"World History" Essays

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Industrial Revolution the Nineteenth Century Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,525 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Industrial Revolution

The nineteenth century was a period of time in which great changes were undertaken by human society. This period of change became known as the "Industrial Revolution," and it was a time of rapid transformation in manufacturing, transportation, and society. This led to a rapid increase in human population which in turn led to a further increase in… [read more]


Adolf Hitler. This Name Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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He was their messiah.

Hitler's leadership is well-known. As Machiavelli said that every ruler has to find smart and devoted encirclement. Hitler loved Italians philosophy and found good companions. Himmler, Goering and other well-known Nazi executors were devoted and smart followers. Also Hitler found and supported many talented generals. He knew people. He used their strong and weak features and used these people the way he wanted. Hitler's self-confidence is also one of the reasons of his leadership. As Ron Rosenbaum writes in his book Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil

Hitler killed millions of people being sure he is right and does good.

He killed all of his opponents with medieval cruelty, the same as Joseph Stalin did. He never tried to listen to another point-of-view. We can remember how he retired many talented generals only because they said he is wrong (von Manstein for example). Hitler always believed that only his orders and ideas are correct. He believed he was a genius, a messiah of Nordic race who will lead his nation to victory and prosperity through fire and metal of great battles. Third Reich had to last for 1000 years but it lasted for 12 years only.

Russian, American and British troops finished this tragic page of world history."

To sum up the written essay I'd like to notice that Adolf Hitler was really unusual and talented man but he would never gain what he gained if the winners of WW1 had given Germany a chance to get back to peace in 1918. He was only a man who managed becoming a leader of an angry, tired and humiliate nation that wished retaliation more than anything else. He was only an embodiment of radical ideas that were so popular among former soldiers. Here I've touched another eternal question:

What are the main leader's abilities: to be a leader or events that makes a leader out of him. As I think it's 50/50.

The same was in Hitler's story of life. He fought against the whole human race but was defeated and died. His fate will remind people of all nations and all times about war and humans mistakes.

Bibliography

Rosenbaum, Ron 1999. Explaining Hitler: The Search of the Origins of His Evil Perennial

Marrus, Micheal R. 1989.The Holocaust of History.…… [read more]


Otto Von Bismarck Achieve Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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German politician wanted to find support in Russia, Italy or Britain and use French mistakes in foreign policy to isolate France.

Italy received Venice for participation in war against Austria but though "The Italian people and the German people had the same ideal: national unification" (Eyck, Erich Bismarck and the German Empire p.43) it was not strong and reliable ally.… [read more]


Medieval Towns Crafts and Guilds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,549 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Medieval Towns: Crafts and Guilds

Gervase Rosser has written an article that spells out, with descriptive attention to detail, the economic and work culture dynamics of medieval communities. The piece contributes enormously to a reader's understanding of England during the medieval period, so much so that it would seem an entire semester's study could be built around the article (with… [read more]


Imperialism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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This cruel and inhuman practice gave the opportunity to develop heavy industry; mining and it gave the opportunity to start militarization. These results were achieved by numerous victims of innocent people who suffered from repressions and great purges as Stalin's regime eliminated anyone who had another opinion on the destiny of the country. The total number of Stalin's victims exceeds… [read more]


John Ronald Reuel (J.R.R.) Tolkien: A Writer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,629 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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John Ronald Reuel (J.R.R.) Tolkien: A Writer for all Seasons (and Audiences)

Introduction author quotation statement of time, place, genre thesis statement

Historical Background historic introduction world events during childhood world events during maturity world events during old age conclusion sentence

Youth-events and writings a.

A maturity-events and writings b.

A old age-events and writings c.

A what is he/she… [read more]


Ivan Van Sertima Book Review

Book Review  |  4 pages (1,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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He also suggests that in African mummies there is evidence of botanical substances like cocaine found in the New World only (Amazon, 2005). There are also many African rituals that Sertima suggests are common to early native Americans. One example is referred to as the "opening of the mouth" ritual and another is a libation ritual discovered in Mexico known… [read more]


Behind the Lines: Regeneration Movie Review Movie Review

Movie Review  |  4 pages (1,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … film "Behind the Lines" is subtitled "Regeneration," in reference to the regeneration of the bodies and spirits of the wounded soldiers that was supposed to take place over the course of the film, to prepare them once again for battle. The soldiers are all victims of World War I. The film implies that they are also all victims… [read more]


War and Revolution Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (3,653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11

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James Rarick

Western Civilization II

War and Revolution

War and Revolution during the nineteenth century

Conflicts during the nineteenth century -- introduction

Revolutionary attempts during the 1830s

the Year of the Revolution

France sets the pace

Nations across Europe and even in Latin America are inspired

Italy

Germany

Habsburg Empire

Belgium

Romania

Brazil

Franco-Prussian War

Epirus Revolt and crisis in… [read more]


Alcibiades, Hero or Zero Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Alcibiades' dealings with Tisaphernes also contributed to emphasizing the love he felt for Athens.

3. Alcibiades certainly brought reform to the idea of politics and he was a clever military tactician. He was effective in his thinking because he was able to understand when it was right to ally particular groups and when it was right to protect his interests.

4. Even with the fact that history as a whole fails to emphasize the important role he played in world history, Alcibiades was certainly a hero when considering his concern in protecting Athens. Even after the Athenians had acted in disagreement with his thinking and banished him he was still able to acknowledge the fact that Athens was his home and eventually made it possible for his countrymen to survive a series of battles.

It is only safe to say that Alcibiades was the victim of circumstance as he constantly came across individuals who were unnerved with his power and intellect. These people focused on removing his influence and in most cases managed to influence others in thinking that it was wrong for them to trust the Greek hero. Their influence can still be observed today when considering that many historians provide conflicting ideas with regard to the man's true nature.

Works cited:

Ellis, Walter M., "Alcibiades," (Routledge, 01.01.1989)

"Alcibiades," Retrieved June 12, 2013, from the eHistory Website: http://ehistory.osu.edu/world/PeopleView.cfm?PID=247

"Ancient Greece: Alcibiades," Retrieved June 12, 2013, from the Sunburst Website: http://sunburst.usd.edu/~clehmann/HWB/hwb_v/alcibiades.html… [read more]


Holocaust Many Historians and Scholars Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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7 million people in Darfur rely on humanitarian aid for survival (UNRC, p. 2).

The Fate of Native Americans Compared with the Holocaust

Certainly the Holocaust stands out in world history as among the most notoriously bloody and unconscionably cruel genocidal events ever recorded. But wait. According to the History News Network's reporting, there are many who believe that because Native Americans were slaughtered in far greater numbers, their plight should be considered genocide. To many, wiping out native peoples was viewed simply as Europeans settling into the "New World" -- and that the settling of America was "manifest destiny" because supposedly God wanted the Europeans to have a new place to plant roots and create a nation.

That said, reliable information indicates that at the end of the 19th century there were only an estimated 250,000 Native Americans alive in the United States (Lewy, 2007). The question that remains a mystery is how many native peoples were alive before the Europeans arrived? Ethnologist James Mooney believes there were 1,152,950 Indians at that time; another author suggests there were 5 million and other authors say up to 12 million Indians were here (Lewy). Many Indians (perhaps 80%) died from European diseases (for which they had no immunity) (Lewy). But notwithstanding the way in which native peoples died, their deaths were brought on by the European settlers.

In conclusion, it is difficult to compare the Holocaust and the mass deaths of perhaps millions of Indians in America. Hitler had a draconian strategy and a hideously bloody goal. The Europeans arriving on this continent were in no way that hateful and blood thirsty; for the most part, they just wanted a new start away from religious oppression. And moreover, though it is tragic that native peoples were pushed off their land and subjected to highly contagious diseases, and killed by the U.S. Army as well, calling it genocide is a stretch. Genocide: "The deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group" (Merriman-Webster). Does this definition relate to the demise of native peoples in America? In a vague way, yes, but the comparison with the Holocaust is a stretch.

Works Cited

Lewy, Guenter. (2007). Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News

Network. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://hnn.us/articles/7392.html.

Merriman-Webster. (2012). Genocide. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.merriman-webster.com/dictionary/genocide.

United Human Rights…… [read more]


Krakatoa Is a Volcanic Island Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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After reevaluating Krakatoa's legacy, volcanologists have admitted that it was the 5th largest eruption of the this kind in world history (Winchester 4). Still, the other events did not occur when the human population of the region was so heavy. In terms of human life and the amount of debris which was raised up into the air, the Krakatoa eruption was one of the worst natural disasters in history. One witness said: "For two days after passing Anjer we passed through masses of dead bodies, hundreds and hundreds of them striking the ships on both sides -- groups of 50 and 100 all packed together, most of them naked" (Winchester 296). The amount of dead was enough to leave Krakatoa forever in the annals of world history. However, there was some rebirth that came as a result of the eruption. Subsequent eruptions created a whole new island broke the surface of the ocean in December of 1927, appropriately called Anak Krakatau or "Child of Krakatoa." Its existence was proof that even the most disastrous tragedies can be overcome and the world will continue on even after devastation.

When the volcano Krakatoa erupted, it did an enormous amount of damage. It destroyed homes and buildings. Worst of all was the sheer number of human lives that were ended by the eruption. If there is a happy side to this event, it is that people learned not to underestimate nature. From then on, people were more aware of the natural world in which they lived and the potential hazards which could affect their lives. There were still other disasters which took many lives and it is quite likely that there always will be. With each event, it is hoped that human beings take their lives less for granted and do whatever they are able in order to protect themselves, their lives, and their loved ones.

Works Cited:

Sweat, John. "Krakatoa Version…… [read more]


Soviet Union and United States Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,295 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Petersburg that the spark of discontent was fanned into a flame. By March 8th, International Women's Day, thousands of female textile workers walked out of the factories to protest poor working conditions. By most accounts, most of the cities industrial workers joined them within a few days. Tsar Nicholas ordered the workers back to work but by this point in… [read more]


Global Politics and Economy: Late Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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S.-led Western coalition and the Gulf War of 1991 in which the Iraqis were roundly defeated and Kuwait was liberated. The Soviet Union supported the U.S. In the war, which marked the end of the "Cold War" and prompted President Bush to announce the start of a 'New World Order.'

Globalization

The collapse of Communism in the 1990s eliminated the only competing economic and political ideology of capitalism and liberal democracy. This coincided with rapid technological advances in computer and communication technologies, and made the application of theories of capitalism possible on a worldwide scale -- in what came to be known as 'globalization.' This saw rapid growth in the economies of early adherents like the 'Tiger Economies' of the Asian Far East. The risks involved in unrestrained globalization without the necessary checks in place also became apparent in serious economic downturns such as witnessed in the 1997 Asian Economic Crisis. In the meantime, the economies of United States and several other European countries witnessed an unprecedented boom on the back of a high tech dot com revolution.

Early 20th Century

The early 21st century has been racked by terrorist attacks, mainly by Islamic radical forces, on Western and Israeli targets. The after-effects of the 9/11 attacks on the world trade center are still dominating world politics and economies. They have resulted in triggering a widespread economic slowdown and an open-ended policy of 'war against terrorism' by the United States. Some analysts like Samuel P. Huntington, the author of "The Clash of Civilizations," feel that we have entered an "age of Muslim wars," one that could spiral into a clash of civilizations. Other thinkers like Francis Fukuyama maintain that the world is still moving toward universal democracy and believe that an "underlying historical mechanism" driven by modern science and technology will result in a long-term convergence across cultural boundaries in all societies of the world. (Fukuyama, p.56). But even he acknowledges that "Islamo-fascism" is the latest obstacle to the process, and "to get to the long-term we must survive the short-run." (Ibid. p. 59)

Conclusion

The end of the 20th century and the early part of the 21st century has been a tumultuous period in world history. It has seen several momentous events taking place like the collapse of communism and the Soviet Empire as well as the spectacularly successful terrorist attacks on the U.S. By Islamic terrorists. No one quite knows what will happen to world politics and economy in future since, as Bob Dylan once said, "Don't talk too soon, for the wheel's still in spin."

Works Cited

Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.

Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002…… [read more]


Power of China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,820 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Daoism during the Han dynasty was instrumental in creating the 60-year Chinese calendar.

In later years, "daoist thought proliferated, communities of latter-day Han daoists formed, eventually accumulating into a massive church organization (home.attbi.com/~piannone/o-s/ch-innerhist.html)."

Shamans and Ancient China

During the Shang period, shamans may have connected forms of medical philosophy with the political and social environment. In the late Zhou era, "Chinese philosophers of different schools used medical terms in a metaphorical sense, and they began making some physiological-political correlations (Birdwhistell, 1995)."

During the Han dynasty, the developments of correlative thinking and science combined political and medical ideas. An example of this was "the body was correlated with macrocosm as well as with the political-administrative system (Birdwhistell, 1995)."

Conclusion

The period of time in Ancient China between the Shang dynasty and the Western Han saw a number of changes in power and history. While changes occurred in the political-administrative area of China's history, many of the philosophies established were instrumental in setting a pattern for future empires.

Works Cited

Ancient Dynasties. (accessed 06 October, 2003) ).

Birdwhistell, Anne D. 1995. Medicine and history as theoretical tools in a Confucian

Pragmatism. Vol. 45, Philosophy East and West. 01 January. Pp. 1 (28).

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHINESE CULTURE AND HISTORY. (accessed 06 October, 2003) www.chinatown-online.com/cultureeye/highlights/bronze.htm).

Inner History of China. (accessed 06 October, 2003) home.attbi.com/~piannone/o-s/ch-innerhist.html>).

Shinn, Rinn-Sup and Robert L. Worden. 1991. Chinese History: Chapter 1A.

Historical Setting. Countries of the World. 01 January.

Unknown. 2000. 3,300-YEAR-old ANCIENT CITY FOUND NEAR YIN

RUINS. Xinhua News Agency. 07 January.

Unknown. 2002. MORE ORACLE BONES UNEARTHED IN CENTRAL CHINA.

Xinhua News Agency. 29 July.

Vermilion. (accessed 06 October, 2003) http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/56/v0065600.html).… [read more]


Rise of Rome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

"

Christianity spread throughout the region as Rome realized prosperity and a long era of peace. Rome triumphed not only "by force of arms, but also by the policy of colonization and the building of roads which helped to assimilate newly conquered territories (unknown, ancient Rome)."

The Punic Wars allowed Rome to become the main force in Italy and become the leading force in the Mediterranean.

During the First Punic War from 264-241 B.C., Rome originally intended to protect its allies in South Italy, but due to Carthage's weakness, acquired Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.

Rome was victorious in the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. during the Second Punic War which ended the military power of Carthage in the Mediterranean. During the Third Punic War, Carthage was destroyed in 146 B.C and the region became a Roman province (unknown, ancient Rome).

Differences in Empires

There were noticeable differences in the Roman Empire and other empires of the time. The Romans were great builders who constructed roads throughout the empire, in which "all roads led to Rome (http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html)." The roads built by the Greeks did not connect in a certain order and were not as well constructed. The Greeks had city-states, which were their own unit, and the Chinese Empire was divided into feudal states, while Rome was center of the empire.

The Romans were realists, compared to the Greeks, who were idealists. This was seen in the statues of each culture. The Greek statues were of perfect people, while the Romans made real life statues. The Romans had two classes of citizens: the lower class or plebeians and the upper class or patricians, while the Greeks did not recognize classes and had slaves (http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html).

Conclusion

One of the most powerful empires of the ancient world was that of the Romans, who broke free of the Etruscans and over time conquered the Mediterranean region. The Romans were a civilization of strong soldiers and builders, and their peace alliance with the Latins allowed for the rise of the Roman Empire.

Works Cited

Bower, Bruce. Early Rome: surprises below the surface. (excavations find urban civilization in 7th century B.C.). Science News. (1989): 14 January

Cavendish, Richard. The foundation of Rome: April 21st, 753 B.C. (Months Past). History

Today. (2003): 01 April.

The Rise of Ancient Rome. (accessed 26 October, 2003) www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm).w.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm

Unknown. ITALY. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2003): 01 July.

Unknown. Rome, ancient. The Hutchinson Dictionary of World History. (1998): 01 January.

Daily Life in Ancient Civilizations. (accessed 26 October, 2003) http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html).… [read more]


Ancient Rome--Definitions Constantine: The Emperor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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CHARLES MARTEL: Charles the Hammer, Frankish ruler, illegitimate son of Pepin of Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne. After the death of his father in 714 A.D., he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin's widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and became mayor of the palace. He subsequently subdued the Frankish kingdom of Neustria and began the re-conquest of Burgundy, Aquitaine, and Provence. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Muslims at the battle of Tours (732-33) and began the military campaigns that reestablished the Franks as the rulers of Gaul. Although he never assumed the title of king, he divided the Frankish lands, like a king, between his sons Pepin the Short and Carloman.

DIOCLETIAN: The Roman Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

THEODOSIS: Roman Emperor, also known as Flavius Theodosius), was born in Spain about 346 A.D.; died at Milan, 17 January, 395. By universal consent, Theodosius is one of the sovereigns that is best called Great. He stamped out the last vestiges of paganism, put an end to the Arian heresy in the Roman empire, pacified the Goths, left a famous example of penitence for… [read more]


Oracle Bone and Traditional China Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Today, geologists learn about the earth's history mainly from clues left by forces that have sculpted the face of the earth such as volcanoes and earthquakes. Scientists are often able to reconstruct geological events that happened millions of years ago from reading the geological records, from the layers of sediment containing ancient fossils to the geochemistry of lavas. However, for… [read more]


History of Sanitation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (9,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Western medical specialists claimed that bathing could balance the humors and digestive disorders. Hot water (thermal) baths were thought to promote respiration, relieve fatigue and cure headaches, while cold showers were used to relieve painful joints. A very warm bath was used to bring down a high fever by making the bather sweat. "Bathing is about the sensuality of warm… [read more]


Military Strategies Employed by Alexander Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,866 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

There were many qualities that set Alexander apart from other rulers of his time. One of the most important contributions in his life was the fact that his father invited one of the best scholors, namely Aristotle to Macedonia to tutor him. It was Aristotle's guidance that taught Alexander to be sensitive toward people and cultures, making him the first ruler to have this quality. It was this quality that never his occupied lands rebel. Even though the Persians despised him before he invaded Iran, they willingly joined his army.

He used to motivate his troops to fight the greatest challenges, in the harshest of conditions like crossing the snow-covered Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and the Uxian Mountains in Iran in late winter and early spring, or crossing the Saharan and the Arabian desert on foot or horseback, or fighting enemies with armies four times the size of his. He was always the first to march towards the enemy and would come to the rescue of a fellow soldier, regardless of his rank.

Alexander died in 323 B.C in the city of Babylon. He is one of the world's best conquerors serving as the model for many empire builders today.

References

Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)

J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)

J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68

Ken Auletta, "The Lost Tycoon," The New Yorker, April 23 and 30, 2001, p. 151

P. Grabsky. Great Commanders, The (1993)

R.A. Gabriel & D.W. Boose, Jr. Great Battles of Antiquity, The: A Strategic And Tactical Guide to Great Battles that Shaped the Development of War (1994). Steven J. Ott, ed., Classic Readings in Organizational Behavior (Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1989), p. 10.

R.L. Fox. Alexander the Great (1973)

Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Alexander (Boston, MA: Da Capo Press, (1996), p. 153

Geoffrey Parker, ed. Cambridge Illustrated History: Warfare (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1995) pp. 36-37

Thomas R. Martin, Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic

Times (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press), Orations 9.31, p. 188…… [read more]


Reign of Hitler Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Prussian army wanted to ensure that the individuals that were recruited and ultimately chosen were going to be loyal to the cause.

Prussian influence was also evident in the use of the Canton System, which was created by Frederick William. The canton system worked by dividing the Prussian monarchy into recruiting districts assigned to each regiment. The regime maintained… [read more]


Post War Iraq: A Paradox Term Paper

Term Paper  |  35 pages (14,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This event gave real evidence to the insignificant role played by the United Nations in the Korean War. 10

2. Self-defense (Falklands)

Self-defense is one of the most contentious spheres of the exercise of force, and many instances abound which possibly depict a predicament with finding what are the conventions, and what about enforcing them. Since it prohibits the exercise… [read more]


Robert E. Lee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Lincoln as able to impact the Emancipation Proclamation after the battle of Antietam and after Lee's surrender, freedom was even more of a reality. Nothing illustrates this more than the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.

To conclude, Robert E. Lee was a great man and solider who gave much to the United States of America when it was going through a terrible ordeal. His leadership was unique in that he was a "eminent strategist" (Gale). When we look at his life and its impact on history, we discover that his decisions might have shaped history in more ways than one. Had Lee decided to support the North, the Civil War might have seen an entirely different outcome. It is difficult to imagine to war lasting as long as it did had this been the case. In addition, his surrender allowed Lincoln what he needed to impact his Emancipation Proclamation. This was the beginning of freedom for many Americans. This freedom led to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, which have also been significant in American history. Lee's choices demonstrate how one life can have an impact on history in many ways.

Works Cited

Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David.

The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1990.

Murrin, John, et al. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1999.

Robert Edward Lee." Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies. (1936) Gale Resource Database. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/(September 8, 2004)

Desertion became a major problem in 1862, when soldiers became concerned about their families. John Campbell estimated that as many as 100,000 soldiers were eluding service in some form or another. Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company) 1990. 422.

He…… [read more]


Compare the Holocaust to Two Other State Sponsored Persecution of a Group of People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,326 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Genocide

Despite the fact that humans have been violently killing off humans since the beginning of civilization, the word "genocide," which encompasses that of "holocaust," did not exist before 1944. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-Jewish attorney, who wanted to describe the Nazi policies of systematic murder, including the destruction of the European Jews, combined geno-, from the Greek word for race… [read more]


Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (4,861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 48

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that set off these and other societies from each other, there are many key connections as well. Societies borrow from each… [read more]


Marshall Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Marshall Plan

Designing Europe in the Aftermath of World War II: The Marshall Plan and its Lasting Effects

The twentieth century was a period of major change and reorganization in the international geopolitical power structure, as globalization truly got underway via the interconnections of land and marine shipping channels and a truly worldwide network of raw material supplies, manufacturing centers,… [read more]


Martin Luther King Junior of All Famous Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,230 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Martin Luther King Junior

Of all famous twentieth century leaders, few have come to possess as lasting an impact on their people and their culture as Martin Luther King, Jr. In fact, the one man who it can safely be said to have had a greater impact on human society as a whole happens to be precisely the man whom… [read more]


Economic Revolution in the American South Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (677 words)
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¶ … Southern Economy: Century of Reconstruction

Today, there remains a sense of cultural and economic difference between North and South that is felt by many inhabitants on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line. In some degree, the vestiges of divergent histories leading up to and following the American Civil War are still evident, especially in the educational, professional and economic disadvantages often associated with life in the South. The article by Gavin Wright, entitled "The Economic Revolution in the American South" chronicles the moment at which, the author contends, the South begin finally to move toward some measure of equality with the North. Writing in 1987 for The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Gavin uses this moment of so-called 'revolution' as a prompt to reflect on the historical patterns devising the stagnant economy that had strangled the south for a century.

The crux of the Wright study is that there are fundamental forces at play in the economic development of labor markets which were intervened upon by the cultural and political circumstances of the South. As the Industrial Revolution began to alter American populace distribution in the late 19th century, the South had been dramatically disrupted by the forced alteration of its labor approach and by the tumult that followed this change. Wright explains that there existed certain distinctions between North and South for many years based upon agricultural temperament, but that these differences would promote a wide array or more salient human concerns. The article indicates that sharp differences between North and South "were rooted in certain geo-agricultural continuities, such as familiarity with seeds, crops, livestock, and climate. This 'natural' regional separation was ratified and institutionalized by slavery, which served to insulate the South from outside labor flows after 1807, when importation of slaves ended. Then the region was consumed by the turbulence of war and Reconstruction at the very time when a truly national (non-Southern) labor market was developing elsewhere." (164)

Wright continues by noting that the realities of immigration played no small part in this…… [read more]


Roman Catholic Church and Nazi Germany Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,129 words)
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¶ … Roman Catholic Church and Nazi Germany

The world community has for the most part recovered emotionally and psychologically from the horrors of WWII that Nazi Germany -- led by Adolph Hitler -- perpetrated on the millions of people, including Jews, the gypsies, resisters and others. But the questions remain as to which organizations, religions and leaders aided Hitler… [read more]


Middle Ages Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (316 words)
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¶ … Middle Ages

While the Middle Ages are often regarded with angst and often ridiculed, it is worth noting that good things did emerge from these so-called "dark ages." Like many times in the past, the Middle Ages might seem ancient now but were progressing at a rate that seemed normal to them. Technology improved, making life in general better. Literature also heard fresh voices that reflect the times. Many advancements prove the Middle Ages were a far cry from dark.

Many changes occurred in the Middle Ages that changed the way the world works. For example, ways of production were changed, which had an enormous effect on the economy. Gunpowder, the canon, and the compass were all invented in the Middle Ages. The eleventh century was filled with "men of prayer, men of war, and men of work" (Noble 352). Other advancements lead to easier farming and "labor-saving devices" (Duiker 263), including hammers, scythes, axes, hammers,…… [read more]


Southernization Lynda Shaffer Uses Essay

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Southernization

Lynda Shaffer uses the term southernization as something akin to the term westernization. There is no mere coincidence of language that leads Shaffer to use this term, however; not only are the two words used to describe highly similar cultural phenomena, but Shaffer contends that southernization actually set Europe and the rest of the world for westernization. The movement of certain technologies and cultural developments from South Asia to the North and eventually through Europe by way of the caliphates, Shaffer contends, allowed for the cultural developments of Western Europe during and after the Middle Ages that led to the process of westernization.

Part of this southernization consisted of -- and depended on -- the development of trade routes into China and Africa by the Indians. This civilization was already quite strong; cotton was first domesticated and cultivated in the Indus River valley, leading to the development of cheap fabrics and clothing -- and many things to trade…… [read more]


Feudalism Is the Direct Result Thesis

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Feudalism is the direct result of a lack of effective governmental control. During the Middle Ages, feudalism became a popular way of dealing with this lack though a state of affairs that was based upon strength and power. In other words, those that could offer protection were often served by those who needed protection but this service came about in… [read more]


Industrial Revolution Started in Britain Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
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Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries but gradually spread to other European countries, North America and the rest of the world. Major developments took place in areas such as agriculture, mining, transportation and manufacturing which in turn, had a profound impact on the socioeconomic and cultural climate throughout the world. In the period between the accession of George III and that of his son, William IV, England went through a series of important changes. As far as agriculture in Britain, areas that for centuries had been cultivated as open fields were hedged or fenced, and hamlets turned into towns. Infrastructure developed quickly, i.e. highroads were made, and navigable reaches of the Mersey, Trent, Severn, Thames, Forth and Clyde were joined together by threads of still water. In the North the first iron rails were laid down for the new locomotives, and steam packets began to ply on the estuaries and the narrow seas (More 9). Thesis: The technological developments associated with the Industrial Revolution had a strong impact on both social and cultural circumstances chiefly by a sharp increase in population, and the workers' shift from rural to urban areas.

The topic of the Industrial Revolution cannot be tackled without discussing the aspect which distinguishes this age from its predecessors, i.e. The rapid growth of population. Changes occurred in the structure of society. The number of people increased vastly with the proportion of children rising due to the increase in the number of births. The growth of these communities shifted the balance of population from the South and East to the North and Midlands, and many Irish workers came to work in England. Moreover, many Englishmen and women left the countryside and came to towns and cities and integrated into the labor force of factories. This shift was also caused by the fact that beginning with the 18th century, the number of jobs in rural areas decreased, leaving many people unemployed because rural population had risen sharply as food was no longer scarce, and death rates declined due to fewer wars and plagues. At the same time, nonetheless, many small farms disappeared because of new legislation which required farmers to put fences or hedges around their fields, and many small farmers could not afford to enclose their fields. As a consequence, they were forced to sell out to larger landholders, and look for work. There was what we might call a vicious circle which forced ex-farmers to move to towns and cities and try to make a living working in manufacturing or other branches of the industry. This way, work became more and more specialized and new forms of skill developed whereas some old ones were lost. However, what was most important during this process was the fact that labor became more mobile and as a direct consequence, the quality of life improved (Ashton 21).

As far as statistics, it is interesting to note that careful estimates have been put together by social… [read more]


Persian Gulf War 1990 91 Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,746 words)
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Persian Gulf War 1990-1991

Why America Became Involved in the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

Iraq had launched a full-scale attack against Kuwait after claiming the smaller country was undermining Iraqi efforts to keep oil off the world market and, as a result, raise prices. Iraq and Kuwait had been "negotiating" with Saddam Hussein dictating the terms when he launched a… [read more]


Swiss and Swedish Neutrality Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (3,764 words)
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Neutrality of Switzerland and Sweden has garnered a great deal of attention over the years. The purpose of this discussion is to compare and contrast Switzerland's and Sweden's policies of neutrality in theory and in practice. In addition the research will focus on why neutrality is important to international affairs and the purpose it serves within the context of the… [read more]


Industrialization 1776-1900 Term Paper

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¶ … Industrial Revolution is the most significant movement of its time because it radically changed many aspects of life and of living. Tools and machines evolved as needs in the environment changed. Momentous progress includes a radical revolution of the textile industry, which could not be predicted or foreseen. Necessity is the mother of invention and, as we shall see, the inventions of the Industrial Revolution prove this statement true. Without ingenuity, however, invention would be difficult and the modern revolution reveals that when the right minds converge with the right needs of society, great things can be accomplished.

Great Britain was the "home" (Craig 627) of the Industrial Revolution. Several factors come into play for this with the primary reason being that Great Britain was the "single largest free-trade area in Europe" (627). The political structure was stable in Great Britain and with a solid banking system along with a good public credit created a "good investment climate" (627). The earliest signs of the Industrial Revolution emerge with rise of mechanical inventions. The spinning jenny was patented in 1769 and it "broke the bottle neck between the productive capacity of the spinners and the weavers" (628). In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented a modified version of the spinning wheel that accelerated improvements in other areas dealing with weaving. Edmond Cartwright's invention of a new power loom demanded an increase for cotton. With Crompton's version of the spinning jenny, yarn was being produced twice as quickly as it was before. While these inventions and modifications seem rather insignificant, their effects were felt not only across Europe but across other continents as well. In America, southern farmers benefited because everything happened faster. The inventions of this era brought different cultures together, demonstrating how they affected the entire globe.

Another significant invention to emerge from the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. Stanley Chodorow claims that the steam engine was the "most important" (Chodorow 718) in that it remained the sole source of artificial power until the invention of electricity. The steam engine is linked to two "basic commodities of modern industrialization - coal and iron" (718).

The steam engine's primary function was pumping coal from mines in England but the machine's popularity spread quickly and was modified for many other functions as well. The progression of the steam engine's evolution represents man's ability to improve upon his inventions. In 1777, workers used the steam engine as a hammer to shape iron. In 1783, it workers used it to roll iron into sheets. It did not take long for steam to…… [read more]


Adolf Hitler Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,619 words)
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Hitler as Evil

There is no doubt that Adolf Hitler is remembered as one of the most evil geniuses of the twentieth century. Countless observations and evaluations on Hitler's personality and life reveal an artistic, charismatic man that turned to wickedness to accomplish his will. Hitler was evil because he was a cold-blooded murderer. In addition to this, he also… [read more]


People First Settled in Villages? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … people first settled in villages?

People settled in villages for several reasons. First, they were mostly related in blood to the other people in the village. Then, similar looks, customs, ways of dressing, speaking and cooking kept familiar people living near each other. As families grew, so did the village. Families lived in huts close by so that they could help each other. Women helped other women with childrearing; cooking, gathering firewood, growing crops, and tending to the sick, aged and their husbands. The men banded together in groups to hunt, make weapons, defend the women and children, build homes and make decisions about the future with others. Growing crops made the families live in the same area for many years, until the firewood ran out and the land ceased to be fertile. Then the whole village would move.

Scholars give the name culture to the way of life of a people, including its arts and crafts." Customs and ways of building, dressing, practicing their religion, cooking and doing other elemental things in one's society keep similar individuals and groups together. Similarities in costumes, wearing hair and style of decoration tend to keep groups of similar customs together, though migration of groups changed the way people dressed and looked, with other styles influencing them (Encyclopedia p 75).

Another reason for settling in a village is linguistics. When groups grow up together they understand each others' language. When they meet others from outside the village or the area or region they live in, they do not understand the language as well and feel alienated. The language one knows tends to keep people who speak the language together. As groups migrated, languages spread. Songs and music, stories and myths were outgrowths of the linguistics of a tribe.

Animals had a lot to do with villages. If the villages raised domestic livestock, these were cared for by members of the village in turns and necessitated cooperation between the residents. Individuals could raise livestock, but they needed to have large families in order to do so, hence the need to live near others, either family members or neighbors who also raised animals and could cooperate.

Why has it been relatively difficult for scholars to study the Indus valley civilization?

Because the languages of the ancient people have not been translated until fairly recently (some are still being translated), scholars have found it difficult to study the history of the Indus Valley civilizations. In 2006 a stone axe with script from 1500 BC was found near Mayiladuthurai in India by a schoolteacher which help scholars discover more about the past. From the Neolithic age, 3,500 years ago, the polished stone is engraved with four signs which have been identified by epigraphists as Indus Valley script (Subramanian 1). But this axe is not the only artifact which has been found to add to the mystery. Dozens…… [read more]


Samurai Have a Significant Impact on Japanese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,540 words)
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¶ … Samurai have a Significant Impact on Japanese Culture and Historical Events in the Long Run?

The samurai were an aristocratic warrior class that emerged in Japan during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and which were consolidated during the Tokugawa period (Samurai 41974). The impact of this warrior class on Japanese culture and society has… [read more]


Seven Years War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (7,157 words)
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¶ … war broke out in 1756 between France and Great Britain. Along with that, difference between American and Canadian colonists had erupted two years before that began, which cased the war to lead to the fall of New France. From there, the conflict forced Great Britain against France. This was supported by Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia and Spain. In… [read more]


Changes in the Standard of Living During the Industrial Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25

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Standard of Living Industrial Revolu

The industrial revolution is a foundational period in human history. There is really nothing about society before the industrial revolution that has not changed in some fashion as a result of it. To some degree, everything that we consider "modern" be it lifestyle or means of production has in some way been influenced or even… [read more]


Hermann Goering Term Paper

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Hermann Goering was the second most important actor during the Third Reich as he was designated to be the successor of Hitler. He was the commander of the Luftwaffe, the German Air Force, and thus the military relevance of Hermann Goering is strongly connected to the Second World War.

Hermann Goering has played a major part during the Third Reich… [read more]


Critical Review of Stalingrad by Antony Beevor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,847 words)
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Critical Review of Stalingrad by Antony Beevor

There is no doubt Stalingrad was a major event in perhaps the most
significant war in world history. In Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942-
1943, by Antony Beevor, it is clear that Beevor believes this to be the
case because he says so. However, after reading Stalingrad, it is not
entirely clear why.… [read more]


Comparative and Contrasting Study of Two International Entrepreneurs Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,543 words)
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¶ … International Entrepreneurs: Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler

Today, given their impact on the generations that followed, it is reasonable to suggest that two of the most influential individuals of the 20th century were Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler. While they were clearly at diametrically opposite ends of the morality pole, Ford and Hitler both nevertheless managed to epitomize… [read more]


Learning and Education Essay

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Personal Reflections on Learning and Education

My Visit to the Holocaust Museum

As a high school student, I studied world history because it was a required course for all students. I managed to earn a good grade because I have good reading comprehension skills and because I am good at memorizing information from books. However, a recent event convinced me that it had never really occurred to me that I might not have actually been learning everything that I remembered well enough to answer questions about on my course exams. I realized that there is a big difference between just memorizing information and genuinely understanding that same information. That lesson came to me unexpectedly during my recent visit to the Holocaust Museum in Washington, DC.

When we studied the history of World War Two in class, we covered the history of the persecution of the Jews by the Nazis before and throughout the war. In fact, I managed to achieve a very high grade on the semester exam and I distinctly remember correctly answering questions about such details as what the Nuremburg Laws imposed by the Nazis in 1933 consisted of, what the 1938 Kritallnacht event referred to, who Anne Frank was and where she lived, and that the total numbers of Jews killed by the Nazis in Europe was approximately six million.

However, until my visit to the Holocaust Museum, I cannot say that I ever actually understood what I had had studied about that topic. On one hand, it was something that I could reference intelligently in a conversation if it came up and I recognized references to it in contemporary news reports or comparisons. On the other hand, I am now almost embarrassed that my studying the topic well enough to answer basic questions about it never really caused me to think much about what I had studied. To a great degree, that changed for me after my visit to the Holocaust Museum and it also changed the way that I now think about other historical events that I studied but never really understood either. I realized that it is possible to study without actually learning and to learn facts without understanding what they really mean or what their significance is.

The displays at the museum were very graphic in some respects; in other respects, even they failed to really help me realize the significance of what I was seeing. Naturally, all of us were appalled at the pictures depicting naked prisoners marched at gun point to gas chambers and at the fake shower facilities disguising gas chambers, as well as at the piles and piles of human bodies stacked like wooden logs outside of crematoria. However, possibly because almost all of the pictures were in black and white instead of color, the events seemed almost too long ago to have the same effect on me as they might have if they had happened closer to my lifetime. That entire perspective changed for me after meeting Helen…… [read more]


European Studies When Most People Hear Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,339 words)
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European Studies

When most people hear about the Middle Ages, they will often think of: a knight fighting their enemies or various types of monarchies. While these are all certain elements of this time, there is much more to this point in history than many individuals realize. The reason why, is because this period served as a transition to modern society (after the downfall of the Roman Empire). As, this period was known: for lawlessness (i.e. The Dark Ages) and a reawakening of civilization (the Renaissance). Yet, beneath the surface there were changes that took place at the end of the Middle Ages that would have a major impact upon Western culture. To fully understand these shifts requires: examining the transformations that took place at the end of this frame. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying changes that took place. (Willner, 2008, pp. 176 -- 208)

Discuss the changes that took place in Western Europe at the end of the Middle Ages.

The end of the Middle Ages was: when significant changes would occur in society. This would have an impact upon: future innovations and new ideas that were being developed. At which point, many of these different ideas became a part of Western civilization and the basic ideals that many nations stand for. A few of the most notable changes that took place include: new forms of government were developed, trade was improved and the role that individuals will play in society evolved. (Willner, 2008, pp. 176 -- 208)

New Forms of Government

During the end of the Middle Ages new forms of government was quickly emerging one of the most significant include: monarchies. Monarchies first began to appear in a period of time known as the Dark Ages. This is when there was a complete breakdown in civilized society. As, the Roman Empire was being overrun by: different Germanic tribes. This had an impact on the way people were living, where they no longer could rely on protection from a strong central government. Instead, many individuals began to abandon the cities and move to the country side. This is because, they could forage off of the land and they could align themselves with wealthy landowners (who could provide protection). As, they had: their own army and the ability to forge alliance with the various lords. This had an impact upon the social order moving forward, with many of these wealthy land owners becoming the aristocracy. Those people, who were able to consolidate power over large areas, began to create their own nation states known as kingdoms. This is important, because it is showing how this new form of government was created out of the upheaval that was occurring during the Dark Ages. Over the course of time, this would become the social and political structure of many Western European nations. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)

Trade was Improved

During the beginning of the Middles Ages, there would be an economic… [read more]


East Asia Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 6

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East Asia

Shaping the Course of East Asian Culture Since the 1860's

The 19th century brought about a great deal of challenge and impending changes for East Asia. Powers were escalating in the west, and the Japanese and Chinese governments were compelled to open exchange to foreign countries.

The presence of the foreigners that entered much of Japan and China… [read more]


Revolution Talking About a Revolution? Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  3 pages (830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Manufacturing a Revolution

If the French Revolution can be considered a true revolution based solely on the grounds that it caused a major change in the course of world history, then it would seem obvious that the Industrial Revolution must also be considered a true revolution. This social revolution has fundamentally altered civilization on a worldwide basis far more directly, extremely, and pervasively than any single nation's change in administration ever could (Goloboy & Mancall, 2008). There might be another criterion that excludes industrialization from this moniker, however.

While the French Revolution's effects might have been indistinct and uncertain for over a century, the period of the Revolution itself is well defined and concrete. The period known as the Industrial Revolution, however, is far less distinct; though there are certain key events that can be pointed to as evidence of the start of the "revolutionary" period and statistical data that clearly indicates when in history industrialization reached a certain location, indicating the spread of this "revolution," there is no effective start or especially and end date to the period (Goloboy & Mancall, 2008). One could even argue that the Industrial Revolution is still ongoing, as there are parts of the world to which it is still spreading or has not even begun to spread, and as processes continue to become more refined and less skilled-worker-dependent -- more industrialized, in other words -- even in the developed world. Thus, it is possible to say that the Industrial Revolution is a true revolution only in the abstract sense as a process that leads to a great change in the state of affairs, but not in the concrete sense of a specific event or period that constituted this change in its entirety.

Conclusion

Both the French and the Industrial Revolution caused significant turns or changes in history and the state of civilization. According to strict definitions of the word, however, the French Revolution would have to be considered the truer revolution of the two despite having had a lesser overall impact on world and arguably even national affairs. In the end, war is simply more concrete than process.

References

Goloboy, J. & Mancall, P. (2008). Industrial Revolution. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Neely, S. (2008). A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Online Etymology Dictionary. (2012).…… [read more]


Alexander the Great King Philip II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,988 words)
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Alexander the Great

King Philip II did not leave his son Alexander's destiny to chance. He had the boy learn how to play the lyre, recite and debate and placed him under the tutorship of no less than Aristotle (Smitha 1998), so that visitors from Athens later praised the boy as "thoroughly Greek" for his remarkable memory and speaking ability.… [read more]


Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Saw Term Paper

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In the United States, for example, when the Union Pacific Railroads traversed the thousands of miles of American soil; often, if the railways failed to pass through an existing town, the people moved away; in fact, new towns and cities were often formed by virtue of where the railroads converged. This began another large trend that would continue to this day: the urbanization of the developed world.

Essentially, it was during the nineteenth century that an increasing number of people began to move away from rural farming communities and into the city. This was made possible by the vast distances that goods and foods could be transported. In other words, cities were able to be supported by larger areas of land because these new modes of transportation could supply people's needs with greater efficiency. The move to the city was also fostered by what came to be known as the Industrial Revolution. This revolution began in cloth factories in England, but soon spread throughout Europe and the Americas, and altered the manner in which many previously home made goods were produced. Businessmen discovered that they could increase production and lower costs by setting up massive plants by which products could be manufactured far more quickly. This generated far more urban jobs, thus contributing greatly to the swelling western cities.

This new form of manufacturing also managed to drastically increase the quality and quantity of military weaponry. The American Civil War, seeded by the American Revolution, drove much of this advancement in warfare, with disastrous results. Guns produced in independent factories became more reliable, more powerful, more accurate, and far more easy to handle. However, by the 1860's military tactics had changed little since Napoleon's time. This lead to casualties and carnage on a massive scale; unmatched until the First World War. The war did, however, formally unify the United States and abolish slavery in the Americas.

Overall, many of the political ideals that brought about the American and French Revolutions at the end of the eighteenth century were still being fought to realize throughout the nineteenth century. Specifically, the sweeping proclamation that "all men are created equal." This statement, accepted by self-evidence, demanded that a number of things change in the order and organization of western society. After all, if all men are equal, slavery is completely unjustified. Also, if all men are created equal, it brings into question the legitimacy of social positions held by the powerful and the wealthy. "Debates over the criteria for political fitness, a legacy from the eighteenth century, became a staple of public debates across Europe and the Untied States in the Victorian age, dramatizing once again the divisions characterizing the middle orders." (Gay 16). The fact that political rights were extended to the middle and lower classes grated ideological credence to the woes of poverty and the needs of the common man. The nineteenth century saw this played out through the Napoleonic Revolution, the American Civil War, and through the consequences of the… [read more]


Cod: A Biography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Kurlansky's research also shows that men from Bristol, England also probably found North American before Columbus, and again, they were seeking cod. They had been shut out of Icelandic cod purchasing by the German Hanseatic League, and so they were seeking new sources of the fish for England and Europe. There are no records of what they actually discovered, but they did find enough cod so that they did not need to renegotiate to buy cod through the Hanseatic League. The general thought is that they found an area off North America that was rich in cod. In fact, after the English colonized America, cod was one of their most profitable trade items, and the British trade sanctions which kept Americans from trading their cod with other countries was one of the things that helped ultimately lead to the Revolutionary War and American independence from Great Britain. The cod then, is an historic and important fish, as Kurlansky notes, "If ever there was a fish made to endure, it is the Atlantic cod -- the common fish. But it has among its predators man, an openmouthed species greedier than the cod" (Kurlansky 45). Man has ultimately decimated much of the cod fisheries of the world, but the significance of the fish in world history cannot be reduced. The cod helped lead explorers, merchants, and the curious to North American shores long before Columbus and his men found the West Indies.

In conclusion, it is quite clear that the codfish indirectly led to the discovery of North America by the Vikings and by the English, and perhaps even by the Basques, years before Columbus ever set foot in the West Indies. Codfish also led to the economic success of New England, and one of the first geographical names in the country was "Cape Cod," named in the early 1600s by an Englishman. Cod were economically important to the world, and finding them was important business. Searching for more cod led to the discovery of North America, and ultimately, to a great change in world politics and Britain's influence on the world.

References

Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the…… [read more]


Modernity Might We Not Argue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,331 words)
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Modernity

Might we not argue that modernity begins with the establishment of the bourgeoisie and that as a result, the vast majority of us are better off than we were before? Please include a definition of the word "modernity."

The concept of modernity is, first, necessarily a relative one, depending on one's (and/or one's group) position: economically; socially; culturally, and vis-a-vis both one's past and one's future; and one's lifestyle; concerns; hopes, and aspirations. In medieval and later Europe, modernity meant the rise of merchant and industrial classes (as opposed to strictly agrarian societies), and with that, the rise of the bourgeoisie (merchants and tradesmen): a brand new social class. In post-Civil War America, modernity included mass migration to large cities (i.e., leaving the farm behind) and mass industrialization (and with it, the rise of huge cities and a new American bourgeoisie). According to Webster's New American Dictionary (1995), the term "modern" means: "of, relating to, or characteristic of the present or the immediate past: CONTEMPORARY" (p. 333). The relationship of modernity, within today's world, to being either better or worse off is, in my opinion, likely a complex and dialectical one: modernity is both good and bad (i.e. both better and worse for us, in terms of our everyday lives). The good (or better) is contained within the bad (or worse), and the bad (or worse) within the good (or better).

The term "bourgeoisie" is also a relative one, depending on one's nationality, outlook, and materialistic and/or other perspectives. The original European concepts of "bourgeois" (used as an adjective) and "bourgeoisie" (used as a descriptive noun) probably originated in the 11 or 12th centuries, with the rise of medieval European cities considered, then, centers for commerce or trade: Western Mecca for merchants and tradesmen, the first capitalists.

Today, however, the terms "bourgeois" and "bourgeoisie" are synonymous with cultural shallowness; material worship; acquisitiveness; lack of historical perspective; absence of cultural or social sophistication. If modernity began with the rise of the bourgeoisie, that likely represented significant progress for serfs or peasants who now sought non-agrarian, easier, more equal ways of life. Medieval landowners losing live-in serf labor, though, were probably less overjoyed. The rise of the European bourgeoisie also brought a gradual end to feudalism, throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. This was good for the serf, bad for the landowner: that is, an example of progress being good for some, bad for others. In the 19th century, the European bourgeoisie pushed for civil rights and religious freedoms, which the bourgeoisie of Europe, America, and other places today take for granted. Such rights, though, were absent under feudalism. But about this time, key differences sprang up within and around the bourgeoisie: stratifications leading to "class consciousness" (which would lead, Marx argued, to revolutions).

In America since 1865, the spread of capitalism and the influences of technology have combined to create an ever-expanding middle class, to which everyone may (in theory, at least) aspire. The industrial bourgeoisie (e.g., Rockefeller, Carnegie, Mellon)… [read more]


Mesopotamia & Egypt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,024 words)
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Originating deep in Africa, the Nile River descends through many cataracts to sea level at the delta in Egypt, where in its annual flooding, rich soil is deposited. Hemmed in by its narrow valleys, the Nile flows through regions that may not have a single drop of rainfall in a decade (Von Soden, 103). Yet crops grow luxuriantly from the fertilized silt, just as they did in ancient times. Thus, the great Nile made life possible and allowed the peoples of Egypt to build one of the greatest civilizations of all time.

In the days of the Pharaohs, the land of Egypt was dotted with marshes and island ridges, and what is now arid desert valley was grassy meadows well suited for grazing cattle, hunting and, of course, the erection of buildings. The fertility of Egypt, as Braidwood recounts, "was proverbial, and at the end of its history, when Egypt had become a province of the Roman Empire, it was the granary of the Mediterranean world" (356). In addition, the naturally-occurring rock outcrops in Egypt, such as those found in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens in Lower Egypt, played a very important role in Egypt's ability to construct buildings and tombs. And like the Mesopotamians, the Nile River also provided mud for bricks and pottery that was made by the local peoples for their own homes mostly situated along the banks of the Nile, where soil for cultivation and water for drinking and irrigation was plentiful.

Of course, the most prominent use of stone in ancient Egypt was for the construction of tombs and buildings associated with various religious beliefs. The mastaba was a rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber and connected with the outside by a shaft. With this design, it is significant to note that in Mesopotamia there was a relative indifference to the cult of burial and to the permanence of the tomb, while in Egypt, such matters were considered to be of the first importance. About 2750 B.C.E., another important structure appeared on the wind-swept plains of Egypt, being the Stepped Pyramid of King Zoser of the 3rd dynasty. Raised at Saqqara, this pyramid stood as the compromise between the mastaba and the later true pyramids at Gizeh and resembles in part the great ziggurats of Mesopotamia.

In conclusion, it is abundantly clear that the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians fully understood the natures of their environments and utilized them in order to create and develop their own individual societies that literally changed the world forever.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Braidwood, Robert J. The Near East and the Foundations for Civilization. New York: Collier Publishing, 1952.

Sasson, Jack, ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. UK: Hendrickson Publishers, 2000.

Trigger, Bruce. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Von Soden, Wolfram. The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East. Berlin: William B.…… [read more]


John F. Kennedy and Nikita Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,346 words)
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Kennedy," 2005).

Overview of Nikita Khrushchev:

Nikita Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovja, in what is now known as Kursk Oblast of the Russian Federation. He was originally trained and worked as a pipe fitter for a variety of mines, but it was during World War I, that Khrushchev's leadership would begin to emerge, as he began to be involved in trade union activities, following the Bolshevik revolution, in 1917. A year later, Krushchev became a Party member and held various management and Party positions in both Donbass and Kiev. In 1931, he transferred to Moscow, and four years later, he became 1st Secretary of the Moscow City Committee. In 1938, he was given the position of 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Ukranian Communist Party. Krushchev continued to work his way up the Party ladder and was a member of the Politburo from 1939 ("Nikita Khrushchev," 2005).

During the Second World War, Khruschev served as a political officer, holding a rank similar to Lieutenant General, in the United States.

He coordinated the defense of the Ukraine and then was the senior political officer in the South of the Soviet Union throughout the war. Stalin's death in March of 1953 instigated a power struggle between several different factions within the Party. Khrushchev prevailed and became Party leader on September 7th, 1953 ("Nikita Khrushchev," 2005).

A Comparison of Kennedy vs. Khrushchev:

Khrushchev was a powerful leader of Russia during a chaotic time. He immediately began to seek a course of reform, which was exemplified in his famous Secret Speech, that was given to the 20th Party Congress, in 1956. Khrushchev alienated himself from the more conservative members of his Party, speaking out against Stalin's actions, especially those crimes committed during the Great Purges (Khrushchev, 1956).

This is in direct comparison to Kennedy's early leadership style. Kennedy too refused to simply do as the Democratic Party demanded. He often voted against Party lines, to the chagrin of traditional Liberals. Although both men would alienate themselves from some of their Party members, both would gain increased acceptance from more moderate Party members, and respect from many because of their willingness to do what they felt was right, not what was popular.

Their dedication to their visionary leadership goals was a similarity, while their personal styles were in severe contrast. Khrushchev was often seen as uncivilized and boorish. He had a reputation for his significant temper and often resorted to interupting speakers to insult them. Khrushchev was known for pounding his fists on the table and shouting during a United Nations conference in 1960, and even taking off his shoe and pounding it violently on the table, when asked how he could oppose Western captilist imperialism given his actions to rapidly assimilate Eastern Europe (Khrushcheva, 2000). Whereas Kennedy grew up in a wealthy, refined family and would never have considered to resort to such measures to get his point across.

Yet, both men were incredibly charismatic, able to eloquently express… [read more]


Paul Rusesabagina Hotel Rwanda Term Paper

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Hotel Rwanda -- Response

It is often said that Americans, because of the youth of the American nation, have little sense of a common world history. However, the drama of the film "Hotel Rwanda" also suggests that we as Americans may have too much of a sense of genocide as a historical, rather than a contemporary concern. Genocide is often thought of as something that takes or took place in the far past -- 'back in the days of the Holocaust' -- when genocide is a crime that continues to be perpetuated, again and again, in contemporary history, often to the continued blindness of the world's eyes and the world's media. How many times, one finds one's mind and heart provoked to ask, upon viewing a film such as "Hotel Rwanda," must Americans vow 'never again' -- when genocide is a crime that seems to occur again and again?

The film "Hotel Rwanda" was based on a true story of the civil war that plagued Rwanda's capital city of Kigali. What transpired during 1994 is often described as a civil, that is internally perpetuated, genocide. Because the genocide took place within an African nation, between polarized tribes and regional ethnic groups, and because it did not threaten to spill over into other nations that neighbored the major European powers unlike the genocides of Europe, this African genocide was lagetly ignored by the world.

The events that led up to the story of "Hotel Rwanda" began when the Hutu militia came to power. The Hutu army aimed to systemattically elimated all of the Tutsis from the nation. However, the owner of the title hotel was a real-life Hutu with a Tutsi wife. He resolved, partly out of necessity and partly out of compassion, to act with discipline, fearlessness, and quiet reistance to the Rwandan genocidal army forces of 'his' ethnic tribe. In a largely unrecognized act of kinness at the time, thousands of children, neighbors and other refugees who sought sanctuary at his luxury hotel…… [read more]


Bolotnikov's Rebellions Term Paper

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These conditions added to the rebellion.

The rebellion was also a political struggle as to who should rule Russia.

It was a revolt along with the dynastic struggle which was prevalent after the death of Tsar Boris Gudonov in the year 1605. In the year 1606, the Boyar Prince Shuisky captured his throne was being opposed to by the nobles,… [read more]


German Political System Term Paper

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Politics

German Government

The German Bundestag is the lower house of the legislature in Germany, and many think it is the center of German government. It is a group made up of representatives elected by the people. The type of work that takes place there is both legislative and leadership based. The group is where bills are introduced in the legislative process. They are voted on by the Bundestag, read, commented on and studied, revised, and then if passed, given to the Bundesrat, so the Bundestag is responsible for most of the legislative process, and they can veto (not pass) a bill, too. The Lander is more closely related to the Bundesrat because that is how the Lander goes through the government and legislative process, and this is where the deputies of the Lander sit. Therefore, the relationship between the Lander and the Bundesrat is much closer than that with the Bundestag. The Bundestag differs from the French National Assembly in that the Budestag has more power. They can reject the president's candidate for Federal Chancellor, they can nominate their own candidate, and they elect the Federal Chancellor, and they also have the power to dismiss him. Thus, while the roles are similar, the French National Assembly has less power with leadership. They exist to adopt and supervise, rather than to elect and dismiss.

B. 2. Rempel feels the…… [read more]


Ming Rulers Term Paper

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Ming Rulers

An Examination of the Accomplishments and Failures of the Ming Rulers

The Ming dynasty endured from 1368 to 1644, and provided an interval of domestic rule between periods of Mongol and Manchu dominance ("Ming Dynasty" 1). During this period in Chinese history, the Ming rulers introduced a number of administrative innovations, taxation schemes and divisions of society that… [read more]


Alexander the Great Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,146 words)
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Alexander the Great

There is not much more that can be said about Alexander the Great. He has been the subject of countless books, several movies, and hundreds of years of speculation. People have varying opinions about Alexander. Many doubt that he should be referred to as Alexander the Great, because he destroyed so many civilizations and cultures that had… [read more]


Technology War and Fascism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,991 words)
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¶ … Technology, War and Fascism by Herbert Marcuse. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. Marcuse wrote these essays in the 1940s and 1950s, and they have gathered together into a collection by his son. Marcuse was a liberal philosopher, famous in the 20th century for his liberal thought and understanding. This book outlines his philosophy… [read more]


Alexander the Great the Life, Leadership Term Paper

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ALEXANDER the Great

The Life, Leadership, and Legacy of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great, who was also known as Alexander III of Macedon, lived from July 356 BC until June 11, 323 BC ("Alexander the Great"), and was the hereditary King of Macedon from 336 B.C. until 323 BC (Plutarch). Alexander the Great was also, as the movie Alexander the Great (November 24, 2004) shows, an enormously successful military commander of his time, and for that matter, of all world military history (Alexander the Great). However, Alexander's death, which took place at Nebuchadnezzar's palace in Babylon when he was just 32 years of age, reportedly on June 10-June 11, 323 B.C. (Plutarch), remains mysterious to this dayIn this essay, I shall describe the early life and education of Alexander, and also his military victories, his death, and his military legacy.

As a boy, Alexander, who was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and Philip fourth wife Olympias ("Alexander the Great"; Plutarch) was educated privately by the philosopher Aristotle, who had been Plato's student. Also, according to the article "Alexander the Great":

Aristotle was Alexander's tutor and he gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy... Aristotle gave him a copy of the Iliad which he always kept with him and read frequently.

Despite the excellent education that Alexander received from Aristotle, however, Alexander's major accomplishments and victories were in fact strategic military ones, and these occurred far and wide, which is extraordinary on its own: especially for a man who never even saw his 33rd birthday. As the article "Alexander the Great" states, for example, Alexander the Great is regarded as one of the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital

Persepolis. Following the unification of the…… [read more]


Industrialization in Europe Increased Term Paper

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Among the weapons that the native warriors were using were wooden and stone weapons as well as straw shields. The weapons that the European armies used were very powerful they had the ability to kill many people at a go. The native warriors were easily overpowered by the European armies. They destroyed their weapons easily as they were more advantaged since their weapons could destroy the weapons that the natives were using. The European armies launched the hand grenades on groups of the warriors which killed a large number of them at a single instance. The native warriors could not defend themselves efficiently against the armies as they were very strong compared to them when it came to the weapons.

Europeans had an army that was organized and well trained. On the other hand the natives merely had a self-defense force which was only mediocre. These were not well organized and they were not under good leadership. They had not been trained in any way and they merely came together so as to try and oppose the European armies. The lack of organization among the native warriors made them weak and hence they were easily defeated by the European armies (European Imperialism and Reactions, 1914).

Europeans introduced germs which the native people had not been exposed to before, particularly the small pox germ. The Europeans had been exposed to small pox over time and therefore they had built natural immunity against it. Therefore many natives died from the disease that they were exposed to. This reasons made it easy for the European armies to defeat the natives with great ease.

References

European Imperialism and Reactions. (1914) China, Ottoman Empire, and Japan; effects of European imperialism

The British Empire. (2003). The British Empire. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.britishempire.co.uk/

The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism. (2001). Wake Forest Student, Faculty and Staff Web Pages. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://users.wfu.edu/watts/w04_industr.html… [read more]


1901 an Egyptologist Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,181 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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The classes he viewed were that of free citizens, the amelu who enjoyed full rights as a citizen, the muskinu, a term which is said to represent free citizens again, however they were living separated from the former and were not supposed to pay the same fees and taxes as the former. Information regarding the muskinu is poor and does… [read more]


Julius Caesar Was a Historical Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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As the senate wanted to deprive Caesar of all the opportunities of positive political growth, it designated him with the areas, the conquest of which had brought him no prestige and glory as a military man. Caesar, on the other hand, wanted more glory and prestige; therefore, he realized that he needed his associates and allies to overcome his adversaries… [read more]


Survival in Auschwitz Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (768 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Their only pertinent identification was their religion. Levi says in one part of the book, "A fifth Haftling stands at the door patiently and monotonously asking every civilian who enters loosening his belt: 'Etes-vous francais?'" (Levi 69). Nothing else is known about this man, if he is good or bad, kind or wicked. He is French which separates him from the Italian Levi, but at the same time he is a Haftling which makes them the same. With this being the case, it was common for prisoners in the camps to form strong relationships, particularly since they had been deprived of their loved ones. In using the word Haftling, Levi may be explaining how the Jews all became something of a single entity in their misery.

The final reason why Levi might have chosen to use the word Haftling throughout his book is because after all these years he is defiant of the people who captured and imprisoned him. After he is liberated along with the other people at Auschwitz, Levi says, "It really meant that the Lager was dead. It was the first human gesture that occurred among us. I believe that that moment can be dated as the beginning of the change by which we who had not died slowly changed from Haftling to men again" (160). Despite everything that the Nazis had put him through, Levi had survived. He uses the term as an act of rebellion; no matter what they called him, not matter what he did, Levi survived.

In his book Survival in Auschwitz, Levi uses mostly Italian or English in the translated text. However, he uses certain German terms in the book. These are not accidental, but rather quite intentional. Through the use of these terms Levi expresses eternal conflict over this time in his life. Some part of him absorbed German words and culture whether he was aware of it or not. He also uses this term to honor the other people who were in the same position as himself, and perhaps the greatest reason behind his choice is an act of defiance against his personal enemies.

Works Cited

Levi, Primo, S.J. Woolf, and Philip Roth. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity.

New York: Simon &…… [read more]


Italian Unification Process and Camillo Benso Di Carvour as the Italian Bismarck Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Italian Unification Process

Unification processes of Germany and Italy during the second half of the nineteenth century

Cavour and Bismarck

the theoretical explanations of unification process

Ernest Gellner

Eric Habsbawm

Benedict Anderson

Explanation of nationalism in Italy and Germany

The role of Giuseppe Garibaldi

Converging interests of Cavour & Bismarck: From Austria-Prussian War 1866 to Franco-Prussian War 1970

The unification… [read more]


Humor in 3 Films Comedy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,394 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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In a sense, the globe balloon is representative of his ambitions and dreams and when it unexpectedly pops, Hynkel is forced back to reality and dealing with politics. Additionally, Hynkel is also preoccupied with trying to make allies with Benzino Napaloni, the Dictator of Bacteria and a parody of Italy's Benito Mussolini (The Great Dictator).

The most impactful scene in the film is its closing sequence. In a case of mistaken identity, the Jewish barber is mistaken for Hynkel as he attempts to flee Tomania to Osterlich, where he believes he will be safe. This final scene is especially important because it allows Chaplin to voice his criticisms on Hitler and the political turmoil in Europe. In this speech, Chaplin states, "Greed has poisoned men's souls, has barricaded the world with hate; has goose-stepped us into misery and bloodshed…The misery that is now upon us is but the passing of greed, the bitterness of men who fear the way of human progress (The Great Dictator). Chaplin's speech continues to resonate to modern times and demonstrates that although times change, people do not.

Some Like It Hot, directed by Billy Wilder, provides social commentary on a completely different issue altogether. In the film, issues of sex and gender are explored through cross-dressing and courtship. In the film, Joe and Gerry are forced to disguise themselves in order to escape Chicago after witnessing a mob hit and subsequently assume the identities of Josephine and Daphne, respectively (Some Like It Hot). Throughout the film, there is much sexual tension that arises because of their disguises. For example, although Joe and Gerry are attracted to Marilyn Monroe's Sugar Kane, they are unable to act upon their impulses, at least when they are in drag. However, drag costuming does not prevent Gerry/Daphne from being pursued by a wealthy Mr. Fielding who attempts to woo her with flowers and jewels and ultimately proposes to her at the end of the film; Mr. Fielding also completely overlooks the fact that Daphne is in fact Gerry and does not let gender and sex come between them as he refuses to withdraw his proposal on the sole fact Gerry is not a woman.

Likewise, social class also plays a major role in the film. In Some Like It Hot, Sugar Kane sets out to escape her past and wants to marry a rich man regardless of the consequences. By adopting the persona of Junior, Joe woos Sugar Kane into believing he is rich and ultimately demonstrates that society is too focused on appearances and wealth when he succeeds in attracting Sugar Kane. While Sugar Kane attempts to use sex to lure Junior, he reciprocally uses wealth and status to lure her. Ultimately, Sugar Kane realizes Junior, Joe, and Josephine are one in the same and resolves to reunite with him despite him being on the run, poor, and despite the fact that he lied to her.

The influences of these three films can be seen in many contemporary films.… [read more]


Culture -- Memory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (746 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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(2010) Her writing is a kind of example of the theories of Trioullot, Levy, & Sznaider at play in real life. Dixon describes the cosmopolitan memory of the Armenian genocide by the Turks as part of the strategy to shift toward a more democratic nation in Turkey. (Dixon, 2010,-Page 468) She brings to light, both directly and indirectly how memory is used as part of military and political strategies of those with the power and the means to reshape and represent historical events. Dixon specifically notes the original narrative, which is what actually happened (an Armenian genocide by the Turks), and what the modified narrative became, as well as the strategies of dissemination and assimilation of the new official narrative, which essentially makes claim that the Armenian genocide did not happen and if it did, the Armenians committed heinous, yet documented acts for which they deserved such treatment. The cosmopolitan memory of the Armenian genocide offers no collective apology and redefines Armenians as subjects within Turkish history and Turkish culture.

Merridale is one author who does not wish to write about memory. That is, Merridale believes that to write about memory is a dangerous trend in which many researchers indulge to which they narrowly do justice. She also argues for the fallibility of memory, with special regard to violence and trauma, such as in this history of Communist Russia, her primary historical interest for the piece. Her perspective is interesting and valid because it extends the context within which readers consider memory and collective memory. Often those who write upon subjects that they do not agree with personally offer valuable insight and contrast to other writers who take on the same subject with eagerness and enthusiasm, instead of with uneasiness and reluctance as Dixon does here.

References:

Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, 187 -- 206. Verso: London & New York.

Dixon, J.M. (2010) Defending the Nation? Maintaining Turkey's Narrative of Armenian Genocide. South European Society and Politics. 15(3), 467 -- 485.

Levy, D., & Sznaider, N. (2001) Memory and the Holocaust in a Global Age, 465 -- 467.

Merridale, C. Soviet Memories:…… [read more]


Genocide in Germany Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (565 words)
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Gilbert, Martin

Martin Gilbert's book tells the story of the Holocaust from the perspective of the Jews. Particularly, it discusses the stories of some of the Jews who were doing everything they could to stay alive, including going into hiding. This helps the research process because it shows that people who were not even certain about the specific atrocities that were being committed by the Nazis were so afraid that they would risk anything to avoid capture.

Paxton, Robert

This is a comprehensive history of recent European events. It has a large section on World War II and the Holocaust in particular. This text is useful because it puts the Holocaust in the context of the Second World War and explains its impact on the rest of the war.

Rossel, Seymour

This book discusses the Holocaust and discusses why the Jewish people were targeted by the Nazis. It makes an important point about the scapegoat theory of political discourse and how the Nazis used this to make people fear the Jews. This is important to my argument because it shows some potential reason for such an inhumane act.

D. How will you demonstrate that are aware of opposing positions on your topic?

I have conducted research and there are still many people who do not believe that the Holocaust happened. There are also some who think that not as many people died as are claimed. In a research paper, the views of this group of people would have to be addressed. By discussing this and taking about how wrong they are, it adds proof…… [read more]


Weimar Republic the Legend Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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However, people began to be skeptical when the war did not progress as it should have. One of the groups that was hit the hardest by the war was the women. They had been forced into service in factories, but they still could not feed their families. Every good was for the soldiers first and for the rest of the population second. Bread had to be filled with ingredients such as "bean flour and sometimes sawdust" (Weitz 9). The author also talks about something called the turnip winter during which people had to subsist on this one food source. Weitz quotes one citizen as relating that "during the war, [he] remembered eating turnips for breakfast, unpacking the school lunch his mother had sent him to find turnips, and going home to a dinner of still more turnips" (9).

All of this, and the poor treatment of sailors and soldiers toward the end of the war, led to revolts among the citizens of Germany. The way they saw it, a once proud country was reduced to a state of fealty to foreign powers because of the miscues of the present government. During this time, the government changed from a monarchy to one which was run by the people (a condition of the armistice), and became the breeding ground of radical elements that would one day rule the country. The authors take different approaches to tell the story of a Germany that was tired of the status quo and accepted an evil empire to fill the void.

References

Peukert, Detlev J.K. The Weimar Republic. New York: Hill and Wang, 1987. Print.

Weitz, Eric. D. Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University…… [read more]


Mongol Plague the Mongols Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  5 pages (1,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

He describes his exit from the court, and final words by Mangu Khan, stating, "Finally he said: 'You have along way to go, comfort yourself with food, so that you may reach your country in good health.' And he had me given to drink, and then I went out from before him, and after that I went not back again."[footnoteRef:11] These do not seem to be the actions of a vicious leader, despite previous reports by Ibn al-Athir describing the plague that was the Mongols. [9: "William of Rubruck."] [10: "William of Rubruck."] [11: "William of Rubruck."]

Ibn al-Athir's account of the invasion of the Tatar's is ghastly, quite appropriately describing the timeless pain of a once-conquered people. He is, however, mistaken in stating, "For indeed history does not contain anything which approaches or comes near unto it."[footnoteRef:12] History is rife with such stories, including the Christian-led Crusades, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and, quite recently, the American occupation of Vietnam. Innumerable atrocities were committed within each incident, and on behalf of countries which are now, in most instances, attempting to uphold peace. Therefore, criticism of this particular conquest would be more than warranted, given the savagery and swiftness; however, broad criticism of the Mongols as a people and culture is not at all warranted. [12: William of Rubruck."]

Works Cited

1. "Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221 CE." A Literary History of Persia,. Ed.

Jerome S. Arkenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1902. Web.

2. "William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols." UW Departments Web Server. Silk Road Seattle. Web. 23 Nov. 2010 .… [read more]


Gallic Campaigns Caesar Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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The Britons had a structure that was more like the Germanic tribes, but they also had a hierarchical government like the Romans and the Gauls. [22: Commentarii de Bellum Gallico. Trans W.A. MacDevitt. New York: Everyman's Library, 1915.3:1.] [23: Athena Review. "Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul (58-50 BC)." Athena Review, 1:4 (2007).] [24: Ibid.]

Some of Caesar's most interesting notes while… [read more]


French Revolution for Many People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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224).

The European nobility and monarchs watched in horror, the alternations taking place in France. They feared the same fate in their own respective states. Some radicals were watchful to expand their radical ideals all over Europe. Consequently, some countries took immediate action. Prussia and Austria requested France to retain Louis to his previous position as the monarch. In April 1792, the Legislative assembly decided to declare war. The war was discomforting for France. In the 1792's summer, Prussian forces had been pushing towards Paris. A threat was made to destruct Paris from existence, if revolutionaries made a move on the royal family. The Parisians were revolted. During August, at least 20,000 people attacked Tuileries, which was the humble abode of the royal family. The angry mob killed the security personnel and took Louis as a prisoner, his wife Marie Antoinette and their children with them (Hazen, 2013, p. 224).

The French troops were defending Paris when they were sent to fortify the French army in the battleground. There were rumors about prisoners breaking free and seizing control of Paris city. The citizens felt insecure and took matter in their own hands. They became the law. They raided the prisons and killed at least 1000 prisoners on their own. Royal personnel, priests, nobility also fell victim to these mass massacres of September (Hazen, 2013, p. 224).

The Legislative Assembly came under strenuous pressure from these radicals and its own members and abolished the constitution of 1791. It disposed of the king and dissolved the assembly as well as announced reelection for a legislature. National Convention was the new governing body formed and began functioning from September 21. It declared an end to the monarchy and declared France a republican. Male citizens were allowed to vote and take office. Women had not been not…… [read more]


Machine vs. Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Man is so complicated a machine that it is impossible to get a clear idea of the machine beforehand, and hence impossible to define it. For this reason, all the investigations have been vain, which the greatest philosophers have made a priori, that is to say, in so far as they use, as it were, the wings of the spirit. Thus it is only a posteriori or by trying to disentangle the soul from the organs of the body, so to speak, that one can reach the highest probability concerning man's own nature, even though one can not discover with certainty what his nature is" (La Mettrie et al. 89).

La Mettrie based his views on his own "observations," not on scientific study. Today, his "findings" seem sadly out of date, and a bit too romanticized. "Winston Churchill once said that 'the further back you look, the further ahead in the future you can see'" (Moore and Simon 76), and this is surely the case with Le Mettrie's writings.

The human body is a machine which winds its own springs. It is the living image of perpetual movement. Nourishment keeps up the movements which fever excites"

La Mettrie et al. 93). Today, we tend to look at man not as much as a machine, but more a soul and a heart. The body is an incredible machine, but it is what is inside each man that gives him or her their own unique personality, outlook, and feelings about the world around them. The natural world also includes many incredible machines, but none of them have a soul, and that is what will always differentiate man from machines, and the natural world.

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=70160745"La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, et al. Man a Machine. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1912.

Moore, Stephen, and Simon, Julian L. "The Greatest Century That Ever Was." The World & I, Vol. 15. 1 March 2000, pp 76. Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Boulder, CO:…… [read more]


German Unification Occupies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,459 words)
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The peace treaties signed after the war served as a sharp blow to already wounded ego of the French. The Germans did everything in their power to belittle the French, which is considered the gravest mistake made by the Bismarck regime. This was because this created severe bitterness in the hearts and minds of French people who staunchly opposed Germans… [read more]


Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  23 pages (6,251 words)
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The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and immortality.

Of course, things have changed in the more than two thousand years since Alexander's time. In recent centuries, the… [read more]


Ensured the Success Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,346 words)
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As in the Soviet Union, thousands of books, plays, and films were banned, but an entire body of pro-Nazi culture was created to take their place. (Shirer, 241-243) The active promotion of this culture, which glorified Germany and the Aryan worker, served as both entertainment for the masses and propaganda for the state.

Of course, all these social programs cost money. Rearmament required all spare state funds, so the government established programs of "voluntary" donation and wage deduction, through which the people could fund their own enlightenment.

With the Gestapo handy to encourage reluctant donors, participation in these programs was nearly universal. (Frei, 83)

Hitler's government had achieved nothing short of a public relations miracle. Not only had the Third Reich implemented an ambitious array of morale-boosting social programs, the citizenry had happily footed the bill. With such a strong social fabric in place, the Third Reich looked as if it could achieve anything.

III. The foundations of a strong society in place, the leaders of the Third Reich set about preparing the next generation of Nazis. In order to keep alive the fervor and devotion that had been so essential to the initial success of Hitler's regime, it would be necessary to indoctrinate the nation's youth with the core values of Nazism. Ideally, education would begin at a very young age.

Germany was already known for its intellectual tradition. Most of Europe began introducing mandatory schooling for children in the 1870s, but in parts of Germany, the same laws had been in place since the sixteenth century. (Eksteins, 71) During the nineteenth century, German scholarly works reached such renown that proficiency in the language was considered essential among Western academics. (Eksteins, 71) Thus, when Hitler came to power in 1933, Germany's educational framework was outstanding at all levels.

The Nazis bent this venerable system to their needs, while leaving most of the infrastructure intact. Character was of utmost importance in the Nazi education, as the sacrifices required of German men and women would not come easily to the undisciplined or morally soft. Hygiene and physical fitness were also areas of emphasis, as were studies of race and Aryan culture. (Frei, 87-88) In order to curtail the intelligentsia, by nature a skeptical group, and strengthen the party's power base in the working class, access to higher education was limited after 1933. (Childs, 65) From the lowest levels to the highest, the Nazi educational system was designed to produce capable, dedicated soldiers, workers, and civil servants.

Perhaps even more important than the schools in the creation of young Nazis was the Hitler Youth. Germany's Youth Movement had taken root at the turn of the century. The Nazis recognized its potential for indoctrination, and molded the institution to conform to the ideology of the state. At first, the Hitler Youth was attractive to young people as an outlet for their energies and a chance for group identity. The group's numbers swelled until, in 1939, membership was made mandatory. (Frei, 85) As war… [read more]


Accordingly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,265 words)
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He then argues that the European conquest and exploitation of the Americas resulted from the fact that Europeans were geographically closer to the Americas than were African and Asian maritime-oriented civilizations, and that the conquest itself was facilitated by the great epidemics of Eastern Hemisphere diseases which decimated the populations and destroyed the civilizations of the "New World."

Blaut, a geographer by profession, makes his point through a telling graphic titled "maps of the world before and after 1500 AD." It contains dots representing "dated place-name mentions" in Brenner's articles. No region outside of Europe is ever mentioned before 1500 AD. After 1500 AD, references occur more frequently but tend only to reflect what Blaut regards as "Brenner's view that capitalism began to diffuse outward to the rest of the world after its birth in northwestern Europe."

Given the more enlightened racial framework of today, Eurocentric historians today support their views with "hard" evidence drawn from agronomy, climatology, demographics, etc. rather than openly racialist claims. Few today would argue that the Europeans were genetically endowed with gifts for invention or rationality, or chosen by god. Rather, fortuitous historical circumstances moved them to the head of the class. It is exactly these pretensions to hard, scientific evidence that Blaut succeeds in demolishing. Barely disguising his contempt, he answers one false claim after another. When 4 Eric J. Jones asserts that Europeans were solely destined to become capitalists after the Middle Ages, Blaut cites Tome Pires, the 17th century Portuguese chronicler, who described Indian merchants thusly: "They are men who understand merchandise; they are... properly steeped in the sound and harmony of it." He adds, "[T]hose of our people who want to be clerks and factors ought to go there and learn, because the business of trade is a science." Among these Eurocentric historians farming practices loom a larger than any other supposedly objective criterion underpinning the rise of the West. The West is the world of the spirited, inventive yeoman farmer, while the repressive East employed unproductive farming techniques. Benefiting from his early training and fieldwork in agronomy, Blaut presents an alternative interpretation. For example, while Michael Mann considers soil fertility in Europe to be the key to its rise, Blaut points out that until the arrival of the potato from South America, a vast swath of land across Europe remained unproductive because of excess rainfall, conditions beneficial only to potato growth. Meanwhile, crop rotation -- supposedly unique to the West -- was found in the rest of the world. But, the question of "Eurocentrism" remains a vexing problem for academia. In the broadest sense, Eurocentrism can be understood as the implicit view that societies and cultures of European origin constitute the "natural" norm for assessing what goes on in the rest of the world.

Within this vast area of debate, one particular subtopic has been an object of intense scrutiny among scholars: the real-or-alleged centrality of Europe in preparing the explosion of economic development, science and technology, the Enlightenment and… [read more]


Biases Present in Our Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (603 words)
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However, these wrongs have been given more footage in cinema, including stories of slave uprisings in Cuba and Brazil along with the story (Quilombo) of a fugitive slave republic in the "new" world called "Palmares," which withstood repeated attacks by the Portuguese (about one every 15 months) for 100 hundred years.

Not all Europeans accepted what was happening blindly. The French writer Montaigne argued that the conquering Europeans were far more barbaric than the natives they so easily conquered with their superior weapons and brutal methods. He identified the real reason for these actions -- greed (as he said, pearls and pepper). Shakespeare made a reference to it in The Tempest, in the character "Caliban" (a play on 'cannibal'), who complained that the European Prospero had stolen his land.

The most egregious defense of Western domination over other cultures is that they viewed it as the "natural order of things." This brings us back to the opening of the chapter, with Narcissus admiring his reflection, seeing nothing else but himself. The Europeans believed their language was better, their skin color better, their culture better, and that because of this it was their right to violently take lands from other peoples.

What this chapter shows clearly is evidence that the victors write the history. If the European conquerors had come with cannon and gunpowder and had been greeted with indigenous people who had bigger cannons and something more powerful than gunpowder, history would have been written quite differently. "Might makes right" has never been a good justification for any actions, whether it be a bully on the playground or a shipload…… [read more]


Labor Policies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,462 words)
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The [state] recognizes work to be the duty of all citizens of the republic and proclaims the watchword: "He who does not work shall not eat (First Constitution of the Soviet Union, 1918 http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob103.html)."

This labor policy sounds productive in the beginning but it actually takes away the ability to succeed (Janos, 1992). Those who might want to venture into… [read more]

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