"World History" Essays

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Roman Emperor Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (730 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Roman Emperor

Citizens

One year ago, I was but another noble, however one possessed of a sense of higher power. By now you know the story of my visit to the ancient oracle, and how I learned of my divine lineage. From that lineage I draw my strength today, and have ascended to the status of Emperor. I address this letter to all of my subjects. You will know that my mandate to lead you may be derived from the gods who are my ancestors, but I have been given many human gifts as well. I am learned in all of the ancient empires near and far, and will use the best traits of the world's finest leaders to build Rome and expand our great empire to the ends of the Earth.

My rule will be enlightened. What is the point of having a great empire if we as people are not free to live as we please? We span many countries, many languages, and many religions. I take influence from the great leader Cyrus of Persia and of Ashoka the Mauryan, who united equally vast and diverse empires under peace, tolerance and prosperity (Dhammika, 1994). Our military shall be reconfigured, our strategies to mirror those of Alexander, the world's greatest conqueror. His ability to unite the peoples he conquered and use them to help expand his empire is a model we, too, shall adopt. I shall incorporate the ideas of other empires as well. In the far eastern lands, the Qin Empire has streamlined commerce by imposing unified currency, measurements, and written language (TravelGuideChina, 2008). Learned men today need to know Latin and Greek both, and this forms a barrier for commoners to advance themselves, a barrier I shall eliminate by establishing a common language.

In keeping with the tradition of both the Qin, and of the exalted Mauryan rule Ashoka, I will free the peasantry from the burden of local taxation, and restore the strength of the centralized government. You need only pay taxes to me, which will increase your wealth and free you from the multiple levels of bondage you once faced. My system of justice will be strong. In the Mauryan…… [read more]


Prevention of Genocide Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,779 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Prevention of Genocide

Humankind has done disastrous acts to its kin from its early ages and it seems that people are bound to hurt other people at the slightest opportunity that arrives. Murders take place constantly and the killers do not need solid reasons for taking the lives of others as any difference of opinions between the killer and the… [read more]


Roman Britain Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,402 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Roman Britain

THE ROMAN EMPIRE and BRITAIN

According to Peter Arnott, writing in the Romans and Their World, the island of Britain, often referred to as Britannia by the Romans, was a "black, legendary place" with an "evil reputation born of unfamiliarity." Arnott also points out that early descriptions of Britannia were similar to "H.G. Wells' vision of the end… [read more]


Iraq War John Keegan Tackles Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Iraq War

John Keegan tackles what he admits to be the one of the most controversial wars in recent American history in the Iraq War. However, Keegan's first edition of the tome was published in 2004, meaning that the author penned most of his observations not long after the invasion began. When the author extols the victories of the coalition forces in the beginning chapters of the Iraq War readers wonder if he is referring to the same Iraq War: the one 24-hour cable news networks still report on in 2008; the same Iraq War that has sullied the reputation of the United States; the same Iraq War that has not been characterized by "ending victoriously," as Keegan claims in the opening sentences of the book (p. 1). Keegan was forced to add a postscript and a subtitle to the Iraq War in the publisher's second edition: The Iraq War: The Military Offensive, from Victory in 21 Days to the Insurgent Aftermath. The postscript, though, still cannot offer any closure to the issues at large in the ongoing conflict.

Keegan begins by introducing Iraq through its history, tracing its ancient roots as the Mesopotamian cradle of civilization through the birth of Islam, then the Ottoman Empire, and finally the British colonial occupation at the beginning of the 20th century. The historical analysis of Iraq culminates in his explication of Saddam Hussein's role in destabilizing the nation. Keegan proceeds to describe Saddam's invasion of Kuwait and the American response to that invasion with the First Gulf War in the first Bush administration. Following September 11 and the crises of 2002 and 2003, the American and British coalition launched their wars amid much international objection. Ultimately, Baghdad was captured, Saddam arrested, leaving Iraq's future dreadfully uncertain. The insurgent aftermath is a glaring reminder of the need for greater sensitivity to the historical, cultural, and religious issues that plague Iraq and prevent peace in the entire Middle East.

Crucial to Keegan's historical analysis is a brief biography of Saddam Hussein, which comprises the several chapters in the Iraq War. Saddam was a sadistic megalomaniac, notes Keegan, whose use of chemical weapons was akin to that of the Nazis. Hussein's invasion of Kuwait was what kick-started international intervention in the affairs of Iraq and exposed the mess that had been made of Mesopotamia. Keegan points out that Iraq was a problem nation before Saddam rose to power because the British artificially pasted it together without concern for the rights of its people. Iraq was -- and still is -- composed of three distinct ethnic groups who the Ottomans ruled separately. Those groups also sharply differed on their views of Islam: the Sunni and the Shi'a.

Keegan spends a sufficient portion of the Iraq War explaining the domestic conflicts in Iraq. Unfortunately, Keegan justifies the invasion of Iraq in 2003 with the same rhetoric touted by the Bush administration without paying enough attention to the glaring lack of foresight of Operation Iraqi Freedom. His position… [read more]


Tadeusz Borowski Holocaust Other Readings Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,024 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Holocaust

The man dangled on the gallows, and suddenly the world around me was no longer the same. I felt a strange sensation in my throat as if I were choking. I could picture myself on the gallows..." What Gotfryd describes as a visceral reaction to an execution represents humanization: the ability to identify with strangers to the extent that… [read more]


Master and Commander Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Master & Commander

Peter Weir's Master and Commander was surprisingly riveting, complex, and historically accurate. In spite of a few liberties the writers take, Master and Commander seems a solid entertaining adjunct to historical scholarship. One of the reasons why Master and Commander seems realistic is its inclusion of sub-plots that are unrelated to the Napoleonic wars: exploration of the Galapagos Islands, for example. The budding popularity of scientific inquiry during the Age of Enlightenment was contemporary with the Age of Imperialism and Colonialism. Master and Commander fleshes out the thorny ties between France and Great Britain, as well as between European nations and their colonies. The film brings to life the sharp conflicts that were taking place as nationalism became a theme in European history and politics. Democratic ideals and humanitarianism were beginning to replace monarchy and absolutism until the crises that France sustained during the Napoleonic Wars and the Reign of Terror. Master and Commander is a satisfying historical war drama, one that includes references to Enlightenment ideals, scientific exploration, and European imperialism.

Focusing on fictitious characters allows viewers to relate to life during the early nineteenth century. Through the eyes of Captain Aubrey, we can fathom the universal themes that transcend historical epoch, culture, and geography. The desire to explore new terrain and visit the "far side of the world" remains a poignant desire in the human consciousness. Even if Master and Commander dramatizes and glamorizes exploration the fundamental principles of science and expansion of human knowledge remain constant. Weir and his fellow screenplay writers seem to appreciate historical context, including minute details that can be later verified as facts and especially names and dates. Therefore, as a historical movie Master and Commander succeeds.

I would have appreciated more explicit references to the effects of Napoleonic doctrine on Europe and the colonies. However, the film captures more than…… [read more]


Contributions of Ancient Egypt to Western Civilization Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,006 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … ancient art and civilization. Specifically it will discuss the primary contributions of Ancient Egypt to Western Civilization. In most ways, ancient Egypt was an advanced culture that led the world in building, art, and language. Their culture made many advances that still contribute to the world today.

Ancient Egypt, although it certainly had its faults, was one of the most advanced cultures of the time. In developing such a superior culture, the people were innovative and open to new ideas, and so, they naturally developed many items that contributed to Western Civilization, and are still important today. One of the most important and influential aspects of their culture was their educational model, which has become the backbone of modern Western Civilization. One scholar writes, "Most evidence highlights the education of the upper and middle classes, who were trained to become officials, lawyers, doctors, and architects. They were taught reading, writing, and the study of literature, as well as foreign languages for those who planned to enter the diplomatic service, and mathematics for those training to become architects" (David 37). Although education did not trickle down through all levels of society, it was extremely important in the culture of Egypt, and it has retained that importance in the modern world. To go along with this model of education, the Egyptians developed a written language using hieroglyphics, or picture words, which cover the walls of many of their most significant buildings, and tell the story of everyday life in Egypt. Thus, they left a legacy of their lives, and developed their own complex language, as well, which is another aspect of a dominant and innovative culture.

Along with writing, they developed paper from the papyrus plant, which left another record of their civilization, and they built a huge library at Alexandria, which unfortunately was destroyed by fire. However, it was one of the first libraries in the world, and it helped lead to the practice of preserving the written word around the world, and it was one of the largest libraries in the world for decades. Alexandria itself was an important metropolis in the ancient world, as well. Another author writes, "Alexandria soon grew into a prosperous cosmopolitan city and cultural center: the city boasted an amphitheater, a gymnasium, a stadium and a museum known throughout the ancient world, plus an aqueduct and a hall of justice" (Ruiz 190). Egyptians had a great respect for learning, education, and the written word, and that still is one of the most important aspects of our modern culture.

The Egyptians were master builders, as the pyramids and many of their temples and ancient buildings indicate. They contributed to modern civilization through architecture in a number of ways. Another scholar notes, "The oldest pyramid in the world, built here by the famous architect Imhotep for king Djoser (ca. 2650 B.C.E.), still stands today" (My-liwiec 186). Not only does the pyramid still stand, so do many other buildings and monuments, and they influenced ancient Greek… [read more]


World War II 1945 Mark Mazower Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Brutal Peace" Chapter Seven

Chapter Seven of the Dark Continent by Mark Mazower is largely focused on chronicling the aftermath of VE, or 'Victory Europe' day. With the benefit of hindsight, the swift dominance of the Soviet Union over Eastern Europe and the rehabilitation of the West through the Marshall Plan may seem inevitable. But Mazower shows that this was far from the case and gives a compelling portrait of the shifting political alliances after Germany's unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers. Mazower begins his chapter by stressing the fact that when peace came to Europe, the conditions left by the years of war were so terrible it hardly felt like a peace at all, hence the title of the chapter: "A Brutal Peace." The death toll was high: not only were six million Jews slaughtered in concentration camps, but millions of civilians and soldiers had perished in the conflict. In addition to the military and civilian casualties, POWs and civilians forced to move were permanently or temporarily displaced, which caused mass political and social confusion and instability. The aftermath of the war demanded "reform and reconstruction" economically, politically, and socially but the degree to which this was realized was imperfect in the extreme (Mazower 225).

Initially, the aftermath of the war generated agreement between the great powers regarding certain key issues, reflecting the fact that during the war there had been a fair amount of common ground despite the ideological conflicts between the Big Three of America, Russia, and Great Britain (Mazower 225). Disarmament, de-Nazification, and punishing Nazi war criminals drew support from the leaders of all of the Allied nations. They agreed there was a need for substantial economic reforms, such as the breaking of old business cartels and land reforms. These were deemed necessary in Germany to create a more democratic political environment (Mazower 237-238). Germany was divided into four zones, controlled by America, Great Britain, France, and Russia, respectively. It was said that the fate of Germany "held the key to…… [read more]


Movie Amazing Grace 2007 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Pertinence of the film "Amazing Grace"

The 19th century brought with it a period of progressive enlightenment. The intellectual, philosophical and social developments of the previous decade, and particularly the battle for independence and self-determination waged by the peoples of places like the United States and France, had helped to change ideology and policy development throughout the world. The British Empire would be an important part of this transition, both as the center for change-resistant traditionalism and for what might be regarded by some as radical cultural transformation. The issue of the slave-trade of enslavement would be perhaps the most pressing and hotly contested issue of the time, with an old guard of parliamentary Britons insisting on the importance and the ethical justification for enslaving African transplants and with a score of young, energetic idealists entering British parliament with the intent to eliminate the barbaric practice. This is the inflection point which is captured so well in Michael Apted's 2006 film, Amazing Grace.

Drawing its name from the remarkable and important abolitionist hymn composed by John Newton -- a featured character due much admiration according to the film in question -- Amazing Grace traces the efforts of anti-slavery figures and leaders in the British Empire during its driving to its peak of powers. The film's portrayal of William Wilberforce is an evocative demonstration of the tireless efforts of the above mentioned idealists. Channeled through this figure who our reading tells us did in fact levy a huge impact on his ambitions and on the world, the film glorified the efforts of Wilberforce and his colleagues.

To the best apparent indication given by our readings and research, this is a fair portrayal of the young man who entered Parliament at 21 years of age. Indeed, his youth and that of Prime Minster William Pitt -- who held the…… [read more]


Post War Settlements and Self-Determination Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Post-War Settlements and Self-Determinations

After World War I, there were several somewhat idealistic calls for self-determination and independence among the various nations of the world.

Many did achieve a sense of self-determination. In eastern Europe, Poland for example gained its independence. The degree to which actual self-determination was however realized is subject to considerable debate. The reasons for the difficulties experienced in this regard after World War I can be ascribed to the ideals of the various leaders involved. "Self-determination" was not a clearly defined term. For most nations, it meant independence from the sovereignty of outside countries, while each country retained the right to govern itself as it saw fit.

The problem was however with leadership and the way in which countries, particularly on a single continent, could not operate in isolation from each other. Conflict therefore existed not only among the various leaders who could not reach consensus on what self-determination was supposed to mean, but also among leader and their followers within the borders of each country. Leaders felt for example that self-determination was to be determined in a collective sense, with the country in general moving towards goals set by the leaders themselves. Citizens might feel that laws and determinations within the country were not conducive to self-determination, and rebel against the leader's vision.

Another problem was ideology. For communists, for example, self-determination meant a specific set of principles, while for the democrat, it might mean something entirely differently. Once again, conflicts in this regard could extend not only among leaders, but among leaders and the citizens within each respective country as well. These conflicts of ideology and interest also imply that there could hardly be stability as a result of self-determination.

Self-determination in itself is a term that, even at the best of times, implies internal conflict. This is because the ideal in self-determination is the realization of individual and collective ideals, as…… [read more]


Battle of San Jacinto Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,089 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Battle of San Jacinto took place on April 21, 1836 at what is today known as the Harris County, Texas and is the predecessor of some of the world's most significant events and situations wherein lies its historical magnitude (Hardin, 1994). The Battle of San Jacinto was basically the final clash that decided the fate and result of the Texas… [read more]


Causes to the Korean War Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (5,284 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Korean War refers to the military conflict between North and South Korea that started on June 25, 1950 and lasted until the armistice signed on July 27, 1953. During the war, both adversaries attempted to re-unify the country under their own regimes and ideology and several major powers including the United States, the UN forces, the Peoples Republic of China,… [read more]


Churchill Staline Cold War Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,133 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Churchill/Stalin/Cold War

The Cold War: Causes and Aftermath

The Cold War, the war of tensions and nuclear stalemate that characterized the period immediately after the end of World War II to the fall of the Berlin War divided Europe into two warring factions. On one side, the United States and most of the Western European powers it had striven to rebuild as the result of its Marshall Plan stood for freedom, sometimes only in name but often with genuine feeling and commitment. On the other hand, Soviet Russia held Eastern Europe in a grip of fear and terror. Was Stalin simply an evil man? According to Winston Churchill, that was the case. In his famous 1946 "Iron Curtain" speech Churchill stated: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow." Soviet influence was so pervasive, warned Churchill, it would be impossible to resist, were it not contained.

The Western powers, in short, feared that the Soviet Union would use its sphere of influence to encroach upon the remaining democracies in Europe, which were still weak in the aftermath of the Second World War. Stalin, much like Hitler before him, had continually reneged upon his promises to reign in his nation's influence and power. However, it should be noted that Russia's paranoia had some foundation. The United States, and even the decimated European powers, were far more economically powerful than Russia, which was then only haltingly industrializing and modernizing as befits a 20th century world power. At the beginning of the century, much of Russia existed as a feudal, agricultural province with no industrialization, and its people and economy were entirely subject to the will and whim of the tsar. Russia had no democratic tradition, and to modernize and protect itself, the autocracy put into place by Joseph Stalin seemed like the most logical way to operate.

It should be noted that although Churchill's famous "Iron Curtain" speech is understandably quite famous for defaming Stalin, it also did contain some praise for Russia: "I have a strong admiration and regard for the valiant Russian people and for my wartime comrade, Marshal Stalin. There is deep sympathy and goodwill in Britain -- and I doubt not here also -- toward the peoples of all the Russias and a resolve to persevere through many differences and rebuffs in establishing lasting friendships." Although this may sound like pure rhetoric, and undeniably there is a certain element of political finesse to this comment, it is likely that recently Blitz-ravaged Britain did feel sympathy for… [read more]


Torture: CIA Interrogation From the Cold War Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (2,054 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … torture: CIA interrogation from the Cold War to the War on Terror by Alfred W. McCoy. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book, including key points and evidence that supports the author's thesis. The author is a history professor at the University of Wisconsin and has written heavily on the U.S. Government and covert operations… [read more]


Hitler's Death Camps Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (658 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Holocaust the Destruction of European Jewry 1933-1945

Why did you choose this historical area and this book?

The Jewish Holocaust is one of the most dramatic events in all of recorded human history. It is an extremely valuable source of insight into the human potential for evil and injustice. Unlike other previous examples of human atrocity, the Holocaust occurred in modern times, long after the excuse of ignorance or unsophisticated societal structure is applicable. At the time, Germany actually represented, according to several measures, the height of human cultural development.

A selected Nora Levin's book because it is a comprehensive source of information because it details the gradual evolution of anti-Semitic policies and instrumentalities in Germany, the qualitative experiences of victims, country-specific descriptions of the Holocaust, as well as a complete numerical analysis of the quantitative impact on the worldwide Jewish population.

What 4 historical/cultural themes do you see coming out of the book? Identify & expand:

First, the historical theme that large-scale human atrocities are not vestiges of the Middle Ages or ancient times. The Nazi Holocaust illustrates that, given the right circumstances and opportunity, modern human societies are still capable of barbaric conduct. Second, the historical theme that the perspective conveyed by the Holocaust combined with the contemporary rhetoric from Iran about the destruction of Israel justifies appropriate preemptive measures to prevent it, if necessary. Third, the cultural theme that the decision of the U.N. To establish the State of Israel as a refuge for displaced European Jews after World War II was justified by the circumstances. The modern country of Israel exists as a homeland for Jews because it arose of necessity by virtue of their persecution rather than as a result of Zionist efforts. Fourth, the cultural theme that future human atrocities are less likely to recur if all victims of past atrocities recognize that the historical importance of past atrocities does not depend on the identity of the victims in particular. Put yourself into…… [read more]


Long-Term and Short-Term Causes for the Cold War Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (465 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cold War was born in the wake of the end of World War Two. Causes included suspicion over U.S. plans to rebuild Europe; suspicion over Communist expansion; and the need to extend the U.S. wartime economy. The U.S. plans to rebuild Europe, such as the Marshall Plan, were in part motivated by the doctrine of containment, which derived from deep suspicion regarding the Soviet Union. The suspicion was not only based on distrust of the Communist economic system, but also on the leadership of the U.S.S.R. Stalin had demonstrated substantial paranoia and resorted to brutal totalitarianism. The U.S. viewed the radical ideology of Communism not only as a threat but as a source instability. The isolationism of the 30s had failed to keep the U.S. out of conflict, and therefore it felt it needed to be more aggressive on the world stage.

For their part, the U.S.S.R. had a deep distrust of the West, which was rooted in Western intervention in the Bolshevik Revolution. Stalin saw the Marshall Plan and the founding of NATO for what they were - thinly veiled attempts to extend U.S. influence into Europe. Indeed, rebuilding both Germany and Japan was given priority as a means to provide counterweight to Communist expansion.

The U.S. economy had recovered during the war, but the transition into peacetime would not be easy. Factories, funds and workers would all need to be…… [read more]


Accomplishments of the Yangshao Longshan and Shang Cultures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chinese History

Yangshao and Longshan cultures and the Shang dynasty each represent successive stages of social and technological development in China. The Yangshao and Longshan cultures were both stone age societies and their major accomplishments centered on the widespread development of increasingly sophisticated agricultural techniques as well as the development of new forms of pottery. However, the Longshan culture and its technologies proved far more sophisticated than its Yangshao predecessors. Cities emerged, silk production began, and burial methods became increasingly complex. The Shang dynasty represented one of the first breaks from neolithic stone age society in China. Bronze tools were first developed in China during the Shang dynasty. Also, the Shang dynasty represented the first recorded use of Chinese characters. The respective accomplishments of the Yangshao, Longshan, and Shang people illustrate how, when and where Chinese society evolved.

The Yangshao culture flourished between 5000 and 3000 BCE primarily in the mountainous regions of northern and western China and in the valleys strewn along the Yellow River. Two of the most significant accomplishments of the Yangshao culture included agriculture and pottery. In particular, the Yangshao people cultivated grains extensively and mainly millet. Primitive silkworm cultivation paved the way for later developments in silk production. Moreover, animal husbandry emerged during the Yangshao period as the neolithic culture lived in more stable, sedentary, organized societies. Yangshao pottery also represented a major technological step for early Chinese people. The Yangshao pottery was painted with geometric designs mainly in black and pottery became one of the key ways archaeologists could distinguish between Yangshao and Longshan culture.

Like Yangshao society, Longshan culture was neolithic and most tools were crafted out of stone. From about 3000 to 2000 BCE, Longshan culture evolved along the Yellow River like the Yangshao but farther east and…… [read more]


Cultural Epoch Theory the Shift From Medieval to Renaissance Europe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,276 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Cultural Epoch Theory: The Shift From Medieval to Renasissance Europe

The evolution of the world represents an entire system of change and development of ideas and social structures which in the end defined the world in which we live today. As part of the history of the world, there are several eras which influenced its evolution more than in other cases. These eras can be the Medieval and the Renaissance periods. Still, in order to understand their relevance for the human civilization, it is important to take into account several aspects from a particular perspective given by the cultural-epoch theory.

The cultural epoch theory defines the way in which a culture can change and the means used to achieve this change. More importantly, the cultural epoch theory implies a continuous flux inside the system, a driving force aimed at changing the current reality, as well as the change of different values and moral norms (Culture-Epoch Theory, n.d.). These elements of change are rather visible especially in the way in which medieval order collapsed and the Renaissance took its place in Europe. This passage was considered to be one which defined the order between the so called Dark Ages as the medieval time was rightfully considered and the emergence of the Renaissance, one of the most flourishing periods of the human civilization.

The Medieval period is seen as a moment of regress for the civilization from various points-of-view which relate to the fact that the political, economic, and cultural dimensions of life saw a return to the more primitive aspects of the human being (Berstein and Milza, 1994). In this sense, the period of the Middle Ages had followed the disintegration of the Roman Empire, an event which marked a sudden and at the same time negative change in the way in which territories were organized, social relations were established, as well as the way in which religious and cultural life was perceived and conducted (Berstein and Milza, 1994). Therefore it can be said that the coming of the Middle Ages was in fact an annulment of the flourishing centuries of Roman and Greek tradition and culture which was more or less a visible and important shift.

The Renaissance on the other hand represented the reinvention of the culture and history of the period before the middle Ages, a rejuvenation of what the ancient culture meant for the classic world, with its norms and values. From the point-of-view of the cultural epoch theory, the passing from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance period represented the period in which old values were rediscovered and new ones were invented in order to move the process of humanity forward (Culture-Epoch Theory, n.d.).

There are several factors which contributed to the reconsideration of the beliefs, values and practices which forced the end of the middle Ages and the emergence of the Renaissance. As one author considered, "civilizations are not societies which rise and fall in recurring cycles but cultural systems which build upon the work… [read more]


Western Civilization Final Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,293 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Western Civilization Final

The history of the Roman republic and then empire represents one of the most important segments of the history of the world. It represents the first elements of the organization of the state. However, at the same time the development of the system of government pointed out the different means through which a community can evolve from… [read more]


1980 United States Mens Hockey Team Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,206 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

United States Gold-Medal-Winning Hockey Team in 1980

They called it the "Miracle on Ice" because in sporting language, it was a miracle. How else does one describe the fact that a bunch of college students - having been well trained in the matters of playing ice hockey but not having skated together for that long - taking on and beating… [read more]


Nazi Policy and Cultural Minorities During World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (921 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nazi Policy and Cultural Minorities
During World War II, Nazi policy gripped Eastern Europe, afflicting
its peoples with unspeakable acts of cruelty and depravity. Known as the
Holocaust, this was a setting in which some of the worst aspects of man's
psyche emerged. A plan for extermination of ethnic impurity, known as the
Final Solution, informed the German perpetration of genocide, executed
through the encampment, abuse and slaughter of millions, with Jews, gypsies
and other cultural minorities being specifically targeted. The cultural
minorities here noted would include many of those considered to be on the
fringe of German society and, in the early running of the Nazi regime,
would serve as defenseless groups upon which to test strategies relating to
the Cultural isolation and the so-called Final Solution.
The policies which Hitler pursued amongst the handicapped are
indicative of both the philosophical premise of Aryan purity and the sheer
sadism which were perpetrated by the Nazis. Indeed, according to recent
sources featured by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, the handicapped,
mentally ill and physically impaired were among the first Germans to be
targeted by purification initiatives. This would be an early initiation of
the terminology and methodology which would ultimately distinguish the
'Final Solution,' in which Hitler would attempt the mass extermination of
the Jews. Persecution of the handicapped created a precedent, with the
notion of 'euthanasia' suggesting that the outright murder of the mentally
or physically impaired should be seen as mercy-killing. This type of
language underscored the clinical approach taken by the Nazis to effect
this 'purification' of the people. As the Holocaust Museum reports, "The
'euthanasia' program required the cooperation of many German doctors, who
reviewed the medical files of patients in institutions to determine which
handicapped or mentally ill individuals should be killed. The doctors also
supervised the actual killings." (TVC, 1)
In this way, the Nazis would begin the process of purifying society
by initially targeting those who were most defenseless and establishing
institutional acceptance for this type of behavior. Indeed, though the
Final Solution concerning the extermination of Jews would not be fully
implemented until the early 1940s and under an intensification of the
larger war, the treatment of the physically and mentally impaired showed
early indications of this inevitable outcome. Hitler was, in fact,
influenced in shaping his policies by the published works of prior German
thinkers. Herewith, "the idea of 'mental death' and killing the
handicapped swept rapidly through Germany. In 1931, a group of
psychiatrists met in Bavaria to discuss the sterilization and killing of
those with chronic mental illnesses. By 1936 the practice of killing the
socially unfit was so common that it was mentioned only incidentally in a
German medical journal." (TVC, 1) To the German policy-makers, this
conformed…… [read more]


President Ronald Reagan's Views and Contributions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,333 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … President Ronald Reagan's views and contributions to foreign policy. President Reagan's contributions to American foreign policy are many and varied. Some believe his policies were some of the best to come out of the White House in decades, while others are not so sure. His policies helped bring down the Berlin Wall and end Communism in Europe, but they also funded rebels in Afghanistan and Nicaragua, and some of these polices have negatively affected America in many ways.

President Ronald Reagan took office in January 1981, immediately following the presidency of Jimmy Carter. From the onset of his two presidential terms, it was clear Reagan shared the opinion of many Americans who had lived through World War II and based their opinions on foreign policy on their experiences during the war. The American Experience Web site notes, "As the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as dominant, and opposing, forces, Reagan shared the view that communism posed a legitimate threat to free people everywhere" (Editors). He distrusted the Soviets and their motives, and said so publicly, and he believed previous administrations had pandered to the Soviets. Instead, he wanted his administration to show decided strength and force toward the Soviets, he believed that is what they expected and respected. A journalist notes, "Reagan's foreign policy statements emphasized, rather, American machismo. He seemed more intent on reasserting American power and pride -- 'standing tall' in the world -- than in reinventing its virtue" (Kane). Thus, the stage was set for some very controversial, and laudable foreign policy decisions.

He began to increase defense spending, and increased the deployment of anti-nuclear missiles in Europe, which angered just about everyone, as well. American Experience continues, "On this matter he angered both conservatives and members of the anti-nukes community. For while he professed to deplore the existence of nuclear weapons, and may have believed they foretold a biblical Armageddon, he simultaneously deployed medium-range missiles in Europe" (Editors). This distaste for communism did not only apply to the Soviets, it applied to any area where communism was attempting to gain a foothold, and that translated to a very aggressive foreign policy in countries facing communist revolt or insurgence.

Probably the most memorable and well-known aspect of Reagan's foreign policy is the "Regan Doctrine," first formulated early in the Reagan presidency to deal with foreign insurgents and the growth of communism. It must be said that the roots of the Reagan Doctrine lie in the Carter administration, which covertly began to give financial aid to Afghanistan's mujahideen in their fight against the Soviets attempting to take over Afghanistan. When Reagan took office, he expanded the policy and then created his own distinct doctrine, the Reagan Doctrine (Scott 40). A Reagan historian notes how the administration formulated the doctrine. He writes, "First, the doctrine emerged from the interaction among four circles of actors: the president and his chief advisers, the foreign policy bureaucracy, Congress, and a group of nongovernmental actors" (Scott 7). As the… [read more]


United Nations Could Have Done to Prevent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,581 words)
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¶ … United Nations could have done to prevent the genocide in Rwanda. Assess this view

The Rwanda genocide, unprecedented in magnitude since the Second World War, happened in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda. The deliberate killings of the minority ethnic group Tutsis was unleashed with such viciousness that even its perpetrators could not gauge its gigantic dimension. With a… [read more]


Start of the Cold War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (393 words)
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Cold War started shortly after World War II. The United States and the Soviet Union were allies at that time because the biggest threat to both countries - and to all of Europe - was Nazi Germany. Hitler had to be stopped and the United States and the Soviet Union joined forces to crush Germany. And then the war ended and the decisions needed to be made as to how European nations would be supervised by or taken over by; so it was up to the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist U.S. To make those strategic arrangements. Who would have the greatest influence in Europe? That was the question that really led to the tensions driving the Cold War.

At the Yalta conference in February 1945, there was no firm agreement; and at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the argument over the future of Germany and Eastern Europe grew into a tense situation between President Harry Truman and Soviet dictator Stalin. After that meeting ended in angry words, the U.S. exploded two atomic bombs on Japan, creating further tensions between the two superpowers.

Truman's Marshall Plan (helping Europeans rebuild with food and supplies) and…… [read more]


Greek and Roman Art Term Paper

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Greek and Roman Art

Roman and Greek art represented the models for the Renaissance which is considered the most flourishing period in the history of humanity as far as the development of most intellectual pursuits, and especially in the artistic realm. Roman art encompasses sculpture, painting, architecture, and any other type of artwork produced in Ancient Rome or the territories of its empire from the founding of Rome in the 8th century B.C. until the decline of the Roman Empire in the 5th century a.D. As expected in the case of such a vast empire, Roman art was influenced by the art of the territories it annexed; also, it was deeply influenced by the art of ancient Greece and the Etruscans. As far as the character of Roman art, it is important to note that it reflected the character of the Roman people. Ancient Greek art represented the most important influence on the culture of many countries starting in ancient times until the present. The art of Ancient Greece is usually divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic, with the latter two being considered they heyday of Greek artistic expression. When talking about Ancient Greek art, historians and art critics often refer to the period also called the Late Classical period which spanned from the years from 400 to 323 B.C. i.e. The most flourishing period in Ancient Greek art. The political context was the element which changed the ideals of the artists. After the disastrous defeat of the Athenians by the Spartans in 404 B.C., no Greek state attained a dominant position for any length of time. A brief Spartan supremacy was followed by an even briefer Theban supremacy, and from 359 B.C. on, most of the Greek communities were gradually involved in the struggle with Philip of Macedon, which was brought to an end by Philip's victory in 338, and the establishment of Macedonian control over the cities of the Mainland (Chase: 137). War combined with a long period of political intrigue generated a significant growth in the feeling of individualism. In the 5th century, the Greek saw himself primarily as a citizen, devoted to the service of the state. In the 4th century, the Greek citizen began to regard himself as an individual, a tendency to which the doctrines of Plato, Aristotle and other philosophers no doubt contributed. This is reflected…… [read more]


Modern French History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Oradour-sur-Glane fit into the "Vichy Syndrome." Postwar France and the reorganization of the once German-occupied country did not proceed smoothly. The residents were bitter about the Occupation of their country, and even more bitter about the Vichy regime that was the only area of France allowed to be self-governed during the occupation. The massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane fits into the Vichy Syndrome because it was one of the conflicts that resulted from the Resistance during the Occupation, and because it was a period of "unfinished mourning" and civil unrest.

Historian Henry Rousso created the term "Vichy Syndrome." He defines it as, "The Vichy syndrome consists of a diverse set of symptoms whereby the trauma of the Occupation, and particularly that trauma resulting from internal divisions within France, reveals itself in political, social, and cultural life. Since the end of the war, moreover, that trauma has been perpetuated and at times exacerbated."

The massacre at Oradour represents that trauma perfectly, because it happened by misunderstanding and because of internal divisions within the country.

The government at Vichy was responsible for the deaths of thousands of Frenchmen, and most of the French resented the Vichy regime because it had close ties to the Nazis, and they felt they sympathized far too heavily with their occupiers. The Resistance movement in France struggled to overthrow the Germans, but they were never able to reach their goal during the war. After the war, tensions were still extremely high in France, and they were not easily resolved. Another writer notes, "A tension emerged between desire to celebrate glorious or heroic actions (of the resistance) and to forget the shameful (of the collaborators). The memory and consequent memorialization of Nazis atrocities centered on crimes committed against the French like the massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane."

Thus, the massacre at the tiny village became a national outrage, just another aspect of the Vichy Syndrome and its aftermath in France.

What actually happened at Oradour-sur-Glane? On June 10, 1944, German soldiers of the Der Fuhrer Regiment of the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division Das Reich received word that a German hostage was being held by French Resistance members in the village of Oradour-sur-Vayres, but the Germans confused that village with Oradour-sur-Glane, which was nearby the other village. They entered the village, and seperated the men from the women and children. They then took the men to a barn, shot them all, and set the barn on fire. In all, 190 men died in the attack, while five managed to escape. The women and children were placed in a church, and the Germans placed a gas bomb inside. When they tried to escape, they shot them. In all, 247 women and 205 children died, while only one woman managed to escape. The Germans massacred 642 people, everyone in the town, and a few others who were just passing through, and then they destroyed most of the town. They seemed to believe that the Resistance had a pocket of fighters there, and they… [read more]


Duty: A Father, His Son Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (764 words)
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¶ … Duty: A Father, His Son and the Man who Won the War by Bob Greene, published in New York by William Morrow in 2000. Specifically it will contain a book review of the book. Greene's purpose for writing this book was to help a younger generation understand the men and women that helped fight World War II. It is also a memoir about his own father, and Paul Tibbets, the man who flew the Enola Gay and dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. The book is a series of memories, combined with interviews and the author's own thoughts on his father, tracking down Tibbets for interviews, and even moral and insightful thoughts on the actual use of the atomic bomb to end the war.

This book is not meant to be a detailed history of World War II. Instead, it is an intimate look into the lives of two men who fought in the war, and representative of thousands like them across the country. He writes, "No generation has ever given its children a stuffier and more reliable safety net than the one our parents' generation gave to us" (Greene 11). This is the meat of the book, and the ultimate theme of this work. As a history book, it would fail to meet its goals, but as an introduction to the people who fought and won World War II, it is totally reliable, credible, and serves a unique purpose. It introduces a generation of children to their parents and grandparents, allowing them to understand just what they accomplished and what it has meant to our own generation. It is extremely effective in introducing the reader to a generation of people they would never experience on their own, and Greene's book is extremely effective for another reason, too. It is not a dry look at history, instead it is a sometimes emotional look at the man who dropped the atomic bomb, the reasons he did it, and the sense of duty he had toward his country and his job. The name of the book is "Duty," and it makes it clear that these men, who fought and died in World War II has a strong sense of themselves, their duty to their country, and the importance of their mission. They…… [read more]


British Empire This Informative, Historical, Analytical Term Paper

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British Empire

This informative, historical, analytical, argumentative article of British History regarding British Empire present number of critical analysis from the beginning of the 17th century until de-colonization period of the 1960's and shedding light on one of the most important fact that trade and commerce was engine that drove the establishment as well continuance of British empire. Hence, collective… [read more]


Red Badge of Courage Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,280 words)
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¶ … Red Badge of Courage

Stephen Crane's novel the Red Badge of Courage is an example of literary naturalism, a movement in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century that went beyond realism to delve into the darker side of society and to the problems facing the individual in society. This novel is set in the Civil War… [read more]


Napoleon's Influence on Lee Term Paper

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Napoleon's Influence On Lee

Robert E. Lee, in his attempt to use Napoleonic war strategy, made many of the mistakes that Napoleon made and came to defeat and victory in much the same manner as did Napoleon.

The purpose of this study is to identify the Napoleonic tactics utilized by Robert E. Lee in the Civil War and to show… [read more]


Thomas Rowland's George B. Mcclellan and Civil Term Paper

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¶ … Thomas Rowland's George B. McClellan and Civil War history: In the shadow of Grant and Sherman" that compares and contrasts the interpretations of McClellan's generalship with James M. McPherson's Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. Both of these historic texts center on the American Civil War and its affect on the country. Both also discuss in… [read more]


Nixon's Policy Toward the U.S.S.R Term Paper

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Nixon's policy toward the U.S.S.R. is known as detente and was strongly influenced by the pressing need to end the conflict in Vietnam, which had been lingering for years and through several of his predecessors' administrations. With his national security adviser Henry Kissinger, Nixon helped formulate a truce-like foreign policy with the Soviet Union. Detente involved historic meetings in Moscow with Soviet leaders like General Secretary Brezhnev: the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). Central to SALT was the issue of nuclear arms. Serving at the height of the Cold War, Nixon helped ease tensions between the two superpowers and thus set the stage for a global balance of power. His foreign policy was predicated on maintaining stability and balance rather than achieving strategic objectives.

In fact, Nixon's SALT left a legacy for future presidents. When Carter assumed office in 1977 he built on Nixon's work by organizing SALT II: the second phase of the detente policy. Like Nixon Carter sought truce but more openly suggested nuclear arms reduction and anti-proliferation. Carter's SALT II was in many ways less successful than Nixon's because of widespread belief that the Soviets would not fulfill their end of the bargain. Moreover, Carter dealt with more significant challenges than Nixon did during his tenure as President. During the Carter administration, the U.S.S.R. invaded Afghanistan. Carter was forced to respond and he responded aggressively using a variety of tactics including an announcement of the Carter Doctrine. The Carter Doctrine asserted America's right to protect U.S.-held oil interests in the Persian Gulf in light of the Soviet encroachment in the region. Basically Carter's foreign policy became more complicated as the Soviets beefed up their relationships with the leaders of oil-holding countries throughout the Middle East as well as the Central Asian oil regions under Moscow's control. Carter pursued peace in the midst of escalating tensions and increased Soviet aggressions abroad.

President Reagan stepped away from Nixon and Carter's disarmament deals and instead moved toward nuclear proliferation with the Soviet Union. Although Reagan undid much of Nixon and Carter's work with nuclear disarmament, he is widely credited with helping dismantle the Soviet Union. Therefore, Reagan's foreign policy toward the U.S.S.R. is more ironic than any other American president. Reagan also proposed the highly controversial Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), which was an elaborate system of military technologies designed to protect the United States against a potential nuclear attack. The SDI was lambasted and mocked, and never went into effect. The mere mentioning of the SDI was enough to stir fears that the Cold War would escalate, drawing the United States and Russia into a World War. Yet it soon became apparent that the Soviet Union was weakening under…… [read more]


Anthropology Organizational Theory and Behavior (Three Answers Essay

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Anthropology

ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY and BEHAVIOR (three answers out of 10 possible):

Four types of reinforcement are: one, "positive reinforcement" (praising someone for doing a good job); two, "negative reinforcement" (taking away a privilege from a teenager to stimulate him to meet agree-upon responsibilities); three, "punishment" (in order to lessen a behavior there are sanctions); and four, "extinction" (taking something away).

Organization rewards give employees incentive to go the extra mile. Employee Benefits Magazine (January 16, 2007) mentions "engagement" as a reward category. Engagement amounts to giving employees more benefits if they show enthusiasm for the product they are sharing with guests. Another example of organizational rewards is "discretionary empowerment" in the workplace; employees are trained to use their own discretion in making customer service decisions and for their good work they receive benefits.

SIX: Burnout is the long-term and unfortunate result of unmanaged stress in the workplace, and it causes fatigue, depression, and a person suffering from burnout needs either a sabbatical or to find a less-stressful job. Stress is the psychological and physiological pressure on experiences to get tasks done within certain time frames and with a pre-ordained degree of competence. Occupational pressures and personal fears are said to be the most significant causes of stress at work. Burnout is worse because it can destroy a career and it also reflects poorly on management because the workplace, no matter how stressful, should have built in to the structure of the Human Resources department a strategy to relieve stressful conditions at key times so the harried employee or manager can get away to relax or be moved to a different department when stress is overwhelming.

INTRODUCTION to the HUMANITIES

ONE: The ancient beliefs about death and the life after are very interesting (even fascinating) because even today, religions differ dramatically on what happens when humans die. In ancient Egypt, the belief was that a person would be judged ethically, and there were several different parts to the afterlife based on one's body parts. The "akh" was like a ghost that lived near the tomb of the deceased; the "ka" was believed to be a spirit that looked precisely like the person looked prior to death; the "ba" was similar to what Christians believe to be the "soul" and the ba was capable of doing bodily functions for the deceased in the afterlife. The ancient Egyptians believed that Ra, the sun god, transported the ba and the ka across the sky. The Aztec civilization believed there were four different places (or realms) where the soul could go. The warriors, tradesmen and those who had been sacrificed were cremated and went to the Eastern Paradise to become companions of the sun. Women who died during childbirth went to the west and also were companions of the sun. If a person died by anything to do with water, like drowning, they were buried and went to a southern paradise. The final realm is Mictlan, very much like "Hell" in the Christian belief.

THREE:… [read more]


Marx and Hitler Term Paper

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Marx & Hitler

The easiest way to explain the concept of dialectic would probably be as change, movement reversal. All these would in turn lead to the upset of a current system and its reversal and transformation into a different one. Understanding the concept of dialectic would help someone understand the Communist Manifesto because Communism is all about completely changing the natural and social order of the society, while the Communist Manifesto was the introductory material that put the theoretical basis for this and set everything in motion.

The aim of a Communist would have been, at least reportedly in its incipient stages and up to the actual implementation of the Communist in one country notion and Stalin, to reverse the existing social order and place all means of production in the hands of the proletariat. Politically, leadership would be ensured by a dictatorship of the proletariat, which would regulate all the economic inputs and outputs, set the society norms etc. The final goal would have been a society with no social or economic classes to differentiate individuals. Since this would have been a complete reversal of existing status, Dialectic would have made the concept of huge change easier to understand in time.

It is quite simple to show why the concept gained so much support later on. The Industrial Revolution was already reaching its peak during that point and the workers were poorly made, lived in slumps and had a difficult life. The idea that something would come and simply reverse the entire current state of affairs was naturally attractive to the poorer blankets of the population, where the movement gained its strongest support.

2. The best explanation for this state of facts comes from the political, social and economical situation in…… [read more]


What Can the Iliad Teach Us About Humanity in War? Term Paper

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¶ … Iliad teach us about humanity in war

Humanity and War in the Iliad

The Iliad, one of the greatest works of ancient literature, is essentially a poem that celebrates war and the warring codes. The action of the poem spans a large period of time during the Trojan War, without actually seeing the battle through the end. The view of war presented in the Iliad differs widely from the modern view of war. The poem certainly presents the dark and destructive side of the conflict, which leads to the deaths of significant heroes (Patroclus, Hector, and even Achilles towards the end of the war), the pain and the suffering of the wives who lose their husbands and brothers in the fight and many other tragic events. An instance of the dreadful effects of war is given in Andromache's speech at the death of her husband Hector: "O my husband... / cut off from life so young! You leave me a widow, / lost in the royal halls -- and the boy is only a baby, / the son we bore together, you and I so doomed."("The Iliad," Book XXIV)

However, war and military glory are crucial values in Ancient Greeks. Both heroes and gods are appreciated according to their valiance and strength: the main virtues of Achilles and Hector are their undaunted courage and their warring skills, while Paris who is unskilled in war and unfit for it is despised by the rest of the characters, including Helen. The Iliad thus offers a complex insight into the human condition as well as the human nature, both insights being gained through the central theme of war. One of the most important lessons that the Iliad teaches is a significant lesson in humanity: Achilles, a very complex character, is at first motivated by his "rage" as the opening lines of the poem indicate: "Rage -- Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus' son Achilles, / murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans countless losses, / hurling down to the House of Death so many sturdy souls, / great fighters' souls, but made their bodies…… [read more]


Security Explain the Endurance of NATO Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 35

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¶ … security explain the endurance of NATO since the end of the Cold War?

NATO continuous survival after the end of the Cold War still remains a mystery for the academic environment, for scholars, and politicians alike. There have been numerous theoretical debates on the necessity, reasons for being and possible means to influence world politics and international conflicts.… [read more]


Western Civilization? Define Its Major Components Term Paper

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¶ … Western Civilization"? Define its major components and discuss its political and geographical reach.

Western civilization is a phrase used to usually pass on to most of the civilization of European derivation and most of their offspring. It includes the wide; geographically build inheritance of communal standard, moral values, customary society for example religion and particular relic and knowledge as shared in the Western field of power. The East West comparison is occasionally disapproved as relativistic and illogical. It can be complicated to decide which people fit into which group. In some ways it has developed out of use or has been distorted or illuminated to fit more in accurate uses. Although, it is openly descendent from educational oriental and occidental, the changing use of the difference in East and West has come to be functional as a means to recognize significant ethnic resemblance and dissimilarities altogether within an increasingly larger idea of local district plus with regard to increasingly recognizable different traditions. Throughout the cold war, the West and East distinction became identical with the opposing governments of the United States and Soviet Union plus their associates, correspondingly, though the environment of that dissimilarity is not in any way based on the difference between Eastern and Western societies. The culture of the most of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European associates is pronouncedly Western. In the United States throughout the Cold War era the phrase East and Asia were frequently worn disapprovingly by the executive misinformation mechanism which clarify the common propensity to be relevant these for such terms to the Soviet Union and its associates and erroneous endeavors to symbolize it as a disagreement between the Western and Eastern societies. The thought of Western civilization is usually connected to the traditional explanation of Western world. In this classification, Western civilization is the set of fictional, technical, melodic and theoretical values which set it to a distant from other civilizations. It relates to the states whose history is sturdily noticeable by Western European migration or resolution and is not limited to Western Europe. Much of this set of society and information is composed in the Western norm. A variety of uses for the thought of Western civilization have integrated, correctly or incorrectly, analysis of American civilization, greediness, industrialism, entrepreneurship, commercialism, pleasure-seeking, imperialism, socialism, totalitarianism, discrimination or novelty. Other propensities that describe contemporary Western civilizations are the survival of political pluralism, famous subcultures or countercultures, growing social syncretism ensuing from globalization and human immigration.

Fundamentals of Western civilization have had an extremely important role on other civilizations all around the world. People of many societies both in Western and non- Western, associates with the transformation of westernization. Some followers of…… [read more]


Georg Ritter Von Schonerer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  19 pages (5,347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

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George Ritter Von Schnerer

Von Schnerer's Growing Hatred for the Power Structures

Jews in Austria

Von Schnerer's Hatred of the Jews

Von Schnerer's Time as Representative

Von Schnerer and the Linzer Programm

Von Schnerer's Drift into Insanity

George Heinrich Ritter von Schnerer came from a family of engineers, inherited a purchased title, and aroused the petite bourgeoisie of Vienna and… [read more]


Cold War and Its Legacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,812 words)
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¶ … Cold War and its legacy. The Cold War between America and the Soviet Union had its origins at the end of World War II, when the two former allies began to look at the world and each other through different eyes. The Cold War was between the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R., but it affected the entire world, and… [read more]


Nsc-68 Document Influence the U.S.A.'s Policy Term Paper

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¶ … NSC-68 document influence the U.S.A.'s policy of containment, especially its involment in the Korean War? Do you feel that the U.S.A. was successful in achieving its goals?

The end of the Second World War represented a turning point in the contemporary history of the world. It marked not only the defeat of a fierce enemy, Nazi Germany, or the first use of the most destructive weapons known to mankind, the atomic bomb, but also the emergence of a tacit conflict between two systems of power, two ideologies and two completely opposed views on the future of the world, the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. The confrontations that took place along the decades represented occasions for the two sides to interpose their military, political, and economic capabilities and exercise their influence. The Korean War was one of the first occasions for the two sides to interact, following the end of the war. However, the historical developments in the U.S. gave this confrontation a deeper meaning and the American reaction to the war was in fact a political statement to its adversary, the U.S.S.R.

The immediate period after the war represented a time of confusing decisions that had to be taken at the level of the American officials (Kissinger, 1995). There was a general sense of disorientation among the leaders of all the parties involved. From the U.S. side the issue of choosing between a universal nature of the U.S. And the conduct of this cold war was increasingly worrisome because of Stalin's eagerness to take full control over the European continent. As Joseph Nye suggests, the Cold War represented a challenge for the conduct of international affairs due to the fact that it was a time of constant tensions which did not resulted in an actual war between rival states (2005). Nonetheless, there were periods in which the growing tensions often jeopardized the sensible equilibrium.

From this perspective, an immediate action had to be taken in 1950, especially in the light of the 1949 Berlin Crisis (Calvocoressi, 1987).

In this sense, the containment policy proved to be the solution adopted by most policy leaders. It was connected with the concept of deterrence, which meant forcing an actor not to result to action from the perspective of unwanted and dangerous consequences for its security (Nye, 2005). Nonetheless, the Berlin crisis proved to be an important alarm signal which made the free world consider the gravity of the peril the U.S.S.R. represented for Western democracies. The containment policy was in this sense, a method used to isolate the influence of the Russian threat and at the same time to expand liberal ideas.

The concept of containment, although was not a new one, was made available by George Kennan, the charge d'affairs of the U.S. To Moscow who, after a thorough analysis of the current situation in the U.S.S.R., in one of the most famous document of the Cold War, "the Long Telegram" viewed the Russian state as an inevitable threat facing the… [read more]