"World History" Essays 981-1000

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Ancient Civis an Examination of the Cultural Essay

… Ancient Civis

An examination of the cultural contributions to the first City-States in the History of Ancient Civilization, the essay looks at the advances in architecture, arts and letters, astronomy, governance, and urban planning in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and… [read more]

Debate Over to Torture Term Paper

… Corporal Punishment

The issue of torture has been the subject of debate for the last years, especially after the Abu Ghraib scandal. Most importantly, the new war on terror waged by the United States and the international community has transformed… [read more]

Biography on Julius Caesar Roman Emperor Research Paper

… Greek and Roman

Biography on Julius Caesar Roman Emperor

Caesar was an official and general of the late Roman republic. He very much advanced the Roman Empire prior to taking authority and making himself dictator of Rome. This led the… [read more]

Cleopatra of Egypt Research Paper

… Prudence Jones theorizes that one of the reasons for the queens theatricality was to overcome language barriers in her nation and also to appear in a position of authority. "By using ritual and spectacle to convey the message, Cleopatra found yet another way to transcend barriers of language and culture" (20). To some however, this pageantry was more pomposity than a matter of royal pride or an attempt at understanding.

The people of Rome were becoming more and more concerned about the influence this foreign queen who they dubbed the reincarnation of Isis. Their leader Octavian was equally weary of the Egyptian queen and began to break apart the relationship between the Emperor and Mark Antony. Antony attempted to battle Octavian, but his followers were no match for the Roman fleets and in little time, Octavian arrived in Alexandria and began to march towards Cleopatra's home.

What happened at the end of Cleopatra's life is more storytelling and speculation than anything that can be proved. What is generally believed is that, upon seeing the destruction of her empire and believing Mark Antony to be dead or near it, the former Queen of Kings poisoned herself through the bite of an Egyptian cobra or an asp.

Why is so little known about such a dynamic character in the course of human history? Historian Michel Chauveau explained it thusly: "From the purely historic point-of-view, Cleopatra is thus an empty figure without an existence of her own, the privileged but ever subordinate partner in the lives of her contemporaries" (2). Perhaps this is true. Most information about Cleopatra until recently has been in side notes in biographies of the Caesars or Mark Antony. Even in the history of Egyptian pharaohs, she is given relatively little attention. How is it then that a woman of such mystery has become so famous? More than likely, it is because such little detail is known about the woman that she has become such a source of fascination. A woman found herself in the peripherals of all these historic figures. She was instrumental in the history of Egypt and of Rome. Something about her was so compelling that she was able to bring an empire to the brink of collapse. Popular culture has answered these questions by showing this woman as an icon of sex, beautiful and selfish with little good quality, disregarding all she had done in her own right and in her own name. There are those who continue to be intrigued based upon the lies and there are those who continue to be intrigued because there are still no answers.

Works Cited:

Chauveau, Michel. Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2002. Print.

Jones, Prudence J. Cleopatra: the Last Pharaoh. London: Haus, 2006. Print.

Roller, Duane…… [read more]

Miracle of Dunkirk Term Paper

… Miracle at Dunkirk

Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk on 27 May - 4 June 1940, saved the British army from total destruction. The German Blitzkrieg had just smashed the French line and trapped the remaining Allied forces, including most of the British Expeditionary Forces, in the city of Dunkirk, the last continental harbor still controlled by Allied forces. British leaders had to organize an improbable evacuation to save the British Expeditionary Forces from certain destruction. The all-out effort exerted by the British navy and the civilian sea vessels turned a disgraceful retreat into a triumphant rescue.

The Predicament

Germany's invasion of France in 1940 succeeded beyond the expectations of many commanders and left Allied forces stranded in what was now German-controlled France (Axelrod 303). Separated from the larger French forces by the German forces, Allied troops tried to move as close to their remaining strengths as possible, the British Navy (Axelrod 303). The Allied forces arrived in Dunkirk demoralized and fearful, expecting Hitler to put his foot on their throats by sending in the German tank division that had just demolished the French battle lines (Liddell Hart 44). Hitler's decision at this critical juncture was one of the most important in the entire War.

Ironically, the factors behind the Germans' success up until Dunkirk made it difficult for them to capitalize on the opportunities it yielded at Dunkirk. The German Blitzkrieg, relying on tanks and airpower, mowed through France with unprecedented force and speed, quickly smashing the Allied line and pursuing them to Dunkirk. (Axelrod 303) the progress was so rapid, however, that the tank and air divisions arrived at Dunkirk long before the infantry divisions did. (Axelrod 304) Although Hitler recognized the vulnerability of the Allied forces, he was not sure how the German tank and air divisions would perform in such a tight spot without the more conventional infantry to support them (Axelrod 304). Hitler decided to postpone his attack on the Allied forces until his infantry divisions arrived from France (Liddell Hart 44).

The Rescue

Although the Allied forces literally dodged the bullet through Hitler's hesitation, they were still in a very precarious position with the German Luftwaffe hovering over the coast. British leaders realized that there was only a small window of time in which they would be able to evacuate British and French troops from Dunkirk. (Axelrod 303) the British Admiralty assembled a fleet of 693 ships, including 39 destroyers, 36 minesweepers, 77 civilian trawlers, 26 civilian yachts, and various other small vessels, to sail across the channel pick up as much of the Allied Force as…… [read more]

Great Ziggurat, Tower of Babylon, and Ancient Buildings Literature Review

… Construction

Great Ziggurat

The Great Ziggurat was first constructed in 2100 B.C. By King Ur-Nammu who named it 'Etemennigur' that translates into the house that causes fear. The name was appropriate at the time as the King had built it… [read more]

Fall of the Roman Empire Research Paper

… Christianity regards all men as equal in the eyes of the Lord thus the emperor was also equal in the eyes of the Lord as his subjects and again he couldn't exercise control over this religious institution which was headed… [read more]

Olmec Civilization Research Paper

… Olmec Civilization


The Olmec culture has been the focus of intense discussion and archeological exploration in recent years. It is considered to be one of the most interesting and also one of the mysterious ancient civilizations. The Olmec civilization… [read more]

Lucifer Effect Essay

… Lucifer Effect

Most people who watch the news at night sit in awe of the cruelty of others. "How could he kill his boss?" "Why would a mother harm her children?" What is clear is that there is bad in the world -- and, of course, there is good as well -- but who are these bad people and were they ever good? Philip Zimbardo's work, the Lucifer Effect (2007), delves into precisely this topic. He notes that, "Lucifer, the 'light bearer,' was God's favorite angel until he challenged God's authority and was cast into Hell along with his band of fallen angels" (3). Thus we are led to consider the idea that the greatest evils are not executed by fanatics or what we would call "bad people," but rather by ordinary people who accepted an idea and participated in the idea while all the time believing that their actions were normal. One obvious example of this phenomenon might be the Nazis under Adolf Hitler who were brainwashed by his fundamentalist views that Jews were sub-human individuals. This paper will look at the Virginia Tech shootings in April of 2007, when a single gunman killed 32 students, staff and faculty, causing the deadliest shooting in U.S. history (Shapira & Jackman 2007) as well as the Stanley Milgram Experiment, creator of the electric "shock generator" used to test individuals' free will when it came to taking orders. What causes a person to walk onto a campus and go on a shooting/killing spree? Did Satan suddenly transform this young gunman? Will people hurt another if they are meant to believe that they are doing the right thing or if they are being told to do so by a superior?

The "Lucifer effect," according to Zimbardo (2007), can lead ordinary people to commit unimaginable acts of violence and suffering of others. In considering the Virginia Tech shootings, it is believed that the gunman was initially looking for his girlfriend and that one of the first two people he shot may have been her (Hauser & O'Connnor 2007), but the gunman then went on to line students up in some classrooms and shoot them one by one (2007). In one classroom, the gunman came, left and then returned and the students were able to keep him by holding the door shut as the gunman fired shots through the door (2007). The scene sounds horrific. A single man with two handguns and not one ounce of morality or goodness left in him.

In Stanley Migram's experiment, Milgram wanted to find out how long someone (the 'teacher') would continue to give shocks to another individual ('learner-victim') if they are told to do so, even though the person could be seriously hurt (Stanley Milgram Experiment 2010). The experiment was designed to be a sort of response to the Nazi war criminals, who had claimed that they were 'just following orders' (Milgram Experiment Ethics 2010). Milgram was trying to find out whether or not people would really obey… [read more]

We Are Witnesses Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust Book Review

… ¶ … Witnesses: Five Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust

Jacob Boas' descriptive and poignant book is a refreshingly different look at WWII history; indeed as many people should read it as possible. And that having been said, one person in particular who should read We Are Witnesses: Five Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust is the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The Iranian president should be advised by his religious advisors to take time one day and find out what happened to Yitzhak, David, Moshe, Anne and Eva as they struggled to survive and save their families during the bloody period of mass slaughter perpetrated against Jews by the Nazis. It is a safe guess though that Ahmadinejad will not read the book because, as he said in September, 2009, the holocaust was "…a false pretext to create Israel" (CBN.com, 2009).

Unfortunately, the five teenagers presented in Boas' book are no longer alive to personally tell their stories to Ahmadinejad, but their diaries are both believable and chilling. In his Introduction, author Boas explains that Adolf Hitler's Nazi movement was responsible for the brutal deaths of six million Jews, which is a well-known fact among most civilized, educated societies. But it not as well-known that about one-fourth of those who died in the Nazi carnage were children.

Meantime, in addition to the stories of the five teenagers, Boas offers a short and hard-hitting history of the persecution of Jews in Europe. Young readers who are coming into contact with the history of Jews for the first time will find this section worthy of attention. The first Jews arrived in Europe after the Romans had pushed them out of Palestine, which had been their ancient homeland (documented in the Old Testament of the Bible). That was about a thousand years before Hitler's reign of terror. Once the Roman Empire fell, Jews had a difficult time getting along in society, partly because Christians blamed them for Christ's crucifixion. Laws were passed preventing Jews from owning land or weapons, and in some cases Jews were prevented from taking certain occupations (Boas, p. 4).

The Lateran Council of 1215 ordered all Jews to place a badge on their clothing to show the world they were Jewish; they were also forced to live in ghettos during that era. In the 12th Century England expelled Jews and in the 15th Century Jews were pushed out of Spain as well, Boas writes (p. 5). However, by the 19th Century Jews began to enjoy the rights that all citizens enjoyed and as a result they flourished and became adept in writing, the medical field, university scholarship and in business enterprises. This, Boas writes, caused a "backlash" and Hitler capitalized on resent many Christians and others felt towards Jews. The slaughter of Jews began in earnest on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland

In Eva's case, she had nightmares of being sent in a railroad boxcar to Poland to be killed. Eva's best friend Marta had been… [read more]

Crucible vs. Mccarthyism Essay

… Crucible vs. McCarthyism

Fear over reason: Modern witch hunts depicted in Arthur Miller's "The Crucible" and in the House Un-American Activities Committee

No work of art can be subsumed under a single interpretation. However, Arthur Miller himself has stated that his play "The Crucible," set during the Puritan era in colonial New England was intended to be an explicit historical allegory, highlighting the parallels between the Salem witch trials and the era during which Miller wrote the play. Miller was a victim of the anti-communist hysteria of the early Cold War era. He was called by Senator Joseph McCarthy before the House Un-American Activities Committee. As a result of seeing himself, and other great writers and artists of the era being tainted with the public's fear of communism, Miller wrote a play specifically designed to highlight the parallels between the witch hunts and 20th century American fears of communism.

Miller did not desire to produce a strictly historically accurate rendition of life in Salem. For example, in the real Salem, Abigail Williams and most of the accusing girls were prepubescent children. However, Miller deliberately made Abigail older to serve his dramatic purposes. Abigail is an outcast in Salem because of her sexually forward behavior. She has also been carrying on an extramarital romance with John Proctor. Suspicions about witchcraft and Abigail's supposed demonic possession give her a great deal of power within the community, power she never had, much like McCarthy was an obscure senator before he began to develop his reputation as a zealous communist.

In both the play and the historical reality of the 1950s, accusations make the appearance of small improprieties seem larger than they were and distorted the truth. For example, during the Great Depression, a desperate era in American history, many Americans dabbled with political radicalism. During the 1940s, the U.S. was an ally of the Soviet Union. However, Americans who had shown interest in leftist causes, or praised the Soviet Union during World War II were now tarred and feathered in the public imagination as communists, as Joseph McCarthy preyed upon people's fears. Similarly, John Proctor's refusal to attend church services, because of his personal guilt over his extramarital affair is made him to seem like a 'witch' in the public imagination.

In "The Crucible" the people of Salem are so afraid of witchcraft, a seemingly silent and uncontrollable force they cannot understand, that they give credibility to the few people who seem able to discover it, like Abigail and her followers. They blind themselves to the fact that Abigail has a profound self-interest in accusing others, including Proctor's wife Elizabeth, of witchcraft. Similarly, the American public was so afraid of a communist take-over of the world, they trusted McCarthy and sacrificed their liberty as Americans to believe freely, just as the public in Salem sacrificed their sense of godliness and justice and actually hung good men…… [read more]

Kastner Trial Term Paper

… Kastner Trial

For millions of Jews, the Holocaust and its lingering effects would have a dramatic impact upon Israeli society. Where, it would serve as a catalyst for deep reflection and regret (especially among the survivors). In the late 1940's… [read more]

Ancient Greece and Rome Women Term Paper

… Women in Greece, Rome

Although ancient Greece and Rome are heralded as forging the prototype of modern democracy, they were far from egalitarian societies. Half the populations of Greece and Rome had little to no social status or rights, as females were mostly cut off from public and political life. Ancient Greece and Rome were gender segregated worlds. Gender impacted roles and duties. Women were restricted access to education and were largely left out of the arts, literature, and athletic pursuits. In both ancient Greece and in ancient Rome, economic class and social status determined the actual day-to-day lives of women but even the wealthiest females in these societies enjoyed social or political parity with men.

Whether as a sign of global social progress or not, though, women did enjoy "a level of freedom they would not see again in Western Society until the last half of the Twentieth Century" by the end of the first century in ancient Rome (Thompson). This "freedom" is only meaningful relatively, due to the fact that women were at best support figures and never political leaders. Evidence does show that in general, women enjoyed more respect, however slight, in Rome vs. Greece ("Women in Ancient Rome"). For example, "Bereaved Romans often praised their mothers, wives and daughters on their tombstones," (Dixon). On the other hand, "many Athenian men seem to have regarded their wives as at best essential inconveniences," (Thompson).

Marriage and childbirth were the defining features of women's lives in ancient Greece and Rome. Both strictly paternalistic societies, females left their homes to live with their husbands and became what can easily be considered domestic slaves. Only wealthy women would enjoy some relief from household duties, as slave ownership was common among the rich in both ancient Greece and Rome. During the Archaic age in ancient Greece, land ownership was so severely restricted to men that a daughter would not inherit even if she had no brothers (Blundell). Similar institutionalized sexism still existed centuries later in ancient Rome. For example, the "Voconian law of 169 BCE that prevented men in the wealthiest class bequeathing large sums of money to a daughter" kept paternalism firmly in place (Thompson). The result of such laws ensured that women were stripped of their personhood, their economic independence, and their political rights in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome.

Histories of ancient Greece and ancient Rome were chronicled and compiled by men, making it difficult to piece together accurate pictures of what daily life was actually like for women in these societies. Moreover, almost no first-hand evidence exists as to what women in ancient Greece or Rome actually thought, felt, or did. As Blundell points out, historical documents such as the poems of Homer and Hesiod "present us with a male view of women's status and activities, and both involve a strong element of fantasy," (65). Roman history books…… [read more]

East vs. West Germany Essay

… East vs. West Germany

The timeframe of 1945 to 1990 in relation to East and West Germany is known by many historians as the period of Division and reunification. After the Fall of Nazi Germany, the country was partitioned into four military occupation zones by the Allied powers. The Western Sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, merged in May, 1949 to become West German (The Federal Republic of Germany), and the Soviet Zone became East Germany (German Democratic Republic) in October of that same Year. Berlin, West and East, remained divided. Interestingly enough from a political and cultural view, West Germany chose Bonn as its "temporary capital" to emphasize the view that a split Germany was completely artificial and that unification would remain the goal (Wise, 1998, 23).

Politically, West Germany became a federal republic with a social market economy, and remained politically allied with the Western Allies. Because of this status, and the aid that the West provided, West Germany began to see a long period of economic growth beginning in the early 1950s. In 1955 West Germany joined NATO, a clear political statement of alignment with the west, and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957.

East Germany was part of the Soviet sphere called the Eastern Bloc; remaining a client state under the poltical, military and economic control of Moscow. The state claimed to be a democracy, but was in fact a totalitarian state politically goverend by a Politburo and the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. State power was controlled by an immense secret service known as the Stasi. A Soviet-style "command economy" was set up, with all private ownership banned and the state becoming a member of the Warsaw Pact politically and the Comecon economically. Despite propaganda, East Germany had a low standard of living, very few creature comforts for its population, and the problem of numerous defections into West Berline. In fact, the Berlin Wall, built in 1961 to stop so many East Germans from moving to the west, became a quintessential symbol of the Cold War (Colchester, 2001).

The differences between East and West Germany in this period were quite…… [read more]

Night of the Long Knives: Consolidation of Hitler's Power? Assessment

… Night of Long Knives

Summary of Evidence.

"The Night of the Long Knives" (also known as "Operation Hummingbird" or "Rohm-Putsch" in Germany) occurred on the days between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime committed a series… [read more]

Auschwitz Concentration Camp Article Review

… ¶ … Auschwitz concentration camp

Frei, Norbert. (2010, September). 1945-1949-1989: dealing with two German pasts.

The Australian Journal of Politics and History. Retrieved October 24, 2010 through

FindArticles.com at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1877/is_3_56/ai_n55422670/

Auschwitz article review:

Frei, Norbert. (2010, September). 1945-1949-1989: dealing with… [read more]

Weimar Republic Is Significant Not Just Essay

… ¶ … Weimar Republic is significant not just as the interlude between Germany's two world wars, but as a reminder of what could have been in Germany. From the rubble of the fallen German Empire, the Weimar Republic received an exceedingly difficult set of tasks: to transition Germany's political system from an empire to a democratic republic, to somehow place Germany back into the circle of great powers, and to steer its neglected economy back to its pre-war status as Europe's industrial giant. Ultimately, the Weimar Republic failed because the government was unable to restore true economic stability, the lack of which created an eager audience for the numerous political opportunists of the day.

The Political Aftermath of the German Empire

In post-war Germany, the fall of the German Empire unleashed all of the political parties who had previously been checked by the authority of the Kaiser. Under the Kaiser's rule, the Reichstag was a feeble institution, its only power being its ability to withhold approval of certain government actions. As Socialist parties came to achieve majority representation in the Reichstag during Kaiser Wilhelm's reign, the Kaiser secured support from the Socialists by enacting progressive social policies such as unemployment and accident insurance.

While liberal parties held a comfortable majority of popular support, there were a number of conservative political interests composed mainly of the state's Prussian militaristic elements, the landed elite, and Catholics. Although all of these groups had to bow to imperial authority, their participation in the Kaiser's puppet Reichstag allowed them to develop sophisticated organizational abilities.

After the fall of the German empire, these political groups reassembled in a new Reichstag. (Orlow 116). This Reichstag assumed most of the powers the Kaiser held, most importantly the authority to appoint and dismiss government officials. In addition, it was a parliamentary democracy elected through proportional representation, which meant that seats were apportioned to parties according to the party's share of the total vote. (Id.) Thus, the Reichstag was not a neat two-party assembly as the legislatures in the U.S. are, but a multi-party madhouse.

Although the Liberal and Socialist parties dominated the Reichstag through various coalitions, the Conservative elements received a strong response among the frustrated populace. Moreover, these conservative elements were joined by returning war veterans and other militaristic or "counterrevolutionary" elements, culminating in the Kapp-Luwitz Putsch of April 1920, which succeeded in briefly taking Berlin. (131) Although Putsch ultimately failed, it allowed the various militaristic rightist groups to coalesce and these groups persisted as a threat to the Weimar throughout its existence.

The Sluggish Economic Recovery

Although political threats accompanied the Weimar Republic since its inception, severe economic turmoil proved to be the nation's most persistent problem. Germany was forced to pay war reparations to the Allied Nations as the loser in the war. (125) France added to the humiliation of this burden by insisting on "productive guarantees," where it would occupy German cities if Germany did not pay. (126) As bad as the reparations were, however,… [read more]

Rise of Hitler the Treaty Assessment

… These payments would be paid monthly and would total some £6,600 million (this figure was agreed by the Allies in 1921)[footnoteRef:4]. In light of the economic devastation of the Germany economy and its industrial infrastructure, it was of little surprise that country's economy totally collapsed only a few days after the final amount of the debt was announced in 1921. [4: http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/ASLevel_History/financialimpactofversailles.htm]

The Treaty also placed Germany's territories under the domain of the various allied powers, thereby denying Germany much needed supplemental resources, material and markets needed to reconstruct its own economy[footnoteRef:5]. The Allies and the Associated Power was negotiated the war that they were successively involved directly or indirectly and which the originated declaration of war on the western and eastern Europe by Austria-Hungary Empire and Germany Empire should be replace by a firm, just, and durable peace[footnoteRef:6]. [5: Ibid] [6: American society of international law, " Treaty of peace with Germany" (Vol 13, No.3, Official documents (July., 1919)), pp. 152. Published by American society of international law http://www.jstor.org/stable/2213120]

As is evident from the above, the Treaty of Versailles is believed to have been an oppressive punishment against the Central Powers and Germany in particular. While the goal may have been to create a stable Europe and to keep a balance of power among European nations, the many feel that Treaty hindered Germany's ability to rebuild to such a degree that it created economic and social upheaval, two causes of great national instability. It was in this atmosphere of national instability and humiliation that Hitler was able to capitalize on void of power and pride and provide a passionate message that millions of Germans felt they could rally behind.

Works Cited

Catherine, Lu, "Justice and moral regeneration, the international studies review "(Vol 4,

No.3 (Autumn, 2002)),pp.4 . Published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the international studies association, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3186461

American society of international law, " Treaty of peace with Germany" (Vol 13, No.3,

Official documents (July., 1919)), pp. 152. Published by American society of international law http://www.jstor.org/stable/2213120

SchoolHistory.org. Accessed on October 12, 2010

http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/ASLevel_History/financialimpactofversailles.htm… [read more]

Vietnam Lessons Gained From the American Misadventure Essay

… Vietnam Lessons

Lessons Gained from the American Misadventure in Vietnam

The Vietnam War may only be called a success by the most optimistic and selective of American memories. The goals of reunification of North and South, of preventing the permanence of Communist rule and of impeding on the proliferation of socialist values throughout Southeast Asia would all go unmet. And in reflection, we are inclined to view Vietnam as being valuable only for the lessons which can be used to prevent us from making the same mistakes again. It is thus that we consider the diplomatic, presidential and cultural dimensions of a war that should perhaps never have been broached.

Diplomatic Negotiations:

It is difficult to suggest that any lessons have been learned from Vietnam which can be used today. America's misadventures in Iraq and Afghanistan seem verily to reflect the same diplomatic bumbling that made Vietnam appear to be a necessary war. For the United States, diplomacy at the onset of the war would center primarily on the heaving of accusations, which were especially central to the Gulf of Tonkin incident where America claimed that it had been given a military ultimatum making diplomatic efforts impossible. Certainly, this is a primary characteristic of the conflict that would unfold thereafter, with the United States desiring conflict and occupation above all else. The compromise of diplomacy would not have served this purpose well. If it may be said that a lesson war assimilated into permanent military strategy here, it is that the U.S. perfected the type of 'false flag' march to war that is now a template for justifying needless invasion of foreign lands.

Presidential Leadership:

Perhaps one of the great and stunning disgraces for the American effort was the pressure imposed upon different presidential administrations by the priorities of the Cold War. First as Kennedy attempted to navigate a mounting crisis in Vietnam, subsequently as Johnson took the opening rounds of the war to new heights of violence and finally as Nixon attempted to end the conflict using irresistible force, there seemed a fundamental misunderstanding of Vietnam. This proceeded from the Cold War view which help the United States as a 'good' counterpoint to the 'bad' implications of the Soviet sphere of influence. It was this view that caused such fundamental miscalculation by America's executive leadership, which fully and catastrophically underestimated the tenacity of the Vietnamese people. Accordingly, Moss (2005) tells that "Vietnamese peasants made formidable warriors, as the hard life of rice farming prepared them for the physical rigors of military combat and the group discipline of communal rice farming prepared them for the discipline and espirit de corps of battle." (p. 7) Certainly, if this had not been apparent to Kennedy as he moved the U.S. closer to battle, it would become more fully evident to…… [read more]

People Talk About the Events 1960 Essay

… ¶ … people talk about the events 1960's, they will often refer to: the various civil rights struggles, the Kennedy Administration, the Vietnam War and the moon race. Where, all of these events would become a part, of a decade… [read more]

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