"World History" Essays

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Industrial Revolution the Nineteenth Century Essay

… Industrial Revolution

The nineteenth century was a period of time in which great changes were undertaken by human society. This period of change became known as the "Industrial Revolution," and it was a time of rapid transformation in manufacturing, transportation,… [read more]


Ottoman Turks Essay

… Ottoman Turks

It was Osman who, in the early 1300's, turned a tribe of pastoral nomads into a race of warriors and set them upon the building of an empire that would last into the 20th century. The descendents of Osman, called "Ottomans" by the Europeans, rapidly expanded their territory to include the whole of Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Greece, and the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire that was created became an empire made up of numerous peoples, races, religions all ruled by a small group of Muslim Turks. It was the Turks recognition of the heterogeneity of the empire, and their policies to turn this to their advantage that gave them the ability to rapidly expand and then rule their empire for over 600 years.

While one of the reasons for the success of the Ottoman military during the 14th and 15th centuries was the disunity of their enemies, a much more important reason was their pragmatism. Much of the success of the Ottomans was due to their "ability to adapt, to utilize talent and accept allegiance from many sources." (Pamuk, 2004, p. 228) The Ottomans accepted Christian as well as Muslim warriors, displayed a willingness to use new military technology, borrowed institutions from others, and readily made deals with local elites. But their greatest military asset must be recognized as their military force known as the Janissaries. Formed from the "tribute children" the Ottomans received from their conquered territories, the Janissaries were the elite fighting force of the Ottomans. The Ottoman military also adopted a system of recruitment and training of the Janissaries called devshirme, which maintained the most organized, well supplied, best equipped military in the world at that time. (Burbank, 2010, p. 138) Ultimately the Ottomans pragmatically accepted everyone into their military, formed an elite special force called Janissaries, and had the best, most organized support system in place, and when added to the disunity and weakness of their enemies, this was the secret of their military success.

The Ottoman Turks were…… [read more]


What Has Led to the Change in Custom Jewelry Methodology Chapter

… Gold Jewelry -- a History

Project's Overall Aims and Objectives

The overall aim of this project is to provide a well-researched, authentic history of the use of gold in adornments -- notably jewelry -- from several cultures and historical periods.… [read more]


Genocide Is a Traumatic Part of World Essay

… Genocide is a traumatic part of world history. The term genocide was coined in the aftermath of World War II. When the world learned that more than six million Jewish people had been murdered by the German military because of their beliefs, the universal reaction was disgust and disbelief. Since this series of deaths, the world has been made aware of other occasions of mass murder within nations because of ethnic or political reasons. These situations can rarely be solved within the nation where the murders occur. However, historically it has been difficult to get international aid because of red tape and bureaucratic nonsense. Millions die before any aid is bestowed.

In the documentary Ghost of Rwanda, the historical incident of when the Hutus attacked the Tutsi, the United Nation was asked for help during the genocide, but no nation except for Belgium was willing to provide aid to the slaughtered peoples. In Rwanda, some 800,000 individual men, women, and children were mutilated and murdered by the religious extremists of the Hutu people. Although the murders were well-documented and images of the dead bodies were available across the globe, no one provided help to the people in need. These deaths began a series of inquiries into when "ethnic cleansing" transforms into "genocide." In 1996, the United States President Bill Clinton, stated that the U.S. would only become involved in a country where they had an interest. In Rwanda, the United States had no interest and so it was not for the U.S. To become involved in the conflict there.

Some people believe that genocide is an issue which should be exclusively dealt with in the country where the deaths are occurring. Only when the genocide spills out into other countries, like they did during the Second World War, should the United Nations or other countries become involved. Only when it is literally an international problem, should the murders become of international concern. Other people however feel that whenever murder occurs on a mass scale, someone should become involved to stop further acts of evil. If no one is able to intervene on behalf of the victimized population, there is nothing to prevent the aggravators from continuing their atrocities.

Much debate over this issue has come from the definition of "genocide." Officially, the United Nations has stated that in order for a series of mass murders to be classified as genocidal, more than one million people have to have died, most often because of their ethnicity or political beliefs. If this number has not been reached, then the issue will be considered "ethnic cleansing," wherein a group is targeted by a majority because of their ethnicity. Ethnic cleansing…… [read more]


Soviet Union and United States Essay

… Petersburg that the spark of discontent was fanned into a flame. By March 8th, International Women's Day, thousands of female textile workers walked out of the factories to protest poor working conditions. By most accounts, most of the cities industrial… [read more]


Emperor Domitian Research Paper

… Emperor Domitian Bust

The Portrait of Emperor Domitian

In the East Wing of the Toledo Museum of Art is Gallery 2, also known as Classic Court. This section of the museum houses its art and artifacts from ancient Greece, Rome,… [read more]


History of Interpersonal Skill Literature Review Chapter

… Interpersonal Skill of Mesopotamia

The study of interpersonal skills among ancient civilizations like Mesopotamia consists mostly of major innovations and advances in society, technology and human development. Sargon is typically credited with being the first person to unify a world… [read more]


History of Prince Hall Masonry Thesis

… Masons

Although a great deal of mystique surrounds the Freemasons, relatively little is known about the Prince Hall tradition. As the preeminent African-American lineage of freemasonry, the Prince Hall tradition offers a wealth of potential for scholarship. This research will help elucidate the history, traditions, and missions of Prince Hall Masonry, including the impact of the Prince Hall Freemasons on American history, world history, and on the Masonic fraternal organizations as a whole.

Intended Audience

The intended audience for the research paper will be readers unfamiliar with freemasonry in general, and especially Prince Hall Freemasonry. Moreover, the research will help dispel myths about the social and political functions of freemasonry. I am conducting this research both as an objective scholar but also as a member of a Masonic lodge who can offer qualitative evidence gathered from fellow members as well as keen personal insight.

My research questions include the following. First, why did the Prince Hall tradition emerge, and how did race impact its development? Second, what, if any, impact has the Prince Hall Masonic tradition had on freemasonry in general? Third, what impact has the Prince Hall Masonic tradition had on the communities and societies in which it thrives? To find answers to these core research questions, I will explore the rich history of the Prince Hall tradition starting with biographical data on Prince Hall himself. Moreover, I will acquire information on the rites, ideologies, and philosophies of the Prince Hall tradition but also of freemasonry in general. Methods of gathering data include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources will include historical records related to freemasonry and Prince Hall freemasonry. Primary sources will also include interviews with members of Masonic lodges as well as case studies and personal anecdotes.

Preliminary Thesis: The history of Prince Hall masonry parallels American history, and race relations in particular.

Prince Hall and over a dozen others of African descent were initiated in 1775, a year before American independence and during the war. Although recognized as members of the…… [read more]


Chernobyl Nuclear Incident During the Cold War Thesis

… Chernobyl Nuclear Incident

During the Cold War, it was understood by the citizens of the world that the United States and the Soviet Union were competitors economically, politically, and militarily. Part of the economic health of both super powers was… [read more]


Cause of War Term Paper

… Clash of Civilizations - Samuel Huntington

In his book the Clash of Civilizations, Samuel Huntington explains that the end of the cold war also brought to a conclusion the way wars are fought based on ideology. Huntington asserts that the… [read more]


Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji Period Term Paper

… Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji Period And The Industrial Revolution In Great Britain

The person we are today is the result of numerous interactions with different individuals and events that have affected our lives, combined also with the unique characteristics… [read more]


War, How it Started Term Paper

… ¶ … war, how it started, and the war's importance to world history. World War One was supposed to be the war that ended all other wars on the planet, and it was controversial from the day it started. It began in August 1914, but the United States did not enter the war until 1917, and it ended on November 11, 1918. It took hundreds of thousands of lives, decimated large parts of Europe, and showed what the technology of the Industrial Revolution could accomplish when it came to warfare and killing.

Most people believe World War One began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary on June 28, 1914. However, in reality, the origins of the war were much more complex. In fact, under Kaiser Wilhelm, Germany had become much more aggressive. They did not renew a key treaty with Russia, and because of this, many of their neighbors banded together in case of attack from Berlin. France and Russia allied because they were afraid of Germany's military buildup, and Great Britain had allied itself with these two countries, as well. Germany continued to build up military and naval forces, while Germany was allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was quickly disintegrating due to tension and turmoil within. When the Archduke was assassinated, the Austro-Hungarian Empire felt Serbia was behind the killing, and with Germany's blessing and support, they tried to retaliate. This literally threw the continent into war, which many believe Germany wanted all along. Thus, actual war began in August of 1914, and raged throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa until 1918 (Sheffield).

The two factions of the war made up most of the most powerful nations on earth; making this war what many called the Great War or the War to End All Wars. The Entente Powers, (also called the Allies) included France, Russia (which withdrew from the war after the 1917 Revolution), the British Empire, and in 1915 Italy, and in 1917 the United States. They fought against the Central Powers, which included the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman Empires.

As for the battlegrounds of World War I, most people believe it was fought in Europe, but in fact, another thing that set this war apart was that it was fought in many areas of the world. One historian writes, "Major land fighting took place in France and Belgium, eastern Europe, Italy, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), East and South West Africa and on the Gallipoli peninsula" (Bourne ix). It was also fought on the seas of the world, from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, and for the first time, in the air, as well. This is a result of the Ottoman Empire's association with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and their involvement as an ally of those nations.

The battles were memorable, of course, for the sheer carnage and amount of casualties they produced. Much of the war was fought along the Western Front in Europe, and much has been written about… [read more]


Hitler's Appointment as German Chancellor Term Paper

… Adolf Hitler's assent as the Fuhrer of Germany is well documented. His campaign of terror during World War II caused the deaths of more than fifty million civilians and combats. Although the primary historical focus in the past has been… [read more]


Yuan Dynasty and the Shang Term Paper

… ¶ … Yuan dynasty and the Shang dynasty, of ancient China.

The Shang Dynasty, which lasted from 1600 BC to 1046 BC, was a time of frequent military conflict, political unrest, and innovation. Bronze artifacts and oracle bones used to… [read more]


Origins and Rise of National Socialism Term Paper

… ¶ … Origins and Rise of National Socialism

Since the Antiquity and until the 20th century human life or human nature has been thought to be restrained by certain imposed rules; from the Egyptians, who thought their human life was… [read more]


1750 to 1914 Was That Decisive Moment Term Paper

… ¶ … 1750 to 1914 was that decisive moment in human history called the Modern Revolution (San Diego State University 2006). It consisted of global and unprecedented exchanges of ideas, goods and people. The changes were described as autocatalytic or a condition wherein one kind of change evolved on its own and produced other kinds of changes. The spheres of change in the Modern Revolution were communication and transport, population growth, fossil fuel revolution, industrialization, democracy and colonial empires. The invention of printing, the railroad, the telegraph and the steamship radically changed the framework of human interactions in the world. World population also more than doubled with increased and long-distance migrations and global exchange of plant and animal species. The world's source of energy changed from biomass to fossil fuels. Industrialization greatly modified the distribution of wealth as well as poverty in the world and produced perilous attitudes towards nature and society. The democratic revolution inspired movements for the abolition of slavery, the formation of representative government, constitutions, universal suffrage, rights of workers, and national self-determination. These movements started in Europe and the Americas and later spread across Afroeurasia. And with the use of new and powerful technologies of communication, transportation and warfare, colonial empires asserted domination over weaker peoples. Europe led and was the largest among these empires. Later, the United States and Japan became the other important players in the global scene in their quest for empire. Historians referred to that period of expansion as the second industrial revolution. In that period, global growth rose threefold, world trade increased four times, and international trade eight times. These were the consequences of the combination of the modern communications revolution, the mechanization of agriculture and the emergence of the steel and chemical industries as the new focus of production and profit. The Modern Revolution enhanced the extremes of wealth and poverty in the world, made wider by the expansion of European colonial empires. Between 1870 and 1914, most of Africa came under European colonial rule. Britain had expanded in Burma, France in Indochina, and the Netherlands in Indonesia. Although most local populations resisted European takeover, Europeans' superior weapons and equipment easily overcame organized resistance. In 1800, they controlled 35% of the world's land area. By 1914, their dominion grew to approximately 84% (San Diego University).

Great Britain was the engine of world economic growth during the Industrial Revolution period between 1820 and 1890 (Adelman 1995). It started the Industrial Revolution. Competition with Great Britain and the spread of British technology spurred industrialization in the responding countries in Europe and overseas. The Industrial Revolution primarily linked European and overseas economies in complementing development patterns, which set the trend of economic growth in developed countries overseas. It also substantially increased economic differentiation among nations. The ratio of the per capita income of the most advanced country to the least advanced country rose from 2.8:1 at the start of the Industrial Revolution to 10.4:1 or four times in 1913. This imbalance put a… [read more]


Behind the Lines: Regeneration Movie Review Movie Review

… ¶ … film "Behind the Lines" is subtitled "Regeneration," in reference to the regeneration of the bodies and spirits of the wounded soldiers that was supposed to take place over the course of the film, to prepare them once again… [read more]


Ivan Van Sertima Book Review

… He also suggests that in African mummies there is evidence of botanical substances like cocaine found in the New World only (Amazon, 2005). There are also many African rituals that Sertima suggests are common to early native Americans. One example… [read more]


John Ronald Reuel (J.R.R.) Tolkien: A Writer Term Paper

… John Ronald Reuel (J.R.R.) Tolkien: A Writer for all Seasons (and Audiences)

Introduction author quotation statement of time, place, genre thesis statement

Historical Background historic introduction world events during childhood world events during maturity world events during old age conclusion… [read more]


Imperialism Term Paper

… This cruel and inhuman practice gave the opportunity to develop heavy industry; mining and it gave the opportunity to start militarization. These results were achieved by numerous victims of innocent people who suffered from repressions and great purges as Stalin's… [read more]


Medieval Towns Crafts and Guilds Term Paper

… Medieval Towns: Crafts and Guilds

Gervase Rosser has written an article that spells out, with descriptive attention to detail, the economic and work culture dynamics of medieval communities. The piece contributes enormously to a reader's understanding of England during the… [read more]


Otto Von Bismarck Achieve Term Paper

… German politician wanted to find support in Russia, Italy or Britain and use French mistakes in foreign policy to isolate France.

Italy received Venice for participation in war against Austria but though "The Italian people and the German people had… [read more]


Adolf Hitler. This Name Term Paper

… He was their messiah.

Hitler's leadership is well-known. As Machiavelli said that every ruler has to find smart and devoted encirclement. Hitler loved Italians philosophy and found good companions. Himmler, Goering and other well-known Nazi executors were devoted and smart followers. Also Hitler found and supported many talented generals. He knew people. He used their strong and weak features and used these people the way he wanted. Hitler's self-confidence is also one of the reasons of his leadership. As Ron Rosenbaum writes in his book Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil

Hitler killed millions of people being sure he is right and does good.

He killed all of his opponents with medieval cruelty, the same as Joseph Stalin did. He never tried to listen to another point-of-view. We can remember how he retired many talented generals only because they said he is wrong (von Manstein for example). Hitler always believed that only his orders and ideas are correct. He believed he was a genius, a messiah of Nordic race who will lead his nation to victory and prosperity through fire and metal of great battles. Third Reich had to last for 1000 years but it lasted for 12 years only.

Russian, American and British troops finished this tragic page of world history."

To sum up the written essay I'd like to notice that Adolf Hitler was really unusual and talented man but he would never gain what he gained if the winners of WW1 had given Germany a chance to get back to peace in 1918. He was only a man who managed becoming a leader of an angry, tired and humiliate nation that wished retaliation more than anything else. He was only an embodiment of radical ideas that were so popular among former soldiers. Here I've touched another eternal question:

What are the main leader's abilities: to be a leader or events that makes a leader out of him. As I think it's 50/50.

The same was in Hitler's story of life. He fought against the whole human race but was defeated and died. His fate will remind people of all nations and all times about war and humans mistakes.

Bibliography

Rosenbaum, Ron 1999. Explaining Hitler: The Search of the Origins of His Evil Perennial

Marrus, Micheal R. 1989.The Holocaust of History.…… [read more]


Robert E. Lee Term Paper

… Lincoln as able to impact the Emancipation Proclamation after the battle of Antietam and after Lee's surrender, freedom was even more of a reality. Nothing illustrates this more than the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.

To conclude, Robert E. Lee was a great man and solider who gave much to the United States of America when it was going through a terrible ordeal. His leadership was unique in that he was a "eminent strategist" (Gale). When we look at his life and its impact on history, we discover that his decisions might have shaped history in more ways than one. Had Lee decided to support the North, the Civil War might have seen an entirely different outcome. It is difficult to imagine to war lasting as long as it did had this been the case. In addition, his surrender allowed Lincoln what he needed to impact his Emancipation Proclamation. This was the beginning of freedom for many Americans. This freedom led to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, which have also been significant in American history. Lee's choices demonstrate how one life can have an impact on history in many ways.

Works Cited

Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David.

The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1990.

Murrin, John, et al. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1999.

Robert Edward Lee." Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies. (1936) Gale Resource Database. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/(September 8, 2004)

Desertion became a major problem in 1862, when soldiers became concerned about their families. John Campbell estimated that as many as 100,000 soldiers were eluding service in some form or another. Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company) 1990. 422.

He…… [read more]


Reign of Hitler Term Paper

… The Prussian army wanted to ensure that the individuals that were recruited and ultimately chosen were going to be loyal to the cause.

Prussian influence was also evident in the use of the Canton System, which was created by Frederick… [read more]


Post War Iraq: A Paradox Term Paper

… This event gave real evidence to the insignificant role played by the United Nations in the Korean War. 10

2. Self-defense (Falklands)

Self-defense is one of the most contentious spheres of the exercise of force, and many instances abound which… [read more]


Military Strategies Employed by Alexander Term Paper

… There were many qualities that set Alexander apart from other rulers of his time. One of the most important contributions in his life was the fact that his father invited one of the best scholors, namely Aristotle to Macedonia to tutor him. It was Aristotle's guidance that taught Alexander to be sensitive toward people and cultures, making him the first ruler to have this quality. It was this quality that never his occupied lands rebel. Even though the Persians despised him before he invaded Iran, they willingly joined his army.

He used to motivate his troops to fight the greatest challenges, in the harshest of conditions like crossing the snow-covered Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and the Uxian Mountains in Iran in late winter and early spring, or crossing the Saharan and the Arabian desert on foot or horseback, or fighting enemies with armies four times the size of his. He was always the first to march towards the enemy and would come to the rescue of a fellow soldier, regardless of his rank.

Alexander died in 323 B.C in the city of Babylon. He is one of the world's best conquerors serving as the model for many empire builders today.

References

Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)

J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)

J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68

Ken Auletta, "The Lost Tycoon," The New Yorker, April 23 and 30, 2001, p. 151

P. Grabsky. Great Commanders, The (1993)

R.A. Gabriel & D.W. Boose, Jr. Great Battles of Antiquity, The: A Strategic And Tactical Guide to Great Battles that Shaped the Development of War (1994). Steven J. Ott, ed., Classic Readings in Organizational Behavior (Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1989), p. 10.

R.L. Fox. Alexander the Great (1973)

Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Alexander (Boston, MA: Da Capo Press, (1996), p. 153

Geoffrey Parker, ed. Cambridge Illustrated History: Warfare (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1995) pp. 36-37

Thomas R. Martin, Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic

Times (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press), Orations 9.31, p. 188…… [read more]


Oracle Bone and Traditional China Term Paper

… Today, geologists learn about the earth's history mainly from clues left by forces that have sculpted the face of the earth such as volcanoes and earthquakes. Scientists are often able to reconstruct geological events that happened millions of years ago… [read more]


History of Sanitation Term Paper

… Western medical specialists claimed that bathing could balance the humors and digestive disorders. Hot water (thermal) baths were thought to promote respiration, relieve fatigue and cure headaches, while cold showers were used to relieve painful joints. A very warm bath… [read more]


Ancient Rome--Definitions Constantine: The Emperor Term Paper

… CHARLES MARTEL: Charles the Hammer, Frankish ruler, illegitimate son of Pepin of Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne. After the death of his father in 714 A.D., he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin's widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and became mayor of the palace. He subsequently subdued the Frankish kingdom of Neustria and began the re-conquest of Burgundy, Aquitaine, and Provence. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Muslims at the battle of Tours (732-33) and began the military campaigns that reestablished the Franks as the rulers of Gaul. Although he never assumed the title of king, he divided the Frankish lands, like a king, between his sons Pepin the Short and Carloman.

DIOCLETIAN: The Roman Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

THEODOSIS: Roman Emperor, also known as Flavius Theodosius), was born in Spain about 346 A.D.; died at Milan, 17 January, 395. By universal consent, Theodosius is one of the sovereigns that is best called Great. He stamped out the last vestiges of paganism, put an end to the Arian heresy in the Roman empire, pacified the Goths, left a famous example of penitence for… [read more]


Rise of Rome Term Paper

… "

Christianity spread throughout the region as Rome realized prosperity and a long era of peace. Rome triumphed not only "by force of arms, but also by the policy of colonization and the building of roads which helped to assimilate newly conquered territories (unknown, ancient Rome)."

The Punic Wars allowed Rome to become the main force in Italy and become the leading force in the Mediterranean.

During the First Punic War from 264-241 B.C., Rome originally intended to protect its allies in South Italy, but due to Carthage's weakness, acquired Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.

Rome was victorious in the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. during the Second Punic War which ended the military power of Carthage in the Mediterranean. During the Third Punic War, Carthage was destroyed in 146 B.C and the region became a Roman province (unknown, ancient Rome).

Differences in Empires

There were noticeable differences in the Roman Empire and other empires of the time. The Romans were great builders who constructed roads throughout the empire, in which "all roads led to Rome (http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html)." The roads built by the Greeks did not connect in a certain order and were not as well constructed. The Greeks had city-states, which were their own unit, and the Chinese Empire was divided into feudal states, while Rome was center of the empire.

The Romans were realists, compared to the Greeks, who were idealists. This was seen in the statues of each culture. The Greek statues were of perfect people, while the Romans made real life statues. The Romans had two classes of citizens: the lower class or plebeians and the upper class or patricians, while the Greeks did not recognize classes and had slaves (http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html).

Conclusion

One of the most powerful empires of the ancient world was that of the Romans, who broke free of the Etruscans and over time conquered the Mediterranean region. The Romans were a civilization of strong soldiers and builders, and their peace alliance with the Latins allowed for the rise of the Roman Empire.

Works Cited

Bower, Bruce. Early Rome: surprises below the surface. (excavations find urban civilization in 7th century B.C.). Science News. (1989): 14 January

Cavendish, Richard. The foundation of Rome: April 21st, 753 B.C. (Months Past). History

Today. (2003): 01 April.

The Rise of Ancient Rome. (accessed 26 October, 2003) www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm).w.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm

Unknown. ITALY. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2003): 01 July.

Unknown. Rome, ancient. The Hutchinson Dictionary of World History. (1998): 01 January.

Daily Life in Ancient Civilizations. (accessed 26 October, 2003) http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html).… [read more]


Power of China Term Paper

… Daoism during the Han dynasty was instrumental in creating the 60-year Chinese calendar.

In later years, "daoist thought proliferated, communities of latter-day Han daoists formed, eventually accumulating into a massive church organization (home.attbi.com/~piannone/o-s/ch-innerhist.html)."

Shamans and Ancient China

During the Shang period, shamans may have connected forms of medical philosophy with the political and social environment. In the late Zhou era, "Chinese philosophers of different schools used medical terms in a metaphorical sense, and they began making some physiological-political correlations (Birdwhistell, 1995)."

During the Han dynasty, the developments of correlative thinking and science combined political and medical ideas. An example of this was "the body was correlated with macrocosm as well as with the political-administrative system (Birdwhistell, 1995)."

Conclusion

The period of time in Ancient China between the Shang dynasty and the Western Han saw a number of changes in power and history. While changes occurred in the political-administrative area of China's history, many of the philosophies established were instrumental in setting a pattern for future empires.

Works Cited

Ancient Dynasties. (accessed 06 October, 2003) ).

Birdwhistell, Anne D. 1995. Medicine and history as theoretical tools in a Confucian

Pragmatism. Vol. 45, Philosophy East and West. 01 January. Pp. 1 (28).

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHINESE CULTURE AND HISTORY. (accessed 06 October, 2003) www.chinatown-online.com/cultureeye/highlights/bronze.htm).

Inner History of China. (accessed 06 October, 2003) home.attbi.com/~piannone/o-s/ch-innerhist.html>).

Shinn, Rinn-Sup and Robert L. Worden. 1991. Chinese History: Chapter 1A.

Historical Setting. Countries of the World. 01 January.

Unknown. 2000. 3,300-YEAR-old ANCIENT CITY FOUND NEAR YIN

RUINS. Xinhua News Agency. 07 January.

Unknown. 2002. MORE ORACLE BONES UNEARTHED IN CENTRAL CHINA.

Xinhua News Agency. 29 July.

Vermilion. (accessed 06 October, 2003) http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/56/v0065600.html).… [read more]


Global Politics and Economy: Late Term Paper

… S.-led Western coalition and the Gulf War of 1991 in which the Iraqis were roundly defeated and Kuwait was liberated. The Soviet Union supported the U.S. In the war, which marked the end of the "Cold War" and prompted President Bush to announce the start of a 'New World Order.'

Globalization

The collapse of Communism in the 1990s eliminated the only competing economic and political ideology of capitalism and liberal democracy. This coincided with rapid technological advances in computer and communication technologies, and made the application of theories of capitalism possible on a worldwide scale -- in what came to be known as 'globalization.' This saw rapid growth in the economies of early adherents like the 'Tiger Economies' of the Asian Far East. The risks involved in unrestrained globalization without the necessary checks in place also became apparent in serious economic downturns such as witnessed in the 1997 Asian Economic Crisis. In the meantime, the economies of United States and several other European countries witnessed an unprecedented boom on the back of a high tech dot com revolution.

Early 20th Century

The early 21st century has been racked by terrorist attacks, mainly by Islamic radical forces, on Western and Israeli targets. The after-effects of the 9/11 attacks on the world trade center are still dominating world politics and economies. They have resulted in triggering a widespread economic slowdown and an open-ended policy of 'war against terrorism' by the United States. Some analysts like Samuel P. Huntington, the author of "The Clash of Civilizations," feel that we have entered an "age of Muslim wars," one that could spiral into a clash of civilizations. Other thinkers like Francis Fukuyama maintain that the world is still moving toward universal democracy and believe that an "underlying historical mechanism" driven by modern science and technology will result in a long-term convergence across cultural boundaries in all societies of the world. (Fukuyama, p.56). But even he acknowledges that "Islamo-fascism" is the latest obstacle to the process, and "to get to the long-term we must survive the short-run." (Ibid. p. 59)

Conclusion

The end of the 20th century and the early part of the 21st century has been a tumultuous period in world history. It has seen several momentous events taking place like the collapse of communism and the Soviet Empire as well as the spectacularly successful terrorist attacks on the U.S. By Islamic terrorists. No one quite knows what will happen to world politics and economy in future since, as Bob Dylan once said, "Don't talk too soon, for the wheel's still in spin."

Works Cited

Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.

Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002…… [read more]


Mephisto: Film Research Paper

… This is such a revelatory notion because it provokes the idea of the artificial, and of the capacity of a human being to embrace the artificial and identify with the artificial -- this could be seen as a metaphor for fascism in general.

Another theme that the film appears to experiment with, is the idea of evil being allowed to flourish when good people do nothing. For instance, the aversion of the characters towards the Nazis is well established: the characters assert that they feel the Nazis are thugs and brutes. There's a clear us vs. them mentality which is established.

Even so, the film documents how the Nazis are able to come to power: through the lack of action of good people willing to stop them. For example, Juliette asks what the Jews are planning against Germany. This is such a provocative question because in hindsight we see that the Jews planned virtually nothing against Germany. This reveals so much about the situation: evil was allowed to flourish, and thus it did flourish. Other elements of the film which strengthened this notion revolved around the idea of characters remarking about how they thought there was nothing to fear about the Nazis, and yet, we see the character of Barbara telling Henrik that the Nazis won the election. This is so ominous, as the average viewer understand that it signifies the Nazis coming to power. The view sees how a career in the arts is no longer possible: everything becomes reduced to the notion of fighting.

Other concepts that the film deals with are the ideas of freedom and love and how to be able to identify them in their purest form. When Henrik plays Hamlet, the motif of the necessity of action of good people to fight against injustice becomes even more prevalent, as it was Hamlet who had to take action against the injustice of his father's death. This is one of the final pieces of symbolism that the film plays with. The moody lighting and the shadowy color correction of the entire film help to present this point to the audience at large.

Ultimately, Mephisto is a ballad against fascism and falseness. It is an attempt to work hard against despair and dishonesty. It is also a warning against evil: If people are to work hard against the forces of evil, the must do so proactively, not just in words but in deed as well. This is particularly true because factors like identity and integrity seem more malleable than people might like to think. That is at least how Szabo's film presents them.

References

Svabo, I. (1981) Mephisto. Cinegate…… [read more]


Hitler as a Master Manipulator Essay

… Hitler as a Master Manipulator

Hitler's reign of terror is probably one of the most intriguing in all of history, considering the effectiveness with which he used his oratory abilities in his struggle to shape other people's thinking. The former… [read more]


French Revolution for Many People Term Paper

… 224).

The European nobility and monarchs watched in horror, the alternations taking place in France. They feared the same fate in their own respective states. Some radicals were watchful to expand their radical ideals all over Europe. Consequently, some countries took immediate action. Prussia and Austria requested France to retain Louis to his previous position as the monarch. In April 1792, the Legislative assembly decided to declare war. The war was discomforting for France. In the 1792's summer, Prussian forces had been pushing towards Paris. A threat was made to destruct Paris from existence, if revolutionaries made a move on the royal family. The Parisians were revolted. During August, at least 20,000 people attacked Tuileries, which was the humble abode of the royal family. The angry mob killed the security personnel and took Louis as a prisoner, his wife Marie Antoinette and their children with them (Hazen, 2013, p. 224).

The French troops were defending Paris when they were sent to fortify the French army in the battleground. There were rumors about prisoners breaking free and seizing control of Paris city. The citizens felt insecure and took matter in their own hands. They became the law. They raided the prisons and killed at least 1000 prisoners on their own. Royal personnel, priests, nobility also fell victim to these mass massacres of September (Hazen, 2013, p. 224).

The Legislative Assembly came under strenuous pressure from these radicals and its own members and abolished the constitution of 1791. It disposed of the king and dissolved the assembly as well as announced reelection for a legislature. National Convention was the new governing body formed and began functioning from September 21. It declared an end to the monarchy and declared France a republican. Male citizens were allowed to vote and take office. Women had not been not…… [read more]


Julius Caesar Was a Historical Research Paper

… As the senate wanted to deprive Caesar of all the opportunities of positive political growth, it designated him with the areas, the conquest of which had brought him no prestige and glory as a military man. Caesar, on the other… [read more]


1901 an Egyptologist Research Paper

… The classes he viewed were that of free citizens, the amelu who enjoyed full rights as a citizen, the muskinu, a term which is said to represent free citizens again, however they were living separated from the former and were… [read more]


Survival in Auschwitz Essay

… Their only pertinent identification was their religion. Levi says in one part of the book, "A fifth Haftling stands at the door patiently and monotonously asking every civilian who enters loosening his belt: 'Etes-vous francais?'" (Levi 69). Nothing else is known about this man, if he is good or bad, kind or wicked. He is French which separates him from the Italian Levi, but at the same time he is a Haftling which makes them the same. With this being the case, it was common for prisoners in the camps to form strong relationships, particularly since they had been deprived of their loved ones. In using the word Haftling, Levi may be explaining how the Jews all became something of a single entity in their misery.

The final reason why Levi might have chosen to use the word Haftling throughout his book is because after all these years he is defiant of the people who captured and imprisoned him. After he is liberated along with the other people at Auschwitz, Levi says, "It really meant that the Lager was dead. It was the first human gesture that occurred among us. I believe that that moment can be dated as the beginning of the change by which we who had not died slowly changed from Haftling to men again" (160). Despite everything that the Nazis had put him through, Levi had survived. He uses the term as an act of rebellion; no matter what they called him, not matter what he did, Levi survived.

In his book Survival in Auschwitz, Levi uses mostly Italian or English in the translated text. However, he uses certain German terms in the book. These are not accidental, but rather quite intentional. Through the use of these terms Levi expresses eternal conflict over this time in his life. Some part of him absorbed German words and culture whether he was aware of it or not. He also uses this term to honor the other people who were in the same position as himself, and perhaps the greatest reason behind his choice is an act of defiance against his personal enemies.

Works Cited

Levi, Primo, S.J. Woolf, and Philip Roth. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity.

New York: Simon &…… [read more]


Italian Unification Process and Camillo Benso Di Carvour as the Italian Bismarck Research Paper

… Italian Unification Process

Unification processes of Germany and Italy during the second half of the nineteenth century

Cavour and Bismarck

the theoretical explanations of unification process

Ernest Gellner

Eric Habsbawm

Benedict Anderson

Explanation of nationalism in Italy and Germany

The… [read more]


Industrialization in Europe Increased Term Paper

… Among the weapons that the native warriors were using were wooden and stone weapons as well as straw shields. The weapons that the European armies used were very powerful they had the ability to kill many people at a go. The native warriors were easily overpowered by the European armies. They destroyed their weapons easily as they were more advantaged since their weapons could destroy the weapons that the natives were using. The European armies launched the hand grenades on groups of the warriors which killed a large number of them at a single instance. The native warriors could not defend themselves efficiently against the armies as they were very strong compared to them when it came to the weapons.

Europeans had an army that was organized and well trained. On the other hand the natives merely had a self-defense force which was only mediocre. These were not well organized and they were not under good leadership. They had not been trained in any way and they merely came together so as to try and oppose the European armies. The lack of organization among the native warriors made them weak and hence they were easily defeated by the European armies (European Imperialism and Reactions, 1914).

Europeans introduced germs which the native people had not been exposed to before, particularly the small pox germ. The Europeans had been exposed to small pox over time and therefore they had built natural immunity against it. Therefore many natives died from the disease that they were exposed to. This reasons made it easy for the European armies to defeat the natives with great ease.

References

European Imperialism and Reactions. (1914) China, Ottoman Empire, and Japan; effects of European imperialism

The British Empire. (2003). The British Empire. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.britishempire.co.uk/

The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism. (2001). Wake Forest Student, Faculty and Staff Web Pages. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://users.wfu.edu/watts/w04_industr.html… [read more]


Humor in 3 Films Comedy Term Paper

… In a sense, the globe balloon is representative of his ambitions and dreams and when it unexpectedly pops, Hynkel is forced back to reality and dealing with politics. Additionally, Hynkel is also preoccupied with trying to make allies with Benzino Napaloni, the Dictator of Bacteria and a parody of Italy's Benito Mussolini (The Great Dictator).

The most impactful scene in the film is its closing sequence. In a case of mistaken identity, the Jewish barber is mistaken for Hynkel as he attempts to flee Tomania to Osterlich, where he believes he will be safe. This final scene is especially important because it allows Chaplin to voice his criticisms on Hitler and the political turmoil in Europe. In this speech, Chaplin states, "Greed has poisoned men's souls, has barricaded the world with hate; has goose-stepped us into misery and bloodshed…The misery that is now upon us is but the passing of greed, the bitterness of men who fear the way of human progress (The Great Dictator). Chaplin's speech continues to resonate to modern times and demonstrates that although times change, people do not.

Some Like It Hot, directed by Billy Wilder, provides social commentary on a completely different issue altogether. In the film, issues of sex and gender are explored through cross-dressing and courtship. In the film, Joe and Gerry are forced to disguise themselves in order to escape Chicago after witnessing a mob hit and subsequently assume the identities of Josephine and Daphne, respectively (Some Like It Hot). Throughout the film, there is much sexual tension that arises because of their disguises. For example, although Joe and Gerry are attracted to Marilyn Monroe's Sugar Kane, they are unable to act upon their impulses, at least when they are in drag. However, drag costuming does not prevent Gerry/Daphne from being pursued by a wealthy Mr. Fielding who attempts to woo her with flowers and jewels and ultimately proposes to her at the end of the film; Mr. Fielding also completely overlooks the fact that Daphne is in fact Gerry and does not let gender and sex come between them as he refuses to withdraw his proposal on the sole fact Gerry is not a woman.

Likewise, social class also plays a major role in the film. In Some Like It Hot, Sugar Kane sets out to escape her past and wants to marry a rich man regardless of the consequences. By adopting the persona of Junior, Joe woos Sugar Kane into believing he is rich and ultimately demonstrates that society is too focused on appearances and wealth when he succeeds in attracting Sugar Kane. While Sugar Kane attempts to use sex to lure Junior, he reciprocally uses wealth and status to lure her. Ultimately, Sugar Kane realizes Junior, Joe, and Josephine are one in the same and resolves to reunite with him despite him being on the run, poor, and despite the fact that he lied to her.

The influences of these three films can be seen in many contemporary films.… [read more]


Culture -- Memory Essay

… (2010) Her writing is a kind of example of the theories of Trioullot, Levy, & Sznaider at play in real life. Dixon describes the cosmopolitan memory of the Armenian genocide by the Turks as part of the strategy to shift toward a more democratic nation in Turkey. (Dixon, 2010,-Page 468) She brings to light, both directly and indirectly how memory is used as part of military and political strategies of those with the power and the means to reshape and represent historical events. Dixon specifically notes the original narrative, which is what actually happened (an Armenian genocide by the Turks), and what the modified narrative became, as well as the strategies of dissemination and assimilation of the new official narrative, which essentially makes claim that the Armenian genocide did not happen and if it did, the Armenians committed heinous, yet documented acts for which they deserved such treatment. The cosmopolitan memory of the Armenian genocide offers no collective apology and redefines Armenians as subjects within Turkish history and Turkish culture.

Merridale is one author who does not wish to write about memory. That is, Merridale believes that to write about memory is a dangerous trend in which many researchers indulge to which they narrowly do justice. She also argues for the fallibility of memory, with special regard to violence and trauma, such as in this history of Communist Russia, her primary historical interest for the piece. Her perspective is interesting and valid because it extends the context within which readers consider memory and collective memory. Often those who write upon subjects that they do not agree with personally offer valuable insight and contrast to other writers who take on the same subject with eagerness and enthusiasm, instead of with uneasiness and reluctance as Dixon does here.

References:

Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, 187 -- 206. Verso: London & New York.

Dixon, J.M. (2010) Defending the Nation? Maintaining Turkey's Narrative of Armenian Genocide. South European Society and Politics. 15(3), 467 -- 485.

Levy, D., & Sznaider, N. (2001) Memory and the Holocaust in a Global Age, 465 -- 467.

Merridale, C. Soviet Memories:…… [read more]


Genocide in Germany Term Paper

… Gilbert, Martin

Martin Gilbert's book tells the story of the Holocaust from the perspective of the Jews. Particularly, it discusses the stories of some of the Jews who were doing everything they could to stay alive, including going into hiding. This helps the research process because it shows that people who were not even certain about the specific atrocities that were being committed by the Nazis were so afraid that they would risk anything to avoid capture.

Paxton, Robert

This is a comprehensive history of recent European events. It has a large section on World War II and the Holocaust in particular. This text is useful because it puts the Holocaust in the context of the Second World War and explains its impact on the rest of the war.

Rossel, Seymour

This book discusses the Holocaust and discusses why the Jewish people were targeted by the Nazis. It makes an important point about the scapegoat theory of political discourse and how the Nazis used this to make people fear the Jews. This is important to my argument because it shows some potential reason for such an inhumane act.

D. How will you demonstrate that are aware of opposing positions on your topic?

I have conducted research and there are still many people who do not believe that the Holocaust happened. There are also some who think that not as many people died as are claimed. In a research paper, the views of this group of people would have to be addressed. By discussing this and taking about how wrong they are, it adds proof…… [read more]


Revolution Talking About a Revolution? Creative Writing

… Manufacturing a Revolution

If the French Revolution can be considered a true revolution based solely on the grounds that it caused a major change in the course of world history, then it would seem obvious that the Industrial Revolution must also be considered a true revolution. This social revolution has fundamentally altered civilization on a worldwide basis far more directly, extremely, and pervasively than any single nation's change in administration ever could (Goloboy & Mancall, 2008). There might be another criterion that excludes industrialization from this moniker, however.

While the French Revolution's effects might have been indistinct and uncertain for over a century, the period of the Revolution itself is well defined and concrete. The period known as the Industrial Revolution, however, is far less distinct; though there are certain key events that can be pointed to as evidence of the start of the "revolutionary" period and statistical data that clearly indicates when in history industrialization reached a certain location, indicating the spread of this "revolution," there is no effective start or especially and end date to the period (Goloboy & Mancall, 2008). One could even argue that the Industrial Revolution is still ongoing, as there are parts of the world to which it is still spreading or has not even begun to spread, and as processes continue to become more refined and less skilled-worker-dependent -- more industrialized, in other words -- even in the developed world. Thus, it is possible to say that the Industrial Revolution is a true revolution only in the abstract sense as a process that leads to a great change in the state of affairs, but not in the concrete sense of a specific event or period that constituted this change in its entirety.

Conclusion

Both the French and the Industrial Revolution caused significant turns or changes in history and the state of civilization. According to strict definitions of the word, however, the French Revolution would have to be considered the truer revolution of the two despite having had a lesser overall impact on world and arguably even national affairs. In the end, war is simply more concrete than process.

References

Goloboy, J. & Mancall, P. (2008). Industrial Revolution. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Neely, S. (2008). A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Online Etymology Dictionary. (2012).…… [read more]


Weimar Republic the Legend Essay

… However, people began to be skeptical when the war did not progress as it should have. One of the groups that was hit the hardest by the war was the women. They had been forced into service in factories, but they still could not feed their families. Every good was for the soldiers first and for the rest of the population second. Bread had to be filled with ingredients such as "bean flour and sometimes sawdust" (Weitz 9). The author also talks about something called the turnip winter during which people had to subsist on this one food source. Weitz quotes one citizen as relating that "during the war, [he] remembered eating turnips for breakfast, unpacking the school lunch his mother had sent him to find turnips, and going home to a dinner of still more turnips" (9).

All of this, and the poor treatment of sailors and soldiers toward the end of the war, led to revolts among the citizens of Germany. The way they saw it, a once proud country was reduced to a state of fealty to foreign powers because of the miscues of the present government. During this time, the government changed from a monarchy to one which was run by the people (a condition of the armistice), and became the breeding ground of radical elements that would one day rule the country. The authors take different approaches to tell the story of a Germany that was tired of the status quo and accepted an evil empire to fill the void.

References

Peukert, Detlev J.K. The Weimar Republic. New York: Hill and Wang, 1987. Print.

Weitz, Eric. D. Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University…… [read more]


East Asia Essay

… East Asia

Shaping the Course of East Asian Culture Since the 1860's

The 19th century brought about a great deal of challenge and impending changes for East Asia. Powers were escalating in the west, and the Japanese and Chinese governments… [read more]


Learning and Education Essay

… Personal Reflections on Learning and Education

My Visit to the Holocaust Museum

As a high school student, I studied world history because it was a required course for all students. I managed to earn a good grade because I have good reading comprehension skills and because I am good at memorizing information from books. However, a recent event convinced me that it had never really occurred to me that I might not have actually been learning everything that I remembered well enough to answer questions about on my course exams. I realized that there is a big difference between just memorizing information and genuinely understanding that same information. That lesson came to me unexpectedly during my recent visit to the Holocaust Museum in Washington, DC.

When we studied the history of World War Two in class, we covered the history of the persecution of the Jews by the Nazis before and throughout the war. In fact, I managed to achieve a very high grade on the semester exam and I distinctly remember correctly answering questions about such details as what the Nuremburg Laws imposed by the Nazis in 1933 consisted of, what the 1938 Kritallnacht event referred to, who Anne Frank was and where she lived, and that the total numbers of Jews killed by the Nazis in Europe was approximately six million.

However, until my visit to the Holocaust Museum, I cannot say that I ever actually understood what I had had studied about that topic. On one hand, it was something that I could reference intelligently in a conversation if it came up and I recognized references to it in contemporary news reports or comparisons. On the other hand, I am now almost embarrassed that my studying the topic well enough to answer basic questions about it never really caused me to think much about what I had studied. To a great degree, that changed for me after my visit to the Holocaust Museum and it also changed the way that I now think about other historical events that I studied but never really understood either. I realized that it is possible to study without actually learning and to learn facts without understanding what they really mean or what their significance is.

The displays at the museum were very graphic in some respects; in other respects, even they failed to really help me realize the significance of what I was seeing. Naturally, all of us were appalled at the pictures depicting naked prisoners marched at gun point to gas chambers and at the fake shower facilities disguising gas chambers, as well as at the piles and piles of human bodies stacked like wooden logs outside of crematoria. However, possibly because almost all of the pictures were in black and white instead of color, the events seemed almost too long ago to have the same effect on me as they might have if they had happened closer to my lifetime. That entire perspective changed for me after meeting Helen…… [read more]


European Studies When Most People Hear Research Paper

… European Studies

When most people hear about the Middle Ages, they will often think of: a knight fighting their enemies or various types of monarchies. While these are all certain elements of this time, there is much more to this point in history than many individuals realize. The reason why, is because this period served as a transition to modern society (after the downfall of the Roman Empire). As, this period was known: for lawlessness (i.e. The Dark Ages) and a reawakening of civilization (the Renaissance). Yet, beneath the surface there were changes that took place at the end of the Middle Ages that would have a major impact upon Western culture. To fully understand these shifts requires: examining the transformations that took place at the end of this frame. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying changes that took place. (Willner, 2008, pp. 176 -- 208)

Discuss the changes that took place in Western Europe at the end of the Middle Ages.

The end of the Middle Ages was: when significant changes would occur in society. This would have an impact upon: future innovations and new ideas that were being developed. At which point, many of these different ideas became a part of Western civilization and the basic ideals that many nations stand for. A few of the most notable changes that took place include: new forms of government were developed, trade was improved and the role that individuals will play in society evolved. (Willner, 2008, pp. 176 -- 208)

New Forms of Government

During the end of the Middle Ages new forms of government was quickly emerging one of the most significant include: monarchies. Monarchies first began to appear in a period of time known as the Dark Ages. This is when there was a complete breakdown in civilized society. As, the Roman Empire was being overrun by: different Germanic tribes. This had an impact on the way people were living, where they no longer could rely on protection from a strong central government. Instead, many individuals began to abandon the cities and move to the country side. This is because, they could forage off of the land and they could align themselves with wealthy landowners (who could provide protection). As, they had: their own army and the ability to forge alliance with the various lords. This had an impact upon the social order moving forward, with many of these wealthy land owners becoming the aristocracy. Those people, who were able to consolidate power over large areas, began to create their own nation states known as kingdoms. This is important, because it is showing how this new form of government was created out of the upheaval that was occurring during the Dark Ages. Over the course of time, this would become the social and political structure of many Western European nations. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)

Trade was Improved

During the beginning of the Middles Ages, there would be an economic… [read more]


Marshall Plan Research Paper

… Marshall Plan

Designing Europe in the Aftermath of World War II: The Marshall Plan and its Lasting Effects

The twentieth century was a period of major change and reorganization in the international geopolitical power structure, as globalization truly got underway… [read more]


Mongol Plague the Mongols Creative Writing

… He describes his exit from the court, and final words by Mangu Khan, stating, "Finally he said: 'You have along way to go, comfort yourself with food, so that you may reach your country in good health.' And he had me given to drink, and then I went out from before him, and after that I went not back again."[footnoteRef:11] These do not seem to be the actions of a vicious leader, despite previous reports by Ibn al-Athir describing the plague that was the Mongols. [9: "William of Rubruck."] [10: "William of Rubruck."] [11: "William of Rubruck."]

Ibn al-Athir's account of the invasion of the Tatar's is ghastly, quite appropriately describing the timeless pain of a once-conquered people. He is, however, mistaken in stating, "For indeed history does not contain anything which approaches or comes near unto it."[footnoteRef:12] History is rife with such stories, including the Christian-led Crusades, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and, quite recently, the American occupation of Vietnam. Innumerable atrocities were committed within each incident, and on behalf of countries which are now, in most instances, attempting to uphold peace. Therefore, criticism of this particular conquest would be more than warranted, given the savagery and swiftness; however, broad criticism of the Mongols as a people and culture is not at all warranted. [12: William of Rubruck."]

Works Cited

1. "Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221 CE." A Literary History of Persia,. Ed.

Jerome S. Arkenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1902. Web.

2. "William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols." UW Departments Web Server. Silk Road Seattle. Web. 23 Nov. 2010 .… [read more]


Gallic Campaigns Caesar Research Paper

… The Britons had a structure that was more like the Germanic tribes, but they also had a hierarchical government like the Romans and the Gauls. [22: Commentarii de Bellum Gallico. Trans W.A. MacDevitt. New York: Everyman's Library, 1915.3:1.] [23: Athena… [read more]


Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that… [read more]


Compare the Holocaust to Two Other State Sponsored Persecution of a Group of People Term Paper

… Genocide

Despite the fact that humans have been violently killing off humans since the beginning of civilization, the word "genocide," which encompasses that of "holocaust," did not exist before 1944. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-Jewish attorney, who wanted to describe the… [read more]


Martin Luther King Junior of All Famous Essay

… Martin Luther King Junior

Of all famous twentieth century leaders, few have come to possess as lasting an impact on their people and their culture as Martin Luther King, Jr. In fact, the one man who it can safely be… [read more]


Economic Revolution in the American South Thesis

… ¶ … Southern Economy: Century of Reconstruction

Today, there remains a sense of cultural and economic difference between North and South that is felt by many inhabitants on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line. In some degree, the vestiges of divergent histories leading up to and following the American Civil War are still evident, especially in the educational, professional and economic disadvantages often associated with life in the South. The article by Gavin Wright, entitled "The Economic Revolution in the American South" chronicles the moment at which, the author contends, the South begin finally to move toward some measure of equality with the North. Writing in 1987 for The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Gavin uses this moment of so-called 'revolution' as a prompt to reflect on the historical patterns devising the stagnant economy that had strangled the south for a century.

The crux of the Wright study is that there are fundamental forces at play in the economic development of labor markets which were intervened upon by the cultural and political circumstances of the South. As the Industrial Revolution began to alter American populace distribution in the late 19th century, the South had been dramatically disrupted by the forced alteration of its labor approach and by the tumult that followed this change. Wright explains that there existed certain distinctions between North and South for many years based upon agricultural temperament, but that these differences would promote a wide array or more salient human concerns. The article indicates that sharp differences between North and South "were rooted in certain geo-agricultural continuities, such as familiarity with seeds, crops, livestock, and climate. This 'natural' regional separation was ratified and institutionalized by slavery, which served to insulate the South from outside labor flows after 1807, when importation of slaves ended. Then the region was consumed by the turbulence of war and Reconstruction at the very time when a truly national (non-Southern) labor market was developing elsewhere." (164)

Wright continues by noting that the realities of immigration played no small part in this…… [read more]


Roman Catholic Church and Nazi Germany Thesis

… ¶ … Roman Catholic Church and Nazi Germany

The world community has for the most part recovered emotionally and psychologically from the horrors of WWII that Nazi Germany -- led by Adolph Hitler -- perpetrated on the millions of people,… [read more]


Middle Ages Essay

… ¶ … Middle Ages

While the Middle Ages are often regarded with angst and often ridiculed, it is worth noting that good things did emerge from these so-called "dark ages." Like many times in the past, the Middle Ages might seem ancient now but were progressing at a rate that seemed normal to them. Technology improved, making life in general better. Literature also heard fresh voices that reflect the times. Many advancements prove the Middle Ages were a far cry from dark.

Many changes occurred in the Middle Ages that changed the way the world works. For example, ways of production were changed, which had an enormous effect on the economy. Gunpowder, the canon, and the compass were all invented in the Middle Ages. The eleventh century was filled with "men of prayer, men of war, and men of work" (Noble 352). Other advancements lead to easier farming and "labor-saving devices" (Duiker 263), including hammers, scythes, axes, hammers,…… [read more]


Southernization Lynda Shaffer Uses Essay

… Southernization

Lynda Shaffer uses the term southernization as something akin to the term westernization. There is no mere coincidence of language that leads Shaffer to use this term, however; not only are the two words used to describe highly similar cultural phenomena, but Shaffer contends that southernization actually set Europe and the rest of the world for westernization. The movement of certain technologies and cultural developments from South Asia to the North and eventually through Europe by way of the caliphates, Shaffer contends, allowed for the cultural developments of Western Europe during and after the Middle Ages that led to the process of westernization.

Part of this southernization consisted of -- and depended on -- the development of trade routes into China and Africa by the Indians. This civilization was already quite strong; cotton was first domesticated and cultivated in the Indus River valley, leading to the development of cheap fabrics and clothing -- and many things to trade…… [read more]


Feudalism Is the Direct Result Thesis

… Feudalism is the direct result of a lack of effective governmental control. During the Middle Ages, feudalism became a popular way of dealing with this lack though a state of affairs that was based upon strength and power. In other… [read more]


Industrial Revolution Started in Britain Essay

… Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries but gradually spread to other European countries, North America and the rest of the world. Major developments took place in areas such as agriculture, mining, transportation and manufacturing which in turn, had a profound impact on the socioeconomic and cultural climate throughout the world. In the period between the accession of George III and that of his son, William IV, England went through a series of important changes. As far as agriculture in Britain, areas that for centuries had been cultivated as open fields were hedged or fenced, and hamlets turned into towns. Infrastructure developed quickly, i.e. highroads were made, and navigable reaches of the Mersey, Trent, Severn, Thames, Forth and Clyde were joined together by threads of still water. In the North the first iron rails were laid down for the new locomotives, and steam packets began to ply on the estuaries and the narrow seas (More 9). Thesis: The technological developments associated with the Industrial Revolution had a strong impact on both social and cultural circumstances chiefly by a sharp increase in population, and the workers' shift from rural to urban areas.

The topic of the Industrial Revolution cannot be tackled without discussing the aspect which distinguishes this age from its predecessors, i.e. The rapid growth of population. Changes occurred in the structure of society. The number of people increased vastly with the proportion of children rising due to the increase in the number of births. The growth of these communities shifted the balance of population from the South and East to the North and Midlands, and many Irish workers came to work in England. Moreover, many Englishmen and women left the countryside and came to towns and cities and integrated into the labor force of factories. This shift was also caused by the fact that beginning with the 18th century, the number of jobs in rural areas decreased, leaving many people unemployed because rural population had risen sharply as food was no longer scarce, and death rates declined due to fewer wars and plagues. At the same time, nonetheless, many small farms disappeared because of new legislation which required farmers to put fences or hedges around their fields, and many small farmers could not afford to enclose their fields. As a consequence, they were forced to sell out to larger landholders, and look for work. There was what we might call a vicious circle which forced ex-farmers to move to towns and cities and try to make a living working in manufacturing or other branches of the industry. This way, work became more and more specialized and new forms of skill developed whereas some old ones were lost. However, what was most important during this process was the fact that labor became more mobile and as a direct consequence, the quality of life improved (Ashton 21).

As far as statistics, it is interesting to note that careful estimates have been put together by social… [read more]


Persian Gulf War 1990 91 Thesis

… Persian Gulf War 1990-1991

Why America Became Involved in the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

Iraq had launched a full-scale attack against Kuwait after claiming the smaller country was undermining Iraqi efforts to keep oil off the world market and, as… [read more]


Swiss and Swedish Neutrality Thesis

… Neutrality of Switzerland and Sweden has garnered a great deal of attention over the years. The purpose of this discussion is to compare and contrast Switzerland's and Sweden's policies of neutrality in theory and in practice. In addition the research… [read more]


Industrialization 1776-1900 Term Paper

… ¶ … Industrial Revolution is the most significant movement of its time because it radically changed many aspects of life and of living. Tools and machines evolved as needs in the environment changed. Momentous progress includes a radical revolution of the textile industry, which could not be predicted or foreseen. Necessity is the mother of invention and, as we shall see, the inventions of the Industrial Revolution prove this statement true. Without ingenuity, however, invention would be difficult and the modern revolution reveals that when the right minds converge with the right needs of society, great things can be accomplished.

Great Britain was the "home" (Craig 627) of the Industrial Revolution. Several factors come into play for this with the primary reason being that Great Britain was the "single largest free-trade area in Europe" (627). The political structure was stable in Great Britain and with a solid banking system along with a good public credit created a "good investment climate" (627). The earliest signs of the Industrial Revolution emerge with rise of mechanical inventions. The spinning jenny was patented in 1769 and it "broke the bottle neck between the productive capacity of the spinners and the weavers" (628). In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented a modified version of the spinning wheel that accelerated improvements in other areas dealing with weaving. Edmond Cartwright's invention of a new power loom demanded an increase for cotton. With Crompton's version of the spinning jenny, yarn was being produced twice as quickly as it was before. While these inventions and modifications seem rather insignificant, their effects were felt not only across Europe but across other continents as well. In America, southern farmers benefited because everything happened faster. The inventions of this era brought different cultures together, demonstrating how they affected the entire globe.

Another significant invention to emerge from the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. Stanley Chodorow claims that the steam engine was the "most important" (Chodorow 718) in that it remained the sole source of artificial power until the invention of electricity. The steam engine is linked to two "basic commodities of modern industrialization - coal and iron" (718).

The steam engine's primary function was pumping coal from mines in England but the machine's popularity spread quickly and was modified for many other functions as well. The progression of the steam engine's evolution represents man's ability to improve upon his inventions. In 1777, workers used the steam engine as a hammer to shape iron. In 1783, it workers used it to roll iron into sheets. It did not take long for steam to…… [read more]


Adolf Hitler Term Paper

… Hitler as Evil

There is no doubt that Adolf Hitler is remembered as one of the most evil geniuses of the twentieth century. Countless observations and evaluations on Hitler's personality and life reveal an artistic, charismatic man that turned to… [read more]


People First Settled in Villages? Essay

… ¶ … people first settled in villages?

People settled in villages for several reasons. First, they were mostly related in blood to the other people in the village. Then, similar looks, customs, ways of dressing, speaking and cooking kept familiar people living near each other. As families grew, so did the village. Families lived in huts close by so that they could help each other. Women helped other women with childrearing; cooking, gathering firewood, growing crops, and tending to the sick, aged and their husbands. The men banded together in groups to hunt, make weapons, defend the women and children, build homes and make decisions about the future with others. Growing crops made the families live in the same area for many years, until the firewood ran out and the land ceased to be fertile. Then the whole village would move.

Scholars give the name culture to the way of life of a people, including its arts and crafts." Customs and ways of building, dressing, practicing their religion, cooking and doing other elemental things in one's society keep similar individuals and groups together. Similarities in costumes, wearing hair and style of decoration tend to keep groups of similar customs together, though migration of groups changed the way people dressed and looked, with other styles influencing them (Encyclopedia p 75).

Another reason for settling in a village is linguistics. When groups grow up together they understand each others' language. When they meet others from outside the village or the area or region they live in, they do not understand the language as well and feel alienated. The language one knows tends to keep people who speak the language together. As groups migrated, languages spread. Songs and music, stories and myths were outgrowths of the linguistics of a tribe.

Animals had a lot to do with villages. If the villages raised domestic livestock, these were cared for by members of the village in turns and necessitated cooperation between the residents. Individuals could raise livestock, but they needed to have large families in order to do so, hence the need to live near others, either family members or neighbors who also raised animals and could cooperate.

Why has it been relatively difficult for scholars to study the Indus valley civilization?

Because the languages of the ancient people have not been translated until fairly recently (some are still being translated), scholars have found it difficult to study the history of the Indus Valley civilizations. In 2006 a stone axe with script from 1500 BC was found near Mayiladuthurai in India by a schoolteacher which help scholars discover more about the past. From the Neolithic age, 3,500 years ago, the polished stone is engraved with four signs which have been identified by epigraphists as Indus Valley script (Subramanian 1). But this axe is not the only artifact which has been found to add to the mystery. Dozens…… [read more]


Samurai Have a Significant Impact on Japanese Term Paper

… ¶ … Samurai have a Significant Impact on Japanese Culture and Historical Events in the Long Run?

The samurai were an aristocratic warrior class that emerged in Japan during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and which… [read more]


Seven Years War Term Paper

… ¶ … war broke out in 1756 between France and Great Britain. Along with that, difference between American and Canadian colonists had erupted two years before that began, which cased the war to lead to the fall of New France.… [read more]


Changes in the Standard of Living During the Industrial Revolution Term Paper

… Standard of Living Industrial Revolu

The industrial revolution is a foundational period in human history. There is really nothing about society before the industrial revolution that has not changed in some fashion as a result of it. To some degree,… [read more]

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