Essays on "World History"  |  Term Papers 1-80

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World War I And World View Paper

This resulted in financial hardships even for the middle classes and those who had lived off investments (Author not given, 2003). At the same time, war-based industries were no longer needed, and unemployment rose (Author not given, 2004). European countries lost physical property, and much land was made unusable. As a result of all these financial stresses, in less than three months the value of the Mark dropped from 4.6 million marks to the American dollar to 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar. Inflation seemed unstoppable (Author not given, 2003).

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS

World War I had profound psychological effects on Europeans, but especially on Germany, who had fought what it considered a just war, and lost (Author not given, 2003). Optimism was replaced with pessimism. People came to distrust their governments and felt that their governments did not know how to meet their needs. In some parts of Europe, one in four young men were killed in battle, and all together the war resulted in the deaths of from 10 million to 13 million people. As life became unstable, strong Fascist governments that could respond swiftly and decisively to crises looked attractive to many people (Author not given, 2003). This feeling was especially prominent in Germany, where the lives of people were in a desperate situation. The combination of perceived insults to their country not only from defeat but from the humiliating requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, combined with a weak government and economic crisis, made the country vulnerable to a dictator like Adolph Hitler, who reminded them of their great Teutonic heritage and who promised them that they would rise to greatness again.

SOURCE

Author not given. 2003. "The Great War Effects," in IB History Pages. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04.

Author not given. 2004. "The Causes and Effects of World War I," in World History. Studyworld Studynotes. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04.

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Duiker and Speilvogel's Book, World View Paper

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Imperialism in its simplest form is described in the dictionary as the policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over other nations. And basically, Duiker and Spielvogel support this by providing material that describes a "progressive" society, albeit European society as the emerging society for reformation, the intellectual revolution and the foundational for cultural and social change. Africa, Asia and India are viewed as countries of lesser stimulation and places that would benefit from European globalization.

France, England and the other civilized countries brought the benefits of their advanced civilizations to worlds beyond their perimeters. "There is a smug and simple argument, but one of great appeal in the late 19th century when European technological superiority could be measured. The failure or unwillingness to distinguish wisely between technology and culture allowed the Europeans to be arrogant, and moreover, to assume that in any arrangement of the world that they were at the center."

Africa and Asia were destined to lay a key role in the new imperialism. They offered new outlets for trade and ports of call that would not only be strategic outlets for competition but valuable naval bases as well. But as with any expansion, more than trade moved into these countries. The Europeans brought their culture, religion and their politics. 1895 had turned nine tenths of Africa into European colonies. Between 1871 and 1900, Britain added 4.25 million square miles and 66 million people to her Empire.

As global politics emerged, imperialism gave way to nationalism and expressions of national pride became the flag to wave. People took stock in their nation, their immediate world and by design became caught up in what may be termed the "local scene."

Imperialism brought with it several benefits, the spread of culture and religion. New ideas about society. It opened new gateways to new lands and raw materials. It changed the face of politics. And as people began to understand their nations, they became more connected to their heritage and their homeland.

The world became a smaller place as faraway continents became more connected to the Western World. But as with all good things, there were disadvantages. It is often said that imperialism and the resulting capitalism was one of the causes for World War I. Colonialism lost its luster and became too costly in some cases.

But the far-reaching effects of imperialism were felt across the world and what remains today is the integrated global world that resulted. Regardless of what inspired this movement, it had an incredible impact on the world at large, both then and now.

Information Sources

World History Since 1865. Volume II. William Dukier. Jackson J. Spielvogel.. Wadsworth Publishing.

Europe in Retrospect. Raymond F. Betts. 2000.……

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Globalization in World History View Paper

A.G. Hopkins edits a comprehensive historical analysis of the theme and phenomenon of globalization with Globalization in World History. Published in 2002, the editor's place of reference is that globalization is more than just a "catch-word of the day."

Globalization has been mistakenly framed as (a) a modern phenomenon that occurred in the aftermath of the First and Second World Wars; (b) a Western-led phenomenon. In fact, globalization far predates the 20th century and far transcends the Western hegemony that has defined the modern world. The story of globalization is not equal to the story of the rise of the United States as a superpower or even just the rise of the West as a global colonial and imperial force. Globalization in World History accomplishes the central goal of "re-mapping the geography of the subject" in order to "point the way towards a truly global history of globalization."

The central theme of Globalization in World History, which is a collection of seemingly disparate essays, is that globalization has been taking place for centuries and is an ever-evolving feature of the human landscape.

Globalization in World History is an "analysis of the origins, nature and consequences of globalization" including the "economics, politics, and sociology of the phenomenon,"

Drawing from authors whose expertise range from China to Islam, Hopkins acknowledges the "historical diversity of globalizing forces."

In other words, globalization is far from the singular phenomenon that it is described as being today. The form that globalization takes might be different today due to new technologies, but historians envision the "unevenness of the process of globalization."

Globalization looked different to the Venetians than it does to the Americans.

One of the most salient themes of Globalization in World History is that the phenomenon is far from being a Western-driven historical trend. In fact, the earliest manifestations of what can be reasonably called globalization were not Western but Eastern phenomenon. Hopkins includes authors whose scholastic inquiry lends insight into the roles that India, China, Southeast Asia, and Arabia have played in the unfolding of globalization, global empires, and global economic, social, and political hegemony. Even a cursory glance at world history reveals that globalization has been a trend for several centuries before the European conquest of the Americas. Only an American-centric position would remain beholden to the idea that globalization happened only since Coca-Cola and McDonalds became big.

Hopkins aims to exhibit and elaborate on the "non-Western dimensions of globalization" and also reveal its……

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History After WWI Through WWII View Paper

History after WWI through WWII

In general, world history can be considered a succession of experiments, just as modern science. On the other hand, both modern science and history are studied by gathering facts and figures and by putting together the information this obtained.

Surrealism, Dadaism, Fauvism, Cubism are some of the genres of 20th century art. They reflect, first…

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Protestant Reformation, Imperialism, and WW1: Impact on History View Paper

Protestant Ref., Imperialism, and WWI

An Analysis of the Effects of Protestantism, Imperialism, and WWI on History

The medieval world had been one in which the "age of faith" and the might of arms (thanks to men like Charlemagne) had unified Europe (Haaren, 1904, p. 102). The popes of the Church had been granted a certain authority by kings and princes, and State and Church ruled as one (in theory, if not always in practice) (Laux, 1989, p. 517). The scholastics, like Thomas Aquinas, had used Aristotelian philosophy to help prove the existence of God and the truth of Christianity. All of that would change in the 14th century when William of Occam challenged the Aristotelian notion of universals (Weaver, 1984, p. 7). Thereupon followed the unraveling of medieval transcendental truth: the religious/philosophical hierarchy soon tumbled, the Protestant Reformation shattered Europe, and the modern world became a place of precarious posturing. This paper will examine the effects of the Protestant Reformation, Imperialism, and WWI on the course of history.

By the time Jean Wycliffe's works had been condemned by the pope, the papacy itself had already been assaulted by King Philip of France and moved to Avignon to be the French king's puppet. The Black Plague had swept through Europe eliminating a quarter of the population and disrupting the order of society. Revolts in England had been based, in part, on the new ideology of Wycliffe, which was Protestant in essence, even if not in name. Protestantism was unleashed in full force the following century, however. All over Europe, men like Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Knox drew followers who despised the corruption of clergy. Catholic Europe, on the face of it, wanted virtue and piety -- but by rejecting the cornerstone, Rome, it rejected the basis of its doctrine and introduced Occam's philosophy into the objectivity of Thomistic philosophy: subjectivity ruled the day as war, economics, and scientific inquiry all changed from what they had been in the medieval world. The Ptolemaic model of the world, in which the universe revolved around the Earth (where God Himself had walked), was replaced by the Copernican model in which the Earth revolved around the sun. The philosophical ramifications of this model were poisonous to the medieval faith, for they diminished the prominence of place where Jesus had been born: the universe was random, and little was certain.

The Protestant Reformation coincided with this new "scientific" philosophy. And as wars between Protestants and Catholics broke out (especially brutally in England, where the Catholic King Henry VIII broke with Rome and posited himself as head of the Church in England -- and proceeded to execute those who refused their assent), the need for political stability became apparent. However, since the assent of kings was no longer given to the Papacy, political stability would not be based on religious conviction -- but on religious liberty, as the Peace of Westphalia proved. As John Laux describes it, "The apostasy from the Catholic Church in the sixteenth…

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World History Development of Civilization View Paper

Twentieth Century History

Need opening and over all summary of this Era of conflict:

In order to understand how the world of 2005 came about, it is necessary to consider the effects of World War I and II, the Cold War, and the changes modern technological warfare has had on the political structure, the impact of nationalism, and the world…

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1770 and 1850, the Economy View Paper

Farmers also managed their large as they deemed fit.

England imported most of its iron. This could be attributed to shortage of charcoal that could be used in smelting iron. However, when it was established that coke could be used in smelting iron, the iron industry took off. England was endowed with vast deposits of iron ore and coal.

Invention of steam engine also led to industrial revolution in Britain. It all began with the invention of Newcomen engine in about 1712 where a cylinder was filled with steam and the steam condensed to draw the piston down. This engine was used to draw water out of coal mines. Watt Engine, invented in 1774, had a separate condenser that made it more efficient. James Watt later added sun and planet gear, automatic control mechanism, and double acting engine to the Watt Engine. For transportation applications, high pressure engines were developed after 1800 (Kreis, 2011).

Transportation technology was also one of the causes of the industrial revolution in Britain. Improved roads were built in large numbers between 1750 and 1815 (Kreis, 2011). Transportation costs were therefore reduced by between 20-30%. Canals were also built notably the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal which was 7 miles long. This canal helped halve the cost of coal in Manchester. There was a boom in erection of canal between 1750 and 1800 (Kreis, 2011). Courtesy of canals, England had 3875 miles of navigable water by 1830. This provided means of cheaper transport to bulky industrial goods.

The coming of the railroad system also occasioned in a way the industrial revolution. Locomotives that were at first used in coal mines proved to be very heavy for the existing tracks that were used by horse drawn cars. The erection of the railroads expedited the transportation of coal from the mines to the industries where they were used to smelt iron ores. Stockton and Darlington Railroad was the first career to use locomotives. This happened in 1825. In 1829, Liverpool and Manchester had a contest to test locomotives (Mack, 2005).

Britain became industrialized because of its effective central bank and well-developed credit market. The domestic economy functioned with fewer restrictions imposed by the government. Technological change and the existence of free market economy also led to the industrial revolution in Britain (Mack, 2005).

References List

Kreis, S. (2011). Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html

Mack, P.E. (2005). The British Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.htm

Toynbee, A. (1884). Lectures on the Industrial……

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Ancient Roman History the Objective of This View Paper

Ancient Roman History

The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) What were the main achievements of the Romans? (2) How did they influence world history? (3) in what ways is the Roman "dream" still alive today? (4) Can you think of other societies that have tried to become the "new" Rome? (5) What were the fundamental elements of the Roman character? (6) Was there a dark side to the Roman character? (7) What figure from Roman history was most representative of the good and bad sides of the Romans?

The city of Rome is the capital of the Roma province, Latium region and the Republic of Italy. (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) Ancient Rome was located on the Tiber River, stated to be "about 17 miles northeast of the River's mouth at the Tyrrhenian Sea. There was a primary "north-south" trade-route running through the city of Rome and the city was active in trade by sea as well. Ancient Rome's claim to fame is the impressive architecture such as the "half-ruined Colosseum, which is just below the Palatine Hill..." (Ibid) However, architecture is not the only thing that ancient Rome is remembered in today's contemporary world for having contributed. The contributions of Rome include governmental operations and systems as well as recreational pastimes that are still popular in today's world.

I. ANCIENT ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

The ruins of the Roman Forum are stated to cover "a wide area between the Palatine and Capitoline hills..." which was the "...center of both economic and political life of ancient Rome. The structure that is best preserved is that of the "Pantheon" which has been called one of the greatest architectural achievements of the world. The architecture of Rome includes the construction of aqueducts "...some of which still carry water to the city." (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) During early Roman history walls were constructed for protection of the Palatine and Capitoline hills.

II. CHARACTERISTICS of the ROMAN PEOPLE

The early Romans were "orderly, practical" people who were much disciplined with the parents, teachers and state being their authority. Furthermore, the Romans were people used to the hard living……

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History War and Peace in World History Ancient Rome View Paper

History; War and Peace in World History;

Ancient Rome

All elements, whether economical, social, political, military strategic or tactical, point out towards the fact that Rome went to war for pure necessity. As a nation constantly surround by enemies, but also as a state that based its economy fundamentally on the existence of slaves (that is of free labor), Rome needed to go to war with the nations surrounding it.

From a military strategic or tactical perspective, Rome had to occasionally send out armies either to create buffer zones with other nations or to tactically infiltrate fortifications into enemy land. In terms of the latter, historical evidence has shown, for example, that Domitian constructed limiters laterally for a distance of over 120 miles into enemy territory.

From a military strategic perspective, expansion came as a mean to secure either rival nations (as was the case with Cartage, during the three Punic Wars, or with the Parthian Empire, despite the Roman incapacity to obtain decisive victories) or territories that would guarantee a higher level of security due to the creation of buffer zones in these areas.

The wars with Cartage are an excellent example of how the Romans saw to defeat their enemies first in order to expand their areas of interest, both political and commercial/economic. At the point of the First Punic War, Rome and Carthage were virtually the two superpowers of the Mediterranean Basin and war was inevitable in order to secure the actual area from the other part. At this point, there was virtually nothing that could be done to avoid the war, since a sharing of the sphere of influences on such a short geographical area was virtually impossible. So, again, war came as a necessity to eliminate a very dangerous competitor from the area where the Romans wished to become dominant.

Socially speaking, there were several social necessities for war during Roman times. First of all, war was the most important and fundamental instrument in the accession of an aristocrat to a consular position in the state. Sources mention the fact that a political office could only be held in Rome once ten annual military campaigns had been completed.

So, the warring nature of the Roman societies was in part also given by the fact that the upper classes needed war as a modality to advance politically on the Roman stage. It is no wonder that all remarkable individuals of the Roman society, from Cicero to Marius and from Sulla to Cesar were first reputably known as great generals than consuls or dictators.

The actual political structure in Rome was virtually determined by military activity. First of all, prestige was essential to being elected in Rome in a political function and a military campaign or a military function was the best way to obtain it. On the other hand, actual legions to back up a claim could be extremely handy, especially in times of political turmoil.

There are several different temporal periods where we can actually…

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Million Africans Who Were Enslaved View Paper

There was a congress that was held in Vienna in 1815 which saw pressure from Britain to Spain, France, Portugal and Netherlands to agree the abolition of slave trade. In 1817 Britain and Spain signed a treaty that prohibited slave trade .British naval vessels had the permission of searching ships that were suspected to be slave ships. This change of heart towards slave trade was provoked by enlightenment, revolution of age, Christian revivalism as well as the beginning of industrial revolution (ABC News, 2013). African societies began the export of what they produced like palm oil, peanuts and cotton. There were also philosophers like jean-jacques from France and Adam smith who was an economist wrote on the slave trade. They clearly heighted its effects and explained why they should be abolished.

These events of abolition of slave trade were very important to the African societies. This is because it led to the eventual end of the African slave trade which was a very brutal trade.

Conclusion

The slave system did not consider the tragic effects that came with it. The Europeans would have easily entered into partnerships that were genuine with African nations as opposed to reducing them into slaves. These partnerships would have led to more goods and service for both Africa and Britain if they had entered into contract labor. Though the event that led to development of slave trade was important because of what is got from the trade it was bad all the same. Therefore the event leading to the banning of slave trade was very important as it relieved Africans from the brutal labor they were doing.

References

ABC News, (2013). Timeline of Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./story?id=96659&page=1

Clarke, J.H., (2009) .The African Holocaust -- the Slave Trade. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.nbufront.org/MastersMuseums/JHClarke/EdRealityAfricanWorld/EdWorldPart3.html

Understanding Slavery, (2011). Europe Before Transatlantic slavery. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.understandingslavery.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=315&Itemid=145…

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Argument on American Education Focusing on American Culture and History View Paper

¶ … American Education

In the study of literature, there are those short stories that are written, which have a profound impact upon the world that we live in. One such story is: When Mr. Pirzada came to Dine, where the author discusses the role between a Pakistani studying in America and an American Indian family in 1971. What happens is: Mr. Pirzada is studying in New England at a major university. During his time there, he befriends and dines with and American Indian family every night. With the story being told through the eyes of their daughter, Lila, who has grown up in the United States and only knows about her culture, from what she learns from her parents as well as on television. During the course of their dinners, Lilia begins to discover that Mr. Pirzada has a family in Dacca, Pakistan. At the time, the region is struggling with a civil war along with the increased tensions between India and Pakistan. During the course of these dinners, is when Lilia begins to learn about the world beyond what she is studying in school (American and European history). During the course of the story, Lila becomes emotionally tied to Mr. Pirzada's and the conflict that is occurring, by praying for their safety. At which point, Mr. Pirzada returns to the Dacca and is reunited with his family (despite the total amount of devastation). It is as this point the story ends, with Lila being glad that Mr. Pirzada is with someone he loves, while missing him at the same time. This is significant, because it shows how what is taught in the classroom, can have a dramatic impact upon the views of the individual. Where, the ideas presented will influence the student outside of the classroom, despite their cultural background. To determine the underlying effects requires: examining how this makes students close minded, the importance of learning world history and how this is an injustice. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how the ideas presented inside the classroom, can influence students.

Students are closed-minded to other areas of the world because the main focus in public school history classes is United States history.

In the story, it highlights how what is being taught at school will have an impact upon the individual. Where, the students will focus on the ideas and views that they are being taught, by the teacher, as a part of the required curriculum. This is important, because these ideas will shape the views of the individual, about how they see the world around them. In the story, this is illustrated by Lila not understanding the impact of what is happening in Dacca, despite the fact that her parents are from India. As a result, she understands the issue from more of an isolationist standpoint, as she looks at what is happening, based upon what she did or did not learn in school. Evidence of this can be seen in…

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Asian History of Social Process View Paper

Transformative Years That Were Many Years in the Making

In his essay entitled "1789-1792 and 1989-1992: Global Interaction of Social Movements," historian Patrick Manning parallels the events of 1789, the year of the storming of the Bastille and the beginning of the French Revolution with 1989. 1989 encompassed the successful movement to unite the two Germanys and end the Soviet dominion of Eastern Europe as well as the unsuccessful pro-democracy movement in China. Because of their powerful, symbolic nature, these events are often interpreted as just that -- singular events. But Manning believes that such social movements cannot be understood in isolation, but should be understood as international phenomena. "Even these most macro-oriented of the analysts of social movements have tended, however, to focus on social revolutions as independent cases, rather than emphasize their connections to each other. In recent years, some social historians have explored social movements at transnational levels, emphasizing their long-term patterns of development" (Manning, par. 7).

Manning believes that the inequality between the Estates General, higher taxes, and food shortages were undeniable contributors to the French Revolution. But the American Constitutional convention and its creation of a written constitution, anti-slavery movements, and agrarian revolts also influenced demands for party, justice, and finally revolution in France. Manning argues that these international examples provided models or templates for social justice movements in France and elsewhere. The storming of the Bastille may have been the most cinematic moments of all the revolutionary occurrences of 1789, but the spread of anti-slavery crusades in Europe and Africa, and the demand for the rights of disenfranchised peasants and laborers in America cannot be ignored. The French learned about these events through cross-pollination of information around the globe. This suggests that revolutionary France cannot be understood in international isolation. "By 1792, black sailors arriving at Salvador in Bahia were reputed to have worn medallions celebrating the slave uprising…in early 1792 the move to abolish slave trade appeared to be gaining irreversible momentum" (Manning par. 31-32). Also, the fears that the French regicide spawned created movements either for moderate liberalization, to dampen radical furor (as in England) or more autocratic rule.

After Manning draws his parallels, it is difficult to ignore the superficial resonances between the different eras: likewise, 1989 was a year of successful and unsuccessful mass revolts. In each nation that experienced unrest, there was a long, specific, and personal history of oppression, but the oppressed drew conscious parallels between their own struggles and the struggles of others. "As in 1789, these events of 1989 gained in recognition because they precipitated a confluence of several different types of social movement and the formation of transnational links of sympathy and mutual support" (Manning par. 41) Decolonization and the self-determination of ethnic groups along with calls for democracy all coalesced. Almost at the same time, "Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, South African withdrawal from its long occupation of Namibia, Vietnamese withdrawal of troops from Cambodia, and the agreement of the communist-led government in Poland to…

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The Phenomenon of Globalization Is View Paper

[1]
Gandhi has also helped in promoting globalism, even if he wasn't aware of the fact. His words have helped in promoting peace around the world. When thinking about peace in the present, one can often relate to Gandhi as one of its main advocates.
In countries like India people suffer currently from overpopulation. In his attempts to make the world a better and more comfortable place, man has involuntarily created another threat. Overpopulation means that there is less living space for people and that disease and crime are present in much greater numbers than it would be normal. Western countries are not in danger of overpopulating because the birth rate there is much smaller than it is in the less-developed countries.
All in all, globalization should be appreciated for having put an end to political ideologies like Communism and Nazism, and for having made it possible for people to become freer. Nationalists from various countries are complaining that western ideologies are enslaving their people.
The U.S. is practically a hallmark for the land of freedom, but, in the last decades, people have began to doubt the efficiency of the methods used by Americans to help other nations.
The Americans have helped in liberating nations from eccentric dictators that did nothing but destroyed their people through putting into operation extreme forms of nationalism. However, the last campaigns that they have led against oppressors have proved to be ineffective, with numerous lives being lost without any reasonable motive.
When nationalism proves to be inefficient after several years of being the main political ideology within a country, the people begin to revolt, and ultimately start to embrace the concept of globalism.
Globalization spreads slower to the less developed countries because the people in the respective countries are frequently deprived of basic needs like education. Children are more likely to be sent by their parents to work illegally than to be sent to schools which charge fees in exchange for education. In countries like Africa, parents refrain from providing their children with education, and, as a result, the children are more vulnerable to contracting AIDS and to grow up to be illiterate. Third-world countries have a hard time providing their people with their basic needs, but, with the help of globalization, poor people can interact with other people, work in other countries, or draw foreign investments to their country.
One hopes that world peace is something that globalization will bring when it will reach its peak. Globalization will also bring several benefits like no discrimination and better lives for people from poorer countries.
While the Romans and the Greeks have failed in their plans to conquer the whole world, globalization does just that. It is spreading across all continents and makes people believe that they belong to a greater, more powerful nation.
Another down side of globalization recently showed up under the circumstances of the economic depression. It soon spread, becoming general, with all countries suffering from it. The effects of the depression…

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World History to 1500 View Paper

BANTU:

This term can be applied to two different contexts, being the Bantu tribe which can be found mostly in South Africa but is spread across the entire African continent, and the Bantu language, composed of some 400 various dialects and currently spoken by well over 60 million people. In general terms, the Bantu people are not simply a single group of Africans, but are part of a much larger cultural group. Historically, the Bantu people originated somewhere in the northern regions of Africa around 4,000 years ago and then slowly migrated southwards, creating along the way various cultural identities and communities based on agriculture, metalworking, and trading with other tribes. Around 500 A.D., the Bantu people had migrated as far south as the Congo River basin and due to an intermingling of different tribes, the Bantu language evolved into other dialects and tongues, such as Basaa, Tsonga, and especially Swahili, currently the main language of most native Africans.

As a result of this migration southwards, the Bantu people created a number of important African kingdoms, but with the arrival of white Europeans in the 1600's, these kingdoms slowly began to disappear, due partially to being dominated by the Europeans from such countries as the Netherlands, Great Britain and France. By the early decades of the 20th century, white Europeans had taken complete control of South Africa and forced millions of the Bantu people to either leave or be converted to Christianity. At this time, the system known as apartheid was widespread in South Africa, thus making the term "Bantu" racially and ethnically offensive to most native Africans.

THE MAYA:

As one of the most important and influential Indian civilizations, the Maya occupied the moist lowlands of what is now Guatemala, Honduras and the Yucatan Peninsula, and as a cultural group reached a stage of development unequaled by any other civilization in what is known as Meso-America or the regions situated between Mexico and South America. Like all Meso-American cultures, the Maya possessed only tools of stone, wood and bone, even during the Classical Period, circa 250 to 600 A.D., when they erected huge limestone structures with richly-carved decorations at such urban centers as Copan, Tikal, Uaxactun, Yaxchilan and Palenque. Generally, the social rulers of the Mayan civilization, composed of priests, astronomer-priests and nobles, constituted a theocratic government that dominated its people, most of whom were farmers and artisans. Agricultural activities were probably regulated by religious tenets and Mayans from all over the empire traveled to visit the ceremonial centers, such as in the cities of Tikal and Palenque, for festivals and markets.

Although there currently remains a huge assemblage of Mayan buildings and temples, such as at Chichen Itza and Palenque, the intricacies of Mayan culture are virtually unknown, due in part to the non-existence of written documentation and records. However, scholars and archeologists have managed to discover that the social divisions in Mayan culture were made up of priests and nobles at the top and the peasantry at…

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Western Civilization 2 Final View Paper

¶ … Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were significant turning points in history and led to religious and political upheaval.

A a) the Enlightenment emerged from the Scientific Revolution. Describe how Enlightenment thinkers viewed human society and behavior and how their approach freed intellectuals to approach politics, policy, the economy and religion from wholly new perspectives.

The Age of Enlightenment…

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Rise of East Asia Was One of View Paper

¶ … rise of East Asia was one of the most significant events of the 14th century. With a culture that spans some three thousand years, the East Asian civilizations were at one time much more sophisticated than its western counterparts. The empire of China loomed large within the East Asian continent, dominating the largest empire on Earth during that…

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Germany Today's Germany Is a View Paper

There is no need to explain the horror of 1914-1918 warfare but we should pay attention to the Versailles peace treaty, which adversely impacted after war development of Germany. Unfortunately world leaders of that time didn't think about future at all - they wanted to solve all problems of their countries using Germany as the main economical resource for reconstructing their states' infrastructure. In fact Versailles treaty was a true robbery: Germany had to pay severe reparations but was not able to do that as national economy was ruined by war. "German citizens suffered great economical depression and the majority of them became extremely poor." (Eihman 84).

No wonder Germans began "witch trials" and hunt on imaginary "hidden enemies" of their poverty and misfortunes - German Jews. It explains the spread of Nazi ideology countrywide, which grew out of nation's anger and desire for retaliation. Weak Weimar republic failed to solve either social or economical problems and collapsed under the pressure of growing Fascist movement. The leader of a new Fascist state Adolf Hitler used national interests for the purpose of fulfilling his political program based on extreme racisism and militarism.

World War II was not a sudden conflict; it was a continuation of WWI, as the nation humiliated by unfair conditions of Versailles treaty decided to strike back.

World War I and WWII are horrifying examples of irresponsible and short-sighted foreign policy of European superpowers: they had to be more careful in foreign affairs and had to try their best preventing the conflict and providing fair policy toward Germany.

Nevertheless, tragic impact of warfare and of fascism experience had positive impacts on the country. Absence of colonial markets made German goods the most qualitative in Europe, German high standards either in education or in industry resulted economical boom and prosperity, transforming the country which once stood in ashes to a country which is the most stable and predictable in Europe. The tragic experience of racial bigotry, Nazism and chauvinism forced new German governments to accept the most fair and democratic legislature towards protection of human rights. I'm convinced that German impact on world history, politics, and culture is invaluable and that's why we should not remember Germany only as motherland of Hitler and Nazism, but as a country which introduced a set of modern life attributes either in universal culture or in technology and science. Even today, Germany hasn't lost its historical mission in Europe: now it is an incarnation of Otto von Bismarck's dreams, not Hitler's ones. Today's Germany is a strong and stable state which respects other subjects of international law and is ready to cooperate with them for common good.

References

Fulbrook, Mary German History Since 1800 Arnold Publishers 1998

Eihman, Michael Germany After the Great War Oxford University Press 1978…

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Women From Ramayana and Osiris Isis and Horus View Paper

Women from Ramayana and Osiris, ISIS and Horus

The Ramayana, famous epic story of Ancient Indian literature gives a lot of interesting and important historical details about society of ancient India as it describes the nature of relations between men and women, parents and children and narrates the history of Indian mythology. Through the nature of relations between king Dasharatha and his 4 wives we can observe a lot of important historical details about family ethics in prehistoric Indian society. In fact, we see that women occupied an equal position in the family, nearly equal to men. Indian goddess were in charge of prosperity and fertility (for example Sita). Besides, it's a well-known fact that in Indian culture words that define power and strength are feminine.

The respect of women also existed on mythic level: it's enough to remind that Ravana and his tribe were killed because he kidnapped Sita, Rama's wife. Another important aspect of women's role in Indian society is that women and men built their family and their relations only on the base of love and mutual respect rather than on obedience to the choice made by their parents. Ramayana's Rama and Sita prove it, as their union was based only on mutual love. The devoutness of Sita to her husband Rama is worth admiration as she insisted on following her husband when he went to exile. Sita had the sense of commitment and she was very responsible in family duties, but at the same time she had the sense of dignity and had never behaved like an obedient servant to Rama. The years of exile only molded her personality and tempered her will. We observe such qualities in her behavior through her independence, self-determination and confidence. Even after being accuse in treachery she has enough will to resist Rama and defend her loyalty and innocence. Image of Sita is associated with active woman who struggles for her happiness, who is able to defend her honor and stand all trials in order to prove her purity. Even later when Sita wet to exile, as Rama continued to be doubtful in her purity she behaved very deserving and alone raised two sons. Image of Sita is an embodiment of ideal wife in Indian culture, as she possessed the qualities Indians want to see in their wives: loyalty, devoutness and strong morals and will power.

Another example of women's equality in Indian society from Ramayana is behavior of Queen Keikey, wife of king Dasharatha. She had a right to ask the king to fulfill her two orders as he gave an oath when they married. The order of Queen Keikey was to send Rama to exile, so that her son Bharatac could become ? king. Dasharatha could do nothing and had to obey to this awful order which contradicted existing traditions and customs, as only the oldest son of the king could inherit the throne. It also proves that in ancient Indian society there existed some attributes of feminism.…

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Rise of Islam View Paper

Islam

The rise of Islam was one of the most extraordinary events in world history. Often seen as a religion spread by force, Islam was glorified to its height because of prosperous cities, Mecca and Baghdad, and the expansion of trade and commercial routes through areas of Islamic missionaries. It was through these cultural alterations and changes in power that Islam rose in popularity.

The rise of Islam actually began as early as the seventh century. At the time, the Byzantine Empire, Roman Empire, and the Sassanid Kingdom were in constant struggle for political and economic control. This struggle resulted in destroyed trade routes along the Mediterranean, and new routes were therefore sought out to avoid the three empires. This new route encompassed the costal plain of Arabia, where the city of Mecca soon became a large financial and political settlement for merchants and traders.

By 661, under the Umayyad Caliphate, Islam began to expand because of able rulers and superior military organization. Islam quickly spread through North Africa, Spain, and France, and eventually into Central Asia and Northern India. Under this rule, science, history, chemistry, medicine, and writing were all developed with adherence to Islamic faith.

As the Umayyad Caliphate ended in 750, the Abbasid Caliphate came to power, furthering……

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Rebellion to Revolution Slaves in View Paper

51). Maroons sometimes were loyal to the European country dominating the region in which they lived. Though these relations were tenuous, the maroons would work often work to impede slave revolts and hunt down and kill runaway slaves, or return them to their masters. However, maroons were more likely to assist runaway slaves than to catch them for the Europeans. Because the maroons were so effective at guerilla warfare, white slaveholders were afraid of a maroon-slave coalition and a maroon-Native American alliance.

Wherever and whenever they lived, according to Genovese, maroons provoked desertions and slave revolts. They fought and defeated the military expeditions sent against them, sending a strong message to the slaves. Typically, the efforts of the maroons resulted in the establishment of African-type village communities and local autonomy that permitted them to establish trade relations with whites. In the early years, the maroons were sympathetic to the problems of the slaves, and the engaged in trade and relied on the slaves for support. Over time, alignment shifted toward the slaveholders such that peace treaties were established that left maroons capturing runaway slaves and crushing slave rebellions. The gap between the "salt water" slaves and the creole slaves widened, resulting in increasing hostility and hatred. British authorities recognized the effectiveness of using maroons to crush slave revolts. Similarly, whites used Native Americans to capture runaway slaves, with varying degrees of success. Regardless, the tactic was one of divide-and-conquer, a strategy that worked especially well wherever cultural divisions and historical mistrust dominated interactions. The maroon groups in the Old South grew strong toward the end of the 17th century, a factor that generated considerable fear of a black uprising in the Old South. Punitive expeditions into the maroon settlements prevented the consolidation of disparate maroon groups, and by the antebellum period in the Old South, the status of the maroons was primarily that of a nuisance. Attracted to more favorable land areas -- such as the lowlands of the Carolinas, the Maroon groups would wage sporadic warfare, be driven back, and then regroup -- without ever being able to establish the consolidated war camps that dotted the Brazilian Palmares, Jamaica, Surinam, or Saint-Domingue.

1. Who were the maroons?

2. What were the goals of the maroons?

3. Why did the maroons not bring about major revolution in America?

Reference

Genovese, E.D. (1992). From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World [Walter Lynwood……

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Muslim Battles With European Countries View Paper

Constantinople was the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, and its fall was the beginning of the Ottomans great expansion period. They infiltrated Spain after the fall of Constantinople, and gained a foothold to move throughout Europe, converting the people to Islam and gaining more territory. Today, there are still many areas of Europe that continue to be Islamic strongholds, such as Bosnia. There are still wars being fought over the Muslim, Christian dilemma, too, as the Bosnia-Serb war recently shows, and the war with Iraq continues.

In conclusion, each of these battles was highly significant in world history for a number of reasons. The Battle of Constantinople opened up the European continent to the Ottomans, giving them a foothold into new and vulnerable territory. The Battle of Lepanto showed Europe was a strong force and could push the Turks back to their territory, and the Siege of Vienna, mismanaged as it was, marked the end of Turkish aggression in Europe. Each battle marked a starting or ending point in Muslim power and progress, and each battle, if the outcome had been different, could have completely changed the course of history and the face of Europe.

References

Cowie, Leonard W. Sixteenth-Century Europe. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1977.

Esposito, John L. Islam, The Straight Path, 3rd edition.

Herrin, Judith. "The fall of Constantinople." History Today June……

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American Participation in World War II View Paper

WWII

The United States entered the Second World War late, and reluctantly. In spite of the Nazi death camps, the United States remained decidedly neutral until the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The bombing of Pearl Harbor may not have been the only reason why the United States entered the war, but it was a single and tremendous precipitating event that necessitated a quick and decisive solution. Entering the war had a huge impact on America's domestic, as well as global, affairs. The effects of the American entry into World War Two on world history included securing an Allied victory and paving the way for a new world order symbolized by the Cold War. Less obvious from a global perspective, but no less important to most Americans, was the fact that the entry into World War Two led to dramatic social, economic, and political changes at home in the United States. Most of those social, economic, and political changes can be viewed in the context of prevailing issues related to race, class, gender, and power.

Race relations were severely strained in the United States, following generations of failed reconstruction following the Civil War. Slavery had been abolished, but racism had not. African-Americans were on aggregate poor and politically disenfranchised. When the United States entered the war, however, blacks fought alongside their white brethren -- ironically for a country that dismissed them as second-class citizens. The armed forces were segregated when the United States entered the Second World War, with separate infantries for different races and differential status and treatment for African-American combat units and troops. African-American soldiers were rarely serving in positions above first lieutenant (O'Neil). In general, African-American troops had lower collective status than their white counterparts. Blacks were "confined largely to service rather than combat units, excluded entirely from the Army Air Corps and Marines, and from the Navy except as messmen," (O'Neil 1). Prevailing and entrenched racism prevented troop integration, as whites refused to fight alongside their own countrymen. It was no small wonder that the American armed forces were able to create a unified front.

Gender relations were also strained, several years after universal suffrage. Although they won the right to vote, women were systematically excluded from positions of power and failed to achieve financial independence. Women were barred from combat altogether during the Second World War.

Entering the war would have nearly immediate consequences on improving both race and gender relations in the United States, however. As the ironies and paradoxes of American society were exposed via participation in the war, many Americans saw clearly and perhaps for the first time the pressing need for social justice and change. As Harris puts it, "the battle against Nazi racism exposed America's own prejudices as peacetime never could" (1). The United States, a nation with endemic racism and prejudice, was fighting for freedom in Europe.

The war exposed the problems associated with racism and prejudice. At first, the involvement of African-Americans in combat was treated as a matter…

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Brief History of the Future View Paper

¶ … History of the Future

Strathern, O. (2007). A Brief History of the Future. New York: Carroll and Graf.

At best, futurists are predictors of trends; at worst, speculative commentators. For instance, if we revisit some of the World's Fair exhibitions of the last three decades, we typically find that we have not advanced as far as predicted in…

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Causes of World War View Paper

World War One marked the moment the Western world would challenge old models of governance, warfare, and national identity. As soon as Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, the old balance of power shifted from grandiose empires like the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman toward the smaller, yet in many ways no less powerful, nation-state. The spoils of imperialism and colonialism were being reaped across the globe with the United States standing poised to become a global superpower. New world powers like Russia emerged seemingly out of nowhere to challenge Western supremacy. The fall of centuries-old monarchies and regional blocs caused new political ideologies like Marxism, Communism, and Socialism to take root around the world and especially in Eastern Europe. At the same time, world trade, democracy, and capitalism were already shaping the 20th century. Known as the Great War, World War One also exhibited emerging military technologies and trench warfare that transformed the ways nation-states engaged each other during battle. Therefore, three primary causes that led to the First World War include militarism, imperialism, and nationalism.

Militarism entails the proliferation of weaponry and troops, arms racing, and the state support for military endeavors. The Industrial Revolution led to astounding developments in warfare technologies, which were quickly seized up by major players in the early 20th century arms race. France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, Belgium, and the United States all played major roles in fomenting the arms race. Submarines, battleships, and especially airplanes took the world by storm. New chemical gases were being developed that marked some of the first weapons of mass destruction. Ground combat weaponry including advanced machine guns, tanks, artillery, and grenades also made military might one of the most important features of the new world order. As nation-states clamored for military supremacy vis-a-vis their neighbors and especially their enemies, the battlefield became ripe for the outbreak of total war. The effects of militarism on neighboring nation-states was palpable: mutual suspicion led to intense cross-border tension between nations like France and Germany, Germany and Prussia. However, even nations that did not share land borders grew wary of one another during the military proliferation that preceded World War One. For example, Great Britain vied for continued naval supremacy while Germany also developed its own seafaring military fleet. Naval warfare supplemented by the new airplane troops proved that the impending war would go beyond all prior ones.

Imperialism, or empire-building, became a key cause of World War One. A counterpart of colonialism, imperialism entailed spreading ideology and an expansion of the global market. Imperialism depended on militarism but required more extensive political and economic ambition. Moreover, imperialism did not require increased……

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Industrial Revolution Changed the World View Paper

The economic development triggered by the industrial revolution, thus, made the European nations and the United States, the most powerful in the world in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Industrial Revolution in some European countries and the U.S. And the surplus goods produced by them as a result created the need for global markets. The accompanying military power of…

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Soviet WWII Soviet Policy Leading Up to View Paper

soviet WWII

Soviet Policy Leading up To WWII

On August 23, 1939, Russian foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim Von Ribbentrop applied their signatures to a Non-Aggression Pact that would, at a crucial moment in world history, determine the course of events which would shape World War II. Brokered between Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin on the…

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Cold War Origin After WWII View Paper

Cold War

During World War II, the United States and Soviet Union were one in their fight against the Axis powers led Germany. Adolf Hitler of Germany wanted to conquer Europe at that time. He instilled fear in the hearts of the Jews in Europe as Germany systematically persecuted and killed approximately two and half million Jews in various Nazi consecration camps. Germany was flexing its military might in Europe and the Soviet Union and Great Britain stood against the onslaught of the German military. The United States was not initially part of the war; the U.S. was primarily providing logistical support to the Allied powers which was then spearheaded by Winston Churchill's Great Britain in their defense against the expansionist policy of Germany.

The U.S. was brought into the war when Japan conducted an attack against its military base in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii resulting in substantial casualties and collateral damage on the part of the Americans. With Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had no further recourse but to go out of its neutral stance on the war and joined the Great Britain and Soviet Union to actively fight Germany and liberate European countries such as Italy from German control. As Germany began to lose its hold in Europe, the U.S. focused on Japan. With her new found military might, the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs in the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima that made Japan concede in the war.

With the onset of World War II, the world witnessed the emergence of two superpowers - the United States and Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Rising from the ashes of World War II, the two countries began to consolidate their military and economic resources to advocate the ideologies that set them poles apart, the democratic U.S. And the communist USSR. This conflict is known as the Cold War era, a situation characterized by considerable tension between the two countries but they did not directly engage each other in an armed conflict.

In my view the U.S. And Soviet Union could not continue as allies during the post World War II because of the conflict in terms of their distinct ideologies. This key difference led both countries to pursue policies that are not congruent with their respective interest.

The U.S. has always seen herself as the bastion of democratic ideals wherein there are free elections, the liberties and basic rights of every individual regardless of creed and color are upheld and more importantly, a government in which the will of the majority is expressed. On the other hand, the Soviet Union, an advocate of communist principles put considerable emphasis on an iron hand type of rule grounded on a strong military, a government in which the will of the leaders are forcibly indoctrinated on the people under the pretext that leaders are working for the people's best interest. These differences are clear and manifested in the manner in which the superpowers operated their respective governments and…

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Stefan Zweig the World of Yesterday View Paper

¶ … Stefan Zweig's book the World of Yesterday he refers to the "world of security" - his homeland of Austria - in reference to more than a geographic place. The place where Zweig was raised gave him a "feeling of security" (Zweig, 2); while at first only the wealthy enjoyed this sensation of security, in time the "great masses…

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Bipolar World Form 1945-1989 View Paper

Bipolar World

The Bipolar Concept and the Soviet Bloc vs. The West

The bipolar world that developed after World War II represented the basic perceived structure of world politics during the Cold War. The bipolar idea depicts the world as essentially divided into two camps, both militarily and ideologically, with the West representing democratic ideals, and with the Soviet bloc representing Communism in opposition to democracy. Much of the world divided between the two camps, with the two sides creating mutual defense pacts among member nations, and with much of the rhetoric of the age based on the clash of ideologies as well as images of a military threat from the other side. In truth, the bipolar world was never as simple as the term makes it sound, for large areas of the world were unaffiliated. In addition, the bipolar world did not last that long in its pure form because divisions developed between the Soviet Union and Red China, leaving China as an uncertain entity on the world stage much of the time. The very idea of a bipolar world order disintegrated along with the Soviet Union in 1989, creating a less certain picture of friend and foe.

In the face of uncertainty regarding Germany after World War II, the West also had to face uncertainties about the Soviet Union. Much of American foreign policy after World War II was shaped around anti-Communism. In the 1950s, anti-Communism was bound with ideas of tradition, family values, and the protection of the American way of life. Yet, two images of the world seemed at odds in this era -- on the one hand, a world torn by strife and threatened by Communism, and on the other, the American world of affluent families living in freedom and equality (May 10).

The nuclear threat was a key element of the Cold War, as seen in the continuing arms race and the stockpiling of nuclear weapons by both sides. For all the concern nuclear capability had raised as to the potential for world disaster, it can also be seen as true that nuclear weapons affected the behavior of nations and actually inhibited the onset of large-scale war (Newhouse 12). In the earliest period of the nuclear age, the United States was the only nuclear power and believed that the situation would continue, but once the Soviets tested a device in 1949, that belief evaporated. The Cold War was under way with two nuclear powers, and over time there would be more. Throughout the nuclear era, the threat of nuclear war seemed to be enough to prevent it, though there were times when tensions rose to such a pitch that even that was not certain.

The division of the world into two major camps lasted until the Soviet Union dissolved. Over that period of time, the two sides engaged in an escalating arms race, in efforts to curb that race, in periods of agreement, and in periods where other countries and wars between smaller countries…

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World War II: Historical Book View Paper

(p.18)

Many of these vintners were initially so deaf to the historical cannons not so far away from their vineyards, that covert references to Hitler in 1939, during a wine conference, by the lead speakers, were met with confused glances. (pp.14-15) Given the economic and human destruction wrought by the "war to end all wars" the farmers, a reader is apt to think, perhaps should not have been so sanguine about their livelihoods. Still, y focusing on the non-heroic French wine farmers, the authors are able to bring to light the economic impact of World War II, and also the cultural ways in which the Nazis imposed upon the long-standing traditions of daily life. What was a source of common pride for these French farmers, both creative and economic, became in constant need of protection. The fact that these French people fought so hard to fight for their livelihoods is admirable, if not heroic.

The lessons of the book even have applications to politics today. This sense of the value and art of winemaking is helpful when understanding contemporary French farmer's often hysterical bromides against the European Union regulating pasteurizing their cheese and other methods of production of agricultural substances, as well as the desecration of McDonald's as a representation of all that is standardized, foreign, and an impingement upon these individual's lives, a life that had changed "little" since the "Middle Ages," and superstitions were so rife that women were barred from the wineries, for fear of bringing bad luck, according to tradition. (pp.17-18)

By looking at the war from the perspective of ordinary citizens, not generals or even soldiers a reader gains a sense of the importance of preserving peacetime life and culture, during a war, to the inhabitants of a nation. The fragility of culture and economic livelihood in an industry where a cold snap can ruin a crop, as it nearly did in 1939, becomes a parallel for the fragility of the human body and spirit during times of war. (p.13) Still one wishes that the greatest treasure of the subtitle, in the view of the farmers points-of-view, would have been viewed as France's human currency and flesh, rather than its wine casks and vineyards.

Work Cited

Kladstrup, Donald & Peter Kladstrup. Wine and War. New York,……

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World Wars Explain How Each of the View Paper

World Wars

Explain how each of the following contributed to the start of the first World War: Imperialism; nationalism; militarism; and secret alliances.

Imperialism helped fuel World War I by giving some European countries great wealth (Author not given, 2004). With a booming economy they were able to finance the development of war materiel needed to wage war on a large scale. Nationalism caused because each country's great pride in itself. This national pride also led Germany in particular to celebrate the military and Germany's large body of myths and legends celebrating militarism. Germany believed it was its destiny to govern Europe, and since the individual companies were not likely to peaceably acquiesce, to the Kaiser it seemed that use of military was the obvious solution. The kind of almost xenophobic nationalism each country held, most of them monarchies who viewed their right to rule as divine, frictions grew between countries. When the Archduke Ferdinand of Bosnia was assassinated in 1914, Austria saw the event as requiring intervention from them. This dispute drew in the allies of each side, resulting in World war.

Secret alliances: Germany made a secret alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy. Later, Russia and France signed a pact. England and other countries became concerned about Germany's Kaiser William, who apparently wanted world domination. Eventually England also signed a pact with Japan. These pacts divided the formerly squabbling European nations into two larger pacts opposing each other, making wide-scale armed conflict possible

2) What were the major causes of the second World War? How did the end of World War2 lead to the Cold War? Explain the goals of each side during the Cold War and to what extent they were achieved.

World War II was a direct result of World War I and its aftermath. Great Britain and France were particularly interested in punishing Germany for its actions and insisted on war reparations Germany was ill-prepared to pay. Germany lost territory while France gained it. The new German……

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World War II. World War View Paper

They launched large scale attacks on Britain, and invaded and conquered France in mid-1940. With their foothold in France, the Germans were in a much better position to terrorize England, and they did, while also attacking the Balkans, Greece, and other areas of Europe and North Africa. During this time, German troops rounded up Jewish people all over Europe and send them to concentration camps, where millions of them were exterminated like animals. Much of this holocaust was not discovered until after the war, and it is one of the most infamous and lasting memories of World War II.

When the war in Europe ended, the War in Asia was still going on. The U.S. used American and German scientists to create atomic bombs that would be used to end the war. Another historian wrote, "The use of the atomic bomb to defeat Japan has been the focus of an extensive debate among historians" (Divine 309). President Roosevelt had begun the project, and when he died in 1945, President Truman continued it. He was urged to drop the bombs to end the war quickly and spare more lives, because it would take much more human life to ultimately invade and conquer the Japanese islands. Ultimately, Truman agreed and the bombs were dropped.

The war dragged on until 1945. The Allied forces finally overwhelmed Hitler's forces in Europe in May 1945, and the war was officially declared over on May 7, 1945 in Europe. In April, many of the concentration camps and POW camps were liberated, and the world got the first real look at the atrocities the Germans had carried out on Jews and Prisoner's of War. The war in Asia ended on August 14, 1945, after the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II was over, but it would be a long time before the world really recovered from this war.

References

Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.

Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

Kitchen, Martin. A World……

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Europe and the World History View Paper

¶ … 1023

At the end of the 1600s and into the 1700s, the scientific revolution significantly impacted the way that Western cultures perceived the world. During the previous Middle Ages, people rarely understood the causes of their experiences. Without any obvious explanations, they attributed occurrences to God, superstition, or mysterious forces. Now, however, people began to recognize that nature followed established rules of order such as Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion. Ignorance was unaccepted as people emphasized using reason to answer questions in science, as well as in society, religion and politics. Especially in the areas of philosophy, human sciences and culture, this time period was called the Enlightenment, or breaking from the past and replacing the obscurity, darkness, and ignorance of thought with the "light" of truth. The Enlightenment intellectuals in the last decades of the 18th century believed that slavery had to be reformed and ultimately eliminated. They clearly saw that the daily resistance of slaves through poison, suicide, abortion had to be stopped (Dubois, 58). Jean-Jacques Rousseau concluded in the Social Contract: "Man is born free but everywhere is in chains." It is demonstrated in this paper that such a philosophy significantly impacted the rise of revolutions in France and Haiti.

In the first phase of the French Revolution, the dominant philosophy followed Baron de Montesquieu, who claimed that a liberal constitutional monarchy was the best system of government for a people who prized freedom. He based this on the grounds that dividing the sovereignty of the nation between several centers of power provided a permanent checks-and-balance system to keep them from becoming despotic. As Rousseau replaced Montesquieu, the former's meaning of liberty replaced the latter's. Montesquieu saw freedom as being free in doing what one chooses, so long as it was lawful. With Rousseau's philosophy of freedom, there was no doubt of people dividing and diminishing sovereignty, because they were to keep sovereignty in their own hands. (Cranston). In large part, his literary works and beliefs heralded in the second phase of the Revolution.

Rousseau's thoughts were based on the idea of the "social contract," where government and authority acted as a mutual contract between the authorities and the governed. Those governed agree to be ruled only so their rights, property and happiness would be protected. Once rulers no longer protected the ruled, the social contract was broken and people could choose other governors. Rousseau warned the French of the danger of the "plague that the representatives themselves have become more servile than the electorate" and thus became the chief prophet of the Revolution (Belloc 10).

In 1793, the Committee of Public Safety led by Maximilian Robespierre sought to replace Christianity with its own state "Cult of the Supreme Being." The Committee issued an edict declaring that the duties of mankind were "To detest bad faith and despotism, and to punish tyrants and traitors." To put down this revolt, Robespierre initiated mass executions known as the Reign of Terror.

Previously, Robespierre was friends with the…

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Christopher Columbus -- a Hero? Or Not. View Paper

Christopher Columbus -- a Hero? Or Not.

The legacy of Christopher Columbus -- in many people's minds -- entails bravery, heroism, courage and resolve. But does this man really deserve the reverent accolades that he receives? Does he deserve to have a day named in his memory? Did her really "discover America" as the legend has it? All of these…

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History Book Video Presents a View Paper

This trend of oppressor-oppressed worsened with the emergence of industrial society, which gave birth to capitalism, widening the gap between the ruling class elite and working middle classes.

Similarly, social developments in human society determine the kind of political and economic organizations that exist in human society. Economic developments are inevitably tied with the kind of society existing during the period; thus, as illustrated in "Triumphant Symphony," the emergence of industrialization led to the development of capitalism as the primary economic model. Capitalism has, unfortunately, contributed to the already existing conflict between the elite and working/middle socio-economic classes. Political developments are also directly linked economic and social changes in the society. As is evident in Part 4, "Bloody Schemes," the social development that is the Age of Discovery, which served as the catalyst for colonialism to occur, had flourished alongside mercantilism, which in effect, led to the proliferation of the African slave trade. This "domino effect" shows that social, economic, and political factors are directly linked with each other, affecting one with the other, changing the course of history in the process.

Analyzing these themes and trends in The History Book, the present socio-political landscape, particularly the issue of Gulf War II, tells me that 'history repeats itself.' At present, despite claims that society is now at its post-industrial state, Gulf War II or the conflict between U.S. And Iraq shows that there is still an ongoing struggle between the oppressor and oppressed. However, it has become harder for us to identify who indeed is the oppressor and oppressed, since both have committed acts of atrocities that human history tells us cannot be justified just as easily. The U.S.-Iraq conflict, as an example, can be, on the American perspective, considered as a struggle between Iraq as the oppressor and America as the oppressed, in light of the World Trade Center bombing last 2001. However, the Iraqi perspective, as well as international sentiment, may say that Iraqis are the oppressed people, especially now that reports of torture and abuses have showed that Americans have abused their authority in Iraq. These varying perspectives nonetheless provide people with the reality that an ongoing socio-political and economic conflict still exists in the post-industrial human society.…

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Historical Contexts and Literature View Paper

¶ … human condition transcends the esoteric and becomes real is through the human ability to conceptualize events outside of the horrific reality of the event and turn these events into something nobler, something more timeless, and even something more meaningful to future generations. One way we humans tend to look at these grand processes is to extrapolate behaviors into…

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Italian Domination of Commerce in the Eastern View Paper

¶ … Italian domination of commerce in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea on the life of Constantinople?

At its zenith, the Roman Empire reached across the globe: however, as Rome's influence began to decline, the imperial provinces began take on two distinct characters. These two spheres came to be known as East and West Christendom. Constantinople eventually became the capital Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church while Roman Catholicism dominated the feudal West. However, there was still considerable cross-pollination of influence of the two areas. According to Phillip Mansel's 2006 book Constantinople: City of the World's Desire 1453-1924, thanks to its status in early modernity as a central trading center, Constantinople became a kind of crossroads of Eastern and Western influences.

Constantinople's significance in the history of commerce was due to its proximity to the ports of the eastern Mediterranean. During its early years, this ensured the creation of a distinct city culture, a culture that was the result of cultural fusion and synergy. However, the city's melding of its distinct elements was never without tension. The potential for strife was always simmering beneath the surface. Eventually, the diversity of Constantinople led to violent uprisings. For all of the blending of cultural influences, the city was divided into distinct quarters and characters and when one group seemed to dominate the other, riots and bloodshed would ensue.

Despite its proximity to the sea, Constantinople lacked any type of naval defense during the 11th and 12th centuries because of the imprudent policies of its Emperor: his failed military quests and ostentatious government had depleted the coffers of the city (Miller et al. 148). The Italian city-states took advantage of this weakness, and used Constantinople to dominate maritime commerce. In fact, as Mansel notes (2006), as late as the nineteenth century Italian functioned as kind of second language for Constantinople. This was the legacy of the Italian influence upon Constantinople's commercial life. Italian was spoken by all of the Frankish residents, Greeks, and Turks. The Turks later even adopted many Italian words, such as words for types of ships known as caravels and bombardas, and iskele (from the Italian scala) for a dock (Mansel 2006). However, this linguistic fusion should not be mistaken a sign of the universal welcome of Italian traders.

Italian prominence trade angered the non-Italian native residents of Constantinople. The Venetians first took control of maritime commerce; then other city states carved spheres of influence for themselves. The major economic power-players were traders from Venice, Genoa and Pisa, and Amalfi. Rioting between the warring city-states in the various quarters damaged store houses and what remained of native Greek businesses. All of the Italian city-states maintained pirate vessels to attack one another -- and all of the vessels felt free to attack Greek merchants when brief truces existed between the different Italian factions (Miller et al., 1978, p. 148).

Eventually, Greek……

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Most Significant Event View Paper

¶ … 20th Century in American History

By virtually any measure that is applied, the 20th century in general and the second half in particular represented the most turbulent and violent periods in world history. During this 50-year time span, the United States became embroiled in three regional wars in Korea, Vietnam and the Persian Gulf that cost the lives…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Nanking Genocide 1937 View Paper

Nanking Genocide 1937

Nanking's genocide and revisionist history

Nanking's genocide and revisionist history

There are numerous reports, studies and films that refer directly and explicitly to the events that occurred in the city of Nanking in 1937. As one report states,

The Chronicle of humankind's cruelty is a long and sorry tale. But if it is true that even in…

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Cold War Era When We Remove the View Paper

Cold War Era

When we remove the threat of nuclear war that loomed large during the Cold War era, it then becomes possible to engage in rational discourse on the subject. It is a subject that is endless in the complexities of the events and the powerful people behind those events. This paper concerns itself with those powerful world leaders,…

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How the Treaty of Versailles Led to Hitler's Rise to Power View Paper

Treaty of Versailles

The Nazi slaughter of millions of people in WWII, including approximately 6 million Jews, might not have been possible if the Treaty of Versailles had been a more balanced and fair document. it's pure speculation, but an alert reader delving into how a bigoted fanatic like Adolf Hitler could seize dictatorial control over German can clearly see that the Treaty of Versailles - which punished Germany perhaps too severely - played right into Hitler's hands. And he beat on it like a drum. He used the hardships that German people suffered from because of the Treaty as emotional leverage to gain power. The rest is history.

The Treaty of Versailles - signed by the allies and by a defeated Germany at the end of WWI - forced Germany to disarm and severely punished Germany. This harsh punishment, and the suffering the German people had to go through as a result of it, gave Hitler the issue he needed to convince citizens they needed a powerful nationalistic leader like him. He played on their fears and their anger and emerged as dictator largely because of that.

According to Philip Towle, writing in the Journal of Strategic Studies, at the end of WWI, the Germans did not believe that "the military superiority of the Allied Powers" - that had defeated them - would "endure." And so the Germans "never willingly acquiesced" to the measures in the Treaty to disarm. The Germans "argued bitterly against reparations" and they vigorously protested the "boundaries" that the Treaty ordered established (taking away German land). The Treaty also limited Germany's army to 100,000 long-service volunteers, and Germany was prevented from having heavy guns, tanks, combat aircraft, poison gas - and the navy was allowed only six old battleships, a dozen destroyers and torpedo boats and six light cruisers.

Moreover, Germans were ordered to pay reparations for the damage the war - launched by Germany - had done. The Weimar (German) government signed the Treaty because, as Jim Cort writes (Learning Through History), "they had no choice." The feeling soon became widespread, however, that the Germans had been "betrayed" (Cort, 2006). Enter Adolph Hitler, who worked his way up into a leadership position, became Chancellor and then dictator. Hitler was very effective at stirring up passions - social, economic, and political passions - to entrench himself as ultimate leader. Cort writes, "Into this stew of national resentment and wounded pride a war veteran named……

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Cold War and Its Aftermath View Paper

¶ … Cold War and its Aftermath

The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way…

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1500 A.D. Criteria for Defining the Most View Paper

¶ … 1500 a.D.

Criteria for Defining the Most Significant Historical Event:

In considering the various candidates for the most significant event in human history, several pivotal conflict and transitions stand out. Among them: the Renaissance,

which ushered in the Age of Discovery and Exploration, the French Revolution, which pioneered concepts like religious tolerance, self-determination, and inclusion of the masses of the less fortunate into political life; the Industrial Revolution, which introduced the technological achievements that were to make modern life possible for much of the world's population; the American Revolution, which established what was eventually to become one of the world's greatest and most influential powers and shapers of the modern world; the American Civil War, which eliminated the institution of human slavery in the New World; the two world wars of the twentieth century, which shaped the direction of future geopolitics more than any other events in history, and the Cold War that followed, which may have taken the place of a war with the potential to destroy much of the world shaped by all the other historical events in a matter of hours.

World War II as the Most Significant Single Event in Recorded History:

In determining which event was likely the most significant among the others, one of the most important criteria must be the sheer number of human lives actually affected, the lasting effects on future generations, and the likelihood that other events of the same kind would have resulted in similar changes had it never transpired. While all of the historical events listed contributed very significantly to human life, each one changing it in myriad different ways, it is difficult to argue that any other single human event altered the course of human history by itself more than World War II.1

Human history has demonstrated that with respect to revolutionary changes in philosophical and political thought and also with respect to technological achievement, even the most dramatic developments and innovations occur simultaneously in different cultures, simply as a function of human intellect, social learning, and time. Other human events, such as the Industrial Revolution owe their relative significance to the ways that they accomplished the betterment of human life. However, because the same achievements also made possible the developments of instruments of warfare that brutally destroyed so many human lives, their benefits must be considered in light of their corresponding detriments, rather than one dimensionally.2

The most destructive event in all of human history would, undoubtedly, have been a nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union, which, by virtue of the sheer numbers of human lives lost, would have constituted a monumental historical event. Luckily, it never transpired, despite the fact that the two nuclear powers probably came much closer to a "hot" war in 1962 than many realized at the time.3

In retrospect, the Cold War was more a function of mutual paranoia than anything

else and its most significant outcome was the undoing of Soviet Communism rather than the…

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Prologue Period View Paper

Prologue period of history saw very different events occurring throughout the world, despite the many similarities across these geographic regions. The reasons for these many differences in human history have to do with development of human kind.

For example, during this general period known as the prologue period, in North America human history was undeveloped, at least when compared to the Europe, Eurasia and Asia. In North American the majority of the continent was still dominated by natural resources and was populated by many different tribes and ethnicities of natives. Further, during this time the first contacts with Westerners began to occur. This created a rapid amount of change to occur within the North American area within a relatively short period of time, especially when compared to the amount of time it took Europe, Eurasia and Asia to develop to this same level. In contrast, much of Asia, Eurasia and Asia were moving towards an industrialized society. All……

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Revolutions the History of Modern View Paper

Had the French Revolution not occurred, similar impulses elsewhere (especially in North America) would likely have occurred, nevertheless.

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution radically changed the lives of millions of people throughout the 19th century. Previously, the vast majority of people across Europe never traveled more than a few miles from their homes during their entire lives and received little timely information about what was happening elsewhere in the world (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005). The introduction of the telegraph, telephone, and modern printing processes allowed ordinary people to become aware of important national and international events for the first time (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005).

Likewise, the development of railroads and powered oceanic vessels tremendously increased the opportunities of ordinary people to travel. However, the most important contribution of the Industrial Revolution may be the extent to which changes in the types of employment patterns led directly to the evolution of modern cities as large numbers of people began to work in non-agricultural jobs for the first time (Kishlansky, Geary, & O' Brien, 2009). Meanwhile, the modern agricultural technologies that emerged from the Industrial Revolution also increased the availability and quality of the foods being produced by fewer and fewer people (Kishlansky, Geary, & O' Brien, 2009).

Relative Importance

In some respects, these different revolutions contributed different types of changes to human societies. Viewed from that perspective, a strong argument can be made that the Industrial Revolution was the most significant of the three. However, in other respects, it is impossible to separate the significance of the Scientific Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, since the latter was so much a function of the former. Meanwhile, both are likely more significant than the French Revolution since the types of needs and demands that sparked the French Revolution were not unique to the French and would likely have resulted in similar social change elsewhere had they not happened to have occurred first in France. Ultimately, the Industrial Revolution actually resulted directly in more change to human societies and to the lives of millions of people. The Scientific Revolution affected and benefited human life less directly, notwithstanding the fact that its concepts did lead to the development of the changes that inspired and made the Industrial Revolution possible.

References

Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.

Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.

Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.

Riley, Philip F.; Gerome, Frank; Myers, Henry; and Yoon, Chong-kun. The……

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20th Century Conflict the Latter 20th Century: View Paper

20th Century Conflict

The Latter 20th Century: Conflict Fueled by Economic and Political Change

World War II marked an inflection point in world history. The old order of European dominance subsided in the clearing smoke of one long, expansive and horrific conflict and with it would come the emergence of new world powers. In 1945, the power structure of the world was diametrically shifted, with the victors of the war parlaying this demonstration of political, economic and military might into a long-term shaping of thw global community. As the text by Goff et al. points out, the end of World War II would not bring relief to the war-afflicted global community. To the contrary, this moment would represent the initiation of the Cold War. With Germany, France, Spain, Great Britain and Japan in a state of rebuilding, the opportunities present for the United States and the United Soviet Social Republic to widen their respective spheres of influence would become a dominant reality as the 20th century progressed. As a result, it would become fair to at least characterize the latter 20th century as a time marked by conflicts both ongoing and highly varied in nature. To recall this part of history without acknowledging the defining role played by bloody and violent conflict would be misguided.

That said, it would not be entirely fair to define this period only according to the conflicts which would mark the subsequent 55 years. Underlying the proxy wars waged by the United States and the Soviet Union in Korea (1950-1953), in Cuba (1955-1963) in Vietnam (1955-1975), in Afghanistan (1979-1989) and throughout South America (1980s) were the vested interests of two growing superpowers. And while the carnage visited upon these nations and the fighting forces of the U.S. And U.S.S.R. make it difficult to separate the violence from some of its larger implications, doing so allows us to understand the century as something more than just a series of terrible wars. Each of these wars carried a rhetoric, as Moss points out in the text's examination of Russian interests during the Cold War, that claimed to define the future political and cultural identity of the world. The United States aggressively pushed its sphere of influence toward the mores of free market capitalism and democratic governmental order. And as Moss indicates, Russia produced a direct counterpart with the Communist orientation and totalitarian order which it imposed upon the territories under its sphere.

The result would be a world not just divided along ideological and military lines, but also one divided on how best to meet the challenges of modernization. Indeed, if any engine may be said to have been at the continued drive toward war in the late 20th century, it was the thrust of industrialization, technological advancement and infrastructural solidification. Both Russia and the United States, Moss indicates, viewed their respective……

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Role Played by the Immigrant Labour During the First Industrial Revolution View Paper

Labor and the Industrial Revolution

Immigration During the Industrial Revolution

The Role Played by Immigrant and Migrant Labor during the First Industrial Revolution

Millions of people moved during the industrial revolution. Some simply moved from a village to a town in the hope of finding work while others moved from one country to another in search of a better way…

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Historical Accuracy of the Film Valkyrie Starring Tom Cruise View Paper

Valkyrie

Planning

The 2008 film Valkyrie starring Tom Cruise is a Hollywood version of actual historical events. As with any Hollywood rendition of a true story, the screenwriters and filmmakers feel they must extrapolate from and embellish actual historical fact to make for a compelling on-screen narrative. Even with a story as remarkable as that of Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg,…

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Historical Context of 1984 View Paper

1984 is one of the most visionary, compelling novels of the 20th Century. It still holds tremendous influence today among a broad swath of the liberally educated. 1984 resonates with fiction writers, politicians, and journalists alike. Fiction writers are drawn to its visceral, compelling image of a dystopian future, politicians to its various political messages, and journalists to its focus…

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Political, Social and Economical Processes View Paper

Roman architecture all over the former Roman Empire, witnesses the high stage of development of technology and scientific approaches into practical applications. Romans were first to introduce and use concrete in construction, it was rediscovered again only in the 16th century, Romans were the first to build centralized transportation system, to build aqueducts for water supplying of urban areas, they used water pipes made of zinc and lead and had first prototypes of canalization systems as well.

The brightest example of Roman provincial technological projects is aqueduct at Pont du Gard, (45 miles from the town of Arles). It was constructed to supply with water twenty thousand population of the area. The grandiose project is one hundred fifty feet high, crosses a rocky canyon of the Gardon River. The brightest feature of the complex construction is that it was build from huge six-ton blocks urged tightly to one another without using concrete. It's important to mention that Romans and inhabitants of provincial territories widely used the mechanical principles of lever in construction and transportation of weights. They were acquainted with basic principles of hydraulics (used primitive pumps), automatics and pyrotechnics.

The development of two great civilizations Roman in the West and Chinese in the East during the first centuries of our era came into interaction as trading routes from China to Middle Asia and from Middle Asia to the Mediterranean were established. It brought into existence unseen interaction and goods exchange which had not existed earlier. The isolation of Ancient China was broken after the military campaign of Jang Zang against Huns in 125 BC. After eliminating the external threat- Huns, Chinese merchants and military men were able to establish economical relations with Middle Asian states of Khoresm, Bactra and others. Romans were able to import Chinese silk, porcelain and paper.

Besides Great Silk trading route, there existed economical ties with Germanic tribes, which inhabited the coast of the Baltic Sea. Romans traded with them as well. The main item of the trade was teen (which was valued more than gold) and amber (or, as Romans called it, electrum). Economical and trading relations of Roman Empire were more than simply developed. Equal opportunities, single currency (issued by Rome), nearly equal taxation created favorable conditions for establishment of long time goods exchange. Mediterranean had determined and specialized markets and looked like economically developed multinational infrastructure, a unique one for the ancient world.

Roman empire was the first political formation, which brought to interaction nations and ethnic groups alienated by distances, different cultures and stage of development. It caused the growth of universalism and ancient cosmopolitism, as roman influence was spread on Near East and Middle East nations as well as on North Africa.

At the same time the core of Roman civilization, based on slavish production mode was starting to come to decline as the number of slaves was getting reduced, the efficiency of their work was getting lower and as the provinces and colonies were getting impoverished. The years of…

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Jesus - Christianity Christmas, the View Paper

The disputes between the Roman Catholics and Protestants led to persecutions and both civil and foreign wars (Christianity pp).

In spite of the belief that violence is antithetical to the teachings of Jesus, Christian adherents have persecuted, tortured, and killed other for refusing to believe in their type of Christianity (Christianity pp). During the Crusades, Christian atrocities against Jews in Germany and Hungary, and later in France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria, initiated a tradition of Christian anti-Semitism that was further bolstered by the "blood libel cult and continued into the 1500's by the Spanish Inquisition" (Christianity pp). The European colonization movement was endorsed by the European Christian churches supposedly legitimized the exploitation of the colonized lands by the European powers and led to the destruction of many cultural artifacts, especially in South America related to the Inca and Aztecs (Christianity pp).

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns, generally sanctioned by the Papacy, which took place during the eleventh through the thirteenth centuries (Crusades pp). In the beginning they were Roman Catholic endeavors to re-capture the Holy Land from the Muslims, however, some were directed against other Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France and the Northern Crusades (Crusades pp). The origins lie in Western developments during the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire (Crusades pp). When Emperor Alexius I appealed to Pope Urban II for mercenaries to help him fight against Muslim advances into the Byzantine Empire, began the First Crusade (Crusades pp). The Pope called for a large invasion to defend Christendom, not only to defend the Byzantine Empire, but to reclaim Jerusalem (Crusades pp). Although the papacy of Pope Gregory VII struggled with doctrinal validity of a holy war and killing for the Lord, it resolved the question in favor of justified violence (Crusades pp). Actions against Arians and other heretics gave historical precedents in a society where violence against non-believers and even against other Christians was acceptable and common (Crusades pp). Thus the first crusades resulted in unprecedented wave of pious fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of Orthodox Christians of the east, finally ending in 1204 (Crusades pp). The ninth and last crusade, led by Edward I of England ended in 1291 (Crusades pp).

Roman Catholicism and Protestantism arrived in North America with European settlement during the sixteenth century, and then Protestantism was taken to South America and Africa by European colonists from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries (Christianity pp).

No other being has had such a profound influence on civilization as Jesus of Nazareth. From the days when he walked the earth until now some two thousand years later, Jesus has influenced emperors, kings, politicians, and the common man as no other being. Wars have been fought in his name, shrines have been…

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Peloponnesian War View Paper

History Of the Peloponnesian War: Failure and Accomplishment

War, regardless political motivation, geographical expansion, euthanasia, national defense, or any of several other reasons, brings to both sides involved consequences that change history forever. Civil wars, global wars, or nation-to-nation wars are fraught with devastation that inflicts untold misery on the citizenry of all entities involved. Before discussing the events of…

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Europe and the World European and Western View Paper

Europe and the World

European and Western powers and the colonial and post-colonial world -- India, Algeria, and Viet Nam

Western colonial domination of the ancient kingdoms of India, Vietnam, and Algeria may have marked 19th century world history. But anti-colonial resistance to this oppression marked the ideological debates of 20th century world history. However, the 20th century also saw the rise in the West of the concept of the 'common individual' both as a collective concept under communism and as a psychological phenomena with the rise of popular Freudian psychology in England, France, and America. Thus, while post-colonial societies themselves may have exhibited plurality of collective and individualistic forms of economic and political resistance to colonial oppression, when speaking to the West formerly colonized peoples often articulated resistance to oppression is articulated as an individualistic and personal concept of human liberation as well as national liberation.

This melding of the personal and the national is best seen in the examples of Indian resistance articulated in White Teeth, by Zadie Smith. The friendship between two men, the white Cockney and Indian protagonists, is shown to heal both the wounds of colonialism, societal racism, and personal turmoil. The martial meshing, via a relationship, of Black and White British woman and man also becomes an imperfect testimony of the ability of personal relationships to heal political rifts in Britain, and as the daughter, the progeny of this union, proceeds to find happiness and love despite her mixed heritage. In fact, because of her dual exposure as a young person, to two different and contrasting cultures, she is able to be attracted to men of a variety of heritages. This also reflects the often-strident sense of British collective cultural imperialism that marked its domination of India, in everything from alterations in dress to sport.

In Smith's novel, through achieving interpersonal, familial and sexual unity, the characters achieve the decolonization of the mind advocated by Aime Cesaire in his "Discourse on Colonialism." Cesaire stresses both those who share the heritage of the oppressors as well as the oppressed must be healed -- Cesaire speaks specifically of Algeria, of course, but Zadie Smith also suggests this is true of a multiracial postcolonial England. Unlike Francis Ford Coppola's portrayal of immediate American involvement in Vietnam, however, both Smith and Cesaire see hope for redemption outside of government constructs of nationhood and narrow definitions of identity, once nationhood has been achieved and military objectives are no longer of……

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Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance View Paper

Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance (1450 to 1600)

Cultural Environment

The European Renaissance between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries began in Florence. It was not a sudden rebirth from the Dark Ages, but approximates more a refocusing outward politically and intellectually. Europe had become more than a series of small principalities vying for hegemony. There were larger cities,…

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Realism and the End of the Cold War View Paper

Realism and the End of the Cold War

The field of international relations has always been dominated by one theory or another that tried to explain, through different mechanisms and concepts, the evolution of the international affairs.

Realism was one of the theories that tried to best characterize the period of the Cold War and especially the bipolar relation between the West and the East, which is between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the fall of the U.S.S.R. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was considered that the realist theory of international relations did not grasp sufficiently accurate the power relations between the two important players and was not able to predict the fall of communism and the end of the bipolar world. Moreover, the debates resulted in questioning the ability of the realist theory to further be used as a framework for interpreting and predicting the evolution of international affairs.

William C. Wohlforth addresses this issue by arguing that the end of the Cold War and the peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union was not necessarily an event that could have been predicted or foreseen through the social science analysis. Moreover, the reason for which this incapacity was visible is related to the fact that the event was not one that had been encountered in the history and in general social science approaches are limited in their interpretations. Furthermore Wohlforth argues that realist theories are complex in nature and should not be viewed as a single structure of analysis.

Wohlforth tries to analyze this debate by providing answers to four aspects: the role of theories in the interpretation of the post 1989 collapse of the Soviet Union, the explanation provided by the realist theory to the collapse of the U.S.S.R., the criticism brought to the realist theory ("predictive failure, lack of correlation between independent and dependent variables, and important patterns of state behavior defying realist expectations and explanations"), and what lessons can be learned from this and their implications for future research on the subject (p93)

The Cold War's End and Social Science Theory

Wohlforth argues that the Cold War was a complex phenomenon and could not have been explained by appealing to previous historical facts hence it cannot be assumed that current theories can consider the whole complexity of the event. His solution is to disaggregate the components of the conflict in order to set each of them into a theory that could explain them and then connect cause to effect. All theories are limited; the realist theory took into account only the balance of power, but not other events such as the detente after 1987 for instance (p95).

An Outline of a Realist Explanation

Wohlforth points out that three elements are essential for understanding the end of the Cold War and the relatively peaceful dismantling of the U.S.S.R.: what matters is the assessment on power of decision makers (the U.S. was reluctant to go to war with the U.S.S.R. because it perceived it…

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Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts View Paper

Aurelian later successfully reunited the three regions into one.

"The 50 years between the death of Severus Alexander and the accession of Diocletian (235-284) witnessed the near collapse of the whole Roman way of life, from the government and military structure to the economy and the thought system that had characterized the ancient world until then." (Timothy E. Gregory, page…

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Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society View Paper

Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society

The ancient period is the historical era determined by the convention. It includes the studying of the past life activities and events. The modern is the contrary of the ancient. However, it is imperative to realize that for there to be the present, it was a process of development. History shapes the lives, practices…

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Authority and Leadership in Germany View Paper

Evidence given by Holocaust survivors, such as Primo Levi, shows that although they themselves were ordered by an evil man, the leaders of the camps were nonetheless themselves capable of vicious action. Those in power at the camp would "be cruel and tyrannical, because he will understand that if he is not sufficiently so, someone else, judged more suitable, will take over his post" (Levi 91). Within Germany during this period, cruelty and bloodlust became a characteristic to be admired so long as those emotions were focused to the populations within the concentration and death camps. This horrific period in world history indicates exactly what can happen if a leader is given unquestioned power. Sometimes, power is granted to a man who will prove to be ill-fit for such a position as is the case with Hitler. However, what is all the more terrifying a thought is that despite the fact that so many claimed to understand that the Fuhrer was an inhuman monster and unimaginably evil, they still followed orders.

In Germany over the course of two wars, the government tried to convince the people that they had a destiny, that the German people were predestined by God to become a world power. Consequently, men would have to fight and some would have to die, but it was for the greater good. The men who sacrificed themselves did so for Germany and for the generations that would come. The ideology was believed by those who took up arms. That is until the young men got on the battlefield. Believing in the greater Germany did not stop bullets from invading their bodies nor did it stop them from experiencing mental fatigue and devastation. The moral that Remarque was trying to impart on his readership was that propaganda and ideology is for peacetime. Those who fight are too concerned with survival to worry about the moral right or the propagation of the Fatherland.

Works Cited:

Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz: If this is a Man. New York, NY: Touchstone, 2007. Print.

Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on……

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Civilizations We Have Studied Thus View Paper

The political and military dominance that Roman Empire achieved over conquered states was dependent on the geographical advantages it had in attacking other states while defending itself through improvisation in natural barriers. The Roman Empire was established on the foundations laid by Greeks and thus it was Greek use of symbols and things that influenced the Roman more than any…

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Song Dynasty Refers to Period View Paper

The Dynasty had the goal of changing life style of the people, bringing economic revolution and using technology for the betterment for people. It was the target oriented approach while led the emperors individually focus on industries and devise plans for advancement of all of them. In the Song Dynasty, the technology was introduced in handicrafts industry which not only…

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Cold War a Critical Debate View Paper

This policy certainly helped in increased production but it did not cause desirable progression in the industrial sector for two main reasons. The first reason was that managers of projects could not deliver. The greed and self-interest prevailed over the interest of state and secondly the state preferred the production of military hardware which was not a good economic choice…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Ottoman Empire in 1683, When View Paper

Given its many domestic and international handicaps, the Ottoman Empire deserves credit for modernizing as much as it did. In 1800-1908, the powers of the centralized state increased greatly, and the number of civil officials grew from 2,000 to 50,000. Even Sultan Abdulhamid II, who lived in constant fear of assassination at his palace in Yildiz before being overthrown by…

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Harvard Professor of History and View Paper

He notes that the Japanese reached a high level of progress because it had a decentralized feudal system like that of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Their work habits were unlike those of other Asians. They centralized, nationalized and modernized their habits and institutions. (Gray) The Japanese people achieved industrialization quite fast because of sacrifice and the willingness of the Japanese worker to work long hours of monotonous labor. Their admirable qualities were geared to wage an economic war for progress - a collective commitment to modernization and the development of a work ethic and personal values that led to the famous Japanese economic miracle. It was their devotion to samurai values that did this. But Japan was not like any other Asian country, Landes stresses.

He summaries his points by underscoring that most countries in Latin America, Afria and Asia have failed by wasting human capital and by spending too much time in increasing public payrolls, rent-seeking, civil wars, fighting and blaming outsiders for their sluggishness (Gray). And what makes the fall even more tragic is that they think they have nothing to learn from the West and its success story and history.. He, thus, concludes that these habits of success in the West are necessary to the health, wealth and power of those elsewhere in the world.

Virtually all of Landes' arguments are convincing, as history shows. The very beliefs and ways of living in the East are opposed to their own development. The existence of the Third World and the Third-World countries' dependence on the superior First-World countries in Europe supports Landes' argument. But this is if all of success, all of progress, and all of advancement must be equated with, and measured by, material acquisition. And not all of it is material acquisition. #

B LIOGRAPHY

Fathom Knowledge Network. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, 2002

Gray, Christopher M. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, a book review. Orbis, 1998

Landes, David S. The Wealth and……

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History of Germany, Japan, and View Paper

Japan, like Germany went from a democracy to a dictatorship, and hoped to gain world dominance. They invaded China in 1931, and when the League of Nations protested, they withdrew from the League. By 1936, Japan had signed an "anti-communism" agreement with Germany and Italy, and "in September 1940 the empire concluded a tripartite alliance with Germany and Italy, the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis, pledging mutual and total aid for a period of ten years" (Mayer), and their fate was sealed with the Nazis. This put them in direct conflict with the U.S. And her allies, including Mexico.

While Mexico had its share of Communists and Bolsheviks throughout the 20s and 30s, the country ultimately sided with the United States and democracy, gradually growing disenchanted with socialism and Lenin.

Whereas the conservative governing elite saw the need to accept the inevitability of neighborly relations with the United States and the consequences of the latter's economic superiority, the leftist elite grew disillusioned with the Soviet Union and its influence over the Mexican Communists. The attacks by the Soviet press on the Mexican government offended those who once admired the Bolshevik Revolution and were inspired by the accomplishments they thought it had achieved (Spenser and Katz 178).

Just as Russia was trying to leave behind the 19th century world of the peasant farmer, so was Mexico struggling to become more industrialized and less agrarian, and the United States was always there to lend a helping hand in this regard. During the Second World War, Mexico sent workers to the U.S. under the "bracero" program, and supplied oil to the war effort.

While Mexico's principal contribution as an ally to the war effort was to supply the United States with increasing quantities of strategic resources and laborers, it also sent an air squadron that saw action against the Japanese in the Philippines and in Formosa. Almost a quarter of a million Mexicans living in the United States entered the American military, and fourteen thousand of them saw combat (Jones 429).

By the time the war was over in 1945, Mexico's fate was forever connected with the United States, and the two countries remain bonded today. Japan and Germany were both defeated at the end of the war, and struggled for years to regain their economies. Mexico, aligned with the U.S., was in a much better position to build their economy and industrialization, but continue to struggle today, even with the influx of U.S. companies after the NAFTA agreement, while Germany and Japan have again become world economic powers. Mexico underwent drastic changes in the first half of the 20 the century, but has not been able to successfully compete in the world market. Today, after the fall of Communism, Russia is facing many of the same economic woes Mexico faces. It is interesting to note the similarities and differences affecting all of these countries, and the ramifications even this long after World War II.

Works Cited

Gran, Peter. Beyond Eurocentrism: A New View of…

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German Fascism Is Arguably the View Paper

In addition, and despite their frequent condemnation of all facets of fascism, the majority of modern, democratic politicians have adopted, and developed, the fascist propaganda techniques of stage-managed public appearances, recognizable party symbols, the effective use of technology and the media, and carefully written speeches that contain powerfully emotive slogans and catchphrases.

In conclusion, it is apparent that German fascism, despite possessing an ideology based upon oppression, racism, violence and inhumanity proved to be a highly successful and influential political power. The serious concern to emerge from the evidence produced in this paper is the possibility that in any country, as in Germany, if socio-economic crisis is combined with strongly held national traditions, disillusionment with the existing leadership, and the emergence of an inspirational figurehead or group, the conditions exist for a fascist style ideology to once again develop into a radical and powerful political system. With this in mind, it may be wise for President Bush, Prime Minister Blair, and other Western leaders to recognize the similarities between the political ideology, style of government, and propaganda techniques presently employed by Saddam Hussein's dictatorship in Iraq with those that exemplified Hitler's Nazi regime before World War II.

Bibliography

Berwick, M. The Third Reich. London: Wayland Publishers, 1971.

Brady, Robert A. The Spirit and Structure of German Fascism. New York: H. Fertig, 1969.

Carsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1970.

Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.

Laqueur, Walter. Fascism: A Reader's Guide. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Nolte, Ernst. Three Faces of Fascism. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Company, 1966.

Payne, Stanley.……

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Alike Medieval Europe and Japan View Paper

Medieval engineers discovered the power of the pointed arch and the flying buttress, and built lofty cathedrals and towers of whose walls seemed made entirely out of beautifully patterned stained glass. Many of these structures were almost completely covered with statues of kings and queens, saints, and monsters. This period of cultural fluorescence coincided with the rebirth of the towns, and the full-flowering of the feudal system. Knights and priests developed the code of chivalry with its devotion to honor, justice, and fair play. Troubadours sang of heroic exploits and courtly love - the unconsummated (at least theoretically) passion of a knight for an unobtainable lady. Christian fervor, and the lust for gain that the growing towns engendered, produced the Crusades. These were large-scale military adventures whose initial aim was the liberation of the Holy Land from the Turks. While the Christian victory was short-lived, the Crusades themselves brought Europeans into direct contact with the more cultured Islamic World of the Middle East. European nobles and rich merchants developed a taste for exotic spice and rare silks and gems.

The growing wealth of the towns was based almost entirely on trade and small-scale manufacturing. Places like Flanders became major centers of cloth production, and towns there and elsewhere demanded their liberty from their feudal overlords. Many soon set up their own governments, governments that were organized around the trade guilds that had been performed to protect commerce.

Meanwhile, in Japan, this same period saw the collapse of the earlier, Chinese-inspired system of government. Military clans battled each other for control of the Japanese islands, and these hardy warriors soon developed their own answer to chivalry. It was the fierce code of loyalty and bravery that was called Bushido. The sturdy warriors who followed this code were called samurai. Eventually one clan, the Minamoto, reigned supreme. Its leader, Yoritomo, received from the Emperor the title of Shogun, or supreme military dictator of Japan. The Spartan regime of the Minamoto endured for more than a century, until at last, weakened by gradual internal decline, and by two great failed Mongol invasions, it collapsed. Following a brief period of disorder and an attempt at an imperial restoration, the shogunate was restored under the Ashikaga, and for the first time Japanese feudal culture came into its won. Architecture flourished at the capital of Kyoto, where the shoguns build such enduring monuments as the Gold and Silver pavilions. No, the classical drama of Japan was first elaborated during this time, and uniquely Japanese styles of poetry, literature, and art captured the imaginations of the upper classes. As in Europe, guilds flourished in the towns. Expert craftsmen turned out beautiful swords and suits of armor. The armor was different from that of the European knights, but handsomely lacquered and topped off with fantastic, often grotesque helmets. Buddhist monasteries dotted the countryside, and great numbers of Japanese followed such new cults as Zen, and Pure Land Buddhism as they sought salvation from the endless cycles of rebirth…

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History of Interpersonal Skill View Paper

Interpersonal Skill of Mesopotamia

The study of interpersonal skills among ancient civilizations like Mesopotamia consists mostly of major innovations and advances in society, technology and human development. Sargon is typically credited with being the first person to unify a world empire in the 24th century B.C. Most of what is known of Sargon comes from the Chronicles of Early Kings,…

Pages: 14  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Emperor Domitian View Paper

Emperor Domitian Bust

The Portrait of Emperor Domitian

In the East Wing of the Toledo Museum of Art is Gallery 2, also known as Classic Court. This section of the museum houses its art and artifacts from ancient Greece, Rome, and Egypt. It is in Classic Court that one finds a striking Roman bust, damaged but still powerful in its…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


History of Prince Hall Masonry View Paper

Masons

Although a great deal of mystique surrounds the Freemasons, relatively little is known about the Prince Hall tradition. As the preeminent African-American lineage of freemasonry, the Prince Hall tradition offers a wealth of potential for scholarship. This research will help elucidate the history, traditions, and missions of Prince Hall Masonry, including the impact of the Prince Hall Freemasons on American history, world history, and on the Masonic fraternal organizations as a whole.

Intended Audience

The intended audience for the research paper will be readers unfamiliar with freemasonry in general, and especially Prince Hall Freemasonry. Moreover, the research will help dispel myths about the social and political functions of freemasonry. I am conducting this research both as an objective scholar but also as a member of a Masonic lodge who can offer qualitative evidence gathered from fellow members as well as keen personal insight.

My research questions include the following. First, why did the Prince Hall tradition emerge, and how did race impact its development? Second, what, if any, impact has the Prince Hall Masonic tradition had on freemasonry in general? Third, what impact has the Prince Hall Masonic tradition had on the communities and societies in which it thrives? To find answers to these core research questions, I will explore the rich history of the Prince Hall tradition starting with biographical data on Prince Hall himself. Moreover, I will acquire information on the rites, ideologies, and philosophies of the Prince Hall tradition but also of freemasonry in general. Methods of gathering data include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources will include historical records related to freemasonry and Prince Hall freemasonry. Primary sources will also include interviews with members of Masonic lodges as well as case studies and personal anecdotes.

Preliminary Thesis: The history of Prince Hall masonry parallels American history, and race relations in particular.

Prince Hall and over a dozen others of African descent were initiated in 1775, a year before American independence and during the war. Although recognized as members of the……

Pages: 2  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Chernobyl Nuclear Incident During the Cold War, View Paper

Chernobyl Nuclear Incident

During the Cold War, it was understood by the citizens of the world that the United States and the Soviet Union were competitors economically, politically, and militarily. Part of the economic health of both super powers was their nuclear energy programs. Nuclear energy was perhaps even more vital to the frozen stretches of the Soviet Union, which,…

Pages: 19  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Cause of War View Paper

Clash of Civilizations - Samuel Huntington

In his book the Clash of Civilizations, Samuel Huntington explains that the end of the cold war also brought to a conclusion the way wars are fought based on ideology. Huntington asserts that the absence of the international image of two superpowers dominating world politics has opened the door to regional cultural and religious…

Pages: 13  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji Period and View Paper

Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji Period And The Industrial Revolution In Great Britain

The person we are today is the result of numerous interactions with different individuals and events that have affected our lives, combined also with the unique characteristics of our own selves. The same can easily be said about our contemporaneous society, which is the result of millennia…

Pages: 14  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


War, How it Started, and the War's View Paper

¶ … war, how it started, and the war's importance to world history. World War One was supposed to be the war that ended all other wars on the planet, and it was controversial from the day it started. It began in August 1914, but the United States did not enter the war until 1917, and it ended on November 11, 1918. It took hundreds of thousands of lives, decimated large parts of Europe, and showed what the technology of the Industrial Revolution could accomplish when it came to warfare and killing.

Most people believe World War One began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary on June 28, 1914. However, in reality, the origins of the war were much more complex. In fact, under Kaiser Wilhelm, Germany had become much more aggressive. They did not renew a key treaty with Russia, and because of this, many of their neighbors banded together in case of attack from Berlin. France and Russia allied because they were afraid of Germany's military buildup, and Great Britain had allied itself with these two countries, as well. Germany continued to build up military and naval forces, while Germany was allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was quickly disintegrating due to tension and turmoil within. When the Archduke was assassinated, the Austro-Hungarian Empire felt Serbia was behind the killing, and with Germany's blessing and support, they tried to retaliate. This literally threw the continent into war, which many believe Germany wanted all along. Thus, actual war began in August of 1914, and raged throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa until 1918 (Sheffield).

The two factions of the war made up most of the most powerful nations on earth; making this war what many called the Great War or the War to End All Wars. The Entente Powers, (also called the Allies) included France, Russia (which withdrew from the war after the 1917 Revolution), the British Empire, and in 1915 Italy, and in 1917 the United States. They fought against the Central Powers, which included the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman Empires.

As for the battlegrounds of World War I, most people believe it was fought in Europe, but in fact, another thing that set this war apart was that it was fought in many areas of the world. One historian writes, "Major land fighting took place in France and Belgium, eastern Europe, Italy, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), East and South West Africa and on the Gallipoli peninsula" (Bourne ix). It was also fought on the seas of the world, from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, and for the first time, in the air, as well. This is a result of the Ottoman Empire's association with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and their involvement as an ally of those nations.

The battles were memorable, of course, for the sheer carnage and amount of casualties they produced. Much of the war was fought along the Western Front in Europe, and much has been written about…

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Hitler's Appointment as German Chancellor View Paper

Adolf Hitler's assent as the Fuhrer of Germany is well documented. His campaign of terror during World War II caused the deaths of more than fifty million civilians and combats. Although the primary historical focus in the past has been on Hitler and his actions following his invasion of Poland, the roots of his power over the German Confederacy and…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Yuan Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty, of View Paper

¶ … Yuan dynasty and the Shang dynasty, of ancient China.

The Shang Dynasty, which lasted from 1600 BC to 1046 BC, was a time of frequent military conflict, political unrest, and innovation. Bronze artifacts and oracle bones used to study the time have been found to show the first recorded Chinese symbols. All tombs found contain weapons of war,…

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Origins and Rise of National Socialism View Paper

¶ … Origins and Rise of National Socialism

Since the Antiquity and until the 20th century human life or human nature has been thought to be restrained by certain imposed rules; from the Egyptians, who thought their human life was a preliminary stage of their universal existence and until the Fascists, who considered life as being a perpetual war, the…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


1750 to 1914 Was That Decisive Moment View Paper

¶ … 1750 to 1914 was that decisive moment in human history called the Modern Revolution (San Diego State University 2006). It consisted of global and unprecedented exchanges of ideas, goods and people. The changes were described as autocatalytic or a condition wherein one kind of change evolved on its own and produced other kinds of changes. The spheres of change in the Modern Revolution were communication and transport, population growth, fossil fuel revolution, industrialization, democracy and colonial empires. The invention of printing, the railroad, the telegraph and the steamship radically changed the framework of human interactions in the world. World population also more than doubled with increased and long-distance migrations and global exchange of plant and animal species. The world's source of energy changed from biomass to fossil fuels. Industrialization greatly modified the distribution of wealth as well as poverty in the world and produced perilous attitudes towards nature and society. The democratic revolution inspired movements for the abolition of slavery, the formation of representative government, constitutions, universal suffrage, rights of workers, and national self-determination. These movements started in Europe and the Americas and later spread across Afroeurasia. And with the use of new and powerful technologies of communication, transportation and warfare, colonial empires asserted domination over weaker peoples. Europe led and was the largest among these empires. Later, the United States and Japan became the other important players in the global scene in their quest for empire. Historians referred to that period of expansion as the second industrial revolution. In that period, global growth rose threefold, world trade increased four times, and international trade eight times. These were the consequences of the combination of the modern communications revolution, the mechanization of agriculture and the emergence of the steel and chemical industries as the new focus of production and profit. The Modern Revolution enhanced the extremes of wealth and poverty in the world, made wider by the expansion of European colonial empires. Between 1870 and 1914, most of Africa came under European colonial rule. Britain had expanded in Burma, France in Indochina, and the Netherlands in Indonesia. Although most local populations resisted European takeover, Europeans' superior weapons and equipment easily overcame organized resistance. In 1800, they controlled 35% of the world's land area. By 1914, their dominion grew to approximately 84% (San Diego University).

Great Britain was the engine of world economic growth during the Industrial Revolution period between 1820 and 1890 (Adelman 1995). It started the Industrial Revolution. Competition with Great Britain and the spread of British technology spurred industrialization in the responding countries in Europe and overseas. The Industrial Revolution primarily linked European and overseas economies in complementing development patterns, which set the trend of economic growth in developed countries overseas. It also substantially increased economic differentiation among nations. The ratio of the per capita income of the most advanced country to the least advanced country rose from 2.8:1 at the start of the Industrial Revolution to 10.4:1 or four times in 1913. This imbalance put a…

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Genocide Is a Traumatic Part of World View Paper

Genocide is a traumatic part of world history. The term genocide was coined in the aftermath of World War II. When the world learned that more than six million Jewish people had been murdered by the German military because of their beliefs, the universal reaction was disgust and disbelief. Since this series of deaths, the world has been made aware of other occasions of mass murder within nations because of ethnic or political reasons. These situations can rarely be solved within the nation where the murders occur. However, historically it has been difficult to get international aid because of red tape and bureaucratic nonsense. Millions die before any aid is bestowed.

In the documentary Ghost of Rwanda, the historical incident of when the Hutus attacked the Tutsi, the United Nation was asked for help during the genocide, but no nation except for Belgium was willing to provide aid to the slaughtered peoples. In Rwanda, some 800,000 individual men, women, and children were mutilated and murdered by the religious extremists of the Hutu people. Although the murders were well-documented and images of the dead bodies were available across the globe, no one provided help to the people in need. These deaths began a series of inquiries into when "ethnic cleansing" transforms into "genocide." In 1996, the United States President Bill Clinton, stated that the U.S. would only become involved in a country where they had an interest. In Rwanda, the United States had no interest and so it was not for the U.S. To become involved in the conflict there.

Some people believe that genocide is an issue which should be exclusively dealt with in the country where the deaths are occurring. Only when the genocide spills out into other countries, like they did during the Second World War, should the United Nations or other countries become involved. Only when it is literally an international problem, should the murders become of international concern. Other people however feel that whenever murder occurs on a mass scale, someone should become involved to stop further acts of evil. If no one is able to intervene on behalf of the victimized population, there is nothing to prevent the aggravators from continuing their atrocities.

Much debate over this issue has come from the definition of "genocide." Officially, the United Nations has stated that in order for a series of mass murders to be classified as genocidal, more than one million people have to have died, most often because of their ethnicity or political beliefs. If this number has not been reached, then the issue will be considered "ethnic cleansing," wherein a group is targeted by a majority because of their ethnicity. Ethnic cleansing……

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


What Has Led to the Change in Custom Jewelry in Last 5 Years View Paper

Gold Jewelry -- a History

Project's Overall Aims and Objectives

The overall aim of this project is to provide a well-researched, authentic history of the use of gold in adornments -- notably jewelry -- from several cultures and historical periods. This paper also offers an overview of the ways in which cultures and nations have found gold and how those…

Pages: 14  |  "Methodology" Chapter  |  Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 14


Ottoman Turks View Paper

Ottoman Turks

It was Osman who, in the early 1300's, turned a tribe of pastoral nomads into a race of warriors and set them upon the building of an empire that would last into the 20th century. The descendents of Osman, called "Ottomans" by the Europeans, rapidly expanded their territory to include the whole of Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Greece, and the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire that was created became an empire made up of numerous peoples, races, religions all ruled by a small group of Muslim Turks. It was the Turks recognition of the heterogeneity of the empire, and their policies to turn this to their advantage that gave them the ability to rapidly expand and then rule their empire for over 600 years.

While one of the reasons for the success of the Ottoman military during the 14th and 15th centuries was the disunity of their enemies, a much more important reason was their pragmatism. Much of the success of the Ottomans was due to their "ability to adapt, to utilize talent and accept allegiance from many sources." (Pamuk, 2004, p. 228) The Ottomans accepted Christian as well as Muslim warriors, displayed a willingness to use new military technology, borrowed institutions from others, and readily made deals with local elites. But their greatest military asset must be recognized as their military force known as the Janissaries. Formed from the "tribute children" the Ottomans received from their conquered territories, the Janissaries were the elite fighting force of the Ottomans. The Ottoman military also adopted a system of recruitment and training of the Janissaries called devshirme, which maintained the most organized, well supplied, best equipped military in the world at that time. (Burbank, 2010, p. 138) Ultimately the Ottomans pragmatically accepted everyone into their military, formed an elite special force called Janissaries, and had the best, most organized support system in place, and when added to the disunity and weakness of their enemies, this was the secret of their military success.

The Ottoman Turks were……

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