"Women / Feminism" Essays

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Vital Work Feminism and Women's Studies Calls Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … vital work feminism and Women's Studies calls for and performs?

Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that feminism and Women's Studies performs real and vital 'work' in the world, and is not merely an abstract exercise in philosophy or literary analysis. Fighting for greater understanding of the role -- positive and negative -- that gender plays in our society and culture is the goal of feminism. It demands intense intellectual scrutiny and self-scrutiny. Without a formal political movement like feminism, or a formal academic discipline like Women's Studies, people will often be unwilling to perform such intense cognitive work. They are apt take gender assumptions and stereotypes for granted. We must not forget that part of the purpose of the feminist movement and the academic study of the construction of gender is to make people uncomfortable. Feminism must question cliches about gender, race, religion and the assumptions that people assume are natural, even though they may be socially constructed.

Given the strides women have made in recent decades, it has become tempting to assume that there is no real need for feminism in today's day and age. But feminism is still required intellectually, in a rigorous and systematic fashion, to examine how sexism exists, often in covert ways. Also, even if women are studied within the context of other academic disciplines like history and literature, gender is often treated as an incidental aspect of how the human character is conceived. Women's Studies brings gender as a category to the forefront of people's attention, although it has been helpful to many other academic disciplines not specifically devoted to the study of women.

Feminism also has a great deal of work to do, politically speaking. Less than a hundred years ago, many people were seriously questioning if women…… [read more]

Women and Feminist Studies A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  6 pages (2,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … women studies at a time when the interdisciplinary willpower and its concepts were getting institutional identification. Women's studies provided me with an exclusive place to take up the positions of the student, the instructor, the practitioner, and the subject researcher. Nowadays, questioning the mettle of women's studies is far from over (Darraj, 2010).

One of the things that… [read more]

Marxism and Feminism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The one important piece of writing in this connection is Heidi Hartmann's article "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism" where she wrote the famous lines that marked the beginning of the end of this union: "The marriage of marxism and feminism has been like the marriage of husband and wife depicted in English common law: marxism and feminism are one, and that one is marxism." (Hartman 1981, p. 2). Slowly and gradually, feminism turned away from Marxism to find a niche within capitalist society and this resulted in the development of new concepts in feminism. As Raya Dunayevskaya (1996) asserted:

'We can and will witness the development of women themselves not only as force but as reason. We can and will be a catalyst not only for our development as all-round human beings, but also for that of men" (p. 28).

Feminism may no longer need the support of Marxism to grow and prosper since it has found a place for itself within capitalist system, still it must acknowledge the role played by men like Marx and Engels in raising women issues.


1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell.

2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996

3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42.

4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism…… [read more]

Women First Wave Susan B. Anthony Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  6 pages (1,812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Women

First Wave

Susan B. Anthony was born in 1820 on February 15 in Adams, Massachusetts. Her family followed the Quaker tradition, and was also involved in activism. This affected her deeply, and her sense of justice and moral zeal were developed early in life. When Susan grew up, she entered the teaching profession, in which she worked… [read more]

Women in Islam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Muslim Women

Women's Progress in Muslim Societies

This paper explores the genuine progress that has been made in the lives of women in Muslim societies during the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of the current status of women in Islam and of the Muslim faith, and to assess whether enough progress… [read more]

Feminism Is a Philosophy Driven Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,638 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Feminism is a philosophy driven by the need to give women a more parallel standing in this world alongside men. It aims to encourage women to move outside their homes and seek employment and demands equal socio-political and economic rights for women all over the world. Also, one of the main aims of this philosophy is also to articulate and… [read more]

Art Abjection of the Body Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Therefore women represented in those methods are indeed monstrous. Femininity altogether is monstrous because the conception of the female and of feminine are narrow and horrific both from the perspective of traditional masculinity, for women who occupy space on that spectrum, and especially for women such as Haraway, Kristeva, and Creed who seek disruption and liberation from these constrictions. Feminism then is an effort to abject-ify (as opposed to objectify) traditional conceptions of the body and of the gender, with particular respect to women. Feminism is the effort to make the stereotypes what are monstrous not the true and full expressions of women, of what is female, and of what is feminine. The old and traditional views of the female and the feminine abject what is truly female, feminine, and feminist. These authors aim to turn the abjection around upon the very constructions that incited them to create methods of escape, liberation, and expression.


Creed, B. 1993. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, feminism, psychoanalysis. Routledge, London.

Haraway, D. 1991. A Cyborg Manifesto. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, Routledge, New York.

Mulvey, L. 1999. Cosmetics and Abjection -- Cindy Sherman, 1977 -- 1987. Shiach, M. (ed) Feminism and Cultural Studies, Oxford University Press, New York.

Refinery 29. 2012 Fashion -- Jewelry. Web, Available from: http://www.refinery29.com/fashion. 2012 August 27.

Steyn, M., & van Zyl, M. (eds) 2009. The Prize and The Prize -- Shaping Sexualities in South Africa, Human Science Research Council Press, Capetown.

Turk, A., & Badii, A. 2001. Personalized, Mediated Human-Computer Interaction. Web, Available from: http://wawisr01.uwa.edu.au/2001/TurkBadii.pdf. 4th Western Australian Workshop…… [read more]

Several Readings to Discuss 1 General Opinion Issue or Similarity Article Review

Article Review  |  18 pages (5,955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … universality of the Western interpretation of human rights.

In Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus edited by Abdullahi Ahmed an-Naim (1992), the articles are mostly concerned with reworking the notion of human rights in an effort to achieve consensus on a 'new,' 'more universal' (or cosmopolitan) view of human rights, as "the lack or insufficiency… [read more]

Sex and Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Males can be feminists too because feminism is the radical notion that women are people. The popular feminist slogan suggests that feminism is not about fist-thumping radical politics and women who won't wear bras. Rather, feminism means putting an end to ridiculous practices and conditions plaguing women all around the world. For example, women still receive lower wages for equal work in the United States. According to the Census Bureau, "For every dollar a man made in 2003, women made 75.5 cents," (Hagenbaugh). Moreover, men can be feminists because of the wider implications of the feminist movement. For instance, feminism has been linked to other movements of social justice such as civil rights for minority members of the population. Any man who believes that women should be treated fairly in any and all situations can proudly call himself a feminist.

Being treated fairly means receiving equal pay for equal work. Fairness also entails the elimination of the glass ceiling in business and politics, as "a glass ceiling continues to halt the progress of many women who strive to reach top management positions," (Gwynne). The glass ceiling plagues female politicians in the United States as well: although the number of females serving in the American Senate and House of Representatives…… [read more]

Women Closing the Bridges to Discrimination and Inequality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


19th Amendment and Women's Issues

Sections 1 and 2 of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution read:

"The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."

"Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

(Thomson 2005)… [read more]

Culture and Media Worlds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,795 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Culture and Media Works

Sexual Objectification of Women in Media

Media today is one of the most common grounds used to communicate or get a message across. It has readily increased its accessibility and its reach to people with phenomenon of globalization. Any individual who has access to any form of visual media today knows how the issue of "sex"… [read more]

Politicians Hillary Rodham Clinton: Senator Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (2,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


More than any other issue for which she advocates, women's rights and equality for woman around the world are at the forefront. Some of her famous words regarding these issues from the Beijing United Nations Conference on Women include:

"Women comprise more than half the world's population. Women are 70% percent of the world's poor, and two-thirds of those who… [read more]

Compulsory Heterosexuality &amp Lesbian Existence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,252 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


" (Rich, 1980)

Challenging social and political convention will be arduous, yet the reward to free women particularly from the ever-present restraints of male prescribed female sexuality in capitalism would be epic. The world would exist in a world of equality and freely expressed sexuality in all forms: "The extension of this assumption is the frequently heard assertion that in a world of genuine equality, where men were nonoppressive and nurturing, everyone would be bisexual." (Rich, 1980)

A portion of the content of "Compulsory Sexuality" is the list of the eight powers men have over women. Rules 1, 2, & 6 speak to the control men have over women's sexuality, bodies, and cultural representations in public spheres and in the private realms. Rich further contends that many of these powers men have over women are played out in the workplace. The workplace, for women, is an institution wherein they can be psychically or physically violated and preyed upon at any time. She urges readers to understand that the magnitude of the use of women in transactions and the number of men involved in such transactions is an international emergency. "Compulsory Sexuality" then is concerned with pervasive institutional violence against women, the freedom and declaration of the female experience, and it is about the livelihood of not only lesbians, but also all women.

Rich claims that lesbianism and feminism are not primarily concerned with sex, but rather, they are expressions of resistance against patriarchy and a declaration of existence:

"Lesbian existence comprises both the breaking of a taboo and the rejection of a compulsory way of life. It is also a direct or indirect attack on male right of access to women. But it is more than these, although we may first begin to perceive it as a form of nay-saying to patriarchy, an act of resistance. It has of course included role playing, self-hatred, breakdown, alcoholism, suicide, and intrawoman violence; we romanticize at our peril what it means to love and act against the grain, and under heavy penalties; and lesbian existence has been lived (unlike, say, Jewish or Catholic existence) without access to any knowledge of a tradition, a continuity, a social underpinning. The destruction of records and memorabilia and letters documenting the realities of lesbian existence must be taken very seriously as a means of keeping heterosexuality compulsory for women, since what has been kept from our knowledge is joy, sensuality, courage, and community, as well as guilt, self-betrayal, and pain." (Rich, 1980)

Humanity would not existence without women. Women have the right to exist and to have their existence and freedom to be respected and supported by men. The violence patriarchy performs on women is deeply cultural, political, social, physical, psychological, and linguistic:

"It will require a courageous grasp of the politics and economics, as well as the cultural propaganda, of heterosexuality to carry us beyond individual cases or diversified group situations into the complex kind of overview needed to undo the power men everywhere wield over… [read more]

Feminist Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Feminist Theory

Over the last 150 years, the overall issue of equal rights for women (feminism) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. As women refused to stand for the way they were often treated in the past, with no rights or voice in matters that concern their own lives. This would lead to the development of a number of different feminist theories to help explain the underlying philosophies and challenges facing women. (Bennett 6 -- 28) To fully understand these different theories requires conducting an annotated bibliography. Where, we examine the most relevant theories in the field of feminism. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying views and challenges facing women going forward.

Wood, Julia. "Liberal Feminism." Gendered Lives. Boston: Wadsworth, 2009. 78 -- 80. Print.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses the effects of liberal feminism. This is when women want to see equality in every sense of the word. Where, they are focused on supporting the idea that men and women are completely equal from: a legal as well as social stand point. As a result, the various organizations supporting these kinds of changes have been challenging the status quo through litigation to: various laws and policies that restrict the rights of women. (Wood 78 -- 80)

The information from this source is useful, because it highlights why liberal feminism has become increasingly popular. Where, many proponents want equality, based upon the merits of the individual vs. A particular gender. In this particular case, they want equality applied in every aspect of life, as men are not allowed to have any kind of unfavorable advantages over women.

Costa, Margret. "Socialist Feminism" Women and Sport. Champaign: Human Kinnetics, 1994. 246. Print.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses the impact of socialist feminism on the views of many women. Where, this philosophy is working off of a number of different principals to include: oppression based upon the economic status of the individual, genders issues that are divided along class lines (i.e. men having the social status / power over a woman's life) and a class style system that is designed to limit the economic mobility of women / their family. When you put these different elements together, it is obvious that social feminism represents a new philosophy of women's studies that was heavily influenced by Marxism.

The information from this source is useful, because it can be used to corroborate the trends that are taking place far as feminism is concerned. Where, the various viewpoints were influenced by the social and economic status of women in relation to men. As a result, this piece of literature is helpful in providing a greater understanding of how the economic issues are having an impact upon gender equality. (Costa 246)

Wood, Julia. "Radical Feminism." Gendered Lives. Boston: Wadsworth, 2009. 70 -- 73. Print.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses how the radical views of the 1960's would help give… [read more]

Feminists Critique of International Relations the Gendered Politics of International War and Peace Research Paper

Research Paper  |  30 pages (10,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Gender and International Relations

International Relations in perspective

Gendered issues in the realm of International Relations have not been widely discussed, questioned or researched until recently, according to author Jill Steans. The reason for this lack of investigation into gender and International Relations, Steans explains, is not necessarily based on bias against females or chauvinism to any degree. To wit,… [read more]

Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (4,168 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


She exhibits no feelings towards her spouses other than harsh and also vicious ones, for example embarrassment as well as ridicule. Her spouses had been all aged and also wealthy and she together with her youth and sweetness has total control over all of them. As she describes:

As help me God, I laughe whan I thynke

How pitously a-nyght… [read more]

Feminism Is for Everybody Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,959 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


They were also expected to wear girdles, bras and other uncomfortable clothing in order to maintain a certain shape, until standards became more relaxed and they could dress in slacks. When women were expected to look 'sexy' at work, they were also subjected to sexual harassment, and in the past there was no legal redress against this.

13. Describe two examples of gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication that create and maintain woman's subordination through social interactions.

There are many demeaning and insulting ways that men speak about women, just as there have always been racist terms for blacks and Hispanics. These words are very well know, of course, and women also use them about each other, but they are intended to make women feel inferior in many ways, such as not having an appearance, attitude or personality that is pleasing to men. Males can also convey these messages through looks and gestures, such as when they see a woman they regard as particularly attractive -- or unattractive, for that matter. They can also use looks and size differences to threaten and intimidate women or 'put them in their place'.

14. Using Hook's chapter "Women and Work" (Ch.9) in Feminism is for Everybody, describe how women's work is devalued. Discuss how the devaluation of women's work benefits men.

Many women believe that feminism forced them to work outside the home, although as Hooks points out, the capitalist system itself was responsible for that change. Wages and incomes were often too low in America, so that families had to have two incomes to maintain a standard of living as middle class consumers. For most of history, of course, women's work was always devalued and unpaid since it consisted of cooking, cleaning, child care and other domestic duties. In other words, at least half of the productive labor in society and all of the reproductive labor was done by women who earned nothing. They did this because culture, religion and society insisted that this was their 'natural' function in the world. Even when women began to work outside the home, in textile mills or as domestics, their labor was often paid only half of what men earned. In short, women were a fast force of cheap labor, denied meaningful opportunities for advancement or education. Hooks also notes that housewives often felt "isolated, lonely, and depressed," while the home was only a place of relaxation and pleasure for men (Hooks 50). Sexism in the education system also ensured that males dominated the classrooms as well as the teaching profession at all levels, and even in the schools female…… [read more]

Has Feminism Enhanced or Destroyed Marriage and Family? Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,527 words)
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Feminism Has Not Destroyed Marriage

Notwithstanding viewpoints to the contrary, the feminist movement (past and present) has not ruined the institution of marriage in America. Indeed, some feminists have challenged marriage as a valid tradition, and those challenges should be viewed as healthy to the ongoing dialogue. This paper delves into that topic and presents a variety of scholarly narratives… [read more]

Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Feminist Reading

Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft and Chopin on the Social Dynamics of Female Emancipation

One of the most fundamental and profound developments in literature and literary criticism in the past century or two is the emergence of the feminist perspective, or more correctly an abundance of feminine perspectives. The plural is the proper form because there is no… [read more]

Claiming Feminism Matrilineal History or Girls and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … feminism, Matrilineal History, or Girls' and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry

Gaga over Gaga? Girls' and women's empowerment in the music industry

Feminism in America today is often justified by the word 'choice,' in the sense that women should have a 'choice' in terms of what feminine conventions they embrace or reject. For example, some young feminists… [read more]

Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,629 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics

Democracy is when the political thinkers and leaders think as one collective unit instead of individuals. Democracy is to discuss, analyze and find solutions for the nation's problems from a majority consensus without ignoring the rights and answers for the minorities of the nation. It helps the government form and cultivate a way to… [read more]

Women and Feminism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Domestically speaking, this creates for women in More's Utopia the quintessential situation of being "stuck between a rock and a hard place" where one's actions are both exalted and damned at the same time.

Thus, in this fabricated Utopian ideal, the metaphor of communal living that supposedly transforms both the public and private arenas does nothing but wreck havoc on… [read more]

Women A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  6 pages (1,948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Prior to taking this course, I assumed, naturally, that women's studies were mainly about women. It turned out that women's studies is actually about all human beings. The goal of women's studies is in part to expose and rectify the problems with patriarchy, including the tendency for sociologists to presume masculine identities and points-of-view as normative. Feminism and women's… [read more]

Feminism Summary of Story Cristina A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Connections to Other Readings

Tzintzun's story reflects the broad experiences of women of color as they reflect on issues of identity, difference, and intersectionality. For example, Gray points out that her listening to rock and roll was viewed as a symbol of her submission to a white dominant culture and society. It was socially subversive to listen to rock and roll because it was "akin to treason in the black community," (p. 258) At first, listening to rock and roll was something she did because she liked the music. After a while, Gray realized that rock and roll reeked of white male privilege" (p. 259). Rock stars, who are always white, pranced around on stage and "flaunted their entitlement," (p. 259). They were often middle-class white boys like Jon Bon Jovi, but they were born with a sense of entitlement. Yet like Tzintzun, Gray is able to embrace the contradictions of her dual identity. Gray is proud to be black, and Tzintzun is proud to be Mexican; and both are proud to be female.

In "My Tattoos are Not an Invitation," Lundahl (2013) describes the unwanted attention she receives from men, who feel entitled to touch her arm. The act is like a rape, as Lundahl describes it. She states, "I'm not surprised that some men feel that my visible display of body art is an invitation to yell about, touch, and seemingly compliment my tattoos," (p. 1). Although Lundahl is white, her experience reflects a global experience of gendered identity. Men, especially white men, feel entitled to take whatever is theirs, including women. Because men dominate the worlds of politics and business, many of the products and services available in the world are laden with gender issues. Even seemingly innocent toys like Lego are marketed to girls in insipid ways, reinforcing male hegemony ("Lego Friends" movie).

Personal Connection

Patriarchy remains a particularly poignant problem for women of color. Women of color struggle with a double oppression, in that both their gender and their race renders them perceived as inferior by the dominant culture. It is a constant struggle to assert power and identity in the face of patriarchy. When encountering these readings, I felt personally empowered. I felt encouraged and motivated to share my own stories of forging an identity as an ethnic "mutt," while remaining true to myself as both Tzintzun and Gray have managed to do, and like the tattooed woman. It is important to recognize unhealthy patterns that have been handed down through our parents, and even more important to change those patterns so that we become the beacons that transform social norms.


Gray, K. (n.d.). I sold my soul to rock and roll.

"Lego Friends" Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrmRxGLn0Bk

Lundahl, A. (2013). My tattoos are not an invitation. The Feminist Wire. Retrieved online: http://thefeministwire.com/2013/07/my-tattoos-are-not-an-invitation/

Orenstein, P. (2010). The femivore's dilemma. International New York Times. 11 March, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/14/magazine/14fob-wwln-t.html?_r=1&… [read more]

Women and Nonwhites Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hall discusses that there was extreme malice, war, and that there were huge issues with the racial movements (Hall, 2001).

In the south, during this period of time, war was still an option at any time and these racial policies were part of the reason that this war could break out at any time. The white leaders did not want to make any sort of movements. Hall talks about the late 19th century, the movement for the Jim Crowe laws was created and this at least gave blacks some rights in the south, just not everything that they wanted and that the deserved. These laws were put into place to make sure that they provided admittance for blacks to certain places, however they still created segregation (Hall, 2001).


Cebulla, B. (2010). How Frontier Experience Had an Impact on Women's Role. New York: GRIN Verlag.

Fowler, W. (2005). Woman on the American Frontier. New York: Cosimo, Inc.

Hall, R. (2001). Performing the American frontier, 1870-1906. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keyes, B. (2010). The American Frontier: Our Unique Heritage.…… [read more]

Gender and Sexuality Define Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


8. What does gender at the intersections mean? Give an example to explain.

Gender at the intersections mean that identity of a person cannot and is not solely the gender but gender forms a significant part of a greater whole composed of influences of race, religion, age, ethnicity, etc. Therefor gender in itself is an incomplete expression of one identity. In one or more instances, gender can be a source of identity such as when attending 'ladies night' at the club.

9. Describe Fennels use of gendered division of labor.

Labor means work and Fennels explains that the work is assigned and divided among society based on their gender. Based on genders, men are assigned the labor of breadwinning whereas women are assigned the labor of child care, birthing, and nursing (Fennell, 496-97).

10. Adriaens and DeBrock argue Homosexuality as we know it is definitely a social construction (p. 572). Explain their argument.

By the above mentioned argument, authors mean that male homosexuality is not a natural phenomenon but one that was socially constructed in early 18th century. The sociocultural and historical factors may have demanded men of lower status to strengthen their hierarchy by having sex with other males. The author actually synthesizes evolutionary and social construction theories of homosexuality in men (Adriaens, and Adriaens 570-585).

Works Cited

Adriaens, Andreas, and de Block Adriaens. "The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality." Perspectives in biology and medicine. 49.4 (2006): 570-585. Web. 1 Mar. 2013.

Allan, Elizabeth J. "Hazing and gender: Analyzing the obvious." The hazing reader (2004): 275-294.

Fennell, Julie Lynn. "Men Bring Condoms, Women Take Pills: Men's and Women's Roles in Contraceptive Decision Making" Gender & Society 25(4):496-521. 2011.

Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. Vii-ix. Print.

Kimmel, Michael. "Global masculinities: Restoration and resistance." Policy Review. (2004): 1-5. Print.

Lindsey, Linda L. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. 5. California: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 5-16. eBook.

WHO,. United Nations . World Health Organization.…… [read more]

Interdisciplinary Studies Disciplines Women's Studies and Communication Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,244 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Women Studies and Communications

Women's Studies

Key Concepts

There is a number of evolving key concepts which continue to help Women's Studies develop as an academic doctrine. First, there is a general consensus that American society, as well as many others throughout the globe, is dominated by male driven power. This has created a patriarchal hegemony, where men dominate the society, and then turn to oppress women in a number of differing ways. A double standard is a concept where there is a different set of standards held by society in terms of the behavior for men and women. Here, the research suggests that "in feminist analysis, men's power to define the content of formal and informal behavioral cultures means that the criteria or standards used to evaluate and regulate women often differ to those used for men" (Pilcher & Whelehan, 2004, 51). Because our society is dominated by a male driven hegemony, double standards are normally restricting the behaviors of women in comparison to men. There is a negative stigma and a sense of marginalization associated to the gender role of females. Gender itself is a term which is thought to actually be a culturally constructed concept, in comparison to sex which denotes the physical sexual attributes of an individual. Gender is a societal term, and thus gender roles are generated by the cultural norms of that particular society in question. This reinforces stereotypes in that women are socialized to embody particular roles that are feminized. Feminization is another major key term, especially in regards to the discussion the feminization poverty. Here, the research suggests that "Since the 1960s in the United States the poor have been more likely to be single females, members of female-headed households, and elderly females" than their male counterparts (Tierney, 1999, p 489). This has contributed to the growth in what is known as the feminization of poverty, where the male dominated society has begun to associate a limited financial capability with women being stereotyped accordingly. Thus, the make dominance has subjugated women based on these restricted gender roles.

Current Theories

Most of the current theories within Women's Studies are broken mainly into three general categories, "psychodynamic theories that consider early attachment problems, conflict, and/or sexual repression as primary, learning theories that favor a conditioning model, and social/cultural feminist" theory which tends to show a general cultural praise for certain feminine traits (Tierney, 1999, p 65). Feminist theory is one of the oldest theories at work within Women's Studies. It outlines the concept of our society being a patriarchal one, and as such women hold a marginalized role based on their inferiority, as deemed by the male elite. It provides a foundation for the reason for why gender discrimination and inequality is so prevalent in our society and others. There are also several other theories present. Queer theory is a major theory which was born out of Women's Studies. It essentially agrees with the major key concept that gender is a socially constructed element.… [read more]

Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film

Feminism and gender roles in Avant-garde film

The American Avant Garde Cinema is particularly important when considering abstract tendencies and subliminal messages, as most directors engaged in producing motion pictures for the genre intended to depict certain issues regarding society as seen from their perspective. Some of the most renowned directors who created films concerning the field, such as Maya Deren, Carolee Schneeman, Martha Rosler, and Dara Birnbaum focused on the feminism movement and on gender as a whole in some of their works. They were influenced by a series of factors in doing this, ranging from their personal convictions to society's views on the matter that they related to. In spite of the fact that the films that this paper discusses are all connected by the fact that they deal with gender roles, some of the directors preferred to take on a more abstract or grave position while others expressed a somewhat jokey character.

Although an amateur film enthusiast is likely to feel confused as a result of watching Maya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon (1944), a more experienced individual would identify a series of concepts meant to tackle feminism. In wanting her audiences to understand the protagonist's feelings, Deren chose to have viewers see things and events exactly as she saw them. While the film initially seems to present a rather ordinary event, the action gradually progresses and it is revealed that there is much more emotionality to it.

The woman in the motion picture appears to be consumed by society's trends and by the fact that she wants people to see things from her own perspective. Her condition in more severe than one might believe at first, given that she eventually wants to commit suicide and that she apparently informs the audience regarding her motives. The male individual in the film is essential in understanding gender representation as Deren did, as he appears to be responsible for the fact that the woman wants to die. Moreover, he apparently encourages her to accept her fate and to proceed with committing suicide. Meditation on Violence seems to be concerned with controlled aggressiveness, as the character in the film puts across serenity in performing the Wu Tang ritual. It appears that Deren wanted to demonstrate that violence does not necessarily have to be violent and incontrollable, as it can also involve calmness and it can be kept under control. Unlike Meshes of the Afternoon, Meditation on Violence feels less dynamic and has the audience focus on the tranquility present in a man and in the Wu Tang ritual.

In relating to gender roles, Carolee Schneeman took on a more sexual approach, even with the fact that she also wanted the audience to witness an event that should only be available to the protagonists. In contrast to Deren, Schneeman apparently wants the world to see women and men as they are, in their rawest nature possible. The sexuality in the… [read more]

Women's Issues When the Term Feminism Interview

Interview  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Women's Issues

When the term feminism was first used in the United States of America, it was largely used to refer to the pursuit of women to get the right to vote. Later, it became synonymous with the attempts of women to be seen as equals of men in all aspects of life, from wages to family responsibilities… [read more]

Women and Violence Feminism Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,448 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Violence Women

Violence Against Women: Its Portrayal in Newspaper Media

The problem of violence against women is both pervasive and historically omnipresent. Though its definition has often been subject to extreme variation, sociological exploitation of women, domestic abuse and sexual assault have nonetheless shown themselves be a real and self-perpetuating conditions in the Canadian family and community. Domestic violence is… [read more]

Woman's Rights Essay

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Women's Rights

In her personal "Letters" Abigail Adams begged her husband John Adams to remember the contribution women had made to the founding of the new Republic when constructing the laws of the land. However, President Adams, although he placed a great deal of credence in his wife's opinion on a personal level, did not listen to his wife in this instance. He believed women's influence was best channeled through their male relations, and women were not suited to direct participation in political affairs. It was many years before equality for women was acknowledged within the legal framework of the nation.

Today, no one would seriously consider taking away any woman's right to vote and to be an articulate participant in the American political process. A woman has made a legitimate effort at securing the White House herself, and a woman is running for the office of Vice President of America. The institutional concerns and the 19th century advocate of women's rights, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, are no longer a preoccupation of the nation. Stanton desired that women be able to vote, to inherit property, and not to disappear as a legal person upon marriage. These technical questions of equal rights under the law no longer seem to impact women's lives, but that hardly means that women have no more legal wars to fight.

Women still bear the burden of caring for children and the elderly. This means that a lack of affordable childcare and eldercare hampers their ability to earn money in the workforce. Women may not be able to be formally discriminated against in the workplace, but they often face informal legal types of discrimination, which may be as indefinite as simply 'not fitting in' to a particular corporate culture. Even on the public stage, commentators on the left and right seem to have trouble talking about women as political leaders. What is seen as strong in a man is seen as irritating and aggressive when encapsulated in the persona of a woman like Hillary Clinton. Women are afraid to show emotion and humor, the qualities that contribute to electability, but seem to make a female candidate appear less serious. An attractive woman who has children like Sarah Palin may provoke sexual innuendos when her policies are criticized.

These types of attitudes can be discouraging for young women contemplating entering the political discourse. The idea of how a woman can 'hold' power is still in debate. Mary Wollstonecraft noted in "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" that if women seem to conform to the stereotypes they are subjected to, it is because of their lack of education and the fact that society awards female appearance and flirtatiousness more than it does power and strength. A postmodern view might add that women lack role models to effectively fill the role of commander-in-chief, other than imitating men, which makes them seem like inferior male copies, or being conventionally feminine, which is seen as antithetical to the qualities needed to exercise… [read more]

Feminism in Politics Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Feminism in Politics

Without a doubt, one of most influential and complex political issues of the last several decades is that of the feminist movement, or more precisely, the effect that feminism has had on various areas of politics and political science. In an effort to fully comprehend the various facets of this relationship, this paper will focus on two primary areas: the major feminist critiques of mainstream political science, and the contributions feminism has made to the study of political participation. Upon conclusion of this paper, the reader will have gained a greater understanding and appreciation of the sphere of influence of feminism itself.

Feminist Critiques of Mainstream Political Science

Feminism, by its very nature, takes on political nuances; much like racial minority groups have embraced political activism over the years to advance their various causes, so too have gender-based minorities. In fact, most sources agree that the conversion of a female person into a feminist is largely due to strong political beliefs backed up by specific actions to bring attention and recognition to the cause of women's rights (Zivi, 2004). This being the case, the question is asked as to exactly how feminists feel about mainstream political science.

Feminist critiques of mainstream political science, as research indicates, begin at the very core of political science itself, as based on the traditional view. Traditionally, the conventional wisdom behind political science held that politics was a man's area of endeavor because of the often brutal nature of political pursuits, and minority groups such as women, ethnic and racial groups were simply dismissed from the inner workings of political science because of their detachment from the mainstream (Phillips, 1998). Considering this, the absurdity of that argument is clear. Feminists have long made a valid argument that political science has excluded them by categorizing women and politics within political science rather than women in politics, or more precisely, the question as to why women are so often kept out of the political arena.

The feminist critique of political science as exclusionary and prejudiced is not merely based on their own perceptions; one of the earliest political thinkers, Aristotle, put forth the theory, thousands of years ago, that true democracy could not exist without the voices of all people being heard, rather than just the voice of the dominators of the system, much like males have dominated females historically (Phillips, 1998).

After viewing the critiques of mainstream political science by feminists against the backdrop of contemporary and ancient perspective, there are several key points, correctly pointed out by the feminists, which become abundantly clear: first, in a general sense, politics is not a pure science by any stretch of the imagination because of the fact that from its beginnings, it has not been open minded and tolerant of the participation and commentary of all groups, especially women. Additionally, women have been stereotyped as being too fragile, weak, uninformed or what have you to participate in the political system. Using such a broad and… [read more]

Transnational Feminism Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Transnational Feminism

Women's Culture-

This work will use the quote: "Culture...consists in the way analogies are drawn between things, in the way certain thoughts are used to think others" as a focal point or a beginning in making a connection between Shohat's argument that globalization...just be seen as part of the much longer history of colonialism in which Europe attempted… [read more]

Feminism Arising Out Term Paper

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As a result, women of color have become increasingly included in the public discourse and have risen to positions of political power. Moreover, the feminist support of civil rights affected men of color as well as women, and an increasing acceptance of diversity within the society cannot but affect the lives of all women of whatever race. Therefore, even though many people of color still live in poverty and discrimination is still a problem, the Second Wave of Feminism has made great strides in achieving overall racial equity, and has at least promoted a more equitable public discourse regarding race.

Homosexual rights were also kin to the Second Wave of Feminism. Lesbian feminism promoted the voices of lesbians and helped achieve awareness and tolerance of homosexuality. Although homosexual rights do not directly affect all women, since not all women are lesbians, greater social equity impacts all women. Although homosexual rights have proven to be one of the slowest-moving causes supported by the Second Wave of Feminism, clearly this issue affects the lives of both straights and gays in creating a more equitable society in general.

Finally, the Second Wave of Feminism concerned itself as much as possible with labor relations and economic parity. A multitude of issues are included under this rubric, the two most notable of which are income parity and workers' rights. Women in the United States still earn less than their male counterparts and a considerable income disparity continues to plague most women, but the struggle continues. Labor unions also continue to struggle under increasing political conservatism, but the Second Wave of Feminism continues to raise awareness of these issues, and draw attention to how labor and economics affect all women, rich, poor, or in between.… [read more]

Feminism in Early American Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,821 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Feminism" of Bradstreet and Wheatley

Anne Bradstreet and Phillis Wheatley have the unique distinction of being two firsts in American feminism. Bradstreet was the first American female poet to have her work published, and Phillis Wheatley was the first black female poet to have her work become known and published. Because of their bravery and fame for breaking… [read more]

Feminism Both Bell Hooks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (601 words)
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Both Hooks and Moraga propose that all women of color examine the means by which they have been oppressed and discover new means of empowerment.

However, Hooks' piece is longer and even harsher than Moraga's: Hooks, for instance, notes that Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, however influential the book was, is written primarily from a white leisure class perspective. She states that Friedan had a "one-dimensional perspective," and women like Friedan were unaware "of the extent to which their perspectives reflect race and class biases." Moraga, on the other hand, offers a broader social commentary about the exclusion of oppressed groups of women. Her attack on racism and classism in relation to feminism is more general. For example, she states on page 29, "Without an emotional, heartfelt grappling with the source of our own oppression, without naming the enemy within ourselves and outside us, no authentic, hierarchical connection among oppressed groups can take place."

Moraga's tone is more constructive in general than Hook's is: "It is essential that radical feminists confront their fear of and resistance to one another," (34). Moraga also acknowledges her own complicity: "By virtue of the very fact that I am white-looking, I identified with and aspired toward white values ... I rode the wave of that Southern California privilege as far as conscience would let me," (34). While Hooks' piece is harsher and angrier in tone, she concludes by stating, "Though I criticize aspects of feminist movement as we have known it so far, a critique which is sometimes harsh and unrelenting, I do so not in an attempt to diminish feminist struggle but to enrich, to share in the work of making a liberatory ideology." Hooks and Moraga have had different experiences of oppression and therefore write from unique perspectives, but both…… [read more]

Wave of Feminism Took Place Beginning Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … wave of feminism took place beginning in 1848 with the ratification of the 19th amendment which afforded women the right to vote (Frederick, 2004). The social and theoretical concerns were largely scattered, and the emphasis was working on a variety of issues including child labor protection, peace and care for women in general (Frederick, 2004). The movement was more geared toward generalities. In the second wave however, during the 1960s, was a revival of the first wave, further defining some of the issues that were critical to feminist thinking. The third wave was more responsible for defining the new issues that were important for women to fight for, as many accomplishments had been realized during the first two waves (Bailey, 1997; Frederick, 2004).

Kate Millet is a well-known feminist of the second wave who claimed that "the first wave of feminism in the early twentieth century was reborn as a second wave in the early 1960s" (Frederick, 2004).

Cathryn Bailey is well-known for supporting the third wave of feminism describing it as "a means of distancing itself from earlier feminism" and further describes it as a mechanism for emphasizing what might be described as the discontinuities that existed within the first and second waves (Bailey, 1997: 18).

Betty Friedan is well-known for her work "The Feminist Mystique" which characterizes the second wave of feminism as well, known as a time when women fought for equality and questioned among other things gender assignment and roles (Rosen, 2001). The idea of democracy for women was expanded during the second wave and equality was seen with regard to all of American culture (Frederick, 2004).

Third wave feminism is characterized by many well-known individuals including Krista Jacobs, editor of Sexing the Political who believed that during the third wave women "Are celebrating their pluralities, embracing their personal and political contradictions" (Frederick, 2004).

The third wave of feminism is characterized as "a movement of young feminists who no only confront but embrace contradiction and ambiguity" (Frederick, 2004). The primary ideology of this movement is the notion that inevitably in society there "exist contradictions and compromises" that must be made in the movement toward feminism, and that feminism in and of itself is filled with complexity and fighting within a still predominately patriarchichal society (Frederick, 2004).

Third wave feminism is often considered very similar to postmodern feminism but also very different. Postmodern feminists generally tend to believe that there are many different ways that women can be oppressed rather than one way, and that…… [read more]

Woman: An Epistemological Programme Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Only 'absolute in loveliness,' the portion of rationality granted to woman, is indeed very scanty; for, denying her genius and judgment, it is scarcely possible to divine what remains to characterize intellect." Wollstonecraft, M. Vindication Chapter IV.

The quarrel will go on as long as men and women fail to recognize each other as equals; that is to say, as long as femininity is perpetuated as such. Which sex is the more eager to maintain it? Woman, who is being emancipated from it, wishes none the less to retain its privileges; and man, in that case, wants her to assume its limitations. 'It is easier to accuse one sex than to excuse the other,' says Montaigne. It is vain to apportion praise and blame. The truth is that if the vicious circle is so hard to break, it is because the two sexes are each the victim at once of the other and of itself. Between two adversaries confronting each other in their pure liberty, an agreement could be easily reached: the more so as the war profits neither. But the complexity of the -,Whole affair derives from the fact that each camp is giving aid and comfort to the enemy; woman is pursuing a dream of submission, man a dream of identification. Want of authenticity does not pay: each blames the other for the unhappiness he or she has incurred in yielding to the temptations of the easy way; what man and woman loathe in each other is the shattering frustration of each one's own bad faith and baseness." de Beauvoir in conclusion to The Second Sex.

Works Cited

Woolstonecraft M, Vindication of the Rights of Women

De Beauvouir, S. The Second Sex.

Saul, J. Feminism: Issues and Arguments.

Hornsby, J. & M. Fricker, Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy.

Rousseau, J.and A.Bloom. Emile: Or, on Education. New York: Basic Books, 1979.… [read more]

Victorian New Woman: Shaw's Views Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


It's Mrs. Warren's continued involvement in the dirty business of the oldest profession that sets the pair at odds. But Vivie's struggle for independence proves she's her mother's daughter through and through (Blethyn,

About The Play) 5.

When the play starts (Olveczky)6, Vivie Warren self-confident, high-spirited, and oblivious of her mother's profession -- has just returned home from Cambridge with… [read more]

Portrayal of Women in Music Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Moreover, the result is having devastating effects on young girls as well as women (Timson 1995). "It is clear that a very large percentage of American women are unhappy with their bodies," says Joan Jacobs Brumberg, author of "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html)."That kind of unhappiness begins very, very early in life," she says. Moreover, the problem doesn't disappear with maturity. Brumberg contends that the rise of plastic surgery, the prevalence of dieting, and the high number of women in therapy are examples of that prove women still suffer from self-esteem problems. She says, "People expect their bodies to be perfect these days. Women are judged too often by their appearance and young girls get the idea that appearance is the source of female power" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html).

A recent study revealed that over 80% of 4th grade girls have been on a diet. Anorexia and bulimia are on the rise. Although the 'heroin chic' look of the last few years is supposedly out of vogue today, the average weight of a model is 23% lower than that of an average woman. Twenty years ago, the differential was only 8% (http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/).

When females see these images day in and day out throughout every visual means of media, the message they get is that with enough effort and self-sacrifice they too can look like this. These images are unattainable. However, we have young girls starving themselves and damaging their health for perhaps the rest of their life. And women as well as teenaged girls are having breast implants in higher numbers than before the big implant scare ten years ago. Moreover, they're having liposuction on their thighs, buttocks, stomachs and every other part of their bodies. They are subjecting themselves to bovine treatments on their face wrinkles and collagen treatments on their lips. They're having fanny lifts, arm lifts, thigh lifts and face-lifts. It seems all young girls want to look like Britney Spears and all women want to have a body like Cher.

Douglas states in her book, "The war that has been raging in the media is not a simplistic war against women but a complex struggle between feminism and anti-feminism that has reflected, reinforced and exaggerated our culture's ambivalence about women's roles for over 35 years" (Douglas 1995). This ambivalence will most likely continue for another 35 years, as there appears to be no stop sign ahead.

Works Cited

Body as Commodity: Media Craze." Body icon. http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html.(accessed08-12-2002).

Douglas, Susan J. Where the Girls Are: Growing Up Female With the Mass

Media. Random House, Incorporated. March 1995.

The Representation of Women in Advertising. http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/.

A accessed 08-12-2002).

Timson, Judith. "Bimbo-watch: critique of the depiction of women in popular media." Maclean's. Vol. 108. November 27, 1995; pp 52. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Maclean~Q~s&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.macleans.ca&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Timson%2C+Judith&title=Bimbo%2Dwatch%2E+%28critique+of+the+depiction+of+women+in+popular+media%29%28Cover+Story%29++&date=11%2D27%2D1995&query=media+depiction+of+women&maxdoc=60&idx=24.(accessed08-12-2002).… [read more]

Fiction and Instruction a Women's Experience Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  15 pages (4,933 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Fiction and Instruction

A Women's Experience Before, During, and After the Victorian Era

Does the prose style displayed by women writers have any unintended or intended benefits as it related to educating readers, especially women? Was Victorian women's fiction intended to be educational at all? If so, in what ways? How have pre-Victorian and post-Victorian female writers influence… [read more]

Woman's Interview Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On whether her activism interferes with her ability to raise her two daughters and play her roles in the family, Mintz states that she has constantly ensured that there is a balance between these roles. She argues that motherhood is as important to her as her work in promoting women's rights and addressing women's issues. She believes that the basis of her success in all endeavors is her ability to play her roles at home effectively. This is based on the dominant ideology of motherhood in which a woman must be a mother before she can be viewed as a fulfilled, mature, and balanced adult (Crow & Barbara, 190). She assumes total responsibility for the growth and development of her two daughters. The need to create the balance in Mintz life is based on hybridity, which not only recognizes the challenges in undertaking a practice under unfavorable conditions but also creates huge possibilities (Friedman, 48). Her decision to become a woman's activist at a time when women were subjected to inequalities and discrimination was difficult, though it provided huge opportunities.


This assignment has contributed to my own learning process in understanding the role social structures, ideologies, economics, and cultural factors play in feminism. This process has provided huge insights on the role of these factors in shaping a woman's identity and perspective towards life. While some of these factors generate tremendous challenges in women's lives, they offer great opportunities for shaping someone's life. Therefore, the learning process has made me re-think my belief and…… [read more]

History of American Warfare and the Transformation of Women Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Many companies did so despite them understanding that they were breaking union agreements. Surprisingly, industries sacked females from certain jobs and gave the positions to men even when the process of recruiting females was less costly. If only these financial advantages were taken into account, one would anticipate the management of these companies to act in support of females, and… [read more]

Religion, Spiritual Activism, Feminism A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  4 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Those choices should not be dangerous and they should also not be exceedingly costly. If they were either dangerous or too expensive then they would not be viable options for mother to begin her parenting with.

The second choice that the aforementioned authors believes is necessary regarding reproduction is that women and men as well should have a number of birth control options that they can choose from It is important to realize that again, the authors believe that these choices should be trustworthy, not dangerous, and inexpensive. They should involve different types of methods so that couples can have a variety of choices which ideally protect them in different ways.

The third necessity for reproduction is highly important in that it allows for women to choose whether or not they want an abortion. In addition to being able to choose whether or not to have such a procedure, this necessity implies that the abortions are safe and inexpensive, as well as reliable. Finally, the authors believe that women should have the right to produce children when they want to. In this respect they should not be tricked or forced into becoming sterile.

The choice that is best represented in the film "The Business of Being Born" is for women to have different options for giving birth. The movie insinuates that hospitals are fine for complicated pregnancies, but that women should also be able to have natural births at home with midwives (Xandra, 2013), or perhaps in hospitals with midwives, or without a surfeit of drugs coursing through their systems.

The concept of sarbat da bhalla (which translates into the well-being of all) correlates very well with the life lived by Kaur, the author of the work of literature entitled "On being a Sikh feminist." In fact, the author takes great pains to mention that there are several aspects of Sikh culture -- from its very inception -- in which equality between genders was manifest. This degree of equality came to encompass women because it pertained to virtually all facets of life for those involved in the Sikh culture, because "gender equality along with caste, class and religious equality are central tenets of Sikhi, the Sikh faith…" (Kaur, 2012).

In this respect, it is apparent that Kaur's faith contributed to her feminism as well as to that of her family. The author states (2012) that her earliest exposure to feminism came in the form of her mother's encouragement. The author also explicates the fact that her mother had no formal exposure to feminism and instead was simply immersed in the notions of parity that was ingrained throughout Sikh culture. As such, this culture helped the author to readily embrace feminism at an early age, and to even to continue to foster this tendency within her even after she had matured some as well.

In turn, Kaur's feminism also helped to influence her faith in the Sikh religion and its overarching culture. Since she was reared embracing these concepts of feminism… [read more]

Women's Role Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 3


Yet eventually their marriage and subsequent adoption of three children, provided for her the role of mother that she was still not satisfied with because she did not bear them. Those children not coming from her womb made her feelings of inadequacy remain. She is so idealistic, and set on fulfilling her premarital ideas of womanhood that her not bearing and raising her own children removes any satisfaction she could have had with her loving husband and three children. She's so different from the character from "A Sorrowful Woman" because of her beliefs and desires. She wanted what she thought she should want and have whereas the other woman wanted what society as a whole did not want her to have.

This is where the key differences are because both stories share a lot of similarities, at least in the role of women and the inevitable lack of satisfaction in both of these women's lives. It is in their beliefs and how they handle their expected roles that the real dissimilarities derive from. The woman from "A Sorrowful Woman" was more than what she fulfilled. She had her own children, she had a loving husband, but those were not her ideals. Even if they were, she certainly wanted more.

Her role, as perfectly as she did it and fit in it, was stifling to her. She not only felt trapped, but also felt burdened by her responsibilities. On page 39 she explains just how sick the sight of her son and husband made her because she knew she was expected to only take care of them and not do what she desired. Unlike Fay who, even with an alternative, wanted to adhere to the rigidity of her ideals, the character in this story needed an alternative not accepting the singularity of her position. She attempted to seek the alternative by allocating her duties as housewife to her husband, but that did not work. Even this did not satisfy her because her true desires remained stifled as she wanted to be single and free. Her escapism into novels and her sweater only led to her withdrawal and death demonstrating that women of that time who wanted more than their expected roles often did not have the opportunity to move away from their duties and get what they truly wanted or needed.

The endings were different with Fay continuing her life as a mother of adopted children and the other woman dying showing how bad the outcome could be and was for women who rebelled against their roles. Although the women shared the desire for more than what they had, one wanted to fulfill her role as mother and wife while the other detested her roles. The struggles are similar but the context and the way the character perceived their roles were different. Ultimately stories like these shed light on the plight of women in earlier times and help society remember the struggles of women through the ages.


Foster, C.D., Siegel,… [read more]

Woman? The Book, 'Aren Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (1,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The thing that did not work for me was the space in the book that discussed on the status of the women after the reconstruction of the south. Little space in the book was set aside to discuss about the positive experiences that women enjoyed after the reconstruction of the south. In my opinion, the author should have given equal space in this section just the one used in explaining the bad experience that black women faced in the Antebellum America (White 33).

4.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, this book would interest many people interested in the gender studies and women's rights. The book will provide guidance and key information on the historical abuses of women have faced in history. In addition, this book will interest the students of gender studies intending to dig further into gender issues and gender abuses that have been experienced in the past. This book is fit for undergraduate and graduate students, due to the language used to explain the concept of gender rights, and experiences that black women faced in the Antebellum America.

The author has also opened up the plight that black women in the Antebellum America. She is a great writer, by virtue that she has provided critical evidence of the suffering and pain that black women faced in the South. The author explains of clear issues like the times when the women had to feign they are sick to avoid being subjected to hard labor. This is an interesting book for it speaks directly on the pains that black women faced in the Antebellum America.

5.0 Reference

White, Deborah, 1985, Aren't I a Woman?…… [read more]

Flapper Movement the Effect Essay

Essay  |  28 pages (8,916 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


The creation of a specific "hip" and special language is often been observed as a sign of a particular generation or ostracized group searching for its own values and definitions. A sign of a behavioral shift in a group is often associated with that group developing its own lingo or jargon to differentiate itself from the majority (Isaacs, 1975). Nonetheless,… [read more]

Courtship Good for Women? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,174 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In "Chaitivel," for example, a beautiful but indecisive but ultimately cruel woman 'leads on' several men, refusing to choose between any of them. Three of them die in a tournament, fighting for her honor, and one of them is rendered impotent, which, the man asserts, is the cruelest fate of all, because he must live knowing he can never make love to his lady. Ultimately, the tale ends with the woman deciding to compose a story about the event, underlining the female-centered nature of Marie's vision of courtly love and the woman's control of the romantic relationship, even after death.

While many of the lais are very female-friendly and even feminist in orientation, it should be noted that Marie's ideology about relations between the genders is not simplistic, and she is willing to show the cruelty of women as well as the cruelty of men. In the story of "Le Frense," for example, a woman carelessly slanders another woman who gives birth to twins -- when she herself gives birth to twins, she abandons the second child in shame. Through a series of events, the cast-off twin 'Le Frense' falls in love with a noble man who coincidentally is also being wooed by the girl's (unbeknownst to her) twin sister. At first, the mother tries to prevent the marriage but when she later discovers that her other twin daughter is her own, both the mother and the other twin relinquish the claim and Le Frense and the knight live happily ever after. It is true that in this story, women are a very active presence, versus being static representations of chastity, but there is also a disturbing theme of the extent to which women are willing to engage in violent behavior towards one another to secure the affections of a man. Even though Marie might have trumpeted the value of relationships in which women were in control, she still clearly expressed the worldview of a society in which a woman 'needed' to have a man to be fulfilled. Marie still endorses the idea that for women, love is the world in its entirety and women will sacrifice everything to secure those relationships, even their own children in some instances (although the mother is eventually redeemed).

Despite her focus on romance in the lives of women, Marie also asserts the importance of love in the lives of men very clearly. Nobility and fighting is not enough: men must also feel love for a woman and acknowledge their vulnerability of heart. This is seen in "Guigemar," quite explicitly and also in "Lanval" in which Lanval explicitly rejects the adulterous advances of Queen Guinevere because of his love for a fairy woman who sweeps him away to safety at the end of the story. Lanval's love for the woman clearly elevates him in purity above Guinevere and actually (temporarily) saves Camelot from an adulterous tryst of the more conventional nature of courtly love.

Thus, Marie's lais are somewhat ambiguous in terms of how… [read more]

Violence Against Women Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,605 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


There are many non-profit organizations that are working within the country for the rights of the Aboriginal women. The government is being called upon to intervene in the private sphere where these women are being victimized as much as they are being victimized in the public. Till now, there are no significant steps that have been taken by the government of Canada to help the Aboriginal women combat the challenges that they are faced with.


In this part of the paper, we shall focus on the question on which this paper has been based. Women have always been looked upon, since the beginning of times and irrespective of the location. However, many countries of the world have been successful in overcoming this grave issue of the society and the women have been giving the same status as their male counterparts, but there are yet some areas of the world where women are still being treated as objects and animals just because they are women. It would not be wrong to say that gender discrimination is the main cause of all the violence that women today and have always been subjected to (Maffly, 2009).


Australian Human Rights Commission (2013).Sexual Harassment.

Cunningham, R (2000). "From great expectations to hard times-Managing equal opportunities under new public management." Public Administration.

Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. (2013). Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies. Sage.

Human Rights Watch (1999).'Crime or Custom-Violence against Women in Pakistan, Report of Human Rights Watch 1999.

Maffly, Brian (2009). "BYU study links women's safety, nation's peace." The Salt Lake Tribune.

McCann, D. (2005). Sexual harassment at work: National and international responses. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office.

Niaz, U (2003). Violence against women in South Asian countries. Arch Women's Ment Health; 6:173-84.

Statistics Canada. (2006). Measuring violence against women: Statistical trends…… [read more]

Women Stay Abusive Relationships Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This is to say that cases when women's belief is that their partners can change are usually subject to periodical abusiveness and periodical positive behaviors. When certain partners express guilt or feelings of sorry over their demeanor, female partners may be led into thinking that this is indeed true and that eventually the abusive behavior will stop. Rounsaville (1978) has indeed acknowledged that ?one feature that may weigh in favor of staying is the intermittent nature of the abuse… many (battered women) described highly pleasant periods of reconciliation between episodes. This pattern was conducive into thinking of it as an aberrant, exceptional part of the relationship. (as cited in Dutton & Painter, 1993, p. 108) And women thus continue to be abused because of their partner's lovable behavior outside the abusive episodes.

The amalgam of love, shame caused by alleged public perception, low self-esteem, fear of financial complications, and judiciary as well, the lack of outside support, etc. are obstinately joint to form the decision which, however unpleasant, apparently more secure for women, to remain within the limitations of an abusive relationship. It is not uncommon for women who have been financially dependent of their partners to fear they may not provide for their children. It is also likely that most women would abide by the idea that it is in their children's best interest to have a father. Likewise, women may fear for the children not to become seriously affected by a decision of separation or perhaps that the latter, age provided, would decide for custodial rights to be granted to their father. However, is has been widely admitted that ?violence not only causes physical injury, it also undermines the social, economic, psychological, spiritual, and emotional well being of the victim. […] These physical and mental outcomes have social and emotional sequelae for the individual, the family, the community, and the society at large. (Kaur & Garg, 2008, ?Domestic Violence and its Health Implications?) We understand thus that it is an unfortunate case each time women fail to end abusive relationships. Thus, the first step into doing so, would be for women to acknowledge the seriousness and the threatening conditions of the relationship. This is to say that the most important thing would be for women to become aware that they are indeed victims of an abusive behavior. In cases when women have developed extreme levels of insecurity, it is perhaps most important for them to receive genuine and relevant support, perhaps from professional organizations but also from their family members. Thus, the second important step is for women to consolidate their self-esteem and independency so they can improve the quality of life. Commitment to the self and perseverance are very important elements along the recovery process that permit one not to retrace similar steps in the future. Confidence is also imperious to proceed with recovering from abusive relationships.

Reference List

Dutton, D.G., & Painter, S. (1993). Emotional attachments in abusive relationships: A test of traumatic bounding theory. Violence… [read more]

Education of Women Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,434 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Early researchers concur that women belonged indoors as they were obliged to tend to children and watch servants. This further adds evidence to the conforming stereotypes put on women in the Renaissance period as seen from Juan Luis Vives example (Bell 187).

To present any form of inappropriate characteristics, women would quickly put the offender to be ridiculed in public.… [read more]

Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Communities in the West have practically been forced to accept women as being equal and to develop a series of laws that prevented women from being discriminated. Feminists in the Western world today are often perceived as being extremists, but many are simply concerned about bringing reform by having society as a whole acknowledge the numerous cases of discrimination occurring throughout the world.

4. Proposition

Cultural values are essential in influencing individuals in certain Middle Eastern countries to believe that women are inferior.


The idea of patriarchy in particular is responsible for having members belonging to these respective communities express little to no criticism with regard to the current condition of their society.

5. The concept of patriarchy is the independent variable and the effect that this ideology has on the masses is the dependent variable.


1. Students prefer male instructors over female instructors

2. The fact that society has promoted patriarchal attitudes up until recent years (to a certain degree it still does) influenced the masses to have the impression that it would only be natural for them to express greater appreciation toward male figures on account of how they are better prepared to lead. Some students are probable to prefer male instructors to female instructors because the former put across a more authoritarian feeling and thus make them consider that they are acting in agreement with society's patriarchal system.

Women are often regarded as being less likely to succeed in comparison to men and this influences some students to believe that it would be essential for them to have a male instructor instead of a female instructor. A woman working as an instructor would presumably be less likely to induce strong feelings in her students and this would thus make it more difficult for the respective individuals to be able to succeed in their field of work. When considering the fact that some of history's greatest instructors have been men, it seems natural for many individuals today to want a male figure in their lives, as this would presumably assist them greatly in perfecting their abilities.

Women are frequently associated with mood swings and with being unable to get control over a situation at times. This is certainly a result of stereotypes coming into play and shaping people's thinking with regard to women. Even with this, many students have the tendency to believe that having a female instructor would mean that they would be risk being provided with poorer instructions at times, thus meaning that having a female instructor would basically damage their ability to accumulate information effectively.

3. Stereotypes are largely responsible for the fact that students are sometimes hesitant about accepting the idea of having a female instructor. The fact that society is yet to have abandoned ideas associated with gender roles makes it difficult for some to understand that many stereotypes are unfounded. Living one's life based on stereotypes is likely to lead to the respective individual being narrow-minded… [read more]

Media Misrepresent Women? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In essence, women end up seeing themselves as mere sex objects. In some other instances, a woman's ego and self-esteem can be negatively affected.

Misrepresentation of women in the media has many negative effects. Key amongst these is the resulting real world misconception of women. To rein in the said misrepresentation, we must all be prepared to make the relevant changes in areas that matter. On this front, people could start by boycotting all the publications and other media products that in one way or the other objectify women and instead patronize those that do not. Klenke on the other hand recommends that women reject jobs that degrade them (126). Further, it pays to put more women in charge. In my opinion, should more women be allowed to "pilot the plane," significant gains could be realized. Allowing women to run the media would be a step in the right direction as it would allow them to tell their story. Other than focus on the often flawed concept of a "perfect" and "ideal" woman, the media should instead focus on the positive attributes of the modern woman. This way, it could help in the creation of appropriate role models for today's youth.

The media plays a significant role in the creation of consciousness. Further, it is a powerful persuasive force especially with regard to the shaping of our cultural norms. What gets put out there is of great importance as far as the progress of women in today's society is concerned. In the final analysis therefore, we should all play a prominent role in the presentation of an accurate message about women.

Is Social Media Changing the Methods of Advertising?

The social media has made it possible for businesses and advertisers alike to embrace alternative methods to traditional advertising. Unlike was the case three or four years ago, businesses are increasingly embracing various social media platforms including but not limited to Twitter, Facebook, and MySpace in an attempt to reach out to their customers. According to Lester, digital media is not only cost effective but also easily used (116). For this reason, Lester observes that "commercials, videos, podcasts, and multimedia messaging can be filmed, edited, and broadcast, within the time frame of an advertising course" (116). In addition to being used for awareness purposes, the social media is also being used by companies as a way of tracking people's opinions with regard to the products they offer for sale. Companies have also come to the realization that they can reach out to certain demographics easily via the social media. Unlike is the case with traditional advertising, social media has made advertising even more focused.

Works Cited

Carilli, Theresa, and Campbell, Jane, Eds. Women and the Media: Diverse Perspectives. University Press of America, 2005. Print.

Klenke, Karin. Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries. Emerald Group Publishing, 2011. Print.

Lester, Deborah. "Social Media: Changing Advertising Education." Online Journal of Communication…… [read more]

Movie Script About Feminism in High School Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Feminism in High School

Fade in:

Int. Cafeteria -- Lunch time

In a bustling cafeteria full of teenaged students most are more focused on texting and talking than on eating their meals. The center of activity is the middle table where the stereotypical jocks and cheerleaders hold court over the rest of the school.

JONAH, seventeen-year-old typical high school boy who does not belong to the in crowd, nor is he classified as "nerd" or other outsider. He is a nonentity at his school and sits with similar nonentities while they poke at their food and talk about nothing in particular.


Every single day of my life, as far back as I can remember I have had to witness things which I do not agree with. But that's life right?

You sit back and watch. Before that fateful April day I had just let them go. it's not your business I said to myself. Maybe if I had done that. I look back torn between applauding my audacity and wanting to punch myself in the face or scream, like in a horror movie when the audience hollers at the blonde soon-to-be victim to get out of the house.

A girl, AMANDA, walks past. She is not beautiful in the traditional sense of the word but has a face full of character which makes her ultimately more attractive. She does not dress in the manner characteristic of modern teenage girls although she is well-developed, something she tries to hide by her clothing choices. She is shy, reserved, and tries her best not to be seen by anyone.

As AMANDA walks past, a foot is stuck out from the side of one of the cafeteria tables, knocking her down. As she attempts to recover, MARCUS, a typical high school jock with perfect features only equaled by his arrogance, grabs her wrist and yanks her to him so that her face is close to…… [read more]

Women and Health Agenda Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These are demographic structures, patterns of disease and risk factors. Lower mortality rates among children below the age of five years and declining fertility rates characterizes the demographic transition. The outcome is an ageing populace. There is a decrease in the aver-age number of children borne by each woman in global perspective, from 4.3 during the early 1990s to 2.6… [read more]

Religion in Cross-Cultural Perspectives Salime Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The concept of interdepedent trajectories suggest that The Islamist movement of feminism is much related as well as differs from the secular movement. The rationale was same but the inspiration was not religion. Zakia supports that both the Islamist and Secular feminist movements have succeeded somewhat in their objectives to achieve women rights of independence. She is of the view that there had been strong impact of both the Islamist and secular movements on each other. The trajectories for both the movements were different yet interdependent since the cause was same for which both the Islamists and seculars fought and that was to have their women their basic equal rights in the society and to stop the exploitation of women (Salime, 2011).

One Million Signature Campaign

The One Million Signature Campaign of 1992 organised the liberal feminists in Morocco to favor reforms in the cuntry particularly mudawwena. Zakia says that people from the world were activated to collect one million signatures in support of the idea. She says that rise of Islamist activists was a strong force that helped influence One Million Signature Campaign both Islamists and liberals assisted in highlighting women's issues in the country. The Liberal and Islamist movements were so closely taking part in compaign, says Zakia that liberal women repositoend themslvs like what did Islamist women and they took positions in each others' groups at decision-making positions.

Islamist Rally of 2000

In Islamist Mass Rally of 2000 the Islamist feminists showed their influence in Casablanca in response to secular feminist march in Rabat. The rally was interpretted conventionallyas march against feminism or women's rights, but basically opposed vested interests behind the secular feminist agenda.


Sadeghi, F., (2011), "By passing Islamism and Feminism: Women's Resistance and Rebellion in Post-revolutionary Iran', Retrieved from: http://remmm.revues.org/6936

Salime, Z., (2011), "New Texts Out Now: Zakia Salime, Between Feminism and Islam: Human

Rights and Sharia Law in Morocco" Retrieved from: http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/3341/

Salime, Z., (2012). "A New Feminism? Gender Dynamics in Morocco's February 20th

Movement," Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5),…… [read more]

Willa Cather's O Pioneers and the Frontier Female Roles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … woman who has the qualities and merits that enable her to break the fence of gender roles in her society. This woman is a character from a novel, but she exemplifies all the groundbreaking steps that women took in the late nineteenth century, in order to pave the way for suffrage and women's equality. It is important to study the framework of women during this time in American history, because it helps to illuminate the patterns that constructed the first real human rights movement for gender equality, which had express, expedient, and unequivocal political goals. Furthermore, this analysis reveals the specific ways that historical context and social milieu converge, as the character under analysis was a lone female pioneer in the American West. This context offers unique social, economic, and political considerations. There were indeed changes taking place in the broader patriarchal culture that enabled women like this to succeed and become role models for women in future generations to emulate and aspire to becoming in other social and political contexts. The woman in question is Alexandra Bergson, the Swedish-American protagonist of Willa Cather's novel O Pioneer!

Although women of the 19th century American West enjoyed a considerable amount of human rights like the rights of inheriting lands, working in some jobs, such as teaching and nursing, they faced many challenges and problems that spoiled their enjoyment of these limited rights. Women in the nineteenth century American West were described in many historical and literary contexts as being secondary and marginal. The traditional roles of women in the American West society at that time viewed woman as being nurturer, wives and sometimes prostitutes. In other words, woman, as far as most of the frontier literary and historical contexts can tell, is "an object," a spoil of war or the warriors' "fame." Woman is something that helps or prevents the adventurer but she is not the adventurer herself (Quawas).

In fact, gender played critical role in the determination of roles or role allocation in the context of the American West society. Women's roles and gender differentiation stand "at the crossroads of history," and relate to "eternal philosophical questions of mind-body duality, nature vs. civilization, and private-public equilibrium," (Fraisse 48). It is ideal to note that roles were executed in relation to one's gender. There were roles specifically for men and women in the society because of their gender differences. Women focused on the execution of home roles such as household chores, child bearing, rearing, making meals, taking care of the husband, and enhancing the image and reputation of the family and home. Men in…… [read more]

Women in the Ancient World Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,319 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


She also defended her inheritance and her sister's inheritance when her parents' will was challenged in court: her husband praises her for this, because by her actions she not only protected herself and her sister, but also the husband whom she had not even formally married at that point.

The woman described in the eulogy does seem extraordinary -- although an orphan, she took care of her husband's mother as if she was her own. She is praised for her fidelity, obedience, rationality, modesty, piety, and even her wool-making skills over the forty-year marriage. The husband notes that divorce is common, but he says that he wishes he had died first, given how virtuous his wife was and how much he loved her. His list of her virtues show what was valued in women by Roman society, although her actions suggest a character as strong and determined as any man, in terms of how she fought for her rights and the rights of her family. Her husband was forced to flee Rome at one point, and she provided for him financially and publically begged for his life, at tremendous risk to herself. Her husband is well aware of the fact that he owes his life to her. The eulogy is moving and clearly shows a couple which was loving towards one another -- but it also shows how, even though women were denied the same active role in public life as men, that they were capable of acts of genuine heroism.

Of course, it should be noted that, despite the traditional constructs Medea, Lysistrata and the unnamed Roman wife embody, these are still complex portraits of women. Even her detractors admit that Medea is more sinned against than sinning as a wife. Despite her rampant sexuality and desire for her husband to return to the bedroom permanently, Lysistrata makes an informed and intelligent critique of the reasons for the civil war. The Roman wife sustained her husband in his hour of direst need and showed a level of intelligence and loyalty in economic and political affairs that surpassed most men. Even when women are stereotyped in terms of the roles that they play, there is still complexity.

Christine de Pizan's The City of Ladies functions as a direct reply to both misogynistic and limited conceptions of what women can attain. Her allegorical book shows the author being schooled by 'Lady Reason' and 'Lady Rectitude' and 'Lady Justice' of the great feats of intelligence, loyalty, and virtue that can be embodied by women. While admittedly, the character of Christine does accept to some degree the terms men have set for female virtue in her celebration of chastity as one of the virtues (many of the women she praises are saints and martyrs), she also makes a compelling argument for female equality in education. Fundamentally, Lady Reason argues that human beings were made in God's image, not man alone, and that women can embody godlike spiritual qualities as men just as women… [read more]

Feminist Rhetorical Theory. Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By communicating the similarities between real live women but at the same time denouncing the stereotypes of what society says a woman should be, the females of the world may yet achieve equality. In the present historical moment, women have achieved a level of equality which had been unknown to members of the sex in the past. There are women presidents in certain countries, women in charge of large corporations, women in every industry and field. However, some feminist rhetorical theorists state that women have still not achieved a position of social equality with their male counterparts and this is evident by examining the artifacts of our culture (Foss 3-4). The focus should now be upon the means which are necessary to achieve equality and the rhetoric which is involved in the incitement of feminist action.

One limitation which can be perceived in feminist rhetorical theory is that to discuss it, a person must believe in its validity. It demands that a person accept that the minimization of women historically is factual. They must also admit that it is still present in the modern era even if evidence to the contrary suggests that there is now gender equality. Whereas some other theories might have a bit more room for opinion, this particular theory demands that the basic tenets be accepted.

Part III: Conclusion

Feminist rhetorical theory was controversial when it was first broached because people either did not want to believe that women were an oppressed group or they did see this but did not believe there was anything wrong with women being marginalized. It seems that the words that are used to describe women, either by the oppressive patriarchy or by women themselves are the key in either achieving gender equality or in continuing the system of oppression which has been the reality up to this point.

Works Cited

Cixous, H., Cohen, K, & Cohen, P. (1976). The laugh of the Medusa. Signs. 1(4). The University

of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 875-93.

Foss, S. & Griffin, C. (2003). Beyond persuasion: a…… [read more]

Feminist Scholars Such as Cixous, Foss Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … feminist scholars such as Cixous, Foss and Griffin, Fraser, Anzaldua, and the authors of the essays in the hip hop feminism anthology, rethought rhetorical concepts?

Feminism is a concept that makes even those persons thought to be practicing it to feel uncomfortable. However, when it goes beyond academics, feminists are mistaken to Feminazis and defenders of political correctness.… [read more]

Women's History and Policy Opinion Piece Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,253 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Women's History And Policy Opinion Piece

Historically, the political arena has been a stronghold of the masculine gender. The representation of the feminine gender has been equivalent to extremely minor or even non-existent in many countries and cultures of the world till date. According to statistics, on an average, women make part of less than 15% of the political setup of a country. Such situations question the will and urge of women to act towards a progressive political environment by taking part in the political arena. However, the trend has been on the change as many women are becoming a part of the political arena in a bid to counter the issue of minor representation in the current century and to create a statement that women can be equivalent in standing strong and representing their countries and nations.

Women in Politics in the Nineteenth Century

However, the representation of women in the political arena in the nineteenth century was almost equal to zero. Several women in the United States of America and the United Kingdom remained in high offices and political statures, but they were there due to their men possessing high political offices. Women rights were limited during those times, and similar to many other issues, women did not have the power to vote. This was highly due to the common belief in the society that women were best suited and primarily had to govern the domestic issues of their home and family. Such perception resulted in support for gender inequality in the society, and thus, in the political environment as well.

According to historical statistics, the mid-nineteenth century politics were considered more masculine as compared to the later periods. This was highly influenced by the fact that in America, the constitution restricted voting to only men in a change in the 1830s. This led to movements carried on by women to ensure. This act prevented direct involvement of women in politics through the system of voting. The gender disparity gap amongst the people had widened immensely. To counter this issue, the women in America began to get more involved in campaigns that advocated the rights of women to vote based on the equality of genders and signing off petitions to support their voices and claims. Women were neither allowed to hold any public office, even at the lowest levels. This changed when the Municipal Franchise Act was passed in 1869, which allowed them to hold office at local levels.

The women began to use the method of petitioning to the parliament to extract support for their goals and targets in the political arena. Since they started, these petitions grew more and more and many supporters signed the petitions in favor of the women. These petitions initially began to support the political perspectives of women in the society but eventually led to the petitions that were presented in the parliament to ask for the rights of women to vote on the parliamentary level. Although the involvement was not direct,… [read more]

Last Frontier Is Comedy the Last Frontier of Sexism Feminism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Frontier: Is Comedy the Last Frontier of Sexism/Feminism?

Humor: The last frontier of sexism?

A woman has served as Secretary of State -- but can women be funny? It might seem that women have broken down virtually every barrier that exists in the workforce. The idea of allowing women to serve on the front lines of combat is now being debated as a very serious question in the public discourse. But the old question remains: can women be funny? Of course, women have frequently served as the object of humor, such as the zany Lucy in I Love Lucy or the fat old nurse in Romeo and Juliet. But the question of whether women themselves can be the orchestrators of humor is still debated.

In 2007, the British pundit Christopher Hitchens wrote an article for Vanity Fair entitled. "Why Women Aren't Funny." "Precisely because humor is a sign of intelligence (and many women believe, or were taught by their mothers, that they become threatening to men if they appear too bright), it could be that in some way men do not want women to be funny. They want them as an audience, not as rivals."[footnoteRef:1] Humor, in other words, is a male wooing tool, and men feel uncomfortable if women seem to master humor, much the way in which some men feel unsettled when they meet a woman who can change a tire on a car. [1: Christopher Hitchens, "Why women aren't funny," Vanity Fair, January 2007, Available: http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2007/01/hitchens200701 [19 Apr 2013]]

Of course, those who would protest Hitchens' analysis would note that many extremely frank female comedians now have laudable careers. The Korean-American comedian Margaret Cho, for example, is well-known for her uncensored, tell-it-like-it-is style. Cho frequently makes fun of homophobia, fat phobia, and her parents.[footnoteRef:2] Cho is not an object of humor: her humor lies in the fact that she turns the stereotypes of modern society around that could hurt her into weapons. Another comedian, Lisa Lampanelli, is well-known for being the queen of insults, and is unafraid to make politically incorrect jokes when on the stage. However, these comedians could be seen as 'proving' Hitchens' points as much as circumventing them, because both of them are comfortably outside the conventional stereotypes of femininity. Margaret Cho is Asian; Lampanelli is overweight. So long as women…… [read more]

Women or Women in Important Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Here experiences do not inherently make her a figure of historical importance but the fact that she reports them 30 years later in this autobiographical text does provide us with considerable insight into a period of great historical importance.

Indeed, Ginzburg was only one of many millions of Russians who would be falsely accused of political dissent by the Stalin administration. Ginzburg's imprisonment in 1937 is an experience she would share with countless others over her 18 years in captivity. In her recounting of the ordeal, Ginzburg ultimately pulls back the veil on an experience that was devastatingly common during this tumultuous period in Russian history. The Stalinist purges remain one of the darkest moments in the history of a country saturated in historical darkness. As such, the autobiographically channeled work is more directly about the Russian civilian and political experiences that marked this time than it is about the woman at the center of the story. In fact, while gender always marks individual experiences in some way, the fact that Ginzburg is a woman seems to register with less importance than the fact of her political orientation. This tells us much about Stalinist Russia, which it may be said practices equal opportunity political oppression.

Ginzburg's encounters with Stalinist officials are especially revealing of an increasingly insane world around her. This world is truly the central subject of the text. In one such exchange, for instance, she learns of the maniacally dishonest tactics used by Stalin's men to enforce this oppression. Ginzburg recalls an interrogator; "you realize, of course…that the regional committee has agreed to your arrest. Everything has come out. Elvov gave you away. That husband of yours, Aksyonov -- he's been arrested too, and he's come clean. He's a Trotskyist too, of course." (Ginzburg, 62) This is the moment when Ginzburg realizes that she's trapped in a distorted reality where her captors will say and do anything to justify her imprisonment.

For Ginzburg, just as for Marsh and Caillaux before her, the events of history and politick have had a defining impact on her life. In turn, her life becomes a constructive window through which to understand these historical events. Ironically, in this broader discussion about gender, the fact that each of these characters happens to be a woman is less important than the historical time and place that each stands to represent.

Works Cited:

Berenson, E. (1993). The Trial of Madam Caillaux. University of California Press.

Colley, L. (2007). The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History. Pantheon.…… [read more]

Women's Suffrage in the 19th Century Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Women's Suffrage In The 19th Century

Although the right of women in the U.S. To vote for their preferred political candidates was finally guaranteed through an amendment to the constitution in 1920, the struggle to secure this right had begun much earlier than that. In this text, I concern myself with the plight of women's suffrage in the 19th century.… [read more]

Women and Islam Do Muslim Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


S. government in specific, and governments world over use media representation to their own political benefits as opposed to the benefit of those being imaged as oppressed in the representation. This also indicates that media misrepresentation and use of these images, visual and textual, by governments is widespread.

Findings of the article

The article concludes by observing that the author is a native observant and can effectively narrate and relate to the image of Fatana that has been misrepresented by Armstrong (1997). The author concludes that since Fatana and Naima are very limited in their political empowerment but the popular representation of Muslim women in the media and work of theorists pushes Fatana, Naima, and the likes of the author into a reactive-defense of an identity that these subjects of representation would not have defended or owned in their home countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan. In fact, the author remarks that neither does she agree with representation of her and Fatana and Naima's identity as portrayed neither in their home countries nor in the countries of their exile.

Strengths and weaknesses

The article is methodologically much stronger as compared to the previous article. It adopts a framework in which interviews of one refugee girl called Naima and the Afghan girl Fatana are taken as to dissect the representation of their image by the interviewer. The article is also based on the methodology adopted by Joan Scott's (1992) work in which historical aspect is deemed necessary to draw a narrative about identity.

The weakness of article is related the non-empirical method used by the researcher. No statistical tool was used to validate the findings of the article and only construction of arguments was relied upon for presentation of the case argument.


Abu-Lughod, L. (2002). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. American Anthropologist, 104(3), 783-790.

Armstrong, S. (1997). "Veiled threat." Homemaker's, 16-29.

Hesford, W.S., & Kozol, W. (Eds.). (2005). Just advocacy? Women's human rights, transnational feminisms, and the politics of representation. Rutgers University Press.

Khan, S. (2001). Between here and there: feminist solidarity and Afghan women. Genders, 33, 1-26.

Scott, J. (1992)."Experience." In Joan Scott & Judith Butler (Eds.), Feminists theorize the political. NY: Routledge. 22-40.

Shepherd, L.J. (2006). Veiled references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on…… [read more]

Byaccapad ) "When White Women Cry Article Critique

Article Critique  |  5 pages (1,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … byAccapad (2007) "When White Women Cry: How White Women's Tears Oppress Women of Color." The analysis is conducted by a careful review of the article and the study of Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) model. Since PIE model is used to interpret the case that has been presented in the article, it was appropriate to understand the model in… [read more]

Women in Management and the Glass Ceiling Has it Been Shattered Models and Best Practices Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Women in Management and the Glass Ceiling

In the last 20 years, women have shattered the glass ceiling that once kept them out of senior management positions in business, politics, and the military. In the current modern world, women have attained more career opportunities and legal rights than men have. Throughout the history of women, motherhood and wifehood was regarded… [read more]

Role of Womens Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


No dear. It was an ordeal. I applied in 30 medical schools one after the other and 29 rejected me for admission.

Florence: (Surprised) oh really?

Elizabeth: Yess. Only Geneva Medical School allowed me to get admission in 1847. But there were all boys in the class. The teachers were males too. They often did not let me attend the medical demonstration but, anyhow, time passed. I graduated with flying marks and stood first in my class. By the way, you tell, how are you going with your cause?

Florence: Hmm. (smiled). I also regard the support from my father. You know what, he is a landowner but actively involved in anti-slavery movement. I feel for people a lot. There is so much categorization and discrimination in the society. I have seen my father fight against all these things and I am also determined to exalt nursing form a low class profession to an esteemed field.

Elizabeth: Did your father allowed you to become a nurse? I mean you belong to a wealthy family. It is really difficult to ignore the status and join a low esteemed profession.

Florence: (smiled). It was after meeting you when I decided that I would not give up and try again. You know, when I met you for the first time, I had interest in medicine but had no idea what to do. My father did not allow me to join nursing and I was just depressed what to do. But then, yes, following your advice of consistent effort, I persuaded him to allow me to enter nursing.

Elizabeth: Nice… so how are you doing these days? Have you joined some hospital or what?

Florence: I am more towards nursing administration now, travelling to various parts to help the people. I have trained team of nurses and we all move to the areas where epidemic diseases like malaria and cholera break up.

Elizabeth: oh yes, I know & #8230;. You went to Crimea war as well. Perhaps this was the event which made you National Heroine; an inspiration for thousand of ladies of present society. (smiled)

Florence: (smiled too), Yes. I was feeling much for the soldiers who get injured at battlefield and no treatment is available to them. So I and my team volunteered to go there and looked after them. I found another female, Mary Seacole, who was looking after the patients quite close to battlefield. (pause then smile) It seems women are capable of doing many things and they are doing as well.

Elizabeth: Yes. Females can do many things. I feel that particularly in this 19th century, they should strive to unleash their potential to the maximum extent and play their role in the social development as well.

Florence: You are right. Women should realize their responsibilities as members of society and contribute in its betterment as well. The encouragement is rooted in accomplishment. We should not be afraid of challenges. If we start striving now, the next generation woman… [read more]

Awakening Mother-Women ( Adele Ratignolle) Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Indeed, the only rest Edna's mother got from raising her daughters was when she died. Perhaps it is that example that teaches Edna how she could "elude" her children by committing suicide. It is important for readers to realize, however, that she does so in order to stay true to her own self, her own perceptions and impulses, which society demands she forsake for the sakes of her children and her domesticated role. Because Edna is too vibrant and effervescent to willingly renounce her true virtue, those things she believes in and that make life worth experiencing, her only option is to kill herself, completing the tragedy in this tale which virtually all women endure.

The lone example that Edna has for pursuing her new existence, that of following her dreams and her perceptions that inhabited her since her days of a child, is Mademoiselle Reisz. An accomplished pianist, Reisz encouraged Edna to explore her own artistry as a painter and to pursue the romantic feelings she has for Robert. These actions are diametrically opposed to the virtues of a mother that society imposes and that Adele upholds. The following description of Mrs. Reisz confirms as much. "She was a disagreeable little woman, no longer young, who had quarreled with almost everyone, owing to a temper that was self-assertive and a disposition to trample upon the rights of others" (Chopin). This description is the exact opposite of that in the aforementioned quotation describing Adele's aptitude for motherhood. Whereas the former is attractive Mrs. Reisz is described as not "young" -- which is a euphemism for unattractive. She is cantankerous, quarrelsome, and above all else, not a mother. With her sullen disposition that cares little for the needs of "others," Chopin's description of her suggests that she would not make a good mother. An yet, it was Mrs. Reisz's piano playing was the initial impetus for Edna's awakening, and she remains a faithful bridge between her and Robert during the latter's travels abroad. Yet she is everything that Adele is not, talented, ill-humored, and far from nurturing, which helps to complete the author's definition of what a good mother is -- which is virtually everything that Mrs. Reisz is not.

The true tragedy in this tale is not just the death of Edna, but the death of all women who willingly submit to the loss of their true selves. Chopin utilizes this tragedy to demonstrate the fact that what society perceives as a good mother is a woman who gives up everything for her family and children. Edna, who once told Adele she would give up everything for her children but her fundamental self, is unwilling to make this sacrifice so there is no other option for her due to societal pressures other than to kill herself. What is truly significant about this concept of motherhood and the level of sacrifice involved and the toll that it actually exerts on women is the fact that this perception has changed somewhat in… [read more]

Puritan Woman Puritan Women Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,178 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


She also lost her youngest child at six years of age, during her time in captivity (Rowlandson, 1682). Despite all the pain and suffering she endured, however, Rowlandson continued to write about her love for God and how she trusted Him through everything. She talks about the sovereignty of God and addresses "the faithfulness of his promises displayed" (Rowlandson, p. 7). That was an important and vital part of life for Puritan women, but they also had their husbands on which to rely for some parts of life. They could count on having a home to go to and children to care for, but they could also expect to be disciplined if they did not do things the way their husbands expected. This included marital relations, which were a "duty" of both men and women (Rowlandson, 1682). Rowlandson also said about her time in captivity "the Lord hereby would make us the more acknowledge His hand, and to see that our help is always in Him" (Rowlandson, p. 8).

Being a puritan woman proved, at times, to be an obstacle to personal expression within the Puritan community, because women were expected to play very defined roles that did not always coincide with the ability to truly express themselves openly (Coffey & Lim, 2008). If a woman had a serious problem with her husband and the way he was treating her, for example, she could not simply tell him off and/or threaten to divorce him. That was not acceptable. She had to keep her thoughts and feelings to herself, although it was possible to talk with other women if she trusted them to keep her confidence. Telling others about family problems had to be done very carefully if it was going to be done at all, because women were supposed to be submissive to their husbands and not disrespect them for any reason. Talking poorly about them could be seen as disrespectful, and that could lead to a woman being disciplined by her husband because of the way she was acting (Coffey & Lim, 2008).

Each and every Puritan woman was unique, but they were all the same in the way they were expected to act. They saw their husbands as gifts, and they wanted to please their husbands and be one with them (Coffey & Lim, 2008). The abuse that they sometimes took at the hands of the men they married was just a part of life for them, and it was generally accepted to treat women as second class because they were not seen as being equal to men in their capabilities or their intellect (Coffey & Lim, 2008). With that in mind, however, women did have a strong role in taking care of the family and ensuring that the children were raised properly when they were very young. As children got a bit older, the women were encouraged to back off from doting on them so that the children could grow up and become young adults who were… [read more]

Interdisciplinary Studies Bis Academic Disciplines Communication and Women Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Communications and Women's Studies

While academic scholarship shares a number of techniques and approaches, different disciplines, particularly in the social sciences, attempt to delineate answers to questions in sometimes divergent ways. For example, an anthropologist and a sociologist might study an indigenous tribal culture and ask many of the same questions. The anthropological approach, though, would likely focus on the… [read more]

Historical Social Movement Abolition and Woman Suffrage Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Social Movement -Abolition & Woman Suffage

Abolition Questions:

Stewart and Truth both managed to instill intense feelings in their audiences primarily because of their courage and because they were well-acquainted with the fact that they needed to have people emotionally involved in their stories in order to be listened properly. These women provided audiences with unquestionable arguments and made it possible for people to understand that things were going to change in the future.

By claiming that "white men will be in a fix pretty soon" (Truth 26), Truth demonstrated that she was well-acquainted with the fact that reform was around the corner. Similarly, Stewart emphasizes that suffering does not happen in vain and that future communities are going to learn from all of the pain that her people experienced (Stewart 3).

Truth was a wonderful orator and this is perfectly exemplified at the point when she relates to Christ's background with the purpose of amusing the audience. Her talent makes it possible for people to agree with her and to support her in spite of the fact that she criticizes notable individuals (Truth 26).

Douglass does not hesitate to introduce vivid imagery regarding the wrongness that he associated with the institution of slavery and makes it possible for people to understand that it is a corrupt concept. By combining humor with criticism he manages to send the overall right message concerning slavery and its injustice (Douglass 11).

3. The Campbell version of Truth's speech is more colorful as it presents how the audience reacts to the speaker's thinking. Campbell made it possible for readers to understand that the audience actually appreciated Truth and supported her words.

The other version of Truth speech is longer, but fails to portray an image concerning the atmosphere present as the woman expressed her thinking freely. Furthermore, this version accentuates the fact that Campbell speaks from the perspective of an African-American as if this was important when considering that the speech was mainly intended to criticize gender differences.

4. Frederick Douglass considered that the American people as a whole were wrong in celebrating the Fourth of July as long as they continued to accept slavery as an essential part of the country's traditions. By using the words 'you' and 'your' he wanted to highlight that African-Americans had no place in celebrating the day.

By claiming that "it is the birthday of your national independence, and of your political freedom" (Douglass…… [read more]

Women and Unemployment Gender Identity Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,004 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Further, there is little evidence that professional women are opting out of their position to adopt more traditional roles as wives and mothers.

Essentially, the trend appears to be that younger women, middle-aged women, and even older women who are actively engaged in professional working environments are feeling ever more actualized and valued for their expertize. There is really no "opt-out revolution" of scads of women leaving professions to raise children, and even more important, there does not seem to be the socio-cultural bias that they should. Simply put, there are more professional women than ever before, there are more women executives than ever before, and some of the research trends in salary and wage gap, while true, are not necessarily indicative of all levels of cohorts or of 21st century trends. It is also important to note that most professional women, even those with young children, are working more than ever in their quest to balance a personal and professional life. The importance for women is that there is now a paradigm shift that says it is possible for "working women to successfully combine these roles [career and motherhood] by making great personal sacrifices, including curtailing their sleep, civic involvement, or leisure time" (Percheski, p. 513).

What is interesting, though, is that the women's employment levels tend to be constant in the 21st century, which means that any pre-existing wage or responsibility gap will remain. We must then ask, if this is the case, why are there so many media stories, and even academic notions, that the gender gap in the professions is still a tremendous problem of inequality?

There are a few reasons for this. First is the way that many professional women balance becoming a mother and their career? Many reduce their hours (full to part-time), or do not work every working day. Second is the overriding perception that since the 1960s were so long ago, all gender related inequalities in society would be solved and now absent. Instead, there is still proof that overall, "women's employment experiences still do not resemble those of men" (Percheski, p. 514). There are more women in professional jobs, but there may not be a drastic number of new professional jobs due to economic restraints. Thus, the real trend, rather than an opting-out cadre, is that women are even more persistent despite challenges (Percheski, p. 514). Keeping up the challenge is indeed a robust experience, but from the data, one not likely to change anytime soon.


Baron-Cohen, Simon. (2003). The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus.

Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,

Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.

Percheski, C. (2008). Opting Out? Cohort Differences in Professional Women's Employment Rates from 1960 to 2005. American Sociological Review. 73 (3): 497-515. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/brines/percheski.pdf

Unger, R. (2004).…… [read more]

Women and Men Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


G. And Pennington B., 2004).

The success of the process of development to be a woman or man determines what society refers one as -- a woman or a man. According to (Darwin C., 1859) the process of development is clear to show that the making part of it is through cohesive action of the agent of socialization. These agents despite having a little effect of the final outcome influence the decision taken once "self" is recognized (Bessant J. And Watts R., 2007).

I agree that women and men are made since the society plays a critical role in helping on to recognize self. It is also clear to see that the self would be lost should the development process be shunned. Self-worth of an individual lacks and, this will impact negatively on what one eventually becomes.


ANDOLINA M.W., JENKINS K., ZUKIN C. & KEETER, S. 2003. Habits from Home, Lessons from School: Influences on Youth Civic Engagement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 36, 275-280.

BECK-GERNSHEIM E. 1998. On the Way to a Post-Familial Family: From a Community of Need to Elective Affinities. Theory, Culture & Society, 15, 53-70.

BENNER D.G. & PENNINGTON B. 2004. The Gift of Being Yourself: The Sacred Call to Self-Discovery, InterVarsity Press.

BESSANT J. & WATTS R. 2007. Sociology Australia 3rd edition, Australia, Allen & Unwin.

DARWIN C. 1859. The Origin of Species, New York, Modern Library.

FRANK L.K. 1948. What Families Do for the Nation. American Journal of Sociology, 53, 471-473.

GOTTLIEB G. 2000. "Environmental and behavioural influences on gene activity.." Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 93-97.

MEAD G.H. 1934. The Self: Classical Sociology Theory, Massachusetts, Malden Mass; Blackwell.

SIGELMAN C.K. & RIDER E.A. 2006. Life-Span Human Development, Belmont, Wadsworth Cengage Learning., California,…… [read more]

Sociology of Women Family Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


A fat woman would be highly criticized for her plump figure whereas a man would not be ridiculed quite as much.

This is another assertion of the patriarchal society that we have come to live in. Women in our society are programmed to look a certain way and be extra careful about their weight and their looks. The fear of… [read more]

Solitude Distinctive Women Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Solitude

Distinctive Women

There is an extremely perceptible difference between the women of the Buendia family and those that are outside that family in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's novel One Hundred Years of Solitude. That difference is actually fairly pronounced, and may in part be due to the proclivity towards incest that characterizes the lineage of this family in Marquez's work of literature. However, whereas most of the other women who are not a part of this family are more quintessentially feminine in the conventional, traditional way (meaning they are demure, assenting, domesticated lovers who are only happy in such a role), the Buendia women are noticeably different in this regard. Perhaps this fact is attributable to the reality that most of the other women outside of this family are encountered by the male figures in the clan in the roles as lovers. For the most part, however, the women in the Buendia family are staid lovers, not prone to immense displays of affection towards their male suitors, and largely incapable of the domestic bliss that most of the other women depicted in this novel seem to want (and which most women in general appear to desire), since only two of these women produce children. This distinction keeps these women standoffish, aloof, and prone to a sense of power and entitlement that eludes the other female characters in the novel.

One of the most salient examples of the aforementioned proclivities of the Buendia women is that of Amaranta. Although she has a couple of different lovers over the years while living in the relatively isolated town of Macondo, Amaranta never fully submits to any of them and proves untamable and unwilling to acquiesce to typical domestic bliss. As such, she iss able to keep a sense of power in these relationships which the following quotation, in which family matriarch Ursula Iguaran Buendia reflects upon the former's values and tendencies, readily indicates.

Amaranta, however, whose hardness of heart frightened her, whose concentrated bitterness made her bitter, suddenly became clear…and she understood…the unjust tortures to which she had submitted Pietro Crespi had not been dictated by…vengeance… nor had the slow martyrdom with which she had frustrated…Colonel Gerineldo Marquez (Marquez).

This quotation demonstrates that Amaranta is certainly an atypical lover, particularly during the timeframe depicted in One Hundred Years of Solitude. Her depiction as a character who embodies "bitterness" with a singular "hardness" of affection suggests the extent to which she refuses to submit to two of her principle lovers, Crespi and Marquez. Furthermore, her treatment of both of these lovers, described as "unjust tortures" and a "slow martyrdom" is anything but typical of the loving care offered by other female lovers not in the Buendia family. Amaranta's…… [read more]

Professions for Women Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Professions for Women," in which she talks about "killing the Angel in the House," is an ideal artifact for ideological criticism, because Woolf is interested in simultaneously destroying a specific ideological product while creating one of her own. As Sandra Foss discusses in her book Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, the goal of any ideological critique is to… [read more]

Canadian Feminism Expression, Action, Rebellion Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Others argue that Canadian feminist media is effective and there is a lot more evidence of it now than in previous decades. The research would seek questions to this answers, further elucidated the validity of the sides of the debate regarding the presence, efficacy, and use of Canadian feminist media regarding representation and expression of political intentions.

Tuer's methodology of… [read more]

Women's Roles in New England Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


There were many women in Colonial society who took on lives of entrepreneurship, although most of these women were widowed, or had never been married. Essentially, most women who did enter the workplace were absent of the role of the wife and thus the home care taker. This then allowed them to work in an acceptable manner within a society that did require strict roles for women who were married and with families to look after.

Despite strict gender roles, women still found a way to take part in the monumental movement for independence. There were some instances of women throwing gender stereotypes out of the window, some even dressed as men to take part in the fight for independence. Yet, such cases were rare. Most women took on less controversial roles within the war effort. Because of their submissive roles within the home, many women were banned for the most part from participating within politics (Berkin 1997). Thus, "women were locked out of 'large politics' of government," and so were not the decision makers or influencers necessarily within the tumultuous period before the Revolutionary War (Berkin 1997 p 11). Still, this did not stop many women from participating in the fight for independence entirely. Many women supported the war effort from their more acceptable domestic capacities (Smith 2008). There is the example of the Homespun Movement, which shows how many women did what they could to help the war effort without overstepping their gender boundaries. Women refused to allow members of the society to wear British made clothing, or use other domestic goods being imported by England, who was charging steep importing taxes. Women spun and wove homemade clothing for their families, and even for the troops (Smith 2008).

Overall, women played a fundamental role in the evolving nature of colonial society in an emerging nation. They served as the foundation for social, religious, and even political endeavors. Most women were the silent supporters of their male counterparts, and although their actions were restricted, their passions were not.


Berkin, Carol. (1997). First Generations: Women in Colonial America. Macmillan.

Jennings, John. (2003). The ladies' defence. Revolution & Romanticism. Web. http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Pages/viewtext.php?s=search&tid=37&route=basicsearch.php&sterms=women&s=browse#

Library of Congress. (1782). Verses, made on the sudden death of six young women and one boy, who were drowned at Jamestown. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Web. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbpe&fileName=rbpe16/rbpe165/1650120a/rbpe1650120a.db&recNum=0&itemLink=D-rbpebib:24:./temp/~ammem_qbIi::&linkText=0

Middleton, Richard & Lombard, Anne. (2011). Colonial America: A History to 1763. John Wiley & Sons.

Smith, Merril D. (2008). Women's Roles in Seventeenth-Century America. Greenwood Press.… [read more]

Canebrake Night Woman Sex Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One day, he will grow too old to be told that a wandering man is a mirage and that naked flesh is a dream. I will tell him that his father has come, that an angel brought him back from Heaven for a while." In other words, she will continue to lie to him. She will tell the boy that his father has returned, at least for a little while. The story ends with the little boy asking if he's missed another angel, the prostitute responds by saying, "Darling, the angels have themselves a lifetime to come to us." The truth is one day she's going to run out of angels (or lies) and her son will become disillusioned with her storytelling and prevarication.

It was the purpose of this paper to discuss how the female protagonist in "The Canebrake" by Mohammed Mrabet and "Night Woman" by Edwidge Danticat use sex to get what they want. In "The Canebrake," the theme of feminine empowerment through the exploitation of sex fleshes itself out in positive way. The affair gives the husband and the wife a chance to reboot their marriage on an equal playing field. In other words, the sex pays off for the female protagonist. However, in "Night Woman," the theme is complicated and ends on a more dubious note. That is, women who use sex to gain influence, money, and power are going to be held accountable for their actions. One day, they will have to answer to the people they love. They will have to explain the truth; because we live in one world, not two.… [read more]

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