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Vital Work Feminism and Women's Studies Calls

¶ … vital work feminism and Women's Studies calls for and performs? Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that feminism and Women's Studies performs real and vital 'work' in the world, and is not merely an abstract exercise in philosophy or literary analysis. Fighting for greater understanding of the role -- positive and negative -- that gender plays in our society and culture is the goal of feminism. It demands intense intellectual scrutiny and self-scrutiny. Without a formal political movement like feminism, or a formal academic discipline like Women's Studies, people will often be unwilling to perform such intense cognitive work. They are apt take gender assumptions and stereotypes for granted. We must not forget that part of the purpose of the feminist movement and the academic study of the construction of gender is to make people uncomfortable. Feminism must question cliches about gender, race, religion and the assumptions that people assume are natural, even though they may be socially constructed. Given the strides women have made in recent decades, it has become tempting to assume that there is no real need for feminism in today's day and age. But feminism is still required intellectually, in a rigorous and systematic fashion, to examine how sexism exists, often in covert ways. Also, even if women are studied within the context of other academic disciplines like history and literature, gender is often treated as an incidental aspect of how the human character is conceived. Women's Studies brings gender as a category to the forefront of people's attention, although it has been helpful to many other academic disciplines not specifically devoted to the study of women. Feminism also has a great deal of work to do, politically speaking. Less than a hundred years ago, many people were seriously questioning if women……

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Women and Feminist Studies

¶ … women studies at a time when the interdisciplinary willpower and its concepts were getting institutional identification. Women's studies provided me with an exclusive place to take up the positions of the student, the instructor, the practitioner, and the subject researcher. Nowadays, questioning the mettle of women's studies is far from over (Darraj, 2010). One of the things that…

Pages: 6  |  A-Level Coursework  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Marxism and Feminism Marxism Is

The one important piece of writing in this connection is Heidi Hartmann's article "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism" where she wrote the famous lines that marked the beginning of the end of this union: "The marriage of marxism and feminism has been like the marriage of husband and wife depicted in English common law: marxism and feminism are one, and that one is marxism." (Hartman 1981, p. 2). Slowly and gradually, feminism turned away from Marxism to find a niche within capitalist society and this resulted in the development of new concepts in feminism. As Raya Dunayevskaya (1996) asserted: 'We can and will witness the development of women themselves not only as force but as reason. We can and will be a catalyst not only for our development as all-round human beings, but also for that of men" (p. 28). Feminism may no longer need the support of Marxism to grow and prosper since it has found a place for itself within capitalist system, still it must acknowledge the role played by men like Marx and Engels in raising women issues. References 1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell. 2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996 3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42. 4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism……

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Women First Wave Susan B. Anthony Was

¶ … Women First Wave Susan B. Anthony was born in 1820 on February 15 in Adams, Massachusetts. Her family followed the Quaker tradition, and was also involved in activism. This affected her deeply, and her sense of justice and moral zeal were developed early in life. When Susan grew up, she entered the teaching profession, in which she worked…

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Women in Islam

Muslim Women Women's Progress in Muslim Societies This paper explores the genuine progress that has been made in the lives of women in Muslim societies during the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of the current status of women in Islam and of the Muslim faith, and to assess whether enough progress…

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Feminism Is a Philosophy Driven by the

Feminism is a philosophy driven by the need to give women a more parallel standing in this world alongside men. It aims to encourage women to move outside their homes and seek employment and demands equal socio-political and economic rights for women all over the world. Also, one of the main aims of this philosophy is also to articulate and…

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Several Readings to Discuss 1 General Opinion Issue or Similarity in the Readings

¶ … universality of the Western interpretation of human rights. In Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus edited by Abdullahi Ahmed an-Naim (1992), the articles are mostly concerned with reworking the notion of human rights in an effort to achieve consensus on a 'new,' 'more universal' (or cosmopolitan) view of human rights, as "the lack or insufficiency…

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Women Closing the Bridges to Discrimination and Inequality

19th Amendment and Women's Issues Sections 1 and 2 of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution read: "The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." "Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." (Thomson 2005)…

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Sex and Gender

Feminism Males can be feminists too because feminism is the radical notion that women are people. The popular feminist slogan suggests that feminism is not about fist-thumping radical politics and women who won't wear bras. Rather, feminism means putting an end to ridiculous practices and conditions plaguing women all around the world. For example, women still receive lower wages for equal work in the United States. According to the Census Bureau, "For every dollar a man made in 2003, women made 75.5 cents," (Hagenbaugh). Moreover, men can be feminists because of the wider implications of the feminist movement. For instance, feminism has been linked to other movements of social justice such as civil rights for minority members of the population. Any man who believes that women should be treated fairly in any and all situations can proudly call himself a feminist. Being treated fairly means receiving equal pay for equal work. Fairness also entails the elimination of the glass ceiling in business and politics, as "a glass ceiling continues to halt the progress of many women who strive to reach top management positions," (Gwynne). The glass ceiling plagues female politicians in the United States as well: although the number of females serving in the American Senate and House of Representatives……

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Art Abjection of the Body

Therefore women represented in those methods are indeed monstrous. Femininity altogether is monstrous because the conception of the female and of feminine are narrow and horrific both from the perspective of traditional masculinity, for women who occupy space on that spectrum, and especially for women such as Haraway, Kristeva, and Creed who seek disruption and liberation from these constrictions. Feminism then is an effort to abject-ify (as opposed to objectify) traditional conceptions of the body and of the gender, with particular respect to women. Feminism is the effort to make the stereotypes what are monstrous not the true and full expressions of women, of what is female, and of what is feminine. The old and traditional views of the female and the feminine abject what is truly female, feminine, and feminist. These authors aim to turn the abjection around upon the very constructions that incited them to create methods of escape, liberation, and expression. References: Creed, B. 1993. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, feminism, psychoanalysis. Routledge, London. Haraway, D. 1991. A Cyborg Manifesto. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, Routledge, New York. Mulvey, L. 1999. Cosmetics and Abjection -- Cindy Sherman, 1977 -- 1987. Shiach, M. (ed) Feminism and Cultural Studies, Oxford University Press, New York. Refinery 29. 2012 Fashion -- Jewelry. Web, Available from: http://www.refinery29.com/fashion. 2012 August 27. Steyn, M., & van Zyl, M. (eds) 2009. The Prize and The Prize -- Shaping Sexualities in South Africa, Human Science Research Council Press, Capetown. Turk, A., & Badii, A. 2001. Personalized, Mediated Human-Computer Interaction. Web, Available from: http://wawisr01.uwa.edu.au/2001/TurkBadii.pdf. 4th Western Australian Workshop……

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Culture and Media Worlds

Culture and Media Works Sexual Objectification of Women in Media Media today is one of the most common grounds used to communicate or get a message across. It has readily increased its accessibility and its reach to people with phenomenon of globalization. Any individual who has access to any form of visual media today knows how the issue of "sex"…

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Politicians Hillary Rodham Clinton: Senator,

More than any other issue for which she advocates, women's rights and equality for woman around the world are at the forefront. Some of her famous words regarding these issues from the Beijing United Nations Conference on Women include: "Women comprise more than half the world's population. Women are 70% percent of the world's poor, and two-thirds of those who…

Pages: 6  |  Book Report  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 20


Compulsory Heterosexuality & Lesbian Existence;

" (Rich, 1980) Challenging social and political convention will be arduous, yet the reward to free women particularly from the ever-present restraints of male prescribed female sexuality in capitalism would be epic. The world would exist in a world of equality and freely expressed sexuality in all forms: "The extension of this assumption is the frequently heard assertion that in a world of genuine equality, where men were nonoppressive and nurturing, everyone would be bisexual." (Rich, 1980) A portion of the content of "Compulsory Sexuality" is the list of the eight powers men have over women. Rules 1, 2, & 6 speak to the control men have over women's sexuality, bodies, and cultural representations in public spheres and in the private realms. Rich further contends that many of these powers men have over women are played out in the workplace. The workplace, for women, is an institution wherein they can be psychically or physically violated and preyed upon at any time. She urges readers to understand that the magnitude of the use of women in transactions and the number of men involved in such transactions is an international emergency. "Compulsory Sexuality" then is concerned with pervasive institutional violence against women, the freedom and declaration of the female experience, and it is about the livelihood of not only lesbians, but also all women. Rich claims that lesbianism and feminism are not primarily concerned with sex, but rather, they are expressions of resistance against patriarchy and a declaration of existence: "Lesbian existence comprises both the breaking of a taboo and the rejection of a compulsory way of life. It is also a direct or indirect attack on male right of access to women. But it is more than these, although we may first begin to perceive it as a form of nay-saying to patriarchy, an act of resistance. It has of course included role playing, self-hatred, breakdown, alcoholism, suicide, and intrawoman violence; we romanticize at our peril what it means to love and act against the grain, and under heavy penalties; and lesbian existence has been lived (unlike, say, Jewish or Catholic existence) without access to any knowledge of a tradition, a continuity, a social underpinning. The destruction of records and memorabilia and letters documenting the realities of lesbian existence must be taken very seriously as a means of keeping heterosexuality compulsory for women, since what has been kept from our knowledge…

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Feminist Theory Over the Last 150 Years,

Feminist Theory Over the last 150 years, the overall issue of equal rights for women (feminism) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. As women refused to stand for the way they were often treated in the past, with no rights or voice in matters that concern their own lives. This would lead to the development of a number of different feminist theories to help explain the underlying philosophies and challenges facing women. (Bennett 6 -- 28) To fully understand these different theories requires conducting an annotated bibliography. Where, we examine the most relevant theories in the field of feminism. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying views and challenges facing women going forward. Wood, Julia. "Liberal Feminism." Gendered Lives. Boston: Wadsworth, 2009. 78 -- 80. Print. In this piece of literature, the author discusses the effects of liberal feminism. This is when women want to see equality in every sense of the word. Where, they are focused on supporting the idea that men and women are completely equal from: a legal as well as social stand point. As a result, the various organizations supporting these kinds of changes have been challenging the status quo through litigation to: various laws and policies that restrict the rights of women. (Wood 78 -- 80) The information from this source is useful, because it highlights why liberal feminism has become increasingly popular. Where, many proponents want equality, based upon the merits of the individual vs. A particular gender. In this particular case, they want equality applied in every aspect of life, as men are not allowed to have any kind of unfavorable advantages over women. Costa, Margret. "Socialist Feminism" Women and Sport. Champaign: Human Kinnetics, 1994. 246. Print. In this piece of literature, the author discusses the impact of socialist feminism on the views of many women. Where, this philosophy is working off of a number of different principals to include: oppression based upon the economic status of the individual, genders issues that are divided along class lines (i.e. men having the social status / power over a woman's life) and a class style system that is designed to limit the economic mobility of women / their family. When you put these different elements together, it is obvious that social feminism represents a new philosophy of women's studies that was heavily influenced by Marxism. The information…

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Feminists Critique of International Relations the Gendered Politics of International War and Peace

Gender and International Relations International Relations in perspective Gendered issues in the realm of International Relations have not been widely discussed, questioned or researched until recently, according to author Jill Steans. The reason for this lack of investigation into gender and International Relations, Steans explains, is not necessarily based on bias against females or chauvinism to any degree. To wit,…

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Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer Appears

She exhibits no feelings towards her spouses other than harsh and also vicious ones, for example embarrassment as well as ridicule. Her spouses had been all aged and also wealthy and she together with her youth and sweetness has total control over all of them. As she describes: As help me God, I laughe whan I thynke How pitously a-nyght…

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Feminism Is for Everybody Describe

They were also expected to wear girdles, bras and other uncomfortable clothing in order to maintain a certain shape, until standards became more relaxed and they could dress in slacks. When women were expected to look 'sexy' at work, they were also subjected to sexual harassment, and in the past there was no legal redress against this. 13. Describe two examples of gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication that create and maintain woman's subordination through social interactions. There are many demeaning and insulting ways that men speak about women, just as there have always been racist terms for blacks and Hispanics. These words are very well know, of course, and women also use them about each other, but they are intended to make women feel inferior in many ways, such as not having an appearance, attitude or personality that is pleasing to men. Males can also convey these messages through looks and gestures, such as when they see a woman they regard as particularly attractive -- or unattractive, for that matter. They can also use looks and size differences to threaten and intimidate women or 'put them in their place'. 14. Using Hook's chapter "Women and Work" (Ch.9) in Feminism is for Everybody, describe how women's work is devalued. Discuss how the devaluation of women's work benefits men. Many women believe that feminism forced them to work outside the home, although as Hooks points out, the capitalist system itself was responsible for that change. Wages and incomes were often too low in America, so that families had to have two incomes to maintain a standard of living as middle class consumers. For most of history, of course, women's work was always devalued and unpaid since it consisted of cooking, cleaning, child care and other domestic duties. In other words, at least half of the productive labor in society and all of the reproductive labor was done by women who earned nothing. They did this because culture, religion and society insisted that this was their 'natural' function in the world. Even when women began to work outside the home, in textile mills or as domestics, their labor was often paid only half of what men earned. In short, women were a fast force of cheap labor, denied meaningful opportunities for advancement or education. Hooks also notes that housewives often felt "isolated, lonely, and depressed," while the home was only a…

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Claiming Feminism Matrilineal History or Girls and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry

¶ … feminism, Matrilineal History, or Girls' and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry Gaga over Gaga? Girls' and women's empowerment in the music industry Feminism in America today is often justified by the word 'choice,' in the sense that women should have a 'choice' in terms of what feminine conventions they embrace or reject. For example, some young feminists…

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Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics Democracy

Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics Democracy is when the political thinkers and leaders think as one collective unit instead of individuals. Democracy is to discuss, analyze and find solutions for the nation's problems from a majority consensus without ignoring the rights and answers for the minorities of the nation. It helps the government form and cultivate a way to…

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Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft

Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft and Chopin on the Social Dynamics of Female Emancipation One of the most fundamental and profound developments in literature and literary criticism in the past century or two is the emergence of the feminist perspective, or more correctly an abundance of feminine perspectives. The plural is the proper form because there is no…

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Has Feminism Enhanced or Destroyed Marriage and Family?

Feminism Has Not Destroyed Marriage Notwithstanding viewpoints to the contrary, the feminist movement (past and present) has not ruined the institution of marriage in America. Indeed, some feminists have challenged marriage as a valid tradition, and those challenges should be viewed as healthy to the ongoing dialogue. This paper delves into that topic and presents a variety of scholarly narratives…

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Women and Feminism in Sir

Domestically speaking, this creates for women in More's Utopia the quintessential situation of being "stuck between a rock and a hard place" where one's actions are both exalted and damned at the same time. Thus, in this fabricated Utopian ideal, the metaphor of communal living that supposedly transforms both the public and private arenas does nothing but wreck havoc on…

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Women and Violence Feminism

Violence Women Violence Against Women: Its Portrayal in Newspaper Media The problem of violence against women is both pervasive and historically omnipresent. Though its definition has often been subject to extreme variation, sociological exploitation of women, domestic abuse and sexual assault have nonetheless shown themselves be a real and self-perpetuating conditions in the Canadian family and community. Domestic violence is…

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Woman's Rights

Women's Rights In her personal "Letters" Abigail Adams begged her husband John Adams to remember the contribution women had made to the founding of the new Republic when constructing the laws of the land. However, President Adams, although he placed a great deal of credence in his wife's opinion on a personal level, did not listen to his wife in this instance. He believed women's influence was best channeled through their male relations, and women were not suited to direct participation in political affairs. It was many years before equality for women was acknowledged within the legal framework of the nation. Today, no one would seriously consider taking away any woman's right to vote and to be an articulate participant in the American political process. A woman has made a legitimate effort at securing the White House herself, and a woman is running for the office of Vice President of America. The institutional concerns and the 19th century advocate of women's rights, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, are no longer a preoccupation of the nation. Stanton desired that women be able to vote, to inherit property, and not to disappear as a legal person upon marriage. These technical questions of equal rights under the law no longer seem to impact women's lives, but that hardly means that women have no more legal wars to fight. Women still bear the burden of caring for children and the elderly. This means that a lack of affordable childcare and eldercare hampers their ability to earn money in the workforce. Women may not be able to be formally discriminated against in the workplace, but they often face informal legal types of discrimination, which may be as indefinite as simply 'not fitting in' to a particular corporate culture. Even on the public stage, commentators on the left and right seem to have trouble talking about women as political leaders. What is seen as strong in a man is seen as irritating and aggressive when encapsulated in the persona of a woman like Hillary Clinton. Women are afraid to show emotion and humor, the qualities that contribute to electability, but seem to make a female candidate appear less serious. An attractive woman who has children like Sarah Palin may provoke sexual innuendos when her policies are criticized. These types of attitudes can be discouraging for young women contemplating entering the political discourse. The idea of how a woman…

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Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film

Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film Feminism and gender roles in Avant-garde film The American Avant Garde Cinema is particularly important when considering abstract tendencies and subliminal messages, as most directors engaged in producing motion pictures for the genre intended to depict certain issues regarding society as seen from their perspective. Some of the most renowned directors who created films concerning the field, such as Maya Deren, Carolee Schneeman, Martha Rosler, and Dara Birnbaum focused on the feminism movement and on gender as a whole in some of their works. They were influenced by a series of factors in doing this, ranging from their personal convictions to society's views on the matter that they related to. In spite of the fact that the films that this paper discusses are all connected by the fact that they deal with gender roles, some of the directors preferred to take on a more abstract or grave position while others expressed a somewhat jokey character. Although an amateur film enthusiast is likely to feel confused as a result of watching Maya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon (1944), a more experienced individual would identify a series of concepts meant to tackle feminism. In wanting her audiences to understand the protagonist's feelings, Deren chose to have viewers see things and events exactly as she saw them. While the film initially seems to present a rather ordinary event, the action gradually progresses and it is revealed that there is much more emotionality to it. The woman in the motion picture appears to be consumed by society's trends and by the fact that she wants people to see things from her own perspective. Her condition in more severe than one might believe at first, given that she eventually wants to commit suicide and that she apparently informs the audience regarding her motives. The male individual in the film is essential in understanding gender representation as Deren did, as he appears to be responsible for the fact that the woman wants to die. Moreover, he apparently encourages her to accept her fate and to proceed with committing suicide. Meditation on Violence seems to be concerned with controlled aggressiveness, as the character in the film puts across serenity in performing the Wu Tang ritual. It appears that Deren wanted to demonstrate that violence does not necessarily have to be violent and incontrollable, as it can…

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Feminism Both Bell Hooks and

Both Hooks and Moraga propose that all women of color examine the means by which they have been oppressed and discover new means of empowerment. However, Hooks' piece is longer and even harsher than Moraga's: Hooks, for instance, notes that Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, however influential the book was, is written primarily from a white leisure class perspective. She states that Friedan had a "one-dimensional perspective," and women like Friedan were unaware "of the extent to which their perspectives reflect race and class biases." Moraga, on the other hand, offers a broader social commentary about the exclusion of oppressed groups of women. Her attack on racism and classism in relation to feminism is more general. For example, she states on page 29, "Without an emotional, heartfelt grappling with the source of our own oppression, without naming the enemy within ourselves and outside us, no authentic, hierarchical connection among oppressed groups can take place." Moraga's tone is more constructive in general than Hook's is: "It is essential that radical feminists confront their fear of and resistance to one another," (34). Moraga also acknowledges her own complicity: "By virtue of the very fact that I am white-looking, I identified with and aspired toward white values ... I rode the wave of that Southern California privilege as far as conscience would let me," (34). While Hooks' piece is harsher and angrier in tone, she concludes by stating, "Though I criticize aspects of feminist movement as we have known it so far, a critique which is sometimes harsh and unrelenting, I do so not in an attempt to diminish feminist struggle but to enrich, to share in the work of making a liberatory ideology." Hooks and Moraga have had different experiences of oppression and therefore write from unique perspectives, but both……

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Wave of Feminism Took Place Beginning in

¶ … wave of feminism took place beginning in 1848 with the ratification of the 19th amendment which afforded women the right to vote (Frederick, 2004). The social and theoretical concerns were largely scattered, and the emphasis was working on a variety of issues including child labor protection, peace and care for women in general (Frederick, 2004). The movement was more geared toward generalities. In the second wave however, during the 1960s, was a revival of the first wave, further defining some of the issues that were critical to feminist thinking. The third wave was more responsible for defining the new issues that were important for women to fight for, as many accomplishments had been realized during the first two waves (Bailey, 1997; Frederick, 2004). Kate Millet is a well-known feminist of the second wave who claimed that "the first wave of feminism in the early twentieth century was reborn as a second wave in the early 1960s" (Frederick, 2004). Cathryn Bailey is well-known for supporting the third wave of feminism describing it as "a means of distancing itself from earlier feminism" and further describes it as a mechanism for emphasizing what might be described as the discontinuities that existed within the first and second waves (Bailey, 1997: 18). Betty Friedan is well-known for her work "The Feminist Mystique" which characterizes the second wave of feminism as well, known as a time when women fought for equality and questioned among other things gender assignment and roles (Rosen, 2001). The idea of democracy for women was expanded during the second wave and equality was seen with regard to all of American culture (Frederick, 2004). Third wave feminism is characterized by many well-known individuals including Krista Jacobs, editor of Sexing the Political who believed that during the third wave women "Are celebrating their pluralities, embracing their personal and political contradictions" (Frederick, 2004). The third wave of feminism is characterized as "a movement of young feminists who no only confront but embrace contradiction and ambiguity" (Frederick, 2004). The primary ideology of this movement is the notion that inevitably in society there "exist contradictions and compromises" that must be made in the movement toward feminism, and that feminism in and of itself is filled with complexity and fighting within a still predominately patriarchichal society (Frederick, 2004). Third wave feminism is often considered very similar to postmodern feminism but also very different. Postmodern feminists generally…

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Feminism in Early American Literature

¶ … Feminism" of Bradstreet and Wheatley Anne Bradstreet and Phillis Wheatley have the unique distinction of being two firsts in American feminism. Bradstreet was the first American female poet to have her work published, and Phillis Wheatley was the first black female poet to have her work become known and published. Because of their bravery and fame for breaking…

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Feminism Arising Out of the

As a result, women of color have become increasingly included in the public discourse and have risen to positions of political power. Moreover, the feminist support of civil rights affected men of color as well as women, and an increasing acceptance of diversity within the society cannot but affect the lives of all women of whatever race. Therefore, even though many people of color still live in poverty and discrimination is still a problem, the Second Wave of Feminism has made great strides in achieving overall racial equity, and has at least promoted a more equitable public discourse regarding race. Homosexual rights were also kin to the Second Wave of Feminism. Lesbian feminism promoted the voices of lesbians and helped achieve awareness and tolerance of homosexuality. Although homosexual rights do not directly affect all women, since not all women are lesbians, greater social equity impacts all women. Although homosexual rights have proven to be one of the slowest-moving causes supported by the Second Wave of Feminism, clearly this issue affects the lives of both straights and gays in creating a more equitable society in general. Finally, the Second Wave of Feminism concerned itself as much as possible with labor relations and economic parity. A multitude of issues are included under this rubric, the two most notable of which are income parity and workers' rights. Women in the United States still earn less than their male counterparts and a considerable income disparity continues to plague most women, but the struggle continues. Labor unions also continue to struggle under increasing political conservatism, but the Second Wave of Feminism continues to raise awareness of these issues, and draw attention to how labor and economics affect all women, rich, poor, or in between.…

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Transnational Feminism

Transnational Feminism Women's Culture- This work will use the quote: "Culture...consists in the way analogies are drawn between things, in the way certain thoughts are used to think others" as a focal point or a beginning in making a connection between Shohat's argument that globalization...just be seen as part of the much longer history of colonialism in which Europe attempted…

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Feminism in Politics

Feminism in Politics Without a doubt, one of most influential and complex political issues of the last several decades is that of the feminist movement, or more precisely, the effect that feminism has had on various areas of politics and political science. In an effort to fully comprehend the various facets of this relationship, this paper will focus on two primary areas: the major feminist critiques of mainstream political science, and the contributions feminism has made to the study of political participation. Upon conclusion of this paper, the reader will have gained a greater understanding and appreciation of the sphere of influence of feminism itself. Feminist Critiques of Mainstream Political Science Feminism, by its very nature, takes on political nuances; much like racial minority groups have embraced political activism over the years to advance their various causes, so too have gender-based minorities. In fact, most sources agree that the conversion of a female person into a feminist is largely due to strong political beliefs backed up by specific actions to bring attention and recognition to the cause of women's rights (Zivi, 2004). This being the case, the question is asked as to exactly how feminists feel about mainstream political science. Feminist critiques of mainstream political science, as research indicates, begin at the very core of political science itself, as based on the traditional view. Traditionally, the conventional wisdom behind political science held that politics was a man's area of endeavor because of the often brutal nature of political pursuits, and minority groups such as women, ethnic and racial groups were simply dismissed from the inner workings of political science because of their detachment from the mainstream (Phillips, 1998). Considering this, the absurdity of that argument is clear. Feminists have long made a valid argument that political science has excluded them by categorizing women and politics within political science rather than women in politics, or more precisely, the question as to why women are so often kept out of the political arena. The feminist critique of political science as exclusionary and prejudiced is not merely based on their own perceptions; one of the earliest political thinkers, Aristotle, put forth the theory, thousands of years ago, that true democracy could not exist without the voices of all people being heard, rather than just the voice of the dominators of the system, much like males have dominated females historically (Phillips, 1998). After viewing…

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Interdisciplinary Studies Disciplines Women's Studies and Communication

Women Studies and Communications Women's Studies Key Concepts There is a number of evolving key concepts which continue to help Women's Studies develop as an academic doctrine. First, there is a general consensus that American society, as well as many others throughout the globe, is dominated by male driven power. This has created a patriarchal hegemony, where men dominate the society, and then turn to oppress women in a number of differing ways. A double standard is a concept where there is a different set of standards held by society in terms of the behavior for men and women. Here, the research suggests that "in feminist analysis, men's power to define the content of formal and informal behavioral cultures means that the criteria or standards used to evaluate and regulate women often differ to those used for men" (Pilcher & Whelehan, 2004, 51). Because our society is dominated by a male driven hegemony, double standards are normally restricting the behaviors of women in comparison to men. There is a negative stigma and a sense of marginalization associated to the gender role of females. Gender itself is a term which is thought to actually be a culturally constructed concept, in comparison to sex which denotes the physical sexual attributes of an individual. Gender is a societal term, and thus gender roles are generated by the cultural norms of that particular society in question. This reinforces stereotypes in that women are socialized to embody particular roles that are feminized. Feminization is another major key term, especially in regards to the discussion the feminization poverty. Here, the research suggests that "Since the 1960s in the United States the poor have been more likely to be single females, members of female-headed households, and elderly females" than their male counterparts (Tierney, 1999, p 489). This has contributed to the growth in what is known as the feminization of poverty, where the male dominated society has begun to associate a limited financial capability with women being stereotyped accordingly. Thus, the make dominance has subjugated women based on these restricted gender roles. Current Theories Most of the current theories within Women's Studies are broken mainly into three general categories, "psychodynamic theories that consider early attachment problems, conflict, and/or sexual repression as primary, learning theories that favor a conditioning model, and social/cultural feminist" theory which tends to show a general cultural praise for certain feminine traits (Tierney, 1999,…

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Gender and Sexuality Define Sex.

8. What does gender at the intersections mean? Give an example to explain. Gender at the intersections mean that identity of a person cannot and is not solely the gender but gender forms a significant part of a greater whole composed of influences of race, religion, age, ethnicity, etc. Therefor gender in itself is an incomplete expression of one identity. In one or more instances, gender can be a source of identity such as when attending 'ladies night' at the club. 9. Describe Fennels use of gendered division of labor. Labor means work and Fennels explains that the work is assigned and divided among society based on their gender. Based on genders, men are assigned the labor of breadwinning whereas women are assigned the labor of child care, birthing, and nursing (Fennell, 496-97). 10. Adriaens and DeBrock argue Homosexuality as we know it is definitely a social construction (p. 572). Explain their argument. By the above mentioned argument, authors mean that male homosexuality is not a natural phenomenon but one that was socially constructed in early 18th century. The sociocultural and historical factors may have demanded men of lower status to strengthen their hierarchy by having sex with other males. The author actually synthesizes evolutionary and social construction theories of homosexuality in men (Adriaens, and Adriaens 570-585). Works Cited Adriaens, Andreas, and de Block Adriaens. "The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality." Perspectives in biology and medicine. 49.4 (2006): 570-585. Web. 1 Mar. 2013. Allan, Elizabeth J. "Hazing and gender: Analyzing the obvious." The hazing reader (2004): 275-294. Fennell, Julie Lynn. "Men Bring Condoms, Women Take Pills: Men's and Women's Roles in Contraceptive Decision Making" Gender & Society 25(4):496-521. 2011. Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. Vii-ix. Print. Kimmel, Michael. "Global masculinities: Restoration and resistance." Policy Review. (2004): 1-5. Print. Lindsey, Linda L. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. 5. California: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 5-16. eBook. WHO,. United Nations . World Health Organization.……

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Portrayal of Women in Music,

Moreover, the result is having devastating effects on young girls as well as women (Timson 1995). "It is clear that a very large percentage of American women are unhappy with their bodies," says Joan Jacobs Brumberg, author of "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html)."That kind of unhappiness begins very, very early in life," she says. Moreover, the problem doesn't disappear with maturity. Brumberg contends that the rise of plastic surgery, the prevalence of dieting, and the high number of women in therapy are examples of that prove women still suffer from self-esteem problems. She says, "People expect their bodies to be perfect these days. Women are judged too often by their appearance and young girls get the idea that appearance is the source of female power" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html). A recent study revealed that over 80% of 4th grade girls have been on a diet. Anorexia and bulimia are on the rise. Although the 'heroin chic' look of the last few years is supposedly out of vogue today, the average weight of a model is 23% lower than that of an average woman. Twenty years ago, the differential was only 8% (http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/). When females see these images day in and day out throughout every visual means of media, the message they get is that with enough effort and self-sacrifice they too can look like this. These images are unattainable. However, we have young girls starving themselves and damaging their health for perhaps the rest of their life. And women as well as teenaged girls are having breast implants in higher numbers than before the big implant scare ten years ago. Moreover, they're having liposuction on their thighs, buttocks, stomachs and every other part of their bodies. They are subjecting themselves to bovine treatments on their face wrinkles and collagen treatments on their lips. They're having fanny lifts, arm lifts, thigh lifts and face-lifts. It seems all young girls want to look like Britney Spears and all women want to have a body like Cher. Douglas states in her book, "The war that has been raging in the media is not a simplistic war against women but a complex struggle between feminism and anti-feminism that has reflected, reinforced and exaggerated our culture's ambivalence about women's roles for over 35 years" (Douglas 1995). This ambivalence will most likely continue for another 35 years, as there appears to be no stop…

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Victorian New Woman: Shaw's Views

It's Mrs. Warren's continued involvement in the dirty business of the oldest profession that sets the pair at odds. But Vivie's struggle for independence proves she's her mother's daughter through and through (Blethyn, About The Play) 5. When the play starts (Olveczky)6, Vivie Warren self-confident, high-spirited, and oblivious of her mother's profession -- has just returned home from Cambridge with…

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Woman: An Epistemological Programme of

Only 'absolute in loveliness,' the portion of rationality granted to woman, is indeed very scanty; for, denying her genius and judgment, it is scarcely possible to divine what remains to characterize intellect." Wollstonecraft, M. Vindication Chapter IV. The quarrel will go on as long as men and women fail to recognize each other as equals; that is to say, as long as femininity is perpetuated as such. Which sex is the more eager to maintain it? Woman, who is being emancipated from it, wishes none the less to retain its privileges; and man, in that case, wants her to assume its limitations. 'It is easier to accuse one sex than to excuse the other,' says Montaigne. It is vain to apportion praise and blame. The truth is that if the vicious circle is so hard to break, it is because the two sexes are each the victim at once of the other and of itself. Between two adversaries confronting each other in their pure liberty, an agreement could be easily reached: the more so as the war profits neither. But the complexity of the -,Whole affair derives from the fact that each camp is giving aid and comfort to the enemy; woman is pursuing a dream of submission, man a dream of identification. Want of authenticity does not pay: each blames the other for the unhappiness he or she has incurred in yielding to the temptations of the easy way; what man and woman loathe in each other is the shattering frustration of each one's own bad faith and baseness." de Beauvoir in conclusion to The Second Sex. Works Cited Woolstonecraft M, Vindication of the Rights of Women De Beauvouir, S. The Second Sex. Saul, J. Feminism: Issues and Arguments. Hornsby, J. & M. Fricker, Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy. Rousseau, J.and A.Bloom. Emile: Or, on Education. New York: Basic Books, 1979.…

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Women and Nonwhites Facing

Hall discusses that there was extreme malice, war, and that there were huge issues with the racial movements (Hall, 2001). In the south, during this period of time, war was still an option at any time and these racial policies were part of the reason that this war could break out at any time. The white leaders did not want to make any sort of movements. Hall talks about the late 19th century, the movement for the Jim Crowe laws was created and this at least gave blacks some rights in the south, just not everything that they wanted and that the deserved. These laws were put into place to make sure that they provided admittance for blacks to certain places, however they still created segregation (Hall, 2001). References Cebulla, B. (2010). How Frontier Experience Had an Impact on Women's Role. New York: GRIN Verlag. Fowler, W. (2005). Woman on the American Frontier. New York: Cosimo, Inc. Hall, R. (2001). Performing the American frontier, 1870-1906. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Keyes, B. (2010). The American Frontier: Our Unique Heritage.……

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Feminism Summary of Story Cristina

Connections to Other Readings Tzintzun's story reflects the broad experiences of women of color as they reflect on issues of identity, difference, and intersectionality. For example, Gray points out that her listening to rock and roll was viewed as a symbol of her submission to a white dominant culture and society. It was socially subversive to listen to rock and roll because it was "akin to treason in the black community," (p. 258) At first, listening to rock and roll was something she did because she liked the music. After a while, Gray realized that rock and roll reeked of white male privilege" (p. 259). Rock stars, who are always white, pranced around on stage and "flaunted their entitlement," (p. 259). They were often middle-class white boys like Jon Bon Jovi, but they were born with a sense of entitlement. Yet like Tzintzun, Gray is able to embrace the contradictions of her dual identity. Gray is proud to be black, and Tzintzun is proud to be Mexican; and both are proud to be female. In "My Tattoos are Not an Invitation," Lundahl (2013) describes the unwanted attention she receives from men, who feel entitled to touch her arm. The act is like a rape, as Lundahl describes it. She states, "I'm not surprised that some men feel that my visible display of body art is an invitation to yell about, touch, and seemingly compliment my tattoos," (p. 1). Although Lundahl is white, her experience reflects a global experience of gendered identity. Men, especially white men, feel entitled to take whatever is theirs, including women. Because men dominate the worlds of politics and business, many of the products and services available in the world are laden with gender issues. Even seemingly innocent toys like Lego are marketed to girls in insipid ways, reinforcing male hegemony ("Lego Friends" movie). Personal Connection Patriarchy remains a particularly poignant problem for women of color. Women of color struggle with a double oppression, in that both their gender and their race renders them perceived as inferior by the dominant culture. It is a constant struggle to assert power and identity in the face of patriarchy. When encountering these readings, I felt personally empowered. I felt encouraged and motivated to share my own stories of forging an identity as an ethnic "mutt," while remaining true to myself as both Tzintzun and Gray have managed to do, and…

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Women Prior to Taking This Course, I

Women Prior to taking this course, I assumed, naturally, that women's studies were mainly about women. It turned out that women's studies is actually about all human beings. The goal of women's studies is in part to expose and rectify the problems with patriarchy, including the tendency for sociologists to presume masculine identities and points-of-view as normative. Feminism and women's…

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Women's Issues When the Term Feminism Was

¶ … Women's Issues When the term feminism was first used in the United States of America, it was largely used to refer to the pursuit of women to get the right to vote. Later, it became synonymous with the attempts of women to be seen as equals of men in all aspects of life, from wages to family responsibilities…

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