the war in Iraq and weary of George W. Bush. It is this, and the liberal tendency to go for all things green these days, which may not be a bad thing until it starts bleeding over into the rational thinking processes of people. This is what Kahan calls the cognitively illiberal state. That is accepting the ideas of an individual because that individual is associated with the liberal ideologies of the political and religious right.

It is this association with all things "liberal," the Constitution, the right to challenge in the Supreme Court, which are, Kahan says, paradigmatically associated with the prevention of harm.

This, Kahan says, explains why people are accepting of Al Gore's global warming theories, even though they are not facts; because he presents his theories as values that people want to embrace. This issue alone, and the way that Al Gore has used his liberalism to manipulate the public with rhetoric and guilt, even presenting false and unproven information that people are willing to accept as fact because it is reflective of the values they believe themselves to possess, and want to force upon others who might not share those values; and,…… [read more]

Global Warming Is a Phenomenon Characterized Term Paper

… Global Warming is a phenomenon characterized by the continuous increase in the temperature of the air and the water in the oceans, which has been felt increasingly strong during the past recent years and it is expected to increase in density and severity. A most concerning fact on global warming is given by its causes, namely the pollution generated by the human beings, making as such the phenomenon a man-made disaster (Connor, 2005). The main generators of global warming are the greenhouse gases which can also be of natural provenience or can be induced by man; most of them are induced by men. The most common natural gas which increases the greenhouse effect is nitrous oxide, but it has a reduced significance in the overall process. The majority is held by man generated gases, such as water vapors, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone (Kiehl and Trenberth, 1997).

The gravity of global warming is basically due to the increase in the waste of such damaging gases. The greenhouse gases are more and more present within the atmosphere because of the increased levels of pollution, generated by increased consumption levels.

Only until recently, the United States of America was the primary consumer of the globe. However in recent years, due to economic growth and technological developments, the living standards in China have increased significantly, and the country overthrown U.S. To become the number one consumer of the world (China Daily, 2005).

Whereas some of these gases can be accounted for individual consumption, most of them are generated by industrial activities. Among the industries which eliminate the largest amounts of greenhouse gases one could easily point out the oil and petroleum industry, the automobile industry, the furniture industry, the metals and chemicals industry and even the sugar industry.

Immediate measures must be taken in order to prevent the disastrous effects of global warming and these measures must take the form of pollution reduction. They should include:

1. A clear and compulsory garbage selection - this means that the garbage would…… [read more]

Human Geography - Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina Term Paper

… Human Geography - Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans

The topic of this paper is an analysis of Hurricane Katrina and its impact on human geography in New Orleans, Mississippi and Alabama as compared to the human geography considerations in Florida, another area which experiences devastating hurricanes on an even more frequent basis (Pacione 1999).

The events of Hurricane Katrina exposed a new generation to the dangers of living at or below sea level in a hurricane-prone area. Unlike other hurricane-prone "disaster areas," like coastal Bangladesh, there are fewer pressures for population to gravitate towards the Gulf Coast. New Orleans's position at the mouth of the Mississippi river delta has made it an important seaport for the past 300 years, representing a way to access the exports and imports of the giant Mississippi and associated drainage areas, from the Ohio river delta in the East to the Missouri river delta, extending to Montana.

New Orleans thus has a special reason to attract import-export firms. Recent decades have brought offshore oil and gas production, which has made New Orleans and Houston hubs for supply, domicile and financing for oil companies and oil field service companies.

Like 1/3rd of the Netherlands, New Orleans and its surrounding area is at or below sea level. The city had developed levees in the 1700's and 1800's, which were defended as early as 1814 by Andrew Jackson, who repelled the British in their attempt to breach the levees and flood the city. The politics of Louisiana and New Orleans predate the Louisiana Purchase in the early 1800's, and were always characterized by office-seeking, bribery and incompetence. Thus Louisiana was the home to a governor who was jailed in the 1980's for bribery and extortion, and its leading senator, "Catfish" Boggs, was known for decades to steer pork in Louisiana's direction.

The important function of levee maintenance was entrusted to appointed 'levee commissions.' The City of New Orleans has 17 such commissions, each responsible for a part of the levee. These commissions contract separately for maintenance and increasing the height of the levees; these lucrative contracts are a part of the rich patronage network which typifies Louisiana and New Orleans politics and public spending.

The Army Corps of Engineers has broad federal authority to supervise, audit and, in many cases, correct or improve flood control in the Mississippi Basin. It had conducted a number of audits over the years which established that the New Orleans levees were not adequate to a high-wind hurricane, and went…… [read more]

Consumer Behavior Consumer Behaviour Why Do People Term Paper

… Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behaviour

Why do people become involved in organizations like the Sierra Club?

Volunteerism and loyalty of organizations where no economic gain is possible has gained rapidly throughout the last several years due to several factors, the greatest being the revaluation many people are making in regard to their lives' purpose. The rise in memberships in volunteer organizations can be attributed primarily to the need many people have to help a cause they are concerned about, and in making that contribution, attain a high level of satisfaction from serving others and helping the less fortunate to attain their goals. The Sierra Club specifically is also well-known for its social events and the many opportunities for social networking that are available in the many chapters the club is comprised of globally. In addition to these first two factors of making a greater contribution and social interaction, many people join the Sierra Club to learn about a specific area or region of the country they live in, and to also find expert-level guides to assist them in exploring these areas on their own as well. The Sierra Club membership has in specific communities been singularly responsible for funding drives to alleviate land developers from completely overtaking natural landmarks not defined as national parks yet valuable for their aesthetic and historical significance. In addition to all of these factors mentioned, one of the most potent and mentioned ones is also the ability of the Sierra Club to create an atmosphere of achievement and honouring the voice of their membership and giving each member an opportunity to have their opinions, values and varying approaches to making contributions to the Sierra Club recognized and valued. The strength of the Sierra Club, over and above all other factors mentioned, is the ability to allow each member's voice to be heard, and each member to be valued for their contributions and interest. People join the Sierra Club for these reasons, yet these factors can also be extrapolated across many volunteer organizations.

2. What can a volunteer organization do to have an impact on global warming? Address this by answering the 3 questions:

a. should we focus our energy on individuals, interest groups (such as tourism interests), corporations, or governmental organizations?

b. what can we hope to accomplish with each target group (i.e., donations, public support, political pressure)?

c. How will we convince each target group to participate (what messages, what media)?

Clearly no single volunteer organization will be able to single-handedly make a…… [read more]

Dmat Disaster Medical Assistance Teams Term Paper

… Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) are defined as 'a group of professional and paraprofessional medical personnel designed to provide emergency medical care during a disaster or other event' (McEntire 156). They are utilized when a disaster or other event results… [read more]

Disaster Recovery Centers Hurricane Ready With Generator Power Decals ICS 300 and ICS 400 Term Paper

… Disaster Recovery Centers, Hurricane Ready with Generator Power decals, ICS 300 and ICS 400

Disaster Recovery, Hurricane, ICS

Disaster Recovery Center is utilized whenever there is a disaster. In the case of FEMA, a Disaster Recovery Center -- DRC is… [read more]

Sociology and Hurricane Katrina Term Paper

… Sociology and Hurricane Katrina

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of sociology and current events. Specifically, it will compare and contrast how the conflict, functionalist, and interactionist perspectives would view the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. All of these theories can apply to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and all show areas of our own society that need work and understanding.

The conflict theory of sociology believes society functions for each member to maximize their benefits, which can lead to change in politics. This theory certainly applies to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which has led to a wide gulf between social classes in New Orleans, and brought it to the attention of the rest of the world. Most of the hardest hit areas in New Orleans lie in the poorest sectors of the city, largely populated by blacks, like the Ninth Ward. These areas are being rebuilt so slowly it is laughable, while other areas, like the "vital" Superdome, for example, were rebuilt quickly. Many people feel the reason reconstruction is so slow is the division in the city between rich and poor, black and white. So far, many of the city's residents have not returned to their homes, and most of those who have are still living in FEMA trailers. It seems that in New Orleans, it is "everyman for himself" when it comes to social change and rebuilding, because many people feel the government has simply forgotten about them. This too, matches the conflict theory, in that it has led to people working on their own to solve the problem. Even celebrities have gotten involved, and individuals are using New Orleans as a setting for films and books, to help bring attention to the lack of support there. Is this leading to a change in politics? So far, it has not seemed to help much, but there is still time. The conflict theory indicates that members of society are in conflict with each other, and with the social constructs of society, and that was certainly the case during and directly after the hurricane, when the local, state, and federal government all came under fire, and thousands of people suffered because of lack of planning. The conflict theory has been in place since the hurricane occurred, and it does not seem to show signs of letting up anytime soon.

The functionalist perspective sees society as parts of a system that are all interrelated. The parts act together, even though they may not all be doing the same thing at the same time. Social institutions, such as religion, family, and education act as the parts of this system. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many of these systems broke down, and some are still not permanently fixed, which means, the society is out of order and not functioning as a system. That is perhaps the biggest legacy of the hurricane. Society in New Orleans and throughout much of the Gulf Coast is broken, and… [read more]

Emergency Occurring Is Inevitable. Although Prevention Serves Term Paper

… ¶ … emergency occurring is inevitable. Although prevention serves an important role in minimizing the severity of the emergencies that are experienced, prevention is not a guarantee emergencies won't be severe. For this reason, emergency management has been the topic… [read more]

Emergency Disaster Planning Term Paper

… Emergency Disaster Planning

In Case of an Emergency

Ponder, Plan and Practice

General Emergency "Kit" Guidelines

Past Lessons

Current Considerations

III Moving Forward

Somewhat Prepared?


In Case of an Emergency

Ponder, Plan and Practice

In emergency men… [read more]

Encyclopedia, "Hurricane Katrina Is Estimated Term Paper

… ¶ … Encyclopedia, "Hurricane Katrina is estimated to be responsible for $81.2 billion....in damages, making it the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history (1)." People all over the world were devastated by all aspects of this hurricane. "The storm killed at least 1,836 people, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane" (Wikipedia, 2006). The author of the article "Protecting New Orleans" discusses both the events leading up to the disaster as well as the aftermath. He wishes to convey some possible solutions being debated concerning the Katrina catastrophe as well as the background and undertone of the situation.

This particular circumstance would appear to have great relevance to our society. In the movie "The Day After Tomorrow" (a fictional movie about a possible aftermath of global warming), an iceberg the size of Rhode Island is seen breaking off in the Antarctica region. According to "Warnings From the Ice" (a transcript of a NOVA documentary airing in April 1998), "In 1995, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island broke off from the Larsen ice shelf along the Antarctic coast. And a large portion of the ice shelf disintegrated in a matter of days (1)." Melting ice becomes water and that means the water tables will rise. This eventually may pose further problems with devastation from coastal storms.

There is an old saying that "a stitch in time saves nine." One of the main points the Arthur attempts to convey is that Katrina's devastation could have been minimized. The author writes about previous disasters that happened in England and the Netherlands concerning coastal storms. Both countries engineered plans to minimize damage from further storms and enacted them. Furthermore, the writer also discusses preventative proposals that were made very close to the onset of the catastrophe by the Army Core of Engineers. These preventative concepts were dismissed by Congress. Noting this history, it would seem that with a little foresight much…… [read more]

Memoir: My Mother's Memories Term Paper

… We didn't have family anywhere around that could help."

My mother also remembers thinking that our house was would be destroyed by the hurricane. "The wind was so strong that it shook the whole house like a little bowl of Jell-o," she said. The rain was deafening, and came down like a solid sheet of water. "It felt like a river was falling on top of us," she added.

Today, although my mother hopes never to experience another hurricane of Charley's strength, she feels that surviving Charley changed her life and outlook. She thanks God daily for letting us keep our house. She makes sure she donates money to the needy and this year's hurricane victims in particular, those who were less lucky than us.

Hurricane Charley devastated much of Florida. Many Floridians Charley left homeless are still recovering. Charley hit landfall as a Category 4 hurricane. Although Charley did enormous damage, my mother also believes that…… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans Post Hurricane and Failures Term Paper

… Post-Hurricane Criminal Justice

Katrina: Post-Hurricane Failure in New Orleans

Leadership Growth Opportunities

Katrina: Post-Hurricane Failure in New Orleans

The focus of this work is the judicial and executive administration of justice in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana next following… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina That Ripped Term Paper

… This is because a full one-fifth of New Orleans residents live below the poverty line and one out of five does not have a car. To add to the problems, the government agencies were unable to provide adequate transportation for… [read more]

Hurricanes and Typhoons Term Paper

… "

What does a tropical cyclone look like? According to the Hong Kong Observatory, the tropical cyclone looks like "a huge whirlpool -- a gigantic mass of revolving moist air." The tropical cyclone has "a disc-like shape," and when looking at it from space, a person develops "a fuller appreciation of the majestic nature of tropical cyclones."

A tropical cyclone is actually like a huge, moving "heat engine," the Hong Kong Web site explains. "It feeds on an incessant supply of latent heat released from condensation in ascending moist air." And as to the power generated -- close to 20 million megawatts -- it could produce enough energy in one day at full speed to provide about 20 years supply of electricity for the people and businesses of Hong Kong.


Hong Kong Observatory. "Nature and Structure of Tropical Cyclones." Available:


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Hurricane Research Division:

Frequently Asked Questions, What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone?"

Available: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/A1.html.… [read more]

Siberian Peatlands Roach, John. "Melting Term Paper

… This cycle of less reflective surface and more melt becomes a circle activity where each event encourages the other to continue to take place.

Global warming is a serious environmental concern because its affects will eventually reach every part of the planet. More fresh water dilutes the salinity of the ocean and causes the ocean to rise. Temperature changes may change ocean current patterns. Eventually, every environmental aspect of life on Earth could be effected. Since 1954, scientists have found that the temperature on Earth has risen by one degree (Farenheit).

The example of the Siberian peatlands is only one example of the effects global warming may bring, but it is a concern because these peatlands are so big that they could release significant amounts of gases. Researchers estimate that these peatlands have been absorbing carbon dioxide for nearly 12,000 years. Other scientists urge caution in predicting both the thaw of these peatlands and the potential impact of the event, because core samples reveal that the bogs have gone through warming and cooling patterns in the past. Rather than focus on one geographic area, they urge that we focus on the cumulative effect of all the greenhouse gases being released.

One report states that the United States reabsorbs about 15% - 30% of the carbon dioxide generated by our country through artificial sources (automobiles, etc.). However, that leaves us releasing at least 70% more carbon dioxide than our environment can absorb. And, this is just one modern country. We have relied so far on such things as rainforests to help control the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study suggests that the effects of global warming may affect the environment's ability to perform this task in negative ways.


Ramanujan, Krishna. 2002. "Rain Helps Carbon Sink." Earth Observatory, Sept. 4. Accessed via the Internet 12/2/04.

Roach, John.2002. "Melting Arctic Bogs May Hasten Warming, Study Says." National Geographic News, Dec. 1, 2004. Accessed via…… [read more]

Rift Between Environmentalism and Libertarianism Term Paper

… Based on all common sense, reason, and fact, neither population nor fuel economy can be taken lightly. The problem with appealing to the conscience of auto manufacturers and consumers of SUVs is that there is no social contract determining what the automaker would receive in return for their efforts at reducing emissions. This is why imposing regulations on automobile manufacturers is tricky.

The arguments that Michaels and Balling pose regarding global warming include a downplaying of the severity of the problem. While it may seem that their optimism is the best approach and it would be nice to not have to worry, there is clearly enough evidence to at least warrant some serious discussion of the matter. As Hardin suggests, policy needs to be mutual; both sides of the issue need to find a common ground. There is no perfect solution to the problem, but the lack of perfection should not contribute to laissez faire. If enough people call for some action to be taken, then some kind of compromise must be reached. This is why Michaels, Balling, Huber, and all anti-environmentalists do not wish to take action. Without a perfect solution, even President Bush would prefer to do nothing.

The global energy crisis, global warming, and the problem of environmental regulation are so controversial that public policy is stalled. Both sides have valid points. On the one hand, big business and labor understandably need to preserve the status quo, at least in terms of securing jobs. However, their nebulous concept of "freedom" needs to be re-examined. On the other hand, environmentalists need to stop appealing only to conscience, as Hardin suggests, and start appealing to the pocketbook. Otherwise, the result will be a continuation of the status quo, which could lead to further environmental problems down…… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.