"Women / Feminism" Essays

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Europe Women's Suffrage Most Countries Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,056 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Austria had only a small-scale campaign for women's suffrage in the 19th Century, and women were allowed only very limited participation in local and municipal elections, though male proxies.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Brigitta Bader-Zaar, "Women in Austrian Politics, 1890-1934" in David F. Good et al. (eds). Austrian Politics in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives (Berghahn Books, 1996), p. 62.]

In… [read more]


Nursing &amp Women's Roles Pre-And-Post Thesis

Thesis  |  22 pages (7,299 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Thomas Branagan wrote in The Excellency of the Female Character Vindicated that men would "sin and sin again" because they could not help themselves (quoted by Welter, 47). But a woman, Branagan asserted, was "stronger and purer" and had the resolve to resist a man's desire to "…take liberties incompatible with her delicacy" (Welter, 47).

However, if a woman should… [read more]


Post-Feminist Society Contemporary Feminist Advocacy Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Indeed, a 20-year-old college student interviewed by USA Today stated that it is "unattractive" for a woman to talk about feminism and will earn her a reputation of being "pushy, problematic or troublesome" (Goudreau, 2011).

The one thing that has not changed in the intervening years since the political became personal is that some women participate in organizations, while others focus on having conversations and not talking points. A substantial amount of the activism of young feminists occurs online. That said, formal organizations for younger feminists are cropping up. The Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF) and the Feminist Majority Foundation Alliance (FMFA) utilize a university campus venue to inform young feminists about women's rights issues. The focus of FMF is very much grassroots, but the group organizes at the national and global levels, too. Using a study to action platform, the campus programs of FMF work to provide opportunities for students to learn broaden their understanding of feminist issues, deepen their capacity for community organization and leadership, and meaningfully connect with the larger feminist and pro-choice movements.

Conclusion

As far back in time as 1966, the National Organization of Women (NOW) officially recognized the impact that media has on the lives of women, fighting for media justice for women by creating The Media Hall of Shame. The 2008 presidential elections brought attention to media misogyny at heightened levels. Women like Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Michelle Obama have been targets of extraordinarily blatant sexist and racist attacks, the likes of which American hasn't seen since the days when civil rights marchers filled the streets. Historically, women who are in the public eye -- and public office -- or their families have been fodder for gender-based slurs and victims of the double standard. For example, Chelsea Clinton was referred to as the "dog" of the White House by Rush Limbaugh when she was just 13 years old. All women and girls are stereotyped and demeaned when the media steps over the line in this manner.

References

Coffey, L.T. (2011, October 11). Girl Project' reveals what teens are really thinking. Today People. Retrieved http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/44846267/ns/today-today_people/t/girl-project-reveals-what-teens-are-really-thinking/

Dow, B.J. (2003). Feminism, Miss America, and media mythology. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6 (1), 127 -- 150.

Faludi, Susan, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (Three Rivers Press, 2006)

Feminist Majority Foundation, Choices Campus Leadership Program. (2011). Retrieved http://feministcampus.org/default.asp

Goldberg, S. (2012, January 27). Mean girls: Fighting on reality TV. Retrieved http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/27/showbiz/tv/reality-tv-catfights/index.html

Goudreau, J. (2011, December 12). Who's Afraid of Post-Feminism? What It Means To Be A Feminist Today. Forbes. Retrieved http://www.forbes.com/sites/jennagoudreau/

2011/12/13/afraid-of-post-feminism-means-feminist-today-gloria-steinem-jane-fonda-ursula-burns/

McRobbie, A. (2004). Post-feminism and popular culture. Feminist Media Studies, 4 (3), 255 -- 264.

National Organization of Women…… [read more]


Lives of Women in Archaic Athens? Unheard Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,254 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … lives of women in archaic Athens?

Unheard voices from Ancient Greece

Although there is much controversy regarding conditions in Ancient Greece due to the little information that was passed on through the centuries, it is generally accepted that women were largely discriminated at this location at the time. As society influence men in adopting discriminatory attitudes in regard… [read more]


Sensibility Women's Identities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

And surely, with her more mature self? awareness, Elinor has few peers with whom to share intimate feelings. Yet there is a sense of desolation with which Elinor handles her emotional trials, so that with all her praise of Elinor, Austen cannot avoid the silence which enclouds Elinor's emotional existence:

From [her mother's and Marianne's] counsel, or their conversation she… [read more]


Treatment of Women in Mad Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (4,749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

A lot of feelings are unspoken, so that's kind of been fun to play with" (Hardy). A high concept film is not played largely "in the eyes" of a character. The fact that negotiations -- very public negotiations -- for a third season of Mad Men did not begin until the second season had concluded is telling. The threshold for… [read more]


Violation of Women Rights in India Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,284 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women's Rights In India

Violation of Women's Rights in India

As a fast-growing economy and the largest democracy of the world, India struggles with numerous human rights issues in its attempt to strengthen its position in the world: politically, economically, and morally. India is a signatory to major international conventions dealing with human rights issues and in the last sixty… [read more]


Women's Roles the Changing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Therefore, there is a dire need to address this issue responsibly whereby the first step is to implement the written laws which promise a higher status of women. To achieve this, the world needs a fair and an accountable law enforcing body which not only entertains female participation in different realms of life but also take the responsibility of the security and fair and equal treatment of women in these facets of life. Such steps along with several other changes would then play an important role in combating the existent sexism in the world.

REFERENCES

Chakrapani C. 1994. Changing status and role of women in Indian society. M.D. Publications. Retrieved 8th December, 2011 (http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=UuYHDRCdKQkC&dq=changed+role+of+women&source=gbs_navlinks_s).

EOWA statistics. 2011. Labor Market Statistics. Australia.

Freedman J. 2001. Feminism. Buckingham. Philadelphia. Open University Press.

Jones, Karen H. 2006. "Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century." Journal of Career and Technical Education 22 (2). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v22n2/pdf/domenico.pdf).

Kambouri H. 2008. Feminine Jobs/Masculine Becomings: Gender and Identity in the Discourse of Albanian Domestic Workers in Greece. European Journal of Women's Studies 15 (7-22). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (http://ejw.sagepub.com/content/15/1/7.abstract).

Marchese E. 2008. No Women Allowed: Exclusion and Accountability in Men's Anti-Rape Group. Journal of International Women's Studies 9 (2). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (http://www.bridgew.edu/soas/jiws/Mar08/Marchese.pdf).

OECD Labor Force Statistic. 2002. Gender and Labor Market Participation. OECD Quarterly labour Force Statistics 2002 (1). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (http://www.kent.ac.uk/wramsoc/workingpapers/firstyearreports/backgroundreports/changesintheroleofwomenbackgroundreport.pdf).

Thomas A. 2009. Views of Intimate Partner Violence in Same- and Opposite-Sex Relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family 71(2). Retrieved on 8th December, 2011 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00602.x/abstract).

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. 2011. Progress of the world's women. Sustainable Forestry Initiative. USA.… [read more]


Carol Christ Talks About Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

It seems, then, that whenever the race or gender seems confident and able in their abilities, they publicize their power of creativity, and make God as themselves. Rather than their following God, God has to follow them. God, too, seems to be fickle in his political tastes, for instance, siding here with Zionist nationalists who claim the land belongs to them, whilst siding simultaneously with Islamists who claim the land theirs; and then God sides with Irish nationalists and with the Taliban, and with Bush in the White House and with anti-abortionists who burn clinics, whilst God is also a skinhead and a White supremacist. God is so many things. Rather than man having been created in his image, man smug in his ability of creating, have turned God into theirs. And at oen time, man, who -- for whatever reason -- despised, felt threatened by, hated woman -- made god into a misogynist.

Women have now come into their own power of creation and acclaiming their unique abilities as creative, have imbued themselves with sufficient esteem to prevent man from oppressing them. It is no surprise accordingly, that in this heretofore unprecedented age of female esteem, where woman sees herself as creator, woman now calls herself Goddess and speak of God as Mother as well as Father. Woman has come into her own, and having come into her own asserts a power that she once never felt. With assertion of that power, come the ability to not only be liberated but to feel herself on the par of God. Nay, to be a God.

It is for that reason that women can hold ritual ceremonies o f birthing themsves from their birth canals and smearing menstruation blood on their faces as symbol of richness and creations. It is for that reason too that Ntosake Shange can have a tall beautiful black woman, in her Broadway play, rise from despair to cry out, "I found God in myself and I loved her fiercely.":

Her discovery is echoed by women around the country who meet spontaneously in small groups on full moons, solstices, and equinoxes to celebrate the Goddess as symbol of life and death powers and waxing and waning energies in the universe and in themselves

The goddess symbol was first seen to have emerged in the 1970s with the Woman Spirit magazine and the Lady Unique journal as well as conventions set to healrd a woman god. The times were prescient for a female Creator. The Omnipotent She emerged when woman came unto their own.

Woman is no longer dependent on man. She has become a creator. And, therefore, just as man did and does, she too has created God in her own image.

Source

Christ, Carol P. "Why Women Need the Goddess: Phenomenological, Psychological, and Political Reflections (1978)." In Theorizing Feminisms, edited by Elizabeth Hackett and Sally Haslanger, 211-19. New York:…… [read more]


Women's History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women's History Questions

In the early days of the United States, particularly the 1790's, women had a very limited role in public and political life. However, the massive political changes occurring in France influence the role of Women in America. The many religious awakenings and revivals spurred a more active role for women outside of the home, including charitable endeavors.… [read more]


Women and Television: What Roseanne and Sex Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,520 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women and Television: What Roseanne and Sex and the City Say About Women

As a pop-culture medium, television has the ability to make instantaneous commentary on the role of women in society, and to acquire immediate feedback about how society views that portrayal of women. That is not to say that successful television will necessarily depict an accurate portrayal of… [read more]


Television's New Feminism Prime Time Representations of Women and Victimization Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

New Feminism

When I started reading the abstract of this article, I was particularly struck by the phrase "monstrous maternal," and how it was mentioned in almost the same breath as the phrase "feminist insights." Although I am not a regular Law & Order fan or even an occasional viewer, I was intrigued by this assessment and looked forward to the insights that the article might offer. I was most intrigued by the way the article seemed to generalize the show's depiction of women as either violent to the extreme or non-emotional. The article, for example, generalizes the criminality of the women depicted by claiming that "the criminal women" depicted, i.e. all of them, without exception, use their power in the home to harm those closest to them, and in particular their children. Although I have not watched the show, I find it a little difficult to believe that every female perpetrator in every episode was guilty of this kind of crime.

Another generalization is that feminist elements are generally negatively portrayed in the show, by means of (1) the depiction of sexual assault and (2) women on powerful positions, i.e. those working alongside their male counterparts to solve the crimes in questions and to prosecute the perpetrators.

The authors' claim of negativity in terms of the first is that women are portrayed either as helpless victims or heartless and "monstrous" perpetrators of crime, mostly against their own children. In terms of the second, the authors claim that the women in power are portrayed as somewhat cold and distant, as well as being unable or unwilling to form deep or lasting connections with each other. In other words, this is a departure away from the general conception of women as warm and emotional entities.

My problem with these claims is, once again, that they are a narrow interpretation, without taking into account the context of the show. The first important thing to keep in mind is that it is unlikely that "SVU" was created with feminism at the forefront of its goals. The purpose of the show is, according to those closest to it, to create a realistic and…… [read more]


Women and Human Rights Summaries Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,705 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women and Human Rights Summaries

Perhaps the most useful place to begin any discussion of Asian and Native American women and their relation to feminism is Devon Abbot Misesuah's study of indigenous American women, in which she argues that "because Native women vary in their cultural ideologies, appearance, and social and moral values, no one feminist theory totalizes Native women's… [read more]


Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

From their perspective, technology such as the internet can be used as a medium to promote feminist philosophy and principles in order to liberate women from subjugation they experience at the hands of males. Sadie Plant wrote Zeroes+Ones in the year 1997 and asserted that cyberfeminism is a philosophy used to describe the seditious bond between females and technology[footnoteRef:18]. Furthermore… [read more]


Role of Women in Europe After 1945 A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  3 pages (837 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Role of Women in Europe After 1945

The role of women in the European society after 1945

In the past century the women had experienced more changes and revolutions than it did in the entire history of men. Women progressed and gained power in economics, politics, education, health and other domains. The "feminist movement," started in the Western World, passed through three phases, and the top issues referred to equal pay, the right to vote, maternity leave, domestic violence, sexual harassment and sexual violence. This paper discusses in regard to important business women, women in politics, women scientists, but mostly the role of women in the European society after 1945.

In the wake of WWII, Europeans had to deal with a reconstruction period, considering that most countries on the continent had been severely affected as a result of their involvement in the war. Women were particularly affected by the war, as they were provided with the task of controlling most communities while their husbands, brothers, and sons had to fight on fronts throughout Europe. The suffering that they went through as a result of having to care for the homes actually taught them to be less vulnerable to society's problems and more willing to get engaged in fighting for their families and for rights.

It rapidly became obvious that women were no longer the weak individuals that they were before the war. War changes people and it changes women even more, as they are practically forced to abandon their previous convictions in order to survive.

Although men and women have lived together for centuries, men are typically recognized to have used physical power with the purpose of imposing themselves over women, while women were disrespected, disdained, and left with little to no rights. The "feminist movement" played a crucial part in the emancipation of women from all around the globe. The movement was founded in the United Kingdom and was called "The first-wave" -- this was the feminist activity during the nineteenth and early twentieth century that focused primarily making it possible for women to vote.

The efforts involved in making female emancipation possible brought women equal political and legal rights, the access to education, and the chance to work jobs that were previously available only to men. It also got them the freedom to personal choice, including the freedom to express themselves sexually, even with the fact that the real limits were material and not legal. Women did not have access to birth-control devices, considering that economies…… [read more]


Women's Movement and Two Identifications Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women's Movement And Two Identified

Women's Movement and Two Identities

Comparing the original goals of the women's movement of the 1960s-70s, and NOW's agenda then and today, what are the successes, failures, and unfinished business?

The National Organization for Women (NOW), Neil Armstrong and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) made significant contributions in to American history. As they all played a major role in defining the late 1960's.

NOW was established by a group consisting of 28 men and women. Its founders were: Betty Friedan, Pauli Murray and Shirley Chisholm. They established the organization on June 30, 1966; at the Annual Conference of Commissions on the Status of Women in Washington, D.C. It is a well-known organization of: feminist and human rights activists throughout the United States, with it having a membership of more than 500,000 people. The primary goal of NOW is to: achieve equality for all women and to eradicate all the biases that are present in the society. The organization's actions made it a main force in promoting equality. as, this was giving women more opportunities in: the educational, social, and political posts, amongst others (Barakso, 2004).

NOW's primary issue; is to have a Constitutional amendment ratified. Wherein, it seeks out equal opportunity in: education, employment, politics and Social Security for the women. Moreover, it supports the legalization of abortion, claiming that it is a right of every woman. At the same time, they will assert that this is an: effective birth control, emergency contraception and reproductive procedure. as, the organization seeks to oppose discrimination and racism, claiming that human rights are inseparable, and it commits itself to efforts that prevent the adverse effects of homosexuality. In the past forty-four years, NOW has engaged itself in: activities and programs that raise awareness. While at the same time, they are promoting solutions on: violence against women, economic justice, global feminism, health, marriage / equality and social security.…… [read more]


Othermothers in the Women of Brewster Place Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,058 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Othermothers" in the Women of Brewster Place

In this research proposal, the author this research proposal will compare the strength of relationships between the Women of Brewster Place as compared to the relationship that they each experience with men. The author will then go through each personal story highlighting the dysfunctional relationship that each woman has with a man, including issues such as using the women as sexual objects, pregnancy, shame, fear, and the flight of the men from the relationship. Then it will be centrally connected to the book as a whole. Each of the women's lives are explored in the book in seven short vignettes. These short vignettes chronicle the ups and downs that many African-American women of face and the author will consider the women's relationships as opposed to sex as they are laid out in each vignette. If not directly wounded by the opposite sex, the ladies have women in their lives which need this healing and it comes about via the sisterhood and motherhood that is created. The author's style backs up this imagery (Puscas 402).

What this author proposes to research further is the subject of the creation of community and unity by women when there is not any there in reality. What is truly the adaptive genius of African-American women (and women in general as well is the ability to take the dysfunctional relationships that they have and to construct something new out of them whole cloth. In the book Black Feminist Thought, Collins takes the reader back to black American women's West African roots where she stresses the importance of "othermothers" and strong maternal leaders (Collins 215). With all of the dysfunctional men in their lives, black women desperately need each other. This female leadership is exactly what Khaleggi points out in his journal article on the book:

Gloria Naylor, in her novels the Women of Brewster Place… notices the special bond that exists between women characters, including women of different generations…a community of women emerges-sustaining, enabling, and enriching the lives of each other. In the Women of Brewster Place, Naylor indicates the women's sense of isolation, their mistreatment by men and their search for identity through shared experiences. (Khaleghi 131).

Mattie Michael is from a small town in Tennessee and ends up bringing her small town mores to Brewster Place. Her relationship with Ciel (Luciela Louise) who is not her child is motherly and tries to comfort her after Ciel looses her baby (Naylor 102). While Ciel turns Mattie away, this does not end the relationship. Rather, she sees the problem as a chance to bond with another woman and she needs all the help she can get. Being a mother is never easy and the helpful Mattie makes things that much easier for Ciel..

This relationship extends to Etta Mae. It is understandable that Mattie Michael has a relationship with Etta Mae. They are from the same small Tennessee town and this small town caring comforts Etta Mae… [read more]


Role of Women in Tibet Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (3,624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Role of Women in Tibet

Women as freedom fighters

Women portrayed as being care takers

Women as keepers of culture

Women portrayed as being career people

Tibetan women as peace keepers

Tibetan women portrayed as great leaders

Tibetan as agriculturalists and traders

Women portrayed as having the freedom and right to marry

Women portrayed as being Buddhists

Women portrayed as… [read more]


Symbolism in Women by Alice Walker Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Symbolism in "Women" by Alice Walker

"in many, one:"

Alice Walker's poem "Woman" and the struggle of black women for equality

The history and work of African-American women has often been rendered invisible by historians, even feminist historians. The unique contribution of black women to America has been subsumed under either the rubric of 'blackness' or 'femininity.' The unique struggle and stereotypes black women have attempted to combat have all too often been ignored. In her poem "Woman," the black womanist poet Alice Walker tries to bring the entirety of the special and invisible history of African-American women to light in a series of a few, economical images that sums up African-American women's lives.

African-American woman, Walker suggests, are more than simply motherly, desexualized 'mammies' and overly sexualized Jezebels -- or victims. They have a distinct and separate history apart from African-American men as well as white women. "The uniqueness of the African-American female's situation is that she stands at the crossroads of two of the most well? developed ideologies in America, that regarding women and that regarding the Negro." (Gray 1999, p.27). In the archetypal 'woman' of Walker's poem, Walker pays tribute to all African-American women by stressing how hard African-American women have worked and how they have been denied an education and political equality both as women and as blacks.

Her ancestors, writes Walker, were warriors as well as women who "Starched white/Shirts" (presumably for their white masters or employers). Yet they also -- with their physical and moral strength -- "battered down/Doors," and had fists as well as helping hands. The contrasted images of fists and hands suggest that in addition to nurturing others, black women also demanded their rights through history. Because of these demands, their daughters now have access to education. Black women, in the images of Walker's poem, had to become generals, laying booby traps for racist, misogynistic people so that the younger generation of black women could discover "books/Desks." It is this struggle, the particular struggle of black woman that makes the advancement of black women today possible, argues Walker's poem. Although the women of previous generations may have been illiterate they were capable of knowing: "what we [young black women]/Must know/Without knowing a page/of it / Themselves." And the struggle of African-American women and all women continues today. "Despite the indisputable gains over the years, women are still being raped, trafficked, violated and discriminated against -- not just in the rest of the world, but here in the United States (Valenti 2010). Often these women are non-white.

Black women have always had to work states Walker, even if that work was often underpaid or unpaid, unlike some of the early white feminists in the Second Wave of the American Women's Movement. The legacy of black women's strength and commitment to political, social, and financial equality has had to be strong because it has never known the luxury of white privilege or the 'choice' of having to work outside the home. In an… [read more]


Race Feminism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (772 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … race is a social, political and ideological construct. Explain the projects of critical race feminism. How have critical race feminists such as bell hooks, Beverly Guy-Sheftall and others explored the history and conditions of slavery, colonialism / neocolonialism, racism and patriarchies to understand the effects of these historical and contemporary forces on the lives of women of color and Black women in particular?

The catalyzing book for modern, Second Wave feminism in America is widely regarded as Betty Friedan's the Feminine Mystique. This book chronicled the frustrated aspirations of women living in the suburbs, women who had been educated in college yet found themselves frustrated and depressed by the enforced, feminine role they had to play in the postwar nuclear family. Some women cheered and sympathized with Friedan's complaints. But some African-American women took a far different point-of-view of Friedan's ideas. Black women had always worked, and continued to work outside the home, even after Rosie the Riveter had been relegated to the kitchen. Black women worked in invisible occupations, such as maids, that were underpaid and overlooked because they were deemed to be menial 'women's work.' Working for African-American women was not empowering, given how demeaning the work (and the pay) they were forced to accept was, and because the work often took them away from their own families, into the alien families of wealthier whites. The work black women performed was so unacknowledged, so silent, it was marginalized even in the rhetoric of white, liberal feminists. Friedan's complaint that she was not 'permitted' to work rang hollow in many African-American women's ears.

Yet Second Wave white feminists, according to the black feminist writer bell hooks, often portrayed themselves as speaking for all women, despite the radically different social experiences of black and white women. This left black women in a quandary: African-American male Civil Rights activists often portrayed themselves as speaking for all black people, without regard to the impact of gender. White feminists pointed with pride to Sojourner Truth's famous speech, chronicling her work and suffering under slavery "ain't I a woman." But they did not fully recognize Truth's implications that work that was not recognized and appropriately compensated was not empowering. Simply working was not the answer for all women. Feminists of the Second Wave spoke about the oppression of…… [read more]


Saudi Women's Role in Respect Interview

Interview  |  9 pages (2,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Furthermore, the radical transformations and sacrifices required to transcend this contradiction are either undesirable or unbearable." (2004)

The work of Moghadam (2003) reports that the Muslim society holds that women are "different beings - different often meaning inferior in legal status and rights -- which strengthens social barriers to women's achievement. In the realm of education and employment, not only… [read more]


Catalyst for Feminism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Feminism [...] how I can be a catalyst for feminist change in the future. Change can be large or small, and affect many or few. Everyone can elicit change, in themselves and in others; they just have to be dedicated to making change happen.

I believe that I can be a catalyst for feminist change because of my activities and my actions. I am a Black woman going to school full time. I believe that I can create change in the future when I have finished my education and can enter the working world, using my education to further my career and promote the higher education of Black women. People often talk about underprivileged Black youth growing up in urban areas, but they don't talk about the Black people who educate themselves and become entrepreneurs, business people, and staff members, and I want that to change.

In addition, I'm eight months pregnant as I finish up my degree program. It has been difficult for me to finish my schooling while I'm pregnant, but I believe I am a role model for others. I show that it can be done, and that women can get an education while undergoing other life changes. I am incredibly excited to welcome my child into the world and show him or her all the possibilities that are open to them, and I hope that my life can be a role model to them, as well. I want my child to grow up knowing that they can accomplish anything they set their sight on, and that I will support them in everything they want to accomplish.

Another way I hope to create change is in helping those in need. After the earthquake in Haiti, I adopted a little boy left homeless and orphaned from the quake. True, this is only one child's life, but I hope to make a great, positive change in his life. Bringing him here has already made a difference. When he first came to the country, he was frightened, shy, and withdrawn, as would be expected after his ordeal. Now, he has blossomed, and he is happy, more…… [read more]


Bra Burners and Family Bashers Feminism Working Women Consumerism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (809 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Bra Burners

In the reading Bra Burners and Family Bashers, the author discusses the concepts held by different people on family and the role that women have played over time. The author makes a point to discuss lifestyles and the way they are viewed by women and those looking at the way women live. There is constant mention of "normal," "Traditional" lifestyles. It is explained that the early role of the homemaker, the caregiver etc. has over time lost its once significant value and prominence in society. Along with women having more roles that are independent and working outside the home, the homemaker has been lost.

The chapter takes a look at the role of the women in the household, and explains that though she was seen as the homemaker, this was an important and impactful role. However, as time advances and the face of the role that women are playing changes, rank, and authority in that traditional role is forever altered. This alteration is seen as a negative, there is an outcry for a return to the "old values," for this is the time when respect for the home role of women was acknowledged and appreciated. Mothers day is discussed in length in the reading as well, explaining how this was an impactful holiday that actually at one point stood to show homage to the mother, the hub of the family; the one that was viewed as the care taker, and provider of all of the home needs. This view over time has become obscure, and the homage that was once paid is now simply a means of companies monopolizing and increasing their profits.

The chapter goes on to discuss the role of women in the workforce especially married women. It is expressed that at one point only about 16% of the workforce was female. In addition, it was not out of the nor for a woman to leave the workforce to care for small children, until they were of age to be able to work themselves. It was also expressed that in the 1900's the demand for women in the workforce grew, now women were hired in increased number in the clerical field and sales industries. It was not until the 1920's was it viewed by society as okay for a married woman to be working, during this time there was also an increase seen in the number of female workers. It…… [read more]


Historical Aspect of Feminism Essay

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Feminism started largely with the temperance movement, as well as within the abolitionist movement. The temperance movement, which sought to ban the legal making, selling, and drinking of alcohol does not appear to have much to do with feminism on the surface, but it was a cause championed by many women who were often the victims of men's drinking -- through abuse and through wasted money that should have gone to the family. This became a politically motivating factor for women, and the fact that women had little or no political power necessarily became a part of the struggle when their voices weren't being heard. This leads directly into the women's suffrage movement, which is itself directly related to general feminist thought and actions, noting the disparity in the social and personal views of women that led to the justification of a denial of voting rights based on sex. The feminist, suffrage, temperance, and even the abolitionist movements all attacked these ingrained social beliefs on highly specific and more broad-based and general issues.

There was also a religious responsibility for the start of feminism, especially from Quakers and similar groups that saw an inextricable link between religion, morality, and social responsibility. Susan B. Anthony came from a Quaker family, and it was the sense of justice she learned in her religion that spurred her on to champion the feminist cause. In many ways, however, one could say that the patriarchal establishment is itself responsible for the development of feminist thought and action, as it was a direct refutation of the patriarchy's arguments and viewpoints that enabled the eloquence and vociferousness of the movement.

Life and…… [read more]


Introduce Myself to the Class Essay

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¶ … guy taking a women's studies class?" A number of my friends have asked me this question. Of course, no one asks a woman "why are you studying guys" when they take a class in English or politics that is focused mainly on male authors or historical subjects. Other friends, male and female alike, have praised me, saying that my presence in the class is an indication of my sensitivity and concern for women's issues. However, I regard taking a women's studies class as an act of personal exploration -- to study the place of women in modern society is also to study the place of men. And both men and women are often confused about what is expected of them, in terms of their roles and life aspirations. Women's studies classes allow both women and men to critically view the role of gender in their society, and to give gender the attention it deserves, as it many be ignored within the context of other classes.

On a very simple level, the question of roles and responsibilities of the genders arises constantly in daily life. I often ask myself: does the fact that I am male mean I have to hold the door for my date? Pay for both of our meals? Assume the role of the breadwinner when I marry, especially after my wife and I have children? To live in this modern society, one could argue, is to constantly grapple with the questions raised by a women's studies class. Conventional gender-related expectations are continually challenged by modern life, not just by academic or political debates, but also by shifts in world circumstances. For example, many men were 'downsized' in the current recession, and found themselves at home, caring for their children, while their employed wives bought home the family paycheck. No stereotype, however ingrained, could deny the need of the family to make a living. The fact that so many men were let go from their jobs in a relatively short period of historical time has challenged the idea that a man is what he earns -- and also the idea that a woman needs a man's income to survive. Men have had to re-focus and re-define themselves as men, just as women had to do during the beginning of the Second Wave of the feminist movement in America.

Women make up a greater percentage of college graduates than their male counterparts, a woman is Secretary of State, the most recent appointment to the Supreme Court was a female -- yet many of the women in my life, girlfriends and friends alike have struggled with issues of self-worth in relation to their appearance and confidence in their own abilities. Clearly, there is still a need for a women's movement for economic, political, and social reasons.…… [read more]


Role of Woman in Society Research Paper

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Role of Woman in Society

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the role of the woman in the American society during the period of the Great Depression. In order to support the discussion we will be analyzing John Steinbeck's novel "The grapes of wrath."

The context of our discussion is very important. The great depression implied a terrible diminishment of the life level. The crisis had a very large number of people loose their jobs. This had a strong impact upon families and gender roles as well. Research regarding this period reveals that a lot of men actually left their wives because they had lost respect of themselves. Until the great depression the role of the married woman was to stay at home, taking care of the house and the family. The man was the worker, the provider.

Once the man lost his job, he also lost his status of provider. People had to appeal to their relatives or the government in order to survive. In addition, families could not afford to have both members stay at home. Therefore women had to work outside the house. "This contributed greatly to the change of the social status of the woman who acquired more power and more importance. Since the woman's contribution to the financial survival of the family was just as important as the man's, this suggested that her position was equal with that of the man." (Scharf)

From a certain point-of-view it could be stated that the roles were reversed. "Men could no longer fulfil the role of providers and that made them feel weak and ashamed. This affected their self-esteem and many of them lost hope and did not even look for work."(Gender roles and sexual relations, impact of the great depression)

Women on the other hand realized that they could make an important contribution to the survival of the families. They could work outside the home and they were good at it. This made them feel strong and boosted their self-esteem. They now realized the complexity of their role. Working outside the home did not imply that they stopped taking care of the family and the house. While they received more advantages in terms of social power, they also got a lot more responsibilities. "The sexual division of labor within the home meant that housework in general remained the almost exclusive responsibility of women." (Baillargeon)

The power of men derived from their statuses of protectors and providers. They were superior to women, but this superiority derived from their very social status. Once the status changed, they no longer had the power associated with it and they felt their very identity as men was threatened. Not only were men unable to fulfil the roles they were used to, but they also depended on their women.

This must have been humiliating for many of them. In addition there were men who thought that it was because of the great number of women who were working that the… [read more]


Women in Leadership the Characteristics and Advantage Research Paper

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Women in Leadership: The Characteristics and Advantage of Women

Women in Leadership

Women in Leadership: Obstacles to the Characteristics and Advantages of Women

The issue of women in leadership has been a focus of debate and discussion across many disciplines in recent years. This debate is also linked to topics such women's rights and gender inequalities in modern society. These… [read more]


Feminism and Chopin's the Awakening Essay

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Awakening Feminism

Defining Feminism in Chopin's the Awakening

Though by now quite well established as a general "-ism," the literary, philosophical, and critical school of feminism is not particularly well defined. Feminism is obviously concerned with issues of gender, and specifically with the issue of female subjugation in the historic and traditional patriarchy, but the ways in which feminism looks at this issue and attempts to resolve it -- if indeed an individual feminist text or work attempts to resolve it at all -- are quite disparate and in some views even incompatible. A blanket definition of feminism or of a feminist work, then, might not be a very realistic or even desirable construct. In fact, the rigidity of such a definition could be seen as somewhat antithetical to the central ideas of feminism in its refusal to allow for divergent views. The feminist struggle has been fought largely in an attempt to establish an individual sense of identity that is not dependent on gender, which was the primary defining (and hence limiting) factor of identity for women throughout most of Western history. Developing a complete definition of feminism would necessarily impose certain attitudes and beliefs upon feminist writers, and would usurp this struggle.

This line of thinking, ironically, provides a good general (though not at all absolute) definition of feminism -- it is literature, art criticism, etc. that is concerned with the role of women in society and in their personal lives, and with their ability to create and maintain a sense of self without or in spite of external constraints. This is certainly the case in many of Kate Chopin's works, including her novel The Awakening. This book is primarily concerned with Edna Pontellier's attempts to find and define herself, and her "awakening" to the realities of her identity as a woman in the early years of the twentieth century. Feminism in this novel is an issue almost indistinguishable from identity, and it is the exploration rather than the resolution that makes the work feminist.

Nothing makes this more apparent than the famous (or infamous, at the time of the book's publication) ending of the novel, in which Edna Pontellier divests herself of her clothing and her life as she wades out into the ocean and succumbs to drowning. The way in which the water is described reflects the importance of identity and one's ability to carve it out in this novel: "The voice of the sea is seductive, never ceasing, whispering, clamoring, murmuring, inviting the soul to wander in abysses of solitude" (Chopin, Chapter 39). The "abysses of solitude" that are so inviting to Edna at this point can be seen as a sort of freedom -- she has spent almost her entire life (and the bulk of the novel) as a fixture in other people's lives, defined by her external roles rather than by any sort of developed sense of interiority. She awakens to this interiority during the course…… [read more]


Women in Leadership Research Proposal

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Women in Leadership

The struggle for women's rights have come a long way from gaining the right to suffrage to having more women participate in the labor market, which is viewed as directly contributing to nation building. As women go up the social, political, or professional ladder, there arises the recognition for the need for change in attitudes and perceptions,… [read more]


Middle Eastern Women Research Proposal

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Middle Eastern Women

The Middle East is a geographical region in Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa (Sluglett 2008). It consists of the countries of Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen and Egypt. It may also include Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lybia, Sudan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Men are approximately… [read more]


Milton's Paradise Lost and Feminism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,547 words)
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Milton's Paradise Lost And Feminism

The fall of mankind was always interpreted from a religious perspective as the terrible moment which marked the complete separation of man from his Creator and the beginning of mortality, with all its challenges and unfortunate events, for mankind. The Fall also marks the break with innocence, the unnatural and undesired adoption of freedom. It… [read more]


Sarah Orne Jewett and Feminism in Her Work Thesis

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Sarah Orne Jewett and Feminism in Her Work

Sarah Orne Jewett and Early Feminism in New England Literature

The Victorian Era provided many prominent male authors who played upon the image of the doll-like female character, completely devoid of power and passion. Yet, during the same time period, Sarah Orne Jewett was writing novels and short stories which played down… [read more]


Literary Theory and Feminism Essay

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Women's Issues - Feminism

Literary Theory - Judith Butler

From Judith Butler's perspective, feminist theory is going through some changes. Some of those changes are based on the language used by feminists and language used to describe what feminism - in political terms - has become or is becoming. Butler explains that the "subject" of women has been going through a defining process. She suggests, in esoteric phrases and paragraphs, that the word "women" has become "troublesome." Why? Because merely to say that a person is "a woman" does not go far enough in describing that human, and saying someone is "a woman" conjures up gender issues and stereotypes that are incomplete.

Just going by gender, Butler insists, is vague and incomplete because the concept of gender "intersects" with social class, racial and ethic issues, and sexual identities. All of these images tend to muddy the water for those attempting to understand the feminine person. She writes (p. 99) that there is a "political assumption" that feminism is universal, and that somehow in any culture feminism represents a battle against "patriarchy" and "masculine domination." What a reader gets out of Butler's scholarly narrative is that all these language issues associated with feminism and woman only lead to confusion.

One has to read this essay carefully, and go back over some of Butler's discussion more than twice, to gain a good grasp of her theses. But by paying close attention to her carefully constructed arguments, Butler's philosophy comes clear. She (p. 101) takes aim at the difference between "gender" and "sex." Her point is that "gender" is cultural, and needs to be defined in that context, and "sex" is something else entirely. Butler doesn't know how do define sex: is it "natural, anatomical, chromosomal, or hormonal"? Her narrative at times is like she is having her own debate inside her thoughts. Is gender something a person is believe "...to have" or is gender "an essential attribute that a person is said to be?" she asks (p. 101). A reader could easily accuse Butler of splitting hairs, but her points are interesting enough and provocative enough to…… [read more]


Alfred Hitchcock and Women Term Paper

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Alfred Hitchcock and Women

Alfred Hitchcock and the Pre-Feminist Woman:

An Examination of the Filmmakers Liberal Attitude Toward Women

Before Steven Spielberg and M. Night Shyamalan, the cinema had one of its first giants in British filmmaker/producer Alfred Hitchcock. Effectively using character development, music, and cinematic effects, Hitchcock has managed to frighten, amuse, and awe audiences all over the world… [read more]


Role of Women Since World War Term Paper

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Role of Women Since World War 2 (WWII)

The role of women in society may have changed more during and after World War Two than any other period in human history. As a brief indication of the change, five percent of American women were employed in the regular workforce, whereas 60% of women of working age were employed by 1990… [read more]


Soldaderas and Women as Political Icons Today Term Paper

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Soldaderas and Women as Political Icons Today

This article states about the Soldadera women. Also known as soldiers and heroes for the Mexican Revolution. Soldadera women were strong women standing beside men and even more courageous. They were deeply involved in politics and also participated on the battlefields. Chicana women, Mexican born in America are the same as their ancestors. Today there are many political figures such as Maria Echaveste and Dolores Huerta.

Soldadera women are also known as soldier women. They are not only important in politics but in battlefields as well. During the Mexican Revolution, soldadera women were the heroes of the battlefield. Any how, it is also to be said that the soldadera history carried out with the artist that painted, sang and wrote. Soldadera women believed in their will to fight. Many of the soldadera went in the battle with their children on their back. They were very courageous and also had skills to sustain the troops. Women were trusted more than man to perform a manly duty on battlefield as they proved themselves that they are equal to men's. They put their lives in danger but they also fought with bravery. Without the support of soldaders women troop, the men would not have been strong in the battlefield. Soldadera women not only went to fight in battlefield but also cooked food, distributed it and also took care of the sick or wounded soldiers. (Tereza Jandura)

How ever, a term namely "Chicana" which refers to the women of Mexican descent or the one's raised in United States. It is believed that the term Chinana is originally from Mexican tribes of Mesoamerica. In the mid of 1960's and 1970's Chicano Nationalist Movement took place which the Mexican-American women reclaimed as Chicana. Chicana Women belongs to a long political activity in history who took part in U.S. And Mexico War of 1848 and also fought in Mexican Revolution which took place in 1910. After both wars, Mexican families drove towards United States and they also settled their. They made their own colonized territories such as San Diego, San Antonio, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. The Chicana Feminist Movement began to take place in 1970's, when Chicano Nationalist Movement was on the verge of the height. Chicana women were fighting along with Chicano men to get rid of United States political and social movements as they began to realize that the inequalities of the gender were existed within and outside of the movement. In 1971, about 600 Chicana women gathered for their first national Chicana conference which was held in Houston, Texas. By the first successful gathering, they had several different kinds of revolution such as legalization for abortion; child care centers establishments and equal education. Chicana feminists did pass their voices to welcome within the…… [read more]


Women's History Term Paper

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Women's History

Phyllis Schlafly wrote "What's Wrong with Equal Rights for Women" as a call to women to maintain the status quo. Her point is that women are already privileged beings in this country, and that it is foolhardy to lose that status, simply because a group of radical women wants equal pay and opportunities. She is resentful that the women's movement tries to speak for all American women, and disagrees with the opinion that women should be treated as equal to men. She feels that to portray women as downtrodden is fraudulent.

The piece supports the traditional role of the female, who was expected in the past to only raise children, keep the house clean and have a meal ready for her husband when he returns from work. Women did not need an education, nor did they need to take responsibility for politics or military problems of the country. Further, their intrusion into these areas was unwelcome.

This article clearly reflects a division among women in the United States.

There was a powerful force of women from every walk of life who wanted to pass the equal rights amendment, and they were not all "aggressive" radicals, but often educated thinkers.

Schlafly's article sounds as though it was written out of a fear of losing a lifestyle that she values.

She does not feel that women belong on the front lines in times of war and further, that women who want this kind of equality must have something wrong with their thinking.

Women up until that time were "always" given custody of the children except in extreme circumstances, and men were always obligated to financially support the family, including extended support in the case of divorce. Schlafly does not want to lose that privilege, and does not think women should have to pay support to men on equal terms.

I think the larger community, especially today, would see this as an attempt to avoid taking responsibility, and to use her sex as an excuse.

Between 1865 and 1900, women were entirely dependent upon men for everything from financial support to political decision making.

Women had not had the right to own property and were not allowed to vote. There was no reliable means of contraception, and women bore many more children than they may have wanted.

Women were little more than chattel in terms of the law, and men were legally allowed in some areas to abuse their wives with no repercussions. Women were not allowed to serve on a jury, therefore, no woman could be tried before a jury of her peers. Women were not considered citizens and had no representation in lawmaking.

As the industrial revolution spread, many women joined the progressive movement and more women began to work outside the home.

People began to migrate to the cities and women began to work as domestics, on farms, and in factories, some becoming involved in the labor movement.…… [read more]


Women and Social Security Retirement Term Paper

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Women and SS Retirement

Since its inception in 1935, in the midst of the great depression, Social Security has been debated and frequently reformed, usually on a fiscal level, rather than on a level that better meets the needs of the changing population. (Kingson & Berkowitz, 1993, p. 27) (Shlaes, 1999, p. 38) in the past the arguments about social security in regards to women and where they fit into it, is that the labor of women is largely unpaid, in the sense that women frequently stayed home and labored for the good of the family, and social security is based on the idea of replacing at least a part of the financial earnings of an individual when they can no longer work.

The loss of the mother's ability to cook, clean and care for children would be a loss that would go without compensation. Additionally many argued at its inception that private pension plans included provisions that helped women, regardless of work status, many containing earlier retirement ages for women and a wife benefit, while the federal plan did not. The argument did not receive weight simply because it excluded women, but instead because it was brought up in concern that individuals might utilize the opt out option in the legislation which might create a competitive system, between the government and private pension providers. (Kingson & Berkowitz, 1993, p. 36) (Hoar, 2006, p. 43) in the modern world the majority of women work outside the home, though there is still pay discrepancy and therefore this argument is not as strong. (Nelson & Bridges, 1999, p. 1)

Yet, the pay inequality between the gender's does effect the outcome of payment as women, even heads of households tend to make significantly less money than male contemporaries so basing compensation on previous earnings clearly disadvantages women, especially when the payment system in play is significantly lower than the real wages of the individual. (Gregory, 2003, p. 8) in an attempt to create an equitable system, the systems has created rifts that continue to disadvantage women. (Hoar, 2006, p. 43) Additionally women are disadvantaged in that many receive compensation based on death benefits of their previously earning spouse, yet when they remarry their benefit ends, leaving many women making hard life choices about moving on with their lives once a spouse has died. (Iams & Ycas, 1988, p.3) This problem is then exacerbated by the fact that both women and men are living longer and women live significantly longer than men. (Shlaes, 1999, p. 38) Additionally, many women are in poverty, including those who are married and single, in part as a result of inequality of pay, as well as an increased divorce rate that leaves women without the ability to live in a culture that demands two wage earners in each family to stay above water. (Berrick, 1997, p. 33)

From its inception social security and social welfare in general stressed the work ethic over all others, creating a system that rewarded… [read more]


Compare Women Politics Term Paper

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¶ … history of women in politics is filled with both struggle and victory. Women have had to overcome a general social view of them by both men and those of their own gender as weak and belonging in the kitchen rather than in the political arena. As such, women, and especially those belonging to ethnic minority groups, have struggled… [read more]


Women After the Middle Ages Term Paper

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Women After the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance

After the Middle Ages, the Renaissance heralded a period of profound change throughout Europe to varying degrees. A revival of classical antiquity occurred with vast economic growth, scientific and geographical innovation and discovery, and political and religious divergence. At the same time as these major transitions, domestic life and gender roles… [read more]


Women and the Glass Ceiling the Disparities Term Paper

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¶ … Women and the glass ceiling

The disparities in terms of opportunities, advancement and position between men and women in the workplace are a well-known and much debated issue in sociological discourse. This is due to the fact that hindrances to female advanceman or the "glass ceiling" is related to central sociological concepts and to the analysis of the… [read more]


Older Woman Younger Man Relationships Term Paper

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Older Woman Younger Man Relationships

The relationship between older women and younger men and its effects

Since the dawn of men, people have shown a natural tendency towards forming groups, sharing their experiences and facing challenges together with others of their kind, as members of the human society. The most intimate, most simple and yet most complex form of human… [read more]


Women and Their Role During the Mexican Revolution Term Paper

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Women in the Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920 marks a time of extreme social and political change in the country. As such, the event is not only significant in terms of history, but also in the lives of ordinary Mexicans. This is especially true in terms of heroism, intellectualism, support, and how these manifested themselves in… [read more]


Feminism After Reading Three Articles Term Paper

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Any group looking to increase their political presence should offer solutions, not complaints.

The third article, however, demonstrates the importance of including a feminist perspective both in world treaties and in other political discussions. It deals with human trafficking, which in 2005 frequently victimizes women and children. The report is balanced and includes boys forced to be soldiers and children in sweat shops. With such a balanced approach, the feminist movement's attention on it becomes vital and important. After looking at all three articles, I am struck by how three-dimensional feminist issues really are. The feminist movement can shine a new light on issues of importance to all.

SOURCES

Author not given. "Issue in Focus: Human Trafficking, in Global Feminism. Accessed via the Internet 11/9/05. http://www.feministcampus.org/know/global/issue.asp?issue=Human%20Trafficking

Author not given. "The Women's Treaty: CEDAW," in Global Feminism. Accessed via the Internet 11/9/05. http://www.feministcampus.org/know/global/issue.asp?issue=CEDAW

Reyes, Sororro. "Issue in Focus: Political Participation," in Global Feminism. Accessed via the Internet 11/9/05. http://www.feministcampus.org/know/global/issue.asp?issue=Political%20Participation… [read more]


Feminism War Has Always Affected Term Paper

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However, women were being formally trained as officers during the First and Second World Wars and series of congressional bills were put forth to encourage more female support for American troops in the war cause. Many uniformed women served in North Africa during World War Two, which greatly affected the lives of all American women. Women who were not directly involved in combat normally had husbands who were. In their husband's absence, women were encouraged to work. The proliferation of women's work dramatically altered the American female experience. However, the social progress made during the 1940s was about to take a step backwards when the men returned from combat and the baby booming began.

During the 1950s, in the wake of devastating loss of life during the Second World War, women's roles once again became relegated to the home. However, during the Korean War and after, women did work outside the home in low-paying jobs. The roles of women therefore became conflicted, as they were expected to be dutiful homemakers but also had to be solid financial contributors to the family.

Women continued to serve in the military in increasing numbers until the 1970s, even when the attempt to pass the Equal Rights Amendment failed. Although women were not enlisted into the draft, females are now notable presences in the American armed forces and rise to positions of considerable power. Women have become more visible military presences as well as political and economic ones. Moreover, during times of war, women are no longer considered to be simply as ancillary helpers or servants to men, but women nevertheless receive less pay and status than their male counterparts. Thus, what was once a purely male experience became shared by both…… [read more]


Women vs. Men Historians: Interpretations Term Paper

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Women's History]

WOMEN VS. MEN HISTORIANS: IT'S ALL IN THE INTERPRETATION

In the book Women and the Historical Enterprise in America, Julie Des Jardins researches the American women's involvement in the writing of history from the late nineteenth century through the end of World War II, when this field became very male oriented. Although women were not often taken seriously nor recognized any where near the male historians, they did do their best to explore and cover areas frequently overlooked. The question for this paper is whether or not history would be viewed differently if women played a greater role in recording history. The answer lies in interpretation. History is not just a reiteration of facts. Rather, it is an interpretation of facts based largely on the historian's perceptions and beliefs. The same set of facts can lead different historians to draw different conclusions, provide differing explanations, and even to produce opposing interpretations. It is rare for two historians to write identical accounts of the same events. One cannot even assume, therefore, that someone of the same race, religion or even gender will see the events in the same fashion.

Americans, and humans in general, find it very easy to lump people into categories. Stereotyping and labeling in black and white is simpler than trying to list all the shades of grey in between. Therefore, one hears comments as "they think" (who ever "they" are) and "all blacks." Looking at the feminism or the woman's movement is a good example. There are plenty of women to this day who believe that their place is in the home as wife and mother, not working or trying to be on equal footing with men. In fact, go to any book store and many of these women are writing books that support this belief. Then there are many women who are doing their best to be everything -- mother, wife and bank officer. Also are numerous women who are very career oriented and decide not to get married or not to have children. In addition is every increment in the middle of these categories. Today's books cover all of these women as well.

What if more women either had more opportunity or were more recognized to write about equality between men and women in earlier days? Susan B. Anthony is the name long associated with the right for women to vote. However, there are many other women who pushed this cause whose names have not become well-known. A History of the American Suffragist Movement by Doris Weatherford relates much of the information not known about this topic. For example, in 1637, way before the actual Suffragist Movement, a woman named Anne Hutchinson went against the male leadership and exercised her right to free speech. The theocrats who ran the newly founded colony of Massachusetts tried and convicted her of treason because her religious and feminist ideas did not agree with their strict theology. She was exiled with her 12 children, most of whom… [read more]


Women Historians United States Historian Arthur Schlesinger Term Paper

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Women Historians

United States historian Arthur Schlesinger stated that historians' silence about women made it seem that half of the American population had not had any impact on the country's history. "Any consideration of woman's part in American history must include the protracted struggle of the sex for larger rights and opportunities, a story that in itself is one of the noblest chapters in the history of American democracy," he wrote in 1935.

Because of the male domination of history, and the lack of women writers, many events and people of the time were forgotten and received little or no recognition for their efforts.1 However, what if the situation was different? What if women historians did have the opportunity to be on par with their male counterparts? It is still questionable whether their writings would have had any impact on what was occurring in society at that time.

It took until the 1960s when women were finally encouraged to become social historians. As Woloch notes in the preface of her book written in 1984, Women and American Experience "Over the past two decades, the study of women's history has been transformed from a cottage industry, ignored by most professional historians, into a thriving academic enterprise"2 (v).

The 1930s and the Depression, when Schlesinger made his statement, was a time that has been slanted by male historians. There were a number of women during this time impacted the social, economic and political happenings in the country, but who have not been covered in most history books.

For example, several women helped develop and lead the labor movement during this decade. In 1937, 23-year-old Myra Wolfgang conducted a sit-down strike of salesclerks and counter waitresses at one of the branches of the Woolworth's dime stores in Detroit, Michigan. The main Woolworth's was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union was saying they were going to do the same at all 40 stores. In the 1940s and 1950s, Wolfgang ran the union's Detroit Joint Council, which bargained contracts for a majority of the cooks, bartenders, food servers, dishwashers, and maids in the city's downtown hotels and restaurants. She was nicknamed the "battling belle of Detroit" by the local media3 (Cobble 3).

Cobble calls women in the unions like Wolfgang "labor feminists." She says, "I consider them 'feminists' because they recognized that women suffer disadvantages due to their sex and because they sought to eliminate sex-based disadvantages. I call them 'labor feminists' because they articulated a particular variant of feminism that put the needs of working-class women at its core and because they championed the…… [read more]


Morality, Justice, Feminism Term Paper

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That males have claimed dominion over the Earth (without also claiming the need to be shepherds or, in the archaic usage, husbands) has caused females to become 'other' (Brown 1999 163-169). Feminism claims that, among western cultures, it is "white, middleclass, heterosexual, and male against which all things are measured (Tan)" (Brown 1999 163-169). Employing a single measure is the… [read more]


Gothic Feminism in Wollstoncraft and Austen Mary Term Paper

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Gothic Feminism in Wollstoncraft and Austen

Mary Wollstonecraft was one of the earliest British activists for feminism, and is well-known and beloved among feminists for her passionate arguments against the patriarchal enslavement of women and their difficult position in her contemporary society. She was certainly not the first writer to point to social harm in society and the plight of… [read more]


Women and the American Term Paper

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"

Another issue that the female gender still experiences in some workplace these days is the unequal distribution of jobs. This is apparent in the composition of the American workforce where the male gender has a higher percentage composition as compared to the female gender. Similarly, the common cause of this problem is the continuous belief of people on the surpassing capability of the male gender than the female gender. Amazon Castle Online suggests the similar view by stating that

Traditional "women's work" may be undervalued in part because people think of it as a natural extension of women's family and household responsibilities and therefore not appearing to require any special or additional skills.

It is fortunate, however, that these days women are able to prove their worth in the workforce. Especially in the American economy, we can see great number of women who performs the jobs that used to be dominated by men. Although, there is still no doubt that somehow the perception of gender inequality still exists. We may see women wearing corporate clothes and are occupying high positions in a company, but behind this may exist some perceptions from other people in her work environment that if a man occupies her position, the performance of the duties and responsibilities would be better.

Vicky Lovell, as indicated by Larry Keller in his article Workplace Gender Gap, asks the question on how people will interpret the fact that the female gender doesn't have as much work opportunity as the male gender. Her answer to this relates to the traditional and conservative concept that women should be at home, doing the household chores and taking care of her family. Lovell indicates that

Men can choose to have children and choose to be admitted to the workforce because they've already established that women will be doing the caring work, relieving them of the work-family conflict. Society has narrowed women's choices in a way that it hasn't narrowed men's choices."

In general, the major and basic reason why there is inequality in the distribution of job and wages

Between men and women is the continuous belief of some that men is superior than women.

Bibliography

Longley, Robert. Gender Gap Widening, Census Data Show.

http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/censusandstatistics/a/paygapgrows.htm

Working Women.

http://www.amazoncastle.com/feminism/myths.shtml

Keller, Larry.

Workplace Gender Gap.

CNN.COM. 2000.

http://archives.cnn.com/2000/CAREER/trends/12/12/womenpay/

Lose Gender Gaps in Workplace.

http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2004/10/21/editorial_1021workingwomen.html… [read more]


Woman Suffrage in Colorado in 1893 Term Paper

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¶ … campaign for woman suffrage in Colorado. A brief overview of suffrage is given as a background to the topic. Then both the opinions of supporters and opponents of woman suffrage are presented. Finally, the primary reason why suffrage was granted is explained.

The Campaign for Woman Suffrage in Colorado, in 1893

Woman suffrage is defined as the "right… [read more]


Liberal Feminism Term Paper

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Liberal Feminism

The philosophy of liberal feminism stems back to the writings of John Stewart Mill in the 1800s, believing that personal "rights" should predominate over concerns for the social good and that government should stay out of the private affairs of its citizens. The liberal feminist wants to free women from oppressive gender roles. This focus bears a similarity to the existentialist position that seeks equality of rights and freedoms between women and men.

In liberal feminism, prostitution is thought of as an inherent political right and a private business transaction with the right to enter into contract. Yet, this does not necessarily mean that all liberal feminists approve of prostitution in a moral sense. Radical feminists, to the contrary, view a prostitute as a human being who is reduced to a piece of merchandise. Similarly, radical feminists do not believe that a prostitute's desire to enter into a contract is done of her own free will. Instead, prostitution is recognized as an exploitative relationship where the customer is interested only in the woman's services and not her personally (Bromberg, 1997).

Liberal feminism is also when the claim of women for equal rights is seen in the context of a general opposition to various forms of oppression and discrimination, independently of other…… [read more]


Women of the Civil War Term Paper

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¶ … Civil War era [...] important women of the Civil War, including the way women were treated and the various roles they played in relation to the civil war. Of course, there were thousands, even millions of women who played crucial roles on both sides fighting the Civil War. Women had to stay home and run the farms and… [read more]


Feminism Both Betty Friedan Term Paper

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Schlafly's "Positive Woman finds somebody on whom she can lavish her maternal love so that it doesn't well up inside her and cause psychological frustrations." In fact, Schlafly states that the reason "why women have traditionally gone into teaching and nursing careers" is because they need a "baby-substitute" if they have no children. Friedan also underscores the instinctual need in women for nurturing and motherhood, needs that are taken advantage of, diminished, and/or undervalued in a patriarchal society.

Both Friedan and Schlafly therefore fall prey to stereotyping and over-generalizations about women. Schlafly offers some particularly gross generalizations. For instance, she states, "Men are philosophers, women are practical, and 'twas ever thus." She also notes that "most married women feel they worked hard for the r in their names." Friedan has been commonly criticized for her over-emphasis on the white upper-middle class female experience, which poor women and women of color cannot relate to. Friedan also upholds the housewife role as ideal for women; the housewife embodies the "feminine mystique" because men cannot fulfill that role. Neither author acknowledges the wide range of gender identities that exist in the social spectrum, identities that might not include a desire for child rearing or marriage. In affirming the real differences between men and women, both authors lump all women into broad categories that uphold their vision of the "feminine mystique" or the "Positive Woman." As a result, neither Friedan nor Schlafly offer a thoroughly convincing argument. Nevertheless, Friedan and Schlafly do offer women the opportunity to embrace certain aspects of their gender that might be denied or downplayed in modern society. Both authors speak of the feminist movement as being dangerously close to demanding from women a denial of their true identities.… [read more]


Why There Is a Need for Feminism Within Our Society and Its Strong Points Term Paper

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Feminism in the Works of Glaspell, Atwood, And Gilman

Communication and Gender Differences: Insights from 20th century literary works and 21st century "cyberfeminism"

Literature for the 20th century has become revolutionized with the introduction of feminist literary works. As the prevalent ideology of this period in history, feminism is generally identified as an "advocacy of social equality for the sexes,… [read more]


Carol Gillian's "Women's Place Term Paper

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It is interesting to read Gillian's text as a defense of interdependence in personal and working moral life when one thinks of how much 'teamwork' is stressed even by the most stalwart of masculine business management theorists -- and as the population as a whole begins to age, and to live longer the fact that no individual is fully able-bodied and able-minded for all of his or her adult life. Interdependence in the role of moral development has become more important, for both men and women, rather than less important, giving the collectivization of the working process and the need to tend to both older and younger people in all individual's lives. Effective moral development in this environment must center on the understanding of responsibility of relationships -- with conception of morality as fairness towards others, as well as understanding one's own rights and rules in an independent society.

On the surface it might seem, Gillian's thesis suggests that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than abstract notions of justice and equity. But Gillian's thesis is more complex than that. Although she affirms intrinsic differences between the sexes because of their differences in biology as well as the ways they are raised, she does not see these differences as fixed and immutable, rather as different journeys that occasionally intersect as well as fork outwards and away from one another and now, in the end, and at the beginning, all human beings are interdependent upon one another.

Works Cited

"Difference Feminism." (2004) In Focus. Retrieved 2 Dec 2004 at http://www.butterfliesandwheels.com/infocus_friendly.php?num=1& subject=Difference%20Feminism

Gillian, Carol. (1982) "Women's Place in Man's Life Cycle." From In a Different Voice. Cited in Jacobus, Lee. (2001) A World of Ideas. Sixth Edition.… [read more]


Feminism the Feminist Movement Term Paper

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Many people say that this was the start of modern feminism, though the movement would not take true feminist form until the mid-twentieth century when women would begin a strong attack on "the degrading mindless-boob-girlie symbol" (242) and other stereotypes.

Because women were so strongly typecast into a particular mold, it was seen as threatening and improper when women began to fight for equality. Therefore, many unfair stereotypes were formed regarding feminists as a way to slander the movement and prevent it from gaining positive publicity or respect. One stereotype is that all feminists are lesbians. While lesbians have had a significant role in the feminist movement, feminism does not equal homosexuality, and many heterosexual women are feminists. Another stereotype is that feminists do not shave and do not use makeup or otherwise "pretty" themselves. While most feminists would say that it is not fair to force these beauty standards on women, feminists are free to choose their own personal fashion style. Many people have said that feminism is a form of hatred and prejudice against men. This is not true, as feminists strive for equality of the sexes.

Others see all feminists as Nazi-like militant extremists blinded by their cause, when in fact feminists range greatly in how hardcore their involvement in the movement is. Further stereotypes are that all feminists are white and middle-class, which denies the role of many feminists from different racial and social groups. Unfortunately, to some degree these stereotypes have permeated the feminist movement and cause there to be prejudice among feminists. Especially early on, many feminists held racist beliefs and did not want to include Blacks or other minorities into the movement. Other feminists see… [read more]


Feminism and Stereotypes Term Paper

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Other stereotypes that have been noted in the feminist movement include that feminists think poorly of heterosexual women in general, or women that are "effeminate" rather than "butch." The feminist movement is generalized as not being concerned with the problems of other social groups. Some people complain that feminists today raise awareness of the single mother's terrible social situation in our society, but that they stereotype all men as having it easy, even though there are many impoverished men and single fathers suffering from social inequalities as well. Others say that feminists stereotype all men as abusers, and while fighting for the rights of battered women and female rape victims, ignore the plight of battered and abused men and male rape victims.

However, the stereotypes that are supposedly held by feminists may not truly be a part of feminism, but rather a fabrication of the stereotypes held by others about feminists. Among the stereotypes applied to feminists include that they are all white and middle-class. The stereotypical lesbian does not shave or wear dresses, bras, or high heels. Stereotypical feminists do not wear makeup or concern themselves with aesthetics of any sort. Of course, feminists are also viewed to all be lesbians and fit the "Femi-Nazi" image of a woman holding all of the above mentioned stereotypes regarding other people.

An example of how such stereotypes were put onto feminists early in the movement is the Miss America protest of 1968, where "the media portrayed the protesters in fairly negative terms, such as coining the term bra-burners to denote all radical feminists, even though no bras were burned." (241) These negative stereotypes have prevented many women who would otherwise be a part of the movement from identifying as… [read more]


Liberalism Feminism Term Paper

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Liberalism V, Feminism

Liberalism vs. Feminism:

Comparative analysis between Liberalism and Feminism

Perhaps the most fundamental similarity between liberalism and feminism is that liberalism and feminism are both wide ranging, inclusive ideologies that are often difficult to define, although the personas of both liberals and feminists have stirred up the ire as well as the affection in the public discourse.… [read more]


Role of Women in Medieval European Society Term Paper

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Women in Medieval European Society

Within our society there is a fascination with the special position of women in nearly every period of history. Perhaps this fascination with the past is rooted in our constant hope to prove social progress. "Social history aids in understanding women's condition in any age; it is particularly essential for comprehending women in the Middle… [read more]


Italy Is a Cultural Hub Term Paper

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As society becomes more secular in nature however, one would assume that the traditional religious associations with masculinity and femininity would fall away, leaving room for growth and expansion. This has not necessarily however, been the case in Italy and its European counterparts, where religion perhaps still has more of an influence on society.

Interestingly, concupiscence was often coded as… [read more]


Feminism/Humanities Love and the Developing Term Paper

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But that "new memory" is forced upon the girl, not by her own willed remembering, but by seeing her physical acts in the eyes of her brother and in society's eyes as an outrage.

The memories recounted by Duras in fact support a kind of loss or lack of will. Her mother, Duras states, when she suspects the daughter's sexual… [read more]


Presence of Women Term Paper

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Certainly, an understanding of the female gender roles can help us to understand the role of masculinity in our society. Faludi notes, "Feminism has shown us that what we think of as feminine is actually defined by cultural messages and political agendas. The same holds true for men and for what constitutes masculinity. Being a feminist opens your eyes to the ways men, like women, are imprisoned in cultural stereotypes" (Halpern).

Importantly, women in the Citadel can help men in the institution better understand their role as men in society. While life in the Citadel is often seen as a "throw-back" to times when women had little or no power, there is in fact a much larger issue at stake. The presence of women at the Citadel forces us to see that the men in the Citadel have created a refuge from society in general, not just a refuge from women. In the Citadel, men are free from the pressures of the larger culture, and have a refuge from this pressure. As such, the presence of any outsider, in this case women, causes the men of the Citadel to feel that their safe sanctuary has been violated.

It is important to note that misogynist attitudes and beliefs at the Citadel are challenged by the presence of women at the institution. Certainly, there exists a great deal of resistance to the presence of women at the school. The presence of women in this institution threatens the very understanding and foundation of masculinity that exists for the men at the institution. If women can enter and succeed at the Citadel, then this means that the "machismo" and misogynist attitudes prevalent at the school have been misguided. In this way, the women of the Citadel can expose the men of the school to the reality that women can be both effective and successful soldiers.

Attitudes and beliefs in the Citadel come from the attitudes present in larger society. As such, any lessons learned by men in this environment can be generalized to society as a whole. As such, the men in the Citadel will take the lesions that they have learned in the institution to their lives outside of the school.

In conclusion, the women of the Citadel provide the men of the school with an opportunity to better understand the impact that society has on their attitudes toward masculinity. The women of the Citadel can help the men to understand the reasons and need for the school to be a "refuge" from larger societies' expectations of male behavior. In this sense, the presence of women at the Citadel can provide a very real impetus for change among the Cadets in the institution.

Works Cited

Faludi, Susan. The Naked Citadel. In: The New Yorker, September 5, 1994.

Halpern, Sue. Susan Faludi: the Mother Jones Interview. The Pulitzer Prize-winner who identified the backlash against feminism turns her attention to the next oppressed class: men. Mother Jones. September/October 1999 Issue. 19 November 2003. http://www.motherjones.com/arts/qa/1999/09/faludi.html… [read more]


Woman's Rights Were Little Recognized Term Paper

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Today, there still remain prejudices in the education of women. The educated woman still undergoes certain pressure and even social stigma. She is often torn to choose between the ideals of her education and the demands of her role as wife and mother. This goes to show that the fight for the fair and equal education of women is still… [read more]


Grrrl -- Here Me Roar Term Paper

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Madonna's image is ultra-feminine and yet ultra-strong. She thrives on being a wife and a mother, she dons daring lingerie, and she keeps her body in tip-top shape. Madonna is all grrrl.

Likewise, images of physically strong and powerful woman dominate television and movie screens. Tomb Raider and Charlie's Angels are but a few examples of modern role models empowering the consciousness of third wave feminists. The musical industry abounds with examples of "chick bands," like Bikini Kill. In fact, Bikini Kill singer and activist Kathleen Hanna coined the term "grrrl," (Garrison).

Third Wave feminists need not be as overtly sexual as Madonna or Lucy Liu, however. Take Martha Stewart, feminine empire builder. Martha Stewart has made millions selling a classical female role of domestic goddess. Grrrls don't have to shun the joys of cooking to be considered a feminist. Feminists can proudly be wives, mothers, *****cats, or international spies.

References

Garrison, Ednie Kaeh. "U.S. Feminism-Grrrl-Style!" Feminist Studies. Spring 2000. Find Articles. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0300/1_26/63295343/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22third+wave+feminism%22.

McRobbie, Angela. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Straus, Tamara. "A Manifesto for Third Wave Feminism." Alternet. 24 Oct. 2000. Independent Media Institute. 24 Apr. 2003. http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=9986.… [read more]


Repression of Women in Islam Term Paper

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Ideally, these women rights should be adhered to by all nations and societies. However, in reality, many societies neglect to follow and often ignore the fact that women share and must enjoy the privileges provided for them in accordance to the rights of humans. Muslim societies are especially criticized for harboring women maltreatment and violence to women in their community or society, and these maltreatments are range from physical, psychological, emotional, and even spiritual abuses. A comprehensive report by the TIME Magazine, entitled, 'Lifting Veil," illustrates how Islamic nations and societies treat their women and what are the present conditions of women's welfare in these societies. In an article from the magazine written by Richard Lacayo, titled "About Face," women under the Taliban government and Afghan society are maltreated and the Afghan society is described as "a laboratory for the systematic oppression of women" (Lacayo 2001 30).

Under the Taliban regime, women are compelled to wear the burka, a heavy cloth that covers all of a woman's body, including the face, providing only an opening for the eyes for seeing. Submission to men is considered the norm in the Afghan society, and disobedience to men can result to psychological, emotional, and physical abuse to men. Rape is a common occurrence among women, and Afghan women often termed rape as "lying down," because as the article states, "lying down quietly is the best way for a woman to cope" in a highly women-repressive society such as Afghanistan. It is evident that Afghanistan is an example of a nation that drastically violates all of women's rights to liberty and right to have a life free from any kinds of oppression, discrimination, and violence.

Another article from the said issue of TIME Magazine is an article titled "The Women of Islam" by Lisa Beyer. This article offers a summarized view and report on the treatment of women in various Islamic nations. Iran is said to be "progressing" towards a greater consideration of the society towards its women by gradually removing the practice of segregation between men and women in public places; Malaysia now allows women to obtain and secure professions that are previously held exclusively by men, such as public (political) and corporate positions, although women are still required to wear head coverings; Egypt is allowing women to be granted divorce on her own initiative, although there are still restrictions, such as not being able to "leave the country without her husband's permission"; Saudi Arabia remains oppressive and discriminatory with its laws against women such as the prohibition for women to "drive cars or fly anywhere without permission," segregation in sex for job opportunities, and covering one's self completely in public; Pakistan also violates women rights by giving them an unfair hearing and trial during rape cases, wherein men are always favored against that of women; and lastly, Turkey is considered the most liberal Muslim nation today because of the equal opportunities it provides for women and men, such as the equal opportunity… [read more]


Women's Rights During the Nineteenth Term Paper

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During the Civil War, Anthony and many other members of the women's movement played a large role in abolishing slavery. In 1863 Anthony founded the Women's Loyal League, which supported President Abraham Lincoln's policies (Berg). Following the war, Anthony and her supporter tried unsuccessfully to link women's suffrage with that of the freed slaves.

The Fifteenth Amendment of 1870 granted… [read more]


Women's Music? Anyone Term Paper

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While such things are very difficult to quantify, to qualify as women's music, a group and its music would have to score over 50% compliance in each of these categories to qualify as women's music - although a group that played only at women's music festivals, for example, could include more male musicians than other groups and still be considered… [read more]


American Social Thought on Women Term Paper

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She argued that reason and judgment are faculties women are rarely able to cultivate, given the traditional emphasis upon educating women for domestic functions only (5). She reminded her readers that society also manifests strong prejudices against learned women (6).

The problem of scripture arises, on the other hand, because Murray's feminism is rooted in Christian theology. If, as Universalism… [read more]


Women's Choices Term Paper

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¶ … Reproductive and/or Sexual Choices

The ability of women to control their own bodies i.e. To exercise reproductive and/or sexual choices free from stigma and danger is profoundly affected by institutions and ideologies that usually reflect hierarchies of domination and subordination. These hierarchies are commonly associated with beliefs regarding gender, race, health status, sexuality, class, and others. Women's bodily… [read more]


German Cinema and Feminism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,203 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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New German cinema is a period of German cinema from the 1960's to the 1980's. From this period, a new generation of directors came into the forefront. Much of the influence within new German cinema came from the French New Wave and were led by directors such as: Herzog, Fassbinder, and most notably Alexander Kluge. Their movies sparked interest within… [read more]


Women's History Questions After Reading Essay

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They could work inside the home or outside the home fulfilling many different types of roles. By contrast, men's roles were predominantly more static. The flexibility in their roles was also thought to hide their contributions to the transitioning economy but ironically the additional labor that came from the female members of society was not mentioned in many of the subsequent narratives. Yet the household in general became more productive during this transitional time and more and more women began transforming their non-paid positions into paid labor in the local markets.

WEEK 6: What are the similarities and differences between the experience of women during the prior to and during the Civil War compared to women prior to and during the Revolutionary War? Overall do you think their lives were better, worse, or the same with the changes to society?

Please feel comfortable to refer to any readings or course materials from the entire semester to answer these questions.

There were many similarities and many differences in the roles of women during the two great wars mentioned. Their roles within the household were most likely static for many women in both wars because while the men were off fighting the women had to be responsible for all of the household affairs. However, in the Civil War women had developed different roles outside the household which also built a social fabric with members of the same gender. I believe that women may have had more social support during this war as many individuals had broader networks of relationships they could rely on for support. Women who worked outside the house in textile mills for example either had to return home or possibly let the household be managed by an extended family member. Such relationships and situations were most likely not present in the Revolutionary war and thus there would be different kinds of social relationships that persisted in the two wars.

WEEK 7: A lot of ink has been spilled debating how relations evolved between Europeans and Native Americans throughout North America. A large portion of it focuses on the disastrous effects of disease, alcohol, and European military technology on native populations.

Discuss the role of women (or the lack of women) in these cultural interactions. Consider how the differing ideas of women in European and native cultures affected the outcomes of these interactions. Were the outcomes affected by unintentional misinterpretations by Native Americans and/or Europeans? Alternatively, were events the result of individuals and/or groups willfully choosing to not accept or understand cultural difference?

When discussing your views, make sure you support your arguments with evidence from course materials.

One of the ways in which the roles of women in the seventeenth century society can be determined is through court records. When a husband would pass in many states, the widows would be allowed to hold personal property and even bring debts and debt collections to the courts for civil judgments. Records show that in South Carolina that women were able… [read more]


Colonial Women Different Experiences Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (846 words)
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One article tells the story of how a court in North Carolina in the eighteenth century allowed some women to do just that. The court records of Albemarle, North Carolina, during the years of proprietorship, from 1663 to 1729, reveal subtle examples of Carolina women's participation in early colonial economic affairs; debt suits and the accompanying surviving accounts show varied economic relationships forged by ordinary keeper and merchant wives in the community and speak to the diversity of experience in colonial women's lives (Rutz-Robbins, 2006).

Instances such as this are especially interesting and do provide examples of women being able to participate in certain aspects of the political system. Other cases seem to tell similar stories and give some credence to women having more egalitarian privileges in some aspects of society. Yet these privileges only had certain advantages and were superseded by other oppressive measures. For example, when a widower went to court and was awarded some form of property then this property was considered to be hers. However, if the women did remarry then all of the property that they she had claims to would then belong to her new husband. Some women who owned property would avoid remarrying for the sheer fact that they would lose their property to their new husband.

Therefore, even though there are many instances to be found in several places that highlight the fact that many women had progressive places in society, in the end this must be considered within the broader context of the civilization. Women participating in court in the Carolinas represent an excellent example of this. Even though some women were allowed to participate in the legal system which might seem as a progressive inclusion by many accounts, was then superseded by the fact that women were still basically treated as property to their husbands. Literally you can find this on many accounts. Women were not fully able to consider themselves as equal parts of the society until they at least were able to participate in the political system. Furthermore, the organization of women to demand their voting rights also illustrates just how oppressive their conditions were so that they had the motivation to do so.

Works Cited

Jacobs, H., & Child, M. (2008). Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.

Norton, M. (1984). The Evolution of White Women's Experience in Early America. American Historical Review, 593-611.

Rutz-Robbins, K. (2006). "Divers Debts" Women's Participation in the…… [read more]


Women's Work Inside and Outside the Home Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

No she would not have been better off interviewing women that really live those lifestyle because the experience of the low wage living will assist in make better conclusions as opposed to getting answers from others.

Ehrenreich would have a problem of getting and maintaining a well paying job. She would also have a problem in securing cheap and safe accommodation. I do not think she will be successful since it will be quite a challenge for her to adjust into this type of life. Ehrenreich is confirming my expectations for her performance on the job since she is working hard to ensure that she gets the basic needs satisfied. She brings the bias that the working poor could not make it on what they were living on. This affected how she evaluated her experience is since she went with this mentality therefore she was focused on how she would prove that the poor can not survive on their living and hence made no effort to try and make it.

To be middle class in America means to be able to barely stay above the poverty line and be able to strain to afford some decent private school and provide proper meals for the family, be able to get an affordable but safe accommodation, own a simple car for movement and generally earn something above the minimum wage.

Ehrenreich did not like the drug test before employment since she predominantly saw it as a way of discriminating against the minority. I also have the same take on the issue since it is not a prerequisite to getting a job and does not fit well when some are forced to take the drug test and others are not compelled to. It is not a necessary component of drug test at all.

References

L'Hirondelle, C. (2004). Housework Under Capitalism. The unpaid Labor of mothers. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from http://www.kersplebedeb.com/mystuff/feminist/housework_capitalism.html… [read more]


Women in Higher Education: 1930-1945 Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,266 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

It could also be argued that the college woman of the 1930s paved the way for the college woman today in terms of the way the women in that era engaged in socializing; there is ample evidence of romantically-themed activities on college campuses in the 1930s. College women were featured in magazines and newspaper as being provocative, attending wild parties where alcohol was in plentiful supply. According to author John Thelin, the coeds in that era made headlines in some Midwestern and eastern publications vis-a-vis rowdy parties and engaging in "promiscuity" (Thelin, 2013).

Analyze the factors, conditions, and values influencing present-day women to enroll in coeducational colleges.

Historically the argument in favor of women attending coeducational colleges has been that the academic discipline imposed on students would be beneficial for both genders; that is, in terms of values, men's "manners and discipline" would be improved as would "women's feminine character" (Carreon, et al., 2013). In addition, the very presence of men would prevent women from "developing a romanticized ideal of men" and would better prepare women for their future as wives (Carreon, 2013). Statistically, women today represent 57% of Bachelor's degrees in the U.S., and about 97% of women with degrees are graduating from coeducational colleges (Natural Bureau of Economic Research). Clearly, women have preferred coeducational experiences, if only 3% of the degrees earned by women came from women's colleges.

Meanwhile when women were admitted to Columbia College (the last Ivy League school to become coed), in the first graduating class the valedictorian and salutatorian were women, and most of the awards went to women (Morgan, et al., 1987). "When I sit in a classroom, it does not occur to me that I am different because I am a woman," said Linda Mischel (Morgan, 1987). Mischel and Shelly Coleman both explained that they had attended all-girls high schools, but they "...sought the diversity that a coeducational environment offers" (Morgan, 1987).

Evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of hiring a female graduate from a women's college.

Because of the fact that graduates from women's colleges are obliged to be trained in leadership positions as part of their education, an employer should see those leadership skills as a potential advantage. Statistics show that women become more self-confident with degrees from women's colleges; hence, since employers want staff members who are confident in their abilities, these educated women are well qualified in that sense.

Moreover, women's colleges produce graduates that learn to "persist more" and that aptitude of persistence plays an important part of becoming a professional in a career (Smith, 1990). The only potential downside for a female applicant who graduated from a women's college might be that she had a limited "social life" while in college, albeit that would not appear to have a negative impact in the hiring process (Smith, 1990).

Works Cited

Bank, B.J. (2003). Contradictions in Women's Education: Traditionalism, Careerism, and Community at a Single-sex College. New York: Teachers College Press.

Carreon, S., Cassedy, A., Borman, K., and… [read more]


Working Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Did they see work as a short-term or a long-term objective?

Today women seem to view work as a long-term objective than ever before. Most women that are working are career oriented and are actively trying to achieve long-term career goals. In previous generations women would be short-term oriented and only take jobs as they needed to in order to support the family.

What evidence is there that the women in your family worked a Double Day?

Yes. Many women, especially those with children, have to work a "double day." Once the workday is done at the employers, they often have a separate set of responsibilities within the home. For example, after they finish work out of the home, then they will have to come home and cook diner, do laundry, and clean the house or other similar chores. If there are kids in the household then they will have to take care of all their needs as well.

How have their ideas differed from how the men in your family have felt about women working?

It seemed like it was more of a shock to a man's ego if he needed help supporting the family. He might have been viewed as inadequate or as a failure by his peers. However, now the culture has changed and many women work for different reasons and this is becoming more socially acceptable. Therefore, there isn't the same stigma about women working outside the home from the man's perspective as there has been in previous generations.

Has "Americanization" affected ideas about working women in our family?

Yes. The effect of Americanization has definitely changed over time and change the culture of American families as well. The families of the previous generations were more patriarchal and there was a stereotypical image of the ideal American family that emerged. The men would work while the women would stay home and support the children. However, more competitive pressures are put on women today and just staying home and being a mother is no longer considered as a career. Most women do not actually want to stay home anymore because it almost seems like it is socially unacceptable.

How have ideas about the appropriate types of women's occupations changed in your family? How have these changes affected the long-term goals parents have for their daughters?

In previous generations, most of the jobs that could be found for women were fairly unskilled roles. For example, women who worked could be secretaries or assistants or something like that. However, today's generation of young women are better education and more capable of doing the kinds of jobs that were previously only available to men. As previously mentioned, today on average the typical women is actual more educated than the men. Although there is still some major differences in the equality in compensation, in previous generations gender inequality was far worse and women wouldn't get anything close to the men's salaries in similar positions. However, the gender gap has significantly closed… [read more]


Women in Higher Education: History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. Supreme Court Justice Joseph Bradley was that a woman's "destiny" should be limited to "the noble and benign offices of wife and mother" (Norgren, 73). This recalcitrance was echoed in 1875 by Wisconsin supreme court chief justice Edward Ryan, who famously told aspiring lawyer Lavinia Goodell -- who had passed the Wisconsin bar exam in 1874 -- that she would not be allowed to try cases in Wisconsin. Why? The field of law (which dealt, he said, with "sodomy, incest, rape, seduction, fornication, adultery, pregnancy, bastardly…lascivious cohabitation…and the slander of sex…") dealt with "all the nastiness of the world" it was not appropriate for women (Norgren, 73). These crushing blows to the rights of women notwithstanding, by 1890 there were "…more than 200 female attorneys in the United States" (Norgren, 72).

Women as College Professors -- Another Higher Education Struggle

Scott Spillman explains that by 1890 the door had opened for women to teach in primary and secondary schools in certain sections of the U.S., but women were not given the chance to become college professors (Spillman, 2012). Spillman quotes scientist and mathematician Christine Ladd-Franklin, who explained (in 1890) that the ban on women (deemed "not worthy" to teach in college) hurt women who were teaching at lower levels because those women found it "impossible" to "receive equal pay with men in secondary schools" (Spillman, 196). However, in time, women were offered teaching positions at universities even though, at the turn of the century, the men who had believed in women's rights to teach at the university level harbored "…a strong prejudice against women's intellectual abilities" (Spillman, 220).

In conclusion, it took many years for women to be admitted into colleges, and even after finding the door open at some institutions for higher learning, women had to struggle to be allowed to practice law and to teach at the college and university level. Looking back on those years, it demonstrates the resilience and courage -- and resolve -- that women showed in carving out careers that previously only men had been allowed to enjoy.

Works Cited

Norgren, J. (2010). Ladies of Legend: The First Generation of American Women Attorneys

Journal of Supreme Court History, 35(1), 71-90.

Spillman, S. (2012). Institutional Limits: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Fellowships, and American Women's Academic…… [read more]


Women's Rights and Gender Equality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

As suggested by Orock (2007), gender inequality will continue to be a problem if the ground is not laid for contextualization of problems and developing practical solutions. Many of these countries have institutionalized unfair processes making it harder to implement change. Therefore, any solutions developed need to focus on changing the laws being implemented on the ground and this involved political negotiation and campaigning. It is only by increasing financial and nonfinancial support to these organizations that they can affirm their strategies to promote gender equality and improve the lives of women (Aikman, Halai, & Rubagiza, 2011).

References

Abbate, L. What causes the feminization of poverty? World Politics. Retrieved from:

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~abbat22l/classweb/feminizationofpoverty/causes.htm

Aikman, S., Halai, A., & Rubagiza, J. (2011). Conceptualising gender equality in research on education quality. Comparative Education, 47(1), 45-60. doi: 10.2307/25800033

Eastin, J., & Prakash, A. (2013). ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER EQUALITY: Is There a Gender Kuznets Curve? World Politics, 65(1), 156-186. doi: 10.2307/42002201

Feminization of poverty. (2014). Boundless. Retrieved from: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-stratification-inequality-and-social-class-in-the-u-s/poverty/the-feminization-of-poverty/

Frias, S.M. (2008). Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis. Social Indicators Research, 88(2), 215-246. doi: 10.2307/27734698

Inequality Statistics. (2014). Womankind Worldwide. Retrieved from: http://www.womankind.org.uk/about/why-women/statistics/

Lagerlof, N.-P. (2003). Gender Equality and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(4), 403-426. doi: 10.2307/40215889

Noia, J.D. (2002). Indicators of Gender Equality for American States and Regions: An Update. Social Indicators Research, 59(1), 35-77. doi: 10.2307/27527021

Norgaard, K., & York, R. (2005). Gender Equality and State Environmentalism. Gender and Society, 19(4), 506-522. doi: 10.2307/30044614

Orock, R.T.E. (2007). Gender Equality: Whose Agenda? Observations from Cameroon. Development in Practice, 17(1),…… [read more]

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