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World War I And World

This resulted in financial hardships even for the middle classes and those who had lived off investments (Author not given, 2003). At the same time, war-based industries were no longer needed, and unemployment rose (Author not given, 2004). European countries lost physical property, and much land was made unusable. As a result of all these financial stresses, in less than three months the value of the Mark dropped from 4.6 million marks to the American dollar to 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar. Inflation seemed unstoppable (Author not given, 2003). PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS World War I had profound psychological effects on Europeans, but especially on Germany, who had fought what it considered a just war, and lost (Author not given, 2003). Optimism was replaced with pessimism. People came to distrust their governments and felt that their governments did not know how to meet their needs. In some parts of Europe, one in four young men were killed in battle, and all together the war resulted in the deaths of from 10 million to 13 million people. As life became unstable, strong Fascist governments that could respond swiftly and decisively to crises looked attractive to many people (Author not given, 2003). This feeling was especially prominent in Germany, where the lives of people were in a desperate situation. The combination of perceived insults to their country not only from defeat but from the humiliating requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, combined with a weak government and economic crisis, made the country vulnerable to a dictator like Adolph Hitler, who reminded them of their great Teutonic heritage and who promised them that they would rise to greatness again. SOURCE Author not given. 2003. "The Great War Effects," in IB History Pages. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04. Author not given. 2004. "The Causes and Effects of World War I," in World History. Studyworld Studynotes. Accessed via the Internet 12/5/04.

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Duiker and Speilvogel's Book, World

" Imperialism in its simplest form is described in the dictionary as the policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over other nations. And basically, Duiker and Spielvogel support this by providing material that describes a "progressive" society, albeit European society as the emerging society for reformation, the intellectual revolution and the foundational for cultural and social change. Africa, Asia and India are viewed as countries of lesser stimulation and places that would benefit from European globalization. France, England and the other civilized countries brought the benefits of their advanced civilizations to worlds beyond their perimeters. "There is a smug and simple argument, but one of great appeal in the late 19th century when European technological superiority could be measured. The failure or unwillingness to distinguish wisely between technology and culture allowed the Europeans to be arrogant, and moreover, to assume that in any arrangement of the world that they were at the center." Africa and Asia were destined to lay a key role in the new imperialism. They offered new outlets for trade and ports of call that would not only be strategic outlets for competition but valuable naval bases as well. But as with any expansion, more than trade moved into these countries. The Europeans brought their culture, religion and their politics. 1895 had turned nine tenths of Africa into European colonies. Between 1871 and 1900, Britain added 4.25 million square miles and 66 million people to her Empire. As global politics emerged, imperialism gave way to nationalism and expressions of national pride became the flag to wave. People took stock in their nation, their immediate world and by design became caught up in what may be termed the "local scene." Imperialism brought with it several benefits, the spread of culture and religion. New ideas about society. It opened new gateways to new lands and raw materials. It changed the face of politics. And as people began to understand their nations, they became more connected to their heritage and their homeland. The world became a smaller place as faraway continents became more connected to the Western World. But as with all good things, there were disadvantages. It is often said that imperialism and the resulting capitalism was one of the causes for World War I. Colonialism lost its luster and became too costly in some cases. But the far-reaching…

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Globalization in World History

A.G. Hopkins edits a comprehensive historical analysis of the theme and phenomenon of globalization with Globalization in World History. Published in 2002, the editor's place of reference is that globalization is more than just a "catch-word of the day." Globalization has been mistakenly framed as (a) a modern phenomenon that occurred in the aftermath of the First and Second World Wars; (b) a Western-led phenomenon. In fact, globalization far predates the 20th century and far transcends the Western hegemony that has defined the modern world. The story of globalization is not equal to the story of the rise of the United States as a superpower or even just the rise of the West as a global colonial and imperial force. Globalization in World History accomplishes the central goal of "re-mapping the geography of the subject" in order to "point the way towards a truly global history of globalization." The central theme of Globalization in World History, which is a collection of seemingly disparate essays, is that globalization has been taking place for centuries and is an ever-evolving feature of the human landscape. Globalization in World History is an "analysis of the origins, nature and consequences of globalization" including the "economics, politics, and sociology of the phenomenon," Drawing from authors whose expertise range from China to Islam, Hopkins acknowledges the "historical diversity of globalizing forces." In other words, globalization is far from the singular phenomenon that it is described as being today. The form that globalization takes might be different today due to new technologies, but historians envision the "unevenness of the process of globalization." Globalization looked different to the Venetians than it does to the Americans. One of the most salient themes of Globalization in World History is that the phenomenon is far from being a Western-driven historical trend. In fact, the earliest manifestations of what can be reasonably called globalization were not Western but Eastern phenomenon. Hopkins includes authors whose scholastic inquiry lends insight into the roles that India, China, Southeast Asia, and Arabia have played in the unfolding of globalization, global empires, and global economic, social, and political hegemony. Even a cursory glance at world history reveals that globalization has been a trend for several centuries before the European conquest of the Americas. Only an American-centric position would remain beholden to the idea that globalization happened only since Coca-Cola and McDonalds became big. Hopkins aims to exhibit and…

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History After WWI Through WWII

History after WWI through WWII In general, world history can be considered a succession of experiments, just as modern science. On the other hand, both modern science and history are studied by gathering facts and figures and by putting together the information this obtained. Surrealism, Dadaism, Fauvism, Cubism are some of the genres of 20th century art. They reflect, first…

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Protestant Reformation, Imperialism, and WW1: Impact on History

Protestant Ref., Imperialism, and WWI An Analysis of the Effects of Protestantism, Imperialism, and WWI on History The medieval world had been one in which the "age of faith" and the might of arms (thanks to men like Charlemagne) had unified Europe (Haaren, 1904, p. 102). The popes of the Church had been granted a certain authority by kings and princes, and State and Church ruled as one (in theory, if not always in practice) (Laux, 1989, p. 517). The scholastics, like Thomas Aquinas, had used Aristotelian philosophy to help prove the existence of God and the truth of Christianity. All of that would change in the 14th century when William of Occam challenged the Aristotelian notion of universals (Weaver, 1984, p. 7). Thereupon followed the unraveling of medieval transcendental truth: the religious/philosophical hierarchy soon tumbled, the Protestant Reformation shattered Europe, and the modern world became a place of precarious posturing. This paper will examine the effects of the Protestant Reformation, Imperialism, and WWI on the course of history. By the time Jean Wycliffe's works had been condemned by the pope, the papacy itself had already been assaulted by King Philip of France and moved to Avignon to be the French king's puppet. The Black Plague had swept through Europe eliminating a quarter of the population and disrupting the order of society. Revolts in England had been based, in part, on the new ideology of Wycliffe, which was Protestant in essence, even if not in name. Protestantism was unleashed in full force the following century, however. All over Europe, men like Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and Knox drew followers who despised the corruption of clergy. Catholic Europe, on the face of it, wanted virtue and piety -- but by rejecting the cornerstone, Rome, it rejected the basis of its doctrine and introduced Occam's philosophy into the objectivity of Thomistic philosophy: subjectivity ruled the day as war, economics, and scientific inquiry all changed from what they had been in the medieval world. The Ptolemaic model of the world, in which the universe revolved around the Earth (where God Himself had walked), was replaced by the Copernican model in which the Earth revolved around the sun. The philosophical ramifications of this model were poisonous to the medieval faith, for they diminished the prominence of place where Jesus had been born: the universe was random, and little was certain. The Protestant Reformation coincided with…

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World History Development of Civilization

Twentieth Century History Need opening and over all summary of this Era of conflict: In order to understand how the world of 2005 came about, it is necessary to consider the effects of World War I and II, the Cold War, and the changes modern technological warfare has had on the political structure, the impact of nationalism, and the world…

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1770 and 1850, the Economy

Farmers also managed their large as they deemed fit. England imported most of its iron. This could be attributed to shortage of charcoal that could be used in smelting iron. However, when it was established that coke could be used in smelting iron, the iron industry took off. England was endowed with vast deposits of iron ore and coal. Invention of steam engine also led to industrial revolution in Britain. It all began with the invention of Newcomen engine in about 1712 where a cylinder was filled with steam and the steam condensed to draw the piston down. This engine was used to draw water out of coal mines. Watt Engine, invented in 1774, had a separate condenser that made it more efficient. James Watt later added sun and planet gear, automatic control mechanism, and double acting engine to the Watt Engine. For transportation applications, high pressure engines were developed after 1800 (Kreis, 2011). Transportation technology was also one of the causes of the industrial revolution in Britain. Improved roads were built in large numbers between 1750 and 1815 (Kreis, 2011). Transportation costs were therefore reduced by between 20-30%. Canals were also built notably the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal which was 7 miles long. This canal helped halve the cost of coal in Manchester. There was a boom in erection of canal between 1750 and 1800 (Kreis, 2011). Courtesy of canals, England had 3875 miles of navigable water by 1830. This provided means of cheaper transport to bulky industrial goods. The coming of the railroad system also occasioned in a way the industrial revolution. Locomotives that were at first used in coal mines proved to be very heavy for the existing tracks that were used by horse drawn cars. The erection of the railroads expedited the transportation of coal from the mines to the industries where they were used to smelt iron ores. Stockton and Darlington Railroad was the first career to use locomotives. This happened in 1825. In 1829, Liverpool and Manchester had a contest to test locomotives (Mack, 2005). Britain became industrialized because of its effective central bank and well-developed credit market. The domestic economy functioned with fewer restrictions imposed by the government. Technological change and the existence of free market economy also led to the industrial revolution in Britain (Mack, 2005). References List Kreis, S. (2011). Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved March 29, 2013…

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Ancient Roman History the Objective of This

Ancient Roman History The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) What were the main achievements of the Romans? (2) How did they influence world history? (3) in what ways is the Roman "dream" still alive today? (4) Can you think of other societies that have tried to become the "new" Rome? (5) What were the fundamental elements of the Roman character? (6) Was there a dark side to the Roman character? (7) What figure from Roman history was most representative of the good and bad sides of the Romans? The city of Rome is the capital of the Roma province, Latium region and the Republic of Italy. (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) Ancient Rome was located on the Tiber River, stated to be "about 17 miles northeast of the River's mouth at the Tyrrhenian Sea. There was a primary "north-south" trade-route running through the city of Rome and the city was active in trade by sea as well. Ancient Rome's claim to fame is the impressive architecture such as the "half-ruined Colosseum, which is just below the Palatine Hill..." (Ibid) However, architecture is not the only thing that ancient Rome is remembered in today's contemporary world for having contributed. The contributions of Rome include governmental operations and systems as well as recreational pastimes that are still popular in today's world. I. ANCIENT ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS The ruins of the Roman Forum are stated to cover "a wide area between the Palatine and Capitoline hills..." which was the "...center of both economic and political life of ancient Rome. The structure that is best preserved is that of the "Pantheon" which has been called one of the greatest architectural achievements of the world. The architecture of Rome includes the construction of aqueducts "...some of which still carry water to the city." (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) During early Roman history walls were constructed for protection of the Palatine and Capitoline hills. II. CHARACTERISTICS of the ROMAN PEOPLE The early Romans were "orderly, practical" people who were much disciplined with the parents, teachers and state being their authority. Furthermore, the Romans were people used to the hard living……

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History War and Peace in World History Ancient Rome

History; War and Peace in World History; Ancient Rome All elements, whether economical, social, political, military strategic or tactical, point out towards the fact that Rome went to war for pure necessity. As a nation constantly surround by enemies, but also as a state that based its economy fundamentally on the existence of slaves (that is of free labor), Rome needed to go to war with the nations surrounding it. From a military strategic or tactical perspective, Rome had to occasionally send out armies either to create buffer zones with other nations or to tactically infiltrate fortifications into enemy land. In terms of the latter, historical evidence has shown, for example, that Domitian constructed limiters laterally for a distance of over 120 miles into enemy territory. From a military strategic perspective, expansion came as a mean to secure either rival nations (as was the case with Cartage, during the three Punic Wars, or with the Parthian Empire, despite the Roman incapacity to obtain decisive victories) or territories that would guarantee a higher level of security due to the creation of buffer zones in these areas. The wars with Cartage are an excellent example of how the Romans saw to defeat their enemies first in order to expand their areas of interest, both political and commercial/economic. At the point of the First Punic War, Rome and Carthage were virtually the two superpowers of the Mediterranean Basin and war was inevitable in order to secure the actual area from the other part. At this point, there was virtually nothing that could be done to avoid the war, since a sharing of the sphere of influences on such a short geographical area was virtually impossible. So, again, war came as a necessity to eliminate a very dangerous competitor from the area where the Romans wished to become dominant. Socially speaking, there were several social necessities for war during Roman times. First of all, war was the most important and fundamental instrument in the accession of an aristocrat to a consular position in the state. Sources mention the fact that a political office could only be held in Rome once ten annual military campaigns had been completed. So, the warring nature of the Roman societies was in part also given by the fact that the upper classes needed war as a modality to advance politically on the Roman stage. It is no wonder that…

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Million Africans Who Were Enslaved

There was a congress that was held in Vienna in 1815 which saw pressure from Britain to Spain, France, Portugal and Netherlands to agree the abolition of slave trade. In 1817 Britain and Spain signed a treaty that prohibited slave trade .British naval vessels had the permission of searching ships that were suspected to be slave ships. This change of heart towards slave trade was provoked by enlightenment, revolution of age, Christian revivalism as well as the beginning of industrial revolution (ABC News, 2013). African societies began the export of what they produced like palm oil, peanuts and cotton. There were also philosophers like jean-jacques from France and Adam smith who was an economist wrote on the slave trade. They clearly heighted its effects and explained why they should be abolished. These events of abolition of slave trade were very important to the African societies. This is because it led to the eventual end of the African slave trade which was a very brutal trade. Conclusion The slave system did not consider the tragic effects that came with it. The Europeans would have easily entered into partnerships that were genuine with African nations as opposed to reducing them into slaves. These partnerships would have led to more goods and service for both Africa and Britain if they had entered into contract labor. Though the event that led to development of slave trade was important because of what is got from the trade it was bad all the same. Therefore the event leading to the banning of slave trade was very important as it relieved Africans from the brutal labor they were doing. References ABC News, (2013). Timeline of Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./story?id=96659&page=1 Clarke, J.H., (2009) .The African Holocaust -- the Slave Trade. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.nbufront.org/MastersMuseums/JHClarke/EdRealityAfricanWorld/EdWorldPart3.html Understanding Slavery, (2011). Europe Before Transatlantic slavery. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.understandingslavery.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=315&Itemid=145…

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Argument on American Education Focusing on American Culture and History

¶ … American Education In the study of literature, there are those short stories that are written, which have a profound impact upon the world that we live in. One such story is: When Mr. Pirzada came to Dine, where the author discusses the role between a Pakistani studying in America and an American Indian family in 1971. What happens is: Mr. Pirzada is studying in New England at a major university. During his time there, he befriends and dines with and American Indian family every night. With the story being told through the eyes of their daughter, Lila, who has grown up in the United States and only knows about her culture, from what she learns from her parents as well as on television. During the course of their dinners, Lilia begins to discover that Mr. Pirzada has a family in Dacca, Pakistan. At the time, the region is struggling with a civil war along with the increased tensions between India and Pakistan. During the course of these dinners, is when Lilia begins to learn about the world beyond what she is studying in school (American and European history). During the course of the story, Lila becomes emotionally tied to Mr. Pirzada's and the conflict that is occurring, by praying for their safety. At which point, Mr. Pirzada returns to the Dacca and is reunited with his family (despite the total amount of devastation). It is as this point the story ends, with Lila being glad that Mr. Pirzada is with someone he loves, while missing him at the same time. This is significant, because it shows how what is taught in the classroom, can have a dramatic impact upon the views of the individual. Where, the ideas presented will influence the student outside of the classroom, despite their cultural background. To determine the underlying effects requires: examining how this makes students close minded, the importance of learning world history and how this is an injustice. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how the ideas presented inside the classroom, can influence students. Students are closed-minded to other areas of the world because the main focus in public school history classes is United States history. In the story, it highlights how what is being taught at school will have an impact upon the individual. Where, the students will focus on the ideas and views that…

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Asian History of Social Process

Transformative Years That Were Many Years in the Making In his essay entitled "1789-1792 and 1989-1992: Global Interaction of Social Movements," historian Patrick Manning parallels the events of 1789, the year of the storming of the Bastille and the beginning of the French Revolution with 1989. 1989 encompassed the successful movement to unite the two Germanys and end the Soviet dominion of Eastern Europe as well as the unsuccessful pro-democracy movement in China. Because of their powerful, symbolic nature, these events are often interpreted as just that -- singular events. But Manning believes that such social movements cannot be understood in isolation, but should be understood as international phenomena. "Even these most macro-oriented of the analysts of social movements have tended, however, to focus on social revolutions as independent cases, rather than emphasize their connections to each other. In recent years, some social historians have explored social movements at transnational levels, emphasizing their long-term patterns of development" (Manning, par. 7). Manning believes that the inequality between the Estates General, higher taxes, and food shortages were undeniable contributors to the French Revolution. But the American Constitutional convention and its creation of a written constitution, anti-slavery movements, and agrarian revolts also influenced demands for party, justice, and finally revolution in France. Manning argues that these international examples provided models or templates for social justice movements in France and elsewhere. The storming of the Bastille may have been the most cinematic moments of all the revolutionary occurrences of 1789, but the spread of anti-slavery crusades in Europe and Africa, and the demand for the rights of disenfranchised peasants and laborers in America cannot be ignored. The French learned about these events through cross-pollination of information around the globe. This suggests that revolutionary France cannot be understood in international isolation. "By 1792, black sailors arriving at Salvador in Bahia were reputed to have worn medallions celebrating the slave uprising…in early 1792 the move to abolish slave trade appeared to be gaining irreversible momentum" (Manning par. 31-32). Also, the fears that the French regicide spawned created movements either for moderate liberalization, to dampen radical furor (as in England) or more autocratic rule. After Manning draws his parallels, it is difficult to ignore the superficial resonances between the different eras: likewise, 1989 was a year of successful and unsuccessful mass revolts. In each nation that experienced unrest, there was a long, specific, and personal history of…

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The Phenomenon of Globalization Is

[1] Gandhi has also helped in promoting globalism, even if he wasn't aware of the fact. His words have helped in promoting peace around the world. When thinking about peace in the present, one can often relate to Gandhi as one of its main advocates. In countries like India people suffer currently from overpopulation. In his attempts to make the world a better and more comfortable place, man has involuntarily created another threat. Overpopulation means that there is less living space for people and that disease and crime are present in much greater numbers than it would be normal. Western countries are not in danger of overpopulating because the birth rate there is much smaller than it is in the less-developed countries. All in all, globalization should be appreciated for having put an end to political ideologies like Communism and Nazism, and for having made it possible for people to become freer. Nationalists from various countries are complaining that western ideologies are enslaving their people. The U.S. is practically a hallmark for the land of freedom, but, in the last decades, people have began to doubt the efficiency of the methods used by Americans to help other nations. The Americans have helped in liberating nations from eccentric dictators that did nothing but destroyed their people through putting into operation extreme forms of nationalism. However, the last campaigns that they have led against oppressors have proved to be ineffective, with numerous lives being lost without any reasonable motive. When nationalism proves to be inefficient after several years of being the main political ideology within a country, the people begin to revolt, and ultimately start to embrace the concept of globalism. Globalization spreads slower to the less developed countries because the people in the respective countries are frequently deprived of basic needs like education. Children are more likely to be sent by their parents to work illegally than to be sent to schools which charge fees in exchange for education. In countries like Africa, parents refrain from providing their children with education, and, as a result, the children are more vulnerable to contracting AIDS and to grow up to be illiterate. Third-world countries have a hard time providing their people with their basic needs, but, with the help of globalization, poor people can interact with other people, work in other countries, or draw foreign investments to their country. One hopes that world…

Pages: 4  |  Book Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


World History to 1500

BANTU: This term can be applied to two different contexts, being the Bantu tribe which can be found mostly in South Africa but is spread across the entire African continent, and the Bantu language, composed of some 400 various dialects and currently spoken by well over 60 million people. In general terms, the Bantu people are not simply a single group of Africans, but are part of a much larger cultural group. Historically, the Bantu people originated somewhere in the northern regions of Africa around 4,000 years ago and then slowly migrated southwards, creating along the way various cultural identities and communities based on agriculture, metalworking, and trading with other tribes. Around 500 A.D., the Bantu people had migrated as far south as the Congo River basin and due to an intermingling of different tribes, the Bantu language evolved into other dialects and tongues, such as Basaa, Tsonga, and especially Swahili, currently the main language of most native Africans. As a result of this migration southwards, the Bantu people created a number of important African kingdoms, but with the arrival of white Europeans in the 1600's, these kingdoms slowly began to disappear, due partially to being dominated by the Europeans from such countries as the Netherlands, Great Britain and France. By the early decades of the 20th century, white Europeans had taken complete control of South Africa and forced millions of the Bantu people to either leave or be converted to Christianity. At this time, the system known as apartheid was widespread in South Africa, thus making the term "Bantu" racially and ethnically offensive to most native Africans. THE MAYA: As one of the most important and influential Indian civilizations, the Maya occupied the moist lowlands of what is now Guatemala, Honduras and the Yucatan Peninsula, and as a cultural group reached a stage of development unequaled by any other civilization in what is known as Meso-America or the regions situated between Mexico and South America. Like all Meso-American cultures, the Maya possessed only tools of stone, wood and bone, even during the Classical Period, circa 250 to 600 A.D., when they erected huge limestone structures with richly-carved decorations at such urban centers as Copan, Tikal, Uaxactun, Yaxchilan and Palenque. Generally, the social rulers of the Mayan civilization, composed of priests, astronomer-priests and nobles, constituted a theocratic government that dominated its people, most of whom were farmers and artisans. Agricultural…

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Western Civilization 2 Final

¶ … Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were significant turning points in history and led to religious and political upheaval. A a) the Enlightenment emerged from the Scientific Revolution. Describe how Enlightenment thinkers viewed human society and behavior and how their approach freed intellectuals to approach politics, policy, the economy and religion from wholly new perspectives. The Age of Enlightenment…

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Rise of East Asia Was One of

¶ … rise of East Asia was one of the most significant events of the 14th century. With a culture that spans some three thousand years, the East Asian civilizations were at one time much more sophisticated than its western counterparts. The empire of China loomed large within the East Asian continent, dominating the largest empire on Earth during that…

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Germany Today's Germany Is a

There is no need to explain the horror of 1914-1918 warfare but we should pay attention to the Versailles peace treaty, which adversely impacted after war development of Germany. Unfortunately world leaders of that time didn't think about future at all - they wanted to solve all problems of their countries using Germany as the main economical resource for reconstructing their states' infrastructure. In fact Versailles treaty was a true robbery: Germany had to pay severe reparations but was not able to do that as national economy was ruined by war. "German citizens suffered great economical depression and the majority of them became extremely poor." (Eihman 84). No wonder Germans began "witch trials" and hunt on imaginary "hidden enemies" of their poverty and misfortunes - German Jews. It explains the spread of Nazi ideology countrywide, which grew out of nation's anger and desire for retaliation. Weak Weimar republic failed to solve either social or economical problems and collapsed under the pressure of growing Fascist movement. The leader of a new Fascist state Adolf Hitler used national interests for the purpose of fulfilling his political program based on extreme racisism and militarism. World War II was not a sudden conflict; it was a continuation of WWI, as the nation humiliated by unfair conditions of Versailles treaty decided to strike back. World War I and WWII are horrifying examples of irresponsible and short-sighted foreign policy of European superpowers: they had to be more careful in foreign affairs and had to try their best preventing the conflict and providing fair policy toward Germany. Nevertheless, tragic impact of warfare and of fascism experience had positive impacts on the country. Absence of colonial markets made German goods the most qualitative in Europe, German high standards either in education or in industry resulted economical boom and prosperity, transforming the country which once stood in ashes to a country which is the most stable and predictable in Europe. The tragic experience of racial bigotry, Nazism and chauvinism forced new German governments to accept the most fair and democratic legislature towards protection of human rights. I'm convinced that German impact on world history, politics, and culture is invaluable and that's why we should not remember Germany only as motherland of Hitler and Nazism, but as a country which introduced a set of modern life attributes either in universal culture or in technology and science. Even today, Germany hasn't…

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Women From Ramayana and Osiris Isis and Horus

Women from Ramayana and Osiris, ISIS and Horus The Ramayana, famous epic story of Ancient Indian literature gives a lot of interesting and important historical details about society of ancient India as it describes the nature of relations between men and women, parents and children and narrates the history of Indian mythology. Through the nature of relations between king Dasharatha and his 4 wives we can observe a lot of important historical details about family ethics in prehistoric Indian society. In fact, we see that women occupied an equal position in the family, nearly equal to men. Indian goddess were in charge of prosperity and fertility (for example Sita). Besides, it's a well-known fact that in Indian culture words that define power and strength are feminine. The respect of women also existed on mythic level: it's enough to remind that Ravana and his tribe were killed because he kidnapped Sita, Rama's wife. Another important aspect of women's role in Indian society is that women and men built their family and their relations only on the base of love and mutual respect rather than on obedience to the choice made by their parents. Ramayana's Rama and Sita prove it, as their union was based only on mutual love. The devoutness of Sita to her husband Rama is worth admiration as she insisted on following her husband when he went to exile. Sita had the sense of commitment and she was very responsible in family duties, but at the same time she had the sense of dignity and had never behaved like an obedient servant to Rama. The years of exile only molded her personality and tempered her will. We observe such qualities in her behavior through her independence, self-determination and confidence. Even after being accuse in treachery she has enough will to resist Rama and defend her loyalty and innocence. Image of Sita is associated with active woman who struggles for her happiness, who is able to defend her honor and stand all trials in order to prove her purity. Even later when Sita wet to exile, as Rama continued to be doubtful in her purity she behaved very deserving and alone raised two sons. Image of Sita is an embodiment of ideal wife in Indian culture, as she possessed the qualities Indians want to see in their wives: loyalty, devoutness and strong morals and will power. Another example of women's…

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Rise of Islam

Islam The rise of Islam was one of the most extraordinary events in world history. Often seen as a religion spread by force, Islam was glorified to its height because of prosperous cities, Mecca and Baghdad, and the expansion of trade and commercial routes through areas of Islamic missionaries. It was through these cultural alterations and changes in power that Islam rose in popularity. The rise of Islam actually began as early as the seventh century. At the time, the Byzantine Empire, Roman Empire, and the Sassanid Kingdom were in constant struggle for political and economic control. This struggle resulted in destroyed trade routes along the Mediterranean, and new routes were therefore sought out to avoid the three empires. This new route encompassed the costal plain of Arabia, where the city of Mecca soon became a large financial and political settlement for merchants and traders. By 661, under the Umayyad Caliphate, Islam began to expand because of able rulers and superior military organization. Islam quickly spread through North Africa, Spain, and France, and eventually into Central Asia and Northern India. Under this rule, science, history, chemistry, medicine, and writing were all developed with adherence to Islamic faith. As the Umayyad Caliphate ended in 750, the Abbasid Caliphate came to power, furthering……

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Rebellion to Revolution Slaves in

51). Maroons sometimes were loyal to the European country dominating the region in which they lived. Though these relations were tenuous, the maroons would work often work to impede slave revolts and hunt down and kill runaway slaves, or return them to their masters. However, maroons were more likely to assist runaway slaves than to catch them for the Europeans. Because the maroons were so effective at guerilla warfare, white slaveholders were afraid of a maroon-slave coalition and a maroon-Native American alliance. Wherever and whenever they lived, according to Genovese, maroons provoked desertions and slave revolts. They fought and defeated the military expeditions sent against them, sending a strong message to the slaves. Typically, the efforts of the maroons resulted in the establishment of African-type village communities and local autonomy that permitted them to establish trade relations with whites. In the early years, the maroons were sympathetic to the problems of the slaves, and the engaged in trade and relied on the slaves for support. Over time, alignment shifted toward the slaveholders such that peace treaties were established that left maroons capturing runaway slaves and crushing slave rebellions. The gap between the "salt water" slaves and the creole slaves widened, resulting in increasing hostility and hatred. British authorities recognized the effectiveness of using maroons to crush slave revolts. Similarly, whites used Native Americans to capture runaway slaves, with varying degrees of success. Regardless, the tactic was one of divide-and-conquer, a strategy that worked especially well wherever cultural divisions and historical mistrust dominated interactions. The maroon groups in the Old South grew strong toward the end of the 17th century, a factor that generated considerable fear of a black uprising in the Old South. Punitive expeditions into the maroon settlements prevented the consolidation of disparate maroon groups, and by the antebellum period in the Old South, the status of the maroons was primarily that of a nuisance. Attracted to more favorable land areas -- such as the lowlands of the Carolinas, the Maroon groups would wage sporadic warfare, be driven back, and then regroup -- without ever being able to establish the consolidated war camps that dotted the Brazilian Palmares, Jamaica, Surinam, or Saint-Domingue. 1. Who were the maroons? 2. What were the goals of the maroons? 3. Why did the maroons not bring about major revolution in America? Reference Genovese, E.D. (1992). From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in…

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Muslim Battles With European Countries

Constantinople was the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, and its fall was the beginning of the Ottomans great expansion period. They infiltrated Spain after the fall of Constantinople, and gained a foothold to move throughout Europe, converting the people to Islam and gaining more territory. Today, there are still many areas of Europe that continue to be Islamic strongholds, such as Bosnia. There are still wars being fought over the Muslim, Christian dilemma, too, as the Bosnia-Serb war recently shows, and the war with Iraq continues. In conclusion, each of these battles was highly significant in world history for a number of reasons. The Battle of Constantinople opened up the European continent to the Ottomans, giving them a foothold into new and vulnerable territory. The Battle of Lepanto showed Europe was a strong force and could push the Turks back to their territory, and the Siege of Vienna, mismanaged as it was, marked the end of Turkish aggression in Europe. Each battle marked a starting or ending point in Muslim power and progress, and each battle, if the outcome had been different, could have completely changed the course of history and the face of Europe. References Cowie, Leonard W. Sixteenth-Century Europe. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1977. Esposito, John L. Islam, The Straight Path, 3rd edition. Herrin, Judith. "The fall of Constantinople." History Today June……

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American Participation in World War II

WWII The United States entered the Second World War late, and reluctantly. In spite of the Nazi death camps, the United States remained decidedly neutral until the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The bombing of Pearl Harbor may not have been the only reason why the United States entered the war, but it was a single and tremendous precipitating event that necessitated a quick and decisive solution. Entering the war had a huge impact on America's domestic, as well as global, affairs. The effects of the American entry into World War Two on world history included securing an Allied victory and paving the way for a new world order symbolized by the Cold War. Less obvious from a global perspective, but no less important to most Americans, was the fact that the entry into World War Two led to dramatic social, economic, and political changes at home in the United States. Most of those social, economic, and political changes can be viewed in the context of prevailing issues related to race, class, gender, and power. Race relations were severely strained in the United States, following generations of failed reconstruction following the Civil War. Slavery had been abolished, but racism had not. African-Americans were on aggregate poor and politically disenfranchised. When the United States entered the war, however, blacks fought alongside their white brethren -- ironically for a country that dismissed them as second-class citizens. The armed forces were segregated when the United States entered the Second World War, with separate infantries for different races and differential status and treatment for African-American combat units and troops. African-American soldiers were rarely serving in positions above first lieutenant (O'Neil). In general, African-American troops had lower collective status than their white counterparts. Blacks were "confined largely to service rather than combat units, excluded entirely from the Army Air Corps and Marines, and from the Navy except as messmen," (O'Neil 1). Prevailing and entrenched racism prevented troop integration, as whites refused to fight alongside their own countrymen. It was no small wonder that the American armed forces were able to create a unified front. Gender relations were also strained, several years after universal suffrage. Although they won the right to vote, women were systematically excluded from positions of power and failed to achieve financial independence. Women were barred from combat altogether during the Second World War. Entering the war would have nearly immediate consequences on improving…

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Brief History of the Future

¶ … History of the Future Strathern, O. (2007). A Brief History of the Future. New York: Carroll and Graf. At best, futurists are predictors of trends; at worst, speculative commentators. For instance, if we revisit some of the World's Fair exhibitions of the last three decades, we typically find that we have not advanced as far as predicted in…

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Causes of World War

World War One marked the moment the Western world would challenge old models of governance, warfare, and national identity. As soon as Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, the old balance of power shifted from grandiose empires like the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman toward the smaller, yet in many ways no less powerful, nation-state. The spoils of imperialism and colonialism were being reaped across the globe with the United States standing poised to become a global superpower. New world powers like Russia emerged seemingly out of nowhere to challenge Western supremacy. The fall of centuries-old monarchies and regional blocs caused new political ideologies like Marxism, Communism, and Socialism to take root around the world and especially in Eastern Europe. At the same time, world trade, democracy, and capitalism were already shaping the 20th century. Known as the Great War, World War One also exhibited emerging military technologies and trench warfare that transformed the ways nation-states engaged each other during battle. Therefore, three primary causes that led to the First World War include militarism, imperialism, and nationalism. Militarism entails the proliferation of weaponry and troops, arms racing, and the state support for military endeavors. The Industrial Revolution led to astounding developments in warfare technologies, which were quickly seized up by major players in the early 20th century arms race. France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, Belgium, and the United States all played major roles in fomenting the arms race. Submarines, battleships, and especially airplanes took the world by storm. New chemical gases were being developed that marked some of the first weapons of mass destruction. Ground combat weaponry including advanced machine guns, tanks, artillery, and grenades also made military might one of the most important features of the new world order. As nation-states clamored for military supremacy vis-a-vis their neighbors and especially their enemies, the battlefield became ripe for the outbreak of total war. The effects of militarism on neighboring nation-states was palpable: mutual suspicion led to intense cross-border tension between nations like France and Germany, Germany and Prussia. However, even nations that did not share land borders grew wary of one another during the military proliferation that preceded World War One. For example, Great Britain vied for continued naval supremacy while Germany also developed its own seafaring military fleet. Naval warfare supplemented by the new airplane troops proved that the impending war would go beyond all prior ones. Imperialism, or empire-building, became…

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Industrial Revolution Changed the World

The economic development triggered by the industrial revolution, thus, made the European nations and the United States, the most powerful in the world in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Industrial Revolution in some European countries and the U.S. And the surplus goods produced by them as a result created the need for global markets. The accompanying military power of…

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Soviet WWII Soviet Policy Leading Up to

soviet WWII Soviet Policy Leading up To WWII On August 23, 1939, Russian foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim Von Ribbentrop applied their signatures to a Non-Aggression Pact that would, at a crucial moment in world history, determine the course of events which would shape World War II. Brokered between Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin on the…

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Cold War Origin After WWII

Cold War During World War II, the United States and Soviet Union were one in their fight against the Axis powers led Germany. Adolf Hitler of Germany wanted to conquer Europe at that time. He instilled fear in the hearts of the Jews in Europe as Germany systematically persecuted and killed approximately two and half million Jews in various Nazi consecration camps. Germany was flexing its military might in Europe and the Soviet Union and Great Britain stood against the onslaught of the German military. The United States was not initially part of the war; the U.S. was primarily providing logistical support to the Allied powers which was then spearheaded by Winston Churchill's Great Britain in their defense against the expansionist policy of Germany. The U.S. was brought into the war when Japan conducted an attack against its military base in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii resulting in substantial casualties and collateral damage on the part of the Americans. With Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had no further recourse but to go out of its neutral stance on the war and joined the Great Britain and Soviet Union to actively fight Germany and liberate European countries such as Italy from German control. As Germany began to lose its hold in Europe, the U.S. focused on Japan. With her new found military might, the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs in the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima that made Japan concede in the war. With the onset of World War II, the world witnessed the emergence of two superpowers - the United States and Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Rising from the ashes of World War II, the two countries began to consolidate their military and economic resources to advocate the ideologies that set them poles apart, the democratic U.S. And the communist USSR. This conflict is known as the Cold War era, a situation characterized by considerable tension between the two countries but they did not directly engage each other in an armed conflict. In my view the U.S. And Soviet Union could not continue as allies during the post World War II because of the conflict in terms of their distinct ideologies. This key difference led both countries to pursue policies that are not congruent with their respective interest. The U.S. has always seen herself as the bastion of democratic ideals wherein there are free elections, the…

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Stefan Zweig the World of Yesterday

¶ … Stefan Zweig's book the World of Yesterday he refers to the "world of security" - his homeland of Austria - in reference to more than a geographic place. The place where Zweig was raised gave him a "feeling of security" (Zweig, 2); while at first only the wealthy enjoyed this sensation of security, in time the "great masses…

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Bipolar World Form 1945-1989

Bipolar World The Bipolar Concept and the Soviet Bloc vs. The West The bipolar world that developed after World War II represented the basic perceived structure of world politics during the Cold War. The bipolar idea depicts the world as essentially divided into two camps, both militarily and ideologically, with the West representing democratic ideals, and with the Soviet bloc representing Communism in opposition to democracy. Much of the world divided between the two camps, with the two sides creating mutual defense pacts among member nations, and with much of the rhetoric of the age based on the clash of ideologies as well as images of a military threat from the other side. In truth, the bipolar world was never as simple as the term makes it sound, for large areas of the world were unaffiliated. In addition, the bipolar world did not last that long in its pure form because divisions developed between the Soviet Union and Red China, leaving China as an uncertain entity on the world stage much of the time. The very idea of a bipolar world order disintegrated along with the Soviet Union in 1989, creating a less certain picture of friend and foe. In the face of uncertainty regarding Germany after World War II, the West also had to face uncertainties about the Soviet Union. Much of American foreign policy after World War II was shaped around anti-Communism. In the 1950s, anti-Communism was bound with ideas of tradition, family values, and the protection of the American way of life. Yet, two images of the world seemed at odds in this era -- on the one hand, a world torn by strife and threatened by Communism, and on the other, the American world of affluent families living in freedom and equality (May 10). The nuclear threat was a key element of the Cold War, as seen in the continuing arms race and the stockpiling of nuclear weapons by both sides. For all the concern nuclear capability had raised as to the potential for world disaster, it can also be seen as true that nuclear weapons affected the behavior of nations and actually inhibited the onset of large-scale war (Newhouse 12). In the earliest period of the nuclear age, the United States was the only nuclear power and believed that the situation would continue, but once the Soviets tested a device in 1949, that belief evaporated.…

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World War II: Historical Book

(p.18) Many of these vintners were initially so deaf to the historical cannons not so far away from their vineyards, that covert references to Hitler in 1939, during a wine conference, by the lead speakers, were met with confused glances. (pp.14-15) Given the economic and human destruction wrought by the "war to end all wars" the farmers, a reader is apt to think, perhaps should not have been so sanguine about their livelihoods. Still, y focusing on the non-heroic French wine farmers, the authors are able to bring to light the economic impact of World War II, and also the cultural ways in which the Nazis imposed upon the long-standing traditions of daily life. What was a source of common pride for these French farmers, both creative and economic, became in constant need of protection. The fact that these French people fought so hard to fight for their livelihoods is admirable, if not heroic. The lessons of the book even have applications to politics today. This sense of the value and art of winemaking is helpful when understanding contemporary French farmer's often hysterical bromides against the European Union regulating pasteurizing their cheese and other methods of production of agricultural substances, as well as the desecration of McDonald's as a representation of all that is standardized, foreign, and an impingement upon these individual's lives, a life that had changed "little" since the "Middle Ages," and superstitions were so rife that women were barred from the wineries, for fear of bringing bad luck, according to tradition. (pp.17-18) By looking at the war from the perspective of ordinary citizens, not generals or even soldiers a reader gains a sense of the importance of preserving peacetime life and culture, during a war, to the inhabitants of a nation. The fragility of culture and economic livelihood in an industry where a cold snap can ruin a crop, as it nearly did in 1939, becomes a parallel for the fragility of the human body and spirit during times of war. (p.13) Still one wishes that the greatest treasure of the subtitle, in the view of the farmers points-of-view, would have been viewed as France's human currency and flesh, rather than its wine casks and vineyards. Work Cited Kladstrup, Donald & Peter Kladstrup. Wine and War. New York,……

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World Wars Explain How Each of the

World Wars Explain how each of the following contributed to the start of the first World War: Imperialism; nationalism; militarism; and secret alliances. Imperialism helped fuel World War I by giving some European countries great wealth (Author not given, 2004). With a booming economy they were able to finance the development of war materiel needed to wage war on a large scale. Nationalism caused because each country's great pride in itself. This national pride also led Germany in particular to celebrate the military and Germany's large body of myths and legends celebrating militarism. Germany believed it was its destiny to govern Europe, and since the individual companies were not likely to peaceably acquiesce, to the Kaiser it seemed that use of military was the obvious solution. The kind of almost xenophobic nationalism each country held, most of them monarchies who viewed their right to rule as divine, frictions grew between countries. When the Archduke Ferdinand of Bosnia was assassinated in 1914, Austria saw the event as requiring intervention from them. This dispute drew in the allies of each side, resulting in World war. Secret alliances: Germany made a secret alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy. Later, Russia and France signed a pact. England and other countries became concerned about Germany's Kaiser William, who apparently wanted world domination. Eventually England also signed a pact with Japan. These pacts divided the formerly squabbling European nations into two larger pacts opposing each other, making wide-scale armed conflict possible 2) What were the major causes of the second World War? How did the end of World War2 lead to the Cold War? Explain the goals of each side during the Cold War and to what extent they were achieved. World War II was a direct result of World War I and its aftermath. Great Britain and France were particularly interested in punishing Germany for its actions and insisted on war reparations Germany was ill-prepared to pay. Germany lost territory while France gained it. The new German……

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World War II. World War

They launched large scale attacks on Britain, and invaded and conquered France in mid-1940. With their foothold in France, the Germans were in a much better position to terrorize England, and they did, while also attacking the Balkans, Greece, and other areas of Europe and North Africa. During this time, German troops rounded up Jewish people all over Europe and send them to concentration camps, where millions of them were exterminated like animals. Much of this holocaust was not discovered until after the war, and it is one of the most infamous and lasting memories of World War II. When the war in Europe ended, the War in Asia was still going on. The U.S. used American and German scientists to create atomic bombs that would be used to end the war. Another historian wrote, "The use of the atomic bomb to defeat Japan has been the focus of an extensive debate among historians" (Divine 309). President Roosevelt had begun the project, and when he died in 1945, President Truman continued it. He was urged to drop the bombs to end the war quickly and spare more lives, because it would take much more human life to ultimately invade and conquer the Japanese islands. Ultimately, Truman agreed and the bombs were dropped. The war dragged on until 1945. The Allied forces finally overwhelmed Hitler's forces in Europe in May 1945, and the war was officially declared over on May 7, 1945 in Europe. In April, many of the concentration camps and POW camps were liberated, and the world got the first real look at the atrocities the Germans had carried out on Jews and Prisoner's of War. The war in Asia ended on August 14, 1945, after the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II was over, but it would be a long time before the world really recovered from this war. References Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996. Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969. Kitchen, Martin. A World……

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Europe and the World History

¶ … 1023 At the end of the 1600s and into the 1700s, the scientific revolution significantly impacted the way that Western cultures perceived the world. During the previous Middle Ages, people rarely understood the causes of their experiences. Without any obvious explanations, they attributed occurrences to God, superstition, or mysterious forces. Now, however, people began to recognize that nature followed established rules of order such as Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion. Ignorance was unaccepted as people emphasized using reason to answer questions in science, as well as in society, religion and politics. Especially in the areas of philosophy, human sciences and culture, this time period was called the Enlightenment, or breaking from the past and replacing the obscurity, darkness, and ignorance of thought with the "light" of truth. The Enlightenment intellectuals in the last decades of the 18th century believed that slavery had to be reformed and ultimately eliminated. They clearly saw that the daily resistance of slaves through poison, suicide, abortion had to be stopped (Dubois, 58). Jean-Jacques Rousseau concluded in the Social Contract: "Man is born free but everywhere is in chains." It is demonstrated in this paper that such a philosophy significantly impacted the rise of revolutions in France and Haiti. In the first phase of the French Revolution, the dominant philosophy followed Baron de Montesquieu, who claimed that a liberal constitutional monarchy was the best system of government for a people who prized freedom. He based this on the grounds that dividing the sovereignty of the nation between several centers of power provided a permanent checks-and-balance system to keep them from becoming despotic. As Rousseau replaced Montesquieu, the former's meaning of liberty replaced the latter's. Montesquieu saw freedom as being free in doing what one chooses, so long as it was lawful. With Rousseau's philosophy of freedom, there was no doubt of people dividing and diminishing sovereignty, because they were to keep sovereignty in their own hands. (Cranston). In large part, his literary works and beliefs heralded in the second phase of the Revolution. Rousseau's thoughts were based on the idea of the "social contract," where government and authority acted as a mutual contract between the authorities and the governed. Those governed agree to be ruled only so their rights, property and happiness would be protected. Once rulers no longer protected the ruled, the social contract was broken and people could choose other governors. Rousseau…

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Christopher Columbus -- a Hero? Or Not.

Christopher Columbus -- a Hero? Or Not. The legacy of Christopher Columbus -- in many people's minds -- entails bravery, heroism, courage and resolve. But does this man really deserve the reverent accolades that he receives? Does he deserve to have a day named in his memory? Did her really "discover America" as the legend has it? All of these…

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History Book Video Presents a

This trend of oppressor-oppressed worsened with the emergence of industrial society, which gave birth to capitalism, widening the gap between the ruling class elite and working middle classes. Similarly, social developments in human society determine the kind of political and economic organizations that exist in human society. Economic developments are inevitably tied with the kind of society existing during the period; thus, as illustrated in "Triumphant Symphony," the emergence of industrialization led to the development of capitalism as the primary economic model. Capitalism has, unfortunately, contributed to the already existing conflict between the elite and working/middle socio-economic classes. Political developments are also directly linked economic and social changes in the society. As is evident in Part 4, "Bloody Schemes," the social development that is the Age of Discovery, which served as the catalyst for colonialism to occur, had flourished alongside mercantilism, which in effect, led to the proliferation of the African slave trade. This "domino effect" shows that social, economic, and political factors are directly linked with each other, affecting one with the other, changing the course of history in the process. Analyzing these themes and trends in The History Book, the present socio-political landscape, particularly the issue of Gulf War II, tells me that 'history repeats itself.' At present, despite claims that society is now at its post-industrial state, Gulf War II or the conflict between U.S. And Iraq shows that there is still an ongoing struggle between the oppressor and oppressed. However, it has become harder for us to identify who indeed is the oppressor and oppressed, since both have committed acts of atrocities that human history tells us cannot be justified just as easily. The U.S.-Iraq conflict, as an example, can be, on the American perspective, considered as a struggle between Iraq as the oppressor and America as the oppressed, in light of the World Trade Center bombing last 2001. However, the Iraqi perspective, as well as international sentiment, may say that Iraqis are the oppressed people, especially now that reports of torture and abuses have showed that Americans have abused their authority in Iraq. These varying perspectives nonetheless provide people with the reality that an ongoing socio-political and economic conflict still exists in the post-industrial human society.…

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Historical Contexts and Literature

¶ … human condition transcends the esoteric and becomes real is through the human ability to conceptualize events outside of the horrific reality of the event and turn these events into something nobler, something more timeless, and even something more meaningful to future generations. One way we humans tend to look at these grand processes is to extrapolate behaviors into…

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Italian Domination of Commerce in the Eastern

¶ … Italian domination of commerce in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea on the life of Constantinople? At its zenith, the Roman Empire reached across the globe: however, as Rome's influence began to decline, the imperial provinces began take on two distinct characters. These two spheres came to be known as East and West Christendom. Constantinople eventually became the capital Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church while Roman Catholicism dominated the feudal West. However, there was still considerable cross-pollination of influence of the two areas. According to Phillip Mansel's 2006 book Constantinople: City of the World's Desire 1453-1924, thanks to its status in early modernity as a central trading center, Constantinople became a kind of crossroads of Eastern and Western influences. Constantinople's significance in the history of commerce was due to its proximity to the ports of the eastern Mediterranean. During its early years, this ensured the creation of a distinct city culture, a culture that was the result of cultural fusion and synergy. However, the city's melding of its distinct elements was never without tension. The potential for strife was always simmering beneath the surface. Eventually, the diversity of Constantinople led to violent uprisings. For all of the blending of cultural influences, the city was divided into distinct quarters and characters and when one group seemed to dominate the other, riots and bloodshed would ensue. Despite its proximity to the sea, Constantinople lacked any type of naval defense during the 11th and 12th centuries because of the imprudent policies of its Emperor: his failed military quests and ostentatious government had depleted the coffers of the city (Miller et al. 148). The Italian city-states took advantage of this weakness, and used Constantinople to dominate maritime commerce. In fact, as Mansel notes (2006), as late as the nineteenth century Italian functioned as kind of second language for Constantinople. This was the legacy of the Italian influence upon Constantinople's commercial life. Italian was spoken by all of the Frankish residents, Greeks, and Turks. The Turks later even adopted many Italian words, such as words for types of ships known as caravels and bombardas, and iskele (from the Italian scala) for a dock (Mansel 2006). However, this linguistic fusion should not be mistaken a sign of the universal welcome of Italian traders. Italian prominence trade angered the non-Italian native residents of Constantinople. The Venetians first took control of maritime commerce; then…

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Most Significant Event

¶ … 20th Century in American History By virtually any measure that is applied, the 20th century in general and the second half in particular represented the most turbulent and violent periods in world history. During this 50-year time span, the United States became embroiled in three regional wars in Korea, Vietnam and the Persian Gulf that cost the lives…

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Nanking Genocide 1937

Nanking Genocide 1937 Nanking's genocide and revisionist history Nanking's genocide and revisionist history There are numerous reports, studies and films that refer directly and explicitly to the events that occurred in the city of Nanking in 1937. As one report states, The Chronicle of humankind's cruelty is a long and sorry tale. But if it is true that even in…

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Cold War Era When We Remove the

Cold War Era When we remove the threat of nuclear war that loomed large during the Cold War era, it then becomes possible to engage in rational discourse on the subject. It is a subject that is endless in the complexities of the events and the powerful people behind those events. This paper concerns itself with those powerful world leaders,…

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