Study "Women / Feminism" Essays 661-714

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Japanese Women Gender Inequality Term Paper

… Consider, for example, the explanation of the change in perceived value women feel in traditional roles in Kazuko Tanaka's work "Changing marriage and family structure: Women's perspective:"

The family is strongly influenced by the ongoing transformation of the socio- economic… [read more]

Males vs. Females in Society Term Paper

… " [4] Even as young as pre-school-aged, many children have already been conditioned into fitting these roles and will choose gender-appropriate toys in the majority of cases. In choosing role-models, both girls and boys will tend to identify with television stars, however girls will tend to have models as role-models, where boys will tend to relate to athletes. [5] In one study of communication between parents and young children, it was found that both parents will use more emotional words when speaking with a daughter rather than a son, and both parents would be overall more emotional with a girl child compared to a boy child. [6] Reactions in children to gender-bending has shown that when boys break gender stereotypes it is considered to be a far worse violation than when girls do so. [7]

From the gender lessons of childhood, combined with naturally occurring differences, men and women develop remarkably different communication styles. "Boys and girls grow up in what are essentially different cultures, so talk between women and men is cross-cultural communication." [8] Girls have been shown to discuss emotional aspects of experiences and to use emotional words more often than boys. [9] Adult females use more intense facial expressions, [10] and will also communicate using far more touch than males. Regarding tactile (or touch-based) communication, nearly 60% of women believe that they touch others more than their male counterparts. Other studies found that women are definitely touched more than men are touched. Most studies concluded that touch is considered to be more acceptable among women than among men in our culture. [11] Adult females will socialize female children in emotional understanding differently than with male children. [12] These differences…… [read more]

Choson Women Status Term Paper

… In the Choson dynasty, this rule was made as a result of the rule that prohibited women to remarry and in this situation; it would be difficult for a woman to live alone without any financial backing. Considering this matter… [read more]

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Bakhtin Distinguished Term Paper

… Shelley used the opportunity presented by a male usurping the female role of giving birth to describe post-partum depression as well. Victor's flight from the monster, at his first stirring, and his reaction, "For this I had deprived myself of… [read more]

Role of Women in African Term Paper

… But the point is that women nevertheless were expected to do their share.

The second important point, which both Achebe and Markandaya make about the character of women in their novels, is that the softer, more accepting nature of the female should not be mistaken for weakness. This point comes through very clearly in Things Fall Apart in Achebe's depiction of Ekwefi's defiance when Chielo takes her daughter Ezinma away. Not only does Ekwefi defy the authority of her husband, society and religion, she conquers her own and the clan's fear of the dark as she pursues Chielo in the night: "Darkness held a vague terror for these people, even the bravest among them." (Achebe, 7) The strength and courage displayed by Ekwefi is paralleled in Rukmani's savage attack of a shadowy figure in her home who she perceives to be Kunthi, a threat to her family's welfare: "...coming stealthily by night to thieve from us what little we had...pinioning the arms savagely...beat it to the ground; fell on it with fury...." (Markandaya, 132)

The African and Indian cultures may have placed undue emphasis on the male role in society, but as Achebe and Markandaya demonstrate, their cultures were not devoid of respect and care for their women. Significantly, in Things Fall Apart, for all Okonkwo's supposed contempt for feminine weakness, his favorite child is his daughter, Ekwefi. More important, the reader is informed that one of the commonest names given to children in the community is 'Nneka,' or 'Mother is Supreme,' because when there is sorrow and bitterness, it is the mother or motherland that affords shelter and protection (Achebe, 94-95). In the same vein, though Nathan in Nectar in a Sieve laments the fact that his first born was not a son, he is soon unable to resist the charms of his daughter, Ira. Rukmani's father insists that she learn to read and write in spite of her mother questioning the need. And Nathan is shown expressing consideration for his daughter-in-law, Ammu, when he says, "But what of you, my child? It is we rather we than you who should ask. We have had our day, you are still young...the mother of children who cannot help you for many years yet." (Markandaya, 221)

Considering the elements outlined above, the one lesson that stands out in examining the role of women in colonial Africa and India, is that social structures must be evaluated within the contextual framework of circumstances, time and period. Viewed from such a perspective, it can be concluded that gender roles were balanced within the demands of an agricultural economy in Africa and India. Further, the needs of women may have well been subjugated, but as discussed above, this does not, however, imply that they were without strength, dignity or an identity.

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. "Things Fall Apart." Oxford: Heinemann, 1986.

Markandaya, K. "Nectar in a Sieve." New York: The John Day…… [read more]

Confucianism's Impact Upon the Status Term Paper

… Although both yin and yang were integral to the maintaining of a functional household, the yang clearly dominated the yin in terms of leadership, power, and hierarchies of authority.

Confucian images tended to portray women as ideal wives, tending to household duties, or as shrewish and foolishly controlling wives. This stress upon difference of essence within male and female bodies also, perhaps ironically, meant that physical distinctions between the appearances of the sexes must be constantly reinforced in Chinese artistic images, in clothing, and also in the creation of physical practices such as foot binding that emphasized and rendered even more extreme the 'natural' distinctions between the sexes.

Women did have some power in Chinese society according to Confucian ethics, such as the deference a new wife was supposed to show her mother-in-law. However, such required deference was usually matrilineal, and only required of women towards women. In relationship to her son, even a mother was considered lesser in the conventionally accepted hierarchy of behavior codes and required deference

Works Cited

Stearns, Peter. Gender in World History. Routledge,…… [read more]

Women Are Often Portrayed Term Paper

… Uttered by the insane Nancy Rufford, shuttlecocks represents how the women in the novel feel they are bounced back and forth between people and by fate. Leonora is seemingly unwillingly thrown about by fate, and others within the novel.

The female inequality to men affects the female characters' motivations, interactions, and desires. The women in the novel are more strictly bound to moral codes of conduct than are the men. While it is generally known that the charming Edward is a womanising, flawed character, the women are not allowed to outwardly reveal such amoral characteristics. Instead, Florence stoically behaves as a faithful wife, who is demure and yielding to her husband. Similarly, Leonora is constrained by social convention into keeping up the outward appearance of normalcy and faithfulness.

The inequality of women in the novel also means that the women must be secretive and conniving in their deceptions, while the men are more upfront about their behaviour. The men's misbehaviour often seems to be treated with a "boys will be boys" attitude, while the women's misbehaviour is held up to a much more serious and disapproving judgement. Importantly, Florence goes to great lengths to hide her affairs, while Edward feels he can be less discreet.

Within the novel, and within society in general at the time, women had little political, financial, or even social power. As a result, Leonora, one of the lead female characters, understandably attempts to obtain and exert power within a more private sphere. Perhaps it is this male inequality to men that causes Leonora to be so controlling and overbearing within her marriage.

Ultimately, the female characters' inequality to male characters plays an important role in the final outcome of the novel. Leonora's attempts to control her husband drive him into the arms of women who are less controlling. Further, Edward's affairs with women who are younger and more attractive than Leonora further reflects the female inequality to men in the novel. Ultimately, it is Edward's affairs and his emotional attachment to his demure mistress that cause the marriage of Leonora and Edward to dissolve.

In conclusion, The Good Soldier provides an interesting and valuable look at the inequality of women, and how this inequality can shape their intentions, actions, and desires. The novel's first words, "This is the saddest story I have ever heard," certainly reflect the misery and pain contained in the novel. The female characters' inequality to male characters plays an important role in causing this anguish and despair. Ultimately, The Good Soldier reveals a great deal about how the subservience of women can damage both friendships and individual marriages.

Works Cited

Ford Maddox Ford. 1999. The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion. Oxford University…… [read more]

Women in India Term Paper

… Nayan Mihar confirms Germaine Greer's statement that women are treated like cows in India: they are offered symbolic respect and reverence but denied true humane rights. Cows roam the streets freely but are subject to an onslaught of traffic and pollution. Women may be officially considered men's equals, as the government supports education of all children, but in practice women are denied basic human liberties. Their roles as wives and mothers are indisputable; to break free of their roles is a near impossibility. Women are commonly denied inheritance rights, and they are not adequately served by the legal system. Rape and physical abuse are common practices in India but women rarely seek legal justice because of the incredible stigma associated with such an act of empowerment: the financial and social costs would be too great.

Former Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is quoted as saying, "You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of its women," (Coonrod 1998). If this statement is true, India is in poor condition. The statistics themselves are alarming: India has the largest population of non-school-going working girls; women work twice as many hours as men do; India accounts for an astonishing 27% of all maternal deaths worldwide. However astonishing the numbers are, they barely get across the impact of gender bias in the daily lives of Indians. Sexism and the mistreatment of women in Indian culture directly impact the quality of life for both men and women and adversely affects the culture as a whole.

Works Cited

Coonrod, Carol S. "Chronic Hunger and the Status of Women in India." June 1998.

Garg, Ashish. "Women in India and Human Rights." 10 Mar 2002. From

Jones, Adam. "Case Study: Female Infanticide." Gendercide Watch.

Mijar, Nayan. "Progress and Problems of Women…… [read more]

Yellow Wallpaper,' the Nameless Narrator Term Paper

… Outside these parameters, one looses one's sexual identity and instead is associated with the other sex. If a woman acts like a man, she displays stereotypical male characteristics such as initiative and physical prowess. Cahn contends that one's nature is almost never seen independently, but rather through the lens of gender, and that this creates enmity in organized female sports.

In 'Selling hot *****,' bell hooks writes about an excursion to a local haunt from the university where she observes chocolate breasts. She interprets these as some deep structural longing for the commoditization of black women, for a day in which women could be bought and sold on the market. In this, her lens is rather narrow; the commoditization of women is alive and well in many areas of the world, although it is understandable for a black woman to read racist overtones into the gesture.

The breasts to her also represented the black breasts of the 'mammies' that often nursed southern white children. Here she communicates more about her own misgivings than about southern cuture: only a minority of white children indeed had 'mammies' to care for them. The commoditization of sex is today often associated with Thailand and other parts of Asia. In the southern jazz culture of New Orleans, the term 'china' was often used to refer to fatherless mulatto prostitutes that were the favorites of high-spending Creoles. In a way, however, this confirms her perspective of sexuality in black women as being 'deviant' in that these 'china' women were seen as mules; that the auger of miscegenation was seen as so threatening to society that mulatto women were never seen in context as members of stable, healthy families, but rather as Chinese prostitutes. To some extent, the alienness of mulattos is reflected upon by Faulkner in 'Go Down, Moses.'

Eastern influences are revealed in 'A Room of One's Own.' There Woolf expresses her concern for unity and balance between the male and female principles. She writes of "two sexes in the mind corresponding to the two sexes in the body" which "require to be united in order to get complete satisfaction and happiness." In each of us, she says, "two powers preside, one male, one female." According to Woolf, "The normal and comfortable state of being is that when the two live in harmony together, spiritually cooperating... Coleridge perhaps meant this when he said that a great mind must be androgynous. It is when this fusion takes place that the mind is fully fertilized and uses all its faculties."

Jean-Charles Seigneuret. Dictionary of Literary Themes and Motifs Vol. 1. Greenwood Press, 1988

Katie Conboy, Nadia Medina, Sarah Stanbury. Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory; Columbia University Press, 1997… [read more]

Women in the Software Development Term Paper

… Yet, consider the words of an application developer Lisa Dahilig, in CNA, who says "I can see that it's hard to get to the management level as a woman... But many do make it."

Hence, it can be said that although women are not furnished with the same variety of opportunities as men through hard work and aggressive moves, eventually female programmers attain success equivalent to if not more, than their male counterparts.

Subjective Response

Martin[2002] mentions instances of successes achieved by female programmers and developers but ignores those women who have not made a mark in the field and thus ignored the reasons that cause failure. Often women interviewed by the author themselves agreed to the scarcity of women professionals in the software development industry. However, they also acknowledged the fact that they work for managers who are females and thus, perhaps have been responsible for recognizing their work. This makes it only incidental that the doors of opportunities are opened for them. Had, Martin [2002] also made a study of the various failures that faced the women she would have been able to differentiate the characteristics of success and failure thus making her article more effective in terms of research. For example Diane B. DeMarco, IT VP at Aventis Pharmaceuticals states, "... being a woman has opened a lot of doors for me." This does not however suggest that software development has opened doors for women.


It can therefore be concluded that women programmers from Martin's [2002] interviews have achieved success in the software development domain with hard work, ambition, dedication, training and sacrifice of personal life. Furthermore, the opportunities they mention are still limited as compared to men despite their claims that the software development industry have "loads" of opportunities. How failure occurs has not yet been studied and if the actual thesis of the article is to be supported a continuation of the study should be made on a more pervasive basis.


Martin, L. (2002). Software Development Opens Doors for Women. Diversity/Careers in Engineering and Information Technology, Issue: Winter 2001 / Spring 2002. [Online] Available at… [read more]

Transitions and Symptoms That Menopause Term Paper

… "

Osteoporosis is another concern of women who are going through menopause. Studies have concluded that women have a higher risk for it to occur while going through and after menopause. What causes it to happen is the loss of estrogen, though many people have the misconception that it is a problem related to aging. It is actually a problem related to menopause.

Osteoporosis is the major culprit behind broken hips in elderly women, often causing permanent loss of independence and sometimes death (Hittner, 1993)." This makes it one of the most serious problems related to menopause.

Another serious symptom that is related to menopause is heart disease. Research has proven that estrogen is a natural protector from heart disease. As estrogen decreases, the risk of heart disease increases.

Ten years after menopause, a woman's risk of developing heart disease is nearly equal to a man's risk (Hittner, 1993)."

Women who are going through menopause also have trouble sleeping many times. The cases of insomnia are well noted as one of the most common problems women endure for the years of menopause transition.

Other less common symptoms of menopause include problems with sexual satisfaction, and the instance of depression. While severe depression is not related to menopause most of the time, mild or chronic instances of depression are often caused by the transition and chemical changes. The realization that one can no longer get pregnant may also contribute to the rise in depression reported.


There are several things that can be done to help ease the transition of menopause. Hot flashes are almost always eased by estrogen treatment. The doctor can prescribe or suggest it to the patient. For the insomnia warm milk is often helpful, but if it gets where it is interfering with the woman's ability to function, the doctor can prescribe a mild, as needed sleep aid.

Depression is something that is handled through walking and exercise and making sure one gets proper nutrition and rest. If these measures do not work it is important to contact professional assistance as it can be eased through the use of therapy, medication or a combination of both.

Over 40 million women are currently post-menopausal in the United States. The fact that those numbers will increase to 60 million in the next 10 years and the attitudes about menopause are continuing to move from viewing it as a clinical syndrome to a natural transition have opened the way for more natural and comprehensive management of menopausal symptoms (Guilliams, 2001)."


The transition of menopause is unavoidable. Whether it is brought on suddenly through chemotherapy, or surgery, or it is a natural occurrence, it is something that every living woman will eventually go through. The fact that it cannot be avoided illustrates the importance of concentrating on understanding the symptoms and learning how they can be alleviated. Menopause marks the end of youth in the area of childbirth, but begins the next phase of life, where… [read more]

Women's Rights Movement Term Paper

… Zinn's narrative, by virtue of it using women's voting rights as a starting point, loses something in the telling by leaving out a broader historical context, which is provided by The Feminist Papers.

However, Zinn's depiction of women's perceptions of their status and lack of meaningful identity as individuals or as a gender does find echoes in both The Feminist Papers as well as The Feminist Mystique. For instance, Zinn talks about women feeling that the core of the whole problem lies in "...the body...the exploitation of plaything (weak and incompetent)...pregnant...(helpless).... A biological prison had been created by men and society." (Zinn, 512) This view is expressed in its many aspects and dimensions right across the texts examined. Some examples are:

John Adams: '...their delicacy renders them unfit for practice and experience in the great businesses of life, and the hardy enterprises of war, as well as the arduous cares of state.

Besides, their attention is so much engaged with the necessary nurture of their children, that nature has made them fittest for domestic cares." (Rossi, 13-14) her own body and beauty, the charming of a man, the bearing of babies, and the physical care and serving of husband, children and home." (Friedan, 31)

Another issue raised by the women's rights movement that Zinn covers in his account is that of the efforts of the poor, black women in obtaining their rights: "...For a lot of middle class women...Women's Liberation is a matter of concern. For women on welfare it's a matter of survival.... The man runs everything...organized a National Welfare Rights Organization...urged that women be paid for...housekeeping, child-rearing." (Zinn, 513)

While Friedan's work is focused on the middle class suburban housewife where money by itself is not an issue, The Feminist Papers do touch on the need to ensure that even housewives get paid for their work: "...the human female, the world over, works at extra-maternal duties for hours enough to provide her with an independent living, and then is denied independence on the ground that motherhood prevents her working." (Rossi, 576)

Be it motherhood, be it sexuality, be it education, choice of profession and economic independence, or community and social rights, all three texts studied clearly establish the nature of rights fought for by the women's rights movement both in the late 1960s, the 1970s and before that. The only area of difference between the three texts lies in their emphasis. Zinn's account is factual and broad, while Friedan's work paints a vivid picture of one segment of society and Rossi's compilation provides both a detailed historical perspective as well as in depth examination of a whole range of women's issues. In spite of the varying approaches, all three texts reveal the core of the issues in the women's rights movement.

Works Cited

Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." New York: Dell, 1974.

Rossi, Alice. "The Feminist Papers." New York: Columbia University Press,

Zinn, Howard. "Surprises." A People's History of the United States.… [read more]

Room of One's Own Term Paper

… Three writers, namely, "Prisons of Silence" by Janice Mirikitani, "The Welder" by Cherrie Moraga, and "Black men and public space" by Brent Staples. These three literary works illustrates how racial and sexual differences can be reconciled in a widely diverse society such as the American society. In her poem, Mirikitani shows how she can 'break out' of the "prison" she is living in, being contained in the labels of being a "woman" and a "Japanese," which manifests sexual and racial difference in a dominantly white American society. Similarly, Staples seeks understanding from his readers as he relates his life as an African-American feared by people because of his color, where he describes himself as indistinguishable from the muggers." Moraga, on the other hand, details the important role women possess as "The Welder," forming and harnessing the society she lives in. By illustrating women's importance in the society, Moraga is able to confront and made people realize that women have the "power" to function productively and effectively in their society just like men.

3. Rose Weitz's "A History of Women's Bodies" shows how, through the years, men have dominated women in the society because of their physical differences with each other. Using biological justifications, men were able to show that women are indeed the "weaker sex," even relegating them to roles referring to women as 'properties' and not as men's equal. Apart from biological categorization, society have learned to dictate social limits upon women through the years, creating the birth of "isms," which were discussed in the works of curtis sittenfield and Wole Soyinka, as they narrate their lives in a society prejudiced in their thinking on people sexually (males vs. females) and racially (white Americans vs. African-Americans) different from…… [read more]

Gender as Performance Theodore Dreiser Term Paper

… 1-2).

Gender is something that is inescapable for these characters: They are constantly in the process of performing either "maleness" or "femaleness." Gender for these characters is both essentialist and performative. The essentialist argument about the nature of gender identity… [read more]

Battered Women Rational Term Paper

… Violence against women is persuaded by an atmosphere of resentment to women. Graffiti, jokes, or stories that jab women thrive and are often employed as a way to smash ice amid men. Even though apparently safe, such jokes are dangerous… [read more]

Jude the Obscure, by Thomas Term Paper

… ' He did not know; he did not understand. He would never understand. Perhaps Doctor Mandelet would have understood if she had seen him -- but it was too late; the shore was far behind her, and her strength was gone" (Chopin 128). Edna is the ultimate victim of a society which was so strict and unyielding that a woman could not break the chains of society's disapproval if she attempted to create a better life for herself. In a world where women were supposed to support their men, raise their children, and keep quiet, Edna could not mold herself to fit in. Society's lack of understanding and support essentially murdered Edna because society was so unbending and disapproving of anyone who did not fit into the proper form.

Finally, the women of "The Odd Women" were indeed odd in Victorian times, for they were unmarried, which was not normal or desirable. The women must learn to fend for themselves, and as unmarried spinsters, they are on the fringe of society, never quite accepted or approved of. Monica, a married woman, faces the same challenges as the other novels' heroines, for she is disgusted by her relationship, and struggles for freedom and self-awareness. "Every day the distance between them widened, and when he took her in his arms she had to struggle with a sense of shrinking, of disgust. The union was unnatural; she felt herself constrained by a hateful force when he called upon her for the show of wifely tenderness" (Gissing 223). Married to a man she does not love, Monica does the unthinkable in Victorian society - she takes a lover. She does not find happiness however, for she is wracked with guilt, and dies from complications from childbirth. Again, she has struck out on her own against society, and death is preferable to the horror of living the rest of her life with a man she does not love. A friend tells her, 'We seemed to have lost you; but before long you will be one of us again. I mean, you will be one of the women who are fighting in woman's cause. You will prove by your life that we can be responsible human beings -- trustworthy, conscious of purpose'" (Gissing 350). This could be the anthem for all these women who embody the difficulties of life as a woman in Victorian society. Struggling for a sense of purpose, they attempted to discover more about themselves, and often found they did not fit into the rigid society which surrounded them. Some women learned to cope, and some women, like Edna, could not. Some gave up their own hopes and dreams to conform, and ended up bitter and unhappy, like Sue. Moreover, some, like Monica, resigned themselves to a life that would never make them happy. Each woman suffered from the constraints of a rigid society which placed men above women, and ignored women's wants and needs. Victorian society was too rigid for some women,… [read more]

Treatment of Western Women Term Paper

… It should also be remembered here that in historical times, Jewish women of high-standing wore head veils, as did Christian women in Victorian times, to symbolize wealth, and daintiness. In fact, during these times, the only women who did not wear veils were prostitutes, and it was only societal pressures during the nineteenth century that forced Jewish women to stop wearing veils. Catholic nuns still wear veils, and St. Paul himself justified the use of the veil by women as a sign of the man's authority, as man is the image and glory of God, over woman, who was created from you, and for man. How different this is to the liberating role of hijaab in Islam!

What of the status of rape in the West and in the Middle East? The issue of rape in the West, certainly in Britain, is not dealt with in a fair manner at all: it has been estimated that 90% of all rape cases are not reported to the police, that of the 10% that are reported, only 5% of those get to court, and in courts, the burden is on the woman, to prove that she did not say 'Yes' to the man, not on the man to prove that she did not say 'No." In only about 5% of cases is the man found guilty, and often the sentence received is no more than one year in jail. It could be argued that this unfairness in the case of rape is because the legal system is male-dominated in that country, or because the Bible has this to say about rape "If a man happens to meet a virgin who is not pledged to be married and rapes her, and they are discovered, he shall pay the girl's father fifty shekels of silver. He must marry the girl, for he has violated her. He can never divorce her, as long as she lives." But these are not excuses for rape to be dealt with so badly in the West! What does the Quran have to say about rape? The Quran says "And those who launch a charge against chaste women - Flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their evidence ever after; for such men are wicked transgressors." Again, the Islamic ('Middle Eastern') tradition is much more enlightened than the Judaeo-Christian (Western) tradition with regards to the treatment of women.

What, in summary, can be said about the treatment of women in the West, compared to the treatment of women in the 'Middle East'? As we have seen, the Islamic tradition, as laid down in the Quran, seems to have a more enlightened view of women, and their rights as individuals, and their place in society, than does the Judaeo-Christian tradition. Indeed, the Quran repeatedly tells its followers that "Heaven is at the feet of women." That this prescription for living, as laid down in the Quran is sometimes not followed, as with the many laws in Western societies with regards to… [read more]

Women, Men and Environment Term Paper


Such a model of behavior is almost entirely at odds with the daily lives of pioneer women, as Schlissel presents them to us through their own accountings in their journals. And yet these women were - it is also… [read more]

Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams Term Paper

… When he drinks, Tom can give himself permission to not think about life, and permission to not feel responsible for his mother or sister. In a way, Amanda and Laura are using Tom as a surrogate until another man can… [read more]

Cuba so You Could Dress Term Paper

… They are certainly opposites, and that is part of the point of the story, that everyone is not always what they seem, and every situation is not what it seems. Who knows how many people out there are married just for convenience? Maybe more than you think, and these two characters represent that. They are just two normal, everyday people who seem to have a problem with their relationship, but it is not the kind of problem most people have.

What else makes Raul and Lupe different? Lupe still relies on others to "save" her when Raul gets rough with her, but it is clear she is not the type of woman that needs "saving." The ax on her wrist clearly shows that, and Raul knows just what it is for, to "cut off men's balls." Lupe is the ultimate butch *****, and poor Raul really wants to make a go of it with her. Why does such a man choose such a woman? Perhaps he believes he can save her from herself, and this is clear in his early statements about helping her find her Latin self. The Latin woman is not butch, she is subservient, and listens to what her man says. This is what Raul really wanted from his pseudo marriage, but he has gotten much more than he bargained for. Welcome to America! Where the women aren't women, and the men can't be men! This is the message of "Spouses," and it would be confusing to anyone, especially someone from another country, who is only trying desperately to make their circumstances better. One can only hope Raul can move on and find himself a real Latin girl to settle down with, while Lupe finds happiness with her partner, Kate. "Spouses" is about happiness, and where people look for it. They have to remember, just because they are looking, doesn't necessarily mean they are going to find it - no matter how much they may…… [read more]

Piaf, Pam Gems Term Paper

… There is no indication that Edith is particularly gifted in the art of making love. She just makes her self available as a willing sexual partner. Except with Marcel Cedran, the married boxer, Edith manages to dissociate physical pleasure from… [read more]

Mary Wollstonecraft the Woman Term Paper

… It has been said that Mary was the forerunner to this generation's women's liberation movement and in some respects this appears to be correct. Fundamentally, though, it is this writer's studied opinion that, although freedom was sought with all impunity and desire, this was not Mary's primary goal.

The moral decay of the people she saw all around her caused a great deal of concern for that which she believed. Mary Wollstonecraft took the challenge of preaching to a decadent generation about the value in living proper, respectful, and moral lives. She did not excuse her own gender in the pursuit of pleasure nor did she hold men blameless. Her life was spent writing to instruct and point women everywhere to a better, more fulfilling way to use their minds to improve their lives!


Flexner, Eleanor. Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: 1972.

George, Margaret. One Woman's 'Situation': A Study of Mary Wollstonecraft. London: University of Illinois Press, 1970.

Godwin, William. Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman. London: Penguin Books [reprint], 1987.

Sunstein, Emily. A Different Face: The Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1975.

Todd, Janet. Mary Wollstonecraft. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2000.…… [read more]

Immigrant Women in Canada Term Paper

… But with the passage of time, the discrimination explained above by the Canadians towards the Chinese immigrants has portrayed a bad picture altogether. However this discrimination has played a positive role in strengthening the relationships of Chinese families in Canada. Many studies reveal that Chinese women immigrants who remained unemployed experienced a better relationship with their husbands by investing more time with their families and by supporting each other through difficult situations like the effect of cultural as well as political differences. Women who have been able to get employment feel a strong sense of security and enjoy an equal status. In addition to the above, unemployed or underemployed Chinese women immigrants had a tough time dealing with their household responsibilities. A survey shows that some of the immigrant Chinese women received extra help from the other aging family members or maids but after migrating to Canada and being under employed, they faced difficulties in coping with the responsibility of household chores. Lack of daycare facilities has been another major hindrance for these Chinese women in obtaining full time jobs (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). However Chinese immigrants enjoy their social life by making friends immigrating from Hong Kong who share a somewhat similar culture. They still manage to lead a happy life because of the interaction with people from the same culture and experiencing the same consequences and problems (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada).


The Canadian government has been taking measures to attract highly skilled and professional workforce from other countries for accomplishing its self- interests.

However by reading the above passages it is evident that the Chinese women immigrant have faced a drastic change of cultural, political as well as social differences. The discrimination on the basis of class, color, age and religion between the Canadians and the Chinese has led to innumerable damages of Chinese women immigrants and to the accomplishment of Canadian government's policies and aims.

However the discrimination as well as the injustices practiced by Canadians against Chinese women is a debatable subject because several efforts are being made by the Canadian government at present in order to bring about a positive change in the political as well as social conditions prevailing in Canada. The Canadian Race Relation Foundation (Crosspoint Anti-Racism Canada) is one of the organizations that have been making considerable efforts in producing a peaceful Canada that remembers its racist past and eliminates the discrimination faced by the Chinese immigrant women in Canada. This organization is committed to eradicate the hostile attitude of the Canadians towards some of the Chinese and promises to enforce changes helping in treating everyone in Canada at an equal level (Crosspoint Anti-Racism Canada).

Works Cited

Man G.Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant. Available at (March 10, 2003)

Man G. The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada. Available at: (March 10, 2003)

Man G. Globalization and the… [read more]

Gender Roles in the Workplace Term Paper

… Friedan and others convinced women that social fulfillment was to be found in returning to school and attempting to take on roles in the workplace traditionally dominated by men. During the Second World War, the National War Labor Board had… [read more]

Tales Term Paper

… "Absolutely Fabulous" plays with this idea of female jealousy, which is usually subsumed between the main characters because of their friendship. But we see it always as a potential element of the relationship between women. The women of "Absolutely Fabulous"… [read more]

Men-Women Interpersonal Communication Term Paper

… For women, these actions could be interpreted as being ignorance to the partner's feeling, and refusal to the devoted attention that women give to their partner.

DeAngelis (2001) said, "Men see women trying to contribute or get organized or plan… [read more]

Bell Hooks, the Celebrated Black Term Paper

… The story of "Carma" creates a beautiful contrast with the earlier one of "Karintha." In "Carma" the idyllic feminine side of the woman, instead of being overly adored as it is in "Karintha," is ignored entirely. Carma is viewed by society, and her husband, Bane, only as masculine "in overalls, and strong as any man." However, instead of this meaning that Carma is fully appreciated for who she is without the distraction of being idealized, it seems that Carma is overlooked, even taken for granted by Bane. He does not faun over her the way the males do in "Karintha." He even takes a job where he "was away most of the time" because he doesn't seem to think that this kind of woman (i.e. The "strong as any man" kind) needs his attention. One can see clearly that Bane's lack of attention creates great distance in their marriage. Carma seeks that male attention outside of her husband by having affairs and when Bane hears of this, he doesn't even know his wife well enough to know that she is lying to him and we are told that he was oblivious to the fact that "she was becoming hysterical." Ultimately, of course, Carma shoots herself (perhaps fatally) and Bane is sent to prison, creating a very permanent and concrete isolation from his wife which mirrors the symbolic distance that had always existed in their marriage.

Louisa of "Blood-Burning Moon," with just a few subtle differences, is essentially just the object of sexual and romanticized desire like the title character of "Karintha." Neither Bob Stone, the young white son of the family Louisa works for, nor Tom Burwell, the young Black male who is the primary competitor for Louisa's affections, truly views Louisa as more than a prized possession. They are territorial about Louisa, think about how pretty she is or how much they want her. There is no mention in the text, as we are privy to what each man says and thinks, of who Louisa really is or thinks, only of what she looks like or how much they would hate for the other guy to have her. Failing to see Louisa as a person, it never occurs to either Bob or Tom to ask her who it is that she would like to be with rather than fight over who gets her. Tragically, almost inevitably, the men kill each other in their quest to possess this "thing." It is perhaps noteworthy to mention that although there are witnesses to their deaths, each man dies ultimately dies ALONE, without the comfort of the woman over whom they fought. Louisa is obviously traumatized by what she has witnessed, but the fact that she stays sitting on her porch step while her two suitors die painfully, shows that she likely felt no real connection based on loved towards either of them. All three of these characters are isolated beings, fooled by romantic crushes which were really more about each one's ego,… [read more]

Kim Chernin and Susan Faludi Term Paper

… She notes that in every schoolyard, girls play only with girls and boys play only with boys. Looking at children in two elementary schools -- a range of children, from Caucasian to Latino, Chicano an African-American -- Thorne suggests that gender identity is a social process involving groups of children. Children divide themselves, and are divided by adults, into gender lines. Thorne analyzes the seemingly innocent, perennial game of "cooties," where children contaminate each other by touching another child after a chase, and also immunize themselves with cootie "vaccinations" and "sprays." This seemingly innocent play hides a deeper gender war that is taking place: more girls than boys get cooties, and some children end up as "cootie queens" or "cootie girls" -- untouchables marked for taunting. Thorne reports she has never seen cootie kinds or cootie boys; that girls are the ultimate source of contamination -- reflecting cultural misogyny at a very young age.

However, like Thompson, she is optimistic and feels this socializing process is one that is amenable to change.

Thorne suggests five strategies for promoting cooperative cross-gender interaction. The first is to group students by some criteria other than gender or race. Don't pit boys against girls in spelling contests or sports, and don't divide the seating along gender lines. Secondly, affirm the values of cooperation. Use exercises to raise students' awareness of gender stereotyping. One teacher that Thorne studied held a group discussion about why so few girls play soccer at races, and asked the boys to help brainstorm ideas for being more inclusive. Thirdly, organize students into small cooperative work groups that are gender neutral. Promote games that don't require picking teams. Finally, actively intervene and challenge the dynamics of gender bias. Teachers may have to openly deal with sexism, and emphasize that girls and boys can be friends.

Both Thompson and Thorne believe that school is an ideal place to study the gender wars as they are being ritualized and encoded, and at the same time, to help shift boys and girls toward a more open, accepting, cooperative interaction. They both believe that change must and can begin at the school, and will impact the entire culture at large, since today's boys and girls are tomorrow's men and women, husbands and wives, and parents of the…… [read more]

Feminist Art as Evolution Term Paper

… "Discrimination against any group diminishes all people. Victory over bigotry enriches everyone. These simple truths demand that we all care."

As Marcia Tucker, director of the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York, pointed out:

Any) failure of the… [read more]

Women Are Confined in Society Term Paper

… Steinback, John. Chrysanthemums. World of Fiction. New York: Mcmillan Publishing, 1993, p. 1108-1115.

Joyce, James. Eveline. World of Fiction. New York: Mcmillan Publishing, 1993, p. 563-567.

2. Young Characters

Summary: This is a paper that analyzes how writers use young characters to portray transitions in stories. It has 3 sources.

The transition of characters within different stories portrays an initiation of life, a journey of self-discovery or the beginning of a mature life. The change at times is gradual while at others so sudden that the reader is left with a deep psychological impact. Joyce Carol Oates's "Where are you Going, Where Have You Been?" For instance is a journey of self-discovery for Connie.

At the beginning of the story Oates identifies the fact that Connie is only "fifteen"; she is still not aware of the different masks people wear and she remains naive of the human character. In the course of the story, Oates sketches the excitement and self-discovery Connie experiences. Connie's realizes that she is having an adventure when she finds that Arnold is "much older -- thirty, maybe more" and this very notion makes "her heart began to pound faster." The forbidden suddenly feels enchanted and the reader sees Connie's initiation into the facts of life as her innocence merges with maturity, for she is getting ready to feel tragedy.

Dave experiences a similar realization in Richard Wright's "The Man Who is Almost a Man." Right from the beginning, Dave craved a "sense of power" which he sees in the form of a gun. Dave's misconception of the grown up world and the realization of the real world came as a sudden shock when he kills his mule Jenny using the very "power" he craved.

Like Connie he craved for adventure and he got it in the form of the possession of a gun. When he finally purchased it, the satisfaction he felt could not be achieved and it is only with the last line of the story is it realized that Dave now knows that adult life is like that of a "mule"; not only embarrassing but also, a bitter experience.

He has been shamed in front of the whole community; killed Jenny his favorite mule and in the end he has to get rid of his gun to hide his crime. Thus, for Dave the initiation into adulthood and his experience as a mature man has been nothing more than a sense of lost dignity, lost power and personal possession.

As opposed to the above two stories, young Dee in Alice Walker's 'Everyday Use' is capricious and craves the fashionable things in life. She has a carefree attitude and does not care whether she conforms to culture or not. She realizes this when she decides to drop her name Dee. Walker portrays Dee as a rebellious individual vying for adventure. Dee's transition is marked by culture and acceptance in a community. Whether the community accepts her or not is another matter. Walker thus portrays Dee… [read more]

Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century Term Paper

… It flows nicely from chapter to chapter, keeping the reader involved in the people and their lives, and wondering what will happen next. The use of poetry, narrative, and interviews are a way to tie the book together and still give it creativity and a style all its own.

But I have promises to keep/And miles to go before I sleep." Taken from a popular poem by Robert Frost, these two lines could serve as an anthem for Mexican women in the Southwest, women who, as a social and economic group, still find themselves at or near the bottom rung of the socioeconomic ladder (Ruiz 147).

Often, history texts can be dry and lifeless, but Ruiz's text comes alive with the voices of the women she writes about. She does not write the book in chronological order, she writes about important themes and groups them together so they make the most sense. In the first chapters, she gets the women to America, and then she concentrates on how they blend with American society, and make it their own, while retaining their own culture and heritage.

Other critics have found Ruiz' work equally compelling and significant.

Critical commentary on the book has stressed both Ruiz's depth of scholarship as an historian and the engaging nature of her writing. Said one reviewer: "There is no one better equipped for the task of writing the first twentieth century Chicana history than Vicki Ruiz, whose path-breaking research into settlement homes, mid-twentieth century labor unions, and comparative employment statistics already sets the terms of debate in the field" (Grant).

Ruiz has discovered a way to create real people as characters. Somehow, they seem real and imaginary at the same time. She uses their own eloquent words to show everyday life from a gentle moment with a mother and her child, to the frustrations of work, prejudice, and trying to fit into a new culture where often they are not welcome. She reveals the pain, the pleasure, and everything in between. Reading the book is almost like watching a play unfold, and each act introduces new characters, but the root of the play is the same. These women will survive. Each chapter in the book is like one act in the play, and each act makes you want to find out what happens in the next one.

There is no "happy" ending to this play. The statistics the author quotes at the end of the book are more tragic than hopeful.

Only 5% of Mexican women in the labor force were college graduates, compared to 21% of their white, 31% of their Asian, and 13% of their African-American peers. Furthermore, as Table 5 illuminates, a "minority gap" in California exists where, in almost every educational category, Latinos earn less than other groups and Euro-Americans earn substantially more than comparably educated people of color

Mexican-Americans are more apt to live in poverty, with over 23% below the poverty level. Yet the author still manages to end the… [read more]

Women's Dress Movement Term Paper

… The general public did not readily accept the outfit, though the feminists of the nation fell in love with its comfort and statement. The outfit today, would not garner an ounce of attention but at the time Bloomer, Stanton and Miller wore it publicly there were laws against impersonating a man. The outfit could have caused the wearer to be arrested, charged and imprisoned.

From the point of Amelia's endorsement the movement took off. The eventual fashion garment called a bloomer was named after Amelia and her attempt to wear trouser styled clothing under her dresses.

The 1870's brought movement to change the undergarment instead of fighting society on the outer garment (Foster, 1984). "Emancipation Waists" were invented to give relief from the corset while still providing shape for the women who wore them. By the 1890's the crinoline was history and skirts began to drag on the ground. This became impossible to deal with as they picked up all sorts of trash, debris and dirt as they dragged. Instead of returning to the undergarments that had been so intrusive in the past the women of the nation began to shorten the skirts. Because health consciousness was in style the skirt becoming shorter was accepted more readily than it otherwise might have been.

With Amelia Bloomer's suggestion that the Turkish trouser would be more comfortable and the later acceptance of shorter skirts the dress reform movement was well underway and today women wear whatever they want to wear. It was one more important step to equalizing the genders, in a battle that will probably continue for many generations to come (Reform Dressers (


The Move Towards Rational Dress

Reform Dressers

Foster, Vanda. A Visual History of Costume: the Nineteenth Century. London: BT Batsford Ltd., 1984.

Sprinthall, Carolyn. "Nineteenth Century Dress Reform: Changing the Shapes of Women's Lives." Durham: Duke University, Diss. 1986.

Amelia Jenks Bloomer (30 December 1894)… [read more]

Death of Nature Term Paper

… Furthermore Women are identified with nature and the realm of the physical; men are identified with the "human" and the realm of the mental. Whatever is identified with nature and the realm of the physical is inferior to ("below") whatever is identified with the "human" and the realm of the mental: or, conversely, the latter is superior to ("above") the former. Thus, women are inferior to ("below") men; or, conversely, men are superior to ("above") women." (Warren)

The main argument of this book is that feminism and environmental ethics must be refocused and re-visioned before the power and importance of ecofeminism can be realized. Warren concludes that feminists' theories and environmental ethics must take into consideration the effect of the interconnection between the domination of women and nature.


Both of these authors make valid points about the historical dominance of women and nature. Merchants' conclusion that the organic view of nature is superior to the mechanistic view is grounded in utopianism, which is by definition an impractical idealistic concept for social and political reform. In other words the view is a really nice one but it would never work in a society because it does not take into consideration all of the variables that create a society. It excludes variables such as race, religion, economics and morality.

Furthermore she asserts that before the scientific revolution neither human beings nor nature had dominance, which is clearly untrue. Man has always dominated nature, because man has the capacity to decide which tree is chopped down and which plants are allowed to grow. Nature can surprise man in the form of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions but nature cannot decide whether or not man will destroy it because nature does not have the ability to defend itself against man. Therefore nature is composed of defenseless matter that is subject to human domination.

My position also focuses on the characteristic of value dualism argued by Warren. I believe that this is actually the most important and significant characteristic. As explained previously value dualism is founded on the belief that when human characteristics are different they can't compliment one another. It is this belief that that allows the idea of logical dominance to permeate a society because it creates a "war between the sexes" where one sex creates logical explanations as to why it should dominate the other sex.

It is my contention that the idea of value dualism creates the erroneous attitude that men are superior because nature dictates that they are logical. The ability of a man to use logic only makes him unique not superior likewise the ability of a woman to use her emotions makes her unique and not inferior. The ability to use emotions and logic to make a decision is what creates a stable society. For instance it may seem logical to close all of the American borders and not let anyone in or out of the country in lieu of the terrorist attacks but one also has to… [read more]

Myth by Muriel Rukeyser Term Paper

… By trying to justify his answer validating that 'Man' is synonymous with 'Woman,' the readers learn how Oedipus has been 'politically wrong' in identifying a woman's character and self with that of a man. Truly, Rukeyser makes her readers realize that the 'Woman' played the most important and critical role in Oedipus' tragic life: Oedipus blinded himself not only because he killed his own father, but most importantly, he made his mother portray the role of his wife. When the Sphinx remarked to Oedipus that his supposition that 'Man' is synonymous with 'Woman' is erroneous ("That's what you think"), the Sphinx wants Oedipus to realize that the woman he has treated as a possession, reward, and commodity is actually an important figure in the society, that is, the role of a mother, to be specific, his own mother. Muriel Rukeyser's "Myth" is contemporary in its theme because it tackles the social issue of feminism and sexism, two important issues being tackled in the modern society. Rukeyser's treatment of her poem as a derivation of Sophocles' famous play shows how the problem of female subordination and sexism is a prevalent issue even during the early…… [read more]

Webster's 'Sense of an Elite Term Paper

… It is therefore evident that Webster intended to bring about audience admiration for his two heroines and in doing so, making a powerful comment that strong, independent minded women are to be admired.

Webster's admiration for forthright, strong women is also evident in his mocking the self-imposed restraint and behaviour of other elite women in passages such as:

the art,

The modest form of greatness! That do sit

Like brides at wedding dinners, with their looks turn'd

From the least wanton jests, their puling stomach

Sick of the modesty, when their thoughts are loose,

Even acting of those hot and lustful sports

Are to ensue about midnight..." (The White Devil, 4.3.143-9)

Finally, when reviewing The Duchess of Malfi and The White Devil, one fact that seems almost inescapable is that women are treated as mere sexual objects or even pawns to advance their own fortunes by all the male characters. In The White Devil, Marcello is first heard saying that his sister's chastity is more precious to him than her life but as soon as Vittoria becomes Bracciano's duchess, he abandons Francisco to follow Bracciano. Again, it is Vittoria's brother Flamineo who aids Bracciano's seduction of Vittoria in order to advance his own fortunes. In The Duchess of Malfi, too, one of the main causes behind the objections of the Cardinal and Ferdinand to the marriage of the Duchess is their loss of control over her estate.

In arousing the audience's sympathy and admiration for the two central female characters, it can be argued that the plays force the re-evaluation of traditional social conventions, almost presenting a case for allowing women more freedom in deciding their own futures.

To conclude, though The Duchess of Malfi and The White Devil are characterized by the strong presence of the macabre, the plays also succeed in making a powerful comment on the tragedy and consequences of baser human emotions while holding out a thread of hope in the fact that both the Duchess and Vittoria succeed in holding onto their sense of 'integrity to self and life'.

Webster: The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, A Selection of Critical Essays, R.V. Holdsworth, Introduction, p11.

Webster: The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, A Selection of Critical Essays, R.V. Holdsworth, Introduction, p12.

Webster: The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, A Selection of Critical Essays, R.V. Holdsworth, Introduction, p25.

Themes and Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy, So Muriel Bradbrook (Cambridge, 1935), p.194.

Webster: The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, A Selection of Critical Essays, R.V. Holdsworth, Introduction, p26.

Webster: The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, A Selection…… [read more]

Maxine Hong Kingston's Memoir Term Paper

… We also see that anything outside of the villager's values is invisible to them. We see this with the Aunt's pregnancy, "she could not have been pregnant, you see, because her husband had been gone for years" (Kingston). The reality of the situation is oblivious to them, because it is outside of what the village as a whole considers correct behavior.

We also see that an individual is invisible without a family, with this being the reason that the Aunt kills the child along with herself, "but how would this tiny child without family find her grave when there would be no marker for her anywhere, neither in the earth nor the family hall?...A child with no descent line would not soften her life but only trail after her, ghostlike, begging her to give it purpose" (Kingston).

The greatest reference to ghosts is through the Aunt herself. We see the mother of the narrator refuses for the Aunt's name to be spoken, choosing to act as if she never existed. The Aunt herself is a ghost, there in the background but never acknowledged.

The Aunt is a ghost to the family and the impact of this is seen through the narrator. The ghost not only represents the tragic story of what happened to the aunt, but also represents the real nature of the society. Through the narrator, the story of the village comes out, caused by the existence of the ghost of the aunt. Essentially, the aunt was not 'forgotten' as the mother wished, but simply remained there in silence, until the story was told by the narrator.

No Name Woman" can be characterised by these four themes: silence, invisibility, ghosts and words as weapons, themes that exist throughout The Woman Warrior.


Chatman, S. Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1980.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

Ling, Amy. Between Worlds: Women Writers of Chinese Ancestry.…… [read more]

Women in Poverty Term Paper

… "

Societally, women are in a cycle of being criticized regardless of the choices that they make. Women who work long hours to build a career are criticized for being away from their children. Women who only work part time are criticized for not working enough to support families and the women who choose to stay home are criticized for not keeping up their job skills and education (Goodwin, 1995). From the research that has been published thus far it appears that women live in poverty because of society's forced expectations that they fulfill. Women interrupt their education and career climbs to being families and when they are ready to return to work by divorce of choice, they find they have been left behind while they were at home. It is important to future generations of women that female children are being taught they need to prepare for adult life and not depend on a man to do it for them. Through death, divorce or desire most females find that they have to enter or re-enter the workforce at some point in their life. Because research shows this to be a statistical fact it is imperative that women maintain their place so when the time comes they are up and running without having to sink into poverty and try from there to succeed.


Carter, Gregg Lee. Analyzing Contemporary Social Issues: A Workbook with Student CHIP Software.(Allyn & Bacon, 2000).

Goodwin, Joanne L (1995). 'Employable mothers' and 'suitable work': a re-evaluation of welfare and wage-earning for women in the twentieth-century United States.. Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, pp 253(22).

McClonis, John. Society: The Basics.…… [read more]

Statistics Showing That English Boys Term Paper

… Achieving this is a huge problem. It has been suggested, and not without strong criticism, that boys and girls be taught in different classes. This is already the case in Detroit, Michigan, where some inner city schools are segregating the… [read more]

Earnest Hemingway Ernest Term Paper

… "(3)

Reading A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and The Garden of Eden. When writing The Garden of Eden the reader acknowledges the changing roles of the sexual conflict within the themes. Yet, it must be realized that to Hemingway the "hero" always came first and his life was the focal point for the story, the other interactive themes merely upheld the story and gave it color. The women may have been strong but the actual context came from the man and without the latter the woman lost her characteristic. Such genderization created a furor as women gained independence. By writing on stories that cover the male world he has set aside the female. Through the transition of time we see him develop his protagonist on a strict moral code, which is predominantly a male order. Women take the back seat regardless of their contribution to the heroes' life. Basically it can be said that though Hemingway understood the path of change that the women were taking there was a refusal to accept the actual change through a prominent and active role. He knew the strengths of women but instead of highlighting them he allowed his stories to pivot on the men.

The Sun Also Rises gives Brett a strong character but it is lost amidst Jack's story as she does not fit in the typical woman's role, then we see how Catherine becomes the epitome of a 'virgin mother' in A Farewell to Arms. He thus, tends to focus on the traditional rather than the radical.


To give Hemingway his due he was a product of his times. No matter how critical the reader gets the fact is that Hemingway's women had more character than many others portrayed during his time. The woman may adhere to the traditional scenarios and Hemingway may have focused on the male protagonist more in comparison but truth be told that was his prerogative. It is not necessary for him to be a woman hater just because he writes a story about a man. The scholar's, men and women alike have agreed that women have their place in the Hemingway novels. The men are not complete without the woman and just by portraying this facet Hemingway redeems himself.

Consider that in Hemingway's Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text, Comley and Scholes (4) write:

"We believe that Ernest Hemingway remains an interesting writer because it is possible to read him in more than one way. We believe, even, that it is necessary to do so if his works are to maintain their place in the literary canon. Literary works survive over time because they continue to be part of a cultural conversation." (ix)

Every writer presents a story from his or her own perspective. Hemingway as a man may have been more comfortable with the fact that he had to write about the point-of-view of a man. He fell in love and out of love, he faced tragedy and may have gone… [read more]

Chicago, Ringgold Essay

… ¶ … Abundant Evidence: Black Women Artists of the 1960s and 1970s" makes a case that female artists of color forced white feminist artists to be more flexible in their approach toward what constituted feminist art. What is most interesting… [read more]

Female Circumcision in the Modern Age Research Paper

… Female Circumcision and Ethics

Ethical Considerations of Female Circumcision

Female circumcision practices are followed by a number of regions and tribes in the world where this practice is considered to purify and provide health benefits to the females of that… [read more]

Science of Sex and Gender Journal

… ¶ … Gender and Emotion

Women were perceived inferior to men because they were seen to have fewer emotional capabilities than men did (Shields p.94). This portrayal led to the discrimination of women until today. Scientists were not able to overlook the fact that women and men are similar, and the only difference was in their gender or only biological. There might be differences in the way that men and women perceive things, and this is because of the way a person is raised. I believe that women were misunderstood, and people did not take the time to understand women in the early 19th century. Men wanted to demonstrate their superiority and hey used gender to achieve this superiority. The notion that female emotions were ineffectual ensured that they were overlooked in many aspects and was used to set gender boundaries. Though the article perceives men as being passionate and able to control their emotions, it is women in reality who possess this capability. Men have a problem expressing their emotions, which makes them look like they are in control.

This image demonstrates men are more capable of controlling their emotions than women. The woman in the picture is been consoled by a man. The man is a shown as a strong person compared to the woman. Having control over his emotions, the man can easily offer support and consolation to the woman. The early psychologists believed that women could not control their emotions. For this reason, only men were included as research subjects.

Endocrinology and conceptualization of sex

This picture represents the hormones found in a human body. The picture relates well to Endocrinologists and the…… [read more]

Non-Fertile Research Paper

… Infertility in Women


A Study of the Leading Causes of Infertility in Women

Infertility in women is a common occurrence that affects millions of females during their reproductive years throughout the world. There are many different technical definitions of this phenomenon however they all include some variation of women of reproductive age who cannot conceive a child despite having regular unprotected intercourse. The women can either not be able to get pregnant at all or not be able to carry a child to full term. There can be many causes of infertility in females that include factors such as nutrition, disease, and problems with the uterus. This paper will address some of the related factors that are associated with infertility and provide an overview of its impact.


By definition fecundity deals with a female's ability to physically produce a child and there can be many ways in which this psychical capability can be impaired (Alexander, 2014). The three major causes of infertility can be the lack of, or damaged, an egg that is produced in ovulation, the inability of the egg to become fertilized (which can also include problems from the male), and the lack of the ability for the body to maintain a fertilized egg. Most definitions seem to diagnosis this condition after a female is having regular intercourse without any kind of contraception for a period of one year. If the woman cannot get pregnant after one year of trying then she is considered to be having problems with infertility.

Once the diagnosis is made, health professionals can begin to try to determine the cause of the infertility. One of the most common factors that prevent pregnancies is problems that are related to ovulation (Alexander, 2014). The female must produce an egg that travels down the fallopian tube sufficiently to meet sperm so that it can become fertilized and attach to the uterus. An irregular or absent menstrual cycle lead to problems with the egg release and anatomical problems, such as scared fallopian tubes, can prevent the egg from reaching the uterus when it can be fertilized.

Detection and Conditions

In the field of gynecology, and especially with infertility treatments in mind, laparoscopy continues to be the primary method for the evaluation of mechanical factors affecting the fallopian tubes (Nakagawa, et al., 2013). However, there have been efforts to develop new methods to evaluate the inner cavity of the fallopian tubes for diagnostics in infertility cases. The fallopian tube plays many important roles in different reproductive functions, such as sperm transport and capacitation, oocyte retrieval and transport, fertilization, and embryo storage (Nakagawa, et al., 2013).

One of the primary problems with the fallopian tubes that can be responsible for infertility is endometriosis that affects roughly ten percent of women of reproductive age. Endometriosis is a complex condition that is thought to be caused by polygenic and multifactorial basis and possibly has a genetic component in which a genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) modify susceptibility… [read more]

Four Questions About Euro / American Culture in 1800S-1900s Term Paper

… Question Three

The role and outcomes for women in Les Miserables is an easy pathway to follow. The modern parallels with the plight of migrant workers and how it so often ends up with the migrant workers engaging in the sex trade (like what is seen with Fantine, etc.) still happens to this very day. Many women in urban areas and those women from foreign countries in general often turn to the sex trade because it is one of the few (perhaps the only) way they have or see as a way to survive giving the massive challenges that follow them. This could even be held true in the United States to a lesser degree but it is pervasive in other areas of the world like Africa and Southeast Asia.

With Notes on Nursing and Katie Makanya, women being placed in horrible or at least stressful situations and still asked to perform and meet a certain standard either by the standards of that day or the internal standards that they refuse to diverge from is impossible to ignore. Nightingale's words about doing no harm and remaining resolved and committed despite what is going on around them and the pressures they face from others is unmistakable. Much the same thing is sen by Makanya when you see a woman who is living through a disgusting movement (Apartheid) despite what is going on. Indeed, it is specifically noted with Makanya that she is hestitant to work under such a movement such as with Dr. James McCord. However, despite this she commits to helping those African patients and thus she decides to push ahead and do what she felt was the right thing.

It is no accident that the work of Makanya was not published until after Apartheid was over or that it was immediately recognized as a stellar and prominent work.

Question Four

Regarding the facets and conditions that typify the "ideal" society in a Western culture, there are a few. Of course, the "ideal" Western culture of the late 19th century would be typified by earlier American (post Civil-War) and Europe at around the same time. There are two conditions and facets that could be seen in either Europe at the time, America at the time or both. First, there was a demand for rule of law and compliance with the government. Indeed, America had just emerged from the Civil War, even if it was still allowing for the disgusting treatment of blacks while the Jim Crow era was going on. Both Europe and American treated women like second-class citizens at the time as the suffrage movements. Indeed, the women's right to vote was not passed as an amendment to the United States Constitution until 1919.

The plight of blacks and women were still commonly bad in both Europe and the United States. Even if the laws supposedly freed and unrestricted their life, they were still both treated like second-class citizens that were expected to not make a lot of noise… [read more]

Natalie Zemon Davis' the Return of Martin Guerre Term Paper

… "[footnoteRef:4] She also incorporated various peasant 'doings and sayings' she could find from other sources in other contexts. [3: Natalie Zemon Davis, The Return of Martin Guerre, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984), p.3.] [4: Natalie Zemon Davis, "On the Lame," The American Historical Review, 93. 3 (1988), 575]

However, Finlay finds Davis' account problematic given the universality of the acceptance of Bertrande as a dupe of Guerre at the time, rather than a witting accomplice. Finlay believes that Davis places too much weight on the fact that Bertrande must have recognized her husband based upon her past sexual experience, given that the marriage was largely unconsummated for most of its duration. Bertrande was celibate for years after her husband fled and Martin Guerre's sisters were also complicit in urging her to accept the imposter. Furthermore, "all that Bertrande had to do to avoid such a fate was to refuse to render herself as plaintiff against her pseudo-husband, an action that would have had the incidental benefit of removing her lover from threat of execution."[footnoteRef:5] But Davis asserts that Bertrande was effectively hedging her bets -- she sent clothes to Tilh when he was imprisoned, stoutly maintained he was her husband only agreed to participate in the court case for self-interested reasons: "Beyond this threat to her access to her children, to her relatives, and to family property was the threat to her reputation and even to her life if Pierre and her mother went so far as to accuse her of complicity in a serious case of adultery and fraud."[footnoteRef:6] [5: Finlay, 561] [6: Davis, 1988, 581]

Why do historians care so much about an incident between peasants that occurred so many years ago and which affected very few persons outside of the domestic sphere? For Davis, Bertrande is a symbol of how peasant women were able to find creative tools of resistance in patriarchal society when negotiating their survival. Bertrande emerges as an early, nascent feminist. Bur Finlay considers Davis' description of Bertrande as "a creature of utter calculation," as "inappropriate and anachronistic for sixteenth-century peasant women."[footnoteRef:7] For Finlay, there is a dangerous tendency to impose feminist norms upon a woman who would not have understood what feminism is and history must remain focused on how persons in the past interpreted their experience through their own categories, not how we see it in our terms. Read together, both authors' writings seem to reflect the truism that when we see the past, people can see very different things -- either a precursor of the present in an age-old struggle against patriarchy or a place which is very much different than the one we inhabit today to the point of being unrecognizable in the naivete of women. [7: Davis, 1988, 584]

Works Cited

Davis, Natalie Zemon. The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,


Davis, Davis, Natalie Zemon.…… [read more]

American Revolution Research Paper

… Despite this being the general trend in the records, there were some examples in which women could specifically cite a fair market value of the homes that they lost as well as detailed accounts of the family's finances. Therefore, the cases that were presented to the commission represent a detailed account of many different female perspectives in the period and can serve as a clever and indirect method of understanding family life after the war.

Another interesting study has looked at the etymology of the concept of virtue for both genders independent at the time of the revolution. For females, the concept of virtue generally was used to represent a women's pureness sexually and her loyalty her husband (Bloch, 1987). However, for men the word represented an entirely different concept altogether. For the men the term generally applied to their engagement in the political system as a means to fulfilling a "civic" virtue. Thus by studying the use of various concepts of the period, one can use the discourse to provide various insights about the ideology of the period in addition to gender roles that were prevalent.

Each of these cases represents something of an indirect way to provide insights into certain aspects of colonial life by using source documentation in innovative ways. However, to be able to identify such opportunities it is reasonable to suspect that historians must examine a wide array of source material from a holistic perspective to piece together an accurate picture of historical lives. In this sense studying history can be something of a jig saw puzzle in which historians continually build on a body of literature by continuing to tease out different perspectives in history from the same body of primary sources. New approaches can provide many new insights and the levels of creativity have definitely become more competitive as the body of literature has grown.

Works Cited

Bloch, R. (1987). The Gendered Meanings of Virtue in Revolutionary America. Signs, 37-58.

Klinghoffer, J., & Elkis, L. (1992). "The Petticoat Electors": Women's Suffrage in New Jersey, 1776-1807. Journal of the Early Republic, 159-193.

Norton, M. (1976). Eighteenth-Century American Women in Peace and War: The…… [read more]

Liaoming the King of Xuan and Population Census in the West Zhou Dynasty Essay

… "

This shows that she always tried her best until she was not able to fight any longer. Her kidnapping and the conquering of her army were two major events that really set back her success. Regardless, she did not let them get in the way and continued fighting.

Compare and Contrast

Over all, it is seen that the Deng Chanyu was a strong yet sensitive woman. She knew how to deal with the political and strategic tactics that came her way but many a times emotions did get in her way. She was attracted towards Taigong Wang, yet she never got to be with him forever. Even though she was attracted to him, she wasn't necessarily dependent on him. It shows that she could emotionally detach herself if the need arose. On other hand, it is seen that Queen Jiang is a very virtuous woman. She is dependent more on her soul and her mental and emotional ability to fight off what comes her way. She is also strong just as Deng Chanyu is, but her strength is more spiritual rather than physical. It is still spiritual strength that ultimately enables her to remain steadfast throughout the torture that she is put through. Both the women are subject to torture and to treatment that they did not approve of. A quite obvious similarity is that they are both quite steadfast and determined to the goals that are present. They both seek strength though different means and are eventually successful in attaining that strength. Both the women are also brave as they have faced the troubles and the attacks right from the front and have not backed away from the fighting. Both the women are quite emotional and attached to their respective family members. However, the attachment is different for Queen Jiang and Deng Chanyu. The Queen even though loves her husband urges him to focus on more political things. Deng Chu on the other hand is quite attracted and in love with the man in her life.

As mentioned earlier, the differences in the two women are the thing that they are more involved in. Because the Queen is more virtuous and pious, she seeks her contentment, strength and peace from those sources. Deng Chanyu on the other hand is very strong, skilled and strategically competent. This enables her to be a part of the political planning with her father and fight the attackers with him. Another difference between the two women is there devotion to their husband. Deng Chanyu got married forcibly therefore she did not develop true devotion to her husband. Due to this reason, she left him when they were both being attacked. He got paralyzed by the attacks but she fought back and managed to escape. The Queen on the other hand tolerated the torture and brutal behavior that her husband showed her. This was the extent to which she loved him that she would tolerate anything that comes her way. Deng Chanyu was attracted… [read more]

Gender in Post-Communist Society Essay

… They have to develop their skills, increase their earnings and new pressures and constraints relating to employment and the duties and responsibilities they have as providers. Men are forced to work double-shifts and most of the weekends; they are occupied… [read more]

Article "Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies Essay

… ¶ … Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies

The thesis of Phyllis Trible's article, "Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies" is that feminist viewpoints can sufficiently challenge the typical patriarchal views of the Bible and its depictions of women. By examining a number of stories that exist in the "Hebrew Scriptures" that pertain to women, and by frequently examining the translation of some key Hebrew terms, the author proves that women are not the passive, submissive creatures that most popular interpretations of the Bible hold them to be. Her point in challenging the male-dominated version as the Bible as the supreme source that bolsters male superiority and female inferiority is to demonstrate that women played important roles in the Bible, and continue to do so today from a feminist perspective.

In order to better understand some of the author's key points that she makes in supporting her thesis, it is necessary to discuss the structure of this article. The article is essentially divided into three different segments in which the author explains and provides examples of three different feminist lenses for interpreting the value of women in the Bible. The first approach is aligned with most popular interpretations of the role of women in the Bible. Specifically, it considers the fact that women were regarded lowly in many of the Bible's books, were little more than property, and had virtually no say about anything other than fulfilling the desires of a various assortment of men from their husbands to their fathers. The second feminist lens acknowledges the realities of the first, yet unveils a number of subtleties, alternate translations and key passages that underscores the importance of women and the female perspective within this work of literature. The final feminist lens is focused on retelling stories in which women were terrorized, and finding points of sympathy and empathy for the female characters.

In examining the way each of these lenses interprets different aspects of the Bible, the author uncovers some very significant facts about the ways that women were treated during the Biblical times. What is interesting about this fact is that men had a legal recourse to do so, as "defined as the property of men (Exod. 20: 17, Deut. 5:21) women did not control their own bodies" (Trible). Still, even in light of this evidence, it was certainly unnerving to read some of the horrid things that women were subjected to -- largely because they were women. Rape, mutilation, dismemberment, and a host of other atrocities were endured by women which almost makes their murders seem beneficent (because it at least ended their suffering). Moreover, there was absolutely nothing that women could do in the face of such insidious treatment. Socially, they were not permitted to contest anything, while legally they inevitably belonged to someone other than themselves.

Whereas…… [read more]

Examining Alice Munro Term Paper

… ¶ … Met My Husband: An Examination

Nearly every woman remembers how she met her husband: one would be hard-pressed to find a woman who would not remember such an event. Such a story tends to be seared onto the minds and hearts of women everywhere, regardless of how dull, ordinary or remarkable the story is. Alice Munro's story entitled "How I Met My Husband" allows the reader to taste once again the wonder and uncertainty of youth, along with the pain and excitement of first love. As Munro demonstrates, the lesson is contained in the journey: even though humans falter, fail and make mistakes, the path that is travelled is the one which one is supposed to be on -- even if the results achieved are unplanned and unexpected -- one learns and discovers just the same. More than anything, Munro's story makes a strong case for the organization of the universe, and the greater force working on the behalf of all humans. The story demonstrates how the thing one sets one's sights on receiving, can actually just be the vehicle for getting the thing one is meant to have.

Munro's story of Edie and her encounters with the pilot have all the romance, tenderness, and sweetness that is necessary for a story of first love. However, it's exactly these attributes which Munro deftly uses to show ultimately at the end of the story, that sometimes the makings of real love aren't romantic or tender, but actually very ordinary. Munro is able to do this so cleverly, as she demonstrates that sometimes love -- the thing that people associate with romance -- can sometimes flourish right under our noses, in the most commonplace manner. In this case, Munro makes a strong case in presenting Edie's encounters with the pilot as dreamy and passionate, but largely based on infatuation and appearance. Consider the following statement: "He put the cake away carefully and sat beside me and started those little kisses, so soft, I can't ever let myself think about them, such kindness in his face and lovely kisses, all over my eyelids and neck and ears, all over, and then me kissing back as well as I could… and we lay back on the cot and pressed together, just gently, and he did some other things, not bad things, or not in a bad way. It was lovely in the tent, that smell of grass and hot tent cloth beating down on it, and he said, "I wouldn't do you any harm for the world'" (Munro, 142). In this excerpt, Munro truly succeeds in creating an atmosphere of romantic intimacy: the tent described is like a lovely cocoon between these two people, and there's this profound sense of privacy and sharing. Munro paints a vivid portrait of the lovely summer day, the sense of gentle excitement and passion between these two people, and the needs fulfilled between them. There's a sense of romance, excitement and safety. The tent described is… [read more]

Boys Adrift Book Review

… However, this is a problem with all of Sax's analysis. He uses some facts and figures, such as the declining performance on boys in school, and persuasively written anecdotal examples to paint a picture of an America that is at war with masculinity. In the halcyon days of the past, Tom Sawyer played industriously and learned things while skipping school; boys were not expected to be polite and raise their hands like girls; no children had ADHD; there were no toxic chemicals; and everyone was willing to use their hands to do a hard day's work. Of course, many people subjectively 'feel' that is how the past used to be but Sax provides little hard evidence that this was the case.

Some of Sax's points do have a certain degree of merit, such as the fact that ADHD may be over-diagnosed or at very least over-medicated and some children may benefit waiting a year before entering the school system. However, these concerns affect both boys and girls. In fact, it is possible that girls may be under-diagnosed with ADHD because their symptoms are read as distractedness rather than as legitimate symptoms. There is no doubt that children face unique challenges today, including the increased emphasis on standardized testing which forces them to spend more time at their desks and the fact that they have less time playing outside, enjoying 'downtime' by themselves to create. This (along with over-stimulating video games) likely affects their ability to pay attention in class. Also, there are heightened expectations in terms of what children must achieve, including attaining white collar success, which is not suitable for all children.

However, these problems are not gender-specific. In Sax's world, girls have benefited from feminism and now are dominating boys, which he sees as a severe social problem. Sax views relations between the genders as a zero-sum game rather than as products of a society which are straining the coping mechanisms of all stressed-out children. Sax effectively suggests reformulating the education system to suit the developmental trajectory of boys without instead trying to find a solution which maximizes and enhances…… [read more]

Psychologist-Manager Journal Journal

… 10. The method of scientific research was the survey, and it was a quantitative study using ANOVA tests to produce data to be analyzed and studied.

11. There is information on the significance of the results, contained within the actual discussion section of the article.

12. The significance of the study is that men and women both have different styles of leadership, but their abilities to do their jobs properly and the actual differences in the way they lead are not as different as the study's authors originally believed.

13. The conclusions reached are that women give women more credit for being capable leaders, and men give men more credit. This is not particularly surprising, since both genders do tend to side with those who are more like them. However, the authors also concluded that women were more likely to see women as nurturing and compassionate leaders, where men did not see women this way -- even though compassionate and nurturing roles traditionally are expected of women and not expected of men.

14. The research article was somewhat difficult to understand because of the ANOVA testing, but the conclusions were convincing and made sense. Being divided along gender lines is nothing new, so that was not surprising.

15. In sum, the article stated that there was a divide along gender lines when it came to whether a man or a woman was a good leader, and whether he or she thought others of that same gender were good leaders. However, this did not hold true for every man or woman asked about the issue, and could be affected by the personality of the people who were participants in the study. It was beneficial to me because it is a good reminder that there are gender differences but yet men and women are still very similar in how they lead and what they can accomplish. If you were to read it, you would find that both men and women can be excellent leaders, and that they both have…… [read more]

Workplace and Sexism Research Proposal

… This is often because of the way men and women handle crises and other issues, the way they lead others, and the way they show (or do not show) their feelings and emotions about various issues that concern them (Atwell,… [read more]

Theory -- Approach Linkage Human Article Critique

… Duong does demonstrate that while there are certain facets regarding trafficking that seem common to all nations, every nation has unique features particular to its specific context.

Critique of discussion

Ultimately Duong concludes that based upon the evidence an "anti-trafficking initiative must be gender-sensitive. The analysis of the Vietnamese anti-trafficking politics shows that a successful anti-trafficking solution must take into account gender dimensions of the issue and gender vulnerabilities that women may suffer in comparison to men as a result of socio-economic, political and development processes" (Duong 2012: 60). However, while it is admirable that the Vietnamese government has advanced an initiative to deal with the trafficking of women, he does not show that it is more effective simply because the program used to enforce it is gender-specific. In fact, its actual aims seem relatively gender-neutral, namely to educate the populace about trafficking, prevent the crime, assist victims, and strengthen the legal system (Duong 2012: 59). Duong himself presents evidence that the full character of trafficking is as yet unknown and the gender composition of trafficking regarding certain components of the underground economy such as forced labor might contain more males than previously thought. Also, Vietnam might be a more 'feminized' nation in terms of trafficking because of the bride trade that is not generalizable to other nations.

Overall evaluation

Despite these weaknesses, the evidence presented by Duong (2012) is unique and valuable simply because it takes a case study approach. Few articles which deal with trafficking do so; most discuss the phenomenon in a generalized fashion that does not take into consideration regional differentiation. As pervasive as the problem of trafficking may be, it is important not to present the issue without regards to…… [read more]

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