"Women / Feminism" Essays

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Susan Glaspell's Work Is a Powerful Feminist Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,186 words)
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Susan Glaspell's work is a powerful feminist text that draws the attention to the destructive effect that the strict and coercive roles the women have to play in a society has on their inner lives. Glaspell's play is thus an overt criticism of the disregard that men have for the feminine, seemingly unimportant inner world. In the play, the male and the female world stand widely apart, separated by stark differences. The title of the play has a comprehensive meaning that summarizes the main claim of the text: the word "trifles" refers on the one hand to the women's 'unimportant' activities such as they were in a traditional society (looking after the household, raising their children and so on) and on the other hand, to their inner world of sensibility and fragility, which is completely dismissed by man. The theme of the play is very significant as it offers a new insight into the problem of the discrimination against women.

The play's cogent message is thus that, for centuries, women have been incarcerated in their pre-established roles as wives and mothers who only have "trifles" to worry about, and this has broken their spirit. The plot of the play relates the discovery of a murder in a household from a small town: a wife has presumably strangled her husband. Neither of the two characters are actually present in the play. During the investigations of the murder, the contrast between the male and the female worlds becomes obvious, as the sheriff and the other men make ironic commentaries about the women's trifling discussions about the preserves, the needlework and so on: "Sheriff: Well, can you beat the women! Held for murder and worryin' about her preserves. County Attorney: I guess before we're through she may have something more serious than preserves to worry about. Hale: Well, women are used to worrying over trifles. [the two women move a little closer together.]"(Glaspell) the inquiries made by the sheriff and his men are symbols of the typical, pragmatic and masculine world of action. In the meanwhile, the wives, Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters notice the "trifles" connected with the main female occupations. The first sense of the word "trifles" can now be elucidated: the men are disrespectful to the women's insignificant activities, although this role has been imposed on them by society. By contrast, the male world is the world of action, of 'important' business and decisions: "Mrs. Peters [Apologetically.] of course they've got awful important things on their minds."(Glaspell) While women occupy their time with 'trifles' men have to solve all the 'important' problems of society.

Glaspell seeks thus to overturn the common misconception that the role of women is less important than that of men in society, and she demonstrates that the women's sensibility and intuition can be many times more effective than the men's pragmatic view of the world. Thus, while the men are incapable of finding the most important detail of the crime, the motive, the two women discover… [read more]


Role of Color Doppler Sonography in Diagnosis of Endometrial Malignancies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,428 words)
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Color Doppler

The Role of Color Doppler Sonography in Diagnosis of Endometrial Malignancies

As technology continues to advance doctors find they are able to evaluate and treat malignancies of the reproductive and genital organs in their earliest stages. With prompt attention, many of the highest risk cancers faced by women are treatable, and often curable depending on the nature and… [read more]


Novel God's Bits of Wood by Sembene Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (955 words)
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¶ … God's Bits of Wood" by Sembene

Sembene's God's Bits of Wood presents the women characters in a striking evolution from their passive role of partner, child bearer and mother to that of supporter of their men and finally, comrades in battle. The chapter "Dakar" bears the subtitle named after an important character in the nove: Houdia M'Baye. She is just beginning to see the world through different eyes because circumstances made her. Her husband died among the first victims of the railroad strike

Houdia M'Baye went out to the veranda. She had brought nine of "God's Bits of Wood" into the World, and her successive pregnancies made her dull and listless. And now she was a widow....His other wives had already gone to their families, but although Houdia M'baye would have liked to return to her own village, she had benn unable to make the journey, because of the strike and because she was again on the point of giving birth."(Sembene, 1996 p. 51). Houdia M'Baye seems emblematic for all Senegalese women, regardless of their class. Like all the other women, she never had the conscience of being responsible for her own acts. She was never alone. When she left her parents and siblings, she went to her husband. Suddenly, certain events made her unable to turn back to natal places, after her husband's death. She is close to delivering a new baby in this world. This will turn her life around one hundred degrees. Dakar will be the place where she will find the way to herself as a human being who not only cares for herself and for her children, but finds the strength to join other fellow women like her in a fight for justice, despite her dead husband, or better said because of her dead husband. She could have walked out and turned away, but fate didn't let her.

At some point, when the action returns to Dakar, in the chapter bearing as subtitle the name of "Mame Sofi." The passive wives are here united in a battle against the police, the armed brace of the law, organized with a leader, Mame Sofi, that commands the actions. When a male servant at the house of El Hadji Mabigue, tries to convince her to return home, calling her and her group "good wives" and thus trying to restore the old order in their consciousnesses, he is brutally rejected. The heroic spirit was awaken in those women fighting for their children's and husband's lives. They are considering their actions in the fight against the police and are quite satisfied with the preliminary results. "In the meantime, Ramatoulaye, Bineta, Houdia M'Baye, and a half dozen other women who were too old or too exhausted from the battle with the police to join the groups in the streets gathered in the courtyard at N'Diayene.

The…… [read more]


Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (699 words)
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Manusmriti

In the Vedic conception of the world, the attributions of men and women inside the family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. According to the Laws of Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is to obey the male world: their fathers in the young age, their husbands once they are given into marriage and even their sons when they have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between the male and the female world is independence: in the Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any woman of any age must obey her husband and the other men around her. She is forbidden thus to act independently, not only in society but in her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent." The woman is made to obey only, as long as she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory)." It must be noted thus that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper conduct and the duties of every individual according to the social class that they belonged to. The idea of social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the Vedic teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that the women as well are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to that of men. The…… [read more]


Gender Relations and Social Structures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,891 words)
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Women's Studies

Gender and the Law:

Social Structures in France and Cuba

Centuries of inequality and oppression have made many modern societies and governments acutely aware of the way laws and political and social structures govern the relations between different groups of individuals. One of the group distinctions that has received most attention in is that which is based on… [read more]


Comparing Cultures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,516 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Cultures

Gender roles are behaviors and ways, which are socially constructed and culturally regarded as appropriately male or female (Burnham-Smith 1996). These roles are first learned through interaction with primary care givers and peers. In the American culture, the traditional male gender role requires men and boys to avoid behaviors, which display emotions and affections; reduce the tendency… [read more]


Girl Scouts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,456 words)
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TURNING GIRL SCOUTS INTO WOMEN LEADERS - the Legacy and Promise of Girl Scouting

This paper uses the normative-descriptive method of research in recording, describing, interpreting, analyzing, and comparing information gathered from recent and authoritative sources.

The Girl Scouts Movement is an organization, which endeavors to build girls of courage, confidence and character (Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. 2006). It… [read more]


Ariel Levy's Inquiries Into the "Raunch Culture Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,105 words)
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Ariel Levy's inquiries into the "raunch culture phenomenon" found that many believed the evolution of the "raunch culture" didn't mark the death of feminism, but rather its achievement. In many ways the achievement of a "raunch culture" could symbolize the fact that females felt they had finally "arrived," giving them the confidence and ability to flaunt their beauty and sexuality in ways they would have never dreamed about doing before. However, I also believe many women still consider themselves disenfranchised as they struggle to obtain the goals and objectives that feminists originally set out to accomplish. As a result, I believe the creation of a "raunch culture" is not necessarily a result of women achieving their feminist goals. There are probably many women who are still attempting to obtain that status. Rather, I believe a "raunch culture" has been created as a product of the ways in which society has come to view women as they are portrayed in television, print and film, thus recreating the concept of what it means to be "feminine."

In Levy's introduction, she makes a large number of references to women who are considered "sex symbols" in our society; Britney Spears, Charlie's Angels, and girls portrayed in such magazines as FHM or MAXIM. She also alludes to women she sees passing by on the street, with tight shirts and low cut jeans creating what she referred to as the "butt cleavage." (Levy, 2) Despite the fact that these women represent parts of "pop culture" and entertainment that a majority of Americans have become recently obsessed with, it doesn't necessarily mean these women have buried the concept of feminism for all females. Rather they have "reinvented" themselves, and as a result reinvented the concept of what it means to be a woman in the minds of many women, but not all of them.

A also believe Levy focuses too much on a certain type of demographic in her argument about the "death or achievement of feminism." Throughout the book, Levy refers to young blonde women, who are getting boob jobs and dancing on stripper poles. (Levy, 22-23) Although a lot of mainstream America is aware of this phenomenon, there are still many American women (including young women) who would cringe at the site of a woman with breast implants and bleached blonde hair. I think Levy fails to realize and point out that there is a whole culture out there who isn't necessarily concerned with acting or looking sexy, but rather focus on other things such as the importance of having strong family and social values. Many of these young women may still have the desire to fulfill their dreams and ambitions as a female in a country in which they are still very much underrepresented and disenfranchised.

The rise of the "raunch culture" may also have a direct correlation to the rise of capitalism and access to the internet that has absolutely nothing to do with the death or achievement of feminism. Today, just about… [read more]


Concept of Male and Female in the Western World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,078 words)
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¶ … Male and Female

Ivan Turgenev's Fathers and Sons: A Book Review

Ivan Turgenev's novel Fathers and Sons offers an insightful analysis into the relationships between women and men, such as they were conceived of in the second half of the nineteenth century, at a time when the notion of gender became one of great interest among scholars as well as common people. First of all, the title of the novel, which points to the generation gap between fathers and sons, already signals an exclusion of women from the general concern of the book. Nevertheless, the women play a very important part in the plot: Anna and Katya manage to change Arkady's and Bazarov's nihilist views of the world, Fenitchka becomes the cause of a duel, and so on. Thus, it is obvious that the novel describes a male-dominated world, but at the same time, the plot clearly hints to an incipient awareness of the gendered relationships and the way in which they structure society.

Bazarov, the doctor who is the hero of the novel, is also the character who sets the general mood of that particular epoch in Russia, because of his radical, nihilist views. Thus, Bazarov is, at the beginning of the novel, a complete nihilist, who believes in nothing but the objectivity of science. He belongs therefore to the new generation, which denies the past and advocates a new, entirely objective approach to knowledge, exclusive of such irrational things as love, art or aesthetics. Thus, the Bazarov's nihilism obviously categorizes the relationships between women and men as "romanticism" or "rubbish": "And what are these mysterious relations between a man and a woman? We physiologists know what they are. You study the anatomy of the eye; and where does it come in, that enigmatic look you talk about? That's all romanticism, rubbish, and moldy aesthetics. We had much better go and examine the beetle."(Turgenev, 24) According to Bazarov, the mystery that is usually attached to love or to a beautiful woman can be easily destroyed by science and a good knowledge of physiology. As a rule, women have always been seen as the irrational, enigmatic gender, which is usually passionate, subjective and unreliable. This view of women is many times expressed throughout the novel. Bazarov considers the female gender as weak, irrational, incapable of effective thinking and manipulative. In his view, a woman cannot even keep up a conversation for more than half an hour: "If a woman can keep up a conversation for half an hour, it's already a good sign."(Turgenev, 103) Moreover, Bazarov believes that it is not 'manly' to give too much consideration to a woman, or to show any kind of dependence on the female kind, even if this comes in the form of love: "Still, I must say that a man who has staked his whole life on the one card of a woman's love, and when that card fails, turns sour and lets himself drift till he's fit for nothing, is… [read more]


Intentional Unintentional Misuses of Funds Within Not-For-Profit Organizations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (739 words)
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Business Ethics

Virginia Held is a unique feminist philosopher her focuses her work on how fundamental feminist ideals differ from the more traditional, masculine-based feminist philosophy. Virginia Held is a feminist philosopher, but her general theory of feminism differs greatly from more traditional feminist theorist, especially as to her perspective on women in society. Whereas most traditional feminist theorists take a masculine approach to feminism and thus do not consider such things as love, caring and emotion as being uniquely female traits, Virginia Held accepts these traits as being female. As such, Ms. Held refuses to "belittle these traits when explaining human morality and behavior." Instead of taking the traditional feminist stand of "females can do anything a male can do," Ms. Held recognizes the unique differences between men and women.

Held argues that other feminist actually do a disservice to females by ignoring these important, unique feminine traits. According to Held, morality and human identity have been "programmed with a male bias." It is this male bias that has caused masculine traits to be elevated and thus traditionally feminine traits to be held in scorn. Whereas traditional feminists tend to argue that masculine traits are fundamentally more important and thus should also be attributed to females instead of denied, Held argues that traditional feminine traits are equally as important and should be viewed as being so.

In general, business ethics is the field that examines what type of ethical rules and theories should govern the way a business is conducted. It is the adopted business ethics of a society that determines how a moral or ethical dilemma that arises in the workplace is handled. When evaluating business ethics, numerous ethical and theoretical backgrounds come into play. One of these theories is a feminist approach to business ethics.

Once can argue that a leading cause of the ethical dilemmas found in the nation's corporate society, those that lead to such public scandals as WorldCom and Enron, to name a few, is because traditionally masculine traits control the way business is done. For example, such masculine traits as competition, risk taking and an all-business attitude is what currently defines corporate culture. However, these masculine traits remove the person from the…… [read more]


Goddesses the Goddess Concept in Ancient Cultures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (352 words)
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Goddesses

The Goddess concept in ancient cultures was often balanced with the concept of the male God. In this way, a balance of worship was achieved between the male and female aspect. This is concomitant with ancient cultures' closeness to nature. Everything in nature is balanced in terms of male and female. The female was important for the perpetuation of all species, while the male was important in terms of hunting and gathering. The fact that Goddess worship existed provided not only balance between male and female, but also provided females with the paradigm of power.

In ancient cultures, females were powerful because they had the ability to bear children. This was extremely important in an environment that was often hostile towards human life. Women were therefore seen as a powerful force in ensuring the existence and the very survival of humanity. Spiritually, as mentioned above, the balance between male and female in worship also translated to a social balance between men and women. There was a mutual respect between male and female for the strengths…… [read more]


Duality Jonathan Swift and Mary Wollstonecraft Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
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Duality

Jonathan Swift and Mary Wollstonecraft were both consummate social commentators on the duality of power and oppression. Through the analysis of two of their works, namely, Swift's a Modest Proposal and Wollstonecraft's a Vindication of the Right of Women one can see an easy assimilation of the challenges that such minds made to the disproportionate balance between the powerful… [read more]


Gender Stratification Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,173 words)
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Gender Stratification

In today's society, women are found as abundantly affluent in every social and professional area as men. Women are among the top executives of corporate America, in strong leading political roles, doctors, educators, lawyers, and every other professional sector throughout our country. These achievements are the result of many years of overcoming unfair and discriminatory suppression. As recent as the 1960's, women were strongly discriminated in most of the areas that they now excel. Women were once subjected solely to the duties that have incurred the definition of a homemaker. Women were expected to stay home, raise the children, prepare meals and keep the home clean and organized. It has only been during the last two to three decades that the typical stereotypes and considerations toward women and their sociological positions have changed entirely. The expected 'house-wife' has now come to take on the figure of what was once solely considered as the role of a man. It is these drastic changes; the remolding of women's roles in society from 20 to 30 years ago to today, that direct the focus of this report to provide the understanding for how women have reached the point they now have.

Survey:

Through interview 10 different individuals of various backgrounds and current situations, I was able ascertain a further awareness of the different avenues by which people have come to perceive the role of women. The subjects for this survey were divided equally in half - 5 women, and 5 men. The men all consisted of a Caucasian descent with the youngest age at 22 to the oldest at 71. Three of the men are married, one engaged, and the other living with a girlfriend. The women were also all of Caucasian descent and ranged from 24 to 68. All of these women except one were married. The one woman that was not married was living with a long time boyfriend. These subjects are all acquaintances of mine, and were reached via email. Each of the subjects is college educated and either working in a professional field or fully integrated into a professional career. Furthermore, the subjects are all of heterosexual preference.

The subjects were each asked to describe themselves in terms of both their professional status and their personal conditions. Secondly, the subjects were asked to indicate their responsibilities in reference to a series of domestic chores, agendas, and other such related activities. The subjects place their responses on checklist that they were provided. The checklist, consisting of the domestic aspects, gave them the option of assigning which responsibility was theirs or their partners - more specifically; the male or female.

The options were: cooking, laundry, lawn care, dishwashing, bathroom cleaning, taking out the garbage, and other basic cleanliness-based responsibilities. The subjects were also asked to indicate according to whom took the most care for the children in terms of school help, comforting, and other such areas. For this part of the questionnaire, only 2 of the men and 3… [read more]


Sociologists Argue That Objectivity Term Paper

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¶ … sociologists argue that objectivity is essential to sound research? Why to other sociologists disagree?

Any form or research project can either be objective, subjective, or a combination of both. When objectivity is involved in research, the thing being measured can be tested independent from the individual researcher. The purpose of objective research is to avoid bias that could influence the results of the research. Typical methods of conducting objective research include random sampling and double-blind trials. Subjectivity, on the other hands, refers to an understanding of a research study that involves the researcher's individual perceptions, arguments and ideas into the interpretation of the results. For this reason, subject research will be influenced by the bias of the researcher.

Sociologist are divided on the issue of whether sound research necessarily requires objectivity. Those who argue that it does base their reasoning on the fact that, without objectivity, the results are not true and accurate reflections of reality but instead are reflections of the reality as perceived by the individual conducting the research. On the other hand, sociologist who disagree with this argument base their reasoning on the belief that no research can truly be free of bias. Regardless of how the research itself is carried out, even the planning of how to conduct an objective research study is influenced by the subjective thoughts and beliefs of the person planning and later conducting the study.

How do primary groups differ from secondary groups? Identify examples of each in your own life.

A primary groups typically consists of a small social group or organization. The membership of a primary group usually share close, personal and primary relationships. Primary groups are characterized by their member's remarkable concern for one another's well-being, along with common culture, shared interest and extended amounts of time spent with each other. Examples of primary groups in my life include my family and close friends that I have had throughout my childhood and early adult years. The reason we are close is because we spend a significant amount of time with each other, do to the fact that we enjoy…… [read more]


Road by Cormac Mccarthy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,000 words)
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¶ … Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, the Road, and the paper will be written from a feminist perspective. And before addressing what gave Cormac McCarthy the inspiration to write his and describing the book - along with critically analyzing the dynamics between father and son against the cruel and brutal world they live in - it is important to define feminism.… [read more]


Play Analysis and Comparison Contrast Term Paper

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¶ … Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen is the most popular Norwegian play ever written. It is also one of the highly acclaimed plays of the past two centuries. Its central characters and the resonating themes have a deep impact on society time immemorial. The ultimate result is that the Doll's House symbolizes domestic life and the frustrations of family… [read more]


Feminist Diversity Term Paper

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Feminist Diversity and El Saadawi's WOMAN at POINT ZERO

Descriptions of Female Degradation within Egyptian Novelist Nawal Saadawi's Woman at Point Zero (1998) and their Broader Feminist and Cultural Implications

Throughout the world today, fiction, film, politics, the Internet and the mass media alike have all, albeit in different ways and for different reasons, taken a dim view of the… [read more]


Planned Parenting in the Philippines as it Relates to Gender Equality Gender Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,005 words)
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Family Planning

Planned Parenting in the Philippines: Gender Equality and Gender Rights Issues

This study provides an applied anthropological analysis of family planning in the Philippines while assessing the role gender inequities play in family planning preferences. The results of the study suggest that historically family planning in the Philippines has been widely ignored despite increasing interest among women to… [read more]


Othello -- the Tragedy of Gender Divisions Term Paper

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Othello -- the Tragedy of Gender Divisions, the Tragedy of War

Othello" is more of a play about the breakdown of communication between men and women than it is a play about race. The play depicts a military society where men and women essentially speak different languages, and exist in states of constant incomprehension and even hatred. Men such as Othello see women as either angels or devils, and Iago uses Othello's wife Desdemona as a weapon against the general in his revenge, rather than sees her as a unique human being with her own thoughts, feelings, and desires. Othello is guilty of the same crime of male egoism himself, when he takes Desdemona's supposed transgression as a violation of his status and masculinity rather than trusts in the innate goodness of a woman who gave up everything, including her family, to marry a man of a different race.

This equation of the female body with male honor is seen early on in the play, as well as the difficulty for men and women to communicate effectively. Desdemona's own father cannot see that his daughter is falling in love with Othello, even though he saw it happen before his very eyes, in his own house. Brabatino says his daughter must be seduced by Othello's witchcraft because she was: "A maiden never bold;/of spirit so still and quiet, that her motion/Blush'd at herself; and she, in spite of nature,/of years, of country, credit, every thing,/to fall in love with what she fear'd to look on!" (1.3) When Brabatino learns that there was no witchcraft afoot, it is he, rather than Iago, who places the first seeds of doubt in Othello's mind about Desdemona's potential future transgressions: "Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:/She has deceived her father, and may thee" (1.3).

Iago uses Othello's lack of experience with women (as Othello is a military general who has spent most of his life, by his own admission "...little bless'd with the soft phrase of peace" and "...little of this great world can I speak, / More than pertains to feats of broil and battle,") as a way of swaying Othello's opinion against his new wife (1.3). But even though his misogynistic phrases are clearly designed to serve a purpose when speaking to Othello, even when he has no ulterior motive (as much as Iago may be said to speak honestly, or speak his heart during the course of the play) Iago spouts women-hating rhetoric to his wife and Desdemona (1.3). Of his own wife he says: "Come on, come on; you are pictures out of doors,/Bells in your parlors, wild-cats in your kitchens,/Saints m your injuries, devils being offended,/Players in your housewifery, and housewives' in your beds" (1.4). This cruel treatment of Emilia no doubt explains Emilia's own hatred of men: "But I do think it is their husbands' faults/if wives do fall...Then let them use us well: else let them know,/the ills we do, their ills instruct us… [read more]


Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Masterpiece Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,992 words)
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Yellow Wallpaper

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's masterpiece the Yellow Wallpaper is a semi-autobiographical work and it "... is based on Charlotte Perkins Gilman's own experiences with postpartum depression" (Lawall). The story, in terms of the way that it addresses the issue of gender roles, was radical and advanced for its time and the significance of the novella was not fully recognized… [read more]


Jung Chang's Narrative "Wild Swans: Three Daughters Term Paper

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Jung Chang's narrative "Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China" is an autobiographical narrative of the author's family history that spans three generations of women. Her story spans the period from the late-Qing dynasty China to Mao ZeDong's communist government of the 20th century. This book presents an ideal opportunity to observe the role of women within three subsequent Chinese generations.

During the Qing Dynasty, women had little influence in society. Jung Chang's grandmother was a concubine to General Xue in 1924. During this era, women were treated as little more than objects, and they were not given any significant rights during this era. Her grandmother was a beautiful young girl who had her feet tied and lived to serve General Xue. Women within this era clearly did not have significant control over their own lives. Their marriages were arranged by their parents and women were oftentimes bartered in exchanges and…… [read more]


Virginia Wolff Term Paper

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Virginia Wolff

Virginia Woolf's a Room of One's Own is written as a feminist manifesto which advocates primarily that women writers should have what she calls a room of their own and a sufficient income, so as to be able to write fiction. The essay is in fact metaphorical, and tells the story of women's writing throughout the history. The room that the author talks about describes in the first place, the practical need that conditions a woman's writing: she can not be creative unless she has enough privacy and quietness for her intellectual work. Beyond this practical need, the room is a symbol for the feminine world in general, for the space that the women and their writing should have in society. The right to have a room of one's own is the women's right to have a place in the history of literature, that they can call their own. The fact that the room would have to separate women from their given social roles, as mothers or wives, is also significant as it points to the importance of delimiting the women as an independent gender, like that of the men.

Kate Chopin's short fiction, the Story of an Hour, corroborates Virginia Woolf's ideas about feminism. The very short text tells the story of Mrs. Mallard who finds out suddenly that there has been a terrible railroad accident and that her husband is on the list of the victims. Her first…… [read more]


Post Modernism Term Paper

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Post Modernism

Judy Chicago is an installation artist famous for her feminist and political-leaning works that use both minimalism (in her earlier works) and, later, feminism.

The Feminist Art Movement is a post-modern, political orientated art movement that believed art should speak for social change and act as a societal critic. The movement began in the 1960s and peaked in the 1970s, although its effects are still felt today.

Chicago's most famous work, the Dinner Party, depicts a table set for thirty-nine mythical and historical women from throughout history. According to Chicago, she created this work as a way to, "End the ongoing cycle of omission in which women were written out of the historical record." The table used in the piece is in the shape of a triangle and is forty-eight feet on each side. Each setting has a placemat with the represented woman's name, along with artworks and utensils representative of that woman's life. (Chicago, et. al.).

Chicago's other famous, political piece of installation art is the Holocaust Project: From Darkness to Light. In this piece, the Holocaust was portrayed as an event that occurred at…… [read more]


Girl Interrupted Term Paper

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Girl, Interrupted

Film Analysis: "Girl, Interrupted"

Despite the fact that it is based upon Susanna Kaysen's memoir of the same name, the film "Girl, Interrupted" (1999) makes frequent use of the stock cliches of films representing female madness. All-female asylums have promiscuous and foul-mouthed inmates. The therapists are no saner than the people whom these so-called professionals are attempting to help. Medicine is dispensed like candy, rather than insight and real treatment. The 'good' are the sane, yet harshly judged and misdiagnosed patients like Susanna or the wise nurse Valerie, and the 'bad' are the really crazy inmates, and the psychiatrists who dispense pills and platitudes.

Although she has a diagnosis of "borderline personality disorder" Susanna, as played by Winona Ryder is not 'really' mad. She is an intelligent, sensitive poetic young woman who is encouraged to commit herself to an asylum because of her defiance of adult norms and sexual precociousness. She is depressed, hence her botched and half-hearted suicide attempt, but society is to blame for her depression rather than an inherent defect within Susanna's own character, despite the label that is placed upon her, a kind of catch-all terms for a difficult-to-understand adolescent. Worse still, she is mislead to voluntarily sign her self into the madhouse, only to find out like the Hotel California, that she cannot leave until she is judged to be stable by the insane powers-that-be.

After her commitment to the mental hospital, Susanna meets people who are 'really' crazy, like the sociopath heroin addict Lisa, and Daisy. Daisy might be the craziest of all, as Daisy appears deceptively the most normal of all of the inmates in terms of the way she dresses and acts. The insanity of the inmates such Polly, who is scarred from an attempt to set herself on fire, belie the superficial claim made by the film, that society is 'bad' and the inmates are the truly sane. In fact, most of the inmates seem to have serious problems, except for Susanna. The real, not very radical claim of the film is not the psychological establishment of America is misogynistic, but that it is bad to call gentle and creative girls insane simply because they are having a rough time, and to force them to live amongst the insane.

The insanity of the therapists at the asylum is highlighted by the fact that the main problem Susanna's therapist has is that Susanna sleeps with her boyfriend and kisses an orderly while incarcerated. Susanna sees this as an act of proto-feminist defiance and points out that if she were a boy, she would not be labeled as promiscuous. Her stuffy therapist disapproves, of course, but the audience is meant to cheer. Obviously, the really crazy character is her uptight therapist, not the young woman. This is a fairly easy ideological victory for the film, as essentially it is penalizing the therapist for not embracing contemporary norms of female sexuality. What seemed abnormal for a girl in the 1960s is no… [read more]


Communication Gender, Career, and Communication Finding Term Paper

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Communication

Gender, Career, and Communication

Finding a job is only the first step on the ladder of success. Without proper career planning, happiness and fulfillment can prove elusive. Planning a career involves many factors, the importance of which varies according to the individual and, interestingly, to the individual's gender. Even in today's supposedly "gender-neutral" society, gender assumptions play a powerful… [read more]


American Pop Culture Term Paper

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American Pop Culture

Maxim Magazine

With its covers festooned with scantily clad women, Maxim magazine appears to make it clear that it is a traditional men's magazine. In fact, its covers are reminiscent of early Playboy magazine covers; and the photographs inside are not much less revealing than early pictures in Playboy. However, it would be a serious error for… [read more]


Mysticism the Behaviors of St. Catherine Term Paper

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Mysticism

The behaviors of St. Catherine, St. Christina and other mystics are, to our modern sensibilities, strange or even shocking. Analyze the sources with reference to their authors and audiences. What made medieval Europeans accept the described behavior as praiseworthy when we might think it insane?

What modern observers might diagnose as physical or mental illness, medieval observers looked upon with wonderment. According to Catherine Bynum: "Wonder was a recognition of the singularity and significance of the thing encountered...[it] was a response to something novel and bizarre that seemed both to exceed explanation and to indicate that there might be reason significant' -- not necessarily cause behind it." Miracles happened for a reason in the logic of the divine, and by defying worldly reason, a higher form of reason was made manifest. Only modern observers demand a scientific paradigm of rationality that subsumes all experiences, says Anne-Marie Korte, in her explication of the predominance of miracle stories in medieval life, rather the medieval believers accepted the rational nature of the material world, but also accepted that the non-rational could make itself manifest within the rational.

Korte notes that women tend to predominate in these stories, and some scholars have speculated that this is because unschooled women of the day were less "concerned about (the conventions of) rationality and therefore" are "to be more inclined...to speak about their experiences in terms of miracles," or the transcendence of rationality. Korte sees this interpretation as problematic, given that women, like all marginal groups speak in a kind of double voice, reflecting not simply their own perceptions, but also have their perceptions and their narratives shaped by the perspectives of others who see women as inherently more subjective and less rational. In other words, men as the dominant shapers of cultural narratives may have been looking for mysticism in the experiences of women, even while some men approved of the proof of miracles as a divine spirit they characterized as male. Many medieval female narratives are only available to us through the shaping annotations and chronicled lives of male confessors, like Raymond of Capua's description of St. Catherine of Siena's life.

Where the medievals go 'looking' for miracles, moderns tend to go looking for illness. In our contemporary culture illness is not proof of piety, and rejection of the body and suffering as Christ suffered but as something in need of a 'cure.' St. Christina explicitly calls her suffering a gift that she gladly accepts to help free the tormented sinners from Purgatory: "by the example of your suffering: and your way of life, you…… [read more]


Literary Criticism of "A Doll's House Term Paper

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Doll's House

Although the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen wrote a number of significant plays, the one that is the most prevalent in academic studies today is a Doll's House. Completed, published, and performed first in 1879, this play has sparked much controversy in regard to Ibsen's message as it is primarily presented through the main female character, Nora Helmer. Much… [read more]


Economic Globalization Term Paper

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Economic globalization is regarded as an economic reform activity in reaction to the deterioration of the Fordist method of bulk production as well as consumption that was initiated during the latter part of the 1960s or during the early part of the 1970s. (Byster; Smith, 1999) at present manufacturing process is extensively spread all over the country as well as… [read more]


Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth Term Paper

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Frederick Douglass & Sojourner Truth

Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass

Sojourner Truth is best known perhaps as one of the key organizers of the Underground Railroad, part of the Abolitionist movement, but she also was an important part of the Union Army's food preparation for soldier units in the Civil War, and she holds a prominent place in the history of the women's rights movement,. On the day in which she made her speech, at a Women's Rights Convention in Ohio in 1851, about ten years before the Civil War, there were those in the audience who would rather she not speak, because she was so strongly identified with the movement to free the slaves and the fear was she would water down the theme of the conference, which was women's rights, women's suffrage, and other issues dealing with a woman's place in America in the 19th Century.

Sojourner Truth was tall, had a deep voice, and was a character. She never for a moment doubted herself, her mission, or her ability to move others in the direction she wished to have them go. In her speech, which she probably had given more than once or twice in her career, she made a few wise cracks at the expense of a previous speaker.

He was saying that women are the weaker gender, that they need help negotiating mud puddles and getting into carriages, setting her up perfectly for her semantics. Using the power of redundancy and the charm of colloquial language, she mesmerized the audience. "Look at me! Look at my arm! I have plowed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me!" she argued.

She went on to cleverly play dumb, and at the same time enlist the audience. "What's this they call it?" she asked rhetorically, pointing to her head. Someone in the audience whispered "intellect," and then she had their attention 100%. She marched on to her own drummer when she pointed out that okay, Jesus Christ was a man, not a woman, but "where did your Christ come from?" she wondered. "From God and a woman." She rested her case. It was classic and classy. And while nobody knows how many runaway slaves were guided to safety by Sojourner Truth, no doubt is was in the hundreds, if not thousands. She will forever stand as a strong advocate for freedom, fairness, justice, and the fact…… [read more]


19th Amendment to the Constitution Term Paper

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¶ … Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution [...] how this amendment relates to women's suffrage. This amendment gave women the right to vote, and it took nearly one hundred years from the first idea of voting rights until it actually passed the Congress and became law.

The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which gave American women the right to vote, was introduced into the Congress in 1878, but it was not ratified into law until 1920. It marks one of the bitterest feuds in American history. From the time it was introduced until the time it was finally passed, many American women worked with grim determination to see it come to fruition. It was controversial because most men, (and many women), did not believe women should be allowed to vote. The idea of women voting was so contentious to some, that women were jailed, ostracized, and ignored during the fight to gain the vote.

It was not until 1918, when President Woodrow Wilson changed his position that women's right began to gain some support in the country, and it still took another two years for the final measure to pass. In the meantime, several western states had ratified their own amendments allowing women to vote, which fueled the debate and encouraged many women to join in the fight for voting rights.

Leading up to the 1918 reversal of position was a long history of women fighting for equality, including voting rights. The first women's rights convention took place as early as 1848 in Seneca Falls, NY, and that led to work to draft a women's voting bill. It took 30 years for Congress to introduce the bill, and another 42 years for the measure to finally become law. In 1872, suffragist Susan B. Anthony voted in an election, and was arrested, and this led to Congress considering voting rights. In 1875, the Supreme Court rejected a case based on the 14th Amendment rights, and so, women began to work at the state level to pass state legislation. The 1878 bill said "The right of citizens to vote shall not be…… [read more]


What Are the Goals of the Feminist Movement Toward Religion? Term Paper

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Feminist Movement and Religion

Analyzing the Relationship between Religion and the Feminist Movement: Cases from the Christian experience

Religion as an important institution in the society has been idealized as apolitical by nature. However, the influence that it wields to society makes it a very important element that creates change and increases the dynamics within society politically. Because of this,… [read more]


Ibsen Henrik Term Paper

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Dolls House

DOLL'S HOUSE

Henrik Ibsen's play "A Doll's House' holds an unsurpassed place in the history of women's emancipation movement. The fact that it was a man who wrote this and not a woman lends it even further credibility since it highlights the truth that pain and anguish of women are not only felt by women themselves but by… [read more]


Medicine in Charlotte Perkins Gillman's "The Yellow Term Paper

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¶ … Medicine in Charlotte Perkins Gillman's "The Yellow Wallpaper"

At the beginning of the story "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins Gillman (1899), the narrator has recently had a baby and suffered a nervous collapse. Today, we might call the narrator's difficulty post-partum depression. The narrator is having trouble coping with the emotional difficulties and physical and hormonal shifts that come after pregnancy. Also, she lives within a society that does not accommodate the intellectual and maternal needs of women simultaneously. In other words, a woman must choose motherhood or personhood; a woman cannot be both a body and a mind. This means that the cure the narrator is prescribed, to forego all mental exertion, only makes her symptoms and inner conflicts worse, rather than better.

The narrator begins the story already distraught and unbalanced. She surrounded by people who do not understand her needs. She is trapped in the home where she is supposed to be resting. Her room becomes her prison. She describes herself "unreasonably angry" with her husband, a physician who prescribes "tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise" and insists there is nothing really wrong with his wife, as he dismisses her imaginative fantasies as silly romance. At one point in the story, he calls his wife "little girl," affectionately. The woman hates the peeling wallpaper of her airy room, calling its "sprawling flamboyant patterns committing every artistic sin" with "lame uncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly commit suicide." This description indicates she is already projecting her unhappiness into the wallpaper's design.

Two weeks later, the narrator is frustrated that her husband will not repaper the room, but she cannot let herself reproach him, and instead reproaches herself for not being like John's sister Jennie who is a "perfect and enthusiastic housekeeper, and hopes for no better profession." The narrator projects all of her anger onto the wallpaper, calling it viscous and impertinent. By…… [read more]


Susan Glaspell's a Jury of Her Peers and Susan Glaspell's Trifles Term Paper

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¶ … Jury of Her Peers and "Trifles" by Susan Glaspell. Specifically, it will discuss how the men would interpret the evidence the women found. These two stories are really the same story, one told in a short story, and the other told in a play. The women are much more observant and astute than the men in this story, and they find evidence that shows Mrs. Wright had a real reason to hate her husband. He drove her to murder because of his cruelty and disregard, but the men ignore the obvious signs, and simply laugh off the women's findings. If the women had presented the rest of the evidence they found, they would have laughed that off as well, because they do not respect their wives or give them any credit for coherent, rational thought.

The men in this story are full of their own importance, and the evidence the women discover is not important to them. They continually belittle the women and make light of what they do. It begins when the sheriff ignores the items in the kitchen. Glaspell writes, "Nothing here but kitchen things,' he said, with a little laugh for the insignificance of kitchen things" (Glaspell). Right away, it is easy to see how he and the other men feel about women and their work. They and their work are insignificant, and so, they could not possibly have the common sense to stumble across important evidence and interpret it correctly. That is left unsaid throughout the story, but it is clear the men have no respect for their wives or their intelligence.

Later, another of the men says, "Oh, well,' said Mrs. Hale's husband, with good-natured superiority, 'women are used to worrying over trifles'" (Glaspell). That is exactly what they would think of the dead bird and the other clues the women discover as they talk. Mr. Wright was a cruel man, and he drove his wife over the edge of sanity by taking away the only thing she had to love and comfort. The men could never understand that, and so, the women rightfully keep the evidence to themselves. To the men, the bird would be nothing more than a "trifle," and they certainly would not understand how its…… [read more]


Diversity People Across All Nations Have Their Term Paper

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Diversity

People across all nations have their own sets of beliefs and cultures. These beliefs and cultures affect they way people talk, move and react on different things or events. These beliefs and cultures can also affect one's perception towards jobs and other career and/or business-related aspects. Needless to say, difference in cultures can also affect the result of business negotiations. One best example for this is by comparing two country's business cultures and practices.

Difference in country will mean difference in culture and traditions. Among the most noted differences between countries are language difference, variations in philosophies, beliefs and cultures and differences in business etiquettes and cultures (Schuler, 2001). but, however different the cultures may be, or however diverse the cultures of the workforce are, there is one proven solution that may eliminate any possible problems due to cultural differences among people in the workplace - and that is having an open and good flow of communication to and from the manager and the subordinates. Communication will help alleviate whatever problems there may be. To reiterate, the success for the collaboration of two companies from different regions with different business practices lies in the proper communication. Asking questions, openly suggesting the ideas and perspectives of the two sides and transparency among the thoughts and opinions should be established so that the barriers to differences in business cultures will be eliminated.

2. There is no problem with a woman aspiring to become a president. In today's time and age, women empowerment is already an accepted phenomenon. People have already recognized the capabilities of women to lead a country and to hold the most powerful position of any…… [read more]


Hour Charlotte Perkins Gilman Research Paper

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Her hope is that she will be able to flee through that window and actually go out and "see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air." Similar to the narrator in "Yellow Wallpaper," the outdoors symbolizes freedom and escape from society's rules.

Other symbols, besides the house, windows and room, are similar between the two stories, as well. Where a window offers freedom and a hope to break free of confinement, a door symbolizes a means of keeping the outside world away. Ironically, both women actually begin to imprison themselves. The narrator locks the door to keep her husband out. Since she could not flee from the window and the outside world, she makes her room her haven. Likewise, Mrs. Mallard locks the door, so she can look out the window in peace and not be disturbed by those who have imprisoned her:

Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhold, imploring for admission. 'Louise, open the door! I beg; open the door -- you will make yourself ill. What are you doing, Louise? For heaven's sake open the door.' 'Go away. I am not making myself ill." No; she was drinking in a very elixir of life through that open window.

At the conclusion of each story, the characters' lives become even worse when the door opens and the outside societal pressures are let in. In "Yellow Wallpaper," the husband finds his wife having a total mental breakdown and becoming lost in the walls that enclose her. She is now controlled by the Yellow Wallpaper instead of the others in the household. In "Story of an Hour," the door likewise opens onto a negative occurrence. Mrs. Mallard sees her husband Brently, and she knows that her hopes for freedom are gone.

The narrator and Mrs. Mallard both hope to climb out the window and enjoy the times on their own terms, which is impossible. They want so much to be on their own and independent of a male-dominated society, that it is impossible to accept that their lives will never change. It was not that their husbands are malicious or abusive, but rather that these men are following the role given to them. As Mrs. Mallard concludes: "And yet she had loved him -- sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter! What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being!"

References

Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." Website retrieved January 3, 2007. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/hour/

Gilman, Charlotte. "The Yellow Wallpaper." Website retrieved January 3, 2007. http://itech.fgcu.edu/faculty/wohlpart/alra/gilman.htm#Heroic%20Slave… [read more]


Conversational Rituals Term Paper

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Conversational Rituals, As Seen Through the Eyes of Deborah Tannen

According to leading sociolinguist Deborah Tannen, communication is never simply about saying what you mean, or merely communicating information in a factual manner. Every conversation has a complex undercurrent, or subtext. Every culture reads silence, confrontation, vocal pitch, and physical difference in different ways, and the cultural differences between the genders also influence how certain words, conversational styles, and implicit as well as explicit meanings are expressed.

Ritual opposition talk

For example, in what Deborah Tannen calls ritual opposition talk, different conversational partners may disagree with one another, sometimes to reaffirm their higher status, such as when a boss publicly disagrees with a subordinate, or even makes a dismissive comment about that person's dress when walking past that employee in the aisle. This does not just mean "your tie is bad," it also means, "I have the power to talk to you this way, and you do not have the same power over me." Less obviously, ritual opposition talk may be seen within families, as when a mother-in-law might state to her new daughter-in-law "that's not the right way to make a roast, he doesn't like it that way." The real issue is not the tenderness of the meat, of course, but the tenderness of the interpersonal conflict between the two women, warring for status in terms of their right to cook for the man in question.

It is important to remember that different cultures may allow for different forms of opposition talk to varying degree -- in Japan, even amongst men, oppositional dialogue may be more muted, while in highly confrontational cultures, such as the Mediterranean, both women and men may use friendly disagreement as a source of connection as well as power plays.

Rapport talk

In contrast to ritual opposition talk, rapport talk is the speech of agreement. However, like ritual opposition talk, the meaning of what is said is less important than the actual bonding through conversation. When two women talk in the ladies' room, for example, about a new type of makeup both women happen to be using, the point of the dialogue is not really the shade of the lipstick, but creating a connection. While women in American culture may be more apt to use agreement rather than disagreement to bond, men often use such subjects as sports to create an emotional sense of common ground or rapport. Rapport talk might also be thought of more colloquially as small talk.

Trouble talk

Trouble talk, or confessional talk, the exchanging of information about problems, is another form of intimacy, also often seen amongst women in our current cultural environment. A woman might share her problems about a new boss or boyfriend. When trouble talking, women often expect empathetic agreement from their partner, while men might often be taken aback when a more stereotypically male approach to 'solving' the…… [read more]


Pride and Prejudice Does Jane Austen Essay

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¶ … Pride and Prejudice

Does Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice reinforce or erode sexist stereotypes of women?

Jane Austen's famous novel Pride and Prejudice deals with personal pride and social prejudice in the society of the time. In this paper the focus of analysis will be on the social prejudice in terms of gender as well as class and… [read more]


Bellamy and Atwood Term Paper

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Science fiction is a term that includes a wide array of speculative fiction and not just, as some people believe, space ships and the like. Much science fiction entails social criticism as well, and two examples are Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy and The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood. These novels were written more than a century apart and yet… [read more]