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Achilles and the Search Term Paper

… This resulted in Achilles angrily leaving the war and his support of Agamemnon. However, he allowed his friend Patroclus to don his armor and lead his men into battle. Hector, Prince of Troy, then killed Patroclus. This action incited Achilles… [read more]


Peace Possible in the Modern Term Paper

… HUGO GROTIUS: He sets out to explain his views on the laws of war and peace by saying that just because man is "an animal" there is not necessarily truth in the "assertion that every animal is impelled by nature… [read more]


Jewish Resistance Term Paper

… They didn't have qualitative weapons and shells and always suffered for shortage of ammunition. What about numerous jails and concentration camps: their resistance was practically impossible. But it took place there as well. Jews didn't give up. They believed in victory and did everything they could to gain it.

Main idea of Jewish resistance as Michael Marrus says in his book The Holocaust of History was not only to survive but also to remain humans. Thousands of people in ghettos and camps wished not to fall, to preserve human features in themselves, preserve their society, to resist terror and death. "Survive but remain a human" was their motto.

In some ghettos (Kaunas, Minsk) Jewish patriots gathered in armed groups and tried reaching woods where they formed guerilla forces. In 1942-1943 about 25 thousand of Jewish guerillas fought against fascist in occupied Soviet territories and Poland. They killed German soldiers, destructed police offices, bridges, railways and electricity stations. Also they liberated another Jews.

Maybe the most tragic and greatest event in the history of Holocaust was Warsaw ghetto rebellion. Thousands of people started killing fascist forces. Rebellion lasted for 3 days but surely Jews had no chance to win regular German army forces and their elite SS. About 1600 rebels were executed but this episode of WW2 will always remind us about heroism of brave people who died but had never been turned into slaves.

Jewish resistance during the Holocaust is and example of unique spiritual strength, patriotism and self-direction, wish to stay alive remaining a human. It is one of the most interesting but tragic period of history of Jewish nation and great period of history of those countries where this heroic resistance took place. Jews lost about 6 million people in WW2 but they survived and these casualties were a tragic price of common Victory over bloody and cruel Nazi regime. All Nazi criminals were punished for their terrible actions and we have to remember those times to build happy and prosperous future.

Bibliography

Marrus, Micheal R. 1989.The Holocaust of History. New York: A Meridian Book.

Greene, Joshua. 2001. Witness: Voices from the…… [read more]


Rise of Soviet Union Power Term Paper

… In fact, the U.S. felt threatened more by the onset of Communism in Asia and Eastern Europe more than Soviet Union seizing control over the nations in the said regions. This is because Communism and the establishment of a Socialist human society contradict the credo of democracy and capitalism advocated by the Americans. Thus, since the U.S. felt threatened that a new "world order" will emerge from the spread of Communism with the world's most populous nations; it developed a program with which the adverse effects of Communism to the ideology of democracy and capitalism will be curtailed.

The extent up to which the Soviet Union attempted to influence the world of its ideology is reflected in its program to establish socialist regimes in the Third World countries, which includes the regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Roberts, 1995:4). Indeed, history shows that the Soviet Union successfully influenced the Asian nations in embracing the Communist ideology, and this success was met with hostility by the United States, becoming actively involved in both the Vietnam and Korean Wars.

The Containment Policy of Harry Truman marked the official declaration of the Cold War, a blatant manifestation that indeed, there exists hostility between the U.S. And USSR. The former allies of WWII are now competing for world domination through propaganda and arms race. Both the U.S. And USSR was opposing forces of two predominant ideologies of their period: U.S. is the bastion of democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union is the model of a Communist and Social society, the new world order. In his declaration of the containment policy in March 1947, Truman characterized a Communist-Socialist society (the Russian society) as a "second way of life," wherein "...life is based upon the will of the minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression... And the suppression of personal freedoms."

Clearly, the break-up of the Grand Alliance between the U.S. And USSR is socially- and politically-motivated. Their role as superpowers during the WWII cultivated each country's objective to create their respective "new world order," where one country would reign and control over other countries of the world. The eventual downfall of the U.S.S.R. experiment towards Socialism and ongoing hostility against the U.S. For its imperial character/nature illustrates how both countries failed to dominate the world -- that is, the fall of two countries who thought they have the right to control all human societies of the world.

Bibliography

Henriksen, M. (1997). Dr. Strangelove's America: Society and Culture in the Atomic Age. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Roberts, B. (1995). Order and Disorder after the Cold War. Cambridge: MIT Press.… [read more]


European Security and Defense Policy Term Paper

… Possessing the most advanced technology was tantamount to being the lead nation. According to this line of thought, the United States of America controlled NATO, and played a leading role in European affairs by virtue of her technological preeminence. This… [read more]


Cold War and Globalization Term Paper

… The terrible problems of Africa, for example, with AIDs running rampant and starvation (famine) and wars taking a huge tool, need to be taken into account when the globalization issues are being faced. An article in Foreign Policy (March-April 2004)… [read more]


Battle of Stalingrad Term Paper

… "

The Russians began a concerted campaign to "reeducate" German soldiers. The Nazi administration, including Hitler, had used brainwashing techniques to gain control of Germany and its army. The Russians used similar tactics to reeducate the Nazi soldiers, and their… [read more]


Conflicts Term Paper

… However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the strategic issues became much more nuanced. We can now refer to rogue countries, to global terrorism, to organized crime, to areas of instability and so on. The conflict in… [read more]


War and Human Rights Abuse Term Paper

… S.'s enemy during the time of war. Fred Korematsu, in a case to the Supreme Court in 1944, has expressed outrage at his imprisonment for 5 years because he was unable to comply with the President's order and report to an assembly center when the order was enacted. Because of his non-compliance, he was tried and imprisoned for 5 years, and later transferred to an internment camp after his parole. Korematsu's case illustrates the nature of racial discrimination during the period, where the ongoing world war between the Allied (U.S.) and Axis (Japan) coalition had resulted to hostilities between the American government and society against the Japanese-Americans. In sum, anti-Japanese-American sentiments during the world war resulted to discrimination and abuse of the marginalized sector's human rights.

Sixty years later, Korematsu's case is once again appearing, with the release of reports that allegedly accuses U.S. military as responsible for the torture and abuse of Iraqi POWs. Photos of Iraqi prisoners in various states of abuse and forms of torture are illustrated, serving evidence to the fact that indeed, U.S. is guilty of committing human rights abuse against groups and individuals that it considers as enemies or against U.S. policies and objectives in its attempt to "rehabilitate" Iraq and the rest of the Middle Eastern region.

The U.S. government's attempts to cover up and justify the reported abuses against the Iraqi POWs reflect how, through war and political conflicts, the military (generally, the U.S.) is given 'permission' to commit these acts of abuse and torture against the enemy, Iraqi followers of Saddam Hussein's regime. Like Fred Korematsu in 1944, the Iraqi prisoners have been discriminated against and abused by U.S. authorities mainly because they are members of a country that is known to be anti-American, or that is contrary to the ideals and principles of America as a country.

Indeed, human rights abuses are seemingly never ending during times of political conflicts and wars: it is the inevitable result of when two or more countries engage in conflicts. Discrimination against Japanese-Americans and Iraqi POWs also reflect the fact that in times of political strife, and the political image is at stake, civil liberties are disregarded in the formulation of policies, where bias, motives of revenge, and intolerance for individual and group differences prevail.

Bibliography

Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com.

Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.… [read more]


Imperialism and Nationalism Term Paper

… It was a representation of one such anarchist, nationalist revolutionary 'cell' groups that gave birth and impetus to the radical activist whom ultimately undertook the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand. Revolutionary ire generated by the drain imperialism caused upon the home nations, because of the monetary costs of maintaining an extensive empire abroad also allowed the communist powers, led by Lenin, to overtake the Russian empire. Ironically, given his disdain for imperialist entanglements, if it had not been for imperialism and the disquiet its economic and military drain of resources generated in the Russian peasantry, it is unlikely that Lenin could have come to power in Russia.

Imperialism and nationalism combined created a common climate of fear in Europe. All Western European powers grew to fear the potential threat of one another, given the difficulty of gauging the relative strength of other powers in a Europe that had become a web of imperialist entanglements and the way the continued presence of angry revolutionary, nationalist cell groups that posed a constant threat. This climate of fear gave rise to secret alliances between imperialist powers. Ultimately, these alliances gave rise to the 'domino' like chain of events resulting in World War I. As nations bound themselves to one another in fearful secret alliances, when one nation felt forced to go to war, it brought other nations with it. When the imperialist nations of Europe went to war the colonially dominated states were forced into the fray as well. Thus, though World War I ostensibly began with an act of singular, nationalist anger against the failing might of an imperialist Austria-Hungarian Empire, its roots ran far deeper in an imperialist, nationalist, and paranoid chain of events that had been decades in the making.

Works Cited

Chamberlain, Joseph. "The Boer War Defended." 1900.

Disraeli, Benjamin. "The Maintenance of Empire."1872.

George, David Lloyd. "The Boer War Criticized." 1900.

Hobson, John Atkinson. "An Early Critique of Imperialism."

Mass Society and New Imperialism of…… [read more]


French Foreign Legion L. Jones Term Paper

… Further, colonized and oppressed people the world over were buoyed by the defeat.

Many people, especially in France, consider the battles in Indochina to be the turning point of French military might from a true and strong military, buoyed by… [read more]


Propaganda vs. Art Term Paper

… It is possible that her work was included without assessment in the general condemnation of the Nazi regime. Firstly, Leni Riefenstahl was never a member of the Nazi party and she is acknowledged by her biographers as having been apolitical.… [read more]


Donne Island No Man Term Paper

… Again, there is a great deal of debate as to whether Bush's humanitarian reasons were the real reasons he invaded Iraq. However, the truth of Bush's reasoning to invade Iraq is not necessarily of the utmost importance here.

Instead, simply the assertion of the American president gave for invading Iraq illustrates the power of the theme of brotherhood. Whether we believe him or not, Bush said that he was invading Iraq in order to "save" the people of the country. Such an action clearly implies that the idea of all people living as brothers in a global world has become commonly accepted by a large number of people in America.

At one time, the globalization of the idea of brotherhood was far less common. Even during the Cold War, nations were fiercely nationalistic and protectionist, a feeling that had persisted from earlier human history. While we may have considered our friends and other people within our nations in our definitions of brotherhood, through most of human history people in other continents or nations were excluded from this definition. Further, people of other races and languages, and often even other genders or sexual orientations were excluded. Thus, George Bush's assertion that he invaded Iraq to "save" the Iraqi people is simply an extension of a common ideal of brotherhood that reflects Donne's assertion that "no man is an island."

Donne and the Future

In my personal experience, the idea of brotherhood put forth by Donne plays an important role in personal hopes for the future of my generation. We live in a world that is increasingly globalized. Today, American software jobs are outsourced to India, immigration and travel are common, democracy is spreading, and multiculturalism is increasing around the world. More than ever before, we are becoming a true brotherhood, in cultural, social, political, and even in economic turns.

Given increasing globalization, it is more important than ever for citizens of the world to understand and adopt the themes of brotherhood contained within Donne's Meditations XVII. In fact, the future of my generation may depend on the ability of humankind to see itself as part of a greater whole. Today, the speed of air travel and communication, intertwined economies, and the threat of terrorism and warfare mean that the actions of any one country or group can be felt almost immediately by the whole. Today, more than ever before "No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main."

Conclusion

In conclusion, John Donne's famous line from Meditations XVII "No man is an island unto himself" reflects ideas about the brotherhood of humankind that have echoed throughout time. Originally, the lines reflected ideas popular in the Renaissance about the interconnectedness of human experience. As time elapsed, this definition of brotherhood grew increasingly broader, and began to cross boundaries of nationhood, sex, color and race. One of the justifications used by the Bush administration for invading Iraq is especially telling about… [read more]


Vera Brittain the Advent Term Paper

… The trench warfare of the First World War could be compared to what today is called 'scorched earth policy.' Victory could only be assured if the advancing army destroyed everything in its path, which meant that peaceful towns became military objectives, and causalities. In her diary, Vera Brittain wrote this of her walk through a city on the Western front.

A walked up Bond Street to do a small amount of shopping & found huge smash of last Sunday had brought down the whole corner of Bond St. & Bruton St. where Speight's was. Even pedestrians couldn't get through so I turned off into Savile Row & found most of that gone too. Back into Bond St. via Conduit St., which is also now mostly rubble. Even the most familiar streets are ceasing to be recognizable. Struck again by the usual incongruity of Western Front ruin & almost next door beautiful flowers & smart hats in the still-standing Bond St. shops. I thought nothing could be worse than the acres of ruin which I passed coming back from Bow yesterday, but this bit of the West End rivals them. What is the effect on one's mind of constantly walking about amid the utter ruins of lovely or familiar things?" (The Independent, 2003)

Perhaps this final comment summarizes the impact of war on Brittain. "What is the effect on one's mind of constantly walking about amid the utter ruins of lovely or familiar things?" For Brittain, the effect was to devote the rest of her life to pursuing and promoting peace and pacifist activities.

Bibliography

DAYS LIKE THESE 19 MAY 1941. The Independent London, England. 5/19/2003

Brittain,…… [read more]


Holocaust: A History Term Paper

… Probably the most forceful idea in the book is the utter helplessness of the Jewish people in the face of such cruelty. There are many times where it seems that the Jews could have overpowered their captors simply by their sheer numbers, but the author does delve into that in the book, and explains, "You may also wonder why eight thousand people did not fight the Nazis. But a hundred men armed with machine guns are more powerful than an unarmed crowd. The young ones would have tried to escape, but refused to abandon their parents..." (Gilbert 484). Gilbert shows that the Jews were at the mercy of the Nazis, partly because of their own naivite at first, and partly because the Nazis made sure they had sufficient control, both mental and physical, to continually overpower the Jews. The first Jews believed they were simply being relocated, and by the time they knew differently, there was simply no other choice open to them, they could not escape the areas under Nazi control in any real numbers. The other ideas expressed in the book, from some Nazi soldiers who clearly did not agree with their mission, to the continual rounding up of Jews from newly conquered areas, are secondary to the main idea of the suffering the Jews faced, and their helplessness in doing anything about it.

This book is a massive attempt to place the history of the Holocaust in one complete volume, and the author does a commendable job of doing just that. The book is probably the most complete book on the Holocaust ever published, and it covers every facet of the event, from the history that led up to it, to the aftermath throughout the world. The book is so large, it is difficult to wade through, and there are so many accounts of massacre, torture, and death that the reader tends to become nearly immune to their pathos by the end of the book. The stories are horrible, and they begin to blend together into one vast horrific event that reduces the effectiveness of the book, and of the survivor's stories. As one reviewer notes, "From hundreds of contemporary sources and documents Gilbert quotes thousands of passages describing incidents of brutality, degradation, and murder of individuals and masses of humanity (Street 80). A smaller book that concentrated more on some of the most horrific stories might have been more effective and less lulling to the reader. The book's mass is both a strength and a weakness. When it adds to the understanding of the Holocaust it is necessary, but when it creates numbness in the reader it is a distinct weakness in such an important work. As reviewer Street maintains, the book is a "catalog of events," while there are other sources that include more "definitive analysis" of the Holocaust - both causes and effects (Street 80). Ultimately, this is a highly reliable research source that anyone studying the Holocaust would certainly benefit from reading.

References… [read more]


Memory the (Im) Persistence Term Paper

… Rousso calls such constructed memories a form of French neurosis known as the "Vichy syndrome." By refusing to remember accurately, a new historical past can be continually recreated that is comforting to citizens and politicians alike.

An argument against the thesis of the subjectivity of memory may at first be suggested by Dominick LaCapra's book, History and Memory after Auschwitz. In "Chapter 1: History and Memory: In the Shadow of the Holocaust," the author records trauma of the survivors and the long-term affects of how, after watching others die before their eyes, these survivors were haunted by the questions of why they were spared so arbitrarily, and the guilt that subsequently ensued. However, despite this guilt, LaCapra ultimately suggests that memory is an unreliable historical source and narrator. Like Rousso, he also states that memory is ultimately a subjective imprint or blueprint of, not the event in the past that is in question, but of the subject's present consciousness in the moment. The survivors may feel guilt now -- but did they feel guilty in the moment, though they may wish to believe they felt so? LaCapra doubts one is really able to remember at all, much less traumatic events. He notes in his introduction "the word 'after' in the title to this book does not have a merely chronological meaning," rather artistic and recoded memories of the Holocaust have "retrospective effects and prompted belated recognitions." Because these recognitions are after the fact, they generate "new aspects of history that earlier had a different face." (LaCapra, 6)

For both of these authors, because human beings cannot fully interpret horrific experiences at the time of the event, they are driven to the excavation of memory in the arts and in politics. Yet these excavations, because they are reinterpretations, never represent 'pure experiences.' Rather, they invariably say more about the remembering subject or the remembering nation than the events that took place.

Works Cited

La Capra, Dominick, History and Memory after Auschwitz. "Chapter 1: History and Memory: In the Shadow of the Holocaust." Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Rousso, Henry. The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944. "Introduction: The Neurosis." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.…… [read more]


Soviet Union and Stalin Era Term Paper

… He stood for a peasant's private ownership of land. Collectivization of agriculture, therefore, was a thoroughly political and ideological category, not only an economic one.

Collectivization was a leveling of life in order to stifle everything creative in a human… [read more]


World War I Dearest Albert Term Paper

… I, for one, would no longer pledge loyalty to any president or king, nor even wish to remain a citizen in any country who would willingly sacrifice its sons in this manner again, regardless of national purpose.

That you were not called to serve is your greatest fortune, my friend, for you need not find yourself still trembling at the sound of thunder, or the backfire from motorcars, or at the shrill tone of a motorman's whistle. As long as I live, I will never again hear the sound of even a child's toy whistle without reliving some of the horrors and terror of those trenches where an entire generation of young men was destroyed so efficiently.

Those lads marching in parades at home with their shiny medals hanging from around their necks likely never saw frontline duty, likely never faced the prospect of their own imminent annihilation, likely never spent nights huddled in the arms of a mate, trembling more from terror than shivering from the cold, and soaked by their own urine or feces, extracted as it were, by the vacuum of thunderous explosions, each concussion closer to ending your life than the one before.

My very survival is due primarily to my own cowardice, of which I would have likely remained eternally unaware but for my induction into the Great War that has, at least, now ended all wars. I watched hundreds of my mates sent over the top at the sound of that God forsaken whistle only to perish within seconds and utterly without purpose or reason. The boots of many of them hung back over our trench wall, where they died before taking even a single full step in the name of our "great cause," and this is how I was ultimately spared, through creative use of my cowardice:

When it was my turn to go over the top I merely dived under a fallen comrade less than a yard from my trench, fully intending to feign having been knocked unconscious after the fighting subsided. The war wound for which a shiny medal now mocks me from where it hangs on my hospital nightstand was obtained when a piece of skull bone from one of my truly heroic mates was blasted into my shoulder at the instant of his death whilst I cowered, face down in the mud, paralyzed by fear.

I am neither to be envied, nor admired for my participation in a useless war between nations only too willing to sacrifice its sons in this horrific manner. It is I envious of you, and of any man fortunate enough never having to come face-to-face with the opportunity to discover that he is indeed a coward and a fraud among men of honor. It is I envious of you at still being able to find pleasure in works of art, and the laughter of children, and the colors of the sunset. Such pleasures on my part have been extinguished by the unforgettable sights and… [read more]


Chechnya Dilemma the Land Occupied Term Paper

… The current analysis of the region finds a small area which is becoming increasingly more violent. The militant Islamic tribes have funding, and military equipment, and a political will which is moving in a specific direction, taking land and taking no hostages. The people who have lived in the region for centuries have ties with the Islamic groups, although they have not followed the militant nature of the recent developments in the past. These groups, who live in the mountains, have only sought the right to self - governance since before the first World War. These people are not the source of the military resurgence, but they willingly contribute if military conflict is the only method by which they can pursue their goal of self-governance.

The presence of the military Islamic fundamentalist is the most recent and most troubling change in the make up of Chechnen population. These militants have little desire to balance their goals with the goals of other tribes which have lived in the are for centuries. The new radical fundamentalist islamics have ties to Al-Quieda. Of high consideration within the ranks of U.S. military intelligence is whether or nor Osama Bin Laden and/or leaders of his organization have sought refuge in Chechnya after fleeing the American assault in Afghanistan. According to MSNBC, "The Taliban (in Afghanistan) would like to see bin Laden leave (Their country) and several states have been approached, but Chechnya seems the most promising. Chechnya has been a particular focus recently, said three officials. "Something is going on there... In Chechnya," said the most senior." (Windrem, msnbc.com)

These elements of both an ongoing generational warfare for Chechnya and the current struggle, including the terrorist presence, makes the political state of Chechnya more volatile than that of the bordering Russian republics. The process for a former territory to become a self supporting nation is a difficult one, which involves transference of military, social, political, and economic power from the central Russian Government, to the local regional authorities. The new governments must be able to, and have the resources to set up an orderly government, to establish economic policy and begin to energies local business and industry. These steps are difficult for any people. However, when a small nation such as Chechnya has demonstrated it's inability to achieve these steps, and have rather filled their time with revolutionary and destabilizing efforts in other republics throughout the region, it is not surprising that Moscow is choosing to keep Chechnya under its iron boot until the people decide that the time has come to exercise self restraint, and learn to govern themselves.

Resources:

Chechnya," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003

http://encarta.msn.com. Accessed 1 Dec 2003.

Charlton, A. Putin hopes for end to Chechnya war, probes launched into troop abuses

AP Worldstream. 04/17/2002.

Charney, J. Self-determination: Chechnya, Kosovo, and East Timor Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 34, 2001

Isaenko, P. And Petschauer, P. A Failure that Transformed Russia; The 1991-94 Democratic State-Building Experiment in Chechnya. International Social Science… [read more]


Alexander the Great Term Paper

… williams.edu/~junterek/youth.htm)."

Alexander began his rise to power at 16 years old when he was called to Macedonia to put down a rebellion. His success brought him notoriety and he found his calling.

When he was 20 his father was murdered and Alexander was named King of Macedonia. He immediately built an army that held in excess of 30,000-foot soldiers, with 5,000 cavalrymen. Alexander was smart in that he also took along historians to record his conquests, scientists and architects to decide what to take and how to rebuild once the land was conquered, and engineers for the war decisions as well as the strategic planning (Alexander the Great biography (http://wi.essortment.com/alexanderthegr_rxdz.htm).

He then spent eight years taking over various areas of the world and became the most powerful king on earth.

Alexander was a caring military leader. He would visit his men after the battle, examining their wounds and praising them for their valiant efforts. He would also arrange extravagant funerals for the fallen. He would arrange games and contests for his men. The affection for their leader was what galvanized his troops. Returning to Macedonia Alexander assumed the role he had coveted for so long - The great Conqeuror. Eventually, however, he gave way to a licentious lifestyle of excessive drinking. He also gave way to fits of rage and paranoid suspicion. One night he even murdered his closest associate, Clitus, in a fit of rage. This act was to haunt for the remainder of his short life (Alexander the Great biography (http://wi.essortment.com/alexanderthegr_rxdz.htm)."

Alexander the Great was a reported homosexual but in that time it was an accepted practice and not something to be hidden as would happen in much later years. His family was broken and he was estranged from his father much of the time right until his father died (Alexander the Great http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/Balkan/Alexander.html

Alexander's Childhood).

He died in 323 from a fever, but there have been many who believe he died of a broken heart after losing his lover to death (http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/biog/alex.html).Alexander the Great was a young and powerful leader. His ability to rally troops and plan strategic war successes was unmatched in its time. He will always be considered one of the most influential leaders in history.

Works Cited

Alexander's Childhood (Accessed 11-30-2003)

http://wso.williams.edu/~junterek/youth.htm

Alexander the Great biography (Accessed 11-30-2003) http://wi.essortment.com/alexanderthegr_rxdz.htm

Alexander the Great (Accessed 11-30-2003)

http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/Balkan/Alexander.html

Alexander the Great (Accessed 11-30-2003)

http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/biog/alex.html

Alexander Greek Conquests (Accessed 11-30-2003)

http://wso.williams.edu/~junterek/greece.htm… [read more]


Ancient History the Ancient Histories Term Paper

… After serving as consul in the late years of the Republic, Octavius assumed the title of Emperor and was renamed Augustus by the Senate. In 23 CE, Augustus renounced his position of consul to glean more political powers. Rome was… [read more]


Industrial Revolution Term Paper

… Children were also punished for arriving late for work and for talking to the other children. Apprentices who became sick of work and choose to run away from the factory were in danger of being sent to prison. Children who… [read more]


Ancient Historians Influential Term Paper

… " Indeed, the difference between "facts and impressions," often appears "indistinguishable."

Meantime, Grant (pp. 43-44) also discusses decisions historians had to make when faced with two contradictory sources. Herodotus, who offered "alternative versions of a story," was quoted as saying,… [read more]


Connecting Term Paper

… Feign disorder, and crush him." (AW, Chapter 1) Sun moves from discussing plans to waging war. This gives us keen insights as to the military capabilities common to the early bronze age. He says, "Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs." (AW, Chapter 2) Almost all of Sun Yat-Su's writing is like this. In chapter five, which is on 'energy,' he postulates that "Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline, simulated fear postulates courage; simulated weakness postulates strength." (AW, Chapter 5)

Sun gives us knowledge of military methodologies used in the 5th century BCE that seem advanced to us for such an early era. Of the use of spies, he says in the last chapter: "Whether the object be to crush an enemy, to storm a territory, or to kill an enemy general, it is always necessary to begin by finding out the names of the attendants, the aides-de-camp, and door-keepers and sentries of the general in command. Our spies m ust be commissioned to ascertain these." (AW, Chapter 13) He also talks of enemy bombardment with fire.

In the case of the first two works, we know this much: there was a city called Uruk and many areas of India recount versions of the Ramayana. Beyond this, little is certain. The Art of War is still relevant to strategists who consider its methodologies. They provide us with an understanding of human origins, some even offering the allur of creation myths, which provide the faithful with hope in the divine. Regardless of their veracity, these books are to be treasured as evidence of the existance of legends and the comprehensive understanding of complicated social, moral, and military themes that allow us to better understand human nature.

R.K. Narayan. Ramayana. Viking Penguin Inc. 1999.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. http://www.chinapage.com/sunzi-e.html

Michel Pousse. Narayan: A Painter of Modern India. Peter Lang; 1995.

N.K. Sanders. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Penguin Books.…… [read more]


Quiet on the Western Front Term Paper

… Remarque shows us the graphic horrors of war, and that the soldier's enemies are no different than they are. Baumer kills a man, and it is terrible. "This is the first time I have killed with my hands, whom I can see close at hand, whose death is my doing" (Remarque 193). He realizes he killed someone just like himself, a person. Remarque is also showing the reader the true horror of war - that people who are really just like us have to die.

World War 1 has such an impact on this novel because war is the novel - it is the underlying theme that creates the characters and sets the action in motion. It is a defining moment for the young men, who suddenly realize the generation they look up to has let them down by creating the war in the first place.

And that is just why they let us down so badly. For us lads of eighteen they ought to have been mediators and guides to the world of maturity, the world of work, of duty, of culture, of progress-to the future. We often made fun of them and played jokes on them, but in our hearts we trusted them. The idea of authority, which they represented, was associated in our minds with a greater insight and a manlier wisdom. But the first death we saw shattered this belief. We had to recognize that our generation was more to be trusted than theirs. They surpassed us only in phrases and in cleverness. The first bombardment showed us our mistake, and under it the world as they had taught it to us broke in pieces (Remarque 11).

Ultimately, the horrors of World War I affected far more than a generation. The result of the war was an entire generation of young European men wiped out. Remarque shows not only the horrors of the battlefield, he shows the aftermath in the young men who are left, and can never forget their horrific experiences. "All Quiet on the Western Front" is a classic war novel because it does not hide the horrors of war, it makes the reader experience just a bit of what the men experienced in battle, and so it not only chronicles history, it chronicles horror - hopefully so it will not happen again.

Bibliography

Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the…… [read more]


Hapsburg Empire in the Half Essay

… Russia was interested in extending her Empire towards the Adriatic Sea (through Serbia). Great Britain and France, were not ready to let anyone else become a global economic player.

These countries formed military alliances. (Germany + Austria against the Serbs, vs. France + Great Britain + Russia.) If one country of the alliance were attacked, the besieged could count on support from its coalition. World War broke out in the summer of 1914 because of the static pacts existing between the nations.

The heir to the Austrian throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) was assassinated. The Austrians blamed the Serbs. Russia decided to support the Serbs and mobilized her troops. This caused Austria Germany and France to engage their troops. (Germany + Austria vs. France + Russia + Serbia) When Germany advanced through Belgium, Britain who had an existing treaty with Belgium and an alliance with Japan (Japan would back up any British involvement in European warfare) weighed in on the side of France, Russia, and Serbia. Turkey joined Germany and Austria. Eventually, Germany attacked United States interests and they were brought into the war on the opposing side.

This World War was like no other war before its time. Enormous numbers of combatants were transported to the battlefields via trains. Supply lines were set up because the means to move goods along from vast distances to the troops were available. World War I was also primarily a defensive war, relying heavily on trench warfare. This brought the fighting to a quagmire and led to the creation of early weapons of mass destruction (i.e. poison gas, flame throwers, machine guns, arial bombs etc..) to advance the troops.

World War I was a result of egotism, imperialist aspiration and inflexible political alliances resulting in over 29,000,000 casualties, not including the many civilians killed.

Background Information

The History of Austria http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/6711/austria.html#FranzJosef

Treaty of Versailles http://education.yahoo.com/search/be?lb=t&p=url%3Av/versailles__treaty_of

Paris Peace Conference http://education.yahoo.com/search/be?lb=t&p=url%3Av/versailles__treaty_of

Treaty of Versailles http://education.yahoo.com/search/be?lb=t&p=url%3Av/versailles__treaty_of

Political Groups, Bolsheviks, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSbolsheviks.htm

Events and Issues in Russia 1914-1925, Russian Revolution February 1917, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmarchR.htm

Russian Revolution, October 1917 http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSnovemberR.htm

Weimar After the First World War (1919-1933) http://web.hky.hk/~emilylo/History.htm allowing the political party with the majority of representatives to rule)

Conflicting National Interests

http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/civil_n2/histscript6_n2/wwstart.html

Military Casualties of W.W.I http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm… [read more]


Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Term Paper

… Today's historians are able to reflect on Churchill's record of leadership and accomplishments as measures of courage, the consequences of speaking one's mind - particularly in political arenas - without a severe series of checks and balances, and the great importance, in all applications, to never giving in or giving up... crying surrender.

Modern military strategists can see clearly how the courage to stand in the crevice of popular opinion and making difficult - but necessary - choices to protect freedom and human life is often the hard road to travel.

Stalin and Churchill

In a letter to Churchill, Stalin takes him to task over the precept that "the German racial theory brought Hitler and his friends to the conclusion that the Germans, as the only fully valuable nation, must rule over other nations. The English racial theory brings Mr. Churchill and his friends to the conclusion that nations speaking the English language, being the only fully valuable nations, should rule over the remaining nations of the world.

Stalin also felt that Churchill and others were trying to minimize or negate the sacrifices of the Soviet people in the war against Hitler and defended communism to Churchill because "during the hard years of the mastery of fascism in Europe, Communists showed themselves to be reliable, daring, and self-sacrificing fighters against fascist regimes for the liberty of peoples."

Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The relationship between these two world leaders was intricate - full of nuance and still debated today among historical scholars. Even though they had different agendas in many areas, one thing united them: Hitler could not win.

In the process, Churchill hoped that Roosevelt would support the sagging British Empire and Roosevelt considered the British Empire obsolete and reactionary. Both secondary agendas proved disappointing - America acted in her own interests and not Britain's and Stalin proved to be no peacetime partner considering his mass genocide of the 1930's.

Summary

Churchill is near enough to this point in history to be visible in faults and virtues. He was too romantic to be a successful politician or strategist, irresponsible when out of power, a merciless bully when in power, and was too satisfied with the business of war to be a brilliant political success.

He lived long enough, however, to rally England - shaken and divided as it was - help it survive through unparalleled difficulties in her history, and lead the nation to victory in the fight for a reclaimed greatness.

Would we wish Churchill to lead us today? Highly unlikely since the Churchill of the Nazi conflict was also the Churchill of 1911 and 1926. He often elected battle over reasoning; it is key to remember that the genius required to lead a united people is far different than that required to lead a deeply divided one.

Without Churchill's vision for a united nation, however - rooted in his understanding of his country's history - his people might well have perished; without his tenacity and faith in:… [read more]


Polish Immigrants Term Paper

… The Soviets would continue to develop their political and military might while Adolf Hitler would come into power in Germany. Though an independent country, Poland was surrounded by those who wanted to take thier independence away.

Prior to World War… [read more]


Rise and Fall of Rome Term Paper

… But when Julius Caesar was killed, his adopted son Octavian took over as the first Emperor of Rome. This was part of Rome's demise because the Roman Empire slit into two parts, the East and the West. The West fell in 476 but the East continued for several hundred years as The Byzantine Empire founded by Constantine.

By the end of the 3rd century, Rome was in a bad way. The Christian religion was beginning to have some affect on Rome and St. Augustine began to preach that Rome was not as important as the city of God. Prosperity on the city was waning. The Army was losing power and invaders were squatting and acquiring land. In the fourth century, Emperor Constantine became the first Roman Emperor to become a Christian and made Christianity the official religion of Rome with the Edict of Milan. Christianity was still new and not firmly organized but Constantine wanted to change all that and the persecution of pagan Romans began in earnest. Although Rome was falling apart, Christianity played a role in keeping the empire in tact for another hundred years.

But Rome was ripe for the taking in 476 and a revolt was led by the Visigoths, who sacked the city and plundered years of stored up riches. This was the beginning of the end for the Roman Empire. But Rome did not die easily; it took over 150 years for her demise. But the Romans left the world a better place. Their real contribution was their history and their ability to persist over hundreds of years. Their true legacy was their political structure, their ideas about the administration of the legal system and finally, the beginnings of Christianity and the Catholic Church.

Information Sources

Rise of Christianity and Fall of Rome. http://www.letsgo.com/Rome

The Rise and Fall of Rome. http://www.faculty.oxy.edu.Professor Horowitz. September 2002.… [read more]


European Transition Between Traditional Term Paper

… When those in urban areas needed more things the rural workers increased their input and their output to provide those goods and services. This caused the rural area to expand and improve alongside the urban improvements.

Europe during those 150… [read more]


Vietnam War and the Media Term Paper

… 6 Americans freely absorbed the anti-war sentiment that was prevalent all over the American media. Based upon the media coverage and government response, it was evident that the war was meant to be lost and that the United States was… [read more]


Art History Sacred Spaces Term Paper

… All of them were nonetheless aspects of a unitary conception of godhood, and polytheism is a poor description of Mayan belief.

Yet, just as the ground plans of Mayan architecture recalled the multiplicity of gods who watched over the world,… [read more]


Middle Ages and the Renaissance Term Paper

… Although the power of the church declines politically, the Renaissance artists remained devout Catholics, as the people had been in the Middle Ages. The art from both periods places great emphasis on the importance of The Madonna. Differences, however, were shown on their presentation of human figures in arts, paintings, and sculptures. Human art forms in the Middle Ages were always draped in long clothing, showing no skin apart from face and hands. The Renaissance artists, in contrast, hold great admiration for the human form (especially the naked human body), which were inspired by the Classic Greek and Roman styles.

In general, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is more useful to think as two separate periods because of the changes that took place between them, in culture, religion, politics, and economic status. The Renaissance brought about a new concept of government, a move away from church. The ideals of Humanism separated church and society. The idea of individualism and the perception of achieving one's maximum potential became widespread and valid in society. Wealth and prosperity brought the period of Renaissance a cradle for the art and humanism.

Bibliography

Annenberg/CPB. "Renaissance - Printing and Thinking."

Renaissance, What Inspired this Age of Balance and Order." 1997-2002.

Annenberg/CPB Learner.Org. 5 Dec. 2002. http://www.learner.org/exhibits/renaissance/printing.html

Chaffey Classes of '99, '00, & '01. "Contrasting the Renaissance and Later Middle Ages."

AP European History. 1998. Chaffey Classes of '99, '00, & '01. 5 Dec 2002. http://www.homestead.com/chaffeyaphistory/files/RenaissancevsMedieval.html

Chambers, Mortimer et al. "The Western Experience." McGraw-Hill College Home. 7th ed.

Edelstein. "A Comparison of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Italy (14th - 16th Centuries)." William Paterson University. 5 Dec. 2002. http://www.wpunj.edu/~history/study/edelciv12.htm

IRAP. "History - Medieval Art vs. Renaissance Art - The Similarities and Differences."

IRAP - History - Medieval Art vs. Renaissance Art. Italian-Art.Org. 5 Dec. 2002. http://www.italian-art.org/history/medieval_vs_renaissance.html… [read more]


Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi Leader Term Paper

… I am talking about the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. It is one of those things that is easily said. "The Jewish people is being exterminated," every Party member will tell you, "perfectly clear, it's… [read more]


Generation by Tom Brokaw Bibliographic Term Paper

… Society is based on achieving and developing and in any generation, there are people responsible for the developments. Telling the stories of those that contributed is not reason to say that an entire generation has been represented.

The author also… [read more]


French and Indian War: Braddock Term Paper

… And on September 13, 1759, the supposedly the unatainable city of Quebec fell to the army of General James Wolfe. This marked the beginning of the end of the American phase of the war. A year later, in September 1760,… [read more]


History of Decorative Hardware Term Paper

… It was the Footnotes

Gordon, Liz and Hartman, Terri Hardcover Decorative Hardware: Interior Designing With Knobs, Handles, Latches, Locks, Hinges, and Other Hardware Regan Books. 2000.

Gordon and Hartman, 2000 beginning of the industrial age and people were heavily involved in the areas of art, literature and music. This period typically covers the years 1880 to 1915. It was the beginning of the industrial era, and just prior to World War I. It was a time of great change and prosperity for America. Women were beginning to express unhappiness with the dogmas previously established. They wanted the right to vote and the right to express themselves freely. Men had an abundance of opportunities to make money and gain wealth. Many wanted to flaunt their newfound wealth. They did this in every thing that was around from their furniture, glasses and silverware, to the drawer pullers on their dining room drawers. During this period new manufacturing procedures were invented which allowed the mass production of pieces, as well as new finishing and plating techniques.3 Aesthetics were extremely important and doorknobs, door plates, hinges, and other necessary accoutrements were lavishly decorated. Floral designs in relief were one of the most popular motifs at the time.4

The main purpose of the lock was to secure possessions and people. The styles and designs of both keys and locks followed basic style trends of the time. Keys during the Victorian Period were quite ornate and often hung around the neck, tucked into a ladies' petticoats, it was worn as a hair ornament. 5

The Arts and Crafts Period

Arts and Crafts period style hardware was produced at the end of the Victorian

Footnotes

Gordon and Hartman, 2000

Ball and Ball Company. "A brief history of locks in America." 2002. Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.ballandball%2Dus.com/lockhistory.html Accessed August 2002.

Period from 1895 to 1920. The arts and crafts movement represented a philosophy, which reflected a desire to denounce the excesses of the industrial revolution and return to a more simple way of life. It led to the manufacture of mass produced American styles being transported to England.6 These mass-produced pieces were made to look "handmade" however they came in many innovative styles and shapes. It was a return to featuring function over form and style.

The Revival Style was another "retro" style, which was popular from 1895 to 1945. Revival styles were meant to mimic items from the Old World. They maintained a handmade quality. However they had a bit more ornamentation than the Arts and Crafts style. They were mass produced "historical" pieces typically made of iron and brass.7 The Revival style reflected a wish to return to the security and romanticism of times long passed. This period saw the first use of built-in cabinetry for kitchens.8

Art Deco Period

The First World War was over and the country was experiencing a period of wealth never before experienced. It was the time of speak-easies, the Great Gatsby and America was in the mood to express their newfound ideals… [read more]


Causes Term Paper

… It was a Cold War in every sense. It did not include killing, but the consequences of either side "winning" would have been as deadly as any war fought on the battlefield.

Near the end of the 1950s, the Cold War had escalated to frightening proportions. Both countries maintained enormous stockpiles of nuclear and conventional weapons. The United States developed its deterrence based on long-range bombers. By 1955 the U.S. Air Force had "580 B52s, and 1500 B-47s,"(Authors) all 2080 aircraft capable of delivering nuclear weapons. In 1955, the United States Navy launched the world's first nuclear submarine. By 1960, the U.S. had over 18,000 nuclear weapons in its arsenal, and developed the liquid fueled Atlas and Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM).

This escalation in nuclear and other arms also led to a great race to be the first in space. The Russians were the first into space with a manned spacecraft when Yuri Gagarin was launched into space. On May 5, 1961, Major Alan Shepard, a Naval academy graduate and test pilot, climbed aboard the Freedom 7 capsule atop a Redstone rocket and became the first American in space. The space race finally culminated in America's putting men on the moon in 1969, the Russians never matched the feat, and the space race slowly deescalated. The race into space created lasting impacts on America and the world. Out of the science necessary to put men in space came such technologies as Velcro, advanced lubricants, aircraft ducting, night vision cameras, jetliner propulsion, cardiac monitors, protective coatings, and ceramics, among many, many others. (Haggerty). These technologies have changed the way we work, travel, and live, and they all came as a direct result of the technologies necessary to put men into space.

The Vietnam War was also a result of the Cold War, and America's fear of communism. At first, the Kennedy administration did not want to become involved in the war, and France asked them to remain neutral. However, Kennedy and his advisors decided to send 10,000 troops to South Vietnam to help stop Viet Cong advances. The war escalated under President Johnson, until America finally withdrew in 1976. "At the time President Kennedy was assassinated, we had 25,000 soldiers in Vietnam. Under Johnson at peak, the number was 550,000, and when the war ended, 58,000 had been killed" (McGhee 149). Vietnam could be seen as a winding down of the Cold War, which experts believe finally ended in 1990 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the unification of Germany. The Cold War lasted over 40 years, longer than any conventional war, and had a major impact on society.

The Cold War was not planned by either side, but it did occur, and it could have been avoided if both sides had more understanding of each other, and each other's motives. As a direct result of the space race and arms race however, it did add numerous technologies and scientific discoveries to our everyday life. "Each time scientists… [read more]


Share With You My Life Term Paper

… Lets skip ahead to the World War II period, the war began in 1939 and I was 33 years old. I had been married for ten years and had two children and was a housewife. The war began as a conflict between Germany and Anglo French coalition but quickly broadened to engage most nations of the world. The war saw the introduction of two new weapons: the atomic bomb and a long-range rocket. To date WWII has been the most devastating war in history in terms of loss of human life and destruction. ("World War II")

The End of World War II brought on another battle that was known as the Cold War. This battle was between the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. It lasted from the mid-40's until the 80's. This was a war of Ideologies; between democracy and communism. ("Cold War") During this time my children had gone off to college and I was enjoying an empty nest.

Within the time period of the Cold War to other wars had arisen, the Korean War and Vietnam. The Korean War was fought from 1950 until 1953. This war put the United Nations up against North Korea and China. Vietnam (U.S. involvement from 1965-1975) was a war that was opposed by many and the soldiers of the war were not well received when they returned to the states.

The 1950's and 1960's also saw great strides in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1958 a monumental decision was made in the case of Brown vs. The Board of Education this allowed for the desegregation of schools. There were also boycotts of public transportation because minorities were not allowed to sit in the front of the bus. Ultimately the boycotts and other non-violent forms of protest led to the Civil Rights bill that ensured that people could not be treated as second-class citizens on the basis of race.

I think that the most significant event in American history came with the civil right movement. The movement was a culmination of efforts made not only by the black community but also by people who wanted everyone to be treated equally. Blacks had served in all of the wars leading up to the Civil Rights movement and when they came home they were not treated with the same respect as other citizens. The civil rights movement brought America together and made it a better place.

Works Cited

Cold War," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002

http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Conflicting National Interest. http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/civil_n2/histscript6_n2/wwcause.html

Russia in Transition: The Diplomatic Papers of David Rowland Francis, U.S. http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/2upa/Iss/RussiaTransition.htm

Slavitt, Lesley. Reconstruction and World War I. http://raven.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/monogrph/slavitt.htm

World War II," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002

http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights http://encarta.msn.com/images/white.gif… [read more]


America 1945-1960 the Book Book Review

… Further complicating this division between fact and opinion is the lack of citation of historical facts.

The reason for this disparity in writing style is due to the fact that part of the book was written as the events transpired or soon after, and then the book was edited and re-written ten years later. Our perspective of events often changes with time and this is exactly what happened in this book. It is easy for an attentive reader to distinguish the two sections of the book. Abrupt switches in thought and grammatical style signal the reader that they are entering a different section, although no formal signal is given.

The intention of Eric Goldman was to give a highly detailed account of the processes that gave rise to the cold war. He did this well with historical facts and little known antidotes of the era, but then soiled this hard historical fact by interjecting his own opinion. It would be possible to read between the lines and extract the valuable information and ignore the opinions if the distinctions between the two were more obvious. This work would be more valuable as a historical reference had the historical facts been more easy to verify. For these two main reasons, Eric Goldman's work is interesting reading, but is weak as a historical work.

Works Cited

Goldman, Eric Frederick. The…… [read more]


Eyes Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Term Paper

… For by this time, the Greeks had worked out a system of precise mathematical proportions based upon their own real-life observations. (Gowing p.139) Every body part, every gesture bears a careful relationship to the whole. Hermes is depicted as a handsome, athletic young man. His face is serene, contemplative, his movements graceful and restrained. He poses nonchalantly in an elegant contraposto that permits the harmonious use of space. The blemishes and imperfections of the individual give way to the ideal. Man is an unruffled figure who dominates a finely balanced and rational world.

These qualities of realism and reason were exploited to an even greater degree by the Ancient Romans. A practical people, the Romans favored engineering over philosophy, military strategy over the finer points of elegant living. Theirs was a self-made world, an empire carved out by energetic and egoistic individuals determined to have their exploits - and their faces - remembered by posterity. In the days of the Republic,."..Politically-motivated patrician portraiture [became] an essential element of propaganda...." (Duby and Daval p. 195) A portrait bust thought to be of Sulla captures the statesman as he looked in life, wrinkles and all. It is a faithful reproduction of an aging man, an individual with a determined expression, and less-than-perfect features. The image freezes a precise moment in time, a stage in one man's life and career. It identified Sulla to the Roman people as a television photo op might the American president today. While sharing the Greek characteristic of lifelike form, the Roman is stripped of all artifice. Roman ideals have come down to Earth.

So a society's ideals are reflected in its sculpture. The pragmatic Romans represented people as they actually were, the Greeks as they ought to be, and the Egyptians as gods. These differing forms of depiction speak to different cultural concepts. For the Egyptians, the world was an unchanging pageant set into emotion each day by a god on Earth. Forms were stereotyped and individual characteristics were replaced by symbols of status and class. The philosophical Greeks, ever-striving for the perfect world placed gods on the same footing as men, depicting both as physically perfect specimens, coolly detached from their surroundings. By the power of his intellect, man dominated his world. But power can be both intellectual and physical, and for the Romans, it was this second element that mattered most. Individual talent and force of character were the strengths of the Roman elite, and their sculptors represented it. Egyptian, Greek, and Roman sculpture - three different ways of looking at the same world.

Bibliography

Duby, Georges and Daval, Jean-Luc, Eds. Sculpture from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. New York: Taschen, 1991.

Gowing, Sir Lawrence, et al., Eds. A History of Art. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1995.

Schulz, Regine and Seidel, Matthew, Eds. Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs. Cologne: Konemann, 1998.

Shaw, Ian Ed. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt.…… [read more]


Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers Term Paper

… With excellent research and interview techniques as well as locating source documents the author underscores the way the local Germans were guided and eventually a part of the regime.

Browning managed to locate letters that display the mind set of the time and without producing sympathy for those who participated in the regime he does underline the foundational reasoning that was initially used. Once the power was set it no longer mattered if the people objected, they had given the power and now were afraid to balk against it. Like the child at school who befriends the bully to keep from becoming the next target, so went the way of support for the Nazis in local Germany at the time.

Areas of discussion section the book. One chapter discusses the mindset of the Nazis while another section takes the reader on an exploratory journey of the supporters by fear and by manipulation. The chapters are distinct and if a reader wanted to quickly locate a particular point or reference it would not be difficult.

Browning starts the book with a strong chapter titled From Ethnic Cleansing to Genocide to the Final Solution. This is the bulk and weight of his explanation of the entire Holocaust. It was done with little steps. First it was only supposed to be an ethnic cleansing which in and of itself is wrong, but the people were depressed and looking for solutions and someone to blame. Then as soon as that was accepted it moved to genocide and finally to the admitting that the final solution was to destroy and entire race based solely on their race and nothing else.

Virtually all of the participants agree on the centrality of the year 1941 and the incremental decisions making proves that Hitler played a part in"(Browning pp 1).

He history of the Holocaust is well-known. Teachers give their views to their students, and movies abound with the gory and horrific saga that occurred. However, Browning brings to light the entire regime with a very businesslike approach. The reader is treated to an understanding of how and why the Nazis got away with the systematic destruction of hundreds of millions of Jews Gypsies, and other "undesirables." Browning takes the reader on the path of incremental suggestions and decisions that led the regime to its ultimate place of power and illustrates how the people feel for it. This is an excellent book and one worth reading if one wants the reasons behind the horror and not just the horror itself.

Works Cited

Browning, Christopher. Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers. (Cambridge University…… [read more]


Fragmentation and Integration of Economic Term Paper

… Factories require no such responsible oversight, for unlike the land factories have a preprogrammed obsolescence to them. Factories will have to be constantly upgraded or torn down. They do not require fealty as the land does, and as people lost their connection to the land they lost their connections to each other - finding some solace in the pursuit of profit.

Capitalism manages the costs (and risks) associated with technological innovation (upon which it depends) in two ways that are in fact closely linked to each other: The first is that risk is widely distributed, although of course this becomes less and less true during an age of globalization. Capitalization could not have arisen initially in its original form, for the distribution of the risks of innovation amongst a high number of individual entrepreneurs is an essential part of the first stage of capitalism.

Related to this fact is that individual entrepreneurs must absorb the costs of capitalism and especially of innovation. It is not, for example, stockholders, who hold down two jobs on the side and stay up until four in the morning to try to get a new device to work, but rather individuals willing to compromise their own health, to give up all of their leisure, to disregard their responsibilities to family and community, who create technological innovation. The result is both new products and…… [read more]


Roman History and Civilization Term Paper

… ¶ … Roman in the context of ancient Roman society? On its surface, such a question seems obvious. To be Roman means to be a citizen, of course, to be a part of the great, famously "grand" empire that was… [read more]


Sebrina Whitener the "Hitler Myth Term Paper

… This is something the author in, "Hitler's Myth" is trying to dispel. He's trying to show us how so much of what happened has become mythical in the minds of us all.

The images of Hitler and of the West's fantasies about him, create the perfect place for the Nazis to become fantasy. As the author suggests, "were it not for this deadly combination of admiration, envy, passivity, and delegation of the "aggressor" role, the West would not have given such license to German impudence." (307) I believe what he's trying to say is that Hitler believed his own propaganda and his adversaries, seemingly beyond their own choice believed it and were paralyzed by it, too.

If we look at this way, the Germans were victims of Hitler, too. Both of their own national psychology, mythology, and of their role in the international family, just like the Jews. They were all brainwashed and trespassed against. It's because of this that we cannot view the Holocaust as simply something that happened only to the Jews.

Hitler's myth is captured in this line:

"I follow my course with the precision and security of a sleepwalker."

Even at that time it seemed an unusual statement for the undisputed leader of 67,000,000 people to make at the time of an international crisis. But Hitler meant it to be a form of reassurance for his followers that were beginning to question his wisdom and his course of action. But it seems now that it was more of a confession than anything and if his wary followers only realized its significance and implications, they would have reacted with greater concern.

The course of this self-proclaimed sleepwalker took him on many untravelled roads of horror and to a pinnacle of success and power not held by any leader since. It was his own myth that eventually led him to his own demise. He will go down in history as the most worshipped and the most despised man the world has ever known.

Bibliography

Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New…… [read more]


Augustus Saint-Gaudens' Shaw Memorial and Battle of Athena With Alcyoneus Term Paper

… Shaw Memorial (Boston, Ma) and Athena Battling with Alkyoneus

The Shaw memorial is a relief sculpture. Officially known as Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment Memorial, it honors Robert Shaw and other soldiers who served in the Massachusetts 54TH… [read more]


How Gettysburg Served as a Turning Point in the Civil War Essay

… Battle of Gettysburg was fought in 1863, midway through the American Civil War. It took place in Pennsylvania with the Union soldiers on one side and the Confederate soldiers on the other. More people died in this battle than in any other during the Civil War. But it is significant for another reason too: it was the outcome of this battle that has come to be known as a major turning point in the overall direction of the War. Up till that point, the Confederate General, Robert E. Lee, had been trying to take the War to the northern states. His defeat by Union Major General George Meade was a decisive blow to Lee's strategy and a crushing punch to Confederate morale. This paper will discuss the Battle of Gettysburg and show why it is an important point in American History.

The War between the Union and the seceding states was said to have different causes: some viewed it as a war over slavery, others as a war over states' rights. Essentially, everyone may have had their own views and reasons on the matter. But Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter in 1861, the War began.

It was a southern war for the most part, but Lee wanted to change that. He saw that by taking the War to the northerners he could potentially break the spirit of the Union forces and bring an end to the bloody campaigns that had been taking place across the south. Lee had won in Virginia and now meant to push as far northward as Philadelphia, a city whose capture would surely have political ramifications for the Union.

Lee's forces moved up the Shenandoah Valley into Pennsylvania and met the forces of Meade in Gettysburg on the first of July, 1863. Lee meant to annihilate Meade's forces,…… [read more]


World's Next Century Article Review

… ¶ … running through all of these articles is sustainability of human population growth. This is indicated as "Megatrend 3: Demographic Patterns" in the 2030 overview, where over a billion additional people will be added to the total population in less than two decades. Every other article reveals potential impacts on human population growth, whether it be Kaplan's analysis of the limits imposed by geography, or the Scientific American survey of aquaculture which might tell us how over 8 billion humans plan to feed themselves. Goldstone sees population as potentially the most destabilizing megatrend globally; the Economist's reporting on child mortality decreasing in Africa and the New York Times reporting on demographic shrinkage in Germany show that increased population is not necessarily increased productivity, except insofar as capitalism requires a consistent growth pattern.

Q2. FIVE FACTS.

* "In 1990, 43% of the population of developing countries lived in extreme poverty…by 2010 it was 21% percent." (Economist, June 1, 2013)

* "World grain and soybean prices more than doubled between 2007 and mid-2008" (Futurist Vol 47 No 1, Jan-Feb 2013)

* "…in many developed countries, productivity is more likely to decline as the population ages" (Goldstone, Foreign Affairs, Jan-Feb 2010)

* "Most commentators…imagine that American predominance would be replaced by some kind of multipolar harmony. But multipolar systems have historically been neither particularly stable nor particularly peaceful." (Kagan, Wall St. Journal, Feb 11, 2012)

* "Crop and grazing areas, at today's yields, would have to rise by 50% to 70% to meet 2050 food needs; such land may not exist." (Simpson, Scientific American 2011, p56)

Q3. I strongly disagree with Robert Kagan's flimsy neocon propaganda in "Why the World Needs America," first published in the Wall Street Journal, a newspaper dedicated to propping up the Ponzi Scheme of global capitalism. Kagan claims that the downfall of the Roman Empire set back the cause of human civilization for centuries: he seems blissfully unaware that Constantinople, the eastern capital of the Roman Empire, would remain the capitol of successor empires in the east, from the Byzantines to the Ottomans, that would span many centuries and sustain all those glories of human civilization (like science, astronomy, and medicine) during a period when Europe was admittedly a backwater. It is a highly Eurocentric view of what happens when a hegemonic power collapses -- for Averroes or Avicenna or Ibn Batutta, the dark ages were not precisely dark. Kagan also seems fundamentally…… [read more]


Battle of Tarawa Research Paper

… Battle of Tarawa

War is a unique consequence of human life and interaction. Those willing to participate in way find a way to make themselves relevant and important throughout the annuls of history by providing stories of courage, fear and… [read more]


Mayan Calendar Essay

… Aveni (2003) notes that massive Mayan edifices such as pyramids were constructed in strict alignment to celestial phenomena leading to what some archaeologists call an "orientation calendar" for the construction of Mayan cities (p. 159). Thus, the Mayan calendar permeated all aspects of life in ancient Mesoamerica. The means by which the two calendars overlap in the Mayan system also illustrates the "relationship among all things, including the animals, the land, humans, and everything in the cosmos," (cited by the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, 2014, p. 1).

Interestingly, there may also be a political dimension to the Mayan calendar that is not immediately apparent. The Canadian Museum of History, for instance, points out that the Mayan calendar links the actions of kings and other rulers to mythical events. Kings could therefore anchor their leadership in cosmology. This would bolster the authority of the kings, which would have been viewed as theocrats ordained by the gods to lead the people. The Mayan calendar allowed kings and priests to have authority over social events and ritual. In fact, the "end date" predicted by the calendar and associated hieroglyphic literature may have referred to the completion of the reign of one of the Mayan kings (Lorenzi, 2012). The calendar may also have been used to assuage public fears during times of crisis, as the system reveals cycles and shows that crisis periods are eventually overcome with time (Lorenzi, 2012). However, the ordinary Mayan people would not necessarily have understood the intricacies of the system. In the same way, contemporary "calendar priests" continue to preserve the system while keeping its information secret (Canadian Museum of History, n.d.).

As with many other ancient calendar systems, the Mayan calendar was also used as a means to divine the future for individuals and the society as a whole (Canadian Museum of History, n.d.). Given that the Mayans had a strong knowledge of astronomy, the calendar itself did permit the ancients to foresee celestial phenomena. Because of the Mayan ability to foresee celestial phenomena, it would seem possible to predict mundane events or patterns. Whether or not the more mystical or esoteric dimensions of the calendar are credible, the Mayan calendar continues to fascinate both scholars and laypersons. The fact that not all is known about the calendar system, such as how it was devised with such a high degree of complexity, makes the Mayan calendar all the more fascinating.

References

Aveni, A.F., Dowd, A.S. & Vining, B. (2003). Maya calendar reform? Latin American Antiquity 14(2): 159-178.

Canadian Museum of History (n.d.). Maya civilization. Retrieved online: http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc06eng.shtml

Jenkins, J.M. (1998). Maya Cosmogenesis 2012. Inner Traditions.

Lorenzi, R. (2012). Mayan calendar discovery confirms a 2012 'end date.' Discovery News. Jun 29, 2012. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/maya-long-count-calendar-end-date-120629.htm

Rice, P. (2009). Maya Calendar Origins. University of Texas Press.

Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian (2014). Maya calendar converter. Retrieved online: http://maya.nmai.si.edu/calendar/maya-calendar-converter… [read more]


Kenneth Waltz Structural Realism After the Cold War Article Review

… Is Kenneth Waltz Article Convincing or Not?

This editorial by Waltz, possibly the "realist Maximus," is absolutely undoubted on so many different levels. Initially, democracies have in the past wrestled with democracies, as in the author's illustration of World War I nations fighting against each other. Also, this point overthrows the idealists' objective of international democracy leading in a Kantian-form of peace. Kenneth Waltz sees a coming contest where democracies could possibly be set in opposition against each other concerning the balance of power. This kind of circumstances will without doubt not be as clear-cut as the talk of East against the West, capitalism vs. communism of the preceding century. Second, Kenneth Waltz makes argument regarding interdependence and how it is able to both cause and prevent war.

This argument revolves around access to resources, and when resources become scarcer, the probability of war logically increases. Last of all, a person reading the article is an able to glean from Waltz a method for examining realist theory's subject of balance of power. At first, the balance of power occurs; next, an urge causes a modification, bringing about something that may seem unpopular but effective at the same time.

Works Cited

Waltz, Kenneth N. "Structural Realism after the Cold War." International Security 25.1…… [read more]


Greek and Roman Empire Influence Research Paper

… In summary, it is fairly apparent that ancient Greece and ancient Rome effectively spawned contemporary Western Civilization, which is essentially the product of various cultural, social, political and religious aspects of these two antiquated empires. Western culture continues to exist in Europe, North America, and in regions that people from these areas have colonized. The religion that dominates modern Western society all but stemmed from the confluence of these two cultures, as Christianity was the official state religion of the Holy Roman Empire which utilized the language of ancient Greek to write some of the most formidable and revered texts for this language. Religion, of course, plays a fundamental role in various other aspects of life and has social, political, and basic organizational functions which expand beyond the mere sphere of worship. It is also highly valuable to realize that the major languages that are used to communicate in western civilization today stemmed from Latin, which was the language used for writing and communicating in ancient Rome. When one considers that the systems of government employed in Western Civilization stem from Greece and Rome, and that the latter continued many cultural constructs propagated by the former, it is clear that these two civilizations have highly influenced contemporary Western society.

Bibliography

Mayor, Adrienne. "Mithradates: Scourge of Rome." History Today 59 (2009): 10-15.

Farmer, Lesley.

Ogden, Daniel. "Controlling Desires: Sexuality in Ancient Greece and Rome." Journal of the History of Sexuality. 22 (2013) 179-181.

Ray, Charles. "The Roman Empire's Impact on Western Civilization." Humanities 360. Accessed June 24, 2014. http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/the-roman-empires-impact-on-western-civilization-3-38032/

Shelley, Bruce. Church History in Plain Language (3rd ed.). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2008. ISBN-13: 9780718025533.

Notes

Bruce Shelley, Church History in Plain Language. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2008), 91.

Charles Ray, "The Roman Empire's Impact on Western Civilization," sccessed June 24, 2014, http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/the-roman-empires-impact-on-western-civilization-3-38032/

Adrienne Mayor, "Mithradates: Scourge of Rome," History Today 59 (2009): 10.

Daniel Ogden, "Controlling Desires: Sexuality in Ancient Greece and…… [read more]


Revolution in Russia Essay

… Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" takes into account the period of great change for Russia and the rest of the world. The terms Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union are used synonymously… [read more]


Kennedy and Khrushchev in the Cuban Missile Crisis Essay

… If what was at stake in the Cuban Missile Crisis was potentially global thermonuclear war, Khrushchev's rhetorical style alone is frankly terrifying. The bluster grows most outlandish in Khrushchev's long October 30 communication, in which seemingly he realizes that the Cuban situation has gotten him the attention of the world, so he proceeds to list every conceivable Soviet diplomatic demand -- a nuclear test ban treaty, the American presence in Guantanamo and West Berlin, Chinese membership in the United Nations -- while admitting that "I understand that I listed a great number of questions. Therefore, if we started after breakfast we would not have finished solving them before dinner" (71). What ultimately seems plausible, in reading Khrushchev's bizarre and florid communications to Kennedy, is that the Cuban missiles were intended as a deliberate provocation, purely intended to see what concessions the Russians could extort from America in consequence -- the removal of American missiles in Turkey was therefore a plausible concession on Kennedy's part, as it was the only issue remotely resembling the Cuban missiles mentioned by Khrushchev.

In assessing the question of responsible statecraft, therefore, it is possible to decide that Kennedy handled the Cuban Missile Crisis better, purely on rhetorical grounds. Kennedy's communications with Khrushchev are always to the point, and in accordance with the full gravity of the potential consequences of a nuclear war between the U.S.A. And USSR. Khrushchev's communications by contrast sound like those of a confidence man, looking to score any possible rhetorical point against American hypocrisy while at the same time not acknowledging the genuine level of provocation involved in the placement of the missiles in the first place. The reader gets the impression that Khrushchev indeed deliberately and irresponsibly provoked the crisis, gambling to see what sort of concessions could be extorted from the Americans as a result. Whatever the ethical deficiencies of American foreign policy, Khrushchev's side of the correspondence does not make the Soviets look like high-minded idealists, but rather extortionist gangsters.

Works Cited

Kennedy, John F. And Khrushchev, Nikita. "Kennedy-Khrushchev Exchanges." Loyola University. Web. Accessed 25 April 2014 at: http://www.loyola.edu/departments/academics/political-science/strategic-intelligence/intel/FRUS-6.html… [read more]

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