Study "World History" Essays 56-109

1234. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Cold War and Its Aftermath Term Paper

… ¶ … Cold War and its Aftermath

The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end… [read more]


1500 Term Paper

… ¶ … 1500 a.D.

Criteria for Defining the Most Significant Historical Event:

In considering the various candidates for the most significant event in human history, several pivotal conflict and transitions stand out. Among them: the Renaissance,

which ushered in the Age of Discovery and Exploration, the French Revolution, which pioneered concepts like religious tolerance, self-determination, and inclusion of the masses of the less fortunate into political life; the Industrial Revolution, which introduced the technological achievements that were to make modern life possible for much of the world's population; the American Revolution, which established what was eventually to become one of the world's greatest and most influential powers and shapers of the modern world; the American Civil War, which eliminated the institution of human slavery in the New World; the two world wars of the twentieth century, which shaped the direction of future geopolitics more than any other events in history, and the Cold War that followed, which may have taken the place of a war with the potential to destroy much of the world shaped by all the other historical events in a matter of hours.

World War II as the Most Significant Single Event in Recorded History:

In determining which event was likely the most significant among the others, one of the most important criteria must be the sheer number of human lives actually affected, the lasting effects on future generations, and the likelihood that other events of the same kind would have resulted in similar changes had it never transpired. While all of the historical events listed contributed very significantly to human life, each one changing it in myriad different ways, it is difficult to argue that any other single human event altered the course of human history by itself more than World War II.1

Human history has demonstrated that with respect to revolutionary changes in philosophical and political thought and also with respect to technological achievement, even the most dramatic developments and innovations occur simultaneously in different cultures, simply as a function of human intellect, social learning, and time. Other human events, such as the Industrial Revolution owe their relative significance to the ways that they accomplished the betterment of human life. However, because the same achievements also made possible the developments of instruments of warfare that brutally destroyed so many human lives, their benefits must be considered in light of their corresponding detriments, rather than one dimensionally.2

The most destructive event in all of human history would, undoubtedly, have been a nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union, which, by virtue of the sheer numbers of human lives lost, would have constituted a monumental historical event. Luckily, it never transpired, despite the fact that the two nuclear powers probably came much closer to a "hot" war in 1962 than many realized at the time.3

In retrospect, the Cold War was more a function of mutual paranoia than anything

else and its most significant outcome was the undoing of Soviet Communism rather than the… [read more]


Prologue Period Term Paper

… Prologue period of history saw very different events occurring throughout the world, despite the many similarities across these geographic regions. The reasons for these many differences in human history have to do with development of human kind.

For example, during this general period known as the prologue period, in North America human history was undeveloped, at least when compared to the Europe, Eurasia and Asia. In North American the majority of the continent was still dominated by natural resources and was populated by many different tribes and ethnicities of natives. Further, during this time the first contacts with Westerners began to occur. This created a rapid amount of change to occur within the North American area within a relatively short period of time, especially when compared to the amount of time it took Europe, Eurasia and Asia to develop to this same level. In contrast, much of Asia, Eurasia and Asia were moving towards an industrialized society. All…… [read more]


Europe and the World European and Western Term Paper

… Europe and the World

European and Western powers and the colonial and post-colonial world -- India, Algeria, and Viet Nam

Western colonial domination of the ancient kingdoms of India, Vietnam, and Algeria may have marked 19th century world history. But anti-colonial resistance to this oppression marked the ideological debates of 20th century world history. However, the 20th century also saw the rise in the West of the concept of the 'common individual' both as a collective concept under communism and as a psychological phenomena with the rise of popular Freudian psychology in England, France, and America. Thus, while post-colonial societies themselves may have exhibited plurality of collective and individualistic forms of economic and political resistance to colonial oppression, when speaking to the West formerly colonized peoples often articulated resistance to oppression is articulated as an individualistic and personal concept of human liberation as well as national liberation.

This melding of the personal and the national is best seen in the examples of Indian resistance articulated in White Teeth, by Zadie Smith. The friendship between two men, the white Cockney and Indian protagonists, is shown to heal both the wounds of colonialism, societal racism, and personal turmoil. The martial meshing, via a relationship, of Black and White British woman and man also becomes an imperfect testimony of the ability of personal relationships to heal political rifts in Britain, and as the daughter, the progeny of this union, proceeds to find happiness and love despite her mixed heritage. In fact, because of her dual exposure as a young person, to two different and contrasting cultures, she is able to be attracted to men of a variety of heritages. This also reflects the often-strident sense of British collective cultural imperialism that marked its domination of India, in everything from alterations in dress to sport.

In Smith's novel, through achieving interpersonal, familial and sexual unity, the characters achieve the decolonization of the mind advocated by Aime Cesaire in his "Discourse on Colonialism." Cesaire stresses both those who share the heritage of the oppressors as well as the oppressed must be healed -- Cesaire speaks specifically of Algeria, of course, but Zadie Smith also suggests this is true of a multiracial postcolonial England. Unlike Francis Ford Coppola's portrayal of immediate American involvement in Vietnam, however, both Smith and Cesaire see hope for redemption outside of government constructs of nationhood and narrow definitions of identity, once nationhood has been achieved and military objectives are no longer of…… [read more]


Jesus - Christianity Christmas Term Paper

… The disputes between the Roman Catholics and Protestants led to persecutions and both civil and foreign wars (Christianity pp).

In spite of the belief that violence is antithetical to the teachings of Jesus, Christian adherents have persecuted, tortured, and killed other for refusing to believe in their type of Christianity (Christianity pp). During the Crusades, Christian atrocities against Jews in Germany and Hungary, and later in France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria, initiated a tradition of Christian anti-Semitism that was further bolstered by the "blood libel cult and continued into the 1500's by the Spanish Inquisition" (Christianity pp). The European colonization movement was endorsed by the European Christian churches supposedly legitimized the exploitation of the colonized lands by the European powers and led to the destruction of many cultural artifacts, especially in South America related to the Inca and Aztecs (Christianity pp).

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns, generally sanctioned by the Papacy, which took place during the eleventh through the thirteenth centuries (Crusades pp). In the beginning they were Roman Catholic endeavors to re-capture the Holy Land from the Muslims, however, some were directed against other Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France and the Northern Crusades (Crusades pp). The origins lie in Western developments during the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire (Crusades pp). When Emperor Alexius I appealed to Pope Urban II for mercenaries to help him fight against Muslim advances into the Byzantine Empire, began the First Crusade (Crusades pp). The Pope called for a large invasion to defend Christendom, not only to defend the Byzantine Empire, but to reclaim Jerusalem (Crusades pp). Although the papacy of Pope Gregory VII struggled with doctrinal validity of a holy war and killing for the Lord, it resolved the question in favor of justified violence (Crusades pp). Actions against Arians and other heretics gave historical precedents in a society where violence against non-believers and even against other Christians was acceptable and common (Crusades pp). Thus the first crusades resulted in unprecedented wave of pious fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of Orthodox Christians of the east, finally ending in 1204 (Crusades pp). The ninth and last crusade, led by Edward I of England ended in 1291 (Crusades pp).

Roman Catholicism and Protestantism arrived in North America with European settlement during the sixteenth century, and then Protestantism was taken to South America and Africa by European colonists from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries (Christianity pp).

No other being has had such a profound influence on civilization as Jesus of Nazareth. From the days when he walked the earth until now some two thousand years later, Jesus has influenced emperors, kings, politicians, and the common man as no other being. Wars have been fought in his name, shrines have been… [read more]


Peloponnesian War Term Paper

… History Of the Peloponnesian War: Failure and Accomplishment

War, regardless political motivation, geographical expansion, euthanasia, national defense, or any of several other reasons, brings to both sides involved consequences that change history forever. Civil wars, global wars, or nation-to-nation wars… [read more]


Political, Social and Economical Processes Term Paper

… Roman architecture all over the former Roman Empire, witnesses the high stage of development of technology and scientific approaches into practical applications. Romans were first to introduce and use concrete in construction, it was rediscovered again only in the 16th century, Romans were the first to build centralized transportation system, to build aqueducts for water supplying of urban areas, they used water pipes made of zinc and lead and had first prototypes of canalization systems as well.

The brightest example of Roman provincial technological projects is aqueduct at Pont du Gard, (45 miles from the town of Arles). It was constructed to supply with water twenty thousand population of the area. The grandiose project is one hundred fifty feet high, crosses a rocky canyon of the Gardon River. The brightest feature of the complex construction is that it was build from huge six-ton blocks urged tightly to one another without using concrete. It's important to mention that Romans and inhabitants of provincial territories widely used the mechanical principles of lever in construction and transportation of weights. They were acquainted with basic principles of hydraulics (used primitive pumps), automatics and pyrotechnics.

The development of two great civilizations Roman in the West and Chinese in the East during the first centuries of our era came into interaction as trading routes from China to Middle Asia and from Middle Asia to the Mediterranean were established. It brought into existence unseen interaction and goods exchange which had not existed earlier. The isolation of Ancient China was broken after the military campaign of Jang Zang against Huns in 125 BC. After eliminating the external threat- Huns, Chinese merchants and military men were able to establish economical relations with Middle Asian states of Khoresm, Bactra and others. Romans were able to import Chinese silk, porcelain and paper.

Besides Great Silk trading route, there existed economical ties with Germanic tribes, which inhabited the coast of the Baltic Sea. Romans traded with them as well. The main item of the trade was teen (which was valued more than gold) and amber (or, as Romans called it, electrum). Economical and trading relations of Roman Empire were more than simply developed. Equal opportunities, single currency (issued by Rome), nearly equal taxation created favorable conditions for establishment of long time goods exchange. Mediterranean had determined and specialized markets and looked like economically developed multinational infrastructure, a unique one for the ancient world.

Roman empire was the first political formation, which brought to interaction nations and ethnic groups alienated by distances, different cultures and stage of development. It caused the growth of universalism and ancient cosmopolitism, as roman influence was spread on Near East and Middle East nations as well as on North Africa.

At the same time the core of Roman civilization, based on slavish production mode was starting to come to decline as the number of slaves was getting reduced, the efficiency of their work was getting lower and as the provinces and colonies were getting impoverished. The years of… [read more]


Alike Medieval Europe and Japan Term Paper

… Medieval engineers discovered the power of the pointed arch and the flying buttress, and built lofty cathedrals and towers of whose walls seemed made entirely out of beautifully patterned stained glass. Many of these structures were almost completely covered with statues of kings and queens, saints, and monsters. This period of cultural fluorescence coincided with the rebirth of the towns, and the full-flowering of the feudal system. Knights and priests developed the code of chivalry with its devotion to honor, justice, and fair play. Troubadours sang of heroic exploits and courtly love - the unconsummated (at least theoretically) passion of a knight for an unobtainable lady. Christian fervor, and the lust for gain that the growing towns engendered, produced the Crusades. These were large-scale military adventures whose initial aim was the liberation of the Holy Land from the Turks. While the Christian victory was short-lived, the Crusades themselves brought Europeans into direct contact with the more cultured Islamic World of the Middle East. European nobles and rich merchants developed a taste for exotic spice and rare silks and gems.

The growing wealth of the towns was based almost entirely on trade and small-scale manufacturing. Places like Flanders became major centers of cloth production, and towns there and elsewhere demanded their liberty from their feudal overlords. Many soon set up their own governments, governments that were organized around the trade guilds that had been performed to protect commerce.

Meanwhile, in Japan, this same period saw the collapse of the earlier, Chinese-inspired system of government. Military clans battled each other for control of the Japanese islands, and these hardy warriors soon developed their own answer to chivalry. It was the fierce code of loyalty and bravery that was called Bushido. The sturdy warriors who followed this code were called samurai. Eventually one clan, the Minamoto, reigned supreme. Its leader, Yoritomo, received from the Emperor the title of Shogun, or supreme military dictator of Japan. The Spartan regime of the Minamoto endured for more than a century, until at last, weakened by gradual internal decline, and by two great failed Mongol invasions, it collapsed. Following a brief period of disorder and an attempt at an imperial restoration, the shogunate was restored under the Ashikaga, and for the first time Japanese feudal culture came into its won. Architecture flourished at the capital of Kyoto, where the shoguns build such enduring monuments as the Gold and Silver pavilions. No, the classical drama of Japan was first elaborated during this time, and uniquely Japanese styles of poetry, literature, and art captured the imaginations of the upper classes. As in Europe, guilds flourished in the towns. Expert craftsmen turned out beautiful swords and suits of armor. The armor was different from that of the European knights, but handsomely lacquered and topped off with fantastic, often grotesque helmets. Buddhist monasteries dotted the countryside, and great numbers of Japanese followed such new cults as Zen, and Pure Land Buddhism as they sought salvation from the endless cycles of rebirth… [read more]


German Fascism Term Paper

… In addition, and despite their frequent condemnation of all facets of fascism, the majority of modern, democratic politicians have adopted, and developed, the fascist propaganda techniques of stage-managed public appearances, recognizable party symbols, the effective use of technology and the media, and carefully written speeches that contain powerfully emotive slogans and catchphrases.

In conclusion, it is apparent that German fascism, despite possessing an ideology based upon oppression, racism, violence and inhumanity proved to be a highly successful and influential political power. The serious concern to emerge from the evidence produced in this paper is the possibility that in any country, as in Germany, if socio-economic crisis is combined with strongly held national traditions, disillusionment with the existing leadership, and the emergence of an inspirational figurehead or group, the conditions exist for a fascist style ideology to once again develop into a radical and powerful political system. With this in mind, it may be wise for President Bush, Prime Minister Blair, and other Western leaders to recognize the similarities between the political ideology, style of government, and propaganda techniques presently employed by Saddam Hussein's dictatorship in Iraq with those that exemplified Hitler's Nazi regime before World War II.

Bibliography

Berwick, M. The Third Reich. London: Wayland Publishers, 1971.

Brady, Robert A. The Spirit and Structure of German Fascism. New York: H. Fertig, 1969.

Carsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1970.

Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.

Laqueur, Walter. Fascism: A Reader's Guide. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Nolte, Ernst. Three Faces of Fascism. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Company, 1966.

Payne, Stanley.…… [read more]


History of Germany, Japan Term Paper

… Japan, like Germany went from a democracy to a dictatorship, and hoped to gain world dominance. They invaded China in 1931, and when the League of Nations protested, they withdrew from the League. By 1936, Japan had signed an "anti-communism" agreement with Germany and Italy, and "in September 1940 the empire concluded a tripartite alliance with Germany and Italy, the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis, pledging mutual and total aid for a period of ten years" (Mayer), and their fate was sealed with the Nazis. This put them in direct conflict with the U.S. And her allies, including Mexico.

While Mexico had its share of Communists and Bolsheviks throughout the 20s and 30s, the country ultimately sided with the United States and democracy, gradually growing disenchanted with socialism and Lenin.

Whereas the conservative governing elite saw the need to accept the inevitability of neighborly relations with the United States and the consequences of the latter's economic superiority, the leftist elite grew disillusioned with the Soviet Union and its influence over the Mexican Communists. The attacks by the Soviet press on the Mexican government offended those who once admired the Bolshevik Revolution and were inspired by the accomplishments they thought it had achieved (Spenser and Katz 178).

Just as Russia was trying to leave behind the 19th century world of the peasant farmer, so was Mexico struggling to become more industrialized and less agrarian, and the United States was always there to lend a helping hand in this regard. During the Second World War, Mexico sent workers to the U.S. under the "bracero" program, and supplied oil to the war effort.

While Mexico's principal contribution as an ally to the war effort was to supply the United States with increasing quantities of strategic resources and laborers, it also sent an air squadron that saw action against the Japanese in the Philippines and in Formosa. Almost a quarter of a million Mexicans living in the United States entered the American military, and fourteen thousand of them saw combat (Jones 429).

By the time the war was over in 1945, Mexico's fate was forever connected with the United States, and the two countries remain bonded today. Japan and Germany were both defeated at the end of the war, and struggled for years to regain their economies. Mexico, aligned with the U.S., was in a much better position to build their economy and industrialization, but continue to struggle today, even with the influx of U.S. companies after the NAFTA agreement, while Germany and Japan have again become world economic powers. Mexico underwent drastic changes in the first half of the 20 the century, but has not been able to successfully compete in the world market. Today, after the fall of Communism, Russia is facing many of the same economic woes Mexico faces. It is interesting to note the similarities and differences affecting all of these countries, and the ramifications even this long after World War II.

Works Cited

Gran, Peter. Beyond Eurocentrism: A New View of… [read more]


Harvard Professor of History Term Paper

… He notes that the Japanese reached a high level of progress because it had a decentralized feudal system like that of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Their work habits were unlike those of other Asians. They centralized, nationalized and modernized their habits and institutions. (Gray) The Japanese people achieved industrialization quite fast because of sacrifice and the willingness of the Japanese worker to work long hours of monotonous labor. Their admirable qualities were geared to wage an economic war for progress - a collective commitment to modernization and the development of a work ethic and personal values that led to the famous Japanese economic miracle. It was their devotion to samurai values that did this. But Japan was not like any other Asian country, Landes stresses.

He summaries his points by underscoring that most countries in Latin America, Afria and Asia have failed by wasting human capital and by spending too much time in increasing public payrolls, rent-seeking, civil wars, fighting and blaming outsiders for their sluggishness (Gray). And what makes the fall even more tragic is that they think they have nothing to learn from the West and its success story and history.. He, thus, concludes that these habits of success in the West are necessary to the health, wealth and power of those elsewhere in the world.

Virtually all of Landes' arguments are convincing, as history shows. The very beliefs and ways of living in the East are opposed to their own development. The existence of the Third World and the Third-World countries' dependence on the superior First-World countries in Europe supports Landes' argument. But this is if all of success, all of progress, and all of advancement must be equated with, and measured by, material acquisition. And not all of it is material acquisition. #

B LIOGRAPHY

Fathom Knowledge Network. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, 2002

Gray, Christopher M. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, a book review. Orbis, 1998

Landes, David S. The Wealth and…… [read more]


Alcibiades, Hero or Zero Research Paper

… Alcibiades' dealings with Tisaphernes also contributed to emphasizing the love he felt for Athens.

3. Alcibiades certainly brought reform to the idea of politics and he was a clever military tactician. He was effective in his thinking because he was able to understand when it was right to ally particular groups and when it was right to protect his interests.

4. Even with the fact that history as a whole fails to emphasize the important role he played in world history, Alcibiades was certainly a hero when considering his concern in protecting Athens. Even after the Athenians had acted in disagreement with his thinking and banished him he was still able to acknowledge the fact that Athens was his home and eventually made it possible for his countrymen to survive a series of battles.

It is only safe to say that Alcibiades was the victim of circumstance as he constantly came across individuals who were unnerved with his power and intellect. These people focused on removing his influence and in most cases managed to influence others in thinking that it was wrong for them to trust the Greek hero. Their influence can still be observed today when considering that many historians provide conflicting ideas with regard to the man's true nature.

Works cited:

Ellis, Walter M., "Alcibiades," (Routledge, 01.01.1989)

"Alcibiades," Retrieved June 12, 2013, from the eHistory Website: http://ehistory.osu.edu/world/PeopleView.cfm?PID=247

"Ancient Greece: Alcibiades," Retrieved June 12, 2013, from the Sunburst Website: http://sunburst.usd.edu/~clehmann/HWB/hwb_v/alcibiades.html… [read more]


War and Revolution Essay

… James Rarick

Western Civilization II

War and Revolution

War and Revolution during the nineteenth century

Conflicts during the nineteenth century -- introduction

Revolutionary attempts during the 1830s

the Year of the Revolution

France sets the pace

Nations across Europe and… [read more]


Holocaust Many Historians and Scholars Research Paper

… 7 million people in Darfur rely on humanitarian aid for survival (UNRC, p. 2).

The Fate of Native Americans Compared with the Holocaust

Certainly the Holocaust stands out in world history as among the most notoriously bloody and unconscionably cruel genocidal events ever recorded. But wait. According to the History News Network's reporting, there are many who believe that because Native Americans were slaughtered in far greater numbers, their plight should be considered genocide. To many, wiping out native peoples was viewed simply as Europeans settling into the "New World" -- and that the settling of America was "manifest destiny" because supposedly God wanted the Europeans to have a new place to plant roots and create a nation.

That said, reliable information indicates that at the end of the 19th century there were only an estimated 250,000 Native Americans alive in the United States (Lewy, 2007). The question that remains a mystery is how many native peoples were alive before the Europeans arrived? Ethnologist James Mooney believes there were 1,152,950 Indians at that time; another author suggests there were 5 million and other authors say up to 12 million Indians were here (Lewy). Many Indians (perhaps 80%) died from European diseases (for which they had no immunity) (Lewy). But notwithstanding the way in which native peoples died, their deaths were brought on by the European settlers.

In conclusion, it is difficult to compare the Holocaust and the mass deaths of perhaps millions of Indians in America. Hitler had a draconian strategy and a hideously bloody goal. The Europeans arriving on this continent were in no way that hateful and blood thirsty; for the most part, they just wanted a new start away from religious oppression. And moreover, though it is tragic that native peoples were pushed off their land and subjected to highly contagious diseases, and killed by the U.S. Army as well, calling it genocide is a stretch. Genocide: "The deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group" (Merriman-Webster). Does this definition relate to the demise of native peoples in America? In a vague way, yes, but the comparison with the Holocaust is a stretch.

Works Cited

Lewy, Guenter. (2007). Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News

Network. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://hnn.us/articles/7392.html.

Merriman-Webster. (2012). Genocide. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.merriman-webster.com/dictionary/genocide.

United Human Rights…… [read more]


Krakatoa Is a Volcanic Island Essay

… After reevaluating Krakatoa's legacy, volcanologists have admitted that it was the 5th largest eruption of the this kind in world history (Winchester 4). Still, the other events did not occur when the human population of the region was so heavy. In terms of human life and the amount of debris which was raised up into the air, the Krakatoa eruption was one of the worst natural disasters in history. One witness said: "For two days after passing Anjer we passed through masses of dead bodies, hundreds and hundreds of them striking the ships on both sides -- groups of 50 and 100 all packed together, most of them naked" (Winchester 296). The amount of dead was enough to leave Krakatoa forever in the annals of world history. However, there was some rebirth that came as a result of the eruption. Subsequent eruptions created a whole new island broke the surface of the ocean in December of 1927, appropriately called Anak Krakatau or "Child of Krakatoa." Its existence was proof that even the most disastrous tragedies can be overcome and the world will continue on even after devastation.

When the volcano Krakatoa erupted, it did an enormous amount of damage. It destroyed homes and buildings. Worst of all was the sheer number of human lives that were ended by the eruption. If there is a happy side to this event, it is that people learned not to underestimate nature. From then on, people were more aware of the natural world in which they lived and the potential hazards which could affect their lives. There were still other disasters which took many lives and it is quite likely that there always will be. With each event, it is hoped that human beings take their lives less for granted and do whatever they are able in order to protect themselves, their lives, and their loved ones.

Works Cited:

Sweat, John. "Krakatoa Version…… [read more]


Industrial Revolution the Nineteenth Century Essay

… Industrial Revolution

The nineteenth century was a period of time in which great changes were undertaken by human society. This period of change became known as the "Industrial Revolution," and it was a time of rapid transformation in manufacturing, transportation,… [read more]


Ottoman Turks Essay

… Ottoman Turks

It was Osman who, in the early 1300's, turned a tribe of pastoral nomads into a race of warriors and set them upon the building of an empire that would last into the 20th century. The descendents of Osman, called "Ottomans" by the Europeans, rapidly expanded their territory to include the whole of Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Greece, and the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire that was created became an empire made up of numerous peoples, races, religions all ruled by a small group of Muslim Turks. It was the Turks recognition of the heterogeneity of the empire, and their policies to turn this to their advantage that gave them the ability to rapidly expand and then rule their empire for over 600 years.

While one of the reasons for the success of the Ottoman military during the 14th and 15th centuries was the disunity of their enemies, a much more important reason was their pragmatism. Much of the success of the Ottomans was due to their "ability to adapt, to utilize talent and accept allegiance from many sources." (Pamuk, 2004, p. 228) The Ottomans accepted Christian as well as Muslim warriors, displayed a willingness to use new military technology, borrowed institutions from others, and readily made deals with local elites. But their greatest military asset must be recognized as their military force known as the Janissaries. Formed from the "tribute children" the Ottomans received from their conquered territories, the Janissaries were the elite fighting force of the Ottomans. The Ottoman military also adopted a system of recruitment and training of the Janissaries called devshirme, which maintained the most organized, well supplied, best equipped military in the world at that time. (Burbank, 2010, p. 138) Ultimately the Ottomans pragmatically accepted everyone into their military, formed an elite special force called Janissaries, and had the best, most organized support system in place, and when added to the disunity and weakness of their enemies, this was the secret of their military success.

The Ottoman Turks were…… [read more]


What Has Led to the Change in Custom Jewelry Methodology Chapter

… Gold Jewelry -- a History

Project's Overall Aims and Objectives

The overall aim of this project is to provide a well-researched, authentic history of the use of gold in adornments -- notably jewelry -- from several cultures and historical periods.… [read more]


Genocide Is a Traumatic Part of World Essay

… Genocide is a traumatic part of world history. The term genocide was coined in the aftermath of World War II. When the world learned that more than six million Jewish people had been murdered by the German military because of their beliefs, the universal reaction was disgust and disbelief. Since this series of deaths, the world has been made aware of other occasions of mass murder within nations because of ethnic or political reasons. These situations can rarely be solved within the nation where the murders occur. However, historically it has been difficult to get international aid because of red tape and bureaucratic nonsense. Millions die before any aid is bestowed.

In the documentary Ghost of Rwanda, the historical incident of when the Hutus attacked the Tutsi, the United Nation was asked for help during the genocide, but no nation except for Belgium was willing to provide aid to the slaughtered peoples. In Rwanda, some 800,000 individual men, women, and children were mutilated and murdered by the religious extremists of the Hutu people. Although the murders were well-documented and images of the dead bodies were available across the globe, no one provided help to the people in need. These deaths began a series of inquiries into when "ethnic cleansing" transforms into "genocide." In 1996, the United States President Bill Clinton, stated that the U.S. would only become involved in a country where they had an interest. In Rwanda, the United States had no interest and so it was not for the U.S. To become involved in the conflict there.

Some people believe that genocide is an issue which should be exclusively dealt with in the country where the deaths are occurring. Only when the genocide spills out into other countries, like they did during the Second World War, should the United Nations or other countries become involved. Only when it is literally an international problem, should the murders become of international concern. Other people however feel that whenever murder occurs on a mass scale, someone should become involved to stop further acts of evil. If no one is able to intervene on behalf of the victimized population, there is nothing to prevent the aggravators from continuing their atrocities.

Much debate over this issue has come from the definition of "genocide." Officially, the United Nations has stated that in order for a series of mass murders to be classified as genocidal, more than one million people have to have died, most often because of their ethnicity or political beliefs. If this number has not been reached, then the issue will be considered "ethnic cleansing," wherein a group is targeted by a majority because of their ethnicity. Ethnic cleansing…… [read more]


Soviet Union and United States Essay

… Petersburg that the spark of discontent was fanned into a flame. By March 8th, International Women's Day, thousands of female textile workers walked out of the factories to protest poor working conditions. By most accounts, most of the cities industrial… [read more]


Emperor Domitian Research Paper

… Emperor Domitian Bust

The Portrait of Emperor Domitian

In the East Wing of the Toledo Museum of Art is Gallery 2, also known as Classic Court. This section of the museum houses its art and artifacts from ancient Greece, Rome,… [read more]


History of Interpersonal Skill Literature Review

… Interpersonal Skill of Mesopotamia

The study of interpersonal skills among ancient civilizations like Mesopotamia consists mostly of major innovations and advances in society, technology and human development. Sargon is typically credited with being the first person to unify a world… [read more]


History of Prince Hall Masonry Thesis

… Masons

Although a great deal of mystique surrounds the Freemasons, relatively little is known about the Prince Hall tradition. As the preeminent African-American lineage of freemasonry, the Prince Hall tradition offers a wealth of potential for scholarship. This research will help elucidate the history, traditions, and missions of Prince Hall Masonry, including the impact of the Prince Hall Freemasons on American history, world history, and on the Masonic fraternal organizations as a whole.

Intended Audience

The intended audience for the research paper will be readers unfamiliar with freemasonry in general, and especially Prince Hall Freemasonry. Moreover, the research will help dispel myths about the social and political functions of freemasonry. I am conducting this research both as an objective scholar but also as a member of a Masonic lodge who can offer qualitative evidence gathered from fellow members as well as keen personal insight.

My research questions include the following. First, why did the Prince Hall tradition emerge, and how did race impact its development? Second, what, if any, impact has the Prince Hall Masonic tradition had on freemasonry in general? Third, what impact has the Prince Hall Masonic tradition had on the communities and societies in which it thrives? To find answers to these core research questions, I will explore the rich history of the Prince Hall tradition starting with biographical data on Prince Hall himself. Moreover, I will acquire information on the rites, ideologies, and philosophies of the Prince Hall tradition but also of freemasonry in general. Methods of gathering data include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources will include historical records related to freemasonry and Prince Hall freemasonry. Primary sources will also include interviews with members of Masonic lodges as well as case studies and personal anecdotes.

Preliminary Thesis: The history of Prince Hall masonry parallels American history, and race relations in particular.

Prince Hall and over a dozen others of African descent were initiated in 1775, a year before American independence and during the war. Although recognized as members of the…… [read more]


Chernobyl Nuclear Incident During the Cold War Thesis

… Chernobyl Nuclear Incident

During the Cold War, it was understood by the citizens of the world that the United States and the Soviet Union were competitors economically, politically, and militarily. Part of the economic health of both super powers was… [read more]


Cause of War Term Paper

… Clash of Civilizations - Samuel Huntington

In his book the Clash of Civilizations, Samuel Huntington explains that the end of the cold war also brought to a conclusion the way wars are fought based on ideology. Huntington asserts that the… [read more]


Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji Period Term Paper

… Economic Particularities of Japan's Meiji Period And The Industrial Revolution In Great Britain

The person we are today is the result of numerous interactions with different individuals and events that have affected our lives, combined also with the unique characteristics… [read more]


War, How it Started Term Paper

… ¶ … war, how it started, and the war's importance to world history. World War One was supposed to be the war that ended all other wars on the planet, and it was controversial from the day it started. It began in August 1914, but the United States did not enter the war until 1917, and it ended on November 11, 1918. It took hundreds of thousands of lives, decimated large parts of Europe, and showed what the technology of the Industrial Revolution could accomplish when it came to warfare and killing.

Most people believe World War One began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary on June 28, 1914. However, in reality, the origins of the war were much more complex. In fact, under Kaiser Wilhelm, Germany had become much more aggressive. They did not renew a key treaty with Russia, and because of this, many of their neighbors banded together in case of attack from Berlin. France and Russia allied because they were afraid of Germany's military buildup, and Great Britain had allied itself with these two countries, as well. Germany continued to build up military and naval forces, while Germany was allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was quickly disintegrating due to tension and turmoil within. When the Archduke was assassinated, the Austro-Hungarian Empire felt Serbia was behind the killing, and with Germany's blessing and support, they tried to retaliate. This literally threw the continent into war, which many believe Germany wanted all along. Thus, actual war began in August of 1914, and raged throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa until 1918 (Sheffield).

The two factions of the war made up most of the most powerful nations on earth; making this war what many called the Great War or the War to End All Wars. The Entente Powers, (also called the Allies) included France, Russia (which withdrew from the war after the 1917 Revolution), the British Empire, and in 1915 Italy, and in 1917 the United States. They fought against the Central Powers, which included the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman Empires.

As for the battlegrounds of World War I, most people believe it was fought in Europe, but in fact, another thing that set this war apart was that it was fought in many areas of the world. One historian writes, "Major land fighting took place in France and Belgium, eastern Europe, Italy, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), East and South West Africa and on the Gallipoli peninsula" (Bourne ix). It was also fought on the seas of the world, from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, and for the first time, in the air, as well. This is a result of the Ottoman Empire's association with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and their involvement as an ally of those nations.

The battles were memorable, of course, for the sheer carnage and amount of casualties they produced. Much of the war was fought along the Western Front in Europe, and much has been written about… [read more]


Hitler's Appointment as German Chancellor Term Paper

… Adolf Hitler's assent as the Fuhrer of Germany is well documented. His campaign of terror during World War II caused the deaths of more than fifty million civilians and combats. Although the primary historical focus in the past has been… [read more]


Yuan Dynasty and the Shang Term Paper

… ¶ … Yuan dynasty and the Shang dynasty, of ancient China.

The Shang Dynasty, which lasted from 1600 BC to 1046 BC, was a time of frequent military conflict, political unrest, and innovation. Bronze artifacts and oracle bones used to… [read more]


Origins and Rise of National Socialism Term Paper

… ¶ … Origins and Rise of National Socialism

Since the Antiquity and until the 20th century human life or human nature has been thought to be restrained by certain imposed rules; from the Egyptians, who thought their human life was… [read more]


1750 to 1914 Was That Decisive Moment Term Paper

… ¶ … 1750 to 1914 was that decisive moment in human history called the Modern Revolution (San Diego State University 2006). It consisted of global and unprecedented exchanges of ideas, goods and people. The changes were described as autocatalytic or a condition wherein one kind of change evolved on its own and produced other kinds of changes. The spheres of change in the Modern Revolution were communication and transport, population growth, fossil fuel revolution, industrialization, democracy and colonial empires. The invention of printing, the railroad, the telegraph and the steamship radically changed the framework of human interactions in the world. World population also more than doubled with increased and long-distance migrations and global exchange of plant and animal species. The world's source of energy changed from biomass to fossil fuels. Industrialization greatly modified the distribution of wealth as well as poverty in the world and produced perilous attitudes towards nature and society. The democratic revolution inspired movements for the abolition of slavery, the formation of representative government, constitutions, universal suffrage, rights of workers, and national self-determination. These movements started in Europe and the Americas and later spread across Afroeurasia. And with the use of new and powerful technologies of communication, transportation and warfare, colonial empires asserted domination over weaker peoples. Europe led and was the largest among these empires. Later, the United States and Japan became the other important players in the global scene in their quest for empire. Historians referred to that period of expansion as the second industrial revolution. In that period, global growth rose threefold, world trade increased four times, and international trade eight times. These were the consequences of the combination of the modern communications revolution, the mechanization of agriculture and the emergence of the steel and chemical industries as the new focus of production and profit. The Modern Revolution enhanced the extremes of wealth and poverty in the world, made wider by the expansion of European colonial empires. Between 1870 and 1914, most of Africa came under European colonial rule. Britain had expanded in Burma, France in Indochina, and the Netherlands in Indonesia. Although most local populations resisted European takeover, Europeans' superior weapons and equipment easily overcame organized resistance. In 1800, they controlled 35% of the world's land area. By 1914, their dominion grew to approximately 84% (San Diego University).

Great Britain was the engine of world economic growth during the Industrial Revolution period between 1820 and 1890 (Adelman 1995). It started the Industrial Revolution. Competition with Great Britain and the spread of British technology spurred industrialization in the responding countries in Europe and overseas. The Industrial Revolution primarily linked European and overseas economies in complementing development patterns, which set the trend of economic growth in developed countries overseas. It also substantially increased economic differentiation among nations. The ratio of the per capita income of the most advanced country to the least advanced country rose from 2.8:1 at the start of the Industrial Revolution to 10.4:1 or four times in 1913. This imbalance put a… [read more]


Behind the Lines: Regeneration Movie Review Movie Review

… ¶ … film "Behind the Lines" is subtitled "Regeneration," in reference to the regeneration of the bodies and spirits of the wounded soldiers that was supposed to take place over the course of the film, to prepare them once again… [read more]


Ivan Van Sertima Book Review

… He also suggests that in African mummies there is evidence of botanical substances like cocaine found in the New World only (Amazon, 2005). There are also many African rituals that Sertima suggests are common to early native Americans. One example… [read more]


John Ronald Reuel (J.R.R.) Tolkien: A Writer Term Paper

… John Ronald Reuel (J.R.R.) Tolkien: A Writer for all Seasons (and Audiences)

Introduction author quotation statement of time, place, genre thesis statement

Historical Background historic introduction world events during childhood world events during maturity world events during old age conclusion… [read more]


Imperialism Term Paper

… This cruel and inhuman practice gave the opportunity to develop heavy industry; mining and it gave the opportunity to start militarization. These results were achieved by numerous victims of innocent people who suffered from repressions and great purges as Stalin's… [read more]


Medieval Towns Crafts and Guilds Term Paper

… Medieval Towns: Crafts and Guilds

Gervase Rosser has written an article that spells out, with descriptive attention to detail, the economic and work culture dynamics of medieval communities. The piece contributes enormously to a reader's understanding of England during the… [read more]


Otto Von Bismarck Achieve Term Paper

… German politician wanted to find support in Russia, Italy or Britain and use French mistakes in foreign policy to isolate France.

Italy received Venice for participation in war against Austria but though "The Italian people and the German people had… [read more]


Adolf Hitler. This Name Term Paper

… He was their messiah.

Hitler's leadership is well-known. As Machiavelli said that every ruler has to find smart and devoted encirclement. Hitler loved Italians philosophy and found good companions. Himmler, Goering and other well-known Nazi executors were devoted and smart followers. Also Hitler found and supported many talented generals. He knew people. He used their strong and weak features and used these people the way he wanted. Hitler's self-confidence is also one of the reasons of his leadership. As Ron Rosenbaum writes in his book Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil

Hitler killed millions of people being sure he is right and does good.

He killed all of his opponents with medieval cruelty, the same as Joseph Stalin did. He never tried to listen to another point-of-view. We can remember how he retired many talented generals only because they said he is wrong (von Manstein for example). Hitler always believed that only his orders and ideas are correct. He believed he was a genius, a messiah of Nordic race who will lead his nation to victory and prosperity through fire and metal of great battles. Third Reich had to last for 1000 years but it lasted for 12 years only.

Russian, American and British troops finished this tragic page of world history."

To sum up the written essay I'd like to notice that Adolf Hitler was really unusual and talented man but he would never gain what he gained if the winners of WW1 had given Germany a chance to get back to peace in 1918. He was only a man who managed becoming a leader of an angry, tired and humiliate nation that wished retaliation more than anything else. He was only an embodiment of radical ideas that were so popular among former soldiers. Here I've touched another eternal question:

What are the main leader's abilities: to be a leader or events that makes a leader out of him. As I think it's 50/50.

The same was in Hitler's story of life. He fought against the whole human race but was defeated and died. His fate will remind people of all nations and all times about war and humans mistakes.

Bibliography

Rosenbaum, Ron 1999. Explaining Hitler: The Search of the Origins of His Evil Perennial

Marrus, Micheal R. 1989.The Holocaust of History.…… [read more]


Robert E. Lee Term Paper

… Lincoln as able to impact the Emancipation Proclamation after the battle of Antietam and after Lee's surrender, freedom was even more of a reality. Nothing illustrates this more than the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.

To conclude, Robert E. Lee was a great man and solider who gave much to the United States of America when it was going through a terrible ordeal. His leadership was unique in that he was a "eminent strategist" (Gale). When we look at his life and its impact on history, we discover that his decisions might have shaped history in more ways than one. Had Lee decided to support the North, the Civil War might have seen an entirely different outcome. It is difficult to imagine to war lasting as long as it did had this been the case. In addition, his surrender allowed Lincoln what he needed to impact his Emancipation Proclamation. This was the beginning of freedom for many Americans. This freedom led to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, which have also been significant in American history. Lee's choices demonstrate how one life can have an impact on history in many ways.

Works Cited

Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David.

The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1990.

Murrin, John, et al. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1999.

Robert Edward Lee." Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies. (1936) Gale Resource Database. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/(September 8, 2004)

Desertion became a major problem in 1862, when soldiers became concerned about their families. John Campbell estimated that as many as 100,000 soldiers were eluding service in some form or another. Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company) 1990. 422.

He…… [read more]


Reign of Hitler Term Paper

… The Prussian army wanted to ensure that the individuals that were recruited and ultimately chosen were going to be loyal to the cause.

Prussian influence was also evident in the use of the Canton System, which was created by Frederick… [read more]


Post War Iraq: A Paradox Term Paper

… This event gave real evidence to the insignificant role played by the United Nations in the Korean War. 10

2. Self-defense (Falklands)

Self-defense is one of the most contentious spheres of the exercise of force, and many instances abound which… [read more]


Military Strategies Employed by Alexander Term Paper

… There were many qualities that set Alexander apart from other rulers of his time. One of the most important contributions in his life was the fact that his father invited one of the best scholors, namely Aristotle to Macedonia to tutor him. It was Aristotle's guidance that taught Alexander to be sensitive toward people and cultures, making him the first ruler to have this quality. It was this quality that never his occupied lands rebel. Even though the Persians despised him before he invaded Iran, they willingly joined his army.

He used to motivate his troops to fight the greatest challenges, in the harshest of conditions like crossing the snow-covered Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and the Uxian Mountains in Iran in late winter and early spring, or crossing the Saharan and the Arabian desert on foot or horseback, or fighting enemies with armies four times the size of his. He was always the first to march towards the enemy and would come to the rescue of a fellow soldier, regardless of his rank.

Alexander died in 323 B.C in the city of Babylon. He is one of the world's best conquerors serving as the model for many empire builders today.

References

Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)

J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)

J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68

Ken Auletta, "The Lost Tycoon," The New Yorker, April 23 and 30, 2001, p. 151

P. Grabsky. Great Commanders, The (1993)

R.A. Gabriel & D.W. Boose, Jr. Great Battles of Antiquity, The: A Strategic And Tactical Guide to Great Battles that Shaped the Development of War (1994). Steven J. Ott, ed., Classic Readings in Organizational Behavior (Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1989), p. 10.

R.L. Fox. Alexander the Great (1973)

Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Alexander (Boston, MA: Da Capo Press, (1996), p. 153

Geoffrey Parker, ed. Cambridge Illustrated History: Warfare (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1995) pp. 36-37

Thomas R. Martin, Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic

Times (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press), Orations 9.31, p. 188…… [read more]


Oracle Bone and Traditional China Term Paper

… Today, geologists learn about the earth's history mainly from clues left by forces that have sculpted the face of the earth such as volcanoes and earthquakes. Scientists are often able to reconstruct geological events that happened millions of years ago… [read more]


History of Sanitation Term Paper

… Western medical specialists claimed that bathing could balance the humors and digestive disorders. Hot water (thermal) baths were thought to promote respiration, relieve fatigue and cure headaches, while cold showers were used to relieve painful joints. A very warm bath… [read more]


Ancient Rome--Definitions Constantine: The Emperor Term Paper

… CHARLES MARTEL: Charles the Hammer, Frankish ruler, illegitimate son of Pepin of Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne. After the death of his father in 714 A.D., he seized power in Austrasia from Pepin's widow, who was ruling as regent for her grandsons, and became mayor of the palace. He subsequently subdued the Frankish kingdom of Neustria and began the re-conquest of Burgundy, Aquitaine, and Provence. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Muslims at the battle of Tours (732-33) and began the military campaigns that reestablished the Franks as the rulers of Gaul. Although he never assumed the title of king, he divided the Frankish lands, like a king, between his sons Pepin the Short and Carloman.

DIOCLETIAN: The Roman Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

THEODOSIS: Roman Emperor, also known as Flavius Theodosius), was born in Spain about 346 A.D.; died at Milan, 17 January, 395. By universal consent, Theodosius is one of the sovereigns that is best called Great. He stamped out the last vestiges of paganism, put an end to the Arian heresy in the Roman empire, pacified the Goths, left a famous example of penitence for… [read more]


Rise of Rome Term Paper

… "

Christianity spread throughout the region as Rome realized prosperity and a long era of peace. Rome triumphed not only "by force of arms, but also by the policy of colonization and the building of roads which helped to assimilate newly conquered territories (unknown, ancient Rome)."

The Punic Wars allowed Rome to become the main force in Italy and become the leading force in the Mediterranean.

During the First Punic War from 264-241 B.C., Rome originally intended to protect its allies in South Italy, but due to Carthage's weakness, acquired Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia.

Rome was victorious in the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. during the Second Punic War which ended the military power of Carthage in the Mediterranean. During the Third Punic War, Carthage was destroyed in 146 B.C and the region became a Roman province (unknown, ancient Rome).

Differences in Empires

There were noticeable differences in the Roman Empire and other empires of the time. The Romans were great builders who constructed roads throughout the empire, in which "all roads led to Rome (http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html)." The roads built by the Greeks did not connect in a certain order and were not as well constructed. The Greeks had city-states, which were their own unit, and the Chinese Empire was divided into feudal states, while Rome was center of the empire.

The Romans were realists, compared to the Greeks, who were idealists. This was seen in the statues of each culture. The Greek statues were of perfect people, while the Romans made real life statues. The Romans had two classes of citizens: the lower class or plebeians and the upper class or patricians, while the Greeks did not recognize classes and had slaves (http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html).

Conclusion

One of the most powerful empires of the ancient world was that of the Romans, who broke free of the Etruscans and over time conquered the Mediterranean region. The Romans were a civilization of strong soldiers and builders, and their peace alliance with the Latins allowed for the rise of the Roman Empire.

Works Cited

Bower, Bruce. Early Rome: surprises below the surface. (excavations find urban civilization in 7th century B.C.). Science News. (1989): 14 January

Cavendish, Richard. The foundation of Rome: April 21st, 753 B.C. (Months Past). History

Today. (2003): 01 April.

The Rise of Ancient Rome. (accessed 26 October, 2003) www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm).w.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm

Unknown. ITALY. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2003): 01 July.

Unknown. Rome, ancient. The Hutchinson Dictionary of World History. (1998): 01 January.

Daily Life in Ancient Civilizations. (accessed 26 October, 2003) http://members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/indexlife.html).… [read more]


Power of China Term Paper

… Daoism during the Han dynasty was instrumental in creating the 60-year Chinese calendar.

In later years, "daoist thought proliferated, communities of latter-day Han daoists formed, eventually accumulating into a massive church organization (home.attbi.com/~piannone/o-s/ch-innerhist.html)."

Shamans and Ancient China

During the Shang period, shamans may have connected forms of medical philosophy with the political and social environment. In the late Zhou era, "Chinese philosophers of different schools used medical terms in a metaphorical sense, and they began making some physiological-political correlations (Birdwhistell, 1995)."

During the Han dynasty, the developments of correlative thinking and science combined political and medical ideas. An example of this was "the body was correlated with macrocosm as well as with the political-administrative system (Birdwhistell, 1995)."

Conclusion

The period of time in Ancient China between the Shang dynasty and the Western Han saw a number of changes in power and history. While changes occurred in the political-administrative area of China's history, many of the philosophies established were instrumental in setting a pattern for future empires.

Works Cited

Ancient Dynasties. (accessed 06 October, 2003) ).

Birdwhistell, Anne D. 1995. Medicine and history as theoretical tools in a Confucian

Pragmatism. Vol. 45, Philosophy East and West. 01 January. Pp. 1 (28).

HIGHLIGHTS OF CHINESE CULTURE AND HISTORY. (accessed 06 October, 2003) www.chinatown-online.com/cultureeye/highlights/bronze.htm).

Inner History of China. (accessed 06 October, 2003) home.attbi.com/~piannone/o-s/ch-innerhist.html>).

Shinn, Rinn-Sup and Robert L. Worden. 1991. Chinese History: Chapter 1A.

Historical Setting. Countries of the World. 01 January.

Unknown. 2000. 3,300-YEAR-old ANCIENT CITY FOUND NEAR YIN

RUINS. Xinhua News Agency. 07 January.

Unknown. 2002. MORE ORACLE BONES UNEARTHED IN CENTRAL CHINA.

Xinhua News Agency. 29 July.

Vermilion. (accessed 06 October, 2003) http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/56/v0065600.html).… [read more]


Global Politics and Economy: Late Term Paper

… S.-led Western coalition and the Gulf War of 1991 in which the Iraqis were roundly defeated and Kuwait was liberated. The Soviet Union supported the U.S. In the war, which marked the end of the "Cold War" and prompted President Bush to announce the start of a 'New World Order.'

Globalization

The collapse of Communism in the 1990s eliminated the only competing economic and political ideology of capitalism and liberal democracy. This coincided with rapid technological advances in computer and communication technologies, and made the application of theories of capitalism possible on a worldwide scale -- in what came to be known as 'globalization.' This saw rapid growth in the economies of early adherents like the 'Tiger Economies' of the Asian Far East. The risks involved in unrestrained globalization without the necessary checks in place also became apparent in serious economic downturns such as witnessed in the 1997 Asian Economic Crisis. In the meantime, the economies of United States and several other European countries witnessed an unprecedented boom on the back of a high tech dot com revolution.

Early 20th Century

The early 21st century has been racked by terrorist attacks, mainly by Islamic radical forces, on Western and Israeli targets. The after-effects of the 9/11 attacks on the world trade center are still dominating world politics and economies. They have resulted in triggering a widespread economic slowdown and an open-ended policy of 'war against terrorism' by the United States. Some analysts like Samuel P. Huntington, the author of "The Clash of Civilizations," feel that we have entered an "age of Muslim wars," one that could spiral into a clash of civilizations. Other thinkers like Francis Fukuyama maintain that the world is still moving toward universal democracy and believe that an "underlying historical mechanism" driven by modern science and technology will result in a long-term convergence across cultural boundaries in all societies of the world. (Fukuyama, p.56). But even he acknowledges that "Islamo-fascism" is the latest obstacle to the process, and "to get to the long-term we must survive the short-run." (Ibid. p. 59)

Conclusion

The end of the 20th century and the early part of the 21st century has been a tumultuous period in world history. It has seen several momentous events taking place like the collapse of communism and the Soviet Empire as well as the spectacularly successful terrorist attacks on the U.S. By Islamic terrorists. No one quite knows what will happen to world politics and economy in future since, as Bob Dylan once said, "Don't talk too soon, for the wheel's still in spin."

Works Cited

Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.

Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002…… [read more]


Mephisto: Film Research Paper

… This is such a revelatory notion because it provokes the idea of the artificial, and of the capacity of a human being to embrace the artificial and identify with the artificial -- this could be seen as a metaphor for fascism in general.

Another theme that the film appears to experiment with, is the idea of evil being allowed to flourish when good people do nothing. For instance, the aversion of the characters towards the Nazis is well established: the characters assert that they feel the Nazis are thugs and brutes. There's a clear us vs. them mentality which is established.

Even so, the film documents how the Nazis are able to come to power: through the lack of action of good people willing to stop them. For example, Juliette asks what the Jews are planning against Germany. This is such a provocative question because in hindsight we see that the Jews planned virtually nothing against Germany. This reveals so much about the situation: evil was allowed to flourish, and thus it did flourish. Other elements of the film which strengthened this notion revolved around the idea of characters remarking about how they thought there was nothing to fear about the Nazis, and yet, we see the character of Barbara telling Henrik that the Nazis won the election. This is so ominous, as the average viewer understand that it signifies the Nazis coming to power. The view sees how a career in the arts is no longer possible: everything becomes reduced to the notion of fighting.

Other concepts that the film deals with are the ideas of freedom and love and how to be able to identify them in their purest form. When Henrik plays Hamlet, the motif of the necessity of action of good people to fight against injustice becomes even more prevalent, as it was Hamlet who had to take action against the injustice of his father's death. This is one of the final pieces of symbolism that the film plays with. The moody lighting and the shadowy color correction of the entire film help to present this point to the audience at large.

Ultimately, Mephisto is a ballad against fascism and falseness. It is an attempt to work hard against despair and dishonesty. It is also a warning against evil: If people are to work hard against the forces of evil, the must do so proactively, not just in words but in deed as well. This is particularly true because factors like identity and integrity seem more malleable than people might like to think. That is at least how Szabo's film presents them.

References

Svabo, I. (1981) Mephisto. Cinegate…… [read more]


Hitler as a Master Manipulator Essay

… Hitler as a Master Manipulator

Hitler's reign of terror is probably one of the most intriguing in all of history, considering the effectiveness with which he used his oratory abilities in his struggle to shape other people's thinking. The former… [read more]


French Revolution for Many People Term Paper

… 224).

The European nobility and monarchs watched in horror, the alternations taking place in France. They feared the same fate in their own respective states. Some radicals were watchful to expand their radical ideals all over Europe. Consequently, some countries took immediate action. Prussia and Austria requested France to retain Louis to his previous position as the monarch. In April 1792, the Legislative assembly decided to declare war. The war was discomforting for France. In the 1792's summer, Prussian forces had been pushing towards Paris. A threat was made to destruct Paris from existence, if revolutionaries made a move on the royal family. The Parisians were revolted. During August, at least 20,000 people attacked Tuileries, which was the humble abode of the royal family. The angry mob killed the security personnel and took Louis as a prisoner, his wife Marie Antoinette and their children with them (Hazen, 2013, p. 224).

The French troops were defending Paris when they were sent to fortify the French army in the battleground. There were rumors about prisoners breaking free and seizing control of Paris city. The citizens felt insecure and took matter in their own hands. They became the law. They raided the prisons and killed at least 1000 prisoners on their own. Royal personnel, priests, nobility also fell victim to these mass massacres of September (Hazen, 2013, p. 224).

The Legislative Assembly came under strenuous pressure from these radicals and its own members and abolished the constitution of 1791. It disposed of the king and dissolved the assembly as well as announced reelection for a legislature. National Convention was the new governing body formed and began functioning from September 21. It declared an end to the monarchy and declared France a republican. Male citizens were allowed to vote and take office. Women had not been not…… [read more]


Julius Caesar Was a Historical Research Paper

… As the senate wanted to deprive Caesar of all the opportunities of positive political growth, it designated him with the areas, the conquest of which had brought him no prestige and glory as a military man. Caesar, on the other… [read more]


1901 an Egyptologist Research Paper

… The classes he viewed were that of free citizens, the amelu who enjoyed full rights as a citizen, the muskinu, a term which is said to represent free citizens again, however they were living separated from the former and were… [read more]


Survival in Auschwitz Essay

… Their only pertinent identification was their religion. Levi says in one part of the book, "A fifth Haftling stands at the door patiently and monotonously asking every civilian who enters loosening his belt: 'Etes-vous francais?'" (Levi 69). Nothing else is known about this man, if he is good or bad, kind or wicked. He is French which separates him from the Italian Levi, but at the same time he is a Haftling which makes them the same. With this being the case, it was common for prisoners in the camps to form strong relationships, particularly since they had been deprived of their loved ones. In using the word Haftling, Levi may be explaining how the Jews all became something of a single entity in their misery.

The final reason why Levi might have chosen to use the word Haftling throughout his book is because after all these years he is defiant of the people who captured and imprisoned him. After he is liberated along with the other people at Auschwitz, Levi says, "It really meant that the Lager was dead. It was the first human gesture that occurred among us. I believe that that moment can be dated as the beginning of the change by which we who had not died slowly changed from Haftling to men again" (160). Despite everything that the Nazis had put him through, Levi had survived. He uses the term as an act of rebellion; no matter what they called him, not matter what he did, Levi survived.

In his book Survival in Auschwitz, Levi uses mostly Italian or English in the translated text. However, he uses certain German terms in the book. These are not accidental, but rather quite intentional. Through the use of these terms Levi expresses eternal conflict over this time in his life. Some part of him absorbed German words and culture whether he was aware of it or not. He also uses this term to honor the other people who were in the same position as himself, and perhaps the greatest reason behind his choice is an act of defiance against his personal enemies.

Works Cited

Levi, Primo, S.J. Woolf, and Philip Roth. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity.

New York: Simon &…… [read more]

1234. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.