Study "Weather / Climate / Meteorology" Essays 386-407

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Aviation Risks: Pilot Hypoxia the High Altitude Thesis

… Aviation Risks: Pilot Hypoxia

The high altitude environment is hostile to human life and to most other life forms that have not evolved in high altitude environments. At altitudes above 5,000 feet, atmospheric pressure begins to drop below the levels… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina Research Proposal

… Hurricane Katrina

On August 29th, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the southern coast of the United States with devastating effect. The hurricane made landfall on the Gulf Coast, destroying lives and leveling homes. It was reported that more than 1,800 people lost their lives, and more than $81 billion dollars in damages occurred. Hurricane Katrina, of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest, in the history of the United States.

As a result, efforts to assist those affected by Hurricane Katrina still continue, as those impacted by the terrible hurricane continue to work to regain the health and livelihood that they had before the storm (Hurricane Katrina, n.d.).

Failed Leadership in Aftermath

Hurricane Katrina not only devastated the city of New Orleans and much of the Gulf Coast of the U.S., it initiated a bitter debate about the leadership, or lack thereof, exhibited by government officials before, during and after the storm. Called into question have been the actions of an array of leaders: President Bush, Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Babineaux Blanco, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, and former Federal Emergency Management Agency director Michael Brown (, 2005).

Widespread Dissatisfaction at all Levels

There was widespread dissatisfaction with the early governmental response to Hurricane Katrina. The normal process of government response to a natural disaster is a bottom up movement starting with local government then moving up to states and, finally, reaching the federal government. With Hurricane Katrina the initial response proceeded slowly and with uncertainty.

Local government, overwhelmed by the disaster, failed to take the immediate steps necessary to avoid chaos. The omissions percolated up. At the state level, Gov. Blanco did not declare martial law or a state of emergency. She also declined the White House's offer to bring in National Guard troops. The federal government took little action in the initial days after the storm. President Bush pledged assistance, but stressed that "recovery will take years." These delays and hesitations at all levels opened the doors for chaos in the most critical recovery time.

Finally, FEMA shifted its focus from natural disasters to counter-terrorism. Structural changes also took place as FEMA moved in to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security -- taking away FEMA's independence as an agency (Schneider, 2005).

Relief Efforts

Less than three months after Hurricane Katrina ravaged New Orleans, relief legislation remained dormant in Washington and despair grew among officials who feared that Congress and the Bush administration were losing interest in their plight.

As evidence, the state and local officials cited an array of stalled bills and policy changes they said were crucial to rebuilding the city and persuading some of its hundreds of thousands of evacuated residents to return, including measures to finance long-term hurricane protection, revive small businesses and compensate the uninsured. Congressional leaders were scrambling to rein in spending, and many… [read more]

Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth Research Proposal

… ¶ … Inconvenient Truth: The Science behind it

Director Davis Guggenheim's (2006) documentary featuring former Vice President, Al Gore, an Inconvenient Truth, documents the former vice president's campaign against global warming. The documentary is, according to the film's producer, based on a Power Point presentation that Al Gore has been giving for years, and, together, they decided that they could reach many more people by creating a documentary film based on the Power Point presentation. Any number of big name actors and Hollywood elite endorsed the documentary, in which Al Gore claims "puts the science front and center."

Gore claims that, "Scientific consensus is that we are causing global warming." We watch the documentary eagerly, looking for the science that confirms those very strong opening statements, and the science that the former vice president claims is at the center of the evidence that global warming is occurring, and that we, people of the world, are causing it. The immediate thought is that there is good science in this documentary, because there must be to make such bold, out front declarations such as science is front and center, and that a scientific consensus reveals a response to mankind is global warming. Right away we suspect that there is good chemistry to support these strong contentions; right away, no less than 30 minutes into this 100 minute documentary, and it becomes clear as to the science that is driving this documentary that has engaged the names of big celebrities like Tom Hanks, and Leonardo Di Caprio.

The science, unfortunately, is less chemistry and more psychology as the documentary has very little chemistry - rather, no chemistry - and is replete with emotional appeals to animal lovers, and environmentalists without a clue as to scientific hypothesis, testing, or conclusions, but with a lot of good intentions. There is no scientific proof of anything in this documentary; even though a handful of scientists concur with Gore that mankind must be the source of global warming.

The soft voice of Al Gore opens the film with the words, "You look at that river," which is gently flowing, and then, "you remember" that those quiet and… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina Public Policy Thesis

… Hurricane Katrina: Public Policy


Hurricane Katrina represents one of the biggest natural disasters in history. As such, its impact on the environment was significant to the extreme. According to Esworthy et al. (2006), almost every aspect of the… [read more]

Global Warming Public Policy Thesis

… Global Warming: Public Policy

The liberalists sustain the idea according to which the market finds its own resources to regulate itself, thanks to the market forces. However, in some cases, this assumption is not valid, it affects some of the common interests at a global level for mankind and these are areas where the governments intervene with restrictions and regulations that will limit the effects of the companies' activities. One such example is the global warming process: a real threat to the environment and to the natural world, an area where government coercion was necessary to lay down the rules by which companies could restrict their activities that affect nature (Clark, Lee 2004).

While it initially seems like an effect that impacts the natural world and the environment, global warming is much deeper than that and, in fact, backfires into affecting other branches of the economy. Indeed, this is why we can argue that, while not affecting economic growth for companies operating in some sectors of the economy (the industrial segment), global warming produces negative effects for companies in, say, the insurance business, which find themselves covering disasters produced by hurricanes and storms, direct consequences of global warming (Nordhaus, Shellenberger 2005). Government restrictions to combat global warming will thus not only positively affect the environment, but will also have a direct impact on some of the connected industries, affected by global warming.

On the other hand, arguments against severe government restrictions also point out the fact that this will tend to limit economic growth over the next period of time. Whether we like it or not, economic growth is also based on energy consumption and cannot be based solely on services or tertiary activities. To what degree conclusions such as the one in the Kyoto Protocol limiting energy consumption and emissions are the true solution, given the impact they could have on the overall economy by limiting economic growth and, thus, brining disaster through a different manner at a global level? (Samuelson 2006).

At the same time, it is also useful to point out that some of the most important stakeholders are, in fact, the moralists who look at the issue from a purely environmentalists perspective and for whom the main goal is to save a particular specie of animal (Samuelson 2006). We should point out that the issue… [read more]

Surviving Katrina: Reviving Mardi Gras the Horrible Thesis

… ¶ … Surviving Katrina: Reviving Mardi Gras

The horrible tragedy of Hurricane Katrina destroyed more than property damage, it took many people's lives and livelihoods. A once flourishing town, New Orleans stood as a modern day ghost town for several months after the hurricane, and many areas still show massive amounts of property damage. Yet, even after the tragedy, many people have begun the hard work to restore their once vibrant community, including the revival of their infamous Mardi Gras festivities. Yet is it possible? Can New Orleans bring Mardi Gras back in the wake of such a tragedy without loosing its successful flare?

Mardi Gras is actually a quasi-religious ceremony which essentially lets Catholics have a little fun before entering into the period of Lent, which dedicated Catholics give up luxuries as a sacrifice. The term, in French "Fat Tuesday," denotes a day to live it up before giving u such things as meat or wine after Ash Wednesday. It was a time to play before you resumed your role as a dedicated Catholic. Originating in Europe, the Carnival atmosphere we associate with it today took well to the Creole inhabitants of formerly French held Louisiana. Due to its high level of French speaking residents, New Orleans made the celebration of Mardi Gras one of its specialties after its first celebration in 1699. In the modern context, Mardi Gras has been an important source of income for the state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans. Today, the residents of New Orleans go all out for their costumes, parades, and other celebrations.

Yet, one major set back to those beloved celebrations -- Hurricane Katrina. As it ravished the Gulf Coast in August 2005, it left New Orleans sunk under massive amounts of water. After thousands dead and millions of dollars in property damage, many were wondering if Mardi Gras would ever return to the streets of the French Quarter. Even high ranking officials such as Lt. Governor Landrieu believed Mardi Gras had a good possibility of disappearing into the pages of New Orleans already rich history. Many believed it was disrespectful to continue on the tradition so soon after Katrina's disastrous wrath. Others questioned if the practice would ever return in full force at all with the negative image of the area portrayed by the media.

However, residents of New Orleans have proven to the world that they are not letting their 300 century old tradition to die so easily. Hurricane Katrina took… [read more]

Al Gore Wins a Nobel Prize Term Paper

… Al Gore Wins a Nobel Prize

In October, 2007, former Vice President of the United States, Al Gore, was awarded a shared Nobel Peace Prize for his work on global warming. In a New American article by William P. Hoar, the question of why Gore was awarded such a distinguished prize was examined. It was, posited Hoar, honoring Gore for his life-long commitment to the issue of global warming, which, admittedly, until recently, few people had taken him seriously about. The issue of global warming has come to the forefront of public attention because in fact, irrefutably, the polar glaciers are melting, and areas where glaciers that formed thousands of years ago are in fact seeing newly created land mass as those glaciers have disappeared. This history melting glaciers and Gore's concern about the polar glaciers are discussed by Gore at length in the documentary directed by Davis Guggenheim, and starring Al Gore. Gore has, he says, dedicated his life to talking about global warming.

Still, there has been much controversy over his documentary, an Inconvenient Truth (2006), which brought him the Nobel Peace Prize, along with the UN scientists who signed off on what the opposing science expressed in the Great Global Warming Swindle (2007) have said is bad science. It is what Dan M. Kahan (2007) writing for the Stanford Law Review calls the "cognitively illiberal state.

Dan Kahan goes on to explain how Al Gore, a non-scientist, but a skilled orator and a man who has great public appeal, and an appeal that increases the more the public become weary of the war in Iraq and weary of George W. Bush. It is this, and the liberal tendency to go for all things green these days, which may not be a bad thing until it starts bleeding over into the rational thinking processes of people. This is what Kahan calls the cognitively illiberal state. That is accepting the ideas of an individual because that individual is associated with the liberal ideologies of the political and religious right.

It is this association with all things "liberal," the Constitution, the right to challenge in the Supreme Court, which are, Kahan says, paradigmatically associated with the prevention of harm.

This, Kahan says, explains why people are accepting of Al Gore's global warming theories, even though they are not facts; because he presents his theories as values that people want to embrace. This issue alone, and the way that Al Gore has used his liberalism to manipulate the public with rhetoric and guilt, even presenting false and unproven information that people are willing to accept as fact because it is reflective of the values they believe themselves to possess, and want to force upon others who might not share those values; and,… [read more]

Global Warming Is a Phenomenon Characterized Term Paper

… Global Warming is a phenomenon characterized by the continuous increase in the temperature of the air and the water in the oceans, which has been felt increasingly strong during the past recent years and it is expected to increase in density and severity. A most concerning fact on global warming is given by its causes, namely the pollution generated by the human beings, making as such the phenomenon a man-made disaster (Connor, 2005). The main generators of global warming are the greenhouse gases which can also be of natural provenience or can be induced by man; most of them are induced by men. The most common natural gas which increases the greenhouse effect is nitrous oxide, but it has a reduced significance in the overall process. The majority is held by man generated gases, such as water vapors, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone (Kiehl and Trenberth, 1997).

The gravity of global warming is basically due to the increase in the waste of such damaging gases. The greenhouse gases are more and more present within the atmosphere because of the increased levels of pollution, generated by increased consumption levels.

Only until recently, the United States of America was the primary consumer of the globe. However in recent years, due to economic growth and technological developments, the living standards in China have increased significantly, and the country overthrown U.S. To become the number one consumer of the world (China Daily, 2005).

Whereas some of these gases can be accounted for individual consumption, most of them are generated by industrial activities. Among the industries which eliminate the largest amounts of greenhouse gases one could easily point out the oil and petroleum industry, the automobile industry, the furniture industry, the metals and chemicals industry and even the sugar industry.

Immediate measures must be taken in order to prevent the disastrous effects of global warming and these measures must take the form of pollution reduction. They should include:

1. A clear and compulsory garbage selection - this means that the garbage would… [read more]

Human Geography - Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina Term Paper

… Human Geography - Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans

The topic of this paper is an analysis of Hurricane Katrina and its impact on human geography in New Orleans, Mississippi and Alabama as compared to the human geography considerations in Florida, another area which experiences devastating hurricanes on an even more frequent basis (Pacione 1999).

The events of Hurricane Katrina exposed a new generation to the dangers of living at or below sea level in a hurricane-prone area. Unlike other hurricane-prone "disaster areas," like coastal Bangladesh, there are fewer pressures for population to gravitate towards the Gulf Coast. New Orleans's position at the mouth of the Mississippi river delta has made it an important seaport for the past 300 years, representing a way to access the exports and imports of the giant Mississippi and associated drainage areas, from the Ohio river delta in the East to the Missouri river delta, extending to Montana.

New Orleans thus has a special reason to attract import-export firms. Recent decades have brought offshore oil and gas production, which has made New Orleans and Houston hubs for supply, domicile and financing for oil companies and oil field service companies.

Like 1/3rd of the Netherlands, New Orleans and its surrounding area is at or below sea level. The city had developed levees in the 1700's and 1800's, which were defended as early as 1814 by Andrew Jackson, who repelled the British in their attempt to breach the levees and flood the city. The politics of Louisiana and New Orleans predate the Louisiana Purchase in the early 1800's, and were always characterized by office-seeking, bribery and incompetence. Thus Louisiana was the home to a governor who was jailed in the 1980's for bribery and extortion, and its leading senator, "Catfish" Boggs, was known for decades to steer pork in Louisiana's direction.

The important function of levee maintenance was entrusted to appointed 'levee commissions.' The City of New Orleans has 17 such commissions, each responsible for a part of the levee. These commissions contract separately for maintenance and increasing the height of the levees; these lucrative contracts are a part of the rich patronage network which typifies Louisiana and New Orleans politics and public spending.

The Army Corps of Engineers has broad federal authority to supervise, audit and, in many cases, correct or improve flood control in the Mississippi Basin. It had conducted a number of audits over the years which established that the New Orleans levees were not adequate to a high-wind hurricane, and went… [read more]

Consumer Behavior Consumer Behaviour Why Do People Term Paper

… Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behaviour

Why do people become involved in organizations like the Sierra Club?

Volunteerism and loyalty of organizations where no economic gain is possible has gained rapidly throughout the last several years due to several factors, the greatest being the revaluation many people are making in regard to their lives' purpose. The rise in memberships in volunteer organizations can be attributed primarily to the need many people have to help a cause they are concerned about, and in making that contribution, attain a high level of satisfaction from serving others and helping the less fortunate to attain their goals. The Sierra Club specifically is also well-known for its social events and the many opportunities for social networking that are available in the many chapters the club is comprised of globally. In addition to these first two factors of making a greater contribution and social interaction, many people join the Sierra Club to learn about a specific area or region of the country they live in, and to also find expert-level guides to assist them in exploring these areas on their own as well. The Sierra Club membership has in specific communities been singularly responsible for funding drives to alleviate land developers from completely overtaking natural landmarks not defined as national parks yet valuable for their aesthetic and historical significance. In addition to all of these factors mentioned, one of the most potent and mentioned ones is also the ability of the Sierra Club to create an atmosphere of achievement and honouring the voice of their membership and giving each member an opportunity to have their opinions, values and varying approaches to making contributions to the Sierra Club recognized and valued. The strength of the Sierra Club, over and above all other factors mentioned, is the ability to allow each member's voice to be heard, and each member to be valued for their contributions and interest. People join the Sierra Club for these reasons, yet these factors can also be extrapolated across many volunteer organizations.

2. What can a volunteer organization do to have an impact on global warming? Address this by answering the 3 questions:

a. should we focus our energy on individuals, interest groups (such as tourism interests), corporations, or governmental organizations?

b. what can we hope to accomplish with each target group (i.e., donations, public support, political pressure)?

c. How will we convince each target group to participate (what messages, what media)?

Clearly no single volunteer organization will be able to single-handedly make a… [read more]

Dmat Disaster Medical Assistance Teams Term Paper

… Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) are defined as 'a group of professional and paraprofessional medical personnel designed to provide emergency medical care during a disaster or other event' (McEntire 156). They are utilized when a disaster or other event results… [read more]

Disaster Recovery Centers Hurricane Ready With Generator Power Decals ICS 300 and ICS 400 Term Paper

… Disaster Recovery Centers, Hurricane Ready with Generator Power decals, ICS 300 and ICS 400

Disaster Recovery, Hurricane, ICS

Disaster Recovery Center is utilized whenever there is a disaster. In the case of FEMA, a Disaster Recovery Center -- DRC is… [read more]

Sociology and Hurricane Katrina Term Paper

… Sociology and Hurricane Katrina

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of sociology and current events. Specifically, it will compare and contrast how the conflict, functionalist, and interactionist perspectives would view the aftermath of Hurricane… [read more]

Emergency Occurring Is Inevitable. Although Prevention Serves Term Paper

… ¶ … emergency occurring is inevitable. Although prevention serves an important role in minimizing the severity of the emergencies that are experienced, prevention is not a guarantee emergencies won't be severe. For this reason, emergency management has been the topic… [read more]

Emergency Disaster Planning Term Paper

… Emergency Disaster Planning

In Case of an Emergency

Ponder, Plan and Practice

General Emergency "Kit" Guidelines

Past Lessons

Current Considerations

III Moving Forward

Somewhat Prepared?


In Case of an Emergency

Ponder, Plan and Practice

In emergency men… [read more]

Encyclopedia, "Hurricane Katrina Is Estimated Term Paper

… ¶ … Encyclopedia, "Hurricane Katrina is estimated to be responsible for $81.2 damages, making it the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history (1)." People all over the world were devastated by all aspects of this hurricane. "The storm killed at least 1,836 people, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane" (Wikipedia, 2006). The author of the article "Protecting New Orleans" discusses both the events leading up to the disaster as well as the aftermath. He wishes to convey some possible solutions being debated concerning the Katrina catastrophe as well as the background and undertone of the situation.

This particular circumstance would appear to have great relevance to our society. In the movie "The Day After Tomorrow" (a fictional movie about a possible aftermath of global warming), an iceberg the size of Rhode Island is seen breaking off in the Antarctica region. According to "Warnings From the Ice" (a transcript of a NOVA documentary airing in April 1998), "In 1995, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island broke off from the Larsen ice shelf along the Antarctic coast. And a large portion of the ice shelf disintegrated in a matter of days (1)." Melting ice becomes water and that means the water tables will rise. This eventually may pose further problems with devastation from coastal storms.

There is an old saying that "a stitch in time saves nine." One of the main points the Arthur attempts to convey is that Katrina's devastation could have been minimized. The author writes about previous disasters that happened in England and the Netherlands concerning coastal storms. Both countries engineered plans to minimize damage from further storms and enacted them. Furthermore, the writer also discusses preventative proposals that were made very close to the onset of the catastrophe by the Army Core of Engineers. These preventative concepts were dismissed by Congress. Noting this history, it would seem that with a little foresight much… [read more]

Memoir: My Mother's Memories Term Paper

… We didn't have family anywhere around that could help."

My mother also remembers thinking that our house was would be destroyed by the hurricane. "The wind was so strong that it shook the whole house like a little bowl of Jell-o," she said. The rain was deafening, and came down like a solid sheet of water. "It felt like a river was falling on top of us," she added.

Today, although my mother hopes never to experience another hurricane of Charley's strength, she feels that surviving Charley changed her life and outlook. She thanks God daily for letting us keep our house. She makes sure she donates money to the needy and this year's hurricane victims in particular, those who were less lucky than us.

Hurricane Charley devastated much of Florida. Many Floridians Charley left homeless are still recovering. Charley hit landfall as a Category 4 hurricane. Although Charley did enormous damage, my mother also believes that… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans Post Hurricane and Failures Term Paper

… Post-Hurricane Criminal Justice

Katrina: Post-Hurricane Failure in New Orleans

Leadership Growth Opportunities

Katrina: Post-Hurricane Failure in New Orleans

The focus of this work is the judicial and executive administration of justice in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana next following… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina That Ripped Term Paper

… This is because a full one-fifth of New Orleans residents live below the poverty line and one out of five does not have a car. To add to the problems, the government agencies were unable to provide adequate transportation for… [read more]

Hurricanes and Typhoons Term Paper

… "

What does a tropical cyclone look like? According to the Hong Kong Observatory, the tropical cyclone looks like "a huge whirlpool -- a gigantic mass of revolving moist air." The tropical cyclone has "a disc-like shape," and when looking at it from space, a person develops "a fuller appreciation of the majestic nature of tropical cyclones."

A tropical cyclone is actually like a huge, moving "heat engine," the Hong Kong Web site explains. "It feeds on an incessant supply of latent heat released from condensation in ascending moist air." And as to the power generated -- close to 20 million megawatts -- it could produce enough energy in one day at full speed to provide about 20 years supply of electricity for the people and businesses of Hong Kong.


Hong Kong Observatory. "Nature and Structure of Tropical Cyclones." Available:

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Hurricane Research Division:

Frequently Asked Questions, What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone?"

Available: [read more]

Siberian Peatlands Roach, John. "Melting Term Paper

… This cycle of less reflective surface and more melt becomes a circle activity where each event encourages the other to continue to take place.

Global warming is a serious environmental concern because its affects will eventually reach every part of the planet. More fresh water dilutes the salinity of the ocean and causes the ocean to rise. Temperature changes may change ocean current patterns. Eventually, every environmental aspect of life on Earth could be effected. Since 1954, scientists have found that the temperature on Earth has risen by one degree (Farenheit).

The example of the Siberian peatlands is only one example of the effects global warming may bring, but it is a concern because these peatlands are so big that they could release significant amounts of gases. Researchers estimate that these peatlands have been absorbing carbon dioxide for nearly 12,000 years. Other scientists urge caution in predicting both the thaw of these peatlands and the potential impact of the event, because core samples reveal that the bogs have gone through warming and cooling patterns in the past. Rather than focus on one geographic area, they urge that we focus on the cumulative effect of all the greenhouse gases being released.

One report states that the United States reabsorbs about 15% - 30% of the carbon dioxide generated by our country through artificial sources (automobiles, etc.). However, that leaves us releasing at least 70% more carbon dioxide than our environment can absorb. And, this is just one modern country. We have relied so far on such things as rainforests to help control the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study suggests that the effects of global warming may affect the environment's ability to perform this task in negative ways.


Ramanujan, Krishna. 2002. "Rain Helps Carbon Sink." Earth Observatory, Sept. 4. Accessed via the Internet 12/2/04.

Roach, John.2002. "Melting Arctic Bogs May Hasten Warming, Study Says." National Geographic News, Dec. 1, 2004. Accessed via… [read more]

Rift Between Environmentalism and Libertarianism Term Paper

… Based on all common sense, reason, and fact, neither population nor fuel economy can be taken lightly. The problem with appealing to the conscience of auto manufacturers and consumers of SUVs is that there is no social contract determining what the automaker would receive in return for their efforts at reducing emissions. This is why imposing regulations on automobile manufacturers is tricky.

The arguments that Michaels and Balling pose regarding global warming include a downplaying of the severity of the problem. While it may seem that their optimism is the best approach and it would be nice to not have to worry, there is clearly enough evidence to at least warrant some serious discussion of the matter. As Hardin suggests, policy needs to be mutual; both sides of the issue need to find a common ground. There is no perfect solution to the problem, but the lack of perfection should not contribute to laissez faire. If enough people call for some action to be taken, then some kind of compromise must be reached. This is why Michaels, Balling, Huber, and all anti-environmentalists do not wish to take action. Without a perfect solution, even President Bush would prefer to do nothing.

The global energy crisis, global warming, and the problem of environmental regulation are so controversial that public policy is stalled. Both sides have valid points. On the one hand, big business and labor understandably need to preserve the status quo, at least in terms of securing jobs. However, their nebulous concept of "freedom" needs to be re-examined. On the other hand, environmentalists need to stop appealing only to conscience, as Hardin suggests, and start appealing to the pocketbook. Otherwise, the result will be a continuation of the status quo, which could lead to further environmental problems down… [read more]

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