Study "Women / Feminism" Essays 56-110

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Religion in Cross-Cultural Perspectives Salime Term Paper

… The concept of interdepedent trajectories suggest that The Islamist movement of feminism is much related as well as differs from the secular movement. The rationale was same but the inspiration was not religion. Zakia supports that both the Islamist and Secular feminist movements have succeeded somewhat in their objectives to achieve women rights of independence. She is of the view that there had been strong impact of both the Islamist and secular movements on each other. The trajectories for both the movements were different yet interdependent since the cause was same for which both the Islamists and seculars fought and that was to have their women their basic equal rights in the society and to stop the exploitation of women (Salime, 2011).

One Million Signature Campaign

The One Million Signature Campaign of 1992 organised the liberal feminists in Morocco to favor reforms in the cuntry particularly mudawwena. Zakia says that people from the world were activated to collect one million signatures in support of the idea. She says that rise of Islamist activists was a strong force that helped influence One Million Signature Campaign both Islamists and liberals assisted in highlighting women's issues in the country. The Liberal and Islamist movements were so closely taking part in compaign, says Zakia that liberal women repositoend themslvs like what did Islamist women and they took positions in each others' groups at decision-making positions.

Islamist Rally of 2000

In Islamist Mass Rally of 2000 the Islamist feminists showed their influence in Casablanca in response to secular feminist march in Rabat. The rally was interpretted conventionallyas march against feminism or women's rights, but basically opposed vested interests behind the secular feminist agenda.


Sadeghi, F., (2011), "By passing Islamism and Feminism: Women's Resistance and Rebellion in Post-revolutionary Iran', Retrieved from:

Salime, Z., (2011), "New Texts Out Now: Zakia Salime, Between Feminism and Islam: Human

Rights and Sharia Law in Morocco" Retrieved from:

Salime, Z., (2012). "A New Feminism? Gender Dynamics in Morocco's February 20th

Movement," Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5),… [read more]

Willa Cather's O Pioneers and the Frontier Female Roles Term Paper

… ¶ … woman who has the qualities and merits that enable her to break the fence of gender roles in her society. This woman is a character from a novel, but she exemplifies all the groundbreaking steps that women took in the late nineteenth century, in order to pave the way for suffrage and women's equality. It is important to study the framework of women during this time in American history, because it helps to illuminate the patterns that constructed the first real human rights movement for gender equality, which had express, expedient, and unequivocal political goals. Furthermore, this analysis reveals the specific ways that historical context and social milieu converge, as the character under analysis was a lone female pioneer in the American West. This context offers unique social, economic, and political considerations. There were indeed changes taking place in the broader patriarchal culture that enabled women like this to succeed and become role models for women in future generations to emulate and aspire to becoming in other social and political contexts. The woman in question is Alexandra Bergson, the Swedish-American protagonist of Willa Cather's novel O Pioneer!

Although women of the 19th century American West enjoyed a considerable amount of human rights like the rights of inheriting lands, working in some jobs, such as teaching and nursing, they faced many challenges and problems that spoiled their enjoyment of these limited rights. Women in the nineteenth century American West were described in many historical and literary contexts as being secondary and marginal. The traditional roles of women in the American West society at that time viewed woman as being nurturer, wives and sometimes prostitutes. In other words, woman, as far as most of the frontier literary and historical contexts can tell, is "an object," a spoil of war or the warriors' "fame." Woman is something that helps or prevents the adventurer but she is not the adventurer herself (Quawas).

In fact, gender played critical role in the determination of roles or role allocation in the context of the American West society. Women's roles and gender differentiation stand "at the crossroads of history," and relate to "eternal philosophical questions of mind-body duality, nature vs. civilization, and private-public equilibrium," (Fraisse 48). It is ideal to note that roles were executed in relation to one's gender. There were roles specifically for men and women in the society because of their gender differences. Women focused on the execution of home roles such as household chores, child bearing, rearing, making meals, taking care of the husband, and enhancing the image and reputation of the family and home. Men in… [read more]

Women in the Ancient World Essay

… She also defended her inheritance and her sister's inheritance when her parents' will was challenged in court: her husband praises her for this, because by her actions she not only protected herself and her sister, but also the husband whom she had not even formally married at that point.

The woman described in the eulogy does seem extraordinary -- although an orphan, she took care of her husband's mother as if she was her own. She is praised for her fidelity, obedience, rationality, modesty, piety, and even her wool-making skills over the forty-year marriage. The husband notes that divorce is common, but he says that he wishes he had died first, given how virtuous his wife was and how much he loved her. His list of her virtues show what was valued in women by Roman society, although her actions suggest a character as strong and determined as any man, in terms of how she fought for her rights and the rights of her family. Her husband was forced to flee Rome at one point, and she provided for him financially and publically begged for his life, at tremendous risk to herself. Her husband is well aware of the fact that he owes his life to her. The eulogy is moving and clearly shows a couple which was loving towards one another -- but it also shows how, even though women were denied the same active role in public life as men, that they were capable of acts of genuine heroism.

Of course, it should be noted that, despite the traditional constructs Medea, Lysistrata and the unnamed Roman wife embody, these are still complex portraits of women. Even her detractors admit that Medea is more sinned against than sinning as a wife. Despite her rampant sexuality and desire for her husband to return to the bedroom permanently, Lysistrata makes an informed and intelligent critique of the reasons for the civil war. The Roman wife sustained her husband in his hour of direst need and showed a level of intelligence and loyalty in economic and political affairs that surpassed most men. Even when women are stereotyped in terms of the roles that they play, there is still complexity.

Christine de Pizan's The City of Ladies functions as a direct reply to both misogynistic and limited conceptions of what women can attain. Her allegorical book shows the author being schooled by 'Lady Reason' and 'Lady Rectitude' and 'Lady Justice' of the great feats of intelligence, loyalty, and virtue that can be embodied by women. While admittedly, the character of Christine does accept to some degree the terms men have set for female virtue in her celebration of chastity as one of the virtues (many of the women she praises are saints and martyrs), she also makes a compelling argument for female equality in education. Fundamentally, Lady Reason argues that human beings were made in God's image, not man alone, and that women can embody godlike spiritual qualities as men just as women… [read more]

Feminist Rhetorical Theory. Women Term Paper

… By communicating the similarities between real live women but at the same time denouncing the stereotypes of what society says a woman should be, the females of the world may yet achieve equality. In the present historical moment, women have achieved a level of equality which had been unknown to members of the sex in the past. There are women presidents in certain countries, women in charge of large corporations, women in every industry and field. However, some feminist rhetorical theorists state that women have still not achieved a position of social equality with their male counterparts and this is evident by examining the artifacts of our culture (Foss 3-4). The focus should now be upon the means which are necessary to achieve equality and the rhetoric which is involved in the incitement of feminist action.

One limitation which can be perceived in feminist rhetorical theory is that to discuss it, a person must believe in its validity. It demands that a person accept that the minimization of women historically is factual. They must also admit that it is still present in the modern era even if evidence to the contrary suggests that there is now gender equality. Whereas some other theories might have a bit more room for opinion, this particular theory demands that the basic tenets be accepted.

Part III: Conclusion

Feminist rhetorical theory was controversial when it was first broached because people either did not want to believe that women were an oppressed group or they did see this but did not believe there was anything wrong with women being marginalized. It seems that the words that are used to describe women, either by the oppressive patriarchy or by women themselves are the key in either achieving gender equality or in continuing the system of oppression which has been the reality up to this point.

Works Cited

Cixous, H., Cohen, K, & Cohen, P. (1976). The laugh of the Medusa. Signs. 1(4). The University

of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. 875-93.

Foss, S. & Griffin, C. (2003). Beyond persuasion: a… [read more]

Feminist Scholars Such as Cixous, Foss Term Paper

… ¶ … feminist scholars such as Cixous, Foss and Griffin, Fraser, Anzaldua, and the authors of the essays in the hip hop feminism anthology, rethought rhetorical concepts?

Feminism is a concept that makes even those persons thought to be practicing… [read more]

Women's History and Policy Opinion Piece Essay

… Women's History And Policy Opinion Piece

Historically, the political arena has been a stronghold of the masculine gender. The representation of the feminine gender has been equivalent to extremely minor or even non-existent in many countries and cultures of the… [read more]

Last Frontier Is Comedy the Last Frontier of Sexism Feminism Research Paper

… ¶ … Frontier: Is Comedy the Last Frontier of Sexism/Feminism?

Humor: The last frontier of sexism?

A woman has served as Secretary of State -- but can women be funny? It might seem that women have broken down virtually every barrier that exists in the workforce. The idea of allowing women to serve on the front lines of combat is now being debated as a very serious question in the public discourse. But the old question remains: can women be funny? Of course, women have frequently served as the object of humor, such as the zany Lucy in I Love Lucy or the fat old nurse in Romeo and Juliet. But the question of whether women themselves can be the orchestrators of humor is still debated.

In 2007, the British pundit Christopher Hitchens wrote an article for Vanity Fair entitled. "Why Women Aren't Funny." "Precisely because humor is a sign of intelligence (and many women believe, or were taught by their mothers, that they become threatening to men if they appear too bright), it could be that in some way men do not want women to be funny. They want them as an audience, not as rivals."[footnoteRef:1] Humor, in other words, is a male wooing tool, and men feel uncomfortable if women seem to master humor, much the way in which some men feel unsettled when they meet a woman who can change a tire on a car. [1: Christopher Hitchens, "Why women aren't funny," Vanity Fair, January 2007, Available: [19 Apr 2013]]

Of course, those who would protest Hitchens' analysis would note that many extremely frank female comedians now have laudable careers. The Korean-American comedian Margaret Cho, for example, is well-known for her uncensored, tell-it-like-it-is style. Cho frequently makes fun of homophobia, fat phobia, and her parents.[footnoteRef:2] Cho is not an object of humor: her humor lies in the fact that she turns the stereotypes of modern society around that could hurt her into weapons. Another comedian, Lisa Lampanelli, is well-known for being the queen of insults, and is unafraid to make politically incorrect jokes when on the stage. However, these comedians could be seen as 'proving' Hitchens' points as much as circumventing them, because both of them are comfortably outside the conventional stereotypes of femininity. Margaret Cho is Asian; Lampanelli is overweight. So long as women… [read more]

Women or Women in Important Essay

… Here experiences do not inherently make her a figure of historical importance but the fact that she reports them 30 years later in this autobiographical text does provide us with considerable insight into a period of great historical importance.

Indeed, Ginzburg was only one of many millions of Russians who would be falsely accused of political dissent by the Stalin administration. Ginzburg's imprisonment in 1937 is an experience she would share with countless others over her 18 years in captivity. In her recounting of the ordeal, Ginzburg ultimately pulls back the veil on an experience that was devastatingly common during this tumultuous period in Russian history. The Stalinist purges remain one of the darkest moments in the history of a country saturated in historical darkness. As such, the autobiographically channeled work is more directly about the Russian civilian and political experiences that marked this time than it is about the woman at the center of the story. In fact, while gender always marks individual experiences in some way, the fact that Ginzburg is a woman seems to register with less importance than the fact of her political orientation. This tells us much about Stalinist Russia, which it may be said practices equal opportunity political oppression.

Ginzburg's encounters with Stalinist officials are especially revealing of an increasingly insane world around her. This world is truly the central subject of the text. In one such exchange, for instance, she learns of the maniacally dishonest tactics used by Stalin's men to enforce this oppression. Ginzburg recalls an interrogator; "you realize, of course…that the regional committee has agreed to your arrest. Everything has come out. Elvov gave you away. That husband of yours, Aksyonov -- he's been arrested too, and he's come clean. He's a Trotskyist too, of course." (Ginzburg, 62) This is the moment when Ginzburg realizes that she's trapped in a distorted reality where her captors will say and do anything to justify her imprisonment.

For Ginzburg, just as for Marsh and Caillaux before her, the events of history and politick have had a defining impact on her life. In turn, her life becomes a constructive window through which to understand these historical events. Ironically, in this broader discussion about gender, the fact that each of these characters happens to be a woman is less important than the historical time and place that each stands to represent.

Works Cited:

Berenson, E. (1993). The Trial of Madam Caillaux. University of California Press.

Colley, L. (2007). The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History. Pantheon.… [read more]

Women's Suffrage in the 19th Century Term Paper

… Women's Suffrage In The 19th Century

Although the right of women in the U.S. To vote for their preferred political candidates was finally guaranteed through an amendment to the constitution in 1920, the struggle to secure this right had begun… [read more]

Women and Islam Do Muslim Term Paper

… S. government in specific, and governments world over use media representation to their own political benefits as opposed to the benefit of those being imaged as oppressed in the representation. This also indicates that media misrepresentation and use of these images, visual and textual, by governments is widespread.

Findings of the article

The article concludes by observing that the author is a native observant and can effectively narrate and relate to the image of Fatana that has been misrepresented by Armstrong (1997). The author concludes that since Fatana and Naima are very limited in their political empowerment but the popular representation of Muslim women in the media and work of theorists pushes Fatana, Naima, and the likes of the author into a reactive-defense of an identity that these subjects of representation would not have defended or owned in their home countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan. In fact, the author remarks that neither does she agree with representation of her and Fatana and Naima's identity as portrayed neither in their home countries nor in the countries of their exile.

Strengths and weaknesses

The article is methodologically much stronger as compared to the previous article. It adopts a framework in which interviews of one refugee girl called Naima and the Afghan girl Fatana are taken as to dissect the representation of their image by the interviewer. The article is also based on the methodology adopted by Joan Scott's (1992) work in which historical aspect is deemed necessary to draw a narrative about identity.

The weakness of article is related the non-empirical method used by the researcher. No statistical tool was used to validate the findings of the article and only construction of arguments was relied upon for presentation of the case argument.


Abu-Lughod, L. (2002). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. American Anthropologist, 104(3), 783-790.

Armstrong, S. (1997). "Veiled threat." Homemaker's, 16-29.

Hesford, W.S., & Kozol, W. (Eds.). (2005). Just advocacy? Women's human rights, transnational feminisms, and the politics of representation. Rutgers University Press.

Khan, S. (2001). Between here and there: feminist solidarity and Afghan women. Genders, 33, 1-26.

Scott, J. (1992)."Experience." In Joan Scott & Judith Butler (Eds.), Feminists theorize the political. NY: Routledge. 22-40.

Shepherd, L.J. (2006). Veiled references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on… [read more]

Byaccapad ) "When White Women Cry Article Critique

… ¶ … byAccapad (2007) "When White Women Cry: How White Women's Tears Oppress Women of Color." The analysis is conducted by a careful review of the article and the study of Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) model. Since PIE model is… [read more]

Women in Management and the Glass Ceiling Has it Been Shattered Models and Best Practices Research Paper

… Women in Management and the Glass Ceiling

In the last 20 years, women have shattered the glass ceiling that once kept them out of senior management positions in business, politics, and the military. In the current modern world, women have… [read more]

Role of Womens Essay

… No dear. It was an ordeal. I applied in 30 medical schools one after the other and 29 rejected me for admission.

Florence: (Surprised) oh really?

Elizabeth: Yess. Only Geneva Medical School allowed me to get admission in 1847. But there were all boys in the class. The teachers were males too. They often did not let me attend the medical demonstration but, anyhow, time passed. I graduated with flying marks and stood first in my class. By the way, you tell, how are you going with your cause?

Florence: Hmm. (smiled). I also regard the support from my father. You know what, he is a landowner but actively involved in anti-slavery movement. I feel for people a lot. There is so much categorization and discrimination in the society. I have seen my father fight against all these things and I am also determined to exalt nursing form a low class profession to an esteemed field.

Elizabeth: Did your father allowed you to become a nurse? I mean you belong to a wealthy family. It is really difficult to ignore the status and join a low esteemed profession.

Florence: (smiled). It was after meeting you when I decided that I would not give up and try again. You know, when I met you for the first time, I had interest in medicine but had no idea what to do. My father did not allow me to join nursing and I was just depressed what to do. But then, yes, following your advice of consistent effort, I persuaded him to allow me to enter nursing.

Elizabeth: Nice… so how are you doing these days? Have you joined some hospital or what?

Florence: I am more towards nursing administration now, travelling to various parts to help the people. I have trained team of nurses and we all move to the areas where epidemic diseases like malaria and cholera break up.

Elizabeth: oh yes, I know & #8230;. You went to Crimea war as well. Perhaps this was the event which made you National Heroine; an inspiration for thousand of ladies of present society. (smiled)

Florence: (smiled too), Yes. I was feeling much for the soldiers who get injured at battlefield and no treatment is available to them. So I and my team volunteered to go there and looked after them. I found another female, Mary Seacole, who was looking after the patients quite close to battlefield. (pause then smile) It seems women are capable of doing many things and they are doing as well.

Elizabeth: Yes. Females can do many things. I feel that particularly in this 19th century, they should strive to unleash their potential to the maximum extent and play their role in the social development as well.

Florence: You are right. Women should realize their responsibilities as members of society and contribute in its betterment as well. The encouragement is rooted in accomplishment. We should not be afraid of challenges. If we start striving now, the next generation woman… [read more]

Awakening Mother-Women ( Adele Ratignolle) Essay

… Indeed, the only rest Edna's mother got from raising her daughters was when she died. Perhaps it is that example that teaches Edna how she could "elude" her children by committing suicide. It is important for readers to realize, however, that she does so in order to stay true to her own self, her own perceptions and impulses, which society demands she forsake for the sakes of her children and her domesticated role. Because Edna is too vibrant and effervescent to willingly renounce her true virtue, those things she believes in and that make life worth experiencing, her only option is to kill herself, completing the tragedy in this tale which virtually all women endure.

The lone example that Edna has for pursuing her new existence, that of following her dreams and her perceptions that inhabited her since her days of a child, is Mademoiselle Reisz. An accomplished pianist, Reisz encouraged Edna to explore her own artistry as a painter and to pursue the romantic feelings she has for Robert. These actions are diametrically opposed to the virtues of a mother that society imposes and that Adele upholds. The following description of Mrs. Reisz confirms as much. "She was a disagreeable little woman, no longer young, who had quarreled with almost everyone, owing to a temper that was self-assertive and a disposition to trample upon the rights of others" (Chopin). This description is the exact opposite of that in the aforementioned quotation describing Adele's aptitude for motherhood. Whereas the former is attractive Mrs. Reisz is described as not "young" -- which is a euphemism for unattractive. She is cantankerous, quarrelsome, and above all else, not a mother. With her sullen disposition that cares little for the needs of "others," Chopin's description of her suggests that she would not make a good mother. An yet, it was Mrs. Reisz's piano playing was the initial impetus for Edna's awakening, and she remains a faithful bridge between her and Robert during the latter's travels abroad. Yet she is everything that Adele is not, talented, ill-humored, and far from nurturing, which helps to complete the author's definition of what a good mother is -- which is virtually everything that Mrs. Reisz is not.

The true tragedy in this tale is not just the death of Edna, but the death of all women who willingly submit to the loss of their true selves. Chopin utilizes this tragedy to demonstrate the fact that what society perceives as a good mother is a woman who gives up everything for her family and children. Edna, who once told Adele she would give up everything for her children but her fundamental self, is unwilling to make this sacrifice so there is no other option for her due to societal pressures other than to kill herself. What is truly significant about this concept of motherhood and the level of sacrifice involved and the toll that it actually exerts on women is the fact that this perception has changed somewhat in… [read more]

Puritan Woman Puritan Women Essay

… She also lost her youngest child at six years of age, during her time in captivity (Rowlandson, 1682). Despite all the pain and suffering she endured, however, Rowlandson continued to write about her love for God and how she trusted Him through everything. She talks about the sovereignty of God and addresses "the faithfulness of his promises displayed" (Rowlandson, p. 7). That was an important and vital part of life for Puritan women, but they also had their husbands on which to rely for some parts of life. They could count on having a home to go to and children to care for, but they could also expect to be disciplined if they did not do things the way their husbands expected. This included marital relations, which were a "duty" of both men and women (Rowlandson, 1682). Rowlandson also said about her time in captivity "the Lord hereby would make us the more acknowledge His hand, and to see that our help is always in Him" (Rowlandson, p. 8).

Being a puritan woman proved, at times, to be an obstacle to personal expression within the Puritan community, because women were expected to play very defined roles that did not always coincide with the ability to truly express themselves openly (Coffey & Lim, 2008). If a woman had a serious problem with her husband and the way he was treating her, for example, she could not simply tell him off and/or threaten to divorce him. That was not acceptable. She had to keep her thoughts and feelings to herself, although it was possible to talk with other women if she trusted them to keep her confidence. Telling others about family problems had to be done very carefully if it was going to be done at all, because women were supposed to be submissive to their husbands and not disrespect them for any reason. Talking poorly about them could be seen as disrespectful, and that could lead to a woman being disciplined by her husband because of the way she was acting (Coffey & Lim, 2008).

Each and every Puritan woman was unique, but they were all the same in the way they were expected to act. They saw their husbands as gifts, and they wanted to please their husbands and be one with them (Coffey & Lim, 2008). The abuse that they sometimes took at the hands of the men they married was just a part of life for them, and it was generally accepted to treat women as second class because they were not seen as being equal to men in their capabilities or their intellect (Coffey & Lim, 2008). With that in mind, however, women did have a strong role in taking care of the family and ensuring that the children were raised properly when they were very young. As children got a bit older, the women were encouraged to back off from doting on them so that the children could grow up and become young adults who were… [read more]

Interdisciplinary Studies Bis Academic Disciplines Communication and Women Research Paper

… Communications and Women's Studies

While academic scholarship shares a number of techniques and approaches, different disciplines, particularly in the social sciences, attempt to delineate answers to questions in sometimes divergent ways. For example, an anthropologist and a sociologist might study… [read more]

Historical Social Movement Abolition and Woman Suffrage Essay

… ¶ … Social Movement -Abolition & Woman Suffage

Abolition Questions:

Stewart and Truth both managed to instill intense feelings in their audiences primarily because of their courage and because they were well-acquainted with the fact that they needed to have people emotionally involved in their stories in order to be listened properly. These women provided audiences with unquestionable arguments and made it possible for people to understand that things were going to change in the future.

By claiming that "white men will be in a fix pretty soon" (Truth 26), Truth demonstrated that she was well-acquainted with the fact that reform was around the corner. Similarly, Stewart emphasizes that suffering does not happen in vain and that future communities are going to learn from all of the pain that her people experienced (Stewart 3).

Truth was a wonderful orator and this is perfectly exemplified at the point when she relates to Christ's background with the purpose of amusing the audience. Her talent makes it possible for people to agree with her and to support her in spite of the fact that she criticizes notable individuals (Truth 26).

Douglass does not hesitate to introduce vivid imagery regarding the wrongness that he associated with the institution of slavery and makes it possible for people to understand that it is a corrupt concept. By combining humor with criticism he manages to send the overall right message concerning slavery and its injustice (Douglass 11).

3. The Campbell version of Truth's speech is more colorful as it presents how the audience reacts to the speaker's thinking. Campbell made it possible for readers to understand that the audience actually appreciated Truth and supported her words.

The other version of Truth speech is longer, but fails to portray an image concerning the atmosphere present as the woman expressed her thinking freely. Furthermore, this version accentuates the fact that Campbell speaks from the perspective of an African-American as if this was important when considering that the speech was mainly intended to criticize gender differences.

4. Frederick Douglass considered that the American people as a whole were wrong in celebrating the Fourth of July as long as they continued to accept slavery as an essential part of the country's traditions. By using the words 'you' and 'your' he wanted to highlight that African-Americans had no place in celebrating the day.

By claiming that "it is the birthday of your national independence, and of your political freedom" (Douglass… [read more]

Women and Unemployment Gender Identity Essay

… Further, there is little evidence that professional women are opting out of their position to adopt more traditional roles as wives and mothers.

Essentially, the trend appears to be that younger women, middle-aged women, and even older women who are actively engaged in professional working environments are feeling ever more actualized and valued for their expertize. There is really no "opt-out revolution" of scads of women leaving professions to raise children, and even more important, there does not seem to be the socio-cultural bias that they should. Simply put, there are more professional women than ever before, there are more women executives than ever before, and some of the research trends in salary and wage gap, while true, are not necessarily indicative of all levels of cohorts or of 21st century trends. It is also important to note that most professional women, even those with young children, are working more than ever in their quest to balance a personal and professional life. The importance for women is that there is now a paradigm shift that says it is possible for "working women to successfully combine these roles [career and motherhood] by making great personal sacrifices, including curtailing their sleep, civic involvement, or leisure time" (Percheski, p. 513).

What is interesting, though, is that the women's employment levels tend to be constant in the 21st century, which means that any pre-existing wage or responsibility gap will remain. We must then ask, if this is the case, why are there so many media stories, and even academic notions, that the gender gap in the professions is still a tremendous problem of inequality?

There are a few reasons for this. First is the way that many professional women balance becoming a mother and their career? Many reduce their hours (full to part-time), or do not work every working day. Second is the overriding perception that since the 1960s were so long ago, all gender related inequalities in society would be solved and now absent. Instead, there is still proof that overall, "women's employment experiences still do not resemble those of men" (Percheski, p. 514). There are more women in professional jobs, but there may not be a drastic number of new professional jobs due to economic restraints. Thus, the real trend, rather than an opting-out cadre, is that women are even more persistent despite challenges (Percheski, p. 514). Keeping up the challenge is indeed a robust experience, but from the data, one not likely to change anytime soon.


Baron-Cohen, Simon. (2003). The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus.

Collinson, David and Jeff Hearn. (1994). Men, Women, and Organizations. Gender,

Work and Organization. 1(1): 2-22.

Percheski, C. (2008). Opting Out? Cohort Differences in Professional Women's Employment Rates from 1960 to 2005. American Sociological Review. 73 (3): 497-515. Retrieved from:

Unger, R. (2004).… [read more]

Women and Men Research Paper

… G. And Pennington B., 2004).

The success of the process of development to be a woman or man determines what society refers one as -- a woman or a man. According to (Darwin C., 1859) the process of development is clear to show that the making part of it is through cohesive action of the agent of socialization. These agents despite having a little effect of the final outcome influence the decision taken once "self" is recognized (Bessant J. And Watts R., 2007).

I agree that women and men are made since the society plays a critical role in helping on to recognize self. It is also clear to see that the self would be lost should the development process be shunned. Self-worth of an individual lacks and, this will impact negatively on what one eventually becomes.


ANDOLINA M.W., JENKINS K., ZUKIN C. & KEETER, S. 2003. Habits from Home, Lessons from School: Influences on Youth Civic Engagement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 36, 275-280.

BECK-GERNSHEIM E. 1998. On the Way to a Post-Familial Family: From a Community of Need to Elective Affinities. Theory, Culture & Society, 15, 53-70.

BENNER D.G. & PENNINGTON B. 2004. The Gift of Being Yourself: The Sacred Call to Self-Discovery, InterVarsity Press.

BESSANT J. & WATTS R. 2007. Sociology Australia 3rd edition, Australia, Allen & Unwin.

DARWIN C. 1859. The Origin of Species, New York, Modern Library.

FRANK L.K. 1948. What Families Do for the Nation. American Journal of Sociology, 53, 471-473.

GOTTLIEB G. 2000. "Environmental and behavioural influences on gene activity.." Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 93-97.

MEAD G.H. 1934. The Self: Classical Sociology Theory, Massachusetts, Malden Mass; Blackwell.

SIGELMAN C.K. & RIDER E.A. 2006. Life-Span Human Development, Belmont, Wadsworth Cengage Learning., California,… [read more]

Sociology of Women Family Essay

… A fat woman would be highly criticized for her plump figure whereas a man would not be ridiculed quite as much.

This is another assertion of the patriarchal society that we have come to live in. Women in our society… [read more]

Solitude Distinctive Women Essay

… ¶ … Solitude

Distinctive Women

There is an extremely perceptible difference between the women of the Buendia family and those that are outside that family in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's novel One Hundred Years of Solitude. That difference is actually fairly pronounced, and may in part be due to the proclivity towards incest that characterizes the lineage of this family in Marquez's work of literature. However, whereas most of the other women who are not a part of this family are more quintessentially feminine in the conventional, traditional way (meaning they are demure, assenting, domesticated lovers who are only happy in such a role), the Buendia women are noticeably different in this regard. Perhaps this fact is attributable to the reality that most of the other women outside of this family are encountered by the male figures in the clan in the roles as lovers. For the most part, however, the women in the Buendia family are staid lovers, not prone to immense displays of affection towards their male suitors, and largely incapable of the domestic bliss that most of the other women depicted in this novel seem to want (and which most women in general appear to desire), since only two of these women produce children. This distinction keeps these women standoffish, aloof, and prone to a sense of power and entitlement that eludes the other female characters in the novel.

One of the most salient examples of the aforementioned proclivities of the Buendia women is that of Amaranta. Although she has a couple of different lovers over the years while living in the relatively isolated town of Macondo, Amaranta never fully submits to any of them and proves untamable and unwilling to acquiesce to typical domestic bliss. As such, she iss able to keep a sense of power in these relationships which the following quotation, in which family matriarch Ursula Iguaran Buendia reflects upon the former's values and tendencies, readily indicates.

Amaranta, however, whose hardness of heart frightened her, whose concentrated bitterness made her bitter, suddenly became clear…and she understood…the unjust tortures to which she had submitted Pietro Crespi had not been dictated by…vengeance… nor had the slow martyrdom with which she had frustrated…Colonel Gerineldo Marquez (Marquez).

This quotation demonstrates that Amaranta is certainly an atypical lover, particularly during the timeframe depicted in One Hundred Years of Solitude. Her depiction as a character who embodies "bitterness" with a singular "hardness" of affection suggests the extent to which she refuses to submit to two of her principle lovers, Crespi and Marquez. Furthermore, her treatment of both of these lovers, described as "unjust tortures" and a "slow martyrdom" is anything but typical of the loving care offered by other female lovers not in the Buendia family. Amaranta's… [read more]

Professions for Women Essay

… ¶ … Professions for Women," in which she talks about "killing the Angel in the House," is an ideal artifact for ideological criticism, because Woolf is interested in simultaneously destroying a specific ideological product while creating one of her own.… [read more]

Canadian Feminism Expression, Action, Rebellion Research Proposal

… Others argue that Canadian feminist media is effective and there is a lot more evidence of it now than in previous decades. The research would seek questions to this answers, further elucidated the validity of the sides of the debate… [read more]

Women's Roles in New England Research Paper

… There were many women in Colonial society who took on lives of entrepreneurship, although most of these women were widowed, or had never been married. Essentially, most women who did enter the workplace were absent of the role of the wife and thus the home care taker. This then allowed them to work in an acceptable manner within a society that did require strict roles for women who were married and with families to look after.

Despite strict gender roles, women still found a way to take part in the monumental movement for independence. There were some instances of women throwing gender stereotypes out of the window, some even dressed as men to take part in the fight for independence. Yet, such cases were rare. Most women took on less controversial roles within the war effort. Because of their submissive roles within the home, many women were banned for the most part from participating within politics (Berkin 1997). Thus, "women were locked out of 'large politics' of government," and so were not the decision makers or influencers necessarily within the tumultuous period before the Revolutionary War (Berkin 1997 p 11). Still, this did not stop many women from participating in the fight for independence entirely. Many women supported the war effort from their more acceptable domestic capacities (Smith 2008). There is the example of the Homespun Movement, which shows how many women did what they could to help the war effort without overstepping their gender boundaries. Women refused to allow members of the society to wear British made clothing, or use other domestic goods being imported by England, who was charging steep importing taxes. Women spun and wove homemade clothing for their families, and even for the troops (Smith 2008).

Overall, women played a fundamental role in the evolving nature of colonial society in an emerging nation. They served as the foundation for social, religious, and even political endeavors. Most women were the silent supporters of their male counterparts, and although their actions were restricted, their passions were not.


Berkin, Carol. (1997). First Generations: Women in Colonial America. Macmillan.

Jennings, John. (2003). The ladies' defence. Revolution & Romanticism. Web.

Library of Congress. (1782). Verses, made on the sudden death of six young women and one boy, who were drowned at Jamestown. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Web.

Middleton, Richard & Lombard, Anne. (2011). Colonial America: A History to 1763. John Wiley & Sons.

Smith, Merril D. (2008). Women's Roles in Seventeenth-Century America. Greenwood Press. [read more]

Canebrake Night Woman Sex Essay

… One day, he will grow too old to be told that a wandering man is a mirage and that naked flesh is a dream. I will tell him that his father has come, that an angel brought him back from Heaven for a while." In other words, she will continue to lie to him. She will tell the boy that his father has returned, at least for a little while. The story ends with the little boy asking if he's missed another angel, the prostitute responds by saying, "Darling, the angels have themselves a lifetime to come to us." The truth is one day she's going to run out of angels (or lies) and her son will become disillusioned with her storytelling and prevarication.

It was the purpose of this paper to discuss how the female protagonist in "The Canebrake" by Mohammed Mrabet and "Night Woman" by Edwidge Danticat use sex to get what they want. In "The Canebrake," the theme of feminine empowerment through the exploitation of sex fleshes itself out in positive way. The affair gives the husband and the wife a chance to reboot their marriage on an equal playing field. In other words, the sex pays off for the female protagonist. However, in "Night Woman," the theme is complicated and ends on a more dubious note. That is, women who use sex to gain influence, money, and power are going to be held accountable for their actions. One day, they will have to answer to the people they love. They will have to explain the truth; because we live in one world, not two. [read more]

Europe Women's Suffrage Most Countries Research Paper

… Austria had only a small-scale campaign for women's suffrage in the 19th Century, and women were allowed only very limited participation in local and municipal elections, though male proxies.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Brigitta Bader-Zaar, "Women in Austrian Politics, 1890-1934" in David F.… [read more]

Nursing and Women's Roles Pre-And-Post Thesis

… Thomas Branagan wrote in The Excellency of the Female Character Vindicated that men would "sin and sin again" because they could not help themselves (quoted by Welter, 47). But a woman, Branagan asserted, was "stronger and purer" and had the… [read more]

Post-Feminist Society Contemporary Feminist Advocacy Essay

… Indeed, a 20-year-old college student interviewed by USA Today stated that it is "unattractive" for a woman to talk about feminism and will earn her a reputation of being "pushy, problematic or troublesome" (Goudreau, 2011).

The one thing that has not changed in the intervening years since the political became personal is that some women participate in organizations, while others focus on having conversations and not talking points. A substantial amount of the activism of young feminists occurs online. That said, formal organizations for younger feminists are cropping up. The Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF) and the Feminist Majority Foundation Alliance (FMFA) utilize a university campus venue to inform young feminists about women's rights issues. The focus of FMF is very much grassroots, but the group organizes at the national and global levels, too. Using a study to action platform, the campus programs of FMF work to provide opportunities for students to learn broaden their understanding of feminist issues, deepen their capacity for community organization and leadership, and meaningfully connect with the larger feminist and pro-choice movements.


As far back in time as 1966, the National Organization of Women (NOW) officially recognized the impact that media has on the lives of women, fighting for media justice for women by creating The Media Hall of Shame. The 2008 presidential elections brought attention to media misogyny at heightened levels. Women like Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Michelle Obama have been targets of extraordinarily blatant sexist and racist attacks, the likes of which American hasn't seen since the days when civil rights marchers filled the streets. Historically, women who are in the public eye -- and public office -- or their families have been fodder for gender-based slurs and victims of the double standard. For example, Chelsea Clinton was referred to as the "dog" of the White House by Rush Limbaugh when she was just 13 years old. All women and girls are stereotyped and demeaned when the media steps over the line in this manner.


Coffey, L.T. (2011, October 11). Girl Project' reveals what teens are really thinking. Today People. Retrieved

Dow, B.J. (2003). Feminism, Miss America, and media mythology. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6 (1), 127 -- 150.

Faludi, Susan, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (Three Rivers Press, 2006)

Feminist Majority Foundation, Choices Campus Leadership Program. (2011). Retrieved

Goldberg, S. (2012, January 27). Mean girls: Fighting on reality TV. Retrieved

Goudreau, J. (2011, December 12). Who's Afraid of Post-Feminism? What It Means To Be A Feminist Today. Forbes. Retrieved


McRobbie, A. (2004). Post-feminism and popular culture. Feminist Media Studies, 4 (3), 255 -- 264.

National Organization of Women… [read more]

Lives of Women in Archaic Athens? Unheard Essay

… ¶ … lives of women in archaic Athens?

Unheard voices from Ancient Greece

Although there is much controversy regarding conditions in Ancient Greece due to the little information that was passed on through the centuries, it is generally accepted that… [read more]

Sensibility Women's Identities Term Paper

… And surely, with her more mature self? awareness, Elinor has few peers with whom to share intimate feelings. Yet there is a sense of desolation with which Elinor handles her emotional trials, so that with all her praise of Elinor,… [read more]

Treatment of Women in Mad Essay

… A lot of feelings are unspoken, so that's kind of been fun to play with" (Hardy). A high concept film is not played largely "in the eyes" of a character. The fact that negotiations -- very public negotiations -- for… [read more]

Violation of Women Rights in India Term Paper

… Women's Rights In India

Violation of Women's Rights in India

As a fast-growing economy and the largest democracy of the world, India struggles with numerous human rights issues in its attempt to strengthen its position in the world: politically, economically,… [read more]

Women's Roles the Changing Research Paper

… Therefore, there is a dire need to address this issue responsibly whereby the first step is to implement the written laws which promise a higher status of women. To achieve this, the world needs a fair and an accountable law enforcing body which not only entertains female participation in different realms of life but also take the responsibility of the security and fair and equal treatment of women in these facets of life. Such steps along with several other changes would then play an important role in combating the existent sexism in the world.


Chakrapani C. 1994. Changing status and role of women in Indian society. M.D. Publications. Retrieved 8th December, 2011 (

EOWA statistics. 2011. Labor Market Statistics. Australia.

Freedman J. 2001. Feminism. Buckingham. Philadelphia. Open University Press.

Jones, Karen H. 2006. "Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century." Journal of Career and Technical Education 22 (2). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (

Kambouri H. 2008. Feminine Jobs/Masculine Becomings: Gender and Identity in the Discourse of Albanian Domestic Workers in Greece. European Journal of Women's Studies 15 (7-22). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (

Marchese E. 2008. No Women Allowed: Exclusion and Accountability in Men's Anti-Rape Group. Journal of International Women's Studies 9 (2). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (

OECD Labor Force Statistic. 2002. Gender and Labor Market Participation. OECD Quarterly labour Force Statistics 2002 (1). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 (

Thomas A. 2009. Views of Intimate Partner Violence in Same- and Opposite-Sex Relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family 71(2). Retrieved on 8th December, 2011 (

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. 2011. Progress of the world's women. Sustainable Forestry Initiative. USA. [read more]

Carol Christ Talks About Women Term Paper

… It seems, then, that whenever the race or gender seems confident and able in their abilities, they publicize their power of creativity, and make God as themselves. Rather than their following God, God has to follow them. God, too, seems to be fickle in his political tastes, for instance, siding here with Zionist nationalists who claim the land belongs to them, whilst siding simultaneously with Islamists who claim the land theirs; and then God sides with Irish nationalists and with the Taliban, and with Bush in the White House and with anti-abortionists who burn clinics, whilst God is also a skinhead and a White supremacist. God is so many things. Rather than man having been created in his image, man smug in his ability of creating, have turned God into theirs. And at oen time, man, who -- for whatever reason -- despised, felt threatened by, hated woman -- made god into a misogynist.

Women have now come into their own power of creation and acclaiming their unique abilities as creative, have imbued themselves with sufficient esteem to prevent man from oppressing them. It is no surprise accordingly, that in this heretofore unprecedented age of female esteem, where woman sees herself as creator, woman now calls herself Goddess and speak of God as Mother as well as Father. Woman has come into her own, and having come into her own asserts a power that she once never felt. With assertion of that power, come the ability to not only be liberated but to feel herself on the par of God. Nay, to be a God.

It is for that reason that women can hold ritual ceremonies o f birthing themsves from their birth canals and smearing menstruation blood on their faces as symbol of richness and creations. It is for that reason too that Ntosake Shange can have a tall beautiful black woman, in her Broadway play, rise from despair to cry out, "I found God in myself and I loved her fiercely.":

Her discovery is echoed by women around the country who meet spontaneously in small groups on full moons, solstices, and equinoxes to celebrate the Goddess as symbol of life and death powers and waxing and waning energies in the universe and in themselves

The goddess symbol was first seen to have emerged in the 1970s with the Woman Spirit magazine and the Lady Unique journal as well as conventions set to healrd a woman god. The times were prescient for a female Creator. The Omnipotent She emerged when woman came unto their own.

Woman is no longer dependent on man. She has become a creator. And, therefore, just as man did and does, she too has created God in her own image.


Christ, Carol P. "Why Women Need the Goddess: Phenomenological, Psychological, and Political Reflections (1978)." In Theorizing Feminisms, edited by Elizabeth Hackett and Sally Haslanger, 211-19. New York:… [read more]

Women's History Research Paper

… Women's History Questions

In the early days of the United States, particularly the 1790's, women had a very limited role in public and political life. However, the massive political changes occurring in France influence the role of Women in America.… [read more]

Women and Television: What Roseanne and Sex Term Paper

… Women and Television: What Roseanne and Sex and the City Say About Women

As a pop-culture medium, television has the ability to make instantaneous commentary on the role of women in society, and to acquire immediate feedback about how society… [read more]

Television's New Feminism Prime Time Representations of Women and Victimization Reaction Paper

… New Feminism

When I started reading the abstract of this article, I was particularly struck by the phrase "monstrous maternal," and how it was mentioned in almost the same breath as the phrase "feminist insights." Although I am not a regular Law & Order fan or even an occasional viewer, I was intrigued by this assessment and looked forward to the insights that the article might offer. I was most intrigued by the way the article seemed to generalize the show's depiction of women as either violent to the extreme or non-emotional. The article, for example, generalizes the criminality of the women depicted by claiming that "the criminal women" depicted, i.e. all of them, without exception, use their power in the home to harm those closest to them, and in particular their children. Although I have not watched the show, I find it a little difficult to believe that every female perpetrator in every episode was guilty of this kind of crime.

Another generalization is that feminist elements are generally negatively portrayed in the show, by means of (1) the depiction of sexual assault and (2) women on powerful positions, i.e. those working alongside their male counterparts to solve the crimes in questions and to prosecute the perpetrators.

The authors' claim of negativity in terms of the first is that women are portrayed either as helpless victims or heartless and "monstrous" perpetrators of crime, mostly against their own children. In terms of the second, the authors claim that the women in power are portrayed as somewhat cold and distant, as well as being unable or unwilling to form deep or lasting connections with each other. In other words, this is a departure away from the general conception of women as warm and emotional entities.

My problem with these claims is, once again, that they are a narrow interpretation, without taking into account the context of the show. The first important thing to keep in mind is that it is unlikely that "SVU" was created with feminism at the forefront of its goals. The purpose of the show is, according to those closest to it, to create a realistic and… [read more]

Women and Human Rights Summaries Book Report

… Women and Human Rights Summaries

Perhaps the most useful place to begin any discussion of Asian and Native American women and their relation to feminism is Devon Abbot Misesuah's study of indigenous American women, in which she argues that "because… [read more]

Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology Research Paper

… From their perspective, technology such as the internet can be used as a medium to promote feminist philosophy and principles in order to liberate women from subjugation they experience at the hands of males. Sadie Plant wrote Zeroes+Ones in the… [read more]

Role of Women in Europe After 1945 A-Level Outline Answer

… Role of Women in Europe After 1945

The role of women in the European society after 1945

In the past century the women had experienced more changes and revolutions than it did in the entire history of men. Women progressed and gained power in economics, politics, education, health and other domains. The "feminist movement," started in the Western World, passed through three phases, and the top issues referred to equal pay, the right to vote, maternity leave, domestic violence, sexual harassment and sexual violence. This paper discusses in regard to important business women, women in politics, women scientists, but mostly the role of women in the European society after 1945.

In the wake of WWII, Europeans had to deal with a reconstruction period, considering that most countries on the continent had been severely affected as a result of their involvement in the war. Women were particularly affected by the war, as they were provided with the task of controlling most communities while their husbands, brothers, and sons had to fight on fronts throughout Europe. The suffering that they went through as a result of having to care for the homes actually taught them to be less vulnerable to society's problems and more willing to get engaged in fighting for their families and for rights.

It rapidly became obvious that women were no longer the weak individuals that they were before the war. War changes people and it changes women even more, as they are practically forced to abandon their previous convictions in order to survive.

Although men and women have lived together for centuries, men are typically recognized to have used physical power with the purpose of imposing themselves over women, while women were disrespected, disdained, and left with little to no rights. The "feminist movement" played a crucial part in the emancipation of women from all around the globe. The movement was founded in the United Kingdom and was called "The first-wave" -- this was the feminist activity during the nineteenth and early twentieth century that focused primarily making it possible for women to vote.

The efforts involved in making female emancipation possible brought women equal political and legal rights, the access to education, and the chance to work jobs that were previously available only to men. It also got them the freedom to personal choice, including the freedom to express themselves sexually, even with the fact that the real limits were material and not legal. Women did not have access to birth-control devices, considering that economies… [read more]

Women's Movement and Two Identifications Essay

… Women's Movement And Two Identified

Women's Movement and Two Identities

Comparing the original goals of the women's movement of the 1960s-70s, and NOW's agenda then and today, what are the successes, failures, and unfinished business?

The National Organization for Women (NOW), Neil Armstrong and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) made significant contributions in to American history. As they all played a major role in defining the late 1960's.

NOW was established by a group consisting of 28 men and women. Its founders were: Betty Friedan, Pauli Murray and Shirley Chisholm. They established the organization on June 30, 1966; at the Annual Conference of Commissions on the Status of Women in Washington, D.C. It is a well-known organization of: feminist and human rights activists throughout the United States, with it having a membership of more than 500,000 people. The primary goal of NOW is to: achieve equality for all women and to eradicate all the biases that are present in the society. The organization's actions made it a main force in promoting equality. as, this was giving women more opportunities in: the educational, social, and political posts, amongst others (Barakso, 2004).

NOW's primary issue; is to have a Constitutional amendment ratified. Wherein, it seeks out equal opportunity in: education, employment, politics and Social Security for the women. Moreover, it supports the legalization of abortion, claiming that it is a right of every woman. At the same time, they will assert that this is an: effective birth control, emergency contraception and reproductive procedure. as, the organization seeks to oppose discrimination and racism, claiming that human rights are inseparable, and it commits itself to efforts that prevent the adverse effects of homosexuality. In the past forty-four years, NOW has engaged itself in: activities and programs that raise awareness. While at the same time, they are promoting solutions on: violence against women, economic justice, global feminism, health, marriage / equality and social security.… [read more]

Othermothers in the Women of Brewster Place Research Proposal

… ¶ … Othermothers" in the Women of Brewster Place

In this research proposal, the author this research proposal will compare the strength of relationships between the Women of Brewster Place as compared to the relationship that they each experience with… [read more]

Role of Women in Tibet Research Paper

… Role of Women in Tibet

Women as freedom fighters

Women portrayed as being care takers

Women as keepers of culture

Women portrayed as being career people

Tibetan women as peace keepers

Tibetan women portrayed as great leaders

Tibetan as agriculturalists… [read more]

Symbolism in Women by Alice Walker Essay

… Symbolism in "Women" by Alice Walker

"in many, one:"

Alice Walker's poem "Woman" and the struggle of black women for equality

The history and work of African-American women has often been rendered invisible by historians, even feminist historians. The unique… [read more]

Race Feminism Essay

… ¶ … race is a social, political and ideological construct. Explain the projects of critical race feminism. How have critical race feminists such as bell hooks, Beverly Guy-Sheftall and others explored the history and conditions of slavery, colonialism / neocolonialism, racism and patriarchies to understand the effects of these historical and contemporary forces on the lives of women of color and Black women in particular?

The catalyzing book for modern, Second Wave feminism in America is widely regarded as Betty Friedan's the Feminine Mystique. This book chronicled the frustrated aspirations of women living in the suburbs, women who had been educated in college yet found themselves frustrated and depressed by the enforced, feminine role they had to play in the postwar nuclear family. Some women cheered and sympathized with Friedan's complaints. But some African-American women took a far different point-of-view of Friedan's ideas. Black women had always worked, and continued to work outside the home, even after Rosie the Riveter had been relegated to the kitchen. Black women worked in invisible occupations, such as maids, that were underpaid and overlooked because they were deemed to be menial 'women's work.' Working for African-American women was not empowering, given how demeaning the work (and the pay) they were forced to accept was, and because the work often took them away from their own families, into the alien families of wealthier whites. The work black women performed was so unacknowledged, so silent, it was marginalized even in the rhetoric of white, liberal feminists. Friedan's complaint that she was not 'permitted' to work rang hollow in many African-American women's ears.

Yet Second Wave white feminists, according to the black feminist writer bell hooks, often portrayed themselves as speaking for all women, despite the radically different social experiences of black and white women. This left black women in a quandary: African-American male Civil Rights activists often portrayed themselves as speaking for all black people, without regard to the impact of gender. White feminists pointed with pride to Sojourner Truth's famous speech, chronicling her work and suffering under slavery "ain't I a woman." But they did not fully recognize Truth's implications that work that was not recognized and appropriately compensated was not empowering. Simply working was not the answer for all women. Feminists of the Second Wave spoke about the oppression of… [read more]

Saudi Women's Role in Respect Interview

… Furthermore, the radical transformations and sacrifices required to transcend this contradiction are either undesirable or unbearable." (2004)

The work of Moghadam (2003) reports that the Muslim society holds that women are "different beings - different often meaning inferior in legal… [read more]

Catalyst for Feminism Term Paper

… ¶ … Feminism [...] how I can be a catalyst for feminist change in the future. Change can be large or small, and affect many or few. Everyone can elicit change, in themselves and in others; they just have to be dedicated to making change happen.

I believe that I can be a catalyst for feminist change because of my activities and my actions. I am a Black woman going to school full time. I believe that I can create change in the future when I have finished my education and can enter the working world, using my education to further my career and promote the higher education of Black women. People often talk about underprivileged Black youth growing up in urban areas, but they don't talk about the Black people who educate themselves and become entrepreneurs, business people, and staff members, and I want that to change.

In addition, I'm eight months pregnant as I finish up my degree program. It has been difficult for me to finish my schooling while I'm pregnant, but I believe I am a role model for others. I show that it can be done, and that women can get an education while undergoing other life changes. I am incredibly excited to welcome my child into the world and show him or her all the possibilities that are open to them, and I hope that my life can be a role model to them, as well. I want my child to grow up knowing that they can accomplish anything they set their sight on, and that I will support them in everything they want to accomplish.

Another way I hope to create change is in helping those in need. After the earthquake in Haiti, I adopted a little boy left homeless and orphaned from the quake. True, this is only one child's life, but I hope to make a great, positive change in his life. Bringing him here has already made a difference. When he first came to the country, he was frightened, shy, and withdrawn, as would be expected after his ordeal. Now, he has blossomed, and he is happy, more… [read more]

Bra Burners and Family Bashers Feminism Working Women Consumerism Essay

… Bra Burners

In the reading Bra Burners and Family Bashers, the author discusses the concepts held by different people on family and the role that women have played over time. The author makes a point to discuss lifestyles and the way they are viewed by women and those looking at the way women live. There is constant mention of "normal," "Traditional" lifestyles. It is explained that the early role of the homemaker, the caregiver etc. has over time lost its once significant value and prominence in society. Along with women having more roles that are independent and working outside the home, the homemaker has been lost.

The chapter takes a look at the role of the women in the household, and explains that though she was seen as the homemaker, this was an important and impactful role. However, as time advances and the face of the role that women are playing changes, rank, and authority in that traditional role is forever altered. This alteration is seen as a negative, there is an outcry for a return to the "old values," for this is the time when respect for the home role of women was acknowledged and appreciated. Mothers day is discussed in length in the reading as well, explaining how this was an impactful holiday that actually at one point stood to show homage to the mother, the hub of the family; the one that was viewed as the care taker, and provider of all of the home needs. This view over time has become obscure, and the homage that was once paid is now simply a means of companies monopolizing and increasing their profits.

The chapter goes on to discuss the role of women in the workforce especially married women. It is expressed that at one point only about 16% of the workforce was female. In addition, it was not out of the nor for a woman to leave the workforce to care for small children, until they were of age to be able to work themselves. It was also expressed that in the 1900's the demand for women in the workforce grew, now women were hired in increased number in the clerical field and sales industries. It was not until the 1920's was it viewed by society as okay for a married woman to be working, during this time there was also an increase seen in the number of female workers. It… [read more]

Historical Aspect of Feminism Essay

… Feminism started largely with the temperance movement, as well as within the abolitionist movement. The temperance movement, which sought to ban the legal making, selling, and drinking of alcohol does not appear to have much to do with feminism on the surface, but it was a cause championed by many women who were often the victims of men's drinking -- through abuse and through wasted money that should have gone to the family. This became a politically motivating factor for women, and the fact that women had little or no political power necessarily became a part of the struggle when their voices weren't being heard. This leads directly into the women's suffrage movement, which is itself directly related to general feminist thought and actions, noting the disparity in the social and personal views of women that led to the justification of a denial of voting rights based on sex. The feminist, suffrage, temperance, and even the abolitionist movements all attacked these ingrained social beliefs on highly specific and more broad-based and general issues.

There was also a religious responsibility for the start of feminism, especially from Quakers and similar groups that saw an inextricable link between religion, morality, and social responsibility. Susan B. Anthony came from a Quaker family, and it was the sense of justice she learned in her religion that spurred her on to champion the feminist cause. In many ways, however, one could say that the patriarchal establishment is itself responsible for the development of feminist thought and action, as it was a direct refutation of the patriarchy's arguments and viewpoints that enabled the eloquence and vociferousness of the movement.

Life and… [read more]

Introduce Myself to the Class Essay

… ¶ … guy taking a women's studies class?" A number of my friends have asked me this question. Of course, no one asks a woman "why are you studying guys" when they take a class in English or politics that is focused mainly on male authors or historical subjects. Other friends, male and female alike, have praised me, saying that my presence in the class is an indication of my sensitivity and concern for women's issues. However, I regard taking a women's studies class as an act of personal exploration -- to study the place of women in modern society is also to study the place of men. And both men and women are often confused about what is expected of them, in terms of their roles and life aspirations. Women's studies classes allow both women and men to critically view the role of gender in their society, and to give gender the attention it deserves, as it many be ignored within the context of other classes.

On a very simple level, the question of roles and responsibilities of the genders arises constantly in daily life. I often ask myself: does the fact that I am male mean I have to hold the door for my date? Pay for both of our meals? Assume the role of the breadwinner when I marry, especially after my wife and I have children? To live in this modern society, one could argue, is to constantly grapple with the questions raised by a women's studies class. Conventional gender-related expectations are continually challenged by modern life, not just by academic or political debates, but also by shifts in world circumstances. For example, many men were 'downsized' in the current recession, and found themselves at home, caring for their children, while their employed wives bought home the family paycheck. No stereotype, however ingrained, could deny the need of the family to make a living. The fact that so many men were let go from their jobs in a relatively short period of historical time has challenged the idea that a man is what he earns -- and also the idea that a woman needs a man's income to survive. Men have had to re-focus and re-define themselves as men, just as women had to do during the beginning of the Second Wave of the feminist movement in America.

Women make up a greater percentage of college graduates than their male counterparts, a woman is Secretary of State, the most recent appointment to the Supreme Court was a female -- yet many of the women in my life, girlfriends and friends alike have struggled with issues of self-worth in relation to their appearance and confidence in their own abilities. Clearly, there is still a need for a women's movement for economic, political, and social reasons.… [read more]

Role of Woman in Society Research Paper

… Role of Woman in Society

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the role of the woman in the American society during the period of the Great Depression. In order to support the discussion we will be analyzing… [read more]

Women in Leadership the Characteristics and Advantage Research Paper

… Women in Leadership: The Characteristics and Advantage of Women

Women in Leadership

Women in Leadership: Obstacles to the Characteristics and Advantages of Women

The issue of women in leadership has been a focus of debate and discussion across many disciplines… [read more]

Feminism and Chopin's the Awakening Essay

… Awakening Feminism

Defining Feminism in Chopin's the Awakening

Though by now quite well established as a general "-ism," the literary, philosophical, and critical school of feminism is not particularly well defined. Feminism is obviously concerned with issues of gender, and specifically with the issue of female subjugation in the historic and traditional patriarchy, but the ways in which feminism looks at this issue and attempts to resolve it -- if indeed an individual feminist text or work attempts to resolve it at all -- are quite disparate and in some views even incompatible. A blanket definition of feminism or of a feminist work, then, might not be a very realistic or even desirable construct. In fact, the rigidity of such a definition could be seen as somewhat antithetical to the central ideas of feminism in its refusal to allow for divergent views. The feminist struggle has been fought largely in an attempt to establish an individual sense of identity that is not dependent on gender, which was the primary defining (and hence limiting) factor of identity for women throughout most of Western history. Developing a complete definition of feminism would necessarily impose certain attitudes and beliefs upon feminist writers, and would usurp this struggle.

This line of thinking, ironically, provides a good general (though not at all absolute) definition of feminism -- it is literature, art criticism, etc. that is concerned with the role of women in society and in their personal lives, and with their ability to create and maintain a sense of self without or in spite of external constraints. This is certainly the case in many of Kate Chopin's works, including her novel The Awakening. This book is primarily concerned with Edna Pontellier's attempts to find and define herself, and her "awakening" to the realities of her identity as a woman in the early years of the twentieth century. Feminism in this novel is an issue almost indistinguishable from identity, and it is the exploration rather than the resolution that makes the work feminist.

Nothing makes this more apparent than the famous (or infamous, at the time of the book's publication) ending of the novel, in which Edna Pontellier divests herself of her clothing and her life as she wades out into the ocean and succumbs to drowning. The way in which the water is described reflects the importance of identity and one's ability to carve it out in this novel: "The voice of the sea is seductive, never ceasing, whispering, clamoring, murmuring, inviting the soul to wander in abysses of solitude" (Chopin, Chapter 39). The "abysses of solitude" that are so inviting to Edna at this point can be seen as a sort of freedom -- she has spent almost her entire life (and the bulk of the novel) as a fixture in other people's lives, defined by her external roles rather than by any sort of developed sense of interiority. She awakens to this interiority during the course… [read more]

Women in Leadership Research Proposal

… Women in Leadership

The struggle for women's rights have come a long way from gaining the right to suffrage to having more women participate in the labor market, which is viewed as directly contributing to nation building. As women go… [read more]

Middle Eastern Women Research Proposal

… Middle Eastern Women

The Middle East is a geographical region in Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa (Sluglett 2008). It consists of the countries of Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United… [read more]

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