Study "World History" Essays 661-715

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Near East Though it Is a Small Term Paper

… ¶ … Near East

Though it is a small area, the Levant has played host to some of the most monumental events in history. The origin of three of the world's major religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the area is of interest to religious scholars and archeologists alike. Archeologists had always suspected that the area was rich in trade, but the sheer number of artifacts on the ship suggest that not only was trade in the area extensive, but also that several of the people groups represented through items on the ship associated socially.

The sheer amount of artifacts and raw materials on board the ship suggest that it was a trade vessel by occupation. Though artifacts such as jewelry, tools, containers were discovered on the ship, the bulk of the items were raw materials such as gold, bronze, and copper (Uluburun artifacts). In fact, the wreck contained more tin than any other shipwreck of the Bronze Age and the first shipwreck in which resin could be identified; the ship was carrying the largest amount ever found (University of Texas). The abundance of raw materials not only strengthens the assumption that the ship was a trade vessel by occupation and that it was headed for a large trade center, perhaps the Nile. Additional implications of this material suggest that the region was more wealthy and resourceful than before imagined.

One of the most important implications of the artifacts found on the Uluburun is the extent of trade in the Levant. With few harbors and waterways that made trade naturally convenient, the Levant still managed to participate in a great deal of trade. In fact, discoveries made among the wreckage of the Uluburun proves the extension of that trade. Three major trade routes have always been associated with the area -- the Way of the Sea, the Ridge Route, and the King's Highway, which allowed trade between Anatolia, Egypt, and Mesopotamia (Major Trade Routes). Artifacts were found on the shipwreck to confirm these trade routes. Though some believe the ship to have been heading for Egypt and the Nile, Egyptian artifacts were found on board. For example, a ring made of gold and silver, or electrum, which occurs naturally only in Egypt, was found among a pile of discarded scrap metal aboard the ship (Uluburun Artifacts). This implies that the ship had been to traded with Egypt in the past, perhaps making the journey several times. Anatolian and Mesopotamian artifacts were also discovered on board (Uluburun Artifacts).

In addition to confirming the three main trade routes of the Levant, the relics of the Uluburun also extended them. Stephen Bachhuber suggested that artifacts found on the ship developed a connection between the Mycenaean Agean and the rest of the…… [read more]


Greek Culture Term Paper

… Greek Culture

Greek art and its relationship with the modern world cannot be stressed enough, for it could be said that ancient Greece and even the modern Greek nation would be unrecognizable if it was not for Greek art which over the last two thousand years has come to symbolize Greek culture. Several examples stand out like the Jefferson Memorial and the U.S. Capital, both designed by adopting the architectural styles of the ancient Greeks. The role of the city of Athens is also highly important, especially related to the Parthenon, as is the literature created by a number of Greek writers. In essence, without the genius of the ancient Greeks, the physicality of our modern world would not be the same.

GREEK ART: HISTORICAL and CULTURAL INFLUENCES

According to Horst de la Croix, for the ancient Greeks the natural world was a place of much beauty and logical simplicity and in order to live the "good life," every Greek, both men and women, was required to view the world "in line with the natural laws discernible by rational minds" (2003, p. 124). Thus, in order to achieve this "good life," the ancient Greeks devised many new ways of expressing human emotion and feelings, one being through the creation of works of art, such as in sculpture, architecture, ceramics, literature and specialized forms of painting, all of which existed and flourished long before the rise of that other great Western culture known as the Roman Empire. In essence, it could be said that ancient Greece and even today's modern Greek nation would not exist if it were not for the creation of art which over the last two thousand years has come to symbolize Greek culture through some of the finest artworks ever created by Western man.

Undoubtedly, the art which was produced in ancient Greece, beginning with the Archaic or "Dark" Period and up to the Hellenistic Era, "has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries" from ancient times to our own modern age, especially related to sculpture and architecture ("Ancient Greek Art," 2008, Internet). A good example is the influence of Greek art upon the Roman Empire which adopted, if not blatantly confiscated, the artistic ideals of the Greeks to form their own society and to eventually become the most powerful entity in Western Europe. Also, if it were not for the architectural forms and designs of the ancient Greeks, particularly those found in the city of Athens during the Classical Period, the modern-day look of Washington, D.C. And many other American cities would be very different.

One only needs to think of the U.S. Capital Building, the Jefferson Memorial or the official state government houses of numerous American cities to recognize the great influence which Greek artistic styles have had upon our modern world.

Furthermore, after the Renaissance Period in Western Europe, circa 1550 C.E., the humanist aesthetic values of the ancient Greeks and the "high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of… [read more]


Review: Holocaust by Angela Gluck Wood Term Paper

… Review: Holocaust by Angela Gluck Wood
For some who are living today, the memories of the Holocaust, life
during the time of the Holocaust or the experiences which would reverberate
from it even decades later are still fresh. The indelible scars which the
atrocity branded onto the world are continuously perceptible in an
artistic, literary and cultural tenacity which has persisted to remind the
collective of its responsibility to pay honor to the victims of its worst
conceits. But as more times stretches between the systematic murder of 6
million Jews as it transpired throughout Eastern Europe in concurrence with
World War II and the first-hand cognizance of such horrors in present-day
witnesses, it will become increasingly more difficult for historical
observers to properly contextualize the precious testimonials which are
currently available and the shocking statistical breadth of events directly
there related. This is especially true when one considers the emotionally
charged nature which historiography on the topic of this mass-genocide
tends to take on. The culture which has formed around historical
remembrance of the Holocaust is inextricably tied into the psyche of the
Jewish people and indeed the perspective of the world on ethnic cleansing
of any form. In these respects, the forms of its recollections, such as
museums, educational programs and broad, sweeping text-books, are certainly
practical to the function of education and enlightenment. However, in the
construction of there is a singular challenge to balance objectivism with a
fair account of the truly heinous extent of events occurring during the
Holocaust. In its concise discussion points, its intensively dense
collections of statistical information and its loyal reference to survivor
testimonies, the text simply entitled Holocaust by Angela Gluck Wood has
contributed a thorough and emotionally balanced perspective on the events
of isolation, encampment and genocide that were obsessively pursued by the
Nazis.
The text is largely centered on the history of the Jews, framing the
pivotal event in the history of the people as being the Holocaust. By
orienting the text through a carefully conceived introduction remarking on
the sequence of inequities visited upon the Jewish people throughout their
history and proceeding to examine in ambitious breadth the implications to
the Jewish people of the Holocaust, Wood essentially tells the story of the
selected group according to the persistence of anti-Semitism. This
approach manifests in a tragic discussion on the vagaries of human nature,
bringing an unusual life and humanism to a history hardback. Its collages
of text and image, artifact and document are selected with an attention to
this sentiment without ever cloying or descending into condescending
depiction of the victimized group.
This is assisted by an intriguing and nonetheless damning portrait of
the Germans. We see the nature of the political and cultural pressure
levied upon the economically embattled Germans. Of these, Wood tells that
"at first there was little support for the Nazis in Germany, but they
learned the powerful appeal of uniforms, symbols, rallies, and salutes from
the experience of Italian fascists. Nazi… [read more]


Ancient Near East the Story of Sinuhe Term Paper

… ¶ … Ancient Near East

The story of Sinuhe may be seen as one of the first sources of literature as well as history of the world. It represents interesting and indeed somewhat fascinating events which took place in ancient Egypt and Syria. It is also a mirror image of the way in which ancient people viewed their country, their religion, and their beliefs.

Sinuhe was the traditional Egyptian servant who flees the country after overhearing a plot being set in place in order to assassinate the king at the time. The individual ishe entire story however is important not necessarily for the actual events which take place which could be the part of any medieval novel or story, but rather the actual depiction of the society and the environment at that particular time. Therefore, one of the first elements to be pointed out was the sense of honor and respect nurtured for the ruler. More importantly, this respect was manifested through the refusal of Sinuhe to take part in any possible attempt to assassinate the ruler of the country. In this sense, he chose to flee the country rather than confront the challenges.

Another aspect which the story fo Sinuhe points out is the relationship between the individual and the state. In this case the individual is seen as representing the state, with all its qualities and benefits. Therefore, the story underlines the fact in the moment in which Sinuhe is received in exile. Thus "well then, Egypt is happy knowing that he is strong. But you are here. You shall stay with me. What I shall do for you is good. He set me at the head of his children. He married me to his eldest daughter. He let me choose for myself of his land, of the best that was his, on his border with another land" (the Story of Sinuhe, n.d.). Therefore, the faith the ruler had in a stranger was relfcted in fact by the faith he had on the country he represented.

In ancient Egypt the country or the land one belonged to represented a crucial identification mark. It stood for the honesty or dishonesty of an individual or for the actual image created in the world. Taking into account the Story of Sinuhe, this particular land made no exception. This case was visible throughout the poem but especially towards the end. The character refused to be buried on foreign territory, regardless of the treatment they offered to him. The love and dedication for the country was stronger than any other desire to remain safe and dedicated. Therefore, he asked for his return and his return was granted with extreme joy. However, the entire ritual of letters and correspondence point out precisely the idea that the Egyptian state did not abandon its citizen, regardless of the means through which the exiled people chose this form of exercise.

The piece of writing can also be interpreted as a pure sense of literary work. More precisely,… [read more]


Art and Ideology Term Paper

… Art & Ideology

Art has always been considered as one of the most important means of expression available to a culture and a cultural space. It represents the tool with which a country can develop the practical and physical nuances… [read more]


Germany Invades Poland Term Paper

… Germany Invades Poland

The Second World War represented one of the most important events in the history of our world. It marked the emergence, peak, and decline of some of the most powerful state forces the world has ever known.… [read more]


Significance of Diversity in Post Civil War United States Historiography Term Paper

… ¶ … Diversity in Post-Civil War U.S. Historiography

The way we study history colors our view of that history. History itself is a sum of collective experiences that has been synthesized through many sources, each with its own unique perspective. As a people, our history is more valuable the more accurately it is represented.

Each source from which we draw our history contains biases. Histories are comprised of accounts and records of human experience and almost all of these accounts and records are influenced by bias of some sort. For example even the recording of facts, such as birth records, can contain bias in that in some societies, not all births were recorded. Being that each source contains some form of bias, the best way to develop an accurate recording of history is to seek to eliminate the impact of such biases to the best possible degree. Diversification of sources helps to do this.

By seeking information from all sources, the impact of bias is reduced. The perspective of each source will be slightly unique. In using a diverse range of unique sources, the historian will be better equipped to distill alternate views into the history he or she is creating. Because history is the creation of human beings, bias cannot be fully discounted, but by following the principle of diversity in source material counteracting viewpoints can be presented, allowing either the historian or the reader to interpret the history in their own light, more free from bias than if they were presented with a non-diverse history.

Another benefit of diversity in historiography is that it better reflects the human experience. The perspective of an individual human is merely a reflection of the world in one person's eyes. In that way, it is of limited value as a history of a collective group of people, best used only when diversity is not an option, or as part of a diverse set of research. History of any group of people is most accurate and most valuable when multiple viewpoints are considered. The nature of human experience is that our collective experience when it is contemporary is comprised of a myriad of viewpoints. Thus it stands to reason that our history, to reflect this fact, should also be comprised of a myriad of viewpoints.

This is especially true in a society as vast and diverse as post-Civil War United States. Such a history is nearly infinite in its scope, and is comprised of the unique individual histories of thousands of subgroups. The degree of racial, gender and social stratification in this country is such that no one group's view of history can be considered relevant for the nation as a whole. The nation's history is thus the sum of thousands of smaller histories. To consider the nation's history without incorporating these smaller histories would be to reduce both the accuracy and relevance of the work.

The issue of relevance…… [read more]


Marshall Plan and the Post 911 Global Research Paper

… Marshall Plan and the Post 911 Global War on Terror

Many times in the history of the world, war or its aftermath has threatened catastrophe. Following the end of the First World War, the leaders of the victorious allied nations… [read more]


Signals of the Late Middle Ages Term Paper

… ¶ … Middle Ages

Signals That the Middle Ages Were Ending

Though some people date the Middle Ages through 1517, there were signs that the Middle Ages in Europe could not continue as early as 800 AD, when Charlemagne was crowned and began his diplomatic reign. The intellectual, economic, religious and political environments all had reached a point where the culture of earlier centuries could not continue.

One of the signals that the Middle Ages were ending was a result of an outbreak of the Bubonic Plague. Beginning in China, the plague spread throughout the world through the trade routes. The plague killed, with horrible symptoms and speed, 25 million people over a 5-year period, 1347 to 1352, before abating somewhat, though it still could be found in the 1600s. The historic period called the Middle Ages, with its turmoil which formed nations and religions, came to a close as the plague arrived, devastating the population of the known civilized world. So many died that labor shortages improved the working man's lot by making labor more valuable. No longer could the aristocracy take the lives and service of their underlings for granted. Now workers could demand higher wages, and though they were at first denied, the peasant revolts in Italy, Belgium, France, and England carried the struggle between labor and management over into the 1400s, resulting in a better life for the common man.

The plague affected not only labor relations, but religion, as devout Christians questioned the efficacy of prayer and the existence of a compassionate god. The questions and arguments which arose sparked philosophical and theological schisms which changed the Church from that time forward. Other philosophical questions which arose as a result of the plague and its aftermath led into the Renaissance, when the use of the printing press allowed ideas to be spread through the written word.

The economics of the Middle Ages were affected by the labor market, which was devastated by the plague. Trade routes had been opened between Europe and the East. The Crusades which flourished during the Middle Ages ceased, but resulted in trade and communications between the Far East and the West. Banking began in earnest with the Knights Templar and the rise of huge masses of population in cities demanding safe…… [read more]


Western Civilization Scholasticism Was a Method Term Paper

… Western Civilization

Scholasticism was a method of learning initiated in medieval universities in the 12th century which lasted for approximately four centuries. The main aim of scholasticism was to find an answer to a certain question through a specific method… [read more]


Romanesque Churches Term Paper

… Art History

The Architecture of Romanesque Churches

Romanesque architecture represented the first great architectural style to spread across Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. Known to a large extent from numerous extant churches and monasteries, it is characterized by an overall sense of solidity and the rather heavy proportions of its classically-inspired elements. In contrast to the Gothic style that succeeded it, Romanesque appears to spring more directly from the Earth, its heavy forms hugging the ground and appearing truer to the geometric originals. The Romanesque style is so called from its prominent use of rounded, Roman-style arches that spring from massive piers. Churches tend to be constructed of sturdy masonry and feature relatively few windows. Floor plans are typically relatively simple. Charlemagne's great Palatine Chapel at Aachen is cruciform in plan, its central orientation emphasizing its liturgical function. Modeled after the Roman palace chapels of San Lorenzo in Milan, and San Vitale in Ravenna, its sixteen sides surrounding an octagon included ample space for the Emperor's impressive collection of relics and his own mausoleum. To complete the Roman effect, columns and capitals were taken from pre-existing Roman monuments and re-installed among the splendor created by Charlemagne.

Eclectic columns and capitals are a notable feature of the Romanesque and can be viewed in innumerable surviving cathedrals and related religious structures. Rather than follows the rigid formulations of the Classical orders, Romanesque architects produced their own variants on the Ancient capital and shaft. Capitals were sculptured in a variety of often ingenious forms, many of them figural, while the shafts were adorned with zigzags and other ornaments. At Saint-Sernin, in Toulouse, the cloisters feature a bewildering variety of very un-Roman ornament. Paired lions and birds alternate with vine tendrils or other plant forms, while miniature angels battle dragons on the tops of the columns.

Key to much Romanesque architecture is the synthesis of medieval imagination and ingenuity with the basic elements of Classical composition. The great cathedrals and monastic structures of the later Romanesque period feature the familiar march of arcades and columns, but assembled in a manner that is mid-way between the Classical and the Gothic. St. Michael's at Hildesheim presents a fine example of the style propagated by Otto, first of the long line of…… [read more]


History of the U.S. Civil War Term Paper

… ¶ … Southern devotion to a system of slave labor retarded modernization in the South. Modernization in the South was hindered because, while the rest of the country was progressing, the South's economy could still utilize slaves. For example, in… [read more]


Poetry Technique Term Paper

… ¶ … METAPHOR in SYLVIA PLATH'S DADDY

In her 1965 poem Daddy, Sylvia Plath utilizes the poetic technique of metaphor extensively in order to demonstrate to the reader how she feels about her father as a perceived member of the Nazi Party. First of all, Plath mentions her father's "black shoe" (line 2) which symbolizes the familiar footwear worn by Nazis during World War II in Hitler's Germany. In lines 8-9, Plath calls her late father "Marble heavy, a bag full of God/Ghastly statue" which indicates her disgust with him as an overblown, iconic figure of marble, standing aloof and indifferent to the suffering of the Jews. In line 25, Plath mentions her tongue being stuck in her jaw and then equates this with "It stuck in a barb wire snare" (line 26) which symbolizes the barb wire of the death camps at Auchwitz and Dachau. Lines 31-32 refers to the freight trains which carried the Jews to the death camps ("An engine, an engine/Chuffing me off like a Jew"). Obviously, Plath sees herself as a Jew in a death camp where her father possibly held a position as a guard or some other authority figure. Plath then states that the "snows of the Tyrol, (i.e., the mountains) "the clear beer of Vienna (i.e., German beer), "are not very pure or true" (lines 36-37) which symbolizes her opinion that the Aryan…… [read more]


Coming of WWI and WWII Term Paper

… ¶ … British, German, and United States entrances into each World War. Each country entered into World War I and II for different reasons, but each country fought in both wars, bringing some of the most powerful nations on earth in direct conflict with one another.

The Germans entered World War I as a result of the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo, Czechoslovakia. Germany had an alliance with Austria-Hungary, the home country of the Archduke, and so, when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, the home of the assassin, Germany joined in. However, there was more to the German entry into the war than a simple upholding of an alliance. Germany had engaged in a major military buildup with Great Britain throughout the first years of the 20th century. Great Britain maintained command of the seas with their navy, and the maintained this command by building the HMS Dreadnought, a monster battleship that made all others battleships obsolete by comparison. In turn, Germany built up their own buildup by building their own ships and creating a generally larger military. Many historians believe this was at least some of the background that led to an attitude of war and combat in the area even before the Archduke was assassinated. In reality, Austria-Hungary was the first to declare war in July 1914, but Germany was right behind, declaring war on Russia on August 1, 1914, and then France and Belgium on August 3 and 4. This dragged Great Britain into the war, creating a World War where it might have begun as a local skirmish. With the German military buildup, it seems that Germany wanted war, and was extremely eager to back up their ally by first creating elaborate battle plans and then declaring war on the enemies that were closest to them, or they thought posed the biggest threat to their own country.

Great Britain entered World War I also as a result of treaties and alliances. Great Britain was allied with France, and Germany's first thrust into war centered on Belgium and France. Great Britain entered the war on August 4, after Germany had declared war on Belgium and France. Belgium was supposed to be a neutral state, but Germany marched through it to get to Paris, and this immediately brought Great Britain into the war. France was also allied with Russia, and so, Great Britain, France, and Russia were united in fighting the "Central Powers" of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.

In addition, Great Britain felt threatened by Germany, which, along with their military buildup, was located just across the North Sea on the European mainland. Therefore, even if they had not been allied with France and Russia, and bound to support their allies, they probably would have become involved in the war before too long, anyway, but their alliances just made them enter the war right at the beginning, instead of waiting to see what happened.

The United… [read more]


Informal Term Paper

… ¶ … Political Poetry of Wilfred Owen and Langston Hughes

Both the British World War I poet Wilfred Owen and the Harlem Renaissance author Langston Hughes used poetry to express their outrage about the lies of politics and the refusal of politicians to truly serve humankind. In "Dulce et Decorum Est" Owen describes a horrific encounter during his experience with trench warfare, when a gas bomb was lobbed into the foxhole where he and his fellow soldiers were mired. He put on his gas mask quickly, but one of his fellow soldiers was not so lucky. "In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, / He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning." The bitter title of the poem refers to the lie that Owen was told as a schoolboy and as a new recruit, that it is sweet to die for one's country. The man's death is horrific, and even the living soldiers are miserable, cold, poorly clothed, fed, and "blood shod." Instead of love and life, the young men must sacrifice themselves for a war they do not understand or believe in, and all they have are cliches to sustain their spirits during times of peril.

Langston Hughes, like Owen, speaks of dreams, ugly dreams that are deferred rather than fulfilled. To dream is a beautiful thing or should be. But instead, the dreams of the dispossessed crust over "like a syrupy sweet," or sag, or exploded. The title of the poem "Harlem" underlines the fact that the deferral of a dream is not personal, but a collective injustice of deferral inflicted upon an entire populace. Like Owen, Hughes speaks for his generation, not merely himself. There is again the irony of the beautiful ideal, and the reality, although for Hughes the ideal of the dream is desirable, unlike the concept of dying for one's country. Also in Hughes there is a sense that perhaps, because the residents of Harlem can still dream, that a better tomorrow is conceivable, while Owen's soldiers seem resigned to the fact that they will die, or never be the same men again once they return, because of what they have seen.

Informal Essay: A hero from history

When…… [read more]


Neoclassical Rococo Style Term Paper

… Art History

The Values of Art:

Neoclassical and Rococo

Artistic styles reflect the values of their times. Much as our world celebrates technology, speed, and innovation, previous periods in Western civilization depicted beliefs and goals of contemporary importance. The Eighteenth Century, in particular, was an age of transition. Europe and its colonies were moving from the last stages of a medieval conscience based on Faith toward a sense of rationalism and scientific discovery that appears more in line with much of today's Twenty-First Century thought. The century began with the rococo and ended with the neoclassical. Ornate, flowing, and boldly passionate, rococo art and decor perfectly captured the precious refinement and glittering grandeur of Europe's ancien regime courts. In a time when kings and princes still ruled by unquestioned divine right, rococo's near-religious ecstasies demonstrated and confirmed these claims to power and influence. Yet, as the century wore on, Western thought would be shaped by new forces that would soon come to question much that had been taken for granted for centuries. In search of models, the philosophes of France, and kindred spirits elsewhere, looked to the reason and order of Ancient Greece and Rome. Their ideas gave rise to a neoclassical style that favored symmetry and order as symbols of a world that would henceforth be governed by rational principles. A new and better world would emerge out of the monuments of the Ancients.

Rococo developed directly out of the earlier Baroque tradition, an artistic style that, in turn, had its roots in Counterreformation attempts to inspire passion for the sacred. Under this scheme, art and architecture were employed to create an emotional, and almost theatrical, experience that would inspire the worshipper. Kings and magnates were glorified and deified - the apotheosis of one or more dynasts being a common theme in Baroque art. Rococo represented a further refinement of the dynamism and often overpowering grandeur of the Baroque. As the violent struggles between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism receded into the past, rulers all over Europe settled down to lives of exquisite elegance and courtly grace. A greater restraint arose from an increasing emphasis on the monarch's private life.

The heavy sculptural forms of the earlier period gave way to delicate curlicues of gold or silver, delicate shapes that mimicked the tendrils of plants. Baskets of flowers, medallions, and other stereotyped ornaments hung suspended from these metallic branches. Frederick the Great's Sans Souci was the image of a great ruler's residence as a mere pleasure pavilion set in a garden. Similar examples proliferated across a now peaceful Germany and throughout the Hapsburg lands and across Europe - as far away even as Sweden and Russia. The Schloss Amalienberg; Rastrelli's fanciful Catherine Palace at Tsarskoye Selo; the Chinese Pavilion at Drottningholm in Sweden - all were typical examples of the cult of rarified manners, exquisite taste, witty banter, and intellectual discussion that had come to characterize the denizens of Louis XV's Versailles and their Parisian salons. The entire Western world… [read more]


Qing Dynasty, Which Lasted From 1644 Term Paper

… Qing Dynasty, which lasted from 1644 to 1911, was also known as Ch'ing or Manchu. During this historical period, imperial China reached its zenith of power and influence, extending China's borders farther than they had ever been before and perfecting the Chinese imperial system. In fact, the Qing empire appeared so well-structured and economically flourishing in the 18th century, that the French philosopher Voltaire praised the country's leaders for having the most effectively organized government in the entire world. In addition, European leaders admired the powerful and learned Qing rulers as "enlightened despots" and advised their own kings to copy Chinese methods of government (Encarta). However, as in the case as all empires in the past, the Qing Dynasty and its glory days also came to an end. After being more than prosperous for 300 years, it fell apart in the 19th century, by growing weak and inflexible. It could no longer adapt as new external challenges and problems arose. Bad harvests, warfare, rebellions, overpopulation, economic disasters, and foreign imperialism contributed to the dynasty's collapse. Most of all, it was caused by a combination of factors including military deterioration and internal rebellions, the White Lotus Rebellion and early Western contact.

By 1800, there were already signs of decline in the Qing Dynasty, including military ineffectiveness of the leading forces, corruption of the top bureaucracy and difficulties of livelihood among the ever-growing population (Fairbank and Reischauer). The banner forces, which had controlled the East Asian continent for nearly two centuries and had won so many battles in the past, were losing their strength and were now become increasingly ill-supplied, poorly trained and demoralized. Officers and troops, who were on stipends, were being pressured by rising costs, and impoverished soldiers, who tried to live on rice stipends in their garrisons, were now being forced to become artisans, low-level traders or criminals to make a living.

The forces' deterioration was furthered by the uprising called the White Lotus Rebellion from 1796 to 1804, against the Manchu leaders of the Qing Dynasty. Poor settlers in the mountainous region dividing Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces began to rebel, because of a tax protest. The rebellion was led by the White Lotus Society, a secret religious group that foresaw the growth of Buddhism, supported restoration of the native Chinese Ming dynasty, and pledged personal salvation to its followers. At first the Qing administration sent its poorly trained and ineffectual forces to fight these ill-organized rebels. In 1799, however, Emperor Chia Ch'ing used more force and overthrew these rebels and restored discipline and morale (Roberts).

Peace once again was restored as these freedom fighters were put down. The unstable populace was transported into hundreds of enclosed villages and organized into militia. In addition, the Qing containment policy combined detection and death of rebel guerrilla bands and an amnesty program for deserters. Although the Manchu finally crushed the rebellion in 1804, the damage was done. The credibility that had been built up for so many generations… [read more]


Treaty of Versailles Term Paper

… Treaty of Versailles was signed after World War One was over to bring peace, however it was in the shadow of the Russian Revolution along with other events in Russia. "The treaty was signed at the vast Versailles Palace near… [read more]


Russian History 1900-1989 Term Paper

… Russia/USSR

There are certain events in the history of the world that had a defining impact on the way in which events developed and in which the world evolved to what is today or society. One such event was the… [read more]


Ming Dynasty's Demise Term Paper

… Ming Dynasty's Demise

The many and varied factors that led to the fall of the Chinese Ming Dynasty are very pertinent from an historical and cultural perspective, and those issues will be presented and reviewed in this paper.

INTRODUCTION &… [read more]


Industrialization and Colonization in the Early 20th Term Paper

… ¶ … Industrialization and colonization in the early 20th century.How did that result in the concept of Manifest Destiny/David Livingstone's 3Cs?

Industrialization fueled colonization and vice-versa. Technological developments made mass production possible, and so large amounts of natural resources needed to be culled to meet demands. Colonized regions of South America, Africa, and Asia were ripe with the natural resources required to make mass-production possible. Moreover, industrialization led directly to urbanization. As populations shifted to urban centers, agriculture became less viable in places like North America and Western Europe. Colonized lands also became sources of food. Crops were no longer grown for local subsistence needs but also grown for the budding agro-business sector.

Colonization also stimulated industrial development. Booming businesses in the colonial hubs meant that inventors rapidly developed new machinery for factories, new modes of transportation, and new methods of long-distance communication. Demand for a globalized economy led to further industrial growth, which until the late 20th century went virtually unchecked. The concept of Manifest Destiny and the example set by Dr. Livingstone illustrate how deeply the colonial impetus was rooted in the European psyche. Manifest Destiny changed the geo-political boundaries of the United States and symbolized the sense of cultural superiority that colonization is based on. The early explorers and later, the industrial age pioneers, believed that technological progress signaled a more advanced civilization and as a result, trampled on indigenous cultures and peoples.

Q2. What were the land-based empires, and who replaced them and why?

Land-based empires were based on a pre-industrial model of colonial expansion. Based mainly on vast territorial expansion and centralized control of agricultural resources, a land-based empire would be replaced by a new imperialistic model of expansionism. The British Empire was in part based on territorial holdings such as its colonies in Africa and Asia and became one of the most notable sea-based empires. However, by…… [read more]


USSR Why Did the U.S.S.R. Succeed Term Paper

… USSR

Why did the U.S.S.R. succeed in building its "empire" from 1945 to 1990?

It was one the immediate results of the Second world war that a sort of 'historical division' between the East and the Western parts of Europe came into being. This was the time in history that a 'polarization' of the societies on both sides of the so called 'Iron Curtain' took place, and this meant that both the sides started to develop in completely different ways from each other. In the year 1989 and onwards, a new period of transition started, and this was when several aspects of life such as family life, gender relations, and biographical orientations and so on became affected in completely unexpected ways. (Biographies and the Division of Europe)

One must remember the fact that Adolph Hitler in Germany had always harbored a strong hatred for Russian Communists, and this made it inevitable that a War of great scale would take place between the two countries, and this was exactly what happened. However, Stalin, the Great Russian leader, made sure that he would be able to make certain territorial gains for himself during this period, and when in the year 1939 Germany and the U.S.S.R. signed a secret non-aggression pact dividing up Poland, the Soviets took it upon themselves to invade Eastern Poland. In the same year, USSR invaded Finland as well, and eventually Finland had no other option than to surrender. Soon afterwards, USSR invaded the Baltic states, and in the year 1941, USSR and Japan signed a 'neutrality pact', but in the same year, when Germany invaded Russia, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Finland took this chance to declare war on Russia as well, and the war continued until the year 1943 when more than 90,000 German troops at Stalingrad surrendered to the Soviets. Later the same year, Stalin met Roosevelt and Churchill, and it was decided that while the Western Allies would invade France from the West, the U.S.S.R. would invade the Eastern side. It was over the next few years that the U.S.S.R. would capture Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Yugoslavia, Warsaw, Vienna, and Berlin, and after Hitler committed suicide, Stalin broke his non-aggression pact with Japan, and invaded Japan held Manchuria. Although several thousands of people in the Soviet Union died as a result of the War, the U.S.S.R.'s armed forces remained as powerful as ever even after the end, and this was the beginning of the Cold War. (World War II in the Soviet Union)

One must remember that it was the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R. that emerged as the super powers after the Second World War and these two powers became bitter enemies and rivals. They began the Arms Race, and as the U.S.S.R. began to advance further into Eastern Europe, in its empire building activities, the U.S.A. started to become alarmed. This was the time of the Marshall Plan, which was created to pledge assistance to Europe to aid in post war recovery efforts, and the… [read more]


Cold War After the End of World Term Paper

… ¶ … Cold War after the end of World War II and how Europe and the world were divided by two super powers. The Cold War broke out after the end of World War II between the Soviet Union and the United States. It was based on disagreements between the two countries' policies, and the American possession of the atomic bomb. It lasted until the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, and drove a wedge between the two countries that is not easily forgotten.

The Cold War began shortly after the end of World War II in 1945. One historian writes, "The great turning point in the course of postwar Russian-American relations came during the period between September 1945 and the summer of 1947" (Whitcomb 66). Essentially, the United States and Russia grew increasingly at odds over the Russian policies in the countries they occupied after the war, including Bulgaria and Romania. Washington wanted the Soviets to create democratic elections in the countries, among other things, and the Soviets initially agreed and then refused, which created tension between the countries. This tension escalated when Soviet leader Joseph Stalin reassured his people that the Soviets would develop their own nuclear technology, surpassing the West, and many experts believed the Soviets were setting the stage for war (Whitcomb 70-71).

Thus, the stage was set for the Cold War. In actuality, there was no real "war" with the Soviets, but there was mutual distrust and fear. The Soviets did eventually develop their own atomic capabilities, and a buildup of weapons and nuclear weapons occurred on both sides. The entire situation was called the Cold War because hostilities never broke out between the two countries, but they were not allies, either. The White House first referred to the "Cold War" in a document in 1948, after the Soviets clamped down on Czechoslovakia after a coup. The Soviets wanted to dominate Europe (and perhaps the world), and the United States felt it was their duty to stop them. The U.S.S.R. played a key role in the development of the Cold War because they began systematically repressing the countries they occupied after the war ended, and turned those countries into Communist satellites, under their control. Historian Whitcomb continues, "The key to an understanding of current Soviet foreign policy,' the report stated, 'is the realization that Soviet leaders adhere to the Marxian theory of ultimate destruction of capitalist states by communist states'" (Whitcomb 75). This was part of a report on Soviet/U.S. relations commissioned by President Truman in 1946, and it indicates the key differences between the two countries and their policies.

The Truman Doctrine was a plan conceived to help nations threatened by Communism. The Truman Doctrine initially began with aid to Turkey and Greece in 1947, and continued in one form or another throughout the Cold War. It was a global, all encompassing effort to control Communism, and of course, the Soviets protested it. Many other nations did too, and it served to strain… [read more]


Middle East Term Paper

… Middle East

Discuss the difficulties faced by the Middle Eastern empires in adapting to the intellectual, technological, economic, political, and social challenges presented by the West in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Middle Eastern empires had to adapt to… [read more]


Stephen Dorril Did the British Secret Intelligence Term Paper

… Stephen Dorril

Did the British Secret Intelligence Service, MI6, intentionally, deliberately help to initiate the Cold War, and then keep it going? That is one of the thrusts of Stephen Dorril's book, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's… [read more]


KGB Summary of Soviet Intelligence Operations Term Paper

… KGB

Summary of Soviet Intelligence Operations

The world watched in wonder as the former mighty Soviet empire collapsed in the early 1990s, and the ugly face of the Iron Curtain was finally erased from the European continent. One of the… [read more]


Ancient Iraq Term Paper

… Ancient Iraq

The land where the present day troubled nation of Iraq lies was once known as Mesopotamia - "the land between the rivers." It is widely considered to be the birthplace of civilization as we know it. The world's very first cities, Uruk and Ur, were established here around 3,500 B.C. In Sumer, which is now known as the southern region of Iraq.

The two rivers that the name of Mesopotamia refers to are the Tigris and Euphrates. While the two rivers provided a water source and were able to thus supply much of the reason with life, they also posed a large problem to inhabitants of the region. This is because both rivers had the tendency to flood, which would effectively wipe out a large segment of the area's population. At the same time, the soil around both these rivers was incredibly fertile. This led the settlers of the region to grow tons of food, which soon attracted settlers from other regions. Civilization was born in Sumer as a result of the need to govern all these people and manage the task of massive production.

It is widely believed that many of the Sumerians' inventions - which include writing, the wheel, the plow, and astronomy - were done in response to the need to adapt to the unpredictable cycles of the rivers that surrounded them. Through their invention of the cuneiform alphabet, the Sumerians were able to pass on agricultural methods to succeeding generations, while simultaneously giving rise to the first known written culture and literature. The Sumerians, a pantheistic people, were deeply religious and thus felt that the gods made all the decisions governing their daily lives. Thus, authority in their culture was given to priests, who made all decisions concerning social, political, and economic matters, as they were the closest thing to the divine authority of the gods that the Sumerians believed they had on earth.

The priests of ancient Sumer devoted much of their time and energy to study of natural phenomena, as they interpreted such phenomena as being direct communication from the gods. As such, they managed to come up with some of the earliest scientific inventions and discoveries. It was the Sumerians who decided that there are sixty minutes in every hour, as the number sixty served as their basic unit of calculation. The Sumerian priests were also responsible for the development of the sophisticated irrigation system that would temper the harsh tendencies of the rivers and see to it that distant Sumerian cities were able to grow food. Then, as the first cities in Sumer began to grow, technological development began to…… [read more]


General Omar Bradley in the Battle of Normandy Term Paper

… ¶ … Omar Bradley in the Battle of Normandy

General Omar Bradley was an significant figure in the World War II and particularly for his participation in the Battle of Normandy. During World War II he was the commanding officer… [read more]


Propaganda in Hitler's Nazi Germany Term Paper

… Hitlers' Germany

The role propaganda plaid in Nazi Germany over 12 years, between 1933 and 1945 is the role propaganda plaid in any totalitarian state in modern times and more. The fact that the Nazis even established a special Ministry… [read more]


U.S. Intelligence Revolution Term Paper

… U.S. Intelligence Revolution

The transformations that occurred in the intelligence field after the Second World War and during the Cold War brought up what can be called an intelligence revolution because of the nature of these transformations. The United States… [read more]


German Nationalism Term Paper

… German Nationalism

Johann Gottfried Herder locates the origins of nationalism in nature. According to his perspective, the planet's natural geographical evolution gave rise to different groups of "peoples" who developed their own customs in isolation from other nation-based identities. He identifies a nation as a "natural state" with a "character" of its own. If the state is well governed, then whoever rules it will cultivate it according to its own natural laws.

Besides nature, from which national character springs over a period of thousands of years, there is language that gives one a national identity. Herder declares language to be the heart of the people. Without it, he argues convincingly, there is no way for a nation to express its culture.

Above all, Herder's conception of nationalism calls for the peaceful co-existence of nations under the guise of mutual respect for their individual characteristics, culture, and language. At the time of its publication in 1784, it was a version of nationalism, called "cultural nationalism," that called for the acknowledgement of a strong German national identity as well as respect towards other, foreign national identities, without privileging one over the other. In that regard, it is quite distant from the negative characteristics one tends to associate with the term "nationalism" in this day and age - particularly the version of nationalism that came to be privileged in the 20th century in Germany.

Herder's tolerant views on nationalism were firmly rooted in the thinking of the German Enlightenment. His thinking coincided with the slow development of tolerance towards religious minorities in the German states.

While this initially had more to do with economic and social considerations, Herder's views on the subject endowed cultural nationalism with a moral, humanistic quality: "As God tolerates all the different languages in the world, so should a ruler not only tolerate but honor the various languages of his peoples."

It is interesting to note that Herder composed these words three years after Joseph II's 1781 Edict of Toleration. This Edict would give the majority of non-Catholics the right to practice their religion in Germany.

Thus, it is not hard to see Herder's thoughts on nationalism as being firmly rooted in the progressive intellectual zeitgeist of the late 18th century.

The rise of education and literacy throughout the German Enlightenment helped cement the conception of a German national identity; by the end of the 18th century, nearly all books published in the German states were in the German language. Before, the vast majority of books had been published in Latin, and could thus only be read by the educated minority. The new views towards education and accessibility of ideas ensured a wider reading public for new ideas, such as those of Herder.

Herder's conception of cultural nationalism was in some ways a reaction to the earlier predominance of French language and culture in the German states.

His idea was that every nation was an organic cultural community, a Volk, and should thus be judged on its own terms,… [read more]


Contrasting Views of Classical Athens Pericles and Plato Term Paper

… Greek History

The Pericles is associated with the family which participated actively in the Athenian politics, and is the descendant of the family which 'held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale'… [read more]


US Foreign Affairs Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Affairs

The causes of why the United States went to war in 1898 are quite numerous and they include political, economic and social causes.

First of all, from a political perspective, the United States were hoping to gain… [read more]


Greek Historiography Term Paper

… Greek Historiography

History as a discipline begins with the Greeks, notably with Horodotus and Thucydides. Herodotus is known as the father of history, changing what had previously been largely an interest in myths and legends into an interest in the… [read more]


Genocide Is Considered on an International Level Term Paper

… Genocide is considered on an international level to be the worst possible crime committed by a nationality or group. It is the mass killing of a group of people, or as defined by the UN as "any acts committed with… [read more]


Asian Studies Explain the Meaning/Your Interpretation Term Paper

… Asian Studies

Explain the meaning/your interpretation of the passage, and say why it is significant for the purpose of our class discussion.

"Sometimes a few writers walked by and were welcomed by our artists. These writers belonged to a radical group whose idealism consisted in their desire to stamp out poverty in this world. Our artists, who jealously treasured their Grandpa Stump and Grandma Cross-eyed, did not want the writers to come tampering with the poverty in this specific spot and didn't even want to discuss the couple with them."

This passage indicates the paradoxical nature of political liberation, as viewed in the eyes of intellectuals. The writers wish to raise the ideological consciousness of the dwellers of the village. However, those "artists" who embrace and find beauty in images and in the reality and traditions of a simpler life, see the writer's determination to locate the village's circumstances in an ideological, rather than a human context, as potentially violating. The reference to the odd names of a grandmother and grandfather show that the deformities of these individuals are embraced, rather than rejected, because of the represent ties to the past.

After the war, on my rare visits to Hanoi, I would always return to that same street. I would simply walk down it, not to find anything or go anywhere. The last time I got off at Hang Co station, I could no longer recognize my old street. Hanoi had abolished the trolleys. The streets were glamorous; the houses beautiful; life happy..."

This sentence seems paradoxical. When the speaker visits Hanoi again, on a rare visit, the street draws the author back; despite the fact the author has no real purpose going to the street. This suggests the profound nostalgic pull of the area, that the street represents the author's past and something beloved that has been lost. Note the fact that such visits to Hanoi are rare for the author, rather than regular. This calling such visits rare suggests a wish for greater frequency of returning to the highways and byways of the past. But the street has changed when the author is not present, and the author has evidently been gone a long time, because a great change has occurred. The change seems positive, as the author describes a shift is to greater beauty, glamour, and happiness. The current residents are happy for such…… [read more]


Gates Open Again 1965-2001 Term Paper

… German-Americans

Recently, increasing numbers of students are learning about the racism and bigotry that existed in the United States against groups such as the Native Americans, blacks and Jews. The history of the Japanese internment camps is becoming more widely… [read more]


Immigration Quota Era 1924-1965 Term Paper

… ¶ … Topaz" and "Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family" by Yoshiko Uchida. Specifically it will describe and compare the experiences of several ethnic and racial groups during World War II, and explain any similarities or differences in the treatment they received, and their reactions to it. Racial tensions, especially between the Americans and the Japanese, were high during World War II. American distrusted all Japanese, regardless of their ancestry, and sent them away to detainment camps far from their homes and businesses. Other ethic groups and racial minorities suffered as well during the war, but none so much as Japanese-Americans, most of whom lost everything they had worked for their entire lives.

On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which authorized the Secretary of War 'to prescribe areas from which any or all persons may be excluded'" ("Journey to Topaz" vii). This was the beginning of one of the darkest times in U.S. history - the internment of thousands of Japanese-Americans, simply because of their ethnicity. In "Journey to Topaz," Japanese-American Yoshiko Uchida chronicles her family's removal and relocation from Oakland California to the Topaz internment camp outside Delta, Utah in "Desert Exile," and writes of a fictional Japanese family in "Journey to Topaz." Both books indicate the struggles and inhumanities faced by the Japanese after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and show their strength of spirit in the face of adversity.

Interestingly, the fictional Sakane family is religiously American. They celebrate American holidays, attend American churches, and when Yuki's mother is stressed or upset, she bakes cakes and cookies. They spend their last night of freedom sitting down with their neighbors to a traditional turkey dinner with all the trimmings, as if it were Thanksgiving. They live American lives, and throughout their ordeal they show a remarkably stoic and undeniable spirit. Few of the Japanese are bitter over their incarceration; they simply attempt to make the best of a bad situation. Yuki's mother sums up their attitude when she says, "Fear has made this country do something she will one day regret, Mr. Kurihara, but we cannot let this terrible mistake poison our hearts. If we do, Then we will be the ones to destroy ourselves and our children as well'" ("Journey to Topaz" 90). Thus, the Japanese, who were really loyal and dedicated Americans, gave up everything and still managed to remain hopeful and positive, for the most part.

The most appalling statistic regarding the Japanese internments is the staggering amount of young people, just like Yoshiko Uchida, who were interred along with their parents. Another author writes, "Most of the Japanese-Americans removed from their homes for reasons of 'national security' were school-age children, infants, and teenagers too young to vote. Two-thirds had been born in the United States" (Werner 79). The Japanese reaction to their incarceration during the war was mixed. Some people never recovered from the ordeal, or forgave the government for their imprisonment.

How did the Japanese… [read more]


King Tutankhamen Term Paper

… King Tutankhamen

Image source: (http://homepage.powerup.com.au/~ancient/tut1.htm)

Possibly the most well - known Egyptian figure of the ancient world is that of Tutankhamen or Tutankhamun, the boy King. This young Pharaoh is known to have died while still in his teens and… [read more]


Age of Modernism Term Paper

… Philosophy (Modernism)

In the age of modernism, two world wars consequently occurred, which were primarily motivated by a main aggressor: Germany. World War I occurred under circumstances that are somewhat different from the motivations behind World War II. Although the main reason for the eventual occurrence of both world wars were due to the aggressive and offensive actions by the Germany, World War I happened as a result of Germany's need to emerge as the main European power. It sought to become a major political force in Europe in order to eventually reinforce and assume world power, which, when challenged by other strong nations, both in European and North American regions, the First World War broke out.

The Second World War broke out under different reasons, although still motivated by the fact that Germany wanted to establish itself as the world's superpower. World War II emerged due to the offensive attacks of Germany to other European nations, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler and his genocide project of curbing a world filled with Jews, famously called anti-Semitism. While in the First World War, the main objective was to gain control over all European nations, Germany re-envisioned itself after World War I, and in its attempt to redeem its glory after losing to the First World War, promoted anti-Semitism and offensive attacks, prompting a declaration of the Second World War. Thus, in effect, Germany's objective remained similar between the First and Second World Wars, but the means through which this objective was achieved differed.

The reason why Germany, Italy, and Japan became more powerful due to the nationalistic movements that emerged in between the First and Second World Wars. Germany remained powerful because of its…… [read more]


Rise After Civil War Term Paper

… U.S. (after 1865)

In a society built on the machine there is a diminution in the value and independence of the individual." -- Bertrand Russell

Society today revolves around the machine. Witness how quickly a modern office comes to a standstill if the Internet is down, or how children will wander around their home, aimless and bored, if the cable connection has been lost. It is very tempting to be sympathetic to the claim of the British philosopher Bertrand Russell that in: "a society built on the machine there is a diminution in the value and independence of the individual." But African-American slaves of the pre-industrialized South would hardly agree, as their bodily labor sustained the economy of the agriculturally-based region, unlike the free-wage North. True, Northern workers were treated cruelly in many instances, but only the most ardent pro-slavery advocates stated that working for pay in a factory was equally bad as working under the lash of an overseer for no money at all in a cotton field. Even early American colonists of the North, tied to the rigors of work on the family farm might also beg to differ that the machine enslaved the free farmer. Although inequities surely remained in the New South, the introduction of industrialization at least allowed for more social mobility than an economy once based purely upon land ownership.

The Great Depression, when industrial production came to a standstill in many areas of the nation, coupled with the Dust Bowl eradication of most farmer's profits also highlight how living 'in touch' with the land hardly breeds independence, as does liberation from so-called wage slavery to machines. The persons who wore sandwich boards proclaiming they would work for food, some of whom may once had comfortable office jobs, would hardly agree that their new, less technical way of making a living was less liberating. The Great Depression was only alleviated by the New Deal of President Roosevelt when such desperate American workers were put to work performing public works jobs, which stimulated the economy by infusing wages earned by people building up the infrastructure of the nation.

One component of the New Deal, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) changed the lives of the impoverished residents "The TVA developed fertilizers, taught farmers how to improve crop yields, and helped replant forests, control forest fires, and improve habitat for wildlife and fish. The most dramatic change in Valley life came from the electricity generated by TVA dams. Electric lights and modern appliances made life easier and farms more productive. Electricity also drew industries into the region, providing desperately needed jobs" ("From the New Deal to a New Century: About TVA," TVA Government Website, 2007) Before the infusion of new technology and means of farming and producing, these people of the Tennessee Valley were enslaved to poverty, to outdated ways of making a living that prevented them from realizing their individuality or enjoying their existences beyond manual labor and toil.

The Great Depression ended after the rapid… [read more]


Machiavelli's the Prince Term Paper

… Machiavelli's "The Prince"

It is quite obvious that the time of kings and kingdoms has long passed. Nonetheless, Niccolo Machiavelli's "The Prince" remains one of the most important political writings and an essential reading for those interested in understanding the… [read more]


Age of Enlightenment Term Paper

… Western History

Looking into the dynamics that led to the declaration of American and French revolutions, respectively, it can be observed that both revolutions emerged out of an increasing conflict between civil society and the government. Moreover, this conflict between society and the government was economic in nature -- that is, the government sought to dominate civil society through economic policies and unfair economic practices.

The American Revolution emerged as a result of a series of conflicts and protests against economic measures that the British government implemented when it observed the flourishing economy of its new territory, the Americas. These economic policies ranged from implementation of additional taxes on specific consumer and trade goods, to limiting access to trade goods altogether. Among these unfair implemented acts are the Intolerable Acts, a collective term used to illustrate a series of acts that prevented America from achieving economic prosperity through trade and commerce. These acts did not only impose heavy taxes on consumer goods, it also closed down ports used for trading (specifically experienced in the Boston Port Act). As a result of this unfair practice, the Americans revolted against the British government, eventually seeking independence, and achieving this through the American Revolution.

Similarly, the French Revolution achieved recognition as the conflict that ended King Louis XVI's reign as the incumbent monarch leader of the country. The eventual declaration of the French Revolution was brought about by a combination of political, social and economic changes occurring in the society during the 18th century. Like America, French society became victims to the culture of corruption prevalent during Louis XVI's reign as king of the country. The weak…… [read more]


Education How Was Imperialism Term Paper

… Education

How was imperialism one of the causes of World War I?

The late 1800s was the age of imperialism when many countries across Western and Eastern Europe were building their empires. However, in the early 1900s, such imperialism became increasingly difficult. Each of these countries wanted to ensure that it remained a power and also wanted to continue to grow larger. England wanted to preserve its Empire no matter what and "felt more and more threatened" by the German buildup; Russia "could not withstand another Balkin climb down"; Germany was fearful that it would break up its Habsburg Empire; France was losing population, "the Agadir Crisis of 1911 left France alarmed." All of these combined made war inevitable if the countries wished to preserve their present and future national interests.

Was there a connection between the system of treaty alliances and the outbreak of hostilities?

These above noted fears led to the countries building alliances with other nations, which jeopardized relationships with those nations that had long been connected. For example, when Germany negotiated a bilateral treaty of alliance with the Habsburg Empire in 1879, this essentially cut off Russia. This troubled Emperor Wilhelm because "the tsar was an old friend while the Habsburgs were a dynastic rival." The Triple Alliance, with Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary, agreed to go to war if attacked by Russia. The Three Emperor's League of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia was formed in 1881 and agreed to keep neutrality if any of them went to war with another country. Russia and France formed an alliance, agreeing to call up troops if any nation in the Triple Alliance mobilized and to help each other if Germany attacked either of them. However, as is always the case…… [read more]


Cohesive Examination of Arms Sales Term Paper

… ¶ … cohesive examination of arms sales during and after the cold war. The writer explores events leading to the increase in arms sales and provides an argument that the dismantling of the Soviet Union launched an arms sales increase.… [read more]


Space Race at the End of World Term Paper

… Space Race

At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States were locked into a bitter battle of military positioning and propaganda known as the Cold War. Stemming from this, as technology advancements showed the… [read more]


War 1 And Russian Revolution Term Paper

… WWI and the Russian Revolution

Why did Europe go to war in 1914? How important were nationalism, imperialism, and militarism in causing the war? What other factors contributed to the war? Which individual or country, in your opinion, was most responsible for the war?

Europe went to war because the assassination of the Archduke in the Balkans created a kind of 'domino effect,' of the many secret alliances then existing between the nations of Europe. The minor conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia became a major global conflagration. Nationalism may have provided the impetus for the assassination, and imperialism tied Russia to Serbia, while all of Europe was in a state of heightened military tension. But secrecy was another key factor leading to the war. No one country was at fault, but if one nation was more responsible, it was Austria-Hungary for declaring war upon Serbia, without trying to reach a more peaceable settlement about finding the group responsible for the Duke's assassination. If Austria Hungary had tried to negotiate with the Balkan leaders and respected their territory, instead of demanding cooperation and that everyone involved be punished according to their own terms, there may been no World War I.

Second, where did the makers of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, go wrong? Instead of creating lasting peace, this treaty and its punitive provisions sowed the seeds for a much more devastating second world war. Why did the makers of the Treaty of Versailles include the provisions they did? What were they hoping to achieve?

By selecting Germany as the instigator of the war, instead of acknowledging mutual responsibility by all the Europeans, Germany felt a sense of victimization about its defeat. Germany also had to formally…… [read more]


18th Century History and the Artists David Term Paper

… 18th Century

History and the Artists David, Goya and Gros

David, Gros and Goya were all court painters who portrayed their heroes as literally larger than life in enormous paintings of their finest moments. All of these artists lived in the age of the Romantic Hero and painted in the early 1800s. There have always been heroes, but the Romantic Heroes of the 1800s were different from those who had existed in earlier times, who had fought to the death for their king, or who chased after people or treasures. The Romantic Hero that these 19th century artists depicted were those who fought against authorities, and did not bow to it. Besides David, Gros and Goya, Delacroix and Gericault were also artists who painted large-scale romantic depictions of the history of the day.

Napoleon Bonaparte was one of those Romantic Heroes in his early days. Painted by David in 1800 as a beautiful, bronze giant astride a white horse rearing and blown by the wind, with his cape wrapped about him and pointing toward the peaks of mountains, Napoleon captured the imagination of the ordinary man who wished to free himself of labor and look for adventure and freedom. Jacques-Louis David's Napoleon Crossing the Great Saint Bernard Pass is unsurpassed in proportion, composition and color, creating the perfect hero in a huge painting 8 feet by 7 feet wide (Fiero 31).

Antoine-Jean Gros, too, painted Napoleon several times. In Napoleon Visiting the Plague Victims at Jaffa (1804), Napoleon is depicted as a bejeweled and feathered, almost Christ-like figure, reaching his hand out to the sick who lie, kneel or stand before him in their poverty and misery. This painting measures 17 feet by 23 feet and has Napoleon in the center, lighted dramatically, with groups of people on all sides, beneath huge arches that reveal a walled fortress on the hillside behind them (Fiero 50).

Francisco Goya defies categorization, except that he painted the common people as heroes defying authority and standing up for their beliefs, or fleeing from the wicked armies that have come to throw them out of their homes and kill their young. Violence is dramatically spotlighted, throwing the harsh light…… [read more]


City States of Ancient Greece Are Sparta Term Paper

… ¶ … city states of Ancient Greece are Sparta and Athens. History has not been kind to Sparta; the majority of historical narratives and textbooks refer to this war-state as "brutal," "an armed camp," "culturally stagnant," and other such niceties.… [read more]


Anti-American Buddy Term Paper

… Sergei Rodion was born in January 1979 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He recently turned twenty-nine years old and still lives in the city of St. Petersburg. His parents originally moved to St. Petersburg from Perm, a city in Northern Russia. Sergei has no children at present, his wife of six years, Masha, still has not given birth to any children although they have tried for many years.

As a child, Sergei's parents, Leon and Fatya Rodion, worked in the manufacturing industry. Leon had an important position within an aluminum alloys production plant as the plant supervisor. As a result, Sergei lived a very privileged lifestyle as a youth. Having been born during the height of the Cold War, St. Petersburg was at the heart of Russian industrialization. The city is known for its machine building and especially power equipment. Sergei spent the majority of childhood playing with children of other plant workers and grew very accustomed to that particular culture. His current job is also within alcohol production industry, he is a quality assurance manager at the local brewery plant. St. Petersburg is Russia's largest beer producing city, with five major breweries throughout the city.

Currently, Sergei's yearly income is slightly above middle class. He lives in a moderately expensive apartment complex with his wife and his mother. His father passed away ten years ago at the age of fifty six. Sergei loves St. Petersburg and he does not plan to ever move away from the city. Sergei's parents came to St. Petersburg during the 1970s as an enormous population migration movement during the Cold War. The Soviet Union made St. Petersburg the production center of the empire, and as a result, the population increased by 1.5 million in fewer than five years as million of people went in search of better employment. Sergei is extremely proud of his parents because they were able to gain an important position to help the government cause. Sergei and everyone within his family were proud members of the communist party. His father was the chairman of the Communist association within his power plant, and his parents went to many regular meetings in Moscow for party faithful. Growing up, Sergei's favorite author was Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov. His many books about the rise of communism as a socialist movement during the Second World War inspired his imagination. Sergei was well read and he read many of great works during his early childhood.

However, the greatest memorable time period of Sergei's life was when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1990. Russia declared their independence from the Soviet Union in June of 1990 and was finalized in 1991. For Sergei this was a significant blow to his idealization of Soviet society and communism. For Sergei this represented a hard blow to his ideological beliefs and about the spirit of socialism. His parents, as strong supporters of the communist government suddenly found themselves to be blacklisted by the…… [read more]


Western Civ Athens and Sparta Helped Term Paper

… Western Civ

Athens and Sparta helped define the geopolitical landscape of the ancient Greek world. Located on the Peloponnesian peninsula, Sparta rested on a relatively isolated geographic position that fostered its insular foreign policies. Throughout Spartan history, the city-state remained largely self-contained except for its appropriation of the Messenian agricultural region and the enslavement of its people (Hooker, 1996, "Sparta"). The Spartans did not enjoy as fertile an agricultural region as the Athenians. Spartan governments were decidedly more autocratic than those n Athens. Although both were monarchies at some point, the Athenians practiced democratic forms of government and its major lawmakers were elected officials. Spartan leadership was oligarchic, including two kings who ruled for life. Sparta also cultivated what can be called a military rule, conscripting both men and women to service and encouraging a bellicose political philosophy. The Athenians similarly developed militarily and in fact pursued territorial and political expansion more readily than the Spartans. However, the Athenian lifestyle and democratic form of government precluded the type of militarism that pervaded ancient Sparta. Its agricultural prosperity, its closer proximity to the sea, and its emphasis on the arts led Athens to become a more viable trading partner with Near Eastern merchants. Exchanging goods and ideas allowed Athens to develop a more robust economy than the Spartans, whose legacy would become their sparse, ascetic value system.

2. Alexander the Great changed the character and future fate of Greece. Confidently pursuing expansionism and imperialism, Alexander became more like the Persian Empire that for centuries had plagued city-states in Greece. Moreover, Alexander came to power at a time when the city-state model in Greece gave way to unification in the aftermath of the Peloponnesian and Persian wars. The new geopolitical climate enabled Alexander to succeed in expanding the boundaries of his new Macedonian empire. Alexander conquered the Persians as if to avenge the blood of the Greeks who had died defending their country during their invasion of Athens. Annexing the Persian territories to Macedonia, Alexander took on Egypt and regions throughout the Near East and invaded territories in northern with moderate success. Although profoundly successful…… [read more]


Mont Saint Michel Normandy France Term Paper

… Mont Saint Michel Island

For centuries, the Mont Saint Michel has beckoned travelers and the faithful from around the world. The small, rocky island off the coast of Normandy rises from the Couesnon River. Until 1879, the island was connected… [read more]


Rise of the Aztec Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Rise of the Aztec Society

The Aztecs were not the first great civilization that inhabited the region of today's Mexico, but settled after many former cultures had passed and left their influence hundreds of years before the empire… [read more]


Holocaust Really Happened. The Systematic Murder Term Paper

… ¶ … Holocaust really happened. The systematic murder of six million Jews is hard to take in, hard to conceive. Those six million people were human beings with hopes and dreams, families they loved, lives to live, and things they… [read more]


Rise of Cato the Elder Term Paper

… Rise of Cato the Elder (234-149 B.C.)

Severely criticized for the damages brought upon other peoples and, in the same time, highly praised for its achievements, the Roman Empire was in fact the predecessor of today's modern constitution which divides the power within a state, instead of offering it to a single ruler. Proof of this stands Rome's lack of exclusivity, as they would generally analyze and even adopt new ideas, concepts and methods from the conquered cultures, combining them into what is contemporaneously known as the greatest empire in all mankind history.

Another issue characteristic of the Roman Empire resides in the means of organizing and sharing the responsibility and power within the state. Leading positions were not only made available for the royal blooded, but also the large public, such as the plebeians. However, in order to reach a leading position within the empire, a representative of the plebeians had to work hard and fully prove his courage, honesty, intelligence and honorable intentions.

Although based on a hierarchical structure, holding a leading position was not in any way determined by affiliation to a certain social class. For instance, many Romans went to war as simple peasants, but due to their heroic acts during battle, returned home as influential generals and were made members of the Senate.

There were six main leading positions within the Roman Empire, and a hard working, honest and intelligent plebeian could reach any one of them: consul (chief civil and military magistrates), praetor (in charge of military commands and administration of the civil law in Rome), quaestor (in charge of state treasury at Rome; in field, served as quartermasters and seconds- in-command), tribunes (charged with protection of lives and property of plebians; their persons were inviolable), censors (elected every 5 years to conduct census, enroll new citizens, review roll of senate; controlled public morals and supervised leasing of public contracts) and finally, the dictator (the highest supreme leader of Rome).

2. Life of Cato the Elder most relevant example of plebeians climbing up the social ladder is Marcus Porcius Cato, also called Censorius (the Censor), Sapiens, Priscus, or Major (the Elder), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson).

In the year 234 before our era, in Tusculum, a small village in the province of Latium, a little boy was born into a plebeian family. His name was Cato and he came from a long line of honorable military men who had courageously fought along side with the Empire's rulers and had created a favorable reputation for themselves.

When he was only seventeen, Cato joined the Roman military forces in the battle against Hannibal Barca, during the Second Punic War. As a result for its brave behavior and actions, Cato was made military tribune at the early age of twenty. In 205 B.C., at the age of twenty nine, Cato was named quaestor, and sent to a military campaign in Sicily. This is the journey in which Cato was to make his life… [read more]

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