"Women / Feminism" Essays

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Vital Work Feminism and Women's Studies Calls Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
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¶ … vital work feminism and Women's Studies calls for and performs?

Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that feminism and Women's Studies performs real and vital 'work' in the world, and is not merely an abstract exercise in philosophy or literary analysis. Fighting for greater understanding of the role -- positive and negative -- that gender plays in our society and culture is the goal of feminism. It demands intense intellectual scrutiny and self-scrutiny. Without a formal political movement like feminism, or a formal academic discipline like Women's Studies, people will often be unwilling to perform such intense cognitive work. They are apt take gender assumptions and stereotypes for granted. We must not forget that part of the purpose of the feminist movement and the academic study of the construction of gender is to make people uncomfortable. Feminism must question cliches about gender, race, religion and the assumptions that people assume are natural, even though they may be socially constructed.

Given the strides women have made in recent decades, it has become tempting to assume that there is no real need for feminism in today's day and age. But feminism is still required intellectually, in a rigorous and systematic fashion, to examine how sexism exists, often in covert ways. Also, even if women are studied within the context of other academic disciplines like history and literature, gender is often treated as an incidental aspect of how the human character is conceived. Women's Studies brings gender as a category to the forefront of people's attention, although it has been helpful to many other academic disciplines not specifically devoted to the study of women.

Feminism also has a great deal of work to do, politically speaking. Less than a hundred years ago, many people were seriously questioning if women…… [read more]


Women and Feminist Studies A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  6 pages (2,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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¶ … women studies at a time when the interdisciplinary willpower and its concepts were getting institutional identification. Women's studies provided me with an exclusive place to take up the positions of the student, the instructor, the practitioner, and the subject researcher. Nowadays, questioning the mettle of women's studies is far from over (Darraj, 2010).

One of the things that… [read more]


Marxism and Feminism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The one important piece of writing in this connection is Heidi Hartmann's article "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism" where she wrote the famous lines that marked the beginning of the end of this union: "The marriage of marxism and feminism has been like the marriage of husband and wife depicted in English common law: marxism and feminism are one, and that one is marxism." (Hartman 1981, p. 2). Slowly and gradually, feminism turned away from Marxism to find a niche within capitalist society and this resulted in the development of new concepts in feminism. As Raya Dunayevskaya (1996) asserted:

'We can and will witness the development of women themselves not only as force but as reason. We can and will be a catalyst not only for our development as all-round human beings, but also for that of men" (p. 28).

Feminism may no longer need the support of Marxism to grow and prosper since it has found a place for itself within capitalist system, still it must acknowledge the role played by men like Marx and Engels in raising women issues.

References

1. Cliff, Tony 1984. Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. London: Blackwell.

2. Dunayevskaya, R. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1996

3. Hartmann, Heidi. 1981. "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union." In Lydia Sargent, ed. op. cit., 1981:1-42.

4. Terrell Carver, Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Marxism…… [read more]


Women First Wave Susan B. Anthony Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  6 pages (1,812 words)
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¶ … Women

First Wave

Susan B. Anthony was born in 1820 on February 15 in Adams, Massachusetts. Her family followed the Quaker tradition, and was also involved in activism. This affected her deeply, and her sense of justice and moral zeal were developed early in life. When Susan grew up, she entered the teaching profession, in which she worked… [read more]


Women in Islam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
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Muslim Women

Women's Progress in Muslim Societies

This paper explores the genuine progress that has been made in the lives of women in Muslim societies during the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of the current status of women in Islam and of the Muslim faith, and to assess whether enough progress… [read more]


Feminism Is a Philosophy Driven Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,638 words)
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Feminism is a philosophy driven by the need to give women a more parallel standing in this world alongside men. It aims to encourage women to move outside their homes and seek employment and demands equal socio-political and economic rights for women all over the world. Also, one of the main aims of this philosophy is also to articulate and… [read more]


Several Readings to Discuss 1 General Opinion Issue or Similarity Article Review

Article Review  |  18 pages (5,955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … universality of the Western interpretation of human rights.

In Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus edited by Abdullahi Ahmed an-Naim (1992), the articles are mostly concerned with reworking the notion of human rights in an effort to achieve consensus on a 'new,' 'more universal' (or cosmopolitan) view of human rights, as "the lack or insufficiency… [read more]


Women Closing the Bridges to Discrimination and Inequality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,561 words)
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19th Amendment and Women's Issues

Sections 1 and 2 of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution read:

"The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."

"Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

(Thomson 2005)… [read more]


Sex and Gender Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (420 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Feminism

Males can be feminists too because feminism is the radical notion that women are people. The popular feminist slogan suggests that feminism is not about fist-thumping radical politics and women who won't wear bras. Rather, feminism means putting an end to ridiculous practices and conditions plaguing women all around the world. For example, women still receive lower wages for equal work in the United States. According to the Census Bureau, "For every dollar a man made in 2003, women made 75.5 cents," (Hagenbaugh). Moreover, men can be feminists because of the wider implications of the feminist movement. For instance, feminism has been linked to other movements of social justice such as civil rights for minority members of the population. Any man who believes that women should be treated fairly in any and all situations can proudly call himself a feminist.

Being treated fairly means receiving equal pay for equal work. Fairness also entails the elimination of the glass ceiling in business and politics, as "a glass ceiling continues to halt the progress of many women who strive to reach top management positions," (Gwynne). The glass ceiling plagues female politicians in the United States as well: although the number of females serving in the American Senate and House of Representatives…… [read more]


Art Abjection of the Body Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Therefore women represented in those methods are indeed monstrous. Femininity altogether is monstrous because the conception of the female and of feminine are narrow and horrific both from the perspective of traditional masculinity, for women who occupy space on that spectrum, and especially for women such as Haraway, Kristeva, and Creed who seek disruption and liberation from these constrictions. Feminism then is an effort to abject-ify (as opposed to objectify) traditional conceptions of the body and of the gender, with particular respect to women. Feminism is the effort to make the stereotypes what are monstrous not the true and full expressions of women, of what is female, and of what is feminine. The old and traditional views of the female and the feminine abject what is truly female, feminine, and feminist. These authors aim to turn the abjection around upon the very constructions that incited them to create methods of escape, liberation, and expression.

References:

Creed, B. 1993. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, feminism, psychoanalysis. Routledge, London.

Haraway, D. 1991. A Cyborg Manifesto. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, Routledge, New York.

Mulvey, L. 1999. Cosmetics and Abjection -- Cindy Sherman, 1977 -- 1987. Shiach, M. (ed) Feminism and Cultural Studies, Oxford University Press, New York.

Refinery 29. 2012 Fashion -- Jewelry. Web, Available from: http://www.refinery29.com/fashion. 2012 August 27.

Steyn, M., & van Zyl, M. (eds) 2009. The Prize and The Prize -- Shaping Sexualities in South Africa, Human Science Research Council Press, Capetown.

Turk, A., & Badii, A. 2001. Personalized, Mediated Human-Computer Interaction. Web, Available from: http://wawisr01.uwa.edu.au/2001/TurkBadii.pdf. 4th Western Australian Workshop…… [read more]


Culture and Media Worlds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,795 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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Culture and Media Works

Sexual Objectification of Women in Media

Media today is one of the most common grounds used to communicate or get a message across. It has readily increased its accessibility and its reach to people with phenomenon of globalization. Any individual who has access to any form of visual media today knows how the issue of "sex"… [read more]


Politicians Hillary Rodham Clinton: Senator Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (2,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

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More than any other issue for which she advocates, women's rights and equality for woman around the world are at the forefront. Some of her famous words regarding these issues from the Beijing United Nations Conference on Women include:

"Women comprise more than half the world's population. Women are 70% percent of the world's poor, and two-thirds of those who… [read more]


Compulsory Heterosexuality & Lesbian Existence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,252 words)
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" (Rich, 1980)

Challenging social and political convention will be arduous, yet the reward to free women particularly from the ever-present restraints of male prescribed female sexuality in capitalism would be epic. The world would exist in a world of equality and freely expressed sexuality in all forms: "The extension of this assumption is the frequently heard assertion that in a world of genuine equality, where men were nonoppressive and nurturing, everyone would be bisexual." (Rich, 1980)

A portion of the content of "Compulsory Sexuality" is the list of the eight powers men have over women. Rules 1, 2, & 6 speak to the control men have over women's sexuality, bodies, and cultural representations in public spheres and in the private realms. Rich further contends that many of these powers men have over women are played out in the workplace. The workplace, for women, is an institution wherein they can be psychically or physically violated and preyed upon at any time. She urges readers to understand that the magnitude of the use of women in transactions and the number of men involved in such transactions is an international emergency. "Compulsory Sexuality" then is concerned with pervasive institutional violence against women, the freedom and declaration of the female experience, and it is about the livelihood of not only lesbians, but also all women.

Rich claims that lesbianism and feminism are not primarily concerned with sex, but rather, they are expressions of resistance against patriarchy and a declaration of existence:

"Lesbian existence comprises both the breaking of a taboo and the rejection of a compulsory way of life. It is also a direct or indirect attack on male right of access to women. But it is more than these, although we may first begin to perceive it as a form of nay-saying to patriarchy, an act of resistance. It has of course included role playing, self-hatred, breakdown, alcoholism, suicide, and intrawoman violence; we romanticize at our peril what it means to love and act against the grain, and under heavy penalties; and lesbian existence has been lived (unlike, say, Jewish or Catholic existence) without access to any knowledge of a tradition, a continuity, a social underpinning. The destruction of records and memorabilia and letters documenting the realities of lesbian existence must be taken very seriously as a means of keeping heterosexuality compulsory for women, since what has been kept from our knowledge is joy, sensuality, courage, and community, as well as guilt, self-betrayal, and pain." (Rich, 1980)

Humanity would not existence without women. Women have the right to exist and to have their existence and freedom to be respected and supported by men. The violence patriarchy performs on women is deeply cultural, political, social, physical, psychological, and linguistic:

"It will require a courageous grasp of the politics and economics, as well as the cultural propaganda, of heterosexuality to carry us beyond individual cases or diversified group situations into the complex kind of overview needed to undo the power men everywhere wield over… [read more]


Feminist Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Feminist Theory

Over the last 150 years, the overall issue of equal rights for women (feminism) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. As women refused to stand for the way they were often treated in the past, with no rights or voice in matters that concern their own lives. This would lead to the development of a number of different feminist theories to help explain the underlying philosophies and challenges facing women. (Bennett 6 -- 28) To fully understand these different theories requires conducting an annotated bibliography. Where, we examine the most relevant theories in the field of feminism. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying views and challenges facing women going forward.

Wood, Julia. "Liberal Feminism." Gendered Lives. Boston: Wadsworth, 2009. 78 -- 80. Print.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses the effects of liberal feminism. This is when women want to see equality in every sense of the word. Where, they are focused on supporting the idea that men and women are completely equal from: a legal as well as social stand point. As a result, the various organizations supporting these kinds of changes have been challenging the status quo through litigation to: various laws and policies that restrict the rights of women. (Wood 78 -- 80)

The information from this source is useful, because it highlights why liberal feminism has become increasingly popular. Where, many proponents want equality, based upon the merits of the individual vs. A particular gender. In this particular case, they want equality applied in every aspect of life, as men are not allowed to have any kind of unfavorable advantages over women.

Costa, Margret. "Socialist Feminism" Women and Sport. Champaign: Human Kinnetics, 1994. 246. Print.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses the impact of socialist feminism on the views of many women. Where, this philosophy is working off of a number of different principals to include: oppression based upon the economic status of the individual, genders issues that are divided along class lines (i.e. men having the social status / power over a woman's life) and a class style system that is designed to limit the economic mobility of women / their family. When you put these different elements together, it is obvious that social feminism represents a new philosophy of women's studies that was heavily influenced by Marxism.

The information from this source is useful, because it can be used to corroborate the trends that are taking place far as feminism is concerned. Where, the various viewpoints were influenced by the social and economic status of women in relation to men. As a result, this piece of literature is helpful in providing a greater understanding of how the economic issues are having an impact upon gender equality. (Costa 246)

Wood, Julia. "Radical Feminism." Gendered Lives. Boston: Wadsworth, 2009. 70 -- 73. Print.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses how the radical views of the 1960's would help give… [read more]


Feminists Critique of International Relations the Gendered Politics of International War and Peace Research Paper

Research Paper  |  30 pages (10,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30

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Gender and International Relations

International Relations in perspective

Gendered issues in the realm of International Relations have not been widely discussed, questioned or researched until recently, according to author Jill Steans. The reason for this lack of investigation into gender and International Relations, Steans explains, is not necessarily based on bias against females or chauvinism to any degree. To wit,… [read more]


Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer Appears Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (4,168 words)
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She exhibits no feelings towards her spouses other than harsh and also vicious ones, for example embarrassment as well as ridicule. Her spouses had been all aged and also wealthy and she together with her youth and sweetness has total control over all of them. As she describes:

As help me God, I laughe whan I thynke

How pitously a-nyght… [read more]


Feminism Is for Everybody Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,959 words)
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They were also expected to wear girdles, bras and other uncomfortable clothing in order to maintain a certain shape, until standards became more relaxed and they could dress in slacks. When women were expected to look 'sexy' at work, they were also subjected to sexual harassment, and in the past there was no legal redress against this.

13. Describe two examples of gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication that create and maintain woman's subordination through social interactions.

There are many demeaning and insulting ways that men speak about women, just as there have always been racist terms for blacks and Hispanics. These words are very well know, of course, and women also use them about each other, but they are intended to make women feel inferior in many ways, such as not having an appearance, attitude or personality that is pleasing to men. Males can also convey these messages through looks and gestures, such as when they see a woman they regard as particularly attractive -- or unattractive, for that matter. They can also use looks and size differences to threaten and intimidate women or 'put them in their place'.

14. Using Hook's chapter "Women and Work" (Ch.9) in Feminism is for Everybody, describe how women's work is devalued. Discuss how the devaluation of women's work benefits men.

Many women believe that feminism forced them to work outside the home, although as Hooks points out, the capitalist system itself was responsible for that change. Wages and incomes were often too low in America, so that families had to have two incomes to maintain a standard of living as middle class consumers. For most of history, of course, women's work was always devalued and unpaid since it consisted of cooking, cleaning, child care and other domestic duties. In other words, at least half of the productive labor in society and all of the reproductive labor was done by women who earned nothing. They did this because culture, religion and society insisted that this was their 'natural' function in the world. Even when women began to work outside the home, in textile mills or as domestics, their labor was often paid only half of what men earned. In short, women were a fast force of cheap labor, denied meaningful opportunities for advancement or education. Hooks also notes that housewives often felt "isolated, lonely, and depressed," while the home was only a place of relaxation and pleasure for men (Hooks 50). Sexism in the education system also ensured that males dominated the classrooms as well as the teaching profession at all levels, and even in the schools female…… [read more]


Claiming Feminism Matrilineal History or Girls and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … feminism, Matrilineal History, or Girls' and Women's Empowerment and the Music Industry

Gaga over Gaga? Girls' and women's empowerment in the music industry

Feminism in America today is often justified by the word 'choice,' in the sense that women should have a 'choice' in terms of what feminine conventions they embrace or reject. For example, some young feminists… [read more]


Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics Democracy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,629 words)
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Feminism: Participation of Women in Politics

Democracy is when the political thinkers and leaders think as one collective unit instead of individuals. Democracy is to discuss, analyze and find solutions for the nation's problems from a majority consensus without ignoring the rights and answers for the minorities of the nation. It helps the government form and cultivate a way to… [read more]


Feminist Reading Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

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Feminist Reading

Two Models of Feminism: Wollstonecraft and Chopin on the Social Dynamics of Female Emancipation

One of the most fundamental and profound developments in literature and literary criticism in the past century or two is the emergence of the feminist perspective, or more correctly an abundance of feminine perspectives. The plural is the proper form because there is no… [read more]


Has Feminism Enhanced or Destroyed Marriage and Family? Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,527 words)
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Feminism Has Not Destroyed Marriage

Notwithstanding viewpoints to the contrary, the feminist movement (past and present) has not ruined the institution of marriage in America. Indeed, some feminists have challenged marriage as a valid tradition, and those challenges should be viewed as healthy to the ongoing dialogue. This paper delves into that topic and presents a variety of scholarly narratives… [read more]


Women and Feminism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,248 words)
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Domestically speaking, this creates for women in More's Utopia the quintessential situation of being "stuck between a rock and a hard place" where one's actions are both exalted and damned at the same time.

Thus, in this fabricated Utopian ideal, the metaphor of communal living that supposedly transforms both the public and private arenas does nothing but wreck havoc on… [read more]


Women and Violence Feminism Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,448 words)
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Violence Women

Violence Against Women: Its Portrayal in Newspaper Media

The problem of violence against women is both pervasive and historically omnipresent. Though its definition has often been subject to extreme variation, sociological exploitation of women, domestic abuse and sexual assault have nonetheless shown themselves be a real and self-perpetuating conditions in the Canadian family and community. Domestic violence is… [read more]


Woman's Rights Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,162 words)
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Women's Rights

In her personal "Letters" Abigail Adams begged her husband John Adams to remember the contribution women had made to the founding of the new Republic when constructing the laws of the land. However, President Adams, although he placed a great deal of credence in his wife's opinion on a personal level, did not listen to his wife in this instance. He believed women's influence was best channeled through their male relations, and women were not suited to direct participation in political affairs. It was many years before equality for women was acknowledged within the legal framework of the nation.

Today, no one would seriously consider taking away any woman's right to vote and to be an articulate participant in the American political process. A woman has made a legitimate effort at securing the White House herself, and a woman is running for the office of Vice President of America. The institutional concerns and the 19th century advocate of women's rights, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, are no longer a preoccupation of the nation. Stanton desired that women be able to vote, to inherit property, and not to disappear as a legal person upon marriage. These technical questions of equal rights under the law no longer seem to impact women's lives, but that hardly means that women have no more legal wars to fight.

Women still bear the burden of caring for children and the elderly. This means that a lack of affordable childcare and eldercare hampers their ability to earn money in the workforce. Women may not be able to be formally discriminated against in the workplace, but they often face informal legal types of discrimination, which may be as indefinite as simply 'not fitting in' to a particular corporate culture. Even on the public stage, commentators on the left and right seem to have trouble talking about women as political leaders. What is seen as strong in a man is seen as irritating and aggressive when encapsulated in the persona of a woman like Hillary Clinton. Women are afraid to show emotion and humor, the qualities that contribute to electability, but seem to make a female candidate appear less serious. An attractive woman who has children like Sarah Palin may provoke sexual innuendos when her policies are criticized.

These types of attitudes can be discouraging for young women contemplating entering the political discourse. The idea of how a woman can 'hold' power is still in debate. Mary Wollstonecraft noted in "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" that if women seem to conform to the stereotypes they are subjected to, it is because of their lack of education and the fact that society awards female appearance and flirtatiousness more than it does power and strength. A postmodern view might add that women lack role models to effectively fill the role of commander-in-chief, other than imitating men, which makes them seem like inferior male copies, or being conventionally feminine, which is seen as antithetical to the qualities needed to exercise… [read more]


Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Feminism and the Representation of Gender in the American Avant-Garde Film

Feminism and gender roles in Avant-garde film

The American Avant Garde Cinema is particularly important when considering abstract tendencies and subliminal messages, as most directors engaged in producing motion pictures for the genre intended to depict certain issues regarding society as seen from their perspective. Some of the most renowned directors who created films concerning the field, such as Maya Deren, Carolee Schneeman, Martha Rosler, and Dara Birnbaum focused on the feminism movement and on gender as a whole in some of their works. They were influenced by a series of factors in doing this, ranging from their personal convictions to society's views on the matter that they related to. In spite of the fact that the films that this paper discusses are all connected by the fact that they deal with gender roles, some of the directors preferred to take on a more abstract or grave position while others expressed a somewhat jokey character.

Although an amateur film enthusiast is likely to feel confused as a result of watching Maya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon (1944), a more experienced individual would identify a series of concepts meant to tackle feminism. In wanting her audiences to understand the protagonist's feelings, Deren chose to have viewers see things and events exactly as she saw them. While the film initially seems to present a rather ordinary event, the action gradually progresses and it is revealed that there is much more emotionality to it.

The woman in the motion picture appears to be consumed by society's trends and by the fact that she wants people to see things from her own perspective. Her condition in more severe than one might believe at first, given that she eventually wants to commit suicide and that she apparently informs the audience regarding her motives. The male individual in the film is essential in understanding gender representation as Deren did, as he appears to be responsible for the fact that the woman wants to die. Moreover, he apparently encourages her to accept her fate and to proceed with committing suicide. Meditation on Violence seems to be concerned with controlled aggressiveness, as the character in the film puts across serenity in performing the Wu Tang ritual. It appears that Deren wanted to demonstrate that violence does not necessarily have to be violent and incontrollable, as it can also involve calmness and it can be kept under control. Unlike Meshes of the Afternoon, Meditation on Violence feels less dynamic and has the audience focus on the tranquility present in a man and in the Wu Tang ritual.

In relating to gender roles, Carolee Schneeman took on a more sexual approach, even with the fact that she also wanted the audience to witness an event that should only be available to the protagonists. In contrast to Deren, Schneeman apparently wants the world to see women and men as they are, in their rawest nature possible. The sexuality in the… [read more]


Feminism Both Bell Hooks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (601 words)
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Both Hooks and Moraga propose that all women of color examine the means by which they have been oppressed and discover new means of empowerment.

However, Hooks' piece is longer and even harsher than Moraga's: Hooks, for instance, notes that Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, however influential the book was, is written primarily from a white leisure class perspective. She states that Friedan had a "one-dimensional perspective," and women like Friedan were unaware "of the extent to which their perspectives reflect race and class biases." Moraga, on the other hand, offers a broader social commentary about the exclusion of oppressed groups of women. Her attack on racism and classism in relation to feminism is more general. For example, she states on page 29, "Without an emotional, heartfelt grappling with the source of our own oppression, without naming the enemy within ourselves and outside us, no authentic, hierarchical connection among oppressed groups can take place."

Moraga's tone is more constructive in general than Hook's is: "It is essential that radical feminists confront their fear of and resistance to one another," (34). Moraga also acknowledges her own complicity: "By virtue of the very fact that I am white-looking, I identified with and aspired toward white values ... I rode the wave of that Southern California privilege as far as conscience would let me," (34). While Hooks' piece is harsher and angrier in tone, she concludes by stating, "Though I criticize aspects of feminist movement as we have known it so far, a critique which is sometimes harsh and unrelenting, I do so not in an attempt to diminish feminist struggle but to enrich, to share in the work of making a liberatory ideology." Hooks and Moraga have had different experiences of oppression and therefore write from unique perspectives, but both…… [read more]


Wave of Feminism Took Place Beginning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (841 words)
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¶ … wave of feminism took place beginning in 1848 with the ratification of the 19th amendment which afforded women the right to vote (Frederick, 2004). The social and theoretical concerns were largely scattered, and the emphasis was working on a variety of issues including child labor protection, peace and care for women in general (Frederick, 2004). The movement was more geared toward generalities. In the second wave however, during the 1960s, was a revival of the first wave, further defining some of the issues that were critical to feminist thinking. The third wave was more responsible for defining the new issues that were important for women to fight for, as many accomplishments had been realized during the first two waves (Bailey, 1997; Frederick, 2004).

Kate Millet is a well-known feminist of the second wave who claimed that "the first wave of feminism in the early twentieth century was reborn as a second wave in the early 1960s" (Frederick, 2004).

Cathryn Bailey is well-known for supporting the third wave of feminism describing it as "a means of distancing itself from earlier feminism" and further describes it as a mechanism for emphasizing what might be described as the discontinuities that existed within the first and second waves (Bailey, 1997: 18).

Betty Friedan is well-known for her work "The Feminist Mystique" which characterizes the second wave of feminism as well, known as a time when women fought for equality and questioned among other things gender assignment and roles (Rosen, 2001). The idea of democracy for women was expanded during the second wave and equality was seen with regard to all of American culture (Frederick, 2004).

Third wave feminism is characterized by many well-known individuals including Krista Jacobs, editor of Sexing the Political who believed that during the third wave women "Are celebrating their pluralities, embracing their personal and political contradictions" (Frederick, 2004).

The third wave of feminism is characterized as "a movement of young feminists who no only confront but embrace contradiction and ambiguity" (Frederick, 2004). The primary ideology of this movement is the notion that inevitably in society there "exist contradictions and compromises" that must be made in the movement toward feminism, and that feminism in and of itself is filled with complexity and fighting within a still predominately patriarchichal society (Frederick, 2004).

Third wave feminism is often considered very similar to postmodern feminism but also very different. Postmodern feminists generally tend to believe that there are many different ways that women can be oppressed rather than one way, and that…… [read more]


Feminism in Early American Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,821 words)
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¶ … Feminism" of Bradstreet and Wheatley

Anne Bradstreet and Phillis Wheatley have the unique distinction of being two firsts in American feminism. Bradstreet was the first American female poet to have her work published, and Phillis Wheatley was the first black female poet to have her work become known and published. Because of their bravery and fame for breaking… [read more]


Feminism Arising Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
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As a result, women of color have become increasingly included in the public discourse and have risen to positions of political power. Moreover, the feminist support of civil rights affected men of color as well as women, and an increasing acceptance of diversity within the society cannot but affect the lives of all women of whatever race. Therefore, even though many people of color still live in poverty and discrimination is still a problem, the Second Wave of Feminism has made great strides in achieving overall racial equity, and has at least promoted a more equitable public discourse regarding race.

Homosexual rights were also kin to the Second Wave of Feminism. Lesbian feminism promoted the voices of lesbians and helped achieve awareness and tolerance of homosexuality. Although homosexual rights do not directly affect all women, since not all women are lesbians, greater social equity impacts all women. Although homosexual rights have proven to be one of the slowest-moving causes supported by the Second Wave of Feminism, clearly this issue affects the lives of both straights and gays in creating a more equitable society in general.

Finally, the Second Wave of Feminism concerned itself as much as possible with labor relations and economic parity. A multitude of issues are included under this rubric, the two most notable of which are income parity and workers' rights. Women in the United States still earn less than their male counterparts and a considerable income disparity continues to plague most women, but the struggle continues. Labor unions also continue to struggle under increasing political conservatism, but the Second Wave of Feminism continues to raise awareness of these issues, and draw attention to how labor and economics affect all women, rich, poor, or in between.… [read more]


Transnational Feminism Term Paper

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Transnational Feminism

Women's Culture-

This work will use the quote: "Culture...consists in the way analogies are drawn between things, in the way certain thoughts are used to think others" as a focal point or a beginning in making a connection between Shohat's argument that globalization...just be seen as part of the much longer history of colonialism in which Europe attempted… [read more]


Feminism in Politics Term Paper

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Feminism in Politics

Without a doubt, one of most influential and complex political issues of the last several decades is that of the feminist movement, or more precisely, the effect that feminism has had on various areas of politics and political science. In an effort to fully comprehend the various facets of this relationship, this paper will focus on two primary areas: the major feminist critiques of mainstream political science, and the contributions feminism has made to the study of political participation. Upon conclusion of this paper, the reader will have gained a greater understanding and appreciation of the sphere of influence of feminism itself.

Feminist Critiques of Mainstream Political Science

Feminism, by its very nature, takes on political nuances; much like racial minority groups have embraced political activism over the years to advance their various causes, so too have gender-based minorities. In fact, most sources agree that the conversion of a female person into a feminist is largely due to strong political beliefs backed up by specific actions to bring attention and recognition to the cause of women's rights (Zivi, 2004). This being the case, the question is asked as to exactly how feminists feel about mainstream political science.

Feminist critiques of mainstream political science, as research indicates, begin at the very core of political science itself, as based on the traditional view. Traditionally, the conventional wisdom behind political science held that politics was a man's area of endeavor because of the often brutal nature of political pursuits, and minority groups such as women, ethnic and racial groups were simply dismissed from the inner workings of political science because of their detachment from the mainstream (Phillips, 1998). Considering this, the absurdity of that argument is clear. Feminists have long made a valid argument that political science has excluded them by categorizing women and politics within political science rather than women in politics, or more precisely, the question as to why women are so often kept out of the political arena.

The feminist critique of political science as exclusionary and prejudiced is not merely based on their own perceptions; one of the earliest political thinkers, Aristotle, put forth the theory, thousands of years ago, that true democracy could not exist without the voices of all people being heard, rather than just the voice of the dominators of the system, much like males have dominated females historically (Phillips, 1998).

After viewing the critiques of mainstream political science by feminists against the backdrop of contemporary and ancient perspective, there are several key points, correctly pointed out by the feminists, which become abundantly clear: first, in a general sense, politics is not a pure science by any stretch of the imagination because of the fact that from its beginnings, it has not been open minded and tolerant of the participation and commentary of all groups, especially women. Additionally, women have been stereotyped as being too fragile, weak, uninformed or what have you to participate in the political system. Using such a broad and… [read more]


Interdisciplinary Studies Disciplines Women's Studies and Communication Research Paper

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Women Studies and Communications

Women's Studies

Key Concepts

There is a number of evolving key concepts which continue to help Women's Studies develop as an academic doctrine. First, there is a general consensus that American society, as well as many others throughout the globe, is dominated by male driven power. This has created a patriarchal hegemony, where men dominate the society, and then turn to oppress women in a number of differing ways. A double standard is a concept where there is a different set of standards held by society in terms of the behavior for men and women. Here, the research suggests that "in feminist analysis, men's power to define the content of formal and informal behavioral cultures means that the criteria or standards used to evaluate and regulate women often differ to those used for men" (Pilcher & Whelehan, 2004, 51). Because our society is dominated by a male driven hegemony, double standards are normally restricting the behaviors of women in comparison to men. There is a negative stigma and a sense of marginalization associated to the gender role of females. Gender itself is a term which is thought to actually be a culturally constructed concept, in comparison to sex which denotes the physical sexual attributes of an individual. Gender is a societal term, and thus gender roles are generated by the cultural norms of that particular society in question. This reinforces stereotypes in that women are socialized to embody particular roles that are feminized. Feminization is another major key term, especially in regards to the discussion the feminization poverty. Here, the research suggests that "Since the 1960s in the United States the poor have been more likely to be single females, members of female-headed households, and elderly females" than their male counterparts (Tierney, 1999, p 489). This has contributed to the growth in what is known as the feminization of poverty, where the male dominated society has begun to associate a limited financial capability with women being stereotyped accordingly. Thus, the make dominance has subjugated women based on these restricted gender roles.

Current Theories

Most of the current theories within Women's Studies are broken mainly into three general categories, "psychodynamic theories that consider early attachment problems, conflict, and/or sexual repression as primary, learning theories that favor a conditioning model, and social/cultural feminist" theory which tends to show a general cultural praise for certain feminine traits (Tierney, 1999, p 65). Feminist theory is one of the oldest theories at work within Women's Studies. It outlines the concept of our society being a patriarchal one, and as such women hold a marginalized role based on their inferiority, as deemed by the male elite. It provides a foundation for the reason for why gender discrimination and inequality is so prevalent in our society and others. There are also several other theories present. Queer theory is a major theory which was born out of Women's Studies. It essentially agrees with the major key concept that gender is a socially constructed element.… [read more]


Gender and Sexuality Define Term Paper

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8. What does gender at the intersections mean? Give an example to explain.

Gender at the intersections mean that identity of a person cannot and is not solely the gender but gender forms a significant part of a greater whole composed of influences of race, religion, age, ethnicity, etc. Therefor gender in itself is an incomplete expression of one identity. In one or more instances, gender can be a source of identity such as when attending 'ladies night' at the club.

9. Describe Fennels use of gendered division of labor.

Labor means work and Fennels explains that the work is assigned and divided among society based on their gender. Based on genders, men are assigned the labor of breadwinning whereas women are assigned the labor of child care, birthing, and nursing (Fennell, 496-97).

10. Adriaens and DeBrock argue Homosexuality as we know it is definitely a social construction (p. 572). Explain their argument.

By the above mentioned argument, authors mean that male homosexuality is not a natural phenomenon but one that was socially constructed in early 18th century. The sociocultural and historical factors may have demanded men of lower status to strengthen their hierarchy by having sex with other males. The author actually synthesizes evolutionary and social construction theories of homosexuality in men (Adriaens, and Adriaens 570-585).

Works Cited

Adriaens, Andreas, and de Block Adriaens. "The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality." Perspectives in biology and medicine. 49.4 (2006): 570-585. Web. 1 Mar. 2013.

Allan, Elizabeth J. "Hazing and gender: Analyzing the obvious." The hazing reader (2004): 275-294.

Fennell, Julie Lynn. "Men Bring Condoms, Women Take Pills: Men's and Women's Roles in Contraceptive Decision Making" Gender & Society 25(4):496-521. 2011.

Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: Passionate politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2000. Vii-ix. Print.

Kimmel, Michael. "Global masculinities: Restoration and resistance." Policy Review. (2004): 1-5. Print.

Lindsey, Linda L. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. 5. California: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 5-16. eBook.

WHO,. United Nations . World Health Organization.…… [read more]


Portrayal of Women in Music Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Moreover, the result is having devastating effects on young girls as well as women (Timson 1995). "It is clear that a very large percentage of American women are unhappy with their bodies," says Joan Jacobs Brumberg, author of "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html)."That kind of unhappiness begins very, very early in life," she says. Moreover, the problem doesn't disappear with maturity. Brumberg contends that the rise of plastic surgery, the prevalence of dieting, and the high number of women in therapy are examples of that prove women still suffer from self-esteem problems. She says, "People expect their bodies to be perfect these days. Women are judged too often by their appearance and young girls get the idea that appearance is the source of female power" (http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html).

A recent study revealed that over 80% of 4th grade girls have been on a diet. Anorexia and bulimia are on the rise. Although the 'heroin chic' look of the last few years is supposedly out of vogue today, the average weight of a model is 23% lower than that of an average woman. Twenty years ago, the differential was only 8% (http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/).

When females see these images day in and day out throughout every visual means of media, the message they get is that with enough effort and self-sacrifice they too can look like this. These images are unattainable. However, we have young girls starving themselves and damaging their health for perhaps the rest of their life. And women as well as teenaged girls are having breast implants in higher numbers than before the big implant scare ten years ago. Moreover, they're having liposuction on their thighs, buttocks, stomachs and every other part of their bodies. They are subjecting themselves to bovine treatments on their face wrinkles and collagen treatments on their lips. They're having fanny lifts, arm lifts, thigh lifts and face-lifts. It seems all young girls want to look like Britney Spears and all women want to have a body like Cher.

Douglas states in her book, "The war that has been raging in the media is not a simplistic war against women but a complex struggle between feminism and anti-feminism that has reflected, reinforced and exaggerated our culture's ambivalence about women's roles for over 35 years" (Douglas 1995). This ambivalence will most likely continue for another 35 years, as there appears to be no stop sign ahead.

Works Cited

Body as Commodity: Media Craze." Body icon. http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html.(accessed08-12-2002).

Douglas, Susan J. Where the Girls Are: Growing Up Female With the Mass

Media. Random House, Incorporated. March 1995.

The Representation of Women in Advertising. http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/.

A accessed 08-12-2002).

Timson, Judith. "Bimbo-watch: critique of the depiction of women in popular media." Maclean's. Vol. 108. November 27, 1995; pp 52. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Maclean~Q~s&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.macleans.ca&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Timson%2C+Judith&title=Bimbo%2Dwatch%2E+%28critique+of+the+depiction+of+women+in+popular+media%29%28Cover+Story%29++&date=11%2D27%2D1995&query=media+depiction+of+women&maxdoc=60&idx=24.(accessed08-12-2002).… [read more]


Victorian New Woman: Shaw's Views Term Paper

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It's Mrs. Warren's continued involvement in the dirty business of the oldest profession that sets the pair at odds. But Vivie's struggle for independence proves she's her mother's daughter through and through (Blethyn,

About The Play) 5.

When the play starts (Olveczky)6, Vivie Warren self-confident, high-spirited, and oblivious of her mother's profession -- has just returned home from Cambridge with… [read more]


Woman: An Epistemological Programme Term Paper

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Only 'absolute in loveliness,' the portion of rationality granted to woman, is indeed very scanty; for, denying her genius and judgment, it is scarcely possible to divine what remains to characterize intellect." Wollstonecraft, M. Vindication Chapter IV.

The quarrel will go on as long as men and women fail to recognize each other as equals; that is to say, as long as femininity is perpetuated as such. Which sex is the more eager to maintain it? Woman, who is being emancipated from it, wishes none the less to retain its privileges; and man, in that case, wants her to assume its limitations. 'It is easier to accuse one sex than to excuse the other,' says Montaigne. It is vain to apportion praise and blame. The truth is that if the vicious circle is so hard to break, it is because the two sexes are each the victim at once of the other and of itself. Between two adversaries confronting each other in their pure liberty, an agreement could be easily reached: the more so as the war profits neither. But the complexity of the -,Whole affair derives from the fact that each camp is giving aid and comfort to the enemy; woman is pursuing a dream of submission, man a dream of identification. Want of authenticity does not pay: each blames the other for the unhappiness he or she has incurred in yielding to the temptations of the easy way; what man and woman loathe in each other is the shattering frustration of each one's own bad faith and baseness." de Beauvoir in conclusion to The Second Sex.

Works Cited

Woolstonecraft M, Vindication of the Rights of Women

De Beauvouir, S. The Second Sex.

Saul, J. Feminism: Issues and Arguments.

Hornsby, J. & M. Fricker, Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy.

Rousseau, J.and A.Bloom. Emile: Or, on Education. New York: Basic Books, 1979.… [read more]


Women and Nonwhites Essay

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Hall discusses that there was extreme malice, war, and that there were huge issues with the racial movements (Hall, 2001).

In the south, during this period of time, war was still an option at any time and these racial policies were part of the reason that this war could break out at any time. The white leaders did not want to make any sort of movements. Hall talks about the late 19th century, the movement for the Jim Crowe laws was created and this at least gave blacks some rights in the south, just not everything that they wanted and that the deserved. These laws were put into place to make sure that they provided admittance for blacks to certain places, however they still created segregation (Hall, 2001).

References

Cebulla, B. (2010). How Frontier Experience Had an Impact on Women's Role. New York: GRIN Verlag.

Fowler, W. (2005). Woman on the American Frontier. New York: Cosimo, Inc.

Hall, R. (2001). Performing the American frontier, 1870-1906. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keyes, B. (2010). The American Frontier: Our Unique Heritage.…… [read more]


Feminism Summary of Story Cristina A-Level Coursework

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Connections to Other Readings

Tzintzun's story reflects the broad experiences of women of color as they reflect on issues of identity, difference, and intersectionality. For example, Gray points out that her listening to rock and roll was viewed as a symbol of her submission to a white dominant culture and society. It was socially subversive to listen to rock and roll because it was "akin to treason in the black community," (p. 258) At first, listening to rock and roll was something she did because she liked the music. After a while, Gray realized that rock and roll reeked of white male privilege" (p. 259). Rock stars, who are always white, pranced around on stage and "flaunted their entitlement," (p. 259). They were often middle-class white boys like Jon Bon Jovi, but they were born with a sense of entitlement. Yet like Tzintzun, Gray is able to embrace the contradictions of her dual identity. Gray is proud to be black, and Tzintzun is proud to be Mexican; and both are proud to be female.

In "My Tattoos are Not an Invitation," Lundahl (2013) describes the unwanted attention she receives from men, who feel entitled to touch her arm. The act is like a rape, as Lundahl describes it. She states, "I'm not surprised that some men feel that my visible display of body art is an invitation to yell about, touch, and seemingly compliment my tattoos," (p. 1). Although Lundahl is white, her experience reflects a global experience of gendered identity. Men, especially white men, feel entitled to take whatever is theirs, including women. Because men dominate the worlds of politics and business, many of the products and services available in the world are laden with gender issues. Even seemingly innocent toys like Lego are marketed to girls in insipid ways, reinforcing male hegemony ("Lego Friends" movie).

Personal Connection

Patriarchy remains a particularly poignant problem for women of color. Women of color struggle with a double oppression, in that both their gender and their race renders them perceived as inferior by the dominant culture. It is a constant struggle to assert power and identity in the face of patriarchy. When encountering these readings, I felt personally empowered. I felt encouraged and motivated to share my own stories of forging an identity as an ethnic "mutt," while remaining true to myself as both Tzintzun and Gray have managed to do, and like the tattooed woman. It is important to recognize unhealthy patterns that have been handed down through our parents, and even more important to change those patterns so that we become the beacons that transform social norms.

References

Gray, K. (n.d.). I sold my soul to rock and roll.

"Lego Friends" Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrmRxGLn0Bk

Lundahl, A. (2013). My tattoos are not an invitation. The Feminist Wire. Retrieved online: http://thefeministwire.com/2013/07/my-tattoos-are-not-an-invitation/

Orenstein, P. (2010). The femivore's dilemma. International New York Times. 11 March, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/14/magazine/14fob-wwln-t.html?_r=1&… [read more]


Women A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  6 pages (1,948 words)
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Women

Prior to taking this course, I assumed, naturally, that women's studies were mainly about women. It turned out that women's studies is actually about all human beings. The goal of women's studies is in part to expose and rectify the problems with patriarchy, including the tendency for sociologists to presume masculine identities and points-of-view as normative. Feminism and women's… [read more]


Women's Issues When the Term Feminism Interview

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¶ … Women's Issues

When the term feminism was first used in the United States of America, it was largely used to refer to the pursuit of women to get the right to vote. Later, it became synonymous with the attempts of women to be seen as equals of men in all aspects of life, from wages to family responsibilities… [read more]


Women in Leadership the Characteristics and Advantage Research Paper

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Women in Leadership: The Characteristics and Advantage of Women

Women in Leadership

Women in Leadership: Obstacles to the Characteristics and Advantages of Women

The issue of women in leadership has been a focus of debate and discussion across many disciplines in recent years. This debate is also linked to topics such women's rights and gender inequalities in modern society. These… [read more]


Role of Woman in Society Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Role of Woman in Society

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the role of the woman in the American society during the period of the Great Depression. In order to support the discussion we will be analyzing John Steinbeck's novel "The grapes of wrath."

The context of our discussion is very important. The great depression implied a terrible diminishment of the life level. The crisis had a very large number of people loose their jobs. This had a strong impact upon families and gender roles as well. Research regarding this period reveals that a lot of men actually left their wives because they had lost respect of themselves. Until the great depression the role of the married woman was to stay at home, taking care of the house and the family. The man was the worker, the provider.

Once the man lost his job, he also lost his status of provider. People had to appeal to their relatives or the government in order to survive. In addition, families could not afford to have both members stay at home. Therefore women had to work outside the house. "This contributed greatly to the change of the social status of the woman who acquired more power and more importance. Since the woman's contribution to the financial survival of the family was just as important as the man's, this suggested that her position was equal with that of the man." (Scharf)

From a certain point-of-view it could be stated that the roles were reversed. "Men could no longer fulfil the role of providers and that made them feel weak and ashamed. This affected their self-esteem and many of them lost hope and did not even look for work."(Gender roles and sexual relations, impact of the great depression)

Women on the other hand realized that they could make an important contribution to the survival of the families. They could work outside the home and they were good at it. This made them feel strong and boosted their self-esteem. They now realized the complexity of their role. Working outside the home did not imply that they stopped taking care of the family and the house. While they received more advantages in terms of social power, they also got a lot more responsibilities. "The sexual division of labor within the home meant that housework in general remained the almost exclusive responsibility of women." (Baillargeon)

The power of men derived from their statuses of protectors and providers. They were superior to women, but this superiority derived from their very social status. Once the status changed, they no longer had the power associated with it and they felt their very identity as men was threatened. Not only were men unable to fulfil the roles they were used to, but they also depended on their women.

This must have been humiliating for many of them. In addition there were men who thought that it was because of the great number of women who were working that the… [read more]


Women's Movement and Two Identifications Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2

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Women's Movement And Two Identified

Women's Movement and Two Identities

Comparing the original goals of the women's movement of the 1960s-70s, and NOW's agenda then and today, what are the successes, failures, and unfinished business?

The National Organization for Women (NOW), Neil Armstrong and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) made significant contributions in to American history. As they all played a major role in defining the late 1960's.

NOW was established by a group consisting of 28 men and women. Its founders were: Betty Friedan, Pauli Murray and Shirley Chisholm. They established the organization on June 30, 1966; at the Annual Conference of Commissions on the Status of Women in Washington, D.C. It is a well-known organization of: feminist and human rights activists throughout the United States, with it having a membership of more than 500,000 people. The primary goal of NOW is to: achieve equality for all women and to eradicate all the biases that are present in the society. The organization's actions made it a main force in promoting equality. as, this was giving women more opportunities in: the educational, social, and political posts, amongst others (Barakso, 2004).

NOW's primary issue; is to have a Constitutional amendment ratified. Wherein, it seeks out equal opportunity in: education, employment, politics and Social Security for the women. Moreover, it supports the legalization of abortion, claiming that it is a right of every woman. At the same time, they will assert that this is an: effective birth control, emergency contraception and reproductive procedure. as, the organization seeks to oppose discrimination and racism, claiming that human rights are inseparable, and it commits itself to efforts that prevent the adverse effects of homosexuality. In the past forty-four years, NOW has engaged itself in: activities and programs that raise awareness. While at the same time, they are promoting solutions on: violence against women, economic justice, global feminism, health, marriage / equality and social security.…… [read more]


Othermothers in the Women of Brewster Place Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,058 words)
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¶ … Othermothers" in the Women of Brewster Place

In this research proposal, the author this research proposal will compare the strength of relationships between the Women of Brewster Place as compared to the relationship that they each experience with men. The author will then go through each personal story highlighting the dysfunctional relationship that each woman has with a man, including issues such as using the women as sexual objects, pregnancy, shame, fear, and the flight of the men from the relationship. Then it will be centrally connected to the book as a whole. Each of the women's lives are explored in the book in seven short vignettes. These short vignettes chronicle the ups and downs that many African-American women of face and the author will consider the women's relationships as opposed to sex as they are laid out in each vignette. If not directly wounded by the opposite sex, the ladies have women in their lives which need this healing and it comes about via the sisterhood and motherhood that is created. The author's style backs up this imagery (Puscas 402).

What this author proposes to research further is the subject of the creation of community and unity by women when there is not any there in reality. What is truly the adaptive genius of African-American women (and women in general as well is the ability to take the dysfunctional relationships that they have and to construct something new out of them whole cloth. In the book Black Feminist Thought, Collins takes the reader back to black American women's West African roots where she stresses the importance of "othermothers" and strong maternal leaders (Collins 215). With all of the dysfunctional men in their lives, black women desperately need each other. This female leadership is exactly what Khaleggi points out in his journal article on the book:

Gloria Naylor, in her novels the Women of Brewster Place… notices the special bond that exists between women characters, including women of different generations…a community of women emerges-sustaining, enabling, and enriching the lives of each other. In the Women of Brewster Place, Naylor indicates the women's sense of isolation, their mistreatment by men and their search for identity through shared experiences. (Khaleghi 131).

Mattie Michael is from a small town in Tennessee and ends up bringing her small town mores to Brewster Place. Her relationship with Ciel (Luciela Louise) who is not her child is motherly and tries to comfort her after Ciel looses her baby (Naylor 102). While Ciel turns Mattie away, this does not end the relationship. Rather, she sees the problem as a chance to bond with another woman and she needs all the help she can get. Being a mother is never easy and the helpful Mattie makes things that much easier for Ciel..

This relationship extends to Etta Mae. It is understandable that Mattie Michael has a relationship with Etta Mae. They are from the same small Tennessee town and this small town caring comforts Etta Mae… [read more]


Role of Women in Tibet Research Paper

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Role of Women in Tibet

Women as freedom fighters

Women portrayed as being care takers

Women as keepers of culture

Women portrayed as being career people

Tibetan women as peace keepers

Tibetan women portrayed as great leaders

Tibetan as agriculturalists and traders

Women portrayed as having the freedom and right to marry

Women portrayed as being Buddhists

Women portrayed as… [read more]


Catalyst for Feminism Term Paper

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¶ … Feminism [...] how I can be a catalyst for feminist change in the future. Change can be large or small, and affect many or few. Everyone can elicit change, in themselves and in others; they just have to be dedicated to making change happen.

I believe that I can be a catalyst for feminist change because of my activities and my actions. I am a Black woman going to school full time. I believe that I can create change in the future when I have finished my education and can enter the working world, using my education to further my career and promote the higher education of Black women. People often talk about underprivileged Black youth growing up in urban areas, but they don't talk about the Black people who educate themselves and become entrepreneurs, business people, and staff members, and I want that to change.

In addition, I'm eight months pregnant as I finish up my degree program. It has been difficult for me to finish my schooling while I'm pregnant, but I believe I am a role model for others. I show that it can be done, and that women can get an education while undergoing other life changes. I am incredibly excited to welcome my child into the world and show him or her all the possibilities that are open to them, and I hope that my life can be a role model to them, as well. I want my child to grow up knowing that they can accomplish anything they set their sight on, and that I will support them in everything they want to accomplish.

Another way I hope to create change is in helping those in need. After the earthquake in Haiti, I adopted a little boy left homeless and orphaned from the quake. True, this is only one child's life, but I hope to make a great, positive change in his life. Bringing him here has already made a difference. When he first came to the country, he was frightened, shy, and withdrawn, as would be expected after his ordeal. Now, he has blossomed, and he is happy, more…… [read more]


Bra Burners and Family Bashers Feminism Working Women Consumerism Essay

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Bra Burners

In the reading Bra Burners and Family Bashers, the author discusses the concepts held by different people on family and the role that women have played over time. The author makes a point to discuss lifestyles and the way they are viewed by women and those looking at the way women live. There is constant mention of "normal," "Traditional" lifestyles. It is explained that the early role of the homemaker, the caregiver etc. has over time lost its once significant value and prominence in society. Along with women having more roles that are independent and working outside the home, the homemaker has been lost.

The chapter takes a look at the role of the women in the household, and explains that though she was seen as the homemaker, this was an important and impactful role. However, as time advances and the face of the role that women are playing changes, rank, and authority in that traditional role is forever altered. This alteration is seen as a negative, there is an outcry for a return to the "old values," for this is the time when respect for the home role of women was acknowledged and appreciated. Mothers day is discussed in length in the reading as well, explaining how this was an impactful holiday that actually at one point stood to show homage to the mother, the hub of the family; the one that was viewed as the care taker, and provider of all of the home needs. This view over time has become obscure, and the homage that was once paid is now simply a means of companies monopolizing and increasing their profits.

The chapter goes on to discuss the role of women in the workforce especially married women. It is expressed that at one point only about 16% of the workforce was female. In addition, it was not out of the nor for a woman to leave the workforce to care for small children, until they were of age to be able to work themselves. It was also expressed that in the 1900's the demand for women in the workforce grew, now women were hired in increased number in the clerical field and sales industries. It was not until the 1920's was it viewed by society as okay for a married woman to be working, during this time there was also an increase seen in the number of female workers. It…… [read more]


Historical Aspect of Feminism Essay

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Feminism started largely with the temperance movement, as well as within the abolitionist movement. The temperance movement, which sought to ban the legal making, selling, and drinking of alcohol does not appear to have much to do with feminism on the surface, but it was a cause championed by many women who were often the victims of men's drinking -- through abuse and through wasted money that should have gone to the family. This became a politically motivating factor for women, and the fact that women had little or no political power necessarily became a part of the struggle when their voices weren't being heard. This leads directly into the women's suffrage movement, which is itself directly related to general feminist thought and actions, noting the disparity in the social and personal views of women that led to the justification of a denial of voting rights based on sex. The feminist, suffrage, temperance, and even the abolitionist movements all attacked these ingrained social beliefs on highly specific and more broad-based and general issues.

There was also a religious responsibility for the start of feminism, especially from Quakers and similar groups that saw an inextricable link between religion, morality, and social responsibility. Susan B. Anthony came from a Quaker family, and it was the sense of justice she learned in her religion that spurred her on to champion the feminist cause. In many ways, however, one could say that the patriarchal establishment is itself responsible for the development of feminist thought and action, as it was a direct refutation of the patriarchy's arguments and viewpoints that enabled the eloquence and vociferousness of the movement.

Life and…… [read more]


Symbolism in Women by Alice Walker Essay

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Symbolism in "Women" by Alice Walker

"in many, one:"

Alice Walker's poem "Woman" and the struggle of black women for equality

The history and work of African-American women has often been rendered invisible by historians, even feminist historians. The unique contribution of black women to America has been subsumed under either the rubric of 'blackness' or 'femininity.' The unique struggle and stereotypes black women have attempted to combat have all too often been ignored. In her poem "Woman," the black womanist poet Alice Walker tries to bring the entirety of the special and invisible history of African-American women to light in a series of a few, economical images that sums up African-American women's lives.

African-American woman, Walker suggests, are more than simply motherly, desexualized 'mammies' and overly sexualized Jezebels -- or victims. They have a distinct and separate history apart from African-American men as well as white women. "The uniqueness of the African-American female's situation is that she stands at the crossroads of two of the most well? developed ideologies in America, that regarding women and that regarding the Negro." (Gray 1999, p.27). In the archetypal 'woman' of Walker's poem, Walker pays tribute to all African-American women by stressing how hard African-American women have worked and how they have been denied an education and political equality both as women and as blacks.

Her ancestors, writes Walker, were warriors as well as women who "Starched white/Shirts" (presumably for their white masters or employers). Yet they also -- with their physical and moral strength -- "battered down/Doors," and had fists as well as helping hands. The contrasted images of fists and hands suggest that in addition to nurturing others, black women also demanded their rights through history. Because of these demands, their daughters now have access to education. Black women, in the images of Walker's poem, had to become generals, laying booby traps for racist, misogynistic people so that the younger generation of black women could discover "books/Desks." It is this struggle, the particular struggle of black woman that makes the advancement of black women today possible, argues Walker's poem. Although the women of previous generations may have been illiterate they were capable of knowing: "what we [young black women]/Must know/Without knowing a page/of it / Themselves." And the struggle of African-American women and all women continues today. "Despite the indisputable gains over the years, women are still being raped, trafficked, violated and discriminated against -- not just in the rest of the world, but here in the United States (Valenti 2010). Often these women are non-white.

Black women have always had to work states Walker, even if that work was often underpaid or unpaid, unlike some of the early white feminists in the Second Wave of the American Women's Movement. The legacy of black women's strength and commitment to political, social, and financial equality has had to be strong because it has never known the luxury of white privilege or the 'choice' of having to work outside the home. In an… [read more]


Race Feminism Essay

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¶ … race is a social, political and ideological construct. Explain the projects of critical race feminism. How have critical race feminists such as bell hooks, Beverly Guy-Sheftall and others explored the history and conditions of slavery, colonialism / neocolonialism, racism and patriarchies to understand the effects of these historical and contemporary forces on the lives of women of color and Black women in particular?

The catalyzing book for modern, Second Wave feminism in America is widely regarded as Betty Friedan's the Feminine Mystique. This book chronicled the frustrated aspirations of women living in the suburbs, women who had been educated in college yet found themselves frustrated and depressed by the enforced, feminine role they had to play in the postwar nuclear family. Some women cheered and sympathized with Friedan's complaints. But some African-American women took a far different point-of-view of Friedan's ideas. Black women had always worked, and continued to work outside the home, even after Rosie the Riveter had been relegated to the kitchen. Black women worked in invisible occupations, such as maids, that were underpaid and overlooked because they were deemed to be menial 'women's work.' Working for African-American women was not empowering, given how demeaning the work (and the pay) they were forced to accept was, and because the work often took them away from their own families, into the alien families of wealthier whites. The work black women performed was so unacknowledged, so silent, it was marginalized even in the rhetoric of white, liberal feminists. Friedan's complaint that she was not 'permitted' to work rang hollow in many African-American women's ears.

Yet Second Wave white feminists, according to the black feminist writer bell hooks, often portrayed themselves as speaking for all women, despite the radically different social experiences of black and white women. This left black women in a quandary: African-American male Civil Rights activists often portrayed themselves as speaking for all black people, without regard to the impact of gender. White feminists pointed with pride to Sojourner Truth's famous speech, chronicling her work and suffering under slavery "ain't I a woman." But they did not fully recognize Truth's implications that work that was not recognized and appropriately compensated was not empowering. Simply working was not the answer for all women. Feminists of the Second Wave spoke about the oppression of…… [read more]


Introduce Myself to the Class Essay

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¶ … guy taking a women's studies class?" A number of my friends have asked me this question. Of course, no one asks a woman "why are you studying guys" when they take a class in English or politics that is focused mainly on male authors or historical subjects. Other friends, male and female alike, have praised me, saying that my presence in the class is an indication of my sensitivity and concern for women's issues. However, I regard taking a women's studies class as an act of personal exploration -- to study the place of women in modern society is also to study the place of men. And both men and women are often confused about what is expected of them, in terms of their roles and life aspirations. Women's studies classes allow both women and men to critically view the role of gender in their society, and to give gender the attention it deserves, as it many be ignored within the context of other classes.

On a very simple level, the question of roles and responsibilities of the genders arises constantly in daily life. I often ask myself: does the fact that I am male mean I have to hold the door for my date? Pay for both of our meals? Assume the role of the breadwinner when I marry, especially after my wife and I have children? To live in this modern society, one could argue, is to constantly grapple with the questions raised by a women's studies class. Conventional gender-related expectations are continually challenged by modern life, not just by academic or political debates, but also by shifts in world circumstances. For example, many men were 'downsized' in the current recession, and found themselves at home, caring for their children, while their employed wives bought home the family paycheck. No stereotype, however ingrained, could deny the need of the family to make a living. The fact that so many men were let go from their jobs in a relatively short period of historical time has challenged the idea that a man is what he earns -- and also the idea that a woman needs a man's income to survive. Men have had to re-focus and re-define themselves as men, just as women had to do during the beginning of the Second Wave of the feminist movement in America.

Women make up a greater percentage of college graduates than their male counterparts, a woman is Secretary of State, the most recent appointment to the Supreme Court was a female -- yet many of the women in my life, girlfriends and friends alike have struggled with issues of self-worth in relation to their appearance and confidence in their own abilities. Clearly, there is still a need for a women's movement for economic, political, and social reasons.…… [read more]


Role of Women in Europe After 1945 A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  3 pages (837 words)
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Role of Women in Europe After 1945

The role of women in the European society after 1945

In the past century the women had experienced more changes and revolutions than it did in the entire history of men. Women progressed and gained power in economics, politics, education, health and other domains. The "feminist movement," started in the Western World, passed through three phases, and the top issues referred to equal pay, the right to vote, maternity leave, domestic violence, sexual harassment and sexual violence. This paper discusses in regard to important business women, women in politics, women scientists, but mostly the role of women in the European society after 1945.

In the wake of WWII, Europeans had to deal with a reconstruction period, considering that most countries on the continent had been severely affected as a result of their involvement in the war. Women were particularly affected by the war, as they were provided with the task of controlling most communities while their husbands, brothers, and sons had to fight on fronts throughout Europe. The suffering that they went through as a result of having to care for the homes actually taught them to be less vulnerable to society's problems and more willing to get engaged in fighting for their families and for rights.

It rapidly became obvious that women were no longer the weak individuals that they were before the war. War changes people and it changes women even more, as they are practically forced to abandon their previous convictions in order to survive.

Although men and women have lived together for centuries, men are typically recognized to have used physical power with the purpose of imposing themselves over women, while women were disrespected, disdained, and left with little to no rights. The "feminist movement" played a crucial part in the emancipation of women from all around the globe. The movement was founded in the United Kingdom and was called "The first-wave" -- this was the feminist activity during the nineteenth and early twentieth century that focused primarily making it possible for women to vote.

The efforts involved in making female emancipation possible brought women equal political and legal rights, the access to education, and the chance to work jobs that were previously available only to men. It also got them the freedom to personal choice, including the freedom to express themselves sexually, even with the fact that the real limits were material and not legal. Women did not have access to birth-control devices, considering that economies…… [read more]


Feminism and Chopin's the Awakening Essay

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Awakening Feminism

Defining Feminism in Chopin's the Awakening

Though by now quite well established as a general "-ism," the literary, philosophical, and critical school of feminism is not particularly well defined. Feminism is obviously concerned with issues of gender, and specifically with the issue of female subjugation in the historic and traditional patriarchy, but the ways in which feminism looks at this issue and attempts to resolve it -- if indeed an individual feminist text or work attempts to resolve it at all -- are quite disparate and in some views even incompatible. A blanket definition of feminism or of a feminist work, then, might not be a very realistic or even desirable construct. In fact, the rigidity of such a definition could be seen as somewhat antithetical to the central ideas of feminism in its refusal to allow for divergent views. The feminist struggle has been fought largely in an attempt to establish an individual sense of identity that is not dependent on gender, which was the primary defining (and hence limiting) factor of identity for women throughout most of Western history. Developing a complete definition of feminism would necessarily impose certain attitudes and beliefs upon feminist writers, and would usurp this struggle.

This line of thinking, ironically, provides a good general (though not at all absolute) definition of feminism -- it is literature, art criticism, etc. that is concerned with the role of women in society and in their personal lives, and with their ability to create and maintain a sense of self without or in spite of external constraints. This is certainly the case in many of Kate Chopin's works, including her novel The Awakening. This book is primarily concerned with Edna Pontellier's attempts to find and define herself, and her "awakening" to the realities of her identity as a woman in the early years of the twentieth century. Feminism in this novel is an issue almost indistinguishable from identity, and it is the exploration rather than the resolution that makes the work feminist.

Nothing makes this more apparent than the famous (or infamous, at the time of the book's publication) ending of the novel, in which Edna Pontellier divests herself of her clothing and her life as she wades out into the ocean and succumbs to drowning. The way in which the water is described reflects the importance of identity and one's ability to carve it out in this novel: "The voice of the sea is seductive, never ceasing, whispering, clamoring, murmuring, inviting the soul to wander in abysses of solitude" (Chopin, Chapter 39). The "abysses of solitude" that are so inviting to Edna at this point can be seen as a sort of freedom -- she has spent almost her entire life (and the bulk of the novel) as a fixture in other people's lives, defined by her external roles rather than by any sort of developed sense of interiority. She awakens to this interiority during the course…… [read more]


Women in Leadership Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,864 words)
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Women in Leadership

The struggle for women's rights have come a long way from gaining the right to suffrage to having more women participate in the labor market, which is viewed as directly contributing to nation building. As women go up the social, political, or professional ladder, there arises the recognition for the need for change in attitudes and perceptions,… [read more]


Middle Eastern Women Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,395 words)
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Middle Eastern Women

The Middle East is a geographical region in Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa (Sluglett 2008). It consists of the countries of Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen and Egypt. It may also include Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lybia, Sudan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Men are approximately… [read more]


Milton's Paradise Lost and Feminism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,547 words)
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Milton's Paradise Lost And Feminism

The fall of mankind was always interpreted from a religious perspective as the terrible moment which marked the complete separation of man from his Creator and the beginning of mortality, with all its challenges and unfortunate events, for mankind. The Fall also marks the break with innocence, the unnatural and undesired adoption of freedom. It… [read more]


Sarah Orne Jewett and Feminism in Her Work Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,040 words)
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Sarah Orne Jewett and Feminism in Her Work

Sarah Orne Jewett and Early Feminism in New England Literature

The Victorian Era provided many prominent male authors who played upon the image of the doll-like female character, completely devoid of power and passion. Yet, during the same time period, Sarah Orne Jewett was writing novels and short stories which played down… [read more]


Literary Theory and Feminism Essay

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Women's Issues - Feminism

Literary Theory - Judith Butler

From Judith Butler's perspective, feminist theory is going through some changes. Some of those changes are based on the language used by feminists and language used to describe what feminism - in political terms - has become or is becoming. Butler explains that the "subject" of women has been going through a defining process. She suggests, in esoteric phrases and paragraphs, that the word "women" has become "troublesome." Why? Because merely to say that a person is "a woman" does not go far enough in describing that human, and saying someone is "a woman" conjures up gender issues and stereotypes that are incomplete.

Just going by gender, Butler insists, is vague and incomplete because the concept of gender "intersects" with social class, racial and ethic issues, and sexual identities. All of these images tend to muddy the water for those attempting to understand the feminine person. She writes (p. 99) that there is a "political assumption" that feminism is universal, and that somehow in any culture feminism represents a battle against "patriarchy" and "masculine domination." What a reader gets out of Butler's scholarly narrative is that all these language issues associated with feminism and woman only lead to confusion.

One has to read this essay carefully, and go back over some of Butler's discussion more than twice, to gain a good grasp of her theses. But by paying close attention to her carefully constructed arguments, Butler's philosophy comes clear. She (p. 101) takes aim at the difference between "gender" and "sex." Her point is that "gender" is cultural, and needs to be defined in that context, and "sex" is something else entirely. Butler doesn't know how do define sex: is it "natural, anatomical, chromosomal, or hormonal"? Her narrative at times is like she is having her own debate inside her thoughts. Is gender something a person is believe "...to have" or is gender "an essential attribute that a person is said to be?" she asks (p. 101). A reader could easily accuse Butler of splitting hairs, but her points are interesting enough and provocative enough to…… [read more]


Alfred Hitchcock and Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,527 words)
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Alfred Hitchcock and Women

Alfred Hitchcock and the Pre-Feminist Woman:

An Examination of the Filmmakers Liberal Attitude Toward Women

Before Steven Spielberg and M. Night Shyamalan, the cinema had one of its first giants in British filmmaker/producer Alfred Hitchcock. Effectively using character development, music, and cinematic effects, Hitchcock has managed to frighten, amuse, and awe audiences all over the world… [read more]


Role of Women Since World War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,757 words)
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Role of Women Since World War 2 (WWII)

The role of women in society may have changed more during and after World War Two than any other period in human history. As a brief indication of the change, five percent of American women were employed in the regular workforce, whereas 60% of women of working age were employed by 1990… [read more]


Soldaderas and Women as Political Icons Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
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Soldaderas and Women as Political Icons Today

This article states about the Soldadera women. Also known as soldiers and heroes for the Mexican Revolution. Soldadera women were strong women standing beside men and even more courageous. They were deeply involved in politics and also participated on the battlefields. Chicana women, Mexican born in America are the same as their ancestors. Today there are many political figures such as Maria Echaveste and Dolores Huerta.

Soldadera women are also known as soldier women. They are not only important in politics but in battlefields as well. During the Mexican Revolution, soldadera women were the heroes of the battlefield. Any how, it is also to be said that the soldadera history carried out with the artist that painted, sang and wrote. Soldadera women believed in their will to fight. Many of the soldadera went in the battle with their children on their back. They were very courageous and also had skills to sustain the troops. Women were trusted more than man to perform a manly duty on battlefield as they proved themselves that they are equal to men's. They put their lives in danger but they also fought with bravery. Without the support of soldaders women troop, the men would not have been strong in the battlefield. Soldadera women not only went to fight in battlefield but also cooked food, distributed it and also took care of the sick or wounded soldiers. (Tereza Jandura)

How ever, a term namely "Chicana" which refers to the women of Mexican descent or the one's raised in United States. It is believed that the term Chinana is originally from Mexican tribes of Mesoamerica. In the mid of 1960's and 1970's Chicano Nationalist Movement took place which the Mexican-American women reclaimed as Chicana. Chicana Women belongs to a long political activity in history who took part in U.S. And Mexico War of 1848 and also fought in Mexican Revolution which took place in 1910. After both wars, Mexican families drove towards United States and they also settled their. They made their own colonized territories such as San Diego, San Antonio, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. The Chicana Feminist Movement began to take place in 1970's, when Chicano Nationalist Movement was on the verge of the height. Chicana women were fighting along with Chicano men to get rid of United States political and social movements as they began to realize that the inequalities of the gender were existed within and outside of the movement. In 1971, about 600 Chicana women gathered for their first national Chicana conference which was held in Houston, Texas. By the first successful gathering, they had several different kinds of revolution such as legalization for abortion; child care centers establishments and equal education. Chicana feminists did pass their voices to welcome within the…… [read more]


Women's History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (981 words)
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Women's History

Phyllis Schlafly wrote "What's Wrong with Equal Rights for Women" as a call to women to maintain the status quo. Her point is that women are already privileged beings in this country, and that it is foolhardy to lose that status, simply because a group of radical women wants equal pay and opportunities. She is resentful that the women's movement tries to speak for all American women, and disagrees with the opinion that women should be treated as equal to men. She feels that to portray women as downtrodden is fraudulent.

The piece supports the traditional role of the female, who was expected in the past to only raise children, keep the house clean and have a meal ready for her husband when he returns from work. Women did not need an education, nor did they need to take responsibility for politics or military problems of the country. Further, their intrusion into these areas was unwelcome.

This article clearly reflects a division among women in the United States.

There was a powerful force of women from every walk of life who wanted to pass the equal rights amendment, and they were not all "aggressive" radicals, but often educated thinkers.

Schlafly's article sounds as though it was written out of a fear of losing a lifestyle that she values.

She does not feel that women belong on the front lines in times of war and further, that women who want this kind of equality must have something wrong with their thinking.

Women up until that time were "always" given custody of the children except in extreme circumstances, and men were always obligated to financially support the family, including extended support in the case of divorce. Schlafly does not want to lose that privilege, and does not think women should have to pay support to men on equal terms.

I think the larger community, especially today, would see this as an attempt to avoid taking responsibility, and to use her sex as an excuse.

Between 1865 and 1900, women were entirely dependent upon men for everything from financial support to political decision making.

Women had not had the right to own property and were not allowed to vote. There was no reliable means of contraception, and women bore many more children than they may have wanted.

Women were little more than chattel in terms of the law, and men were legally allowed in some areas to abuse their wives with no repercussions. Women were not allowed to serve on a jury, therefore, no woman could be tried before a jury of her peers. Women were not considered citizens and had no representation in lawmaking.

As the industrial revolution spread, many women joined the progressive movement and more women began to work outside the home.

People began to migrate to the cities and women began to work as domestics, on farms, and in factories, some becoming involved in the labor movement.…… [read more]


Women and Social Security Retirement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
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Women and SS Retirement

Since its inception in 1935, in the midst of the great depression, Social Security has been debated and frequently reformed, usually on a fiscal level, rather than on a level that better meets the needs of the changing population. (Kingson & Berkowitz, 1993, p. 27) (Shlaes, 1999, p. 38) in the past the arguments about social security in regards to women and where they fit into it, is that the labor of women is largely unpaid, in the sense that women frequently stayed home and labored for the good of the family, and social security is based on the idea of replacing at least a part of the financial earnings of an individual when they can no longer work.

The loss of the mother's ability to cook, clean and care for children would be a loss that would go without compensation. Additionally many argued at its inception that private pension plans included provisions that helped women, regardless of work status, many containing earlier retirement ages for women and a wife benefit, while the federal plan did not. The argument did not receive weight simply because it excluded women, but instead because it was brought up in concern that individuals might utilize the opt out option in the legislation which might create a competitive system, between the government and private pension providers. (Kingson & Berkowitz, 1993, p. 36) (Hoar, 2006, p. 43) in the modern world the majority of women work outside the home, though there is still pay discrepancy and therefore this argument is not as strong. (Nelson & Bridges, 1999, p. 1)

Yet, the pay inequality between the gender's does effect the outcome of payment as women, even heads of households tend to make significantly less money than male contemporaries so basing compensation on previous earnings clearly disadvantages women, especially when the payment system in play is significantly lower than the real wages of the individual. (Gregory, 2003, p. 8) in an attempt to create an equitable system, the systems has created rifts that continue to disadvantage women. (Hoar, 2006, p. 43) Additionally women are disadvantaged in that many receive compensation based on death benefits of their previously earning spouse, yet when they remarry their benefit ends, leaving many women making hard life choices about moving on with their lives once a spouse has died. (Iams & Ycas, 1988, p.3) This problem is then exacerbated by the fact that both women and men are living longer and women live significantly longer than men. (Shlaes, 1999, p. 38) Additionally, many women are in poverty, including those who are married and single, in part as a result of inequality of pay, as well as an increased divorce rate that leaves women without the ability to live in a culture that demands two wage earners in each family to stay above water. (Berrick, 1997, p. 33)

From its inception social security and social welfare in general stressed the work ethic over all others, creating a system that rewarded… [read more]


Compare Women Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,666 words)
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¶ … history of women in politics is filled with both struggle and victory. Women have had to overcome a general social view of them by both men and those of their own gender as weak and belonging in the kitchen rather than in the political arena. As such, women, and especially those belonging to ethnic minority groups, have struggled… [read more]


Women After the Middle Ages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,796 words)
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Women After the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance

After the Middle Ages, the Renaissance heralded a period of profound change throughout Europe to varying degrees. A revival of classical antiquity occurred with vast economic growth, scientific and geographical innovation and discovery, and political and religious divergence. At the same time as these major transitions, domestic life and gender roles… [read more]


Women and the Glass Ceiling the Disparities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,839 words)
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¶ … Women and the glass ceiling

The disparities in terms of opportunities, advancement and position between men and women in the workplace are a well-known and much debated issue in sociological discourse. This is due to the fact that hindrances to female advanceman or the "glass ceiling" is related to central sociological concepts and to the analysis of the… [read more]


Older Woman Younger Man Relationships Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,685 words)
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Older Woman Younger Man Relationships

The relationship between older women and younger men and its effects

Since the dawn of men, people have shown a natural tendency towards forming groups, sharing their experiences and facing challenges together with others of their kind, as members of the human society. The most intimate, most simple and yet most complex form of human… [read more]


Women and Human Rights Summaries Book Report

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Women and Human Rights Summaries

Perhaps the most useful place to begin any discussion of Asian and Native American women and their relation to feminism is Devon Abbot Misesuah's study of indigenous American women, in which she argues that "because Native women vary in their cultural ideologies, appearance, and social and moral values, no one feminist theory totalizes Native women's… [read more]


Television's New Feminism Prime Time Representations of Women and Victimization Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (719 words)
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New Feminism

When I started reading the abstract of this article, I was particularly struck by the phrase "monstrous maternal," and how it was mentioned in almost the same breath as the phrase "feminist insights." Although I am not a regular Law & Order fan or even an occasional viewer, I was intrigued by this assessment and looked forward to the insights that the article might offer. I was most intrigued by the way the article seemed to generalize the show's depiction of women as either violent to the extreme or non-emotional. The article, for example, generalizes the criminality of the women depicted by claiming that "the criminal women" depicted, i.e. all of them, without exception, use their power in the home to harm those closest to them, and in particular their children. Although I have not watched the show, I find it a little difficult to believe that every female perpetrator in every episode was guilty of this kind of crime.

Another generalization is that feminist elements are generally negatively portrayed in the show, by means of (1) the depiction of sexual assault and (2) women on powerful positions, i.e. those working alongside their male counterparts to solve the crimes in questions and to prosecute the perpetrators.

The authors' claim of negativity in terms of the first is that women are portrayed either as helpless victims or heartless and "monstrous" perpetrators of crime, mostly against their own children. In terms of the second, the authors claim that the women in power are portrayed as somewhat cold and distant, as well as being unable or unwilling to form deep or lasting connections with each other. In other words, this is a departure away from the general conception of women as warm and emotional entities.

My problem with these claims is, once again, that they are a narrow interpretation, without taking into account the context of the show. The first important thing to keep in mind is that it is unlikely that "SVU" was created with feminism at the forefront of its goals. The purpose of the show is, according to those closest to it, to create a realistic and…… [read more]


Carol Christ Talks About Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (999 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

It seems, then, that whenever the race or gender seems confident and able in their abilities, they publicize their power of creativity, and make God as themselves. Rather than their following God, God has to follow them. God, too, seems to be fickle in his political tastes, for instance, siding here with Zionist nationalists who claim the land belongs to them, whilst siding simultaneously with Islamists who claim the land theirs; and then God sides with Irish nationalists and with the Taliban, and with Bush in the White House and with anti-abortionists who burn clinics, whilst God is also a skinhead and a White supremacist. God is so many things. Rather than man having been created in his image, man smug in his ability of creating, have turned God into theirs. And at oen time, man, who -- for whatever reason -- despised, felt threatened by, hated woman -- made god into a misogynist.

Women have now come into their own power of creation and acclaiming their unique abilities as creative, have imbued themselves with sufficient esteem to prevent man from oppressing them. It is no surprise accordingly, that in this heretofore unprecedented age of female esteem, where woman sees herself as creator, woman now calls herself Goddess and speak of God as Mother as well as Father. Woman has come into her own, and having come into her own asserts a power that she once never felt. With assertion of that power, come the ability to not only be liberated but to feel herself on the par of God. Nay, to be a God.

It is for that reason that women can hold ritual ceremonies o f birthing themsves from their birth canals and smearing menstruation blood on their faces as symbol of richness and creations. It is for that reason too that Ntosake Shange can have a tall beautiful black woman, in her Broadway play, rise from despair to cry out, "I found God in myself and I loved her fiercely.":

Her discovery is echoed by women around the country who meet spontaneously in small groups on full moons, solstices, and equinoxes to celebrate the Goddess as symbol of life and death powers and waxing and waning energies in the universe and in themselves

The goddess symbol was first seen to have emerged in the 1970s with the Woman Spirit magazine and the Lady Unique journal as well as conventions set to healrd a woman god. The times were prescient for a female Creator. The Omnipotent She emerged when woman came unto their own.

Woman is no longer dependent on man. She has become a creator. And, therefore, just as man did and does, she too has created God in her own image.

Source

Christ, Carol P. "Why Women Need the Goddess: Phenomenological, Psychological, and Political Reflections (1978)." In Theorizing Feminisms, edited by Elizabeth Hackett and Sally Haslanger, 211-19. New York:…… [read more]


Women and Television: What Roseanne and Sex Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,520 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Women and Television: What Roseanne and Sex and the City Say About Women

As a pop-culture medium, television has the ability to make instantaneous commentary on the role of women in society, and to acquire immediate feedback about how society views that portrayal of women. That is not to say that successful television will necessarily depict an accurate portrayal of… [read more]


Women's History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,670 words)
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Women's History Questions

In the early days of the United States, particularly the 1790's, women had a very limited role in public and political life. However, the massive political changes occurring in France influence the role of Women in America. The many religious awakenings and revivals spurred a more active role for women outside of the home, including charitable endeavors.… [read more]


Violation of Women Rights in India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Women's Rights In India

Violation of Women's Rights in India

As a fast-growing economy and the largest democracy of the world, India struggles with numerous human rights issues in its attempt to strengthen its position in the world: politically, economically, and morally. India is a signatory to major international conventions dealing with human rights issues and in the last sixty… [read more]


Sensibility Women's Identities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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And surely, with her more mature self? awareness, Elinor has few peers with whom to share intimate feelings. Yet there is a sense of desolation with which Elinor handles her emotional trials, so that with all her praise of Elinor, Austen cannot avoid the silence which enclouds Elinor's emotional existence:

From [her mother's and Marianne's] counsel, or their conversation she… [read more]


Lives of Women in Archaic Athens? Unheard Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,254 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … lives of women in archaic Athens?

Unheard voices from Ancient Greece

Although there is much controversy regarding conditions in Ancient Greece due to the little information that was passed on through the centuries, it is generally accepted that women were largely discriminated at this location at the time. As society influence men in adopting discriminatory attitudes in regard… [read more]


Nursing & Women's Roles Pre-And-Post Thesis

Thesis  |  22 pages (7,299 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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Thomas Branagan wrote in The Excellency of the Female Character Vindicated that men would "sin and sin again" because they could not help themselves (quoted by Welter, 47). But a woman, Branagan asserted, was "stronger and purer" and had the resolve to resist a man's desire to "…take liberties incompatible with her delicacy" (Welter, 47).

However, if a woman should… [read more]


Canebrake Night Woman Sex Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
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One day, he will grow too old to be told that a wandering man is a mirage and that naked flesh is a dream. I will tell him that his father has come, that an angel brought him back from Heaven for a while." In other words, she will continue to lie to him. She will tell the boy that his father has returned, at least for a little while. The story ends with the little boy asking if he's missed another angel, the prostitute responds by saying, "Darling, the angels have themselves a lifetime to come to us." The truth is one day she's going to run out of angels (or lies) and her son will become disillusioned with her storytelling and prevarication.

It was the purpose of this paper to discuss how the female protagonist in "The Canebrake" by Mohammed Mrabet and "Night Woman" by Edwidge Danticat use sex to get what they want. In "The Canebrake," the theme of feminine empowerment through the exploitation of sex fleshes itself out in positive way. The affair gives the husband and the wife a chance to reboot their marriage on an equal playing field. In other words, the sex pays off for the female protagonist. However, in "Night Woman," the theme is complicated and ends on a more dubious note. That is, women who use sex to gain influence, money, and power are going to be held accountable for their actions. One day, they will have to answer to the people they love. They will have to explain the truth; because we live in one world, not two.… [read more]


Women's Roles in New England Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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There were many women in Colonial society who took on lives of entrepreneurship, although most of these women were widowed, or had never been married. Essentially, most women who did enter the workplace were absent of the role of the wife and thus the home care taker. This then allowed them to work in an acceptable manner within a society that did require strict roles for women who were married and with families to look after.

Despite strict gender roles, women still found a way to take part in the monumental movement for independence. There were some instances of women throwing gender stereotypes out of the window, some even dressed as men to take part in the fight for independence. Yet, such cases were rare. Most women took on less controversial roles within the war effort. Because of their submissive roles within the home, many women were banned for the most part from participating within politics (Berkin 1997). Thus, "women were locked out of 'large politics' of government," and so were not the decision makers or influencers necessarily within the tumultuous period before the Revolutionary War (Berkin 1997 p 11). Still, this did not stop many women from participating in the fight for independence entirely. Many women supported the war effort from their more acceptable domestic capacities (Smith 2008). There is the example of the Homespun Movement, which shows how many women did what they could to help the war effort without overstepping their gender boundaries. Women refused to allow members of the society to wear British made clothing, or use other domestic goods being imported by England, who was charging steep importing taxes. Women spun and wove homemade clothing for their families, and even for the troops (Smith 2008).

Overall, women played a fundamental role in the evolving nature of colonial society in an emerging nation. They served as the foundation for social, religious, and even political endeavors. Most women were the silent supporters of their male counterparts, and although their actions were restricted, their passions were not.

References

Berkin, Carol. (1997). First Generations: Women in Colonial America. Macmillan.

Jennings, John. (2003). The ladies' defence. Revolution & Romanticism. Web. http://www.crcstudio.org/streetprint/Pages/viewtext.php?s=search&tid=37&route=basicsearch.php&sterms=women&s=browse#

Library of Congress. (1782). Verses, made on the sudden death of six young women and one boy, who were drowned at Jamestown. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Web. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbpe&fileName=rbpe16/rbpe165/1650120a/rbpe1650120a.db&recNum=0&itemLink=D-rbpebib:24:./temp/~ammem_qbIi::&linkText=0

Middleton, Richard & Lombard, Anne. (2011). Colonial America: A History to 1763. John Wiley & Sons.

Smith, Merril D. (2008). Women's Roles in Seventeenth-Century America. Greenwood Press.… [read more]


Professions for Women Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (4,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Professions for Women," in which she talks about "killing the Angel in the House," is an ideal artifact for ideological criticism, because Woolf is interested in simultaneously destroying a specific ideological product while creating one of her own. As Sandra Foss discusses in her book Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, the goal of any ideological critique is to… [read more]


Solitude Distinctive Women Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Solitude

Distinctive Women

There is an extremely perceptible difference between the women of the Buendia family and those that are outside that family in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's novel One Hundred Years of Solitude. That difference is actually fairly pronounced, and may in part be due to the proclivity towards incest that characterizes the lineage of this family in Marquez's work of literature. However, whereas most of the other women who are not a part of this family are more quintessentially feminine in the conventional, traditional way (meaning they are demure, assenting, domesticated lovers who are only happy in such a role), the Buendia women are noticeably different in this regard. Perhaps this fact is attributable to the reality that most of the other women outside of this family are encountered by the male figures in the clan in the roles as lovers. For the most part, however, the women in the Buendia family are staid lovers, not prone to immense displays of affection towards their male suitors, and largely incapable of the domestic bliss that most of the other women depicted in this novel seem to want (and which most women in general appear to desire), since only two of these women produce children. This distinction keeps these women standoffish, aloof, and prone to a sense of power and entitlement that eludes the other female characters in the novel.

One of the most salient examples of the aforementioned proclivities of the Buendia women is that of Amaranta. Although she has a couple of different lovers over the years while living in the relatively isolated town of Macondo, Amaranta never fully submits to any of them and proves untamable and unwilling to acquiesce to typical domestic bliss. As such, she iss able to keep a sense of power in these relationships which the following quotation, in which family matriarch Ursula Iguaran Buendia reflects upon the former's values and tendencies, readily indicates.

Amaranta, however, whose hardness of heart frightened her, whose concentrated bitterness made her bitter, suddenly became clear…and she understood…the unjust tortures to which she had submitted Pietro Crespi had not been dictated by…vengeance… nor had the slow martyrdom with which she had frustrated…Colonel Gerineldo Marquez (Marquez).

This quotation demonstrates that Amaranta is certainly an atypical lover, particularly during the timeframe depicted in One Hundred Years of Solitude. Her depiction as a character who embodies "bitterness" with a singular "hardness" of affection suggests the extent to which she refuses to submit to two of her principle lovers, Crespi and Marquez. Furthermore, her treatment of both of these lovers, described as "unjust tortures" and a "slow martyrdom" is anything but typical of the loving care offered by other female lovers not in the Buendia family. Amaranta's…… [read more]

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