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World War I Term Paper

… This resulted in financial hardships even for the middle classes and those who had lived off investments (Author not given, 2003). At the same time, war-based industries were no longer needed, and unemployment rose (Author not given, 2004). European countries lost physical property, and much land was made unusable. As a result of all these financial stresses, in less than three months the value of the Mark dropped from 4.6 million marks to the American dollar to 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar. Inflation seemed unstoppable (Author not given, 2003).

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS

World War I had profound psychological effects on Europeans, but especially on Germany, who had fought what it considered a just war, and lost (Author not given, 2003). Optimism was replaced with pessimism. People came to distrust their governments and felt that their governments did not know how to meet their needs. In some parts of Europe, one in four young men were killed in battle, and all together the war resulted in the deaths of from 10 million to 13 million people. As life became unstable, strong Fascist governments that could respond swiftly and decisively to crises looked attractive to many people (Author not given, 2003). This feeling was especially prominent in Germany, where the lives of people were in a desperate situation. The combination of perceived insults to their country not only from defeat but from the humiliating requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, combined with a weak government and economic crisis, made the country vulnerable to a dictator like Adolph Hitler, who reminded them of their great Teutonic heritage and who promised them that they would rise to greatness again.

SOURCE

Author not given. 2003. "The Great War Effects," in IB History Pages. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04.

Author not given. 2004. "The Causes and Effects of World War I," in World History. Studyworld Studynotes. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04. [read more]


Duiker and Speilvogel's Book Term Paper

… "

Imperialism in its simplest form is described in the dictionary as the policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over other nations. And basically, Duiker and Spielvogel support this by providing material that describes a "progressive" society, albeit European society as the emerging society for reformation, the intellectual revolution and the foundational for cultural and social change. Africa, Asia and India are viewed as countries of lesser stimulation and places that would benefit from European globalization.

France, England and the other civilized countries brought the benefits of their advanced civilizations to worlds beyond their perimeters. "There is a smug and simple argument, but one of great appeal in the late 19th century when European technological superiority could be measured. The failure or unwillingness to distinguish wisely between technology and culture allowed the Europeans to be arrogant, and moreover, to assume that in any arrangement of the world that they were at the center."

Africa and Asia were destined to lay a key role in the new imperialism. They offered new outlets for trade and ports of call that would not only be strategic outlets for competition but valuable naval bases as well. But as with any expansion, more than trade moved into these countries. The Europeans brought their culture, religion and their politics. 1895 had turned nine tenths of Africa into European colonies. Between 1871 and 1900, Britain added 4.25 million square miles and 66 million people to her Empire.

As global politics emerged, imperialism gave way to nationalism and expressions of national pride became the flag to wave. People took stock in their nation, their immediate world and by design became caught up in what may be termed the "local scene."

Imperialism brought with it several benefits, the spread of culture and religion. New ideas about society. It opened new gateways to new lands and raw materials. It changed the face of politics. And as people began to understand their nations, they became more connected to their heritage and their homeland.

The world became a smaller place as faraway continents became more connected to the Western World. But as with all good things, there were disadvantages. It is often said that imperialism and the resulting capitalism was one of the causes for World War I. Colonialism lost its luster and became too costly in some cases.

But the far-reaching effects of imperialism were felt across the world and what remains today is the integrated global world that resulted. Regardless of what inspired this movement, it had an incredible impact on the world at large, both then and now.

Information Sources

World History Since 1865. Volume II. William Dukier. Jackson J. Spielvogel.. Wadsworth Publishing.

Europe in Retrospect. Raymond F. Betts. 2000.…… [read more]


Globalization in World History Essay

… A.G. Hopkins edits a comprehensive historical analysis of the theme and phenomenon of globalization with Globalization in World History. Published in 2002, the editor's place of reference is that globalization is more than just a "catch-word of the day."

Globalization has been mistakenly framed as (a) a modern phenomenon that occurred in the aftermath of the First and Second World Wars; (b) a Western-led phenomenon. In fact, globalization far predates the 20th century and far transcends the Western hegemony that has defined the modern world. The story of globalization is not equal to the story of the rise of the United States as a superpower or even just the rise of the West as a global colonial and imperial force. Globalization in World History accomplishes the central goal of "re-mapping the geography of the subject" in order to "point the way towards a truly global history of globalization."

The central theme of Globalization in World History, which is a collection of seemingly disparate essays, is that globalization has been taking place for centuries and is an ever-evolving feature of the human landscape.

Globalization in World History is an "analysis of the origins, nature and consequences of globalization" including the "economics, politics, and sociology of the phenomenon,"

Drawing from authors whose expertise range from China to Islam, Hopkins acknowledges the "historical diversity of globalizing forces."

In other words, globalization is far from the singular phenomenon that it is described as being today. The form that globalization takes might be different today due to new technologies, but historians envision the "unevenness of the process of globalization."

Globalization looked different to the Venetians than it does to the Americans.

One of the most salient themes of Globalization in World History is that the phenomenon is far from being a Western-driven historical trend. In fact, the earliest manifestations of what can be reasonably called globalization were not Western but Eastern phenomenon. Hopkins includes authors whose scholastic inquiry lends insight into the roles that India, China, Southeast Asia, and Arabia have played in the unfolding of globalization, global empires, and global economic, social, and political hegemony. Even a cursory glance at world history reveals that globalization has been a trend for several centuries before the European conquest of the Americas. Only an American-centric position would remain beholden to the idea that globalization happened only since Coca-Cola and McDonalds became big.

Hopkins aims to exhibit and elaborate on the "non-Western dimensions of globalization" and also reveal its…… [read more]


History After WWI Through WWII Term Paper

… History after WWI through WWII

In general, world history can be considered a succession of experiments, just as modern science. On the other hand, both modern science and history are studied by gathering facts and figures and by putting together… [read more]


1770 and 1850, the Economy Term Paper

… Farmers also managed their large as they deemed fit.

England imported most of its iron. This could be attributed to shortage of charcoal that could be used in smelting iron. However, when it was established that coke could be used in smelting iron, the iron industry took off. England was endowed with vast deposits of iron ore and coal.

Invention of steam engine also led to industrial revolution in Britain. It all began with the invention of Newcomen engine in about 1712 where a cylinder was filled with steam and the steam condensed to draw the piston down. This engine was used to draw water out of coal mines. Watt Engine, invented in 1774, had a separate condenser that made it more efficient. James Watt later added sun and planet gear, automatic control mechanism, and double acting engine to the Watt Engine. For transportation applications, high pressure engines were developed after 1800 (Kreis, 2011).

Transportation technology was also one of the causes of the industrial revolution in Britain. Improved roads were built in large numbers between 1750 and 1815 (Kreis, 2011). Transportation costs were therefore reduced by between 20-30%. Canals were also built notably the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal which was 7 miles long. This canal helped halve the cost of coal in Manchester. There was a boom in erection of canal between 1750 and 1800 (Kreis, 2011). Courtesy of canals, England had 3875 miles of navigable water by 1830. This provided means of cheaper transport to bulky industrial goods.

The coming of the railroad system also occasioned in a way the industrial revolution. Locomotives that were at first used in coal mines proved to be very heavy for the existing tracks that were used by horse drawn cars. The erection of the railroads expedited the transportation of coal from the mines to the industries where they were used to smelt iron ores. Stockton and Darlington Railroad was the first career to use locomotives. This happened in 1825. In 1829, Liverpool and Manchester had a contest to test locomotives (Mack, 2005).

Britain became industrialized because of its effective central bank and well-developed credit market. The domestic economy functioned with fewer restrictions imposed by the government. Technological change and the existence of free market economy also led to the industrial revolution in Britain (Mack, 2005).

References List

Kreis, S. (2011). Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html

Mack, P.E. (2005). The British Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.htm

Toynbee, A. (1884). Lectures on the Industrial…… [read more]


Protestant Reformation, Imperialism, and WW1: Impact on History Term Paper

… Protestant Ref., Imperialism, and WWI

An Analysis of the Effects of Protestantism, Imperialism, and WWI on History

The medieval world had been one in which the "age of faith" and the might of arms (thanks to men like Charlemagne) had… [read more]


World History Development of Civilization Term Paper

… Twentieth Century History

Need opening and over all summary of this Era of conflict:

In order to understand how the world of 2005 came about, it is necessary to consider the effects of World War I and II, the Cold… [read more]


Million Africans Who Were Enslaved Term Paper

… There was a congress that was held in Vienna in 1815 which saw pressure from Britain to Spain, France, Portugal and Netherlands to agree the abolition of slave trade. In 1817 Britain and Spain signed a treaty that prohibited slave trade .British naval vessels had the permission of searching ships that were suspected to be slave ships. This change of heart towards slave trade was provoked by enlightenment, revolution of age, Christian revivalism as well as the beginning of industrial revolution (ABC News, 2013). African societies began the export of what they produced like palm oil, peanuts and cotton. There were also philosophers like jean-jacques from France and Adam smith who was an economist wrote on the slave trade. They clearly heighted its effects and explained why they should be abolished.

These events of abolition of slave trade were very important to the African societies. This is because it led to the eventual end of the African slave trade which was a very brutal trade.

Conclusion

The slave system did not consider the tragic effects that came with it. The Europeans would have easily entered into partnerships that were genuine with African nations as opposed to reducing them into slaves. These partnerships would have led to more goods and service for both Africa and Britain if they had entered into contract labor. Though the event that led to development of slave trade was important because of what is got from the trade it was bad all the same. Therefore the event leading to the banning of slave trade was very important as it relieved Africans from the brutal labor they were doing.

References

ABC News, (2013). Timeline of Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./story?id=96659&page=1

Clarke, J.H., (2009) .The African Holocaust -- the Slave Trade. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.nbufront.org/MastersMuseums/JHClarke/EdRealityAfricanWorld/EdWorldPart3.html

Understanding Slavery, (2011). Europe Before Transatlantic slavery. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.understandingslavery.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=315&Itemid=145… [read more]


History War and Peace in World History Ancient Rome Term Paper

… History; War and Peace in World History;

Ancient Rome

All elements, whether economical, social, political, military strategic or tactical, point out towards the fact that Rome went to war for pure necessity. As a nation constantly surround by enemies, but… [read more]


Ancient Roman History Term Paper

… Ancient Roman History

The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) What were the main achievements of the Romans? (2) How did they influence world history? (3) in what ways is the Roman "dream" still alive today? (4) Can you think of other societies that have tried to become the "new" Rome? (5) What were the fundamental elements of the Roman character? (6) Was there a dark side to the Roman character? (7) What figure from Roman history was most representative of the good and bad sides of the Romans?

The city of Rome is the capital of the Roma province, Latium region and the Republic of Italy. (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) Ancient Rome was located on the Tiber River, stated to be "about 17 miles northeast of the River's mouth at the Tyrrhenian Sea. There was a primary "north-south" trade-route running through the city of Rome and the city was active in trade by sea as well. Ancient Rome's claim to fame is the impressive architecture such as the "half-ruined Colosseum, which is just below the Palatine Hill..." (Ibid) However, architecture is not the only thing that ancient Rome is remembered in today's contemporary world for having contributed. The contributions of Rome include governmental operations and systems as well as recreational pastimes that are still popular in today's world.

I. ANCIENT ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

The ruins of the Roman Forum are stated to cover "a wide area between the Palatine and Capitoline hills..." which was the "...center of both economic and political life of ancient Rome. The structure that is best preserved is that of the "Pantheon" which has been called one of the greatest architectural achievements of the world. The architecture of Rome includes the construction of aqueducts "...some of which still carry water to the city." (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) During early Roman history walls were constructed for protection of the Palatine and Capitoline hills.

II. CHARACTERISTICS of the ROMAN PEOPLE

The early Romans were "orderly, practical" people who were much disciplined with the parents, teachers and state being their authority. Furthermore, the Romans were people used to the hard living…… [read more]


Argument on American Education Focusing on American Culture and History Essay

… ¶ … American Education

In the study of literature, there are those short stories that are written, which have a profound impact upon the world that we live in. One such story is: When Mr. Pirzada came to Dine, where… [read more]


Asian History of Social Process Essay

… Transformative Years That Were Many Years in the Making

In his essay entitled "1789-1792 and 1989-1992: Global Interaction of Social Movements," historian Patrick Manning parallels the events of 1789, the year of the storming of the Bastille and the beginning… [read more]


Rebellion to Revolution Slaves Book Report

… 51). Maroons sometimes were loyal to the European country dominating the region in which they lived. Though these relations were tenuous, the maroons would work often work to impede slave revolts and hunt down and kill runaway slaves, or return them to their masters. However, maroons were more likely to assist runaway slaves than to catch them for the Europeans. Because the maroons were so effective at guerilla warfare, white slaveholders were afraid of a maroon-slave coalition and a maroon-Native American alliance.

Wherever and whenever they lived, according to Genovese, maroons provoked desertions and slave revolts. They fought and defeated the military expeditions sent against them, sending a strong message to the slaves. Typically, the efforts of the maroons resulted in the establishment of African-type village communities and local autonomy that permitted them to establish trade relations with whites. In the early years, the maroons were sympathetic to the problems of the slaves, and the engaged in trade and relied on the slaves for support. Over time, alignment shifted toward the slaveholders such that peace treaties were established that left maroons capturing runaway slaves and crushing slave rebellions. The gap between the "salt water" slaves and the creole slaves widened, resulting in increasing hostility and hatred. British authorities recognized the effectiveness of using maroons to crush slave revolts. Similarly, whites used Native Americans to capture runaway slaves, with varying degrees of success. Regardless, the tactic was one of divide-and-conquer, a strategy that worked especially well wherever cultural divisions and historical mistrust dominated interactions. The maroon groups in the Old South grew strong toward the end of the 17th century, a factor that generated considerable fear of a black uprising in the Old South. Punitive expeditions into the maroon settlements prevented the consolidation of disparate maroon groups, and by the antebellum period in the Old South, the status of the maroons was primarily that of a nuisance. Attracted to more favorable land areas -- such as the lowlands of the Carolinas, the Maroon groups would wage sporadic warfare, be driven back, and then regroup -- without ever being able to establish the consolidated war camps that dotted the Brazilian Palmares, Jamaica, Surinam, or Saint-Domingue.

1. Who were the maroons?

2. What were the goals of the maroons?

3. Why did the maroons not bring about major revolution in America?

Reference

Genovese, E.D. (1992). From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World [Walter Lynwood…… [read more]


World History to 1500 Essay

… BANTU:

This term can be applied to two different contexts, being the Bantu tribe which can be found mostly in South Africa but is spread across the entire African continent, and the Bantu language, composed of some 400 various dialects… [read more]


Phenomenon of Globalization Book Review

… [1]
Gandhi has also helped in promoting globalism, even if he wasn't aware of the fact. His words have helped in promoting peace around the world. When thinking about peace in the present, one can often relate to Gandhi as… [read more]


Western Civilization 2 Final Research Proposal

… ¶ … Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were significant turning points in history and led to religious and political upheaval.

A a) the Enlightenment emerged from the Scientific Revolution. Describe how Enlightenment thinkers viewed human society and behavior and how… [read more]


Rise of East Asia Term Paper

… ¶ … rise of East Asia was one of the most significant events of the 14th century. With a culture that spans some three thousand years, the East Asian civilizations were at one time much more sophisticated than its western… [read more]


Rise of Islam Term Paper

… Islam

The rise of Islam was one of the most extraordinary events in world history. Often seen as a religion spread by force, Islam was glorified to its height because of prosperous cities, Mecca and Baghdad, and the expansion of trade and commercial routes through areas of Islamic missionaries. It was through these cultural alterations and changes in power that Islam rose in popularity.

The rise of Islam actually began as early as the seventh century. At the time, the Byzantine Empire, Roman Empire, and the Sassanid Kingdom were in constant struggle for political and economic control. This struggle resulted in destroyed trade routes along the Mediterranean, and new routes were therefore sought out to avoid the three empires. This new route encompassed the costal plain of Arabia, where the city of Mecca soon became a large financial and political settlement for merchants and traders.

By 661, under the Umayyad Caliphate, Islam began to expand because of able rulers and superior military organization. Islam quickly spread through North Africa, Spain, and France, and eventually into Central Asia and Northern India. Under this rule, science, history, chemistry, medicine, and writing were all developed with adherence to Islamic faith.

As the Umayyad Caliphate ended in 750, the Abbasid Caliphate came to power, furthering…… [read more]


Women From Ramayana and Osiris Isis and Horus Term Paper

… Women from Ramayana and Osiris, ISIS and Horus

The Ramayana, famous epic story of Ancient Indian literature gives a lot of interesting and important historical details about society of ancient India as it describes the nature of relations between men… [read more]


Germany Today Term Paper

… There is no need to explain the horror of 1914-1918 warfare but we should pay attention to the Versailles peace treaty, which adversely impacted after war development of Germany. Unfortunately world leaders of that time didn't think about future at all - they wanted to solve all problems of their countries using Germany as the main economical resource for reconstructing their states' infrastructure. In fact Versailles treaty was a true robbery: Germany had to pay severe reparations but was not able to do that as national economy was ruined by war. "German citizens suffered great economical depression and the majority of them became extremely poor." (Eihman 84).

No wonder Germans began "witch trials" and hunt on imaginary "hidden enemies" of their poverty and misfortunes - German Jews. It explains the spread of Nazi ideology countrywide, which grew out of nation's anger and desire for retaliation. Weak Weimar republic failed to solve either social or economical problems and collapsed under the pressure of growing Fascist movement. The leader of a new Fascist state Adolf Hitler used national interests for the purpose of fulfilling his political program based on extreme racisism and militarism.

World War II was not a sudden conflict; it was a continuation of WWI, as the nation humiliated by unfair conditions of Versailles treaty decided to strike back.

World War I and WWII are horrifying examples of irresponsible and short-sighted foreign policy of European superpowers: they had to be more careful in foreign affairs and had to try their best preventing the conflict and providing fair policy toward Germany.

Nevertheless, tragic impact of warfare and of fascism experience had positive impacts on the country. Absence of colonial markets made German goods the most qualitative in Europe, German high standards either in education or in industry resulted economical boom and prosperity, transforming the country which once stood in ashes to a country which is the most stable and predictable in Europe. The tragic experience of racial bigotry, Nazism and chauvinism forced new German governments to accept the most fair and democratic legislature towards protection of human rights. I'm convinced that German impact on world history, politics, and culture is invaluable and that's why we should not remember Germany only as motherland of Hitler and Nazism, but as a country which introduced a set of modern life attributes either in universal culture or in technology and science. Even today, Germany hasn't lost its historical mission in Europe: now it is an incarnation of Otto von Bismarck's dreams, not Hitler's ones. Today's Germany is a strong and stable state which respects other subjects of international law and is ready to cooperate with them for common good.

References

Fulbrook, Mary German History Since 1800 Arnold Publishers 1998

Eihman, Michael Germany After the Great War Oxford University Press 1978… [read more]


Muslim Battles With European Countries Term Paper

… Constantinople was the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, and its fall was the beginning of the Ottomans great expansion period. They infiltrated Spain after the fall of Constantinople, and gained a foothold to move throughout Europe, converting the people to Islam and gaining more territory. Today, there are still many areas of Europe that continue to be Islamic strongholds, such as Bosnia. There are still wars being fought over the Muslim, Christian dilemma, too, as the Bosnia-Serb war recently shows, and the war with Iraq continues.

In conclusion, each of these battles was highly significant in world history for a number of reasons. The Battle of Constantinople opened up the European continent to the Ottomans, giving them a foothold into new and vulnerable territory. The Battle of Lepanto showed Europe was a strong force and could push the Turks back to their territory, and the Siege of Vienna, mismanaged as it was, marked the end of Turkish aggression in Europe. Each battle marked a starting or ending point in Muslim power and progress, and each battle, if the outcome had been different, could have completely changed the course of history and the face of Europe.

References

Cowie, Leonard W. Sixteenth-Century Europe. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1977.

Esposito, John L. Islam, The Straight Path, 3rd edition.

Herrin, Judith. "The fall of Constantinople." History Today June…… [read more]


American Participation in World War II Essay

… WWII

The United States entered the Second World War late, and reluctantly. In spite of the Nazi death camps, the United States remained decidedly neutral until the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The bombing of Pearl Harbor may not have been… [read more]


Brief History of the Future Book Review

… ¶ … History of the Future

Strathern, O. (2007). A Brief History of the Future. New York: Carroll and Graf.

At best, futurists are predictors of trends; at worst, speculative commentators. For instance, if we revisit some of the World's… [read more]


Causes of World War Term Paper

… World War One marked the moment the Western world would challenge old models of governance, warfare, and national identity. As soon as Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, the old balance of power shifted from grandiose empires like the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman toward the smaller, yet in many ways no less powerful, nation-state. The spoils of imperialism and colonialism were being reaped across the globe with the United States standing poised to become a global superpower. New world powers like Russia emerged seemingly out of nowhere to challenge Western supremacy. The fall of centuries-old monarchies and regional blocs caused new political ideologies like Marxism, Communism, and Socialism to take root around the world and especially in Eastern Europe. At the same time, world trade, democracy, and capitalism were already shaping the 20th century. Known as the Great War, World War One also exhibited emerging military technologies and trench warfare that transformed the ways nation-states engaged each other during battle. Therefore, three primary causes that led to the First World War include militarism, imperialism, and nationalism.

Militarism entails the proliferation of weaponry and troops, arms racing, and the state support for military endeavors. The Industrial Revolution led to astounding developments in warfare technologies, which were quickly seized up by major players in the early 20th century arms race. France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, Belgium, and the United States all played major roles in fomenting the arms race. Submarines, battleships, and especially airplanes took the world by storm. New chemical gases were being developed that marked some of the first weapons of mass destruction. Ground combat weaponry including advanced machine guns, tanks, artillery, and grenades also made military might one of the most important features of the new world order. As nation-states clamored for military supremacy vis-a-vis their neighbors and especially their enemies, the battlefield became ripe for the outbreak of total war. The effects of militarism on neighboring nation-states was palpable: mutual suspicion led to intense cross-border tension between nations like France and Germany, Germany and Prussia. However, even nations that did not share land borders grew wary of one another during the military proliferation that preceded World War One. For example, Great Britain vied for continued naval supremacy while Germany also developed its own seafaring military fleet. Naval warfare supplemented by the new airplane troops proved that the impending war would go beyond all prior ones.

Imperialism, or empire-building, became a key cause of World War One. A counterpart of colonialism, imperialism entailed spreading ideology and an expansion of the global market. Imperialism depended on militarism but required more extensive political and economic ambition. Moreover, imperialism did not require increased…… [read more]


Industrial Revolution Changed the World Term Paper

… The economic development triggered by the industrial revolution, thus, made the European nations and the United States, the most powerful in the world in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Industrial Revolution in some European countries and the U.S. And… [read more]


Christopher Columbus -- a Hero? Research Paper

… Christopher Columbus -- a Hero? Or Not.

The legacy of Christopher Columbus -- in many people's minds -- entails bravery, heroism, courage and resolve. But does this man really deserve the reverent accolades that he receives? Does he deserve to… [read more]


Soviet WWII Soviet Policy Leading Up Research Proposal

… soviet WWII

Soviet Policy Leading up To WWII

On August 23, 1939, Russian foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim Von Ribbentrop applied their signatures to a Non-Aggression Pact that would, at a crucial moment in world history,… [read more]


Cold War Origin After WWII Research Proposal

… Cold War

During World War II, the United States and Soviet Union were one in their fight against the Axis powers led Germany. Adolf Hitler of Germany wanted to conquer Europe at that time. He instilled fear in the hearts… [read more]


Stefan Zweig the World of Yesterday Term Paper

… ¶ … Stefan Zweig's book the World of Yesterday he refers to the "world of security" - his homeland of Austria - in reference to more than a geographic place. The place where Zweig was raised gave him a "feeling… [read more]


Bipolar World Form 1945-1989 Term Paper

… Bipolar World

The Bipolar Concept and the Soviet Bloc vs. The West

The bipolar world that developed after World War II represented the basic perceived structure of world politics during the Cold War. The bipolar idea depicts the world as… [read more]


Europe and the World History Term Paper

… ¶ … 1023

At the end of the 1600s and into the 1700s, the scientific revolution significantly impacted the way that Western cultures perceived the world. During the previous Middle Ages, people rarely understood the causes of their experiences. Without… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… They launched large scale attacks on Britain, and invaded and conquered France in mid-1940. With their foothold in France, the Germans were in a much better position to terrorize England, and they did, while also attacking the Balkans, Greece, and other areas of Europe and North Africa. During this time, German troops rounded up Jewish people all over Europe and send them to concentration camps, where millions of them were exterminated like animals. Much of this holocaust was not discovered until after the war, and it is one of the most infamous and lasting memories of World War II.

When the war in Europe ended, the War in Asia was still going on. The U.S. used American and German scientists to create atomic bombs that would be used to end the war. Another historian wrote, "The use of the atomic bomb to defeat Japan has been the focus of an extensive debate among historians" (Divine 309). President Roosevelt had begun the project, and when he died in 1945, President Truman continued it. He was urged to drop the bombs to end the war quickly and spare more lives, because it would take much more human life to ultimately invade and conquer the Japanese islands. Ultimately, Truman agreed and the bombs were dropped.

The war dragged on until 1945. The Allied forces finally overwhelmed Hitler's forces in Europe in May 1945, and the war was officially declared over on May 7, 1945 in Europe. In April, many of the concentration camps and POW camps were liberated, and the world got the first real look at the atrocities the Germans had carried out on Jews and Prisoner's of War. The war in Asia ended on August 14, 1945, after the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II was over, but it would be a long time before the world really recovered from this war.

References

Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.

Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

Kitchen, Martin. A World…… [read more]


World Wars Term Paper

… World Wars

Explain how each of the following contributed to the start of the first World War: Imperialism; nationalism; militarism; and secret alliances.

Imperialism helped fuel World War I by giving some European countries great wealth (Author not given, 2004). With a booming economy they were able to finance the development of war materiel needed to wage war on a large scale. Nationalism caused because each country's great pride in itself. This national pride also led Germany in particular to celebrate the military and Germany's large body of myths and legends celebrating militarism. Germany believed it was its destiny to govern Europe, and since the individual companies were not likely to peaceably acquiesce, to the Kaiser it seemed that use of military was the obvious solution. The kind of almost xenophobic nationalism each country held, most of them monarchies who viewed their right to rule as divine, frictions grew between countries. When the Archduke Ferdinand of Bosnia was assassinated in 1914, Austria saw the event as requiring intervention from them. This dispute drew in the allies of each side, resulting in World war.

Secret alliances: Germany made a secret alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy. Later, Russia and France signed a pact. England and other countries became concerned about Germany's Kaiser William, who apparently wanted world domination. Eventually England also signed a pact with Japan. These pacts divided the formerly squabbling European nations into two larger pacts opposing each other, making wide-scale armed conflict possible

2) What were the major causes of the second World War? How did the end of World War2 lead to the Cold War? Explain the goals of each side during the Cold War and to what extent they were achieved.

World War II was a direct result of World War I and its aftermath. Great Britain and France were particularly interested in punishing Germany for its actions and insisted on war reparations Germany was ill-prepared to pay. Germany lost territory while France gained it. The new German…… [read more]


World War II: Historical Book Term Paper

… (p.18)

Many of these vintners were initially so deaf to the historical cannons not so far away from their vineyards, that covert references to Hitler in 1939, during a wine conference, by the lead speakers, were met with confused glances. (pp.14-15) Given the economic and human destruction wrought by the "war to end all wars" the farmers, a reader is apt to think, perhaps should not have been so sanguine about their livelihoods. Still, y focusing on the non-heroic French wine farmers, the authors are able to bring to light the economic impact of World War II, and also the cultural ways in which the Nazis imposed upon the long-standing traditions of daily life. What was a source of common pride for these French farmers, both creative and economic, became in constant need of protection. The fact that these French people fought so hard to fight for their livelihoods is admirable, if not heroic.

The lessons of the book even have applications to politics today. This sense of the value and art of winemaking is helpful when understanding contemporary French farmer's often hysterical bromides against the European Union regulating pasteurizing their cheese and other methods of production of agricultural substances, as well as the desecration of McDonald's as a representation of all that is standardized, foreign, and an impingement upon these individual's lives, a life that had changed "little" since the "Middle Ages," and superstitions were so rife that women were barred from the wineries, for fear of bringing bad luck, according to tradition. (pp.17-18)

By looking at the war from the perspective of ordinary citizens, not generals or even soldiers a reader gains a sense of the importance of preserving peacetime life and culture, during a war, to the inhabitants of a nation. The fragility of culture and economic livelihood in an industry where a cold snap can ruin a crop, as it nearly did in 1939, becomes a parallel for the fragility of the human body and spirit during times of war. (p.13) Still one wishes that the greatest treasure of the subtitle, in the view of the farmers points-of-view, would have been viewed as France's human currency and flesh, rather than its wine casks and vineyards.

Work Cited

Kladstrup, Donald & Peter Kladstrup. Wine and War. New York,…… [read more]


History Book Video Term Paper

… This trend of oppressor-oppressed worsened with the emergence of industrial society, which gave birth to capitalism, widening the gap between the ruling class elite and working middle classes.

Similarly, social developments in human society determine the kind of political and economic organizations that exist in human society. Economic developments are inevitably tied with the kind of society existing during the period; thus, as illustrated in "Triumphant Symphony," the emergence of industrialization led to the development of capitalism as the primary economic model. Capitalism has, unfortunately, contributed to the already existing conflict between the elite and working/middle socio-economic classes. Political developments are also directly linked economic and social changes in the society. As is evident in Part 4, "Bloody Schemes," the social development that is the Age of Discovery, which served as the catalyst for colonialism to occur, had flourished alongside mercantilism, which in effect, led to the proliferation of the African slave trade. This "domino effect" shows that social, economic, and political factors are directly linked with each other, affecting one with the other, changing the course of history in the process.

Analyzing these themes and trends in The History Book, the present socio-political landscape, particularly the issue of Gulf War II, tells me that 'history repeats itself.' At present, despite claims that society is now at its post-industrial state, Gulf War II or the conflict between U.S. And Iraq shows that there is still an ongoing struggle between the oppressor and oppressed. However, it has become harder for us to identify who indeed is the oppressor and oppressed, since both have committed acts of atrocities that human history tells us cannot be justified just as easily. The U.S.-Iraq conflict, as an example, can be, on the American perspective, considered as a struggle between Iraq as the oppressor and America as the oppressed, in light of the World Trade Center bombing last 2001. However, the Iraqi perspective, as well as international sentiment, may say that Iraqis are the oppressed people, especially now that reports of torture and abuses have showed that Americans have abused their authority in Iraq. These varying perspectives nonetheless provide people with the reality that an ongoing socio-political and economic conflict still exists in the post-industrial human society.… [read more]


Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society Research Paper

… Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society

The ancient period is the historical era determined by the convention. It includes the studying of the past life activities and events. The modern is the contrary of the ancient. However, it is imperative… [read more]


Authority and Leadership in Germany Essay

… Evidence given by Holocaust survivors, such as Primo Levi, shows that although they themselves were ordered by an evil man, the leaders of the camps were nonetheless themselves capable of vicious action. Those in power at the camp would "be cruel and tyrannical, because he will understand that if he is not sufficiently so, someone else, judged more suitable, will take over his post" (Levi 91). Within Germany during this period, cruelty and bloodlust became a characteristic to be admired so long as those emotions were focused to the populations within the concentration and death camps. This horrific period in world history indicates exactly what can happen if a leader is given unquestioned power. Sometimes, power is granted to a man who will prove to be ill-fit for such a position as is the case with Hitler. However, what is all the more terrifying a thought is that despite the fact that so many claimed to understand that the Fuhrer was an inhuman monster and unimaginably evil, they still followed orders.

In Germany over the course of two wars, the government tried to convince the people that they had a destiny, that the German people were predestined by God to become a world power. Consequently, men would have to fight and some would have to die, but it was for the greater good. The men who sacrificed themselves did so for Germany and for the generations that would come. The ideology was believed by those who took up arms. That is until the young men got on the battlefield. Believing in the greater Germany did not stop bullets from invading their bodies nor did it stop them from experiencing mental fatigue and devastation. The moral that Remarque was trying to impart on his readership was that propaganda and ideology is for peacetime. Those who fight are too concerned with survival to worry about the moral right or the propagation of the Fatherland.

Works Cited:

Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz: If this is a Man. New York, NY: Touchstone, 2007. Print.

Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on…… [read more]


Civilizations Term Paper

… The political and military dominance that Roman Empire achieved over conquered states was dependent on the geographical advantages it had in attacking other states while defending itself through improvisation in natural barriers. The Roman Empire was established on the foundations… [read more]


Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts Term Paper

… Aurelian later successfully reunited the three regions into one.

"The 50 years between the death of Severus Alexander and the accession of Diocletian (235-284) witnessed the near collapse of the whole Roman way of life, from the government and military… [read more]


Realism and the End of the Cold War Seminar Paper

… Realism and the End of the Cold War

The field of international relations has always been dominated by one theory or another that tried to explain, through different mechanisms and concepts, the evolution of the international affairs.

Realism was one… [read more]


Song Dynasty Refers to Period Research Paper

… The Dynasty had the goal of changing life style of the people, bringing economic revolution and using technology for the betterment for people. It was the target oriented approach while led the emperors individually focus on industries and devise plans… [read more]


Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance Essay

… Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance (1450 to 1600)

Cultural Environment

The European Renaissance between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries began in Florence. It was not a sudden rebirth from the Dark Ages, but approximates more a refocusing outward… [read more]


Cold War a Critical Debate Term Paper

… This policy certainly helped in increased production but it did not cause desirable progression in the industrial sector for two main reasons. The first reason was that managers of projects could not deliver. The greed and self-interest prevailed over the… [read more]


Historical Context of 1984 Research Paper

… 1984 is one of the most visionary, compelling novels of the 20th Century. It still holds tremendous influence today among a broad swath of the liberally educated. 1984 resonates with fiction writers, politicians, and journalists alike. Fiction writers are drawn… [read more]


Ottoman Empire in 1683 Essay

… Given its many domestic and international handicaps, the Ottoman Empire deserves credit for modernizing as much as it did. In 1800-1908, the powers of the centralized state increased greatly, and the number of civil officials grew from 2,000 to 50,000.… [read more]


Historical Accuracy of the Film Valkyrie Starring Tom Cruise Research Paper

… Valkyrie

Planning

The 2008 film Valkyrie starring Tom Cruise is a Hollywood version of actual historical events. As with any Hollywood rendition of a true story, the screenwriters and filmmakers feel they must extrapolate from and embellish actual historical fact… [read more]


Role Played by the Immigrant Labour During the First Industrial Revolution Essay

… Labor and the Industrial Revolution

Immigration During the Industrial Revolution

The Role Played by Immigrant and Migrant Labor during the First Industrial Revolution

Millions of people moved during the industrial revolution. Some simply moved from a village to a town… [read more]


Revolutions the History of Modern Term Paper

… Had the French Revolution not occurred, similar impulses elsewhere (especially in North America) would likely have occurred, nevertheless.

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution radically changed the lives of millions of people throughout the 19th century. Previously, the vast majority of people across Europe never traveled more than a few miles from their homes during their entire lives and received little timely information about what was happening elsewhere in the world (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005). The introduction of the telegraph, telephone, and modern printing processes allowed ordinary people to become aware of important national and international events for the first time (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005).

Likewise, the development of railroads and powered oceanic vessels tremendously increased the opportunities of ordinary people to travel. However, the most important contribution of the Industrial Revolution may be the extent to which changes in the types of employment patterns led directly to the evolution of modern cities as large numbers of people began to work in non-agricultural jobs for the first time (Kishlansky, Geary, & O' Brien, 2009). Meanwhile, the modern agricultural technologies that emerged from the Industrial Revolution also increased the availability and quality of the foods being produced by fewer and fewer people (Kishlansky, Geary, & O' Brien, 2009).

Relative Importance

In some respects, these different revolutions contributed different types of changes to human societies. Viewed from that perspective, a strong argument can be made that the Industrial Revolution was the most significant of the three. However, in other respects, it is impossible to separate the significance of the Scientific Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, since the latter was so much a function of the former. Meanwhile, both are likely more significant than the French Revolution since the types of needs and demands that sparked the French Revolution were not unique to the French and would likely have resulted in similar social change elsewhere had they not happened to have occurred first in France. Ultimately, the Industrial Revolution actually resulted directly in more change to human societies and to the lives of millions of people. The Scientific Revolution affected and benefited human life less directly, notwithstanding the fact that its concepts did lead to the development of the changes that inspired and made the Industrial Revolution possible.

References

Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.

Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.

Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.

Riley, Philip F.; Gerome, Frank; Myers, Henry; and Yoon, Chong-kun. The…… [read more]


20th Century Conflict the Latter Essay

… 20th Century Conflict

The Latter 20th Century: Conflict Fueled by Economic and Political Change

World War II marked an inflection point in world history. The old order of European dominance subsided in the clearing smoke of one long, expansive and horrific conflict and with it would come the emergence of new world powers. In 1945, the power structure of the world was diametrically shifted, with the victors of the war parlaying this demonstration of political, economic and military might into a long-term shaping of thw global community. As the text by Goff et al. points out, the end of World War II would not bring relief to the war-afflicted global community. To the contrary, this moment would represent the initiation of the Cold War. With Germany, France, Spain, Great Britain and Japan in a state of rebuilding, the opportunities present for the United States and the United Soviet Social Republic to widen their respective spheres of influence would become a dominant reality as the 20th century progressed. As a result, it would become fair to at least characterize the latter 20th century as a time marked by conflicts both ongoing and highly varied in nature. To recall this part of history without acknowledging the defining role played by bloody and violent conflict would be misguided.

That said, it would not be entirely fair to define this period only according to the conflicts which would mark the subsequent 55 years. Underlying the proxy wars waged by the United States and the Soviet Union in Korea (1950-1953), in Cuba (1955-1963) in Vietnam (1955-1975), in Afghanistan (1979-1989) and throughout South America (1980s) were the vested interests of two growing superpowers. And while the carnage visited upon these nations and the fighting forces of the U.S. And U.S.S.R. make it difficult to separate the violence from some of its larger implications, doing so allows us to understand the century as something more than just a series of terrible wars. Each of these wars carried a rhetoric, as Moss points out in the text's examination of Russian interests during the Cold War, that claimed to define the future political and cultural identity of the world. The United States aggressively pushed its sphere of influence toward the mores of free market capitalism and democratic governmental order. And as Moss indicates, Russia produced a direct counterpart with the Communist orientation and totalitarian order which it imposed upon the territories under its sphere.

The result would be a world not just divided along ideological and military lines, but also one divided on how best to meet the challenges of modernization. Indeed, if any engine may be said to have been at the continued drive toward war in the late 20th century, it was the thrust of industrialization, technological advancement and infrastructural solidification. Both Russia and the United States, Moss indicates, viewed their respective…… [read more]


Historical Contexts and Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … human condition transcends the esoteric and becomes real is through the human ability to conceptualize events outside of the horrific reality of the event and turn these events into something nobler, something more timeless, and even something more… [read more]


Italian Domination of Commerce in the Eastern Essay

… ¶ … Italian domination of commerce in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea on the life of Constantinople?

At its zenith, the Roman Empire reached across the globe: however, as Rome's influence began to decline, the imperial provinces began take on two distinct characters. These two spheres came to be known as East and West Christendom. Constantinople eventually became the capital Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church while Roman Catholicism dominated the feudal West. However, there was still considerable cross-pollination of influence of the two areas. According to Phillip Mansel's 2006 book Constantinople: City of the World's Desire 1453-1924, thanks to its status in early modernity as a central trading center, Constantinople became a kind of crossroads of Eastern and Western influences.

Constantinople's significance in the history of commerce was due to its proximity to the ports of the eastern Mediterranean. During its early years, this ensured the creation of a distinct city culture, a culture that was the result of cultural fusion and synergy. However, the city's melding of its distinct elements was never without tension. The potential for strife was always simmering beneath the surface. Eventually, the diversity of Constantinople led to violent uprisings. For all of the blending of cultural influences, the city was divided into distinct quarters and characters and when one group seemed to dominate the other, riots and bloodshed would ensue.

Despite its proximity to the sea, Constantinople lacked any type of naval defense during the 11th and 12th centuries because of the imprudent policies of its Emperor: his failed military quests and ostentatious government had depleted the coffers of the city (Miller et al. 148). The Italian city-states took advantage of this weakness, and used Constantinople to dominate maritime commerce. In fact, as Mansel notes (2006), as late as the nineteenth century Italian functioned as kind of second language for Constantinople. This was the legacy of the Italian influence upon Constantinople's commercial life. Italian was spoken by all of the Frankish residents, Greeks, and Turks. The Turks later even adopted many Italian words, such as words for types of ships known as caravels and bombardas, and iskele (from the Italian scala) for a dock (Mansel 2006). However, this linguistic fusion should not be mistaken a sign of the universal welcome of Italian traders.

Italian prominence trade angered the non-Italian native residents of Constantinople. The Venetians first took control of maritime commerce; then other city states carved spheres of influence for themselves. The major economic power-players were traders from Venice, Genoa and Pisa, and Amalfi. Rioting between the warring city-states in the various quarters damaged store houses and what remained of native Greek businesses. All of the Italian city-states maintained pirate vessels to attack one another -- and all of the vessels felt free to attack Greek merchants when brief truces existed between the different Italian factions (Miller et al., 1978, p. 148).

Eventually, Greek…… [read more]


Most Significant Event Essay

… ¶ … 20th Century in American History

By virtually any measure that is applied, the 20th century in general and the second half in particular represented the most turbulent and violent periods in world history. During this 50-year time span,… [read more]


Nanking Genocide 1937 Thesis

… Nanking Genocide 1937

Nanking's genocide and revisionist history

Nanking's genocide and revisionist history

There are numerous reports, studies and films that refer directly and explicitly to the events that occurred in the city of Nanking in 1937. As one report… [read more]


Cold War Era When We Remove Essay

… Cold War Era

When we remove the threat of nuclear war that loomed large during the Cold War era, it then becomes possible to engage in rational discourse on the subject. It is a subject that is endless in the… [read more]


How the Treaty of Versailles Led to Hitler's Rise to Power Term Paper

… Treaty of Versailles

The Nazi slaughter of millions of people in WWII, including approximately 6 million Jews, might not have been possible if the Treaty of Versailles had been a more balanced and fair document. it's pure speculation, but an alert reader delving into how a bigoted fanatic like Adolf Hitler could seize dictatorial control over German can clearly see that the Treaty of Versailles - which punished Germany perhaps too severely - played right into Hitler's hands. And he beat on it like a drum. He used the hardships that German people suffered from because of the Treaty as emotional leverage to gain power. The rest is history.

The Treaty of Versailles - signed by the allies and by a defeated Germany at the end of WWI - forced Germany to disarm and severely punished Germany. This harsh punishment, and the suffering the German people had to go through as a result of it, gave Hitler the issue he needed to convince citizens they needed a powerful nationalistic leader like him. He played on their fears and their anger and emerged as dictator largely because of that.

According to Philip Towle, writing in the Journal of Strategic Studies, at the end of WWI, the Germans did not believe that "the military superiority of the Allied Powers" - that had defeated them - would "endure." And so the Germans "never willingly acquiesced" to the measures in the Treaty to disarm. The Germans "argued bitterly against reparations" and they vigorously protested the "boundaries" that the Treaty ordered established (taking away German land). The Treaty also limited Germany's army to 100,000 long-service volunteers, and Germany was prevented from having heavy guns, tanks, combat aircraft, poison gas - and the navy was allowed only six old battleships, a dozen destroyers and torpedo boats and six light cruisers.

Moreover, Germans were ordered to pay reparations for the damage the war - launched by Germany - had done. The Weimar (German) government signed the Treaty because, as Jim Cort writes (Learning Through History), "they had no choice." The feeling soon became widespread, however, that the Germans had been "betrayed" (Cort, 2006). Enter Adolph Hitler, who worked his way up into a leadership position, became Chancellor and then dictator. Hitler was very effective at stirring up passions - social, economic, and political passions - to entrench himself as ultimate leader. Cort writes, "Into this stew of national resentment and wounded pride a war veteran named…… [read more]

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