"World History" Essays

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Spartacus an Analysis of Stanley Essay

7 pages (2,126 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… When Spartacus finally fought his way out of the toe of Italy, he could not march to Brundisium and take ship to the east because of the presence of Lucullus" (McManus).

The following year, 71 BC, found Spartacus near the end of his rope. Spartacus again attempted to head north and again the Gauls refused to go -- leading to their almost defeat at the hands of Crassus (until Spartacus pulled them out of the fight). Spartacus and his men "gained one more minor victory against part of Crassus' forces

But they were finally wiped out by Crassus' legions in a major battle in southern Italy, near the headwaters of the Siler River. It is believed that Spartacus died in this battle; there were so many corpses that his body was never found. The historian Appian reports that 6000 slaves were taken prisoner by Crassus and crucified along the Appian Way from Capua to Rome. (McManus)

This is where the crucifixion theme comes from in the film -- but whether Spartacus had any part in it is unlikely.

Some of the remaining slaves attempted to head north again but were blocked by the approach of Pompey. Ironically, Pompey would go on to receive a triumph -- a parade in his honor -- for his victories in Spain. Crassus received no such honor (despite the fact that he personally had put down the rebellion so close to home). Both men were made consuls, and Pompey would go on to order Caesar to disband his standing army -- which of course would lead to a climactic struggle.

Other Historical Inaccuracies in the Film

The kind of gladiator represented in the film did not actually exist until the first century after Christ. This was the Retiarii gladiator -- a type whose weapons consisted of those of a fisherman: a net, a trident, and a pugio -- blade. He had almost no armor, but had to find against the well-protected opponent.

Also, in 71 BC, there existed no Praetorian Guard -- that came with Augustus a few decades later. Likewise, as has already been stated, Crassus was never actually made dictator of Rome -- only Imperium of Rome's armies. The film plays up his political ambitions -- which actually belonged more to Pompey and Caesar.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Kubrick's 1960 Spartacus is a grand, sweeping affair, that was meant to rival Charlton Heston's Ben-Hur and the other great Roman epics of the time (like Cleopatra). It was also meant to espouse the kind of political doctrine at the forefront of the 60s social environment. Spartacus, therefore, became a vehicle for Douglas (as an actor) and Trumbo (as a writer) to re-establish their places of prominence in Hollywood. Historical accuracy had little to do with their mission -- as the true events of Spartacus' leading of the slave revolt reveal. While Douglas' Spartacus is portrayed as a Christ-like, poet-warrior, martyred for the cause of 1960s freedom, the actual Spartacus was most likely no such man… [read more]


Aztecs and Incas Reaction Paper

3 pages (1,458 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… The Incas were never harsh to those whom they defeated in the situation where they entered any land via war and after defeat they could give back the possessions to their owners and only give directions on their way of life which was not to interfere with the captives' way of life but was to offer loyalty to their king.… [read more]


Medieval to Georgian Culture Research Paper

3 pages (1,075 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Deetz attached significance to the trend of poor European-Americans transitioning from their former "vernacular" homes into newer structures with "balanced Georgian plans." Berger notes that the homes and belongings of the poor of that era were much less likely to survive above-ground than those of wealthier citizens, who were more likely to possess durables such as ceramics and furniture. Therefore, recovered archaeological artifacts became essential to re-creating a balanced picture of life in prior centuries, which Berger has termed as being a more "democratic perspective on the past." Deetz regarded eighteenth-century changes in the popular mindset and purchasing patterns as being indicators of the profound transformation that was occurring in societal values of the time. Deetz went further, to raise the question of whether the poor of America may have actually "missed out" on the Renaissance, as he regarded the transition into a Georgian-structured home to be a key indicator of the "shift from medieval into modern ways of thinking (Berger and Associates, 1997)."

Pogue (2001) has proposed three popular models to describe the transformation of American culture. The first is the "Georgian" view of the world as described by James Deetz. The second is the merchant capitalist viewpoint that was strongly promoted by Mark Leone. The third is a consumer revolution theory espoused by social historian Cary Carson. Pogue credits Deetz with the initial formulation of the so-called Georgian world view, while he regards the contributions of Mark Leone as a refinement on Deetz's views, with a Marxist bias. While he personally favored the theories of Carson as the best basis for future studies, Pogue considers all three points-of-view to have certain significant areas of agreement and congruence. He suggests that in their sum, these three viewpoints explain the essence of the cultural transformation as the rise of a consumerist society out of the traditional American frontier.

Archaeologist James Deetz originated the concept of "Georgian Order" in the late 1970s timeframe. He credited this phenomenon with accounting for a prevalent, although unconscious mode of perception by the Anglo-American population of the period 1714-1830, during the reign of the British monarch King George. Deetz's Gregorian Order concept has assisted archaeologists to conceive of American colonial history in more explicit and realistic terms, where the societal shift towards neatness, symmetry and order was reflected in the architecture of homes, as well as in gravestones and ceramic artifacts which have survived into the current day.

References

Berger, Louis & Assoc. "The ordinary and the poor in eighteenth-century Delaware. Excavations at the Augustine Creek North and South Sites, 7NC-G-144 and 7NC-G-145." 30 Apr 1997. Retrieved 17 May 2011 from: http://www.deldot.gov/archaeology/brochures/augustine_creek/augustine_creek_sites.pdf

Deetz, James. "In Small Things Forgotten." The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. New York: Doubleday, 2000. Retrieved 16 May 2011 from: http://www.histarch.uiuc.edu/plymouth/house.html

Orser, Charles. "Georgian Order from Encyclopedia of Historical Archaeology | BookRags.com." 24 July 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2011 from: http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/georgian-order-tf/

Pogue, Dennis. "The Transformation of America: Georgian Sensibility, Capitalist Conspiracy, or Consumer Revolution?" Historical Archaeology 35.2 (2001): 41-57. Print. Retrieved 16 May… [read more]


Social Constructionism and Historiography Research Paper

13 pages (4,748 words)  |  Turabian Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… [footnoteRef:16] Writing from a Soviet Marxist point-of-view, Boris Hessen claimed that Newton's science was a part of the capitalist revolution in the 17th Century and developed to meet the economic and military needs of the new bourgeois elites.[footnoteRef:17] Hessen and Merton could in fact be considered the founders of the externalist school in scientific historiography, with the central thesis that… [read more]


Societal Collapses Environmental Determinism Research Paper

7 pages (2,396 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… "[footnoteRef:13] During cold periods in the Northern Hemisphere, the North Atlantic High moves southward while the Siberian High moves into Europe, producing intensely cold weather. In these climatic eras, Mesoamerica turns into a semi-desert instead of a tropical rainforest, while the rains begin to fail, solar radiation decreases and surface temperatures cool.[footnoteRef:14] This also occurred during the Little Ice Age… [read more]


Technological Innovations in Security Research Paper

2 pages (648 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Technological Innovations in Security

Over the last several years, the issue of security protocols has been constantly evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because technology has been causing the overall nature of the threat that is facing an organization to shift. As a result, a host of different entities have been forced to make an adjustment to their strategy. To fully understand the changes that have been occurring requires: looking at early security models, how they are relevant today and examining three different applications that are currently being utilized. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights as to how the overall nature of the threat has been constantly changing.

Describe some of the early security models and practices used during and after World War II.

One of the most significant security models / practices that were developed after World War II is: the Bell LaPaldula model. This is when there are strict controls placed on: how government and military information is released to the general public. The way this strategy works, is there is a layered system for releasing information to the public (on a need to know basis). The most notable features of this model include: top secret, secret, classified, unclassified and public. This basic protocol was designed to limit the amounts of sensitive information that could fall into the hands of unfriendly governments. As, this system was designed during the Cold War to control the amount of information that was being released to the public (on many different government programs). ("Bell LaPladula Model," 2006)

Explain how some of these methods are relevant in today's security environment.

These methods are relevant in today's security environment, because they prevent information from being leaked to the press. As, this system will limit who has access to the most sensitive information and the kinds of programs. Over the course of time, this can give military planners a technological advantage. Where, they…… [read more]


Economic Concerns in Film Metropolis Essay

5 pages (1,764 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Civilization survives in the first two films, even though the real question might be whether such a society should have survived at all. Lang's vision of middle class charity and humanitarianism bringing about a reconciliation of capital and labor looks very unlikely given the extreme divisions presented between the underground and aboveground worlds in that film. Nazism restrained class conflict mainly by abolishing organized labor and leftist political parties, and using police state methods against all dissent, and history shows that the workers only received justice and a fair share of the social pie when they were politically well organized and able to vote. La Jetee does not even make a pretense that civilization is being saved, since what little of it survived the Third World War resembled an underground Nazi concentration camp, with prisoners experimented upon and exterminated to suit the needs of their overlords. Both of these films reflect grimmer European historical circumstances that Body Snatchers, which is certainly a disturbing and creepy film by American standards, but with a Hollywood ending in which the hero saves the day in the end. Although the world of the pod people in Santa Mira still looks like Middle America on the surface, they have all been infected by some alien virus that turns their town into a totalitarian police state run by zombies, robots and clone, lacking human individuality, desires and emotions. In fact, their all-American town was starting to look too much like something in Germany and Russia, which is why it hard to…… [read more]


King Book II Chapter Term Paper

3 pages (950 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… We learn that he was not only exercising self-restraint but also had courage. Courage is the ability to feel fear but advance towards the goal anyway. Despite the fear of being challenged by opposite forces, Titus kept moving on, "So, after coasting Achaia and Asia, leaving the land on his left, he made for the islands of Rhodes and Cyprus, and then by a bolder course for Syria."

Another important characteristic was respect for the higher power. It is important to understand that in ancient times, kings had the ultimate power or so they believed. They reigned over their kingdom with iron fist and did not allow anyone to speak before them without their permission. This was how most kings behaved because of the power people had bestowed on them. And due to this not many paid homage to their gods. Titus demonstrated that he had faith in higher powers and thus decided to visit the Temple of Venus when he entered Syria.

The time which is mentioned in the chapter is during 61-63 A.D. when Vespasian had sent Titus to pay his respects to Galba and acknowledge his emperorship. Upon his arrival, he learned that Galba had already died and there had been rumors of who would succeed him. It was believed that Titus had come to replace Galba or at least challenge the potential successors like Vitellius or Otho. Those rumors were based on variety of things including:

"The advanced years and childless condition of the Emperor furnished matter for such gossip and the country never can refrain from naming many persons until one be chosen. The report gained the more credit from the genius of Titus himself, equal as it was to the most exalted fortune, from the mingled beauty and majesty of his countenance, from the prosperous fortunes of Vespasian, from the prophetic responses of oracles, and even from accidental occurrences which, in the general disposition to belief, were accepted as omens."

Tacitus' account of Titus can be completely trusted because of his authority on the subject. However since the reign itself was short lived, we do not enough evidence to pass a judgment on how effective a king he could have been. In this chapter, however we do see that he had the foresight needed to be a leader. He could see that without self-restraint and courage, he would not be able to make a good leader or an effective king.

Titus learned a great deal from his father who had lived longer and had a much longer reign than Titus himself. Vespasian must have instilled in his prince some of the characteristics that were needed to become a great king.

References:

Complete Works of Tacitus. Tacitus. Alfred John Church. William Jackson Brodribb. Sara Bryant. edited for Perseus. New York.: Random House, Inc. Random House,…… [read more]


Soviet Union and the New Russia Research Paper

15 pages (6,363 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 11

… Soviet Union and the New Russia as a U.S. Security Threat

At the end of World War II, roughly Summer 1945, Europe was in shambles. Millions had been killed, many of the governments so disenfranchised that they had to be rebuilt. The infrastructure in most of Europe was in shambles, but unlike the situation after World War II, the United… [read more]


Enlightenment and the French Revolution Essay

2 pages (902 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Then something went horribly wrong.

While the new French Assembly was transforming French society, they failed to deal with the fiscal crisis which the old King had originally called them together to deal with. The economy collapsed, lawlessness ruled in the countryside, famine spread, and those in power were too busy transforming society to deal with the problems of everyday life. In response to this seemingly lack of concern, the people revolted again, only this time it was against those who had overthrown the King. By Sept. Of 1792 the radicals, led by Robespierre, Danton, Marat, and the Duke of Orleans, seized control of the government and created the "Committee of Public Safety," an organization which gave themselves dictatorial powers. (Kennedy 1989, 299) These radicals felt that the old revolutionary government had not gone far enough to transform French society; and this was the cause of all the problems. To deal with this perceived problem, the committee embarked on number of tyrannical reforms in order to create a society where every person possessed high moral standards and were dedicated patriots. Any violence, however extreme, was justified in order to create the perfect enlightened society. Anyone who disagreed was considered to be an enemy of the people, an enemy of the Enlightenment, an enemy of the Revolution, and a danger to France. (Viault 1990, 190) The result was the deaths of more than 16,000 French citizens in a wave of senseless violence that still disturbs people.

The ideals of the Enlightenment gave birth to the French revolution. Ideals such as the rights of man, or the contract between the government and the governed, were the inspiration to transform the fabric of French society. However, the realities of the world intervened in the manifestation of the Enlightenment's ideals, causing a collapse of those ideals. Those in power failed to realize that ideals make for poor dinners, and a person cannot eat an abstract idea, and they paid the price for it, as well as all of France. Because of this failure, radicals took control and embarked upon a tyrannical, fear-induced, violent period of wholesale slaughter, and thousands of people were killed, all in the name of the Enlightenment. This is a perfect warning that even the most well-intentioned individuals can unleash social forces beyond their control causing devastation and destruction on a grand scale.

References

Kennedy, Emmet. 1989. A Cultural History of the French Revolution. New York: Yale University Press.

Rosner, Lisa, and Theibault, John. 2000. A Short History of Europe, 1600-1815. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Viault, Birdsall. 1990. Modern European History. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Wilson,…… [read more]


Pyramids of Egypt Research Paper

8 pages (2,209 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Egyptian Pyramids: History And Construction

The pyramids in Egypt serve as a testament to ingenuity of man. We often dismiss ancient civilizations because we think they were not as smart as we are. When we think of the pharaohs in Egypt and their belief that they entered into an afterlife beyond death, we might tend to think of them as… [read more]


Beowulf as a Hero Lesson 1 Journal Journal

10 pages (2,900 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Beowulf as a Hero

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 1 of

Journal Exercise 1.3A: What makes a hero?

A hero is a person who has courage even though he or she also has fear. It is a mistake to assume that heroes are not afraid. They experience the same range of emotions as everyone else, but they keep on going… [read more]


Propaganda All Parties Research Paper

3 pages (1,317 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… In Church propaganda, often heavily tinged with anti-Semitism designed to stir up the peasants against Communism, the Bolsheviks were denounced as "Christ-haters," German hirelings," and "Jewish-Masonic 'slave-masters'." For their part, the Bolsheviks retaliated by portraying all priests and "drunkards and gluttons, and monks and nuns as sinister 'black crows'" (Smith 2002). Probably the most notorious piece of black propaganda that circulated widely in this period was the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, originally written by the Tsar's secret police, which claimed to be the records of a secret cabal of Jewish bankers and revolutionaries who were plotting to destroy Western civilization.

Open or 'white' Bolshevik propaganda was always based on Marxist categories, of course, and directed against 'class enemies' like aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, priests and government officials. In this poster, for example, the idealized workers and peasants of Russia are driving out the capitalists and the Orthodox Church (http://ccit300-f06.wikispaces.com/file/view/World_October_revolution_poster.jpg/30233740/World_October_revolution_poster.jpg). Another example would be this cartoon designed for mass consumption, explaining that the revolution was necessary to free the workers and peasants from the exploitation and brutality of the priests, nobles and capitalists (http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/russian_revolution/ReasonsforRevolution.cfm). Even a population that was illiterate or semiliterate could easily grasp the meaning of these images, hence the widespread use of posters, drawings, cartoons and films during the era of the Russian Revolution, aimed at persuading a mass audience to support the Bolsheviks (Fitzpatrick 10).

All the propaganda that circulated during the First World War and Russian Revolution continued to influence the world for many decades after this period. For example, Hitler absolutely believed the black propaganda of the Protocols that 'the Jews' had led the Bolshevik Revolution and taken over Russia and that they were trying to take over Germany as well. This idea was a staple of Nazi black, gray and white propaganda for decades, and at the heart of Hitler's obsession with destroying the Jews and the Soviet Union that left tend of millions dead. All of the gray propaganda that had circulated during the war years about the corruption and treason of the Tsarist monarchy, particularly concerning the role of Rasputin, also had a very long shelf life, and became the standard popular view of the old regime for many years. Bolshevik-Communist propaganda of the open or white variety was also very effective in organizing peasants and workers to overthrow the ruling classes in a variety of countries, from China, to Cuba to Vietnam, and the conflict between Communism and capitalism preoccupied the United States for decades during the Cold War at the cost of much blood and treasure on all sides. On the other hand, the Bolsheviks might not have survived at all in Russia in 1918-20 had the Allied leaders followed the advice of the more moderate socialist leaders among the Whites instead of backing the most conservative and autocratic elements, for there was considerable popular discontent with the Bolshevik dictatorship even then. There was little desire to restore the old regime, however, or to return confiscated land to the… [read more]


American Holocaust Prologue Essay

2 pages (650 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… American Holocaust Prologue

Author David Stannard's book American Holocaust (1992) provides a view of the European explorers who settled the so-called "New World" of the Americas that completely defies the common perception of their exploits. In contemporary American society, explorers like Christopher Columbus, Cortes, Pizzarro, and the American Pioneers who settled the "Wild West" are all regarded and celebrated as heroes who braved great risks and accomplished something beneficial for future generations. Every October, Americans hold parades to honor Columbus's discovery of America, for the most obvious example.

However, at the time that these historical figures "discovered" and "settled" these lands, they were all already occupied by native peoples who had lived there peacefully for hundreds or thousands of years. Our historical retrospective completely ignores the fact that what we remember euphemistically as "exploration" or "settlement" really masks a horrible truth of exploitation, brutality, murder, and genocide. Stannard uses very effective examples to illustrate the vast scale of the atrocities committed by the European explorers in particular. For example, he explains that the scale of murder of the "Indian" peoples of the Americas (itself an incredibly presumptuous and ethnocentric name based on the erroneous assumptions attributable to bad navigation and geographical awareness of the Europeans) with reference to the hypothetical murder of modern-day Americans. Specifically in that regard, Stannard explains that the percentage of native "Indians" who were slaughtered by the Europeans after they arrived in the Americas would be comparable (numerically) to the murder of every Caucasian and African-American living today in the United States.

In fact, when the European explorers began "settling" the "New World," they systematically exploited, cheated, enslaved, and simply murdered the native populations by the thousands until virtually every single member of those ancient societies was dead within less than a century of their first unfortunate first contact with the Europeans. In many cases, the motive was economic, such as in the atrocities committed by Columbus and his men against…… [read more]


French Revolution the Classical Era -1800) Research Paper

3 pages (1,324 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… French Revolution

The Classical Era (1750-1800)

The Classical Era, lasting from 1750-1800, recaptured the aesthetic ideals of ancient Greece and Rome.

It is defined by the emergence of the enlightened ideas of philosophers that favored reason, clarity, and breaking down class barriers.

On the rise were composers such as Bach, Haydn, and Mozart, each of whose music can help define this time.

Vienna was the musical center of Europe, yet it was far from the only place creating a buzz. Around the world at this time, life changing discoveries and inventions were occurring as well as events that would shape history.

In the early part of this era, inventions were changing the way people lived their lives. In 1751, Benjamin Franklin discovered the electrical properties of lightning while flying a kite.

Two years later, Samuel Johnson completed the English dictionary, a great scholarly achievement that remains one of the most famous dictionaries to date.

The major medical practice of vaccinations began when Edward Jenner invented the Small Pox vaccination in 1758. Six years later, the Spinning Jenny was created which would revolutionize the textile industry and usher in the Industrial Revolution.

Military tensions were high during this period as well. The Seven Years War (1756-1763), a global conflict that entrenched the European countries of Britain, Spain, France, Prussia, and Austria, positioned Britain as the ruling colonial power of the time.

Their control over their American colonies would be short-lived, however, as the U.S. Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776. Two years later, France declared war on Great Britain, aiding the American colonists in their revolutionary fight.

Several important works were publicized, including Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Right of Women (1792), and Rousseau's Social Contract (1762).

Another famous work was published which reflected on the new constitutions of America and France, both of whom were undergoing revolutions during this time period. Thomas Paine completed the Right's of Man in 1791, a response to the criticism surrounding the French Revolution. Prior to the publication of the Right's of Man, Paine published Common Sense (1776) and the Crisis (1776-83), followed by the Age of Reason (1794-96).

The French Revolution (1789-1799)

Paine fled to France after writing his anti-monarchial text the Right's of Man, where he then joined the National Convention.

At this point in France, the revolution had been taking place since 1789. Brought about by several compounding social, political, and economic factors, the French Revolution was a response to King Louis XVI and French nobility. High taxes had led to unpopular views of French rule, now viewed as an old regime of authority.

Enlightenment philosophers were popular leading up to the revolution, and they encouraged a move toward equality and freedom. Their words inspired many in France, including the "bourgeoisie that, though enjoying increasing prosperity, was denied social status and share in government commensurate with its wealth" along with peasants that "were still regarded as a general beast of burden, despised and… [read more]


Neo-Realism vs. Liberalism Essay

3 pages (1,073 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Neo Realism vs. Liberalism

Compare and contrast Neo-Realism vs. Liberalism. Pick a historical event and discuss how each theory would explain it. Which one do you think is more accurate and why?

Neo-realism is when there is a focus on looking at the international structure through anarchy. As states will act in their own self-interest based upon: their distribution and capabilities (through an international configuration) organized by the major world powers. Under this theory, each state will act within this system to achieve their own self-interest. This will push nations to engage in proactive thinking about the policy decisions of: their rivals and how this could have an impact upon their areas of influence. Where, the stronger nations would want to prevent other powers from gaining too much influence at their expense. At which point, some kind of action must be taken to restore this balance in favor of the country. This is important, because this shows how neo-liberalism is based off of anticipating the problem (through preemptive action) via international institutions (to achieve their own self-interest). ("Neo Realism," n.d.)

Liberalism stands for equality and the rights of the individual. This is because Liberals view the government as an extension of the people, as they will receive their permission to govern the citizens (based upon their willingness to accept different policies and procedures). When the citizens become upset, this power can be placed directly in check, by them demanding changes. This is important, because this is the basic principal of liberalism. As a result, there is a constant focus on a host of different issues to include: freedom of speech, respect for human rights, an emphasis on constitutions, the rule of law, freedom of religion and free / fair elections. When it comes to foreign policy decisions, these ideals are often reflected in how the U.S. will deal with a particular nation state. This is important, because it shows how the liberal ideology is based upon supporting the basic principles of individual rights. As a result, there is an emphasis on working within the international community, to achieve the different objectives (i.e. The UN and WTO). ("Liberalism," 2010)

Neo-Realism vs. Liberalism and the Iraq War

When you analyze Neo-Realism with the Iraq War, it is clear that this was an approach that was embraced by the Bush Administration (in the events leading up the invasion). Where, the White House would claim that Iraq was in possession of weapons of mass destruction. This would force them to seek out some kind of military action (through the UN Security Council) to address this issue. However, once it became clear that there would not be enough votes, the U.S. withdrew the resolution and would begin the invasion (leading a coalition of the willing). These are friends and allies of the U.S., who shared similar views about what was occurring in Iraq. At which point, the subsequent invasion would take place and the government would be overthrown. These events are important, because they show… [read more]


Magic Ritual and Myth Essay

7 pages (2,447 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Holocaust

The Quest for Order and the Holocaust

The quest for order is a part of human nature. Since the earliest civilizations, man has sought to attempt to create order from a seemingly chaotic world. The very beginnings of human civilization arose from this need to create order from chaos. Everything that man has done since then has arisen from… [read more]


Readings on the Inca Empire Book Report

2 pages (668 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Inca

Reaction- After reading the material from both Mann and Wright, I was struck by the sheer luck that the Spanish experienced in the conquest of the Inca. It is almost mind-boggling that the Incan Empire; over 3,000 miles in length, with tens of thousands of trained warriors, would be crushed in a few years. However, once one understands that it was likely a combination of diseases brought by the Spanish and alliances Pizarro made with unhappy chieftans who wanted to topple the central government, that allowed such a small force to win over the vast Incan empire. It also seems we tend to become a bit nostalgic about certain historical issues -- and find that actually, the truth is far from black and white.

For instance, we tend to feel sorry for the Inca -- here they had a great empire, superb technology, and what seemed to be a system that was working. However, the way that empire came about was through treachery, cruelty, and even subversion. The Inca were not kind to their own people; there was a strict hierarchy between the rich and the poor, and certainly life was not great for any class except the wealthy. However, it is important that we do not put 21st century values on a civilization that peaked over 600 years ago. Still, I am slightly reminded of Mel Gibson's Apocalypto about the Maya, and wondered if his view that the Mayan civilization collapsing from within and being more vulnerable to the Spanish has similarities to the Inca? Still, the material was not only informative, it was thought-provoking and makes me want to read more "alternative" history about what really happened to these ancient empires.

Part 2 -- Basic Characteristics of the Incan Empire -- the Incan Empire was one of the largest in New World (Pre-Coloumbian America). It probably began around the 12th century and was a merging of a number of tribes up and down the western coast of South American;…… [read more]


Reaction on the Great Inca Rebellion Term Paper

2 pages (572 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Inca Rebellion

It is said that history is always written by the victor. One has to wonder about the way Western history portrays so many of the events of the past 500 years, and the way that events take on such a European slant. This is so apparent when one begins to study the Spanish Conquest of the New World -- the extermination of the Maya, Aztec and Incan Empires. The question becomes, as stated at the beginning of the National Geographic Special, the Great Inca Rebellion, makes so much sense -- how could Spanish force of 200 or so men and horses conquer a land of hundreds of thousands. This Incan Empire was one of the most advanced of the New World, and yet there were few Spanish casualties. This program brings to light a particular mystery -- why were there hundreds of horrifically disfigured bodies buried in a non-traditional Inca way; without offerings, without the appropriate wrapping, and brutally warped with the first documented gunshot wounds, injuries from steel weapons, and mass slaughter -- as well as thousands of deaths from disease (probably smallpox).

What follows is a fascinating story of a combination of luck, technological advantages, and cultural misunderstandings. The Conquistadors, far from being the romantic knights of conquest, were illiterate peasants. The scribes seemed to alter the facts; and tried to exaggerate the glory of Spanish hardships and heroism, but do not tell about all the help they received from a number of native tribes who were simply fed up with Incan rule. It was only luck that the Spanish captured the Incan King, and even after demanding a huge ransom of melted gold, the "noble" Spanish execute the King…… [read more]


Big Brother Among Us? George Orwell Conceived Research Paper

6 pages (2,108 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … Big Brother Among Us?

George Orwell conceived a world that was much different from the one that the world fought to protect in 1948. In 1984, Orwell portrays a totalitarian society where individual freedoms were completely subjugated to the state. Control of the individual went as far as policing and controlling the very thoughts that we think. The… [read more]


Ancient Civis an Examination of the Cultural Essay

5 pages (1,418 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 30

… Ancient Civis

An examination of the cultural contributions to the first City-States in the History of Ancient Civilization, the essay looks at the advances in architecture, arts and letters, astronomy, governance, and urban planning in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and the Rome from the Bronze Age to the Early Christian Empire.

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

Newly sedentary agriculturalists, the Mesopotamian cities of… [read more]


Debate Over to Torture Term Paper

5 pages (1,777 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Corporal Punishment

The issue of torture has been the subject of debate for the last years, especially after the Abu Ghraib scandal. Most importantly, the new war on terror waged by the United States and the international community has transformed the way in which perpetrators are perceived and treated. From this point-of-view, torture is used more and more nowadays. However,… [read more]


Biography on Julius Caesar Roman Emperor Research Paper

5 pages (1,805 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Greek and Roman

Biography on Julius Caesar Roman Emperor

Caesar was an official and general of the late Roman republic. He very much advanced the Roman Empire prior to taking authority and making himself dictator of Rome. This led the method for the majestic system. Julius Caesar was born in Rome on the 12th or 13th of July 100 BC… [read more]


Cleopatra of Egypt Research Paper

3 pages (942 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Prudence Jones theorizes that one of the reasons for the queens theatricality was to overcome language barriers in her nation and also to appear in a position of authority. "By using ritual and spectacle to convey the message, Cleopatra found yet another way to transcend barriers of language and culture" (20). To some however, this pageantry was more pomposity than a matter of royal pride or an attempt at understanding.

The people of Rome were becoming more and more concerned about the influence this foreign queen who they dubbed the reincarnation of Isis. Their leader Octavian was equally weary of the Egyptian queen and began to break apart the relationship between the Emperor and Mark Antony. Antony attempted to battle Octavian, but his followers were no match for the Roman fleets and in little time, Octavian arrived in Alexandria and began to march towards Cleopatra's home.

What happened at the end of Cleopatra's life is more storytelling and speculation than anything that can be proved. What is generally believed is that, upon seeing the destruction of her empire and believing Mark Antony to be dead or near it, the former Queen of Kings poisoned herself through the bite of an Egyptian cobra or an asp.

Why is so little known about such a dynamic character in the course of human history? Historian Michel Chauveau explained it thusly: "From the purely historic point-of-view, Cleopatra is thus an empty figure without an existence of her own, the privileged but ever subordinate partner in the lives of her contemporaries" (2). Perhaps this is true. Most information about Cleopatra until recently has been in side notes in biographies of the Caesars or Mark Antony. Even in the history of Egyptian pharaohs, she is given relatively little attention. How is it then that a woman of such mystery has become so famous? More than likely, it is because such little detail is known about the woman that she has become such a source of fascination. A woman found herself in the peripherals of all these historic figures. She was instrumental in the history of Egypt and of Rome. Something about her was so compelling that she was able to bring an empire to the brink of collapse. Popular culture has answered these questions by showing this woman as an icon of sex, beautiful and selfish with little good quality, disregarding all she had done in her own right and in her own name. There are those who continue to be intrigued based upon the lies and there are those who continue to be intrigued because there are still no answers.

Works Cited:

Chauveau, Michel. Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2002. Print.

Jones, Prudence J. Cleopatra: the Last Pharaoh. London: Haus, 2006. Print.

Roller, Duane…… [read more]


Miracle of Dunkirk Term Paper

3 pages (877 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Miracle at Dunkirk

Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk on 27 May - 4 June 1940, saved the British army from total destruction. The German Blitzkrieg had just smashed the French line and trapped the remaining Allied forces, including most of the British Expeditionary Forces, in the city of Dunkirk, the last continental harbor still controlled by Allied forces. British leaders had to organize an improbable evacuation to save the British Expeditionary Forces from certain destruction. The all-out effort exerted by the British navy and the civilian sea vessels turned a disgraceful retreat into a triumphant rescue.

The Predicament

Germany's invasion of France in 1940 succeeded beyond the expectations of many commanders and left Allied forces stranded in what was now German-controlled France (Axelrod 303). Separated from the larger French forces by the German forces, Allied troops tried to move as close to their remaining strengths as possible, the British Navy (Axelrod 303). The Allied forces arrived in Dunkirk demoralized and fearful, expecting Hitler to put his foot on their throats by sending in the German tank division that had just demolished the French battle lines (Liddell Hart 44). Hitler's decision at this critical juncture was one of the most important in the entire War.

Ironically, the factors behind the Germans' success up until Dunkirk made it difficult for them to capitalize on the opportunities it yielded at Dunkirk. The German Blitzkrieg, relying on tanks and airpower, mowed through France with unprecedented force and speed, quickly smashing the Allied line and pursuing them to Dunkirk. (Axelrod 303) the progress was so rapid, however, that the tank and air divisions arrived at Dunkirk long before the infantry divisions did. (Axelrod 304) Although Hitler recognized the vulnerability of the Allied forces, he was not sure how the German tank and air divisions would perform in such a tight spot without the more conventional infantry to support them (Axelrod 304). Hitler decided to postpone his attack on the Allied forces until his infantry divisions arrived from France (Liddell Hart 44).

The Rescue

Although the Allied forces literally dodged the bullet through Hitler's hesitation, they were still in a very precarious position with the German Luftwaffe hovering over the coast. British leaders realized that there was only a small window of time in which they would be able to evacuate British and French troops from Dunkirk. (Axelrod 303) the British Admiralty assembled a fleet of 693 ships, including 39 destroyers, 36 minesweepers, 77 civilian trawlers, 26 civilian yachts, and various other small vessels, to sail across the channel pick up as much of the Allied Force as…… [read more]


Great Ziggurat, Tower of Babylon, &amp Ancient Buildings Literature Review Chapter

8 pages (2,908 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Construction

Great Ziggurat

The Great Ziggurat was first constructed in 2100 B.C. By King Ur-Nammu who named it 'Etemennigur' that translates into the house that causes fear. The name was appropriate at the time as the King had built it to pay homage to the god of Sin. The Ziggurat was first excavated by John G. Taylor during the 1850s… [read more]


Fall of the Roman Empire Research Paper

9 pages (2,841 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Christianity regards all men as equal in the eyes of the Lord thus the emperor was also equal in the eyes of the Lord as his subjects and again he couldn't exercise control over this religious institution which was headed by Bishops, meaning that the emperor's authority over religious institutions had been lost to the Bishops. This also meant that… [read more]


Olmec Civilization Research Paper

20 pages (6,598 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Olmec Civilization

http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html)

The Olmec culture has been the focus of intense discussion and archeological exploration in recent years. It is considered to be one of the most interesting and also one of the mysterious ancient civilizations. The Olmec civilization is considered to be the first known ordered civilization to arise in Mesoamerica.

It was also the first civilization in… [read more]


Lucifer Effect Essay

3 pages (1,072 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Lucifer Effect

Most people who watch the news at night sit in awe of the cruelty of others. "How could he kill his boss?" "Why would a mother harm her children?" What is clear is that there is bad in the world -- and, of course, there is good as well -- but who are these bad people and were they ever good? Philip Zimbardo's work, the Lucifer Effect (2007), delves into precisely this topic. He notes that, "Lucifer, the 'light bearer,' was God's favorite angel until he challenged God's authority and was cast into Hell along with his band of fallen angels" (3). Thus we are led to consider the idea that the greatest evils are not executed by fanatics or what we would call "bad people," but rather by ordinary people who accepted an idea and participated in the idea while all the time believing that their actions were normal. One obvious example of this phenomenon might be the Nazis under Adolf Hitler who were brainwashed by his fundamentalist views that Jews were sub-human individuals. This paper will look at the Virginia Tech shootings in April of 2007, when a single gunman killed 32 students, staff and faculty, causing the deadliest shooting in U.S. history (Shapira & Jackman 2007) as well as the Stanley Milgram Experiment, creator of the electric "shock generator" used to test individuals' free will when it came to taking orders. What causes a person to walk onto a campus and go on a shooting/killing spree? Did Satan suddenly transform this young gunman? Will people hurt another if they are meant to believe that they are doing the right thing or if they are being told to do so by a superior?

The "Lucifer effect," according to Zimbardo (2007), can lead ordinary people to commit unimaginable acts of violence and suffering of others. In considering the Virginia Tech shootings, it is believed that the gunman was initially looking for his girlfriend and that one of the first two people he shot may have been her (Hauser & O'Connnor 2007), but the gunman then went on to line students up in some classrooms and shoot them one by one (2007). In one classroom, the gunman came, left and then returned and the students were able to keep him by holding the door shut as the gunman fired shots through the door (2007). The scene sounds horrific. A single man with two handguns and not one ounce of morality or goodness left in him.

In Stanley Migram's experiment, Milgram wanted to find out how long someone (the 'teacher') would continue to give shocks to another individual ('learner-victim') if they are told to do so, even though the person could be seriously hurt (Stanley Milgram Experiment 2010). The experiment was designed to be a sort of response to the Nazi war criminals, who had claimed that they were 'just following orders' (Milgram Experiment Ethics 2010). Milgram was trying to find out whether or not people would really obey… [read more]


We Are Witnesses Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust Book Review

3 pages (1,074 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Witnesses: Five Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust

Jacob Boas' descriptive and poignant book is a refreshingly different look at WWII history; indeed as many people should read it as possible. And that having been said, one person in particular who should read We Are Witnesses: Five Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust is the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The Iranian president should be advised by his religious advisors to take time one day and find out what happened to Yitzhak, David, Moshe, Anne and Eva as they struggled to survive and save their families during the bloody period of mass slaughter perpetrated against Jews by the Nazis. It is a safe guess though that Ahmadinejad will not read the book because, as he said in September, 2009, the holocaust was "…a false pretext to create Israel" (CBN.com, 2009).

Unfortunately, the five teenagers presented in Boas' book are no longer alive to personally tell their stories to Ahmadinejad, but their diaries are both believable and chilling. In his Introduction, author Boas explains that Adolf Hitler's Nazi movement was responsible for the brutal deaths of six million Jews, which is a well-known fact among most civilized, educated societies. But it not as well-known that about one-fourth of those who died in the Nazi carnage were children.

Meantime, in addition to the stories of the five teenagers, Boas offers a short and hard-hitting history of the persecution of Jews in Europe. Young readers who are coming into contact with the history of Jews for the first time will find this section worthy of attention. The first Jews arrived in Europe after the Romans had pushed them out of Palestine, which had been their ancient homeland (documented in the Old Testament of the Bible). That was about a thousand years before Hitler's reign of terror. Once the Roman Empire fell, Jews had a difficult time getting along in society, partly because Christians blamed them for Christ's crucifixion. Laws were passed preventing Jews from owning land or weapons, and in some cases Jews were prevented from taking certain occupations (Boas, p. 4).

The Lateran Council of 1215 ordered all Jews to place a badge on their clothing to show the world they were Jewish; they were also forced to live in ghettos during that era. In the 12th Century England expelled Jews and in the 15th Century Jews were pushed out of Spain as well, Boas writes (p. 5). However, by the 19th Century Jews began to enjoy the rights that all citizens enjoyed and as a result they flourished and became adept in writing, the medical field, university scholarship and in business enterprises. This, Boas writes, caused a "backlash" and Hitler capitalized on resent many Christians and others felt towards Jews. The slaughter of Jews began in earnest on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland

In Eva's case, she had nightmares of being sent in a railroad boxcar to Poland to be killed. Eva's best friend Marta had been… [read more]


Crucible vs. Mccarthyism Essay

3 pages (967 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Crucible vs. McCarthyism

Fear over reason: Modern witch hunts depicted in Arthur Miller's "The Crucible" and in the House Un-American Activities Committee

No work of art can be subsumed under a single interpretation. However, Arthur Miller himself has stated that his play "The Crucible," set during the Puritan era in colonial New England was intended to be an explicit historical allegory, highlighting the parallels between the Salem witch trials and the era during which Miller wrote the play. Miller was a victim of the anti-communist hysteria of the early Cold War era. He was called by Senator Joseph McCarthy before the House Un-American Activities Committee. As a result of seeing himself, and other great writers and artists of the era being tainted with the public's fear of communism, Miller wrote a play specifically designed to highlight the parallels between the witch hunts and 20th century American fears of communism.

Miller did not desire to produce a strictly historically accurate rendition of life in Salem. For example, in the real Salem, Abigail Williams and most of the accusing girls were prepubescent children. However, Miller deliberately made Abigail older to serve his dramatic purposes. Abigail is an outcast in Salem because of her sexually forward behavior. She has also been carrying on an extramarital romance with John Proctor. Suspicions about witchcraft and Abigail's supposed demonic possession give her a great deal of power within the community, power she never had, much like McCarthy was an obscure senator before he began to develop his reputation as a zealous communist.

In both the play and the historical reality of the 1950s, accusations make the appearance of small improprieties seem larger than they were and distorted the truth. For example, during the Great Depression, a desperate era in American history, many Americans dabbled with political radicalism. During the 1940s, the U.S. was an ally of the Soviet Union. However, Americans who had shown interest in leftist causes, or praised the Soviet Union during World War II were now tarred and feathered in the public imagination as communists, as Joseph McCarthy preyed upon people's fears. Similarly, John Proctor's refusal to attend church services, because of his personal guilt over his extramarital affair is made him to seem like a 'witch' in the public imagination.

In "The Crucible" the people of Salem are so afraid of witchcraft, a seemingly silent and uncontrollable force they cannot understand, that they give credibility to the few people who seem able to discover it, like Abigail and her followers. They blind themselves to the fact that Abigail has a profound self-interest in accusing others, including Proctor's wife Elizabeth, of witchcraft. Similarly, the American public was so afraid of a communist take-over of the world, they trusted McCarthy and sacrificed their liberty as Americans to believe freely, just as the public in Salem sacrificed their sense of godliness and justice and actually hung good men…… [read more]


Kastner Trial Term Paper

6 pages (2,190 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Kastner Trial

For millions of Jews, the Holocaust and its lingering effects would have a dramatic impact upon Israeli society. Where, it would serve as a catalyst for deep reflection and regret (especially among the survivors). In the late 1940's and early 1950's, many survivors would recognize individuals, who were thought to have collaborated with Nazi's. This would lead to… [read more]


Ancient Greece and Rome Women Term Paper

3 pages (962 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Women in Greece, Rome

Although ancient Greece and Rome are heralded as forging the prototype of modern democracy, they were far from egalitarian societies. Half the populations of Greece and Rome had little to no social status or rights, as females were mostly cut off from public and political life. Ancient Greece and Rome were gender segregated worlds. Gender impacted roles and duties. Women were restricted access to education and were largely left out of the arts, literature, and athletic pursuits. In both ancient Greece and in ancient Rome, economic class and social status determined the actual day-to-day lives of women but even the wealthiest females in these societies enjoyed social or political parity with men.

Whether as a sign of global social progress or not, though, women did enjoy "a level of freedom they would not see again in Western Society until the last half of the Twentieth Century" by the end of the first century in ancient Rome (Thompson). This "freedom" is only meaningful relatively, due to the fact that women were at best support figures and never political leaders. Evidence does show that in general, women enjoyed more respect, however slight, in Rome vs. Greece ("Women in Ancient Rome"). For example, "Bereaved Romans often praised their mothers, wives and daughters on their tombstones," (Dixon). On the other hand, "many Athenian men seem to have regarded their wives as at best essential inconveniences," (Thompson).

Marriage and childbirth were the defining features of women's lives in ancient Greece and Rome. Both strictly paternalistic societies, females left their homes to live with their husbands and became what can easily be considered domestic slaves. Only wealthy women would enjoy some relief from household duties, as slave ownership was common among the rich in both ancient Greece and Rome. During the Archaic age in ancient Greece, land ownership was so severely restricted to men that a daughter would not inherit even if she had no brothers (Blundell). Similar institutionalized sexism still existed centuries later in ancient Rome. For example, the "Voconian law of 169 BCE that prevented men in the wealthiest class bequeathing large sums of money to a daughter" kept paternalism firmly in place (Thompson). The result of such laws ensured that women were stripped of their personhood, their economic independence, and their political rights in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome.

Histories of ancient Greece and ancient Rome were chronicled and compiled by men, making it difficult to piece together accurate pictures of what daily life was actually like for women in these societies. Moreover, almost no first-hand evidence exists as to what women in ancient Greece or Rome actually thought, felt, or did. As Blundell points out, historical documents such as the poems of Homer and Hesiod "present us with a male view of women's status and activities, and both involve a strong element of fantasy," (65). Roman history books…… [read more]


East vs. West Germany Essay

2 pages (730 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… East vs. West Germany

The timeframe of 1945 to 1990 in relation to East and West Germany is known by many historians as the period of Division and reunification. After the Fall of Nazi Germany, the country was partitioned into four military occupation zones by the Allied powers. The Western Sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, merged in May, 1949 to become West German (The Federal Republic of Germany), and the Soviet Zone became East Germany (German Democratic Republic) in October of that same Year. Berlin, West and East, remained divided. Interestingly enough from a political and cultural view, West Germany chose Bonn as its "temporary capital" to emphasize the view that a split Germany was completely artificial and that unification would remain the goal (Wise, 1998, 23).

Politically, West Germany became a federal republic with a social market economy, and remained politically allied with the Western Allies. Because of this status, and the aid that the West provided, West Germany began to see a long period of economic growth beginning in the early 1950s. In 1955 West Germany joined NATO, a clear political statement of alignment with the west, and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957.

East Germany was part of the Soviet sphere called the Eastern Bloc; remaining a client state under the poltical, military and economic control of Moscow. The state claimed to be a democracy, but was in fact a totalitarian state politically goverend by a Politburo and the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. State power was controlled by an immense secret service known as the Stasi. A Soviet-style "command economy" was set up, with all private ownership banned and the state becoming a member of the Warsaw Pact politically and the Comecon economically. Despite propaganda, East Germany had a low standard of living, very few creature comforts for its population, and the problem of numerous defections into West Berline. In fact, the Berlin Wall, built in 1961 to stop so many East Germans from moving to the west, became a quintessential symbol of the Cold War (Colchester, 2001).

The differences between East and West Germany in this period were quite…… [read more]


Night of the Long Knives: Consolidation of Hitler's Power? Assessment

5 pages (1,672 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Night of Long Knives

Summary of Evidence.

"The Night of the Long Knives" (also known as "Operation Hummingbird" or "Rohm-Putsch" in Germany) occurred on the days between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime committed a series of political executions. The majority of those killed were members of the Sturm Abteilung (SA) (also known as the "brownshirts")… [read more]


Auschwitz Concentration Camp Article Review

6 pages (1,810 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… ¶ … Auschwitz concentration camp

Frei, Norbert. (2010, September). 1945-1949-1989: dealing with two German pasts.

The Australian Journal of Politics and History. Retrieved October 24, 2010 through

FindArticles.com at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1877/is_3_56/ai_n55422670/

Auschwitz article review:

Frei, Norbert. (2010, September). 1945-1949-1989: dealing with two German pasts.

The Australian Journal of Politics and History. Retrieved October 24, 2010 through

FindArticles.com at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1877/is_3_56/ai_n55422670/

How does… [read more]


Weimar Republic Is Significant Not Just Essay

4 pages (1,329 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Weimar Republic is significant not just as the interlude between Germany's two world wars, but as a reminder of what could have been in Germany. From the rubble of the fallen German Empire, the Weimar Republic received an exceedingly difficult set of tasks: to transition Germany's political system from an empire to a democratic republic, to somehow place Germany back into the circle of great powers, and to steer its neglected economy back to its pre-war status as Europe's industrial giant. Ultimately, the Weimar Republic failed because the government was unable to restore true economic stability, the lack of which created an eager audience for the numerous political opportunists of the day.

The Political Aftermath of the German Empire

In post-war Germany, the fall of the German Empire unleashed all of the political parties who had previously been checked by the authority of the Kaiser. Under the Kaiser's rule, the Reichstag was a feeble institution, its only power being its ability to withhold approval of certain government actions. As Socialist parties came to achieve majority representation in the Reichstag during Kaiser Wilhelm's reign, the Kaiser secured support from the Socialists by enacting progressive social policies such as unemployment and accident insurance.

While liberal parties held a comfortable majority of popular support, there were a number of conservative political interests composed mainly of the state's Prussian militaristic elements, the landed elite, and Catholics. Although all of these groups had to bow to imperial authority, their participation in the Kaiser's puppet Reichstag allowed them to develop sophisticated organizational abilities.

After the fall of the German empire, these political groups reassembled in a new Reichstag. (Orlow 116). This Reichstag assumed most of the powers the Kaiser held, most importantly the authority to appoint and dismiss government officials. In addition, it was a parliamentary democracy elected through proportional representation, which meant that seats were apportioned to parties according to the party's share of the total vote. (Id.) Thus, the Reichstag was not a neat two-party assembly as the legislatures in the U.S. are, but a multi-party madhouse.

Although the Liberal and Socialist parties dominated the Reichstag through various coalitions, the Conservative elements received a strong response among the frustrated populace. Moreover, these conservative elements were joined by returning war veterans and other militaristic or "counterrevolutionary" elements, culminating in the Kapp-Luwitz Putsch of April 1920, which succeeded in briefly taking Berlin. (131) Although Putsch ultimately failed, it allowed the various militaristic rightist groups to coalesce and these groups persisted as a threat to the Weimar throughout its existence.

The Sluggish Economic Recovery

Although political threats accompanied the Weimar Republic since its inception, severe economic turmoil proved to be the nation's most persistent problem. Germany was forced to pay war reparations to the Allied Nations as the loser in the war. (125) France added to the humiliation of this burden by insisting on "productive guarantees," where it would occupy German cities if Germany did not pay. (126) As bad as the reparations were, however,… [read more]


Rise of Hitler the Treaty Assessment

2 pages (739 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… These payments would be paid monthly and would total some £6,600 million (this figure was agreed by the Allies in 1921)[footnoteRef:4]. In light of the economic devastation of the Germany economy and its industrial infrastructure, it was of little surprise that country's economy totally collapsed only a few days after the final amount of the debt was announced in 1921. [4: http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/ASLevel_History/financialimpactofversailles.htm]

The Treaty also placed Germany's territories under the domain of the various allied powers, thereby denying Germany much needed supplemental resources, material and markets needed to reconstruct its own economy[footnoteRef:5]. The Allies and the Associated Power was negotiated the war that they were successively involved directly or indirectly and which the originated declaration of war on the western and eastern Europe by Austria-Hungary Empire and Germany Empire should be replace by a firm, just, and durable peace[footnoteRef:6]. [5: Ibid] [6: American society of international law, " Treaty of peace with Germany" (Vol 13, No.3, Official documents (July., 1919)), pp. 152. Published by American society of international law http://www.jstor.org/stable/2213120]

As is evident from the above, the Treaty of Versailles is believed to have been an oppressive punishment against the Central Powers and Germany in particular. While the goal may have been to create a stable Europe and to keep a balance of power among European nations, the many feel that Treaty hindered Germany's ability to rebuild to such a degree that it created economic and social upheaval, two causes of great national instability. It was in this atmosphere of national instability and humiliation that Hitler was able to capitalize on void of power and pride and provide a passionate message that millions of Germans felt they could rally behind.

Works Cited

Catherine, Lu, "Justice and moral regeneration, the international studies review "(Vol 4,

No.3 (Autumn, 2002)),pp.4 . Published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the international studies association, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3186461

American society of international law, " Treaty of peace with Germany" (Vol 13, No.3,

Official documents (July., 1919)), pp. 152. Published by American society of international law http://www.jstor.org/stable/2213120

SchoolHistory.org. Accessed on October 12, 2010

http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/ASLevel_History/financialimpactofversailles.htm… [read more]


Vietnam Lessons Gained From the American Misadventure Essay

3 pages (936 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Vietnam Lessons

Lessons Gained from the American Misadventure in Vietnam

The Vietnam War may only be called a success by the most optimistic and selective of American memories. The goals of reunification of North and South, of preventing the permanence of Communist rule and of impeding on the proliferation of socialist values throughout Southeast Asia would all go unmet. And in reflection, we are inclined to view Vietnam as being valuable only for the lessons which can be used to prevent us from making the same mistakes again. It is thus that we consider the diplomatic, presidential and cultural dimensions of a war that should perhaps never have been broached.

Diplomatic Negotiations:

It is difficult to suggest that any lessons have been learned from Vietnam which can be used today. America's misadventures in Iraq and Afghanistan seem verily to reflect the same diplomatic bumbling that made Vietnam appear to be a necessary war. For the United States, diplomacy at the onset of the war would center primarily on the heaving of accusations, which were especially central to the Gulf of Tonkin incident where America claimed that it had been given a military ultimatum making diplomatic efforts impossible. Certainly, this is a primary characteristic of the conflict that would unfold thereafter, with the United States desiring conflict and occupation above all else. The compromise of diplomacy would not have served this purpose well. If it may be said that a lesson war assimilated into permanent military strategy here, it is that the U.S. perfected the type of 'false flag' march to war that is now a template for justifying needless invasion of foreign lands.

Presidential Leadership:

Perhaps one of the great and stunning disgraces for the American effort was the pressure imposed upon different presidential administrations by the priorities of the Cold War. First as Kennedy attempted to navigate a mounting crisis in Vietnam, subsequently as Johnson took the opening rounds of the war to new heights of violence and finally as Nixon attempted to end the conflict using irresistible force, there seemed a fundamental misunderstanding of Vietnam. This proceeded from the Cold War view which help the United States as a 'good' counterpoint to the 'bad' implications of the Soviet sphere of influence. It was this view that caused such fundamental miscalculation by America's executive leadership, which fully and catastrophically underestimated the tenacity of the Vietnamese people. Accordingly, Moss (2005) tells that "Vietnamese peasants made formidable warriors, as the hard life of rice farming prepared them for the physical rigors of military combat and the group discipline of communal rice farming prepared them for the discipline and espirit de corps of battle." (p. 7) Certainly, if this had not been apparent to Kennedy as he moved the U.S. closer to battle, it would become more fully evident to…… [read more]


People Talk About the Events 1960 Essay

6 pages (2,207 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … people talk about the events 1960's, they will often refer to: the various civil rights struggles, the Kennedy Administration, the Vietnam War and the moon race. Where, all of these events would become a part, of a decade that would have ripple effects, upon the world we live in. Part of the reasons for this, is because the… [read more]