"Women / Feminism" Essays

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Women of the Klan Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Women Klan

Understanding the Women of the Klan

During the 1920s, the Women's Ku Klux Klan or WKKK was formed, seen alternatively as an auxiliary unit to the main Klan or as a highly integrated yet semi-independent organization with its own agenda and its own method of achieving its ends. In her book Women of the Klan, Kathleen M. Blee… [read more]


Despair Many Women Feel Over Their Bodies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Women and Their Bodies

The mass production of bras while liberating young women from the scrutiny of their mothers, fostered the fear that they were somehow inadequate should the bra not fit properly. The standardization of cup size, which is an economic decision, had the unintended consequence of creating a model woman with whom women could measure themselves. This comparison is encouraged from very early in a woman's life. The bra then, is unwittingly an instrument that exacerbates the inadequacy women feel. Learning about the bra's past is useful because it opens the mind to the tyranny that can develop from initially innocuous beginnings. Additionally, the reading opens discussion of the ease of acceptance of untested ideas. Experts coalesced easily around the idea of a bra when for millennia women existed without them. It also unmasks the effect of the intersection of business, culture, and professionals. These three elements work in harmony to drive misinformation and to create a belief of inadequacy and incompleteness. To address the problems of body image is requires not only a single industry change but also cultural change. The video brings home the point that supports this, it is important to ignore the pressure from these three sources. Each woman needs to love herself unconditionally.

PART TWO:

The present generation of women is inundated with images of labia and vaginas to the extent that they are inclined to carry the feeling of inadequacy to this most intimate of parts. The mainstreaming of pornography and its objectification of women has allowed the vagina to become overly important. The media in a vicious desire to make money thrives on women feeling inadequate and subpar. The greatest inadequacy is derived from sexual shortcomings. Women are then driven to change the shape and tone of their sexual parts so that they could be on par with a model that is presented as desirable and perfect. At other occasions,…… [read more]


Measuring Women's Worth by the Pound Gold Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Measuring Women's Worth By The Pound

Gold. Diamonds. Tin cans. Even fertilizer. Most things are worth more when they weigh more. That is, of course, unless you are a woman. If you are a woman, the more you weigh the less value you possess. As such, the bathroom scale is an object that not only provides a numerical weight, but… [read more]


Australian Legal System Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,069 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13

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Australian Legal System

Migrant women constitute a growing proportion of the childbearing population in many high-income countries (McLachlan and Waldenstrom, 2005). Migrant women are often classified as unskilled, and they constitute the largest and most vulnerable category among migrants (Piper, 2004). Women who do not belong to the dominant culture, or who are different because of their race, sexual orientation… [read more]


Rethinking Orientalism: The Woman Warrior Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Rethinking Orientalism: The Woman Warrior

Orientalism is defined as the exoticism of the 'East' in the eyes of the 'West.' It is a colonial understanding of non-white, Asiatic peoples as 'other.' It views the East as feminine, foreign, mysterious and submissive. As a postmodern concept it is not attached or intrinsic to the nature of the person practicing the ideology. Much as women can be sexist and discriminate against other women, non-white people can also use the tropes of Orientalism. However, Maxine Hong Kingston's memoir of growing up as a Chinese-American, the Woman Warrior, uses the images of Orientalism, not to objectify China, but to embark upon a journey of self-discovery as a writer. Kingston takes a deliberately ironic view of the construct of Orientalism and of the genre of memoir itself. She blends folk tales, second-hand personal accounts, and tales of her familial past in China and American as a way of reflecting upon Chinese-American identity and the immigrant experience.

Kingston's memoir is not a straightforward, linear, chronological coming-of-age narrative. It suggests the experience of a people, rather than an individual. Long stretches of the narrative are told in the third, rather than in the first person. The history of modern China during the Cultural Revolution is woven seamlessly in with the stories of Kingston's own family. Like any memoirist, Kingston is a selective narrator, and she purposefully chooses incidents that highlight the themes she wishes to address in her life history: the role of women, the fear of losing one's mind, and the need for individuals to speak across the barriers of time and language.

Unlike the classical Caucasian Orientalist, Kingston does not use the contrasts between China and her own life in America to show the superiority of the West or East, but instead to search for the truth. For example, when telling the story of a relative who drowned herself after giving birth to a child out of wedlock, Kingston imagines various scenarios that could have lead the woman to her fate. The stereotypical image of the repressed Chinese woman with her feet bound is given new life in Kingston's ideation. Kingston first wonders if the woman was raped, then if the woman was highly sensual, and then finally Kingston takes comfort in the fact that rather than being consigned to dust and forgotten, through her words the 'No-Name' woman will always be remembered. But even though she is able to speak for the woman, Kingston is also aware of the fact that she can only present her imaginative versions of the relative's tale. The tale is already twice-told, passed down from mother to daughter. This is also true of all of her mother's experiences, like the story of her mother 'Brave Orchid' attempting to reunite her sister Moon Orchid (Kingston's aunt) with her American husband. Unlike the traditional Western Orientalist, Kingston is at least self-conscious about the fact that Chinese culture cannot be perfectly translated into English prose.

Some of the images of China that… [read more]


Osteoporosis in Young and Old Women Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Osteoporosis in Women

Osteoporosis is a disease that relates to the loss of bone density, especially among women but men also suffer from Osteoporosis. According to the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), one in three women over 50 (in the world) will experienced "osteoporotic fractures," and one in five men will also have osteoporotic fractures. Also, the IOF says that osteoporosis effects an estimated 75 million people in Japan, the U.S., and Europe. By the year 2050, the IOF projects, the incidence of hip fracture in men worldwide "is projected to increase by 310%, and in women it will increase by 240%. The Applied Clinical Trials journal also reports that according to the IOF, almost 75% of spine, hip, and "distal forearm factures" occur in patients that are 65 years or older. This paper reports some of the reasons why women get osteoporosis and what can be done to enhance women's chances of avoiding this disease.

The Literature: According to the Journal of International Women's Studies, osteoporosis (OP) is a "chronic complex health problems" for millions of women the world over. Of the women who are stricken with osteoporosis, eighty percent are postmenopausal (Lubna, 2010, p. 1). As women go through life and get older, into middle adulthood, they experience a "variety of physiological and psychological changes," Lubna writes, and those changes have a direct effect on her health. Osteoporosis -- a systemic disorder that causes a loss of bone mass and the "thinning of bone tissue" that lead to a risk of fractures to the spine, the wrist, and the hip, Lubna writes.

According to the Osteoporosis Society of Canada, one out of every four postmenopausal Canadian women have OP, Lubna continues. In the United Kingdom, there are 150,555 cases of OP annually, and the cost (medical expenses related to fractures) is about $75 million. In the United States there are an estimated 7 to 8 women currently with OP and about 17 million women have "low bone mass" putting them at risk of OP and the resulting broken bones that go along with OP, Lubna explains.

The study that is presented in the Journal of International Women's Studies' scholarly article reviews women and OP in Jordan, where women "gain status and security by bearing many children" and the social, economic and cultural factors in Jordan "…may negatively impact women's health throughout their lives," Lubna points out on page 1. Only 3% of Jordanian women are over 65 years of age, but the estimate that the author uses is that 25% of women over 60 in Jordan will suffer "an age-related fracture." Previously Jordanian healthcare resources were mainly director towards "acute care services" but lately the focus in Jordan has been more towards "chronic illnesses" like OP, Lubna explains.

What vitamins are known to be helpful to women in terms of lessening the chances of getting OP? A study in the peer-reviewed journal Alternative Medicine Review (Karkkainen, et al., 2010, p. 1) -- titled "The Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention-Fracture… [read more]


Idealized, Demonized Image of Women: Poe, Faulkner Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … idealized, demonized image of women: Poe, Faulkner, and Lawrence

Edgar Allen Poe, William Faulkner, and DH Lawrence all create grotesque images of women in their short stories and poems. Rather than real, psychologically complex characters, their female protagonists tend to be idealized representations of perfection, such as Poe's poetic Annabel Lee or demons in disguise, like Faulkner's obsessed Emily in "A Rose for Emily." Even DH Lawrence's Mabel of "The Horse-Dealer's Daughter" functions as a generalized example of female sexual repression rather than as a real woman. While all three men are classified as great authors, all tend to use women as symbols rather than give women an independent intellectual 'reality.' Women are not viewed as positive actors, but as signifiers, often negative ones, of male issues of self-worth and class. "Male writers [have] used women as symbols of lightness and darkness" in literature, to illuminate the psychological conflicts of male protagonists or to symbolize social injustices rather than to bring to light the issues particular to the females in question (Maschke 108).

At first it might be protested that most of Edgar Allen Poe's most dastardly characters are male. It is true Poe's short stories like "The Cask of Amontillado" often focus upon the evil of men. But the appearance of more positive feminine images created by Poe lie in the fact that his stories feature few substantive female protagonists. Women represent the "soul" or the "ideal" that the male protagonist strives for in his (usually failed) quest to establish a sense of self (Maschke 108). For example, in the "Fall of the House of Usher," the female protagonist Madeline Usher is depicted as merely an extension of her brother, Roderick, and the house that eventually collapses upon and kills the Usher family. Thus when Poe did write about women, it was in always in relation to their family or social role in a male-dominated context. "Poe considered women capable of great poetry (since the sense of beauty, he said, is 'in its very essence, feminine')" or rather to 'be' an embodied form of poetry but he seldom showed women as active subjects crafting their own destiny (Silverman 496). Poe's women exist to provide men with "comfort, approval, and affection" and "emotional sustenance" and are mourned for their inability to do so when they die, not because they are capable and worthy of their own stories (Roderick 17). "Annabel Lee" is perhaps Poe's classic female protagonist -- a lost love of the speaker who never even exists in the poem, other than as a memory.

When compared with the lack of the female character in Poe, Faulkner's

"A Rose for Emily" may initially seem much more focused upon the female protagonist in a realistic fashion. But Faulkner's tale is even more grotesque in its unfolding than many of Poe's short stories. "A Rose for Emily" tells the story of a well-respected woman in a fictional Southern town. Emily belongs to the one of the town's most prominent… [read more]


Latin American Women's Cultural Decision in Labor Force vs. Procreation in Past vs. Present Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,451 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Latin Women and Vocational Empowerment Issues

Women have achieved great strides in modern societies, especially when compared with the historical role of females in ancient societies, and even in relatively modern-era societies. One of the most important aspects of female empowerment relates to the incorporation of females into the modern workforce. The greatest documented increase in female empowerment in this… [read more]


Social Construction of Black Feminist Thought Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Black Feminism

Patricia Hill Collins outlines, defines, and defends black feminist thought. In "The Social Construction of Black Feminist Thought," the author clarifies what black feminist thought is and how it is socially constructed. Collins also presents the main obstacles and challenges to black feminist ideology. And discourse the author also explores why black feminist thought is important to study, and how it can and should be independently valid. Prevailing approaches to the study of African-American female experience are inadequate and even harmful. One approach is that it is impossible to have a "valid independent interpretation of their own oppression," (224). Another insufficient approach to the study of the black female experience is that African-American women are "less human than their rulers and therefore less capable" of the types of deep scholarly analysis reserved for white males (224). Collins offers a radical rethinking of scholarship, which validates black feminist thought on its own terms.

First, Patricia Hill Collins provides a thorough and clear definition of what black feminist thought is, and is not. Black feminist thought is not thoughts about black females by whites; by definition, black feminist thought is self-referential and self-constructed. Collins asserts that the experiences and perspectives of the oppressed are qualitatively different from those in a more dominant positions.

Furthermore, the experiences of black females are wholly unique. Those experiences are also heterogeneous. Race and gender combine with social class and access to power to create a matrix of material existence. In spite of these differences, though, Collins maintains that there can be a collective black female identity and consciousness. African-American female identity refers to the shared body of experiences as well as a shared means of reflecting on and communicating those experiences. Moreover, the collective black female identity presupposes a shared way of reacting socially, politically, and personally to oppression.

Some of the shared elements that Collins identifies among African-American females include knowledge and experience of oppression; African and African-American culture and values; and methods of gathering knowledge. Here, Collins underscores the difference between wisdom and knowledge. The difference between wisdom and knowledge is indeed what separates black feminist thought from Eurocentric masculinism.

The difference between wisdom and knowledge also encapsulates the main obstacles towards achieving a scholastically-acceptable black feminist ideology. Expression and articulation are difficult from within oppressed communities. Only those with access to resources and tools of communication can find the means by which to gain acceptance in academia. Moreover, the European masculinist approach has a stranglehold on academia, determining criteria for acceptable scholasticism. Minority voices are marginalized, trivialized, or absorbed. The main irony for black females in academia is their having to straddle the line between everyday wisdom and the needs to find acceptance and validity in the academic community. Collins avows that everyday wisdom and specialized knowledge are interdependent. Black feminist thought can be socially constructed by blending the knowledge of everyday experience with the specialized discourse of academia. In fact, this blending of wisdom and knowledge can be channeled to… [read more]


Human Trafficking of Women and Children From Eastern Europe Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (4,329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Human Trafficking of Women and Children From Eastern Europe

Sex trafficking is a significant and growing problem in the United States and the larger global community. -- David R. Hodge, 2008

In many ways, it is also unbelievable that in the 21st century, millions of human beings, especially women and children, are still being treated like chattel. Although the problem… [read more]


Makers of Angels for Women, the Control Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Makers of Angels

For women, the control of their reproductive rights, of the most private parts of their bodies, is one of the most important ways in which they define themselves to themselves, to their families, and to their larger communities. Being able to have control over their reproductive options is one of the most important ways in which women can affect their fertility and so the persona with which they interact with the world. Without full control over their own sexuality, which includes the right to engage in sexual behavior without the risk of unwanted childbearing, women's relationship to themselves as well as others is fundamentally compromised.

The brilliant legal scholar Laurence Tribe wrote that the debate over abortion that has seized and sometimes seemingly paralyzed the political and cultural dialogue in this nation most vehemently since the 1973 Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade is a "clash of absolutes." His phrase has a powerful resonance because, of course, at one level the question of abortion is indeed a question of absolutes: A woman either has an abortion or does not. Just as one cannot be a little bit pregnant, neither can one have part of an abortion.

Other aspects of reproductive health and freedom are not so black and white. Women make decisions every day about their bodies and their reproductive freedom in degrees. They may choose to have sex with a partner when they do not really want to, for example, because they are dependent on that partner for economic support. Such an act is not rape, because the woman has given consent, but it is a limited form of consent. Most of the decisions that women have to make are like this: For women, even in an age in which at least some women have access to reliable birth control, sexuality cannot ever be undone entirely from fertility.

Thus in asking how a woman's reproductive options affect her self-concept and the ways in which she relates to her family and to her larger community, the question can also be parsed as the question of the absolutes of abortion and childbirth. There are aspects of reproductive freedom that are also absolute, including sterilization (although this is potentially reversible) to female genital mutilation. These two must be looked at as proving to be very problematic in terms of how women view themselves as well as the others in their communities.

The less permanent the choice that is made by women or for women, the less of an effect in general it will have on the ways in which the choice affects the women's relationship to self and the social world around her.

Even when the reproductive issue is one of absolutes like abortion, the choices that women face and the psychological consequences are complicated and messy, and while it is certainly possible for a woman to know with great certainty that either the choice to have an abortion or to carry a pregnancy to term is the right… [read more]


War on Women Violence Against Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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War on Women

Domestic abuse is one of the most prevalent social and criminological problems worldwide, affecting between 15% and 71% of all females (World Health Organization 2009). In fact, most violence committed against women occurs in the home in the form of domestic abuse (WHO 2009). Framed as a human rights issue, violence against women is a symptom of… [read more]


Woman on a Roof by Doris Lessing Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (762 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … woman on a roof" by Doris Lessing: The fantasy life of men

"A woman on a roof" by Doris Lessing is a story about male anger and male perceptions of female sexuality. The plot of the short tale is relatively simple: the title woman suns herself during an early summer heat wave, minding her own business, reading quietly on a rooftop while she is ogled by a group of construction workers who are replacing the gutters on a series of buildings. Because of the extremely warm conditions, the title woman is wearing a bathing suit. However, the workmen on the roof see her body, an ordinary, human body, as worthy of mockery and censure because they view any kind of female nudity as provocation.

The fact the men can see her but cannot touch her is perceived as a threat to their masculinity. They imagine what they would do if they were her 'old man' -- force her to cover up -- as they ogle her with desire. They criticize the woman even while they stare at her all day long, without guilt. Although the day is sizzling hot, the idea that a woman might simply wish to avoid the heat inside her home does not occur to them: a woman's body, if she is attractive, is never neutral or something she can 'enjoy' herself, instead it is viewed as a statement to men, against men.

The conflict of the plot is created in the minds of the men who feel a need to project their threatened sexuality on to the woman's body. Lessing suggests this is an age-old struggle between men and women: this is why she titles her work "A woman on a roof" rather than "The woman on a roof." The title suggests that this situation could happen anywhere, to any woman, if a woman happens to be regarded as attractive. The woman in question is not a famous actress or a model but because she is desired, she becomes objectified. The men feel that she 'owes them' a 'chat and a smile' by virtue of her femininity and desirability.

At the end of the story, the youngest of the workmen, named Tom, finally speaks to the mysterious woman. Tom is shocked by her lack of…… [read more]


Major Roles Played by Women in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (409 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Women in the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)

The Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920 entailed many things for the various oppressed groups in the country, and particularly for women. Up to the time of the revolution, women suffered in various ways, being mostly confined to domesticity and other forms of oppression at the hands of the patriarchy. The main culprit in this patriarchy was Porfirio Diaz, whose regime kept both women and other ethnic, economic, political and religious minorities under a strict code of oppression (Jandura). The Mexican Revolution however provided new opportunities for women to understand and utilize their rights as human beings.

The revolution however brought various opportunities for women to reach their full potential, not only in non-traditional roles, but also in the more traditional, domestic sense. According to Jandura, for example, Mexican women were very, if not the most, important component of the revolution for the roles they played in politics and also on the battlefield. According to Goetze, these roles were supplemented by the more traditional role of the woman as nurse and aid to male soldiers. Goetze also notes that women often played a prominent intellectual role in the revolution. Whatever roles they chose to fulfil, these women did…… [read more]


Women's Struggle for Equal Rights Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (579 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Politics of Being a Woman: From Suffrage to Congress

The women's rights movement gained a lot of traction in the nineteenth century through its association and involvement in abolitionist movements and a general push for greater societal and economic equality, not to mention political access. Allowing women to join such movements was frequently resisted, and the attempt to prevent a female delegation from taking part in the World Antislavery Convention in 1840 prodded the formation of a women's rights group and the explicit struggle for the equality of women. Though this began as a primarily British movement, it was in 1848 that Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, two American women who had been at the World Antislavery Convention, held the first Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls. This was the true beginning of the modern women's rights movement, which gained momentum throughout the nineteenth century.

The National Woman Suffrage Association was formed in 1869, with a focus on achieving a constitutional amendment granting women in the United States the right to vote. The American Woman Suffrage Association was formed alter in that same year, and its efforts were directed at achieving individual state amendments or laws allowing women to vote -- a tactic that would prove more successful for several decades. In 1913, however, here still had not been a significant amount of progress made, and a more radical group was formed. The Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage was more vocal in their fight, but also slighted women of color as a means of retaining popularity in the South. The struggle continues with such organizations as the National Organization for Women, which was founded in the 1960s in an effort to establish true equality and freedom…… [read more]


Women 1950 60 and Today Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (548 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Women From Two Eras

The Status of Women in the! 950s and 1960s

Education

In the 1950s and 1960s, it was relatively rare for women to pursue higher education. In fact, in many colleges and universities, it was considered very controversial and going "co-ed" was viewed as something of a radical decision when women were first admitted to college programs. At the time, there was a bias among many who believed that females were intellectually inferior to males but most of the difference in higher education had to with social expectations about what the respective roles of the two genders were after their education was complete.

Employment

In the 1950s and 1960s era, women were not represented I large numbers in the American workforce. To the extent they held professional positions, they generally filled support roles such as secretaries and other non-career-track positions. At that time, the most common professional careers held by women were in elementary and high school teaching and nursing. Furthermore, it was often expected that even women in those positions would give them up and become homemakers as soon as they got married/

Financial Dependence

In the 1950s and 1960s, women were likely to be financially dependent on their husbands. That was largely attributable to social expectations that only men worked outside the home after marriage; women were expected to become homemakers and to take care of children. Aside from the obvious lack of comparable opportunities enjoyed by men, this financial dependence also greatly contributed to the relative helplessness of women to escape unhappy marital relationships. It was also the justification behind the alimony system whereby divorced women…… [read more]


Challenges Women Currently Face in a Developing Country Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (686 words)
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Women's Issues

Women's Education in India

The Indian government has expressed a commitment towards education for all in their country and yet India still has one of the lowest female literacy rates in Asia. In 1991 only about 40% of the 330 million women aged 7 and over were literate. This low level of literacy has a negative impact on women's lives, their families' lives and on their country's economic development. Numerous studies have shown that illiterate women have high levels of fertility and mortality, poor nutritional status, low earning potential, and little autonomy within the household. A woman's lack of education moreover has a negative impact on the health and well being of her children. In addition, the lack of an educated population can be an obstacle to the country's economic development (Velkoff, 1998).

Women make up almost half of the population in the world. The dominating masculine ideology around the world has made them suffer a lot as they have been denied equal opportunities. The rise of feminist ideas has led to the tremendous improvement of women's condition through out the world in recent times. Gaining access to education has been one of the most pressing demands of many women's rights movements. Women's education in India has also been a major concern of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country (Women's Education in India, n.d.).

In the Vedic period women had access to education in India, although they had gradually lost this right over the years. During the British period there was revival of interest in women's education in India. Throughout this period, various socio religious movements emphasized women's education in India. There were several leaders of the lower castes in India who took various initiatives to make education available to the women of India. Women's education got a boost after the country got independence in 1947 with the government taking various measures to provide education to all Indian women. Because of this the women's literacy rate…… [read more]


Women and the Enlightenment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,350 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Women and the Enlightenment

The objective of this work is to read the text of Mary Wollstoncraft's "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" and to consult other works in the consideration of whether Wollstonecraft's text represents a revolutionary break in thinking about women. This work will explain the answer provided in regards to how Wollstonecraft's ideas were radical and new or alternatively similar to others of her time.

Ferguson: The Radical Ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft

The work of Susan Ferguson entitled: "The Radical Ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft" states that "according to the standard narrative of feminist intellectual history, modern feminism in the English-speaking world begins with Mary Wollstonecraft's bold appeals for women's inclusion in a public life overwhelmingly dominated by men." (1999) Ferguson states additionally that specific attention "is drawn to her theories of character-formation and the importance of public education for women in nurturing the female faculty for reason." (1999) However, it is more recently suggested that "...this portrait of Wollstonecraft is unduly narrow, since it inspires a somewhat fail categorization of the first modern feminist as a liberal reformer and thus fails to elucidate the breadth of her social vision and the extent to which her ideas threatened to destabilize the ruling elite in late-eighteenth-century Britain." (Ferguson, 1999)

It is related in the work of Ferguson that Wollstonecraft's radical spirit is generally held to be the reason for her "recognition and condemnation of the pervading social inequities of her day." (2009) However, it is suggested that Wollstonecraft "...politicizes two institutions central to liberal theory: class and family." (Ferguson, 1999) It is in this process that Wollstonecraft is stated to "not only distinguish herself from others within the classic liberal tradition" but also to "challenge the very separation of public and private spheres around which that tradition is constructed." (Ferguson, 1999) Ferguson holds that Wollstonecraft's critique "rests squarely on what is, essentially, a liberal socio-economic model: the free market activities of independent commodity producers...or in Marxist terminology, a model of petty-bourgeois economic competition." (Ferguson, 1999)

Ferguson states that there are two characteristics of "classic liberal thought" which can be emphasized: (1) liberalism is premised on the distinction between public and private realms of activities; (2) because the family and the economy are private and self-regulating, the social relations that comprise these institutions are either ignored or are presumed to be manifestations of individual preference or ability. As such they may be subject to a moral critique, but any challenge to inequality in the private sphere that fails to respect and preserve the private, self-regulating nature of these relations is essentially illiberal. (1999) Nineteenth century classical socialism effectively rejects "both the privatization and naturalization of the family and the economy." (1999) Ferguson states that from this view "family and economy are conditioned by, and representative of, changing social relations which develop, in turn according to the ongoing conflicts and compromises of class forces." (Ferguson, 1999)

Ferguson relates that it is suggested by several studies of Wollstonecraft that "her critique… [read more]


Women and Violence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,776 words)
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Women and Violence

Natural Born Killer

The article relies on the presentation of a judged and classified murder case, whose protagonists, both the victim and the aggressors, were young people in their early teens.

Stefanie Rengel was only 14 years old on the 1st of January 2008, when she was stabbed six times and then left to die in a… [read more]


Women and Work Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,907 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … Changing Role of Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Women's roles in society, and in the family, changed quite a bit from the mid 18th century to the end of the 19th century. However, women in the 1700s were actually more 'advanced' than many people might think. While it is true that most women's primary role was… [read more]


How Women Are Dominate in the Workforce Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (634 words)
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¶ … women want now (Gibbs, 2009) and the Shriver report: A woman's nation changes everything (Shriver, M. & the Center for American Progress) focus on more women moving into the labor force even though many more have been unpaid members of the labor force for centuries. Therefore, this paper focuses on what the future will look like now that women are actually being paid for their work. Today, nearly 39.3% of mothers are primary breadwinners, bringing home the majority of the family's earnings, and nearly two-thirds are breadwinners or co-breadwinners, bringing home at least a quarter of the family's earnings (Shriver, M. & the Center for American Progress). This newly found financial stature will have a number of implications for society.

In the future, women will have even more power in the family. Already, women are controlling the financial shots in the household with 65% of women reporting being their family's chief financial planner, and 71% calling themselves the family accountant (Gibbs, 2009). Further, they make 75% of the buying decisions in American homes (Gibbs, 2009). With regards to non-financial decisions, 84% of people say that husbands and wives negotiate the rules, relationships and responsibilities more than those of earlier generations did (Gibbs, 2009). These statistics are interesting on a number of fronts. it's long known that financial reasons are among the leading causes of divorce. So, the question is whether increasing financial strength will leaves women feeling less vulnerable and less prone to divorce or will it encourage them to seek freedom? The later scenario seems most likely given that: women have become less happy (Gibbs, 2009); between1973 and 2006, the share of all families headed by an unmarried woman rose to one in five from 1 in 10; men may be increasing their role in child care, but still lag behind the contribution of women (Shriver, M. & the Center for American Progress).

Yet,…… [read more]


Women's Liberation in the 21st Century Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (650 words)
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¶ … Women's Liberation in the 21st Century

There is a popular phrase that "women's work is never done." Perhaps a more accurate statement might be that women's work is never respected. When women attempt to do work that is considered masculine, their input is often devalued because they are characterized as inferior, imitation males. However, work that is often considered to be feminine in nature, such as nursing or teaching, is devalued because it is associated with what is feminine. What is seen as feminine is depicted as anathema to American cultural values of competition, excellence, and intellectualism. All of these attributes are associated with power and achievement in modern, American society, and all are traditionally characterized as masculine. Of course, there are differences between the sexes. But it is important to ask why so many cultures are obsessed by this particular difference that exists between these particular groupings of individuals. There will always be differences between any two groupings of people. Every human being is unique, regardless of gender, and that uniqueness should be respected.

Because the apparent limits upon feminine achievement are largely cultural, not biological, women should not accept the psychological or sociological limits placed upon their achievement. Despite the sexism present in society, women have still been able to shine. Many years ago, it was said that it was impossible for women to run marathons. Now women run marathons almost as swiftly as males. In 2008, a woman was a viable candidate for the Democratic nomination, while in 1984 the female Vice-Presidential candidate was accused of being too soft and emotional to govern the country. Women have not changed, biologically, in the years since the Second Wave of the feminist movement, instead, culture has changed. And culture must continue to change, and women must continue to take the world by surprise.

This does not mean that women have to be the 'same' as men to prove their worth because female…… [read more]


Liberation of China Women Essay

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liberation of china women 'As women go, so go the nation' -- women as metaphors of nation liberation and stasis in Chinese cinema

In Maoist and pre-Maoist era cinema, such as in the films Stage Sister and Spring in a Small Town, the situation of women in China was used as a metaphor for the oppression of the Chinese people as a whole by stifling social and political forces. In the 1964 Stage Sister, the political activism of the heroine proves more empowering than finding personal fulfillment through love. But the 1948 Spring in a Small Town reflects a prerevolutionary belief in the value of honoring one's commitment to the past, such as an arranged marriage made by one's family. Only in more recent cinema, such as the 2998 film City of Glass, has Asian cinema attempted to depict female choices in a more complex, less binary fashion. Choices about relationships may be affected by politics and family, but they cannot be reduced to these forces.

The use of women as metaphors for the oppression of the populace is seen perhaps paradigmatically in the starkly political film Stage Sister, directed by Xie Jin, whereby Jin's film uses prerevolutionary times as a contrast with the more enlightened post-Communist era. The film does occasionally transcend its communist ideology to provide wider critique of the difficulties of women who seek to find a voice outside of highly rigid modes of expression, in this case, the Chinese opera. But Stage Sister was released during 1964, during a period of heavy Maoist ideological domination of the Chinese media. By selecting a prerevolutionary context to open the film, Jin can at times mount a more subtle critique of the way women are treated in society. But the presumption is always that in the new Maoist era, women do not suffer such abuses as oppression by men and in-laws, although by depicting such difficulties on screen, even contemporary women could conceivably identify with the heroine Chunhua's struggles in her past.

The main character Chunhua is a young and beautiful widow, suffering the tyranny of her in-laws, separated (as is the custom), from her own family by marriage. To escape her in-laws she flees her home and becomes a singer in a traveling peasant opera troop. She finds a new sister, and creates a gender-blurring alliance with Yuehong. But the two women are still treated like commodities, as they are sold into another opera company. The decadence of the new company is manifest when the formerly 'masculine' Yuehong leaves her 'stage sister' for Tang, the domineering and patriarchal leader of the company. This shifting of Yuechong's affections demonstrates how alliances between the oppressed, like women, can be manipulated and broken. But Chunhua is undaunted by her friend's betrayal, and begins to infuse her performances with radical political ideas about worker and gender equality, inspired by a local women journalist. The evil Tang tries to ruin Chunhua's career and blind her, but eventually flees the country after the Communists… [read more]


Ethics Women Remain Relatively Uninvolved in Saudi Essay

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Ethics

Women remain relatively uninvolved in Saudi business culture today. Saudi females receive higher education in business or technical professions at a far lower rate than even in other Muslim nations (Calvert & Al-Shetaiwi, 2002).

The purpose of the negotiation is to draft a deal with a potential client. Thus, there is a strong sales orientation to the meeting. We are establishing a relationship with our Saudi client. This affects our choice of negotiators because we must build the relationship with the Saudis before we are able to secure the deal and negotiate the specific terms. I would be hesitant to send either of these individuals to do this deal. Because we need to establish the relationship, we are at risk of failure by sending a junior male, and yet we are at risk if we send our senior female as well.

If the CEO insists we send the female, I would ensure that a senior male executive make the trip as well. Our female is exactly the person we want to do the negotiating, in order to win the best terms, but before we get to that step we must ensure that the deal goes through in the first place. Sending as high an executive as we can shows the Saudis due respect and allows us to establish a favorable relationship. Saudi business culture is still based on personal relationships -- it may be insulting to send anybody other than a top…… [read more]


Women and Spirituality in the Creative Works Essay

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Women and Spirituality in the Creative Works of Two Eras

While reading the history of a time period or geographical location often gives many insights into its composition, a better understanding of the culture is often gained through an examination of that period's art and literature. From the Middle Ages through the Jacobean period, Europe is no exception. Many times, symbolism often gives away key themes that transcend time periods, and one of these key themes often has to do with women in society. A careful comparison of Durer's The Four Apostles with Janssens van Ceulen's Arthur Capel, 1st Baron Capel, and his Family and "Eve's Apology in Defense of Women," suggests that themes of women and spirituality in art and literature had many similarities in both the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Carefully painted by renown artist Albrecht Drurer, The Four Apostles uses vivid colors and a smooth texture to augment this intriguing painting on two panels. Drurer breaks up the apostles into groups of two, with one in the foreground and the other peering at a Bible held by the former. Careful not to portray them as having idle hands, Drurer's apostles pairs are heavily engaged with their Bibles. John and Peter appear to be studying out of their Bible, and Drurer's light and shadow is used to illuminate the Bible almost completely, while Peter is encased in much shadow, suggesting it is the Bible -- not the apostolic conduit, that is of most importance in the portrait. In the right panel, light again illuminates the closed Bible, and Mark and Paul, although not locked in a stare, appear to be discussing the material in a studious manner. A user of sumbols, Drurer not only uses light to suggest the importance of the Bible, but also pairs each apostle with his or her key symbol, used to alert readers as to which apostle is which.

Compared to Drurer's work, which was painted at the end of the Middle Ages, van Ceulen's family portrait, a late renaissance work, uses considerably more light, bathing the family in brightness, which suggests a lighthearted theme. Like Druer's portrait, however, the position of those pictured is quite important. The Baron sits to the right hand of his wife, implying leadership and power, and his two sons are posed at his knee, implying that they will inherit the title. To the left of the Baron is his wife, who glances both adoringly and submissively…… [read more]


Educational Boundaries of Women in the Middle East Thesis

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Education of Women in the Middle East

Educational Boundaries of Women in the Middle East

Middle Eastern culture represents a traditional society steeped in tradition. Muslim law clearly defines gender roles and largely dictates social structure in many countries. Under this system, women were denied even the most basic education, as it did not enhance their traditional domestic role in… [read more]


Brazilian Women Redefining Women Essay

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Brazilian Women

Redefining Women in Brazil

The history of Brazil in the twentieth century is incredibly volatile and complex. The global re-settling that occurred after World War II had profound effects on the governments and ways of life for many nations, especially those that were still in a period of development, and Brazil was certainly not immune from such changes. As governments and politics shifted, major changes occurred along individual and social lines as well. In Brazil, one of the major social forces that grew in strength in the decades following the close of the war was the feminist movement, which bore some similarities to the feminist movement in the United States but was in other aspects markedly different. The previous history of Brazil as a Catholic and imperialistically dominated country had, of course, a large effect on the social structure of the country, including the division of gender roles. The feminist movement in Brazil can be seen as a direct refutation of the strict patriarchal society that was established by the previous social and moral dogma of the country, defining new roles and rights for women and limitations on the previously broad and blindly self-affirming rights and roles of Brazilian men.

In her book Brazilian Women Speak, Daphne Patai has collected and edited many of her interviews with Brazilian woman in the early 1980s that tell, both explicitly and between the lines, the story of the feminist struggle in Brazil in the latter half of the twentieth century. The women interviewed by Patai do not al come from the same background, have not had the same experiences, and do not necessarily have the same perspectives and opinions. The commonalities that do exist among these women (at least insofar as they appear through Patai's interviews), however, clearly reveal the patriarchal structure against which many Brazilian women rebelled, and the increasing prominence of their position in a society trying to silence them.

These interviews are not all, or even mostly, explicitly about the feminist movement. But even the most basic reading of some of the simplest statements made by the women in these interviews shows the highly subjugated roles of women in traditional Brazilian women and their subsumed senses of their own identity. For instance, the woman identified as Carolina recalls her conflicting feelings regarding feminine dependence on men for purposes of money and a livelihood: "I never worked to support myself. I never wanted to. I didn't mind depending on my father and mother, but not on anyone else. Not even on this boy I loved" (Patai 66). Carolina was raised, as most Brazilian women of her generation, to be submissive and engaged only with domestic life, not concerning herself with work outside the home. Her unwillingness to be dependent on someone, however, even if that someone were a husband, is indicative of the changing attitudes.…… [read more]


Role and Treatment of Women Essay

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Role and Treatment of Women

Chopin's women: In search of love and freedom

Kate Chopin's novels and short stories all present the position of women in American society as one that is constrained, rather than improved, by marriage. Chopin was a 19th century American author who addressed the inequalities of her society long before women had gained the right to vote, or even the right to hold property as married women. In Chopin's stories, men, rather than seeing women for who they truly are, project their own fantasies and needs upon the female body. This is seen in "The Story of an Hour" when Mrs. Mallard, who believes her husband is dead, is actually delighted at the prospect of freedom rather than saddened by it. Men have controlled her behaviors for her entire life. She has never been allowed to make her own decisions. In Chopin's novel The Awakening, the central protagonist Edna Pontellier, is frustrated by her marriage and seeks salvation in an extramarital affair. But relationships with men do not provide Chopin's protagonist with freedom, only self-actualization provides salvation.

Marriage and relationships with men become a kind of a 'testing ground' of the true nature of how women are viewed in society. When a woman becomes married, notions of male chivalry, female romantic happiness and fulfillment through wedded bliss are unmasked. The racism and obsession with female purity in Desiree's society is revealed in Chopin's story "The Father of Desiree's Baby" when the adopted title character marries and gives birth to a child that apparently reveals her true non-white origins. Desiree is rejected by her husband Armand as a result of this revelation. Similarly, happiness within marriage proves to be impossible for Edna and Mrs. Mallard.

Just as the male institution of marriage fails to fulfill wives, the male institution of medicine fails to diagnose the problems of the central female characters in Chopin's tale. The life of the protagonist "The Story of an Hour" has her life limited not just by marriage, but also by male doctors who assure her that her heart is so weak, she cannot enjoy any bear the type of excitement that makes life worth living and her husband claims as his male privilege. After Edna comes back from her life-changing vacation to Grand Isle, her husband calls a doctor to diagnose the source of her discontent, but can find no physical reason for…… [read more]


Role of Women: "The Awakening Thesis

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¶ … Role of Women Examined in "The Awakening"

Life is a struggle. Throughout history, the oppressed have sacrificed much in order that they may see their dreams achieved. Women have seen their history change over the centuries but it has not been without sacrifice. Kate Chopin explores the difficulty involved with overcoming obstacles and societal constraints in her short… [read more]


Roles of Women Figures in the Major Works Thesis

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Roles of Women Figures in the Major Works

Major literary works will always bear two distinct values for mankind: they are as much artistic pieces as they are testimonies of the times their authors lived in. Historians of the early ages have extracted as much as they could from the information provided by works such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey… [read more]


Adrienne Rich of Woman Born Thesis

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Adrienne Rich is one of the quintessential feminist writers of our time. This discussion is to examine Rich's book Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. The investigation found that Rich is shunning many of the traditionally held notions about motherhood using a postmodern approach. The view she presents is a direct contradiction to the manner in which society… [read more]


Role of Women Change From the 18th to 18th Centuries Essay

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Women Change in 18th & 19th Centuries

Women of the 18th to 19th Century

The numerous and significant contributions of women in the political, educational, and artistic spheres are undeniable. But how do these contributions come about? What were the particular socio-historical circumstances that paved way for such contributions? It is in this light that this article aims to understand women, specifically those from the eighteenth to nineteenth century. Why this particular centuries you might ask. I believe that this period of women's history is rich, dynamic, and pivotal to our social construction of the contemporary woman.

th-19th century: some historical specificities

During the 18th century, the lives of women were confined to the domestic realm -- i.e. fulfilling domestic responsibilities. Although most white women were capable of reading and writing, a lot of them were discouraged from furthering their education as they were socio-culturally headed to the path of becoming mothers and wives. They had no involvement in politics, state affairs, or any domain which men did not feel that they should be involved in. Although some women were able to contribute in politics (given that their husbands allowed them to do so), these contributions were expectedly not in the forefront (Myers et al., n.d.).

The 18th century society's strong hold on women is reflected on its laws. Women, upon marriage, were not allowed to own a property nor hold a business. Divorce was highly discouraged and heavily frowned upon. If a woman was to get divorced, she is not entitled to any property accumulated during marriage (ibid).

At the turn of the 19th century, women's roles have become more dynamic. The industrialization of the then-rural society of America gave rise to more establishments and consequently more jobs. These out-of-home jobs became an additional option for women. Moreover, during this time, education became mandatory for both men and women which allowed for women's penetration in the higher education sector (Conner Prairie, 2009).

Women and their significant contributions: politics, arts, and philosophy

The state of women's education during the 19th century is critical to our understanding of their contributions in the society. The furthering of women's education paved way for women's high involvement in the political sphere. The suffrage and temperance movement signaled women's clamor for voting rights and…… [read more]


Progression of Women Throughout Time Thesis

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Progression of Women Throughout Time

WOMEN and HISTORY

An Analysis of the Progression of Women's Historical Role

We have seen that women, as a social group, have generated huge interests not only from the scientific, academic community but also from other progressive sectors of the society. Women are very much a part of our everyday lives -- they are our… [read more]


Women in American History Essay

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Women in American History

Women on the Oregon Trail to the Gold Rush

Thousands of women journeyed overland on the Oregon Trail during the Gold Rush with husbands and fathers, and even a few without. They faced weeks of boredom, scorching summers, freezing temperatures, flooded rivers, impassable mountains, and hostile Indians.

But, while a few were reluctant companions to adventurous husbands, most shared in the eagerness to make a "pile" from the golden hills of California. The journey's scenic wonders, such as Chimney Rock, captivated many women emigrants. But for some, the hardships left devastating memories -- often the death of loved ones. Whatever the individual pleasures and tragedies, after months and hundreds of miles of exhaustive travel on the Oregon Trail, all shared the fearful experience, on the California Trail, of the dreadful Sierra Nevada mountains and the final desert crossing -- 40 miles of hot, alkali-laden, waterless, scorching desert -- the seemingly impossible barrier to California's riches (Levy).

The entire trip was a crucible. Women found they could do things, must do things, they'd never done before. In walking nearly a hundred miles through sand and rocks, Juliet Brier frequently carried one of her children on her back and another in her arms. By the nightmare journey's end she was assisting her husband, who lost a hundred pounds during the three-month-long ordeal (Levy).

In the mining towns, women earned as much or more than their miner-husbands by baking pies, sewing, cleaning, ironing, washing, running hotels, dealing cards or pouring drinks in gambling houses -- whatever was required and earned the most (Perkins).

With awesome courage and a high sense of adventure they joined the army of men and carved out lives with their own female ingenuity and perseverance (Perkins).

Abolitionist Movement

The abolitionist movement was a reform movement during the 18th and 19th centuries to abolish slavery, not only in America, but also in Europe…… [read more]


Women Thesis

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Women of the Period

The mid-19th century is characterized by periods of slavery, poverty, and turmoil. But where are women situated amidst all these? This article attempts to take a look at different kinds of women during this notable period in history.

A female slave, usually of black descent, has no rights or possession at all. Everything is sanctioned by her master. Even the rape of a female slave cannot be considered crime per se. At the most, it is considered a crime of trespassing another's property ("Slavery in America," n.d.).

A plantation wife, on the other hand, works alongside his man on the field. When she gets home, she has to fulfill domestic duties such as household chores and attending to the needs of her husband and children (Collins, 2004).

Of a relatively higher status than the two mentioned above is the sharecropper's wife as her family is entitled to a share of the crops (Ayers, 2003). This share entitles her family to some possessions and consequently to some degree of personal autonomy (Zieger, 2003).

The family of a yeoman is usually self-sufficient and normally they would add children to increase their workforce (McCurry, 1995). Hence, it can be inferred that one of the major roles of a yeoman wife is to produce offspring to bolster the family's economic gain. Submissiveness is one of the characters that may well define a yeoman's wife (ibid.).

It would not be…… [read more]


Health Care for Women and Concepts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,442 words)
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Healthcare for Women

HEALTH CARE for WOMEN

Concept #

Women make up more than half of the U.S. population, but it is only recently that their political, economic, and health situations have been closely examined. Historically, women's health had always been perceived in the context of reproduction, i.e. A woman's role in producing and rearing children. (Blackwell, 2002) in fact… [read more]


Woman Depicted in Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,500 words)
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¶ … Woman Depicted in Shaw's

Mrs. Warren's Profession

Mrs. Warren's Profession by Bernard Shaw is play that explores the notions revolving around the idea of a modern woman. While we tend to think of modern women that have similar characteristics, they can be very different individuals with very different ideals, as the play demonstrates. Mrs. Warren is a modern… [read more]


Strong Women Depicted in Tartuffe Traditional Power Essay

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Strong Women Depicted in Tartuffe

Traditional power structures between men and women are challenged in, Jean Baptiste Moliere's play, Tartuffe. Through the characters of Mariane and Dorine, we see how traditional ideals are challenged in a society where women are generally seen and not heard. These women demonstrate the importance of flowing one's own heart when it comes to personal matters and they prove to be strong females characters because they do not submit to societal customs of their day. Dorine may be a maid, but that does not stop her speaking her mind. She is quick on her feet and just as quick to speak. She is strong and without her, Mariane would have never found the courage to stand up to her father. Mariane, a woman less vocal that Dorine, becomes a stronger woman because of her father's restraints. By forcing her to marry Tartuffe, he is forcing her to commit to a life of misery. She loves Valere and she should be with him. After some time, Mariane faces her father and becomes a strong woman as a result. Dorine and Mariane illustrate that women do not always need to be submissive and sometimes it is better when they speak up for what is right. They defy the system and make a difference as a result.

Dorine is a woman that is not afraid to speak her mind regardless of her place in society. Mariane is not timid and very vocal about how she feels and it is very interesting to watch her communicate with those around her because she known to be quite a chatterbox. While she may be prone to talking too much, she is right when it comes to Mariane's marriage. A strong and opinionated woman, Dorine is against Mariane's marriage to Tartuffe from the very beginning and asks Orgon, "Would you, without some compunction, give a girl like her to a man like him?" (124). In addition, she tells him that Mariane's "virtue is in danger when her choice is thwarted in her marriage" (125). Dorine also tells Mariane that she should tell Orgon that she "should not marry by proxy" (127) and if he is so charmed by Tartuffe, he should "marry him himself without let or hindrance" (127). She goes on to declare that Orgon is a "downright churl" (128) and any father that demands that his daughter marry an "ape" (129) deserves to be disobeyed. Dorine is not only opinionated but she is clever as well. Upon hearing that Mariane would rather die than marry Tartuffe, she immediately begins hatching a plan…… [read more]


Women in American History Essay

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Women in American History

In 1785, Martha Ballard began the diary that she would keep for the next 27 years, until her death. At a time when fewer than half the women in America were literate, Ballard faithfully recorded the weather, her daily household tasks, her midwifery duties (she delivered close to a thousand babies), her medical practice, and countless incidents that reveal the turmoil of a new nation -- dizzying social change, intense religious conflict, economic boom and bust -- as well as the grim realities of disease, domestic violence, and debtor's prison. (PBS)

That Martha Ballard kept her diary is one small miracle; that her descendants saved it is another. When her great-great-granddaughter Mary Hobart inherited it in 1884, it was "a hopeless pile of loose unconsecutive[sic] pages" -- but it was all there. The diary had remained in Augusta for more than sixty years, probably in the family of Dolly Lambard, who seems to have assumed custody of her mother's papers along with the rented cow. (Ulrich)

The Smithsonian Institution's American History Timeline places the United States' Colonial Era from 1607-1783 -- from the establishment of the Jamestown, Virginia colony to the end of the Revolutionary War. It was in this era that Martha Moore was born in Oxford, Massachusetts in 1735, and the era in which she lived almost fifty years of her life. In these years, Martha would marry Ephraim Ballard, bear nine children, and watch three of them die.

She concluded her now famous diary three days before her death in 1812. Her last entry spoke of the weather: (Ulrich)

Clear most of the day & very Cold & windy. Daughter Ballard and a Number of her Children here. Mrs. Partridge

Smith allso[sic] Revered Mr. Tappin Came and Converst

Swetly[sic] and mad[sic] a prayer adapted to my Case."

It is known that a little more than a month before her death at 77, she attended Sally Foy's delivery on April 18, and, though she suffered "two ague fits" the next day, went in a rainstorm to deliver William Saunders's wife of her third daughter and fourth child. "I laid down & slept some," she wrote, then took breakfast with the Saunders, stopped to see another patient, and came home, and "did my ironing and some mending but feel feeble." (Ulrich) Only a few days later, she was called to see a Mrs. Heath on April 24, stayed with her all day and night and into the next day: "We have slept a little. I have had ague fitts[sic] yesterday & to day[sic]."

Author's Note: "ague" is a disease characterized by recurring sweats, fever and chills) have been very ill," Martha wrote the next day -- and the next. (Ulrich)

Is it any wonder? Speculation says that she probably lived another three weeks or so. But, what a statement of her life. Perhaps this one small peek at Martha Ballard says everything about her loving spirit, unlimited energy, empathy for others, hard work, and dedication… [read more]


Women Immigrants the Life of Women Immigrants in the U.S Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,845 words)
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Women Immigrants

Problems Faced by American Women in the United States

One of the first immigrant women, the Statue of Liberty that stands on Ellis Island, is over 100 years old. She was a gift from France as a result of the rocky alliance that was achieved between the two countries. According to the National Park Service, "the Statue of… [read more]


Feminism and Identity the Awakening" by Kate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,157 words)
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Feminism and Identity

The Awakening" by Kate Chopin was published in 1899 and stirred a great deal of controversy in contemporary society. Centered on the main character of Edna Pontellier, a woman who decides to leave her husband and embark on an affair with another man, the novel tackles sensitive issues in late-nineteenth century Southern society such as divorce, social… [read more]


Feminism in Trifles Essay

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Feminism in Trifles

Trifles has always been considered a feminist work because the female characters solve the mystery of the murder through alleged trifles. Susan Glaspell was not reticent when it came to the distinctions between men and women and the consideration that men are not always as smart and powerful as they think they are. The feminist theme is demonstrated through the clear distinctions between men and women and how the women prevail.

The setting of the play occurs when women were challenging the constraints of society and defined roles. While women in the twentieth century have achieved great success, they still are not considered equal to men. For example, women are still considered the primary agents in the kitchen and they are still expected to maintain the trifle things of the household.

Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale buck the system when their attention to trifles solves the mystery. The men believe…… [read more]


Are Women and Men Similar Than Different? Thesis

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¶ … men and women more similar than different?

ARE WOMEN and MEN MORE SIMILAR THAN DIFFERENT

Traditionally and historically women and men have be held to be very different. This work intends to examine the scientific evidence of the recent past in order to disseminate whether men and women are in actuality as different as one would be led to believe by popular assumption. It has been long held that men were stronger than women and that they were more aggressive and less emotional. There has also been the long-held assumption that men are better leaders than are women.

AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION REPORT

The American Psychological Association report entitled: "Men and Women: No Big Difference" states that the sex differences in the Mars-Venus assumption "appear as mythical as the Man in the Moon." (APA, 2008) Reported is a 2005 analysis of 46 meta-analyses which tested the likeness of men and women in terms of their personality, cognitive ability and leadership. Findings in the study conducted by psychologist Janet Shibley Hyde state that "males and females from childhood to adulthood are more alike on most psychological variables, resulting in what she calls a genders similarities hypothesis." (APA, 2008) Findings in Hyde's study include the fact that differences between the genders "seem to depend on the context in which they were measured. In studies designed to eliminate gender norms, researchers demonstrated that gender roles and social context strongly determined a person's actions. For example, after participants in one experiment were told that they would not be identified as male or female, nor did they wear any identification, none conformed to stereotypes about their sex when given the chance to be aggressive. In fact, they did the opposite of what would be expected - women were more aggressive and men were more passive." (APA, 2008)

II. PSYCHOLOGICAL SIMILARITIES

The work of Serge Guimond (2007) entitled: 'Psychological Similarities and Differences between Women and Men across Cultures" states that the majority of research on psychological similarities and differences between men and women has been pursued in the United States and Western Europe. Reported by Guimond is a study with findings that "much less-pronounced gender differences are observed, in Asian and African countries." According to Guimond recent research has shown that "social comparison and self-categorization theories suggest a promising approach to explain why more egalitarian societies can paradoxically create greater psychological differences between men and women." (Guimond, 2007)

III. COMMUNICATION STYLES of MEN and WOMEN

The work of Erina L. MacGeorge entitled: "The Myth of Gender Cultures: Similarities Outweigh Differences in Men and Women's a Provision of and Reponses to Supportive Communication," published in the Journal of Sex Roles in February 2004 relates that the 'different cultures thesis' has been popular for more than twenty years. MacGeorge states: "In brief, the different cultures thesis maintains that gender-specific socialization of boys…… [read more]


Object of Women in My Last Duchess Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (873 words)
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¶ … Object of Women in "My Last Duchess"

Robert Browning's poem, "My Last Duchess" illustrates the attitude toward women in the sixteenth century. The Duke, from an aristocratic family, expects his wife to behave a certain way and when she does not, she pays the ultimate price. Women were expected to be happy doting over their husband and their family and any other outside interests were seen as inconveniences. The fact that the Duke can do away with his last wife in such a nonchalant way demonstrates how society views women. If the husband is displeased with his wife's behavior, he can simply do away with her and have the next best thing - a portrait of her on the wall. The setting in Browning's poem demonstrates how men could control their wives, one way or another, in this backward-thinking society.

Society's attitude toward women is one that likes to keep them in check. We know that the Duke and Duchess are aristocratic and this means that each is held to a certain standard. Clearly the Duchess did not meet her husband's standards with a heart "too soon made glad, / Too easily impressed" (Browning 22-3). Here, we see that she was indiscreet and "trifling" (35), according to her husband's standards. The Duchess was expected to adhere to an attitude of worship toward her husband but her attention was easily taken to other places and "she liked whate'er / She looked on, and her looks went everywhere" (22-4). In short, the Duke could not control his wife and a Duchess could be perceived as a woman with her own mind, especially if her will went against her husband's will. She did not respect his name and considered it nothing more than "anybody's gift" (34), a crime the Duke could not bear. This woman was beyond help in that she refused to bend to his and society's norms.

We also understand how women were looked upon as second-class citizens by how the Duke refers to his wife as mine. The Duke is an arrogant man revealed when he states, "I call that piece a wonder, now (3) emphasizing now, insinuating that the only way he could be happy with her is in this lifeless state. Now her depth and passion are controlled in an environment where the Duke cannot be embarrassed. Her excuses need not worry him anymore and her unwillingness to bend to his rule need not be an issue. The fact that this conversation can be had, with another man undoubtedly, illustrates how women were perceived as nothing less than things that men could…… [read more]


Women's Education in the Middle East Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

WOMEN'S EDUCATION in the MIDDLE EAST

The objective of this work is to explore in detail a particular aspect of women's experiences in education in the Middle East.

In a Voice of America news report published the 4th day of June, 2005 it is stated that for many parts of the Middle East, "education is a luxury, unavailable to many… [read more]


Women's Inequality Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (994 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Women and Econ Develop

Sometimes something that would seem logical and that would appear should be the case, does not turn out to be the actual situation. This is the case with women's status and the economic development of a country. In most cases, the GNP is considered the parameter for economic growth and as the GNP improves, so too does the free market system or market reform. However, what about the impact on women in this situation? Does the improved market equate to better status for women? It is logical to think so, but this is not always the case.

Clark and Clark's (80) feminist theory suggests that modernization may limit rather than improve the status of women. In developing countries, women may have to recognize "a fairly unhappy set of alternatives in continuing their subordinate status in patriarchal cultures or facing the considerable chance of having their position eroded, not enhanced, by conventional development programs." When agriculture becomes more mechanized, the women's role and importance in this area of production is decreased. She is marginalized or confined to low-paying, unskilled manufacturing jobs.

Since the improved techniques are normally monopolized by men, economic development increases the gap between men and women. Boys get training, which furthers the gap, and women cannot compete equally for employment due to the difference in skill level. Further, since males are the first to be able to get education, the gap further widens until later when it also becomes possible to educate the females and the gap narrows but does not completely close (Tinker, 25)

For example, modernization resulted in some good for Cameroon women, but the ills of modernization far outweigh the good (Nana-Fabu). As a result, Cameroon women hold economically uncertain positions at the bottom of the socio-economic scale as well as limited access to and lack of control over resources as education and bank loans. The vast majority of Cameroon women, regardless of educational level, find themselves in a disadvantaged position in the economic sphere. In fact, education does not actually make much of a difference in status level and gender discrimination in the economic sector. The segmentation of the labor market reflects the bias attached to the potential employees instead of those attached to the jobs themselves. Nanu-Fabu argues that women need to organize trade unions to fight exploitation. Women could set up their own banks, which would restore self-confidence, independence and leadership and control over their own destinies similar or better than pre-colonial times. In addition, training in new agricultural technologies need to be provided to female farmers in rural and urban areas and a comprehensive review of urban and rural development policies based on the multiplicity of tasks of the Cameroon woman has to be developed. "In short, development programs should be gender sensitive" (152).

Similarly, in Pakistan, women participate in productive economic efforts in rural and urban areas and within and outside the house. Yet they are constrained, among other things, by seclusion and…… [read more]


Men Are More Likely Than Women to Desire a Long-Term Relationship Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,014 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

Revelations from "Men Seeking Women" Personal Ads

Men and women are different.

Not better or worse just different...'

Allan and Barbara Pease

Pears, 2003, para. 2)

Letter of Intent

Desire for a Long-Term Relationship

Do more men prefer no-strings attached (NSA) relationships or long-term relationships (LTR) more?

Contrary to the contemporary image of single bachelor, content to live alone, Alice… [read more]


19th Century Women in the Plains Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,354 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … emigrant women of the 19th century west overcame the hardships of living on the Great Plains. Many historians believe women of the Great Plains failed to overcome the many hardships they faced in day-to-day life. Christine Stansell writes that women faced severe odds on the Plains, from housekeeping to weather and lack of social interactions, and she believes women were unable to recreate their living experiences of their prior lives, and that life on the prairie simply wore them down. She writes, "Workers in an enterprise often not of their own making, their labor was essential to the farm, their womanhood irrelevant" (Stansell 99). However, many other experts believe this is not the case. Certainly, women suffered as their families sought out new experiences and greater opportunities, but they did overcome the hardships of living on the Great Plains, because they were strong, motivated, and committed to their family's success. Plains women survived and even thrived because they were creative and they could come up with creative solutions to serious problems, such as acquiring water. They were also resolute, surviving conditions and abuse that would daunt many women, but they continued to support their families even in the toughest conditions, mostly because they always remained hopeful about the future. Finally, these resolute women often had the support of family, and later friends, to help them through the most troubling times. Certainly, many women buckled under the pressures of life on the Great Plains, but many others found ways to survive and overcome the many hardships they faced every day.

Plains women were creative, not only in the "crafty" sense, but also in coming up with creative ways to survive and thrive in their new, hostile environment. For example, writer Glenda Riley notes some of the ways women managed water in a largely water-free environment. She writes, "They carried water in pails attached to neck yokes or in barrels on 'water sleds.' They melted snow to obtain cooking and wash water" (Riley 101).

This shows their ingenuity and creativity, and it indicates how determined they were to survive on the Plains, even though it was an extremely hostile environment. They did now bow down under pressure; instead, they rose up and created imaginative solutions to complex problems to help their families survive in a hostile world. To say they were brave is an understatement, they were extremely courageous and determined, but they also had a strong will to survive. This is especially true since many of them had not made the decision to come west, it had been their husband's decision, but they supported them and endured harsh conditions as a result. Their resilience in the face of horrific natural disasters also shows their creativity and resolve. Riley continues, "In the months that followed, she 'learned to cook wheat and potatoes in every way possible'" (Riley 102) after a grasshopper plague ruined this woman's garden and winter food supply. Later, she notes the woman found creative ways to make… [read more]


Strength of Women Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

American Woman

The post World War II American family as portrayed in film and on television belied the strength of the American woman. Americans were inundated with images of families that existed purely on the pages of film and television series scripts, and those images did not depict the American woman's attitude towards the world around her, nor her strength… [read more]


Role of Women: Oedipus the King Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Role of Women: Oedipus the King and Beowulf

Ancient literature is always interesting in terms not only of what it can still teach the audience even today, but also in terms of what it reveals regarding the society of the time. Plays such as Oedipus the King, for example, provide the reader with particular insight regarding the view of fate and its role in human life. Others, such as the epic poem Beowulf, provides insight into the juxtaposition of good and evil in the ancient mind. In addition, these works also provide insight into the societies of the time, and in particular into the subtleties in class and gender relationships. In both works, for example, the roles of the various women serve, to a greater or lesser extent, to either compliment or challenge the positions and roles of the men in the respective worlds represented.

When comparing the general presentation of the female role in Oedipus and Beowulf, the first contrast that becomes apparent is the difference in complexity level. This can be seen in both the nature and number of roles assigned to important female characters. In Beowulf, there are six notable female roles, four of which denote the paradigm of "good" in the play, with the other two representing "evil." The nature of these roles echo the duality of good and evil throughout the poem. Oedipus is not so much concerned with good and evil as with the inevitability of fate. As in Beowulf, this theme is also fortified by the female gender. There are much fewer notable women in the play than in the poem; only Jocasta and her two daughters, Ismene and Antigone are notable female figures. Concomitantly, the play also features fewer male characters than the more complex poem. The female figures in Oedipus then play the dual role of the fulfillment and victims of fate.

The four women Wealhtheow, Hygd, Hildeburh and Freawaru represent the good side in the epic of Beowulf. In terms of the poem, the "good" woman in society may mean a variety of things. Generally, such a woman is expected to be feminine and physically submissive to the male. However, this does not necessarily mean mental weakness as well. Wealhtheow and Hygd for example play the role of hostess while also wielding considerable but subtle power in the process. After Grendel is killed, for example, Wealhtheow actively protects her own interests by encouraging Hrothgar to keep the Danish kingdom in the family, while urging Beowulf to accept her gracious gift to him. The poem appears to indicate her acceptance in the role of hostess and concomitant advisor to the men at "her" table. Her words shows Wealhtheow's confidence in her status as hostess; she has the power at the table she serves: "the troop, having drunk at my table, will do as I bid" (line 1231).

Hygd also wields similar power, but appears to do so rather as an extension of her husband. It is notable that both women wield… [read more]


Contemporary U.S. Feminist Activism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,813 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Human Rights

Equal rights have begun to play an increasingly important role in the globalized and information-rich world of today. No longer can communities isolate themselves or make their own rules for existence. The globe has become an integrated whole, forming what is known as the "global village." As such, no person or group within this "village" can perpetrate a… [read more]


Roles of Third World Women in Political Economic and Social Development Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Roles of Third World Women in Political, Economic, And Social Development

THIRD-WORLD WOMEN

"Liberators yet left behind": The schizophrenic position and roles of women of the developing world in political, economic, and social development

"Liberators yet left behind"

Women have succeeded in the developing world as political figures

Yet statistics show most women also suffer tremendous social, political and economic inequities

India and Pakistan

Indira Gandhi and Benazir Bhutto

Statistics about female morality and literacy

New female leaders

Chilean president

Liberian president

Liberian successes

Successes and failures of Liberation theology

AIDS in Africa

Reasons women predominate in HIV-positive population

Methods of addressing this and other inequities and injustices

Conclusion

Honor successes, recognize challenges of women of the developing world

Call for more female education and economic empowerment to lead to political success

While the conventional construction in the Western media may suggest that Third World women are 'oppressed,' this belies the considerably more complex role they have played in liberating the region from colonial control and reconstructing damaged economic and political infrastructures in Africa and Latin and Central America. Grim statistics, such as the fact that ae of all African women are HIV positive coexist with inspiring anecdotal examples, such as the recent election of the female president of Liberia, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, who is one of the most praised and vocal advocates for change in the region (Fleshman 2004, p4; Scott-Johnson 2008). The status of women in the developing world can best be described as schizophrenic. There is substantial evidence that entrenched social, economic and political inequities still exist, even though these facts should not eclipse the achievements and advancements that have occurred in the position of women, as they are evidence of the possibility and hope of change.

Perhaps…… [read more]


Vindication of the Rights of Woman Mary Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  40 pages (12,319 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

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¶ … Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Mary Wollstonecraft's book a Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) was written as a response to the proposed state-supported system of public education that would only educate girls to be housewives, a proposal made by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, the French minister of education after the French revolution (Mellor 367). The… [read more]


Women and Leadership Roles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,441 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Status of Women in Leadership Roles

Fifty years ago, women were almost entirely excluded from leadership roles. Today, however, the profile of women leaders has increased profoundly. Women are commonly seen as anchors on television, as principals of high schools, and deans of community colleges, for example.

Despite the success of women in many leadership positions, many argue… [read more]


Antebellum Women Pious Middle-Class Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Antebellum Women

Pious middle-class women in the Northeast, slave women in the South, and Lowell, Massachusetts "mill girls" were raised in entirely different cultural environments. Their experiences of sisterhood therefore differed significantly, raising issues related to the role of women in their respective milieus. Socialization of women in antebellum America depended largely on social status. At the same time, pious women in the Northeast, Lowell "mill girls" and slave women in the South all experienced sexist social norms and gender biases. Sisterhood enabled women in each of these three distinct cultural environments to mitigate patriarchy.

Slave women faced extraordinarily brutal circumstances due directly to the institution of slavery. In some ways, slave women were more equal to slave men than free women were to free men because the scourge of slavery affected Black men as well as Black women. However, slave women in the antebellum south experienced bondage differently than men, necessitating sisterhood as a coping mechanism men simply did not have access to. For one, slave women were often raped by their masters. As if the rape alone was not brutal enough, the slave women were often impregnated and forced to bear a child the master would disown. The master's wife, if she suspected that her husband was the father of the child, could cause problems for the slave woman too: showing how females from different social status groups clashed more fiercely than men and women from the same social class. The children of slave women, whether they were fathered by rapist masters or not, were often taken away from their mothers. Being torn apart from children and family was a common experience for all slaves. Yet enslaved mothers were not often able to bond with each other. Their subjugated social status meant that friendships as well as families could be torn apart as soon as one person was sold to a different master. Competition between slave women was also possible, especially when a plantation employed more than one domestic slave.

Middle class pious women living in the Northeast experienced radically different social circumstances. Like their sisters in almost every other social group in America at the time, women in the Northeast were often forced into marriages, denied the right to education, and were especially left out of important political and economic decisions that governed society. As a result, women in the Northeast found solace in sisterhood. Pious women bonded on religious issues, often pointing to their husbands as symbols of moral decay in America. Temperance movements were almost entirely started and maintained by women frustrated with their husbands' drinking. Being unable to vote in political elections meant that the pious women of the Northeast turned to grassroots politics as a form of social bonding. Their groups and clubs became social events as much as they were attempts…… [read more]


Margaret L. King Women of the Renaissance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,194 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Women of the Renaissance

Margaret L. King's book, Women of the Renaissance, published in 1991, by the University of Chicago Press proves to be an informative source for looking into the lives of women and the roles they played during this era. King covers the various roles of women from 1350 to 1650 in western Europe with "glances elsewhere" (King xiii). King is careful to examine the differences between the classes of women, noting that the "fourteenth-century nun and the seventeenth-century savante have more in common than a merchant's wife and a children's nurse" (xiii). The material covered is rich in detail covering women's roles in he family, the church, and in the elite class. By structuring the book this way, King covers society as a whole, including all women - from preacher's wives to prostitutes. King writes in a style that is engaging and interesting, which makes the drier portions of the book more palatable.

The first section, "Daughters and Mothers," is a fair introduction to the culture and place of women during the Renaissance. Mother and child, as would be expected, comes first as King shines the light on religion, family, mothers, and children. The family was significant and it was not unusual for wealthy women to bear five of six children. Women not only suffered through childbirth but also in daily life as well. It was not unusual for women to lose their lives in childbirth. King ends the first section by asserting, "Daughter, mother, widow, virgin, matron, crone: these were the possibilities that encircled the female sex. A very few, by an act of will or fortune, escaped the endless dance whose mode was set by sex and whose measure was set by years" (24). Wives had the pleasure of developing a "relationship with her husband negotiated between contradictory injunctions" (35).

Marriage, for women, during the Renaissance was "fundamentally negative" (47)and women were generally looked down upon and "attacks on women were backed by the apparatus of learned culture: philosophical, legal, theological, medical, resting on the authority of Scripture and the Fathers, Aristotle, Galen, and Thomas Aquinas" (47). In marriage, women had no control. The husband was "empowered to dispose of all property: his own, his wife's, their joint property" (50). This unfortunate circumstance was the result of the "theme of companionship" (35) that was defined by male theorists of that time.

The second section, "Daughters of Mary," focuses on women and the church. This is an enlightening section because it does not just cover women in the church but also women in the church. An interesting piece in this section covers the fourteenth-century inquisition and how that effected women. Witches were women that had "entered into a pact with the devil" (149) and met with him regularly.

King asserts that this European witch-hunt was unique in its "proportions and consequences" (159). The torture for such a crime was "one of the innovations if the modern judicial system" (150), which included beatings until confession.… [read more]


Women's Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women

Susan Faludi's 1990s feminist classic Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women chronicles the widespread cultural resistance that arose to the gains women had made during the feminist liberation movement of the 1970s. Chapter 4: "The 'Trends' of Antifeminism: The Media and the Backlash" is a critique and an analysis of the superficiality with which the media often covers feminist issues. Protests against Miss America gained more attention than how feminist seriously critiqued the ways that women were valued in society. Feminism becomes a 'trend,' and ever trend is soon superseded by the next trend like 'cocooning' or nesting, (75; 83).

Faludi's portrait of the media is not so much that it is misogynist, but rather the media loves to tell a 'story,' for example, that women are bemoaning the loss of their fertility or dropping out of the management track. Consider the statistic that 30% of the class of 1976 of Columbia Business School was unemployed or self-employed. This seems to support the trend of 'cocooning' were it not for the much less interesting comparative statistic that 21% of the men are also unemployed. Sadly, this type of media hype and use of inflammatory statistics is simply 'par for the course,' harkening back to Good Housekeeping bemoaning that 'bachelor girls' could not be happy and that 1980s spinsters had a better chance of getting hit by lightening than finding a mate (99). Even Ms. magazine was prey to this lemming-like media trend, a trend that was built upon faulty statistics and manufactured images, not reality about the way women were living their lives (112).

Faludi's Chapter 9 is about a far more deliberate but no less harmful campaign to tell 'big lies' through the media. It is entitled "The Politics of Resentment: The New Right's War on Women." The chapter chronicles the New Right ministers' sadly successful fight against the Equal Rights Amendment, and how many New Right conservatives spokeswomen 'martyred' themselves for the cause, leaving their homes and families to embark upon lucrative speaking and advocacy careers, telling American women they should stay home and let men take…… [read more]


Status of Women in Society Continually Changes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,174 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … status of women in society continually changes. Over the past several centuries, they have evolved from a rank of inequality to one of freedom to be whatever they wish to be.

This evolution through time is depicted in the poetic verse of Robert Herrick's "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time," in the early1600s," Dorothy Livesay's "The Three Emilys" in 1972, and Michael Ondaatje's "To a Sad Daughter" in 1984.

Robert Herrick wrote hundreds of poems about women in his society (Landrum 181). In the 17th century, women were considered "regardless of social rank, as wives and mothers... And were considered morally evil, intellectually inferior," and "framed by God only for domestic duties" (Dunn 15). They were expected to submit to men "as wives were subject to their husbands, so women were subject to men, whose authority was sustained informally through culture, custom and differences in education, and more formally through the law." Essentially, they were the property of their fathers and husbands.

Herrick's poem "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time" illustrates how women are considered objects of beauty. They are prized for their looks and sexuality, not for their intellect or talent. The only power they have over men is their virginity. However, as the poem states, women have to "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, / as Old Time is still a-flying: / and this same flower that smiles to-day / to-morrow will be dying." Since beauty is their only trait of importance, they have to use it while they are young, for with age it will disappear. This poem appeals to moral women to take advantage of what they have, while they have it. Herrick is stressing that time is short and youthful virgins should be finding a man to marry "For having lost but once your prime, / You may for ever tarry."

Three centuries later, women had a great deal more freedom. Yet, they were still not on equal footing with their male counterparts and struggled to fulfill all their different roles. Dorothy Livesay, a writer and advocate for women's rights, social justice and peace, lived from 1909 to 1996 in one of the most memorable times for women (New). In her native country of Canada, women were not able to vote until 1918. Over the next several decades, women continued to struggle for equality. In 1963, the average woman worker earned only 63% of a man's salary. At that time, Betty Friedan published the Feminine Mystique, stressing that women frequently had no other role than "finding a husband and bearing children" (15). She encouraged women to look for new responsibilities and their own personal and professional identities instead of defining themselves by a male-dominated society.

Livesay was one of these independent women who defined who she was. She explains the difficulty of being a woman and a poet in modern society in "The Three Emilys" about Emily Bronte, Emily Dickinson, and Emily Carr. Each of these noteworthy women did… [read more]


Women's Lives and Roles in American Society During the 1940's to Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women's Lives And Roles In American Society During The 1940's To Present

Here's to you Mrs. Robinson and Elaine" -- the problematic view of women in "The Graduate" (1967)

In Mike Nichols' 1967 film "The Graduate," Mrs. Robinson and her daughter Elaine both have a relationship with Benjamin Braddock, the central protagonist of the tale. Braddock is a young man,… [read more]


Women's Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,500 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Iraqi Women

Regardless if one is for or against the War in Iraq, the hope is that the lives of the Iraqi people are improved and some form of democratic nation is built that provides for equal rights. The previous situation of Muslim women in Iraq was restrictive at best. What has been the impact over the last five years?… [read more]


Women's Concerns 1865-1912 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,683 words)
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Women's Roles 1865-1912

Social Class and Women's Roles in a White Heron

Literature is a reflection of the society in which it is produced. By examining the themes, attitudes and characters of period writing, one can begin to develop an understanding of that society. A White Heron, by Sarah Orne Jewett gives the reader a glimpse into social class divisions… [read more]


Women's Rights During French Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,667 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Womens Rights During French Revolution

The French Revolution equalized responsibilities and obligations for women, even if in terms of rights they were often trailing men. However, this period saw some of the important women politicians of the day fight for their ideas alongside men and often die for these. Madame Roland is probably just one of the examples of a… [read more]


Discrimination Against Women in Morocco Only Response to CEDAW Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,199 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Discrimination agaisnt women in Morocco only (response to CEDAW)

Discrimination against Women in Morocco

Women have been discriminated against since the beginnings of time and the process is far from being eliminated. The only thing that has changed is the degree and gravity of discrimination - whereas in some countries the husband still has the right to decide whether his… [read more]


Women as Executives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (873 words)
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Women Executives

For many individuals in the field of business management becoming a top level executive is the ultimate career goal. For women achieving this goal can be an extremely difficult and daunting task. The purpose of this discussion is to examine why there are so few women in senior executive positions in corporate America.

According to Nelson & Levesque, (2007) women in executive positions in Corporate America are few and far between. The authors point out that the most recent data available shows that...women represented just 16% of corporate executive officers among all Fortune 500 companies in 2006 compared to 9% in 1995. Although this represents an absolute increase from prior decades, women executives of Fortune 500 companies in 2005 still held less than 10% of clout titles (those higher than vice president), fewer than 1% of Chief Executive Office and Board Chair positions, and only 6% of the top earner positions (Nelson & Levesque, 2007 p.209)."

The article asserts that there are several barriers associated with women becoming executives. Chief amongst these obstacles is the discrimination that women face that is both intentional and unintentional (Nelson & Levesque, 2007). The intentional discrimination takes place when women are stereotyped and placed in positions that will not lead to executive management over the long-term. The authors explain that gender stereotypes often have an affect upon the manner in which female employees are evaluated as it relates to such characteristics as competence and leadership skills (Nelson & Levesque, 2007).

In fact one study found that both males and females preferred to hire male applicants even when there were female applicants who were just as qualified or had similar resumes. The article explains that gender role stereotypes have hurt women's chances as it relates to becoming top executives (Nelson & Levesque, 2007). In addition corporations are often unprepared or unwilling to understand that the leadership style of women may not be the same or consistent with the leadership style of male counterparts. Because of this oversight women are often overlooked as it pertains to holding leadership positions.

Discrimination against women in the workplace can also be seen as it relates to the wage gap. According to the Journal of Economic Issues, there are substantial gender wage gaps (Mitra, 2003). These wage gaps may be discouraging to women and prevent them from even pursuing leadership roles or executive positions.

Another barrier associated with women holding executive positions in corporate America is childcare and family issues (Sumer, 2006). This barrier exists as a result of the physical differences between men and women and the roles that men and women play…… [read more]


Woman and Disabilities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,037 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Women, Disability, Sexuality and the Image of the Ideal Woman

Women, Disability Sexuality and the Image of the Ideal Woman

The proposed course of research here is on the subject of women, disability and sexuality. The expectation of society is that disabled women are disabled sexually as well as physically because society cannot perceive women with disabilities in a way… [read more]


Correlation Between Male Competition and the Objectification of Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,998 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Objectification of Women

Correlation Between Male Competition and the Objectification of Women

This paper outlines and discusses four studies conducted to examine the correlation between male competition and the objectification of women. Two studies (Study 1 and Study 3) involved observation followed by interviews with observed parties. These studies attempt to identify behavior, both male and female, that leads or… [read more]


Creole Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,310 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Victorian Period, women, as exemplified by those in the Creole society, were deemed second-class citizens. Once married, they were expected to give all their property and rights to their husbands and be at the beck and call of their partner's wishes. The purpose of the woman was to be mother, homemaker and wife. Those were her sole duties in life. In Kate Chopin's book the Awakening, women were thus seen simply as exotic birds who are domesticated only for the sake of their beauty and ability to repeat over and over again words and phrases for which they have no understanding. However, what happens when the bird realizes that it can leave its cage and say and do what it wants? Some birds can handle this freedom without any constraints. Others, however, feel torn between the obligations back within the cage and the joy of being free outside. Thus is Edna's Pontellier's fate.

In the Awakening, a mockingbird and a parrot, open the first chapter. These birds' impersonator prattle represent the constraints of the Creole woman -- such as Madame Lebrun, who is bustling in and out, giving orders to a yard-boy inside the house and directions in to a dining-room servant outside to keep the household in shape. She is an attractive woman, always dressed in white with a starched skirt that crinkles. Meanwhile, a guest by the name of Mr. Pontellier sits and reads his newspaper and smokes his cigar, and is not to be disturbed by anyone for any reason. As a male, he represents the king of his own household, including his wife, Edna, and children.

The Victorian woman also has no say about her sexual nature. Husbands can and do have affairs. Wives, however, must be pure as their white starched skirt. Women cannot ask for a divorce, if their husband plays around; men can quickly do so, if the situation is reversed. Mr. Pontellier is said to look at his sunburnt wife "as one looks at a valuable piece of personal property which has suffered some damage." As Edna returns from the sea, she puts her wedding ring back on, taking it from her husband "silently." This represents the ownership of his wife with clothes and jewelry that signify her position as a married woman. Mr. Pontellier is a man thoroughly involved with the world of business, the company of men, financial autonomy and the pursuit of extra-familial pleasures. He is described throughout as a generous man, but one who is largely absent (Nolan 103).

In this Creole society, a woman's role is dictated by a patriarchal system and known only for her responsibility in marriage and to motherhood. These societal norms are personified by Adele Ratignolle, whom Chopin terms the "perfect mother-woman." She can be called perfect, because she does not own her selfhood, and is part of the "self-effacing species of nest-makers dominating the island" (Seyersted 134) of Grand Isle. For such women as Adele, says Chopin, the family "possesses"… [read more]


Feminism: Heaney and Dickinson Feminist Literary Criticism Term Paper

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Feminism: Heaney and Dickinson

Feminist literary criticism emerges from the feminist movement that arose in the United States during the 1960s. As a literary theory, feminism became dominant during the 1970s. In general, feminist theory focuses on how language is used in literature in order to describe and delineate the role of the woman and her position in society. As such, feminist theory lends itself well to the interpretation of poems such as "I cannot live with you" by Emily Dickinson, and "Punishment" by Seamus Heaney.

Dickinson's poem echoes her self-selected seclusion from society at large. Seen from a feminist point-of-view, this seclusion is chosen as the only option against complete dominance and personality annihilation in a world dominated by men. As such, the poem also describes her impossible love. Dickinson does not deny the existence of her love. But she does deny that such a love can be allowed in her world if she is to realize her true potential as a woman, and not as a housewife. This is delineated by the progression of her poem (Academy of American Poets). For Dickinson, love is as impossible as the…… [read more]


Ho Women Are Portrayed in Late 19th Century Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  34 pages (9,385 words)
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¶ … Women are Portrayed in Late 19th Century Art

Throughout history, women have served as the subjects of compelling and poignant works of art, reflecting in large part how society viewed them and what roles they were expected to play. These gender differences were especially pronounced during the 19th century when women were women and men were men, and… [read more]


Victorian Women During the Victorian Age Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Victorian Women

Women during the Victorian age had little choice over their fate once they became marrying age. In most cases, men married these women because of the property they owned and to have and raise children. Once wed, the women lost all ownership of their goods as well as any legal rights. On the other hand, if a woman… [read more]


Mythology- Islam Women, Islam, and Human Rights Term Paper

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Mythology- Islam

Women, Islam, and Human Rights

The area of Human Rights is critical for the progress of Muslim women in society for the same reason that the area of Human Rights is critical in every other arena; what defines a culture, especially to outsiders, is not how that culture treats its most respected members, but how it treats its least respected members. People have used religion and culture as a means to exert power and control over disadvantaged groups since the beginning of time. Even when the basics of the religious or cultural message support equality or area facially neutral, as soon as people with biased tendencies seize upon aspects of a culture to support their bias, and are not opposed by others in the culture, that bias becomes synonymous with the culture. There are two results: (1) the disenfranchised group becomes more marginalized within the culture, and (2) the culture becomes more marginalized among other cultures. The poor treatment of women in much of Muslim society has led to this result. Under extremist regimes, like the Taliban, women lost more and more of their basic freedoms and incredibly marginalized. Furthermore, as a result of learning about the treatment of women under extremist groups like the Taliban, the majority of the non-Muslim world began to associate Islam with the subjugation of women.

First, it is important to note that, in its purest form, Islam may be the least-sexist of the world's major religions. Even the hijab, which is seen by many Westerners as a sign of anti-female oppression, was not initially intended as a means of suppressing women. On the contrary, the hijab was seen as a temporary solution to an increase in anti-female violence, meant as a stop-gap measure until men gained the appropriate self-control. However, cultural norms interfered. Like all cultures, Muslim culture sprang from a background of sexism. Purist ideals that were meant to elevate women to the status of equal were twisted and perverted to be used as a means of suppressing women. In fact, women faced a serious problem; because the subjugation of women was so intertwined into daily practice and absorbed into the religion, to question the role of women in Muslim society was oftentimes seen as questioning the existence of Allah. Therefore, many women suffered silently, internalizing Islam's negative teachings about women. Even more alarming is that, because women were not encouraged to question cultural norms, many failed to speak up in time to prevent dramatic losses of civil rights. For example, prior to the time of the Taliban, women in Afghanistan had almost unprecedented freedom in the Muslim world. However, after the Taliban took over, women lost almost all of their basic human rights, and were not permitted to attain educations or work. (Karon, 2001).

However, such an extreme loss of rights has been somewhat inspirational for women under Islam: it taught women about the consequences of silent acceptance and the slippery slope of human rights abuses. In addition, the resulting… [read more]


Vermeer's Woman Holding a Balance Term Paper

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Vermeer's Woman Holding a Balance

The painting shows a woman at a table. She has a balance in her right hand, and on the table in front of her are a piece of blue cloth, a gold chain, and open boxes. Her eyes are lowered and focus on the balance, waiting for it to come to rest. To the right of the woman hangs a painting of the Last Judgment. The woman is bathed in soft light from the window.

The woman appears to be locked into a private world of her own. This inner consciousness appears to give her peace, indicated by the expression on her face. Although there are several items of jewelry on the table, the balance is empty. This could be symbolic of weighing something more important than jewelry. This suggestion is amplified by the painting to her right. The Christ figure is above the woman's head, with the scene of weighing the souls on Judgment Day hidden. The woman as it were replaces this scene. Her illuminated face also suggests a holiness that brings deep inner peace. The concept…… [read more]


Women in Othello Term Paper

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Women in Othello

Each of these women is treated as a second-class citizen in the play, and yet they all love their men unconditionally and without any question, even when the males' behavior is highly questionable. They are loyal and loving, and yet, the men all reject their love in one way or another. In this, they are all similar and Shakespeare treats them as "generic" women characters, creating loving women who are treated poorly by their men and put up with this treatment without protest.

Emilia is dissimilar in that at the end of the play she shows her strength and stands up to Iago and actually brings about his downfall. She dies in the process, but she shows her courage and strength before she succumbs, and in effect, thumbs her nose at Iago, who often treated her with disrespect and discourtesy. Desdemona is also dissimilar because at least for part of the play, Othello professes his love for her and his contentment with their relationship. He says, "As heu's from heaven! If it were now to die,…… [read more]


Women in Art Term Paper

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Female Art

Because women have always been an integral part of society, their role has been depicted in artwork from the very first sculptures and cave paintings. Not surprising, the way that they have been delineated through art has depended on their changing responsibilities. Also, when they create the art pieces instead of their male counterparts, differences are recognized.

The… [read more]


Elie Wiesel Response: Night Term Paper

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Elie Wiesel

Response: Night

In some ways, it is comforting when the world obeys a moral logic, even when it hurts us. We don't wear knee pads while roller blading, and scab our knees. What is frightening is when we do everything right, and life is proceeding along an ordinary track, and suddenly tragedy befalls us. While anti-Semitism had been a presence in Europe as long as Wiesel could remember, the level of tragedy of the Holocaust that swept Wiesel from his community and family was like a natural disaster, like a fire or a flood in its intensity -- but this disaster was created and inflicted by the hands of human beings. This compounded the sense of absurdity -- Wiesel had done nothing but exist, done nothing to justify his punishment other than being Jewish, and suddenly, he was being punished and had to confront utter annihilation. This is also why Wiesel's experiences cause him to doubt God -- not because bad things had happened, but because there was no logic to the tragedy and to who survived and who lived.

Response: Feminism

Sometimes, for women to be artistically fruitful and to live fulfilling lives, it is necessary for women to be selfish. To be a writer and…… [read more]


Women in the Military Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,121 words)
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¶ … Women in history [...] problem of women in the military, and offer a solution to the problem. Historically, women have not served as members of the military for a number of reasons. Traditionally, society views women as weaker than men, physically and emotionally, and so they are deemed unfit for combat. There are a variety of other reasons… [read more]


Soldaderas of the Mexican Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (5,292 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … traditional depiction of Mexican women was very restrictive. The pre-revolutionary view of Mexican women was of a "woman who had lived her life constantly in the male shadow" (Soto, 31-32). Mexican bravado and chauvinism forced the Mexican women into the background of the patriarchal society that has its roots in Spanish government and culture. These women were consumed… [read more]


Women's Rights Movement in American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Women's Rights Movement - Annotated Bibliography

Mezey, Susan Gluck. Elusive Equality: Women's Rights, Public Policy and the Law.

Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003. 340 pages ISBN 158826176X.

This highly-authoritative work examines how United States government entities and institutions, being the executive branch, the U.S. Congress and state legislatures and the federal courts, have affected the legal status of women, both past and present. By examining relevant judicial and public policy issues, Susan Gluck Mezey explores the legal parameters of gender equality and inequality, beginning roughly with the abolition movement prior to the American Civil War and up to the early 20th century when women fought hard battles for suffrage equality. The text is divided into nine chapters and contains a complete bibliography and an index of pertinent federal/state cases related to women's rights in the U.S. The intended audience are general reader, scholars and historians. Clearly, as a highly-recognized scholar, Mezey's book contributes a great deal to the already burgeoning library on the history of women's rights in America. (Google Book Search:

http://.google.com/books?vid=ISBN158826176X&id=dIXAsv7

Aux4C&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&ots=jtIK7WQ1Uf&dq=women%27s+rights+movement&sig=7_KJ3tS9u4zHspfZYOVXKqp3Qnc).

Garner, Les. Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's

Suffrage Movement, 1900-1918. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1984. 120 pages ISBN 0838632238.

In this work, author Les Garner of the University of Iowa and Professor of Women's History in the United States explores the contributions toward a fuller understanding of the feminist side of the women's movement in the early decades of the 20th century. He also raises some very important questions, such as how did the women's movement define the oppression of women and how did it assess the roles of the sexes and the sexual division of labor? What perspectives were adopted on sexuality and reproduction? How…… [read more]


Ibsen Henrik Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,376 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … lives of women in the 19th century using Hennrik Ibsen's play, a Doll House. The writer explores the societal oppression that the women of that era went through and endured and uses the play to explain women's need to escape from the confinement and restriction they faced in European Society in the 19th century. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

During the past few decades, the explosion of the women's movement worldwide has created a more equalized playing field between the genders than ever before, however, the women's movement did not start in the 1960's. The female gender has been fighting to gain ground among their male counterparts for many years and had to come from an extremely oppressive society to do so.

One of the most telling illustrations of the women's place in society during 19th century in Europe can be seen in Hennrik Ibsen's play called the Doll House. Within that play readers and viewers alike will be treated to the truth of female oppression during that time but also to the realization that females were already beginning to balk against a system that treated them like show pieces instead of thinking human beings.

Within the play Nora, the wife initially displays complete submission to her husband. He not only tells her what she can and cannot buy, he tells her when she can and cannot purchase herself a treat of macaroons. This is evidenced in the play when she hides the treats in her pocket and tells her husband that she has not been by the sweet shop to make a purchase (Ibsen, 2006).

In addition her complete and utter devotion to him is evidenced by her refusal to allow anyone to speak an unkind word about him in her home.

These and other scenes from the play illustrate the completely subservient role that females had at that time.

It was not just the play's dialogue that explores the oppression females experienced during that time in history, but also the actions and laws that applied to that society.

This is evidenced when the method by which she secured funds to take her husband elsewhere to get well was questioned. As the play explains, at that time in history a woman was not legally allowed to borrow any money without her husband or father's permission (Ibsen, 2006).

The final illustration of a woman's place in 19th century European society is seen when her husband actually finds out what she has done. She had put herself on the line and risked everything to secure the funds to save his life, however, when he realizes she forged her father's signature he throws her to the wolves instead of standing by her side (Ibsen, 2006).

All of these examples from the play provide evidence that women of that era were little more than possessions and showpieces, without being truly respected. The final blow to Nora is when her husband commands her out of the house without… [read more]


Emancipation of Women it Was Inevitable Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (376 words)
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¶ … Emancipation of Women

It was inevitable that women would, by early 20th century, achieve emancipation. The road towards emancipation began in the late 19th century through the agency of other social movements, especially the Anti-Slavery Society (Brammer, L., 2000, p. 21). "In 1840, the U.S. women delegates sent to the Anti-Slavery Convention in London were refused entry to the convention and forced to sit in the gallery (p. 21)."

The action taken against them at the Convention in London was enough to begin talk about the gender related disparities that were causing women to "sit in the gallery (p. 21). At that time, women did not have a right to vote, or the right to participate in socially or politically significant events, except to the extent that they demonstrated a presence in show support of their husbands. Women's significant roles were that of supporting their husbands, and functions related to the family, home, and church (Ulrich, L., 1990). However, women's rights were inevitable as was the end of slavery, because when human rights, certain basic freedoms, are denied a people, then those people will respond by…… [read more]

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