"World History" Essays

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Industrial Revolution in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The transfer of technology that America had until 1830 lead the nation to more success in technology. Mark Thompson proved this in his Was The Nineteenth Century American Industrial Revolution Solely Dependent on the Transfer of British Technology?, stating that The ensuing transfer of technology up to 1830, was to see a one way traffic of technology from Great Britain to America. Yet after 1830, the U.S. was to become proficient in its own right in building the heavy locomotives and trucks that she used. Thus by 1839, of the four hundred and fifty locomotives in the United States, nearly three quarters had been built in America.

Influences of the Industrial Revolution in American Society

Economic growth, demand for more laborers, population growth, utilization of machineries, international trading, slavery, educational reform, and many others, were among the general effects and influences of the industrial revolution in American society.

In terms of education, the period of industrial revolution saw the need for educational improvement. The technological advances England were developing during the beginning of the industrial revolution had inspired the American society to widen more of their knowledge in science and technology to keep up with the quick pace England improves its technology and economy.

Generally, with the advancements in technology, and the emergence of different industries, aiming for higher goals became one of the cultures of most Americans in the period of industrial revolution. They started to dream for better ways of living. This, they saw, is attainable through involvement in the different job opportunities that the industrial sector offers. Many were given the chance to reach for the same goal, in which men and women almost had equal opportunities in the workforce.

The American society, in general, became active participants during the industrial revolution in the discovery of technological advancements that helped the world build a convenient and quick-pace society.

Conclusion

Based from some historical literatures, there are several contradicting views on the effects and influences of the Industrial Revolution in American society. Questions were raised whether the period caused more negative or more positive consequences to the American society. Despite of this, however, it is no doubt that the period of the industrial revolution has brought advancements to our society in terms of technology. The period opened the economy of America, England, and every nation worldwide, with new machineries that facilitate the operation of different industries. The period became the cradle of inventions that were of great use and of great help in building the world with an improved economy.

In conclusion, the period of the industrial revolution helped in making possible every convenience that we have in our contemporary society.

The intelligence of the period's geniuses have drastically changed and transformed many aspects in our lives.

Bibliography

Anderson, Curt. The Two Countries that Invented the Industrial Revolution.

American History. 14 Dec 2003. http://americanhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.darex.com%2Findurevo.htm

Chandler, Alfred.

Houghton Mifflin. 14 Dec 2003. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_045300_industrialre.htm

Komlos, John. The Industrial Revolution as the Escape from the Malthusian Trap.

University of Munich. 14… [read more]


Hitler as a Master Manipulator Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Hitler as a Master Manipulator

Hitler's reign of terror is probably one of the most intriguing in all of history, considering the effectiveness with which he used his oratory abilities in his struggle to shape other people's thinking. The former German leader developed a complex understanding of the human mind and thus experienced little problems in inducing a series of… [read more]


Mephisto: Film Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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This is such a revelatory notion because it provokes the idea of the artificial, and of the capacity of a human being to embrace the artificial and identify with the artificial -- this could be seen as a metaphor for fascism in general.

Another theme that the film appears to experiment with, is the idea of evil being allowed to flourish when good people do nothing. For instance, the aversion of the characters towards the Nazis is well established: the characters assert that they feel the Nazis are thugs and brutes. There's a clear us vs. them mentality which is established.

Even so, the film documents how the Nazis are able to come to power: through the lack of action of good people willing to stop them. For example, Juliette asks what the Jews are planning against Germany. This is such a provocative question because in hindsight we see that the Jews planned virtually nothing against Germany. This reveals so much about the situation: evil was allowed to flourish, and thus it did flourish. Other elements of the film which strengthened this notion revolved around the idea of characters remarking about how they thought there was nothing to fear about the Nazis, and yet, we see the character of Barbara telling Henrik that the Nazis won the election. This is so ominous, as the average viewer understand that it signifies the Nazis coming to power. The view sees how a career in the arts is no longer possible: everything becomes reduced to the notion of fighting.

Other concepts that the film deals with are the ideas of freedom and love and how to be able to identify them in their purest form. When Henrik plays Hamlet, the motif of the necessity of action of good people to fight against injustice becomes even more prevalent, as it was Hamlet who had to take action against the injustice of his father's death. This is one of the final pieces of symbolism that the film plays with. The moody lighting and the shadowy color correction of the entire film help to present this point to the audience at large.

Ultimately, Mephisto is a ballad against fascism and falseness. It is an attempt to work hard against despair and dishonesty. It is also a warning against evil: If people are to work hard against the forces of evil, the must do so proactively, not just in words but in deed as well. This is particularly true because factors like identity and integrity seem more malleable than people might like to think. That is at least how Szabo's film presents them.

References

Svabo, I. (1981) Mephisto. Cinegate…… [read more]


World War II Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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[footnoteRef:18] [17: Geoffrey Parker, The Cambridge History of Warfare (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 451.] [18: Overy, pp. 4, 31, 76; Weinberg, p. 1.]

Keegan and Ferguson do not specifically mention the importance of World War I developments of tanks; however, they discuss of the extensive use of tanks during World War II.[footnoteRef:19] For the airplane, in… [read more]


World War Analysis WWI Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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The next ten years after the War were the cause of great prosperity for U.S. Huge developments in radios and household items were made and new creations like cars and aeroplanes were formed. The standard of living was also significantly improved. During the mid-1920s U.S. was producing products that were distributed worldwide including the Ford line. Innovative ideas were introduced for example the proposal by Frederick W. Taylor on scientific management (Armstrong 2012-2013, 217) This ensured quicker production of products across the country leading to lowered production cost and consequently a reduced cost to the buyer. All these changes and improvements would probably not have occurred if U.S. had not participated in the World War 1. A significant impact was made to its industry and overall economy. The trend of products being issued on credit also commenced during the post-war period. Although warnings were made by economists with regards to the extensive number of products issued on credit; this was ignored by the American citizens. Focus was made on advertising and this altered the mind-set of the citizen as the same adverts were run regardless of discrimination in the regions. This resulted in diminishing of the distinction of classes and therefore a 'universal national culture' was created. (Armstrong 2012-2013, 217). Along with this focus was also made on portraying ideas through novels and therefore many famous novels were published during the 1920s. In these novels the writers aimed at delivering the message that Americans have become too involved with the idea of 'making money' and as a result deviated from their own culture. It was particularly criticized that that their values were lost in the post-War era. This stance that U.S. had taken regarding neutrality was now completely obsolete and therefore an end of the period of separateness from international affairs. The entire participation in the War became covered with the greed to make money. Their work did pay off eventually resulting in making it stable country with a booming economy. Nevertheless it can be observed that since participation in the War, the mind-set of the society has been completely altered. The basic purpose of every citizen is a stabilized income and savings for their retirement. This started as a result of the World War one. It is clearly seen that this War did not only have an economical effect but social and political as well. During the nineteenth century period huge chunks of money was received from other countries however during the World War One period this halted as all the finance was utilized for the War. The foreign investments came down to $3.3 billion from $7.2 billion (Rockoff, 2004, 20).

However, this all came to a standstill when suddenly there was a collapse in the New York stock market. Thousands were left bankrupt and a huge number of people lost their savings. The country which had become one of the richest in the world after World War I entered the Great Depression. This period lasted from 1929 to… [read more]


World War II -- Eastern Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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In a fatal display of hubris and thoughtlessness, Hitler split his forces, sending them north and south. This split resulted in the overextension of his forces and delays that pushed the invasion into the devastating Russian Winter. Spread thin and inadequately prepared for fighting through the extreme cold and snow of Russia, German forces suffered their greatest casualties and ultimately endured the failure of their massive invasion.

As all consulted sources agree, German forces never recovered from the failure of Barbarossa. The concentration of German forces on this Eastern Front due to Hitler's obsession with conquering Russia caused the Germans to all but abandon the Battle of Britain, thus saving Britain from certain defeat. Furthermore, the defeat contributed to the mutual distrust between Hitler and his generals, crippling Germany's ability to effectively fight the War. Finally, the failure of Barbarossa weakened the Third Reich in aspects from which it never recovered, turning Germany's focus to the immense Eastern Front, overextending German forces and inflicting huge casualties on the Germans. Consequently, it can be reasonably concluded that Hitler's personal flaws directly resulted in the failure of Barbarossa and Germany's loss in World War II.

Bibliography

Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.

Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why…… [read more]


WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,515 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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WWII

History Making Decades WWII-Present

Many consider the end of WWII to have ushered in the modern era in global politics. One reason for this is based on WWII as an end -- the end of Nazi politics in Europe and of European politics as dominating politics on a worldwide scale. Another reason for naming WWII as the beginning of… [read more]


World War II Choices Reexamining History Weinberg Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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World War II Choices

Reexamining history

Weinberg framed the argument of his book beautifully. World War II was very much a war that was based on choices and what can go horribly right or wrong when those choices are made on the global scale. Germany should have been neutered and put in control after the first World War. To a certain degree, they were, but Hitler was able to remobilize and regroup Germany despite the best intentions and somewhat effective actions of the Allies and other stakeholder countries that were involved.

As far as choices, countries on the other side like Germany, Italy and Japan had their own nefarious options and France, Great Britain and Russia had their own. Russia was a special case because they were actually allied with Germany at one point and then switched sides. That being said, it is generally agreed the pact to divide Poland was never truly taken seriously and that it was just a matter of time before the two countries went to war anyway. The agreement in 1939 to divide Poland was apparently just delaying the inevitable (1).

Britain is also an example of a country whose choices changed dramatically over the development of the war and what led up to it. Their dithering and placation of Hitler prior to the war was disastrous and, in retrospect, an insanely stupid decision. The ensuing choices and inherent leadership saved the day.

A choice of Japan that seems to be foolish in modern times was the decision of Japan to intentionally bring the United States into the war. It was widely assumed, at least by some, that the United States would become involved eventually and reasonable people can argue what would have happened had Japan not attacked Pearl Harbor. However, since they did and since the resulting events are quite clear up to and including the atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshama and Nagasaki, the choices the Hirohito made had vast and deadly consequences. Despite the victory that…… [read more]


World War II Why Did This War Happen Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … World War II Happen?

The world had barely stopped hemorrhaging from the ravages of the "War to End All Wars" when World War II broke out in 1939 following Germany's invasion of Poland. Given the bloody and enormously costly outcome of the First World War and the efforts by the international community to forge an international organization that… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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World War II or the Second World War turned out to be a war that was proceeding by 1939 and then finished up 1945. It had a lot to do with a huge mainstream of the world's states -- will involves all of the big powers -- ultimately starting two contrasting military associations: the Axis and the Allies. It was… [read more]


First World War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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The Eastern Front was the largest battlefield from World War I. Russia, and from 1916 Romania, fought on one side and Germany and Austria-Hungary on the other one. Also, on the Eastern Front trenches were built, but due to a lack of manpower warfare was more fluid. "Handicapping lengthy advances by either side, however, were the region's primitive transportation network and harsh winter conditions, on which successful offensive inevitably ground to a halt." (Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 611)

After Russian troops invaded German Poland and East Prussia, in August 1914 Russia was defeated by Germany at Tannenberg. Germany needed to take two army groups from the Western Front to defend themselves from the Russian assaults. This action caused the defeat of Germany in the Battle of Marne.

Due to Russia's inability to pass through German line, in 1917 Russian Revolution was triggered. The monarch was changed with Vladimir Lenin. In December 1917, he signed an armistice with the Central Powers, "freeing German troops to face the other Allies on the Western Front." (World War I)

The battle of Tannenberg was the first important fight from the Eastern Front. The battle began on 26 August 1914; with Russians on one side, and the Germans on the other side. The Germans found about Russian plans through radio messages which were decoded and defeated the Red Army on Masurian Lakes in 8-14 September. The Austro-Hungarian army wanted to invade Serbia, but its plan was aggravated by the Russian army's intervention. The Austro-Hungarian army needed to fight both the Serbian army and the Russian army and as a result it could not conquer Serbia.

In 1914 the Ottoman Empire joined the War on the Central Powers side. The Allies tried to defeat the Ottoman Empire, but their plan was a total failure. They were defeated first on the Dardanelles, and although they invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in January 1916 they needed to retreat their army from the Peninsula. British and Italian troops also fought against the Turk army. In 1915 the First Battle of the Isonzo took place. The second Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Caporetto, took place two years after that, and was proven to be a success for Austria-Hungary. Due to German aggression on the sea, in 1917 the United States of America joined the war as part of the allied army. Soon after their entrance in the war, the Americans declared war against Germany.

After the armistice with Russia, Germany was able to build back its defense on the Western Front. The Second Battle of Marne began on July 15, 1918. Due to a better defense from the Allied side, the Germans needed to move their troops towards the north where they hoped they will be able to win the war. The Ottoman Empire needed to sign a treaty with the Allies in October 1918 and on November 11, 1918, Germany was obliged to seek an armistice with the Allies. This event marked the end of… [read more]


World War I Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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" (Adriane Ruggiero, page xviii-xix) A group of strongly nationalistic individuals was able to convince the Japanese that their problems will end only if they go to war. Japan believed that it was the most important power in the Pacific and Western Europe was trying to minimize its power. Japan saw Great Britain and the United States as their bigger enemies.

After Japan conquered the Eastern colonies of Great Britain, Holland and France, it ruled an empire which extended from South Asia to East Indies and incorporated islands from the South Pacific. As a result of this expansion; Japan was able to provide its armies with the needed weapons. Japan and Germany agreed to be allies and to support one another if a country will want to attack them.

"While proclaiming its neutrality, the United States spoke out against Japanese aggression, gave aid to the Chinese now fighting the Japanese invaders, and disdained Japan's desire for power in the Pacific." (Adriane Ruggiero, page xx-xxi) President Franklin Roosevelt ended trading with Japan when Indochina was attacked by the Japanese army. The Japanese government took this act as a declaration of war. Although in 1941 United States tried to reach an agreement with Japan, this action could not be finalized. As a result Japan prepared to attack the United States of America, but their plans were discovered by the Americans. The Japanese refused to retreat their armies from China and Indochina and attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

"Thus, war between United States and Japan, and also between the United States and Germany -- because of the pact between Germany and Japan -- began." (Adriane Ruggiero, page xx) It was a bloody war, in which men, women and child lost their lives.

The worst event from the Second World War was represented by Holocaust. This event represents a dark time in German history. "The early days of Nazi rule saw uncoordinated and localized abuse of Germany's Jewish population." (Max Hastings, page 432-433) Hitler's government left the Jewish population with no rights. The German leader believed that there were many reasons for killing all the Jews, but the main reason is that they were to blame for Germany's loss in World War I. Jews were also seen as subhuman because in Hitler vision the perfect people had to have blond hair, blue eyes, and need to be white. Polish and Russian Jews were killed in large numbers in the Second World War. The Jewish people were taken in well organized places in which they were starved, put to hard work, beaten and finally killed in the gas chambers. The most important place where Jewish people were tortured and killed is Auschwitz, in Poland. The exact number of Jews who were killed World War II it is not known.

Also, another important loss of lives took place when Americans dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As a result Japan recognized its defeat, on September 2, 1945. On May 8, 1945, Germany surrendered and on… [read more]


Atrocities Happening in Recent Modern Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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From this point onwards, the tensions between such groups are inevitable and increase as time evolves.

Another reason for which a group of people may try to inflict decisive harm on another group is peer pressure and fear. At least in the case study provided by Gross, it was relatively obvious that 1941 was one of the most tensed years in the history of the war as well as in that of Poland's. Seeing that the German forces were keen in eliminating as many Jews as possible and given the nature of the events on other war theaters, the local communities were also frightened for their own security and therefore adapted to the pressures of the many.

Finally another reason for which people kill other people at such a massive pace is also connected to the influences they receive from outside. For instance, in Poland, the Jewish problem was not a new aspect, but rather one that had been promoted at the radio or through other means for years before the actual event in 1941. Similarly, in Rwanda, the role of the radio was crucial in bringing about the spirit of rebellion and of violence on the Tutsi. Therefore, again, the role of external factors may determine such dramatic changes in human behavior.

Overall, it can be concluded that Gorss's book is essential for understanding better the nature of genocide and the way in which communities can transform as a result of artificial construction, peer pressure, fear, and external influences.

Works Cited

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005

Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995

Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).

The Atlantic. "World War II: The Holocaust ." Oct 16,…… [read more]


History Final Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … individuals take over the world by weapons and conquers. Posterity then comes to know them as righteous rulers, courageous warriors and wise kings. Most of these individuals are regularly descendents of noble, quite often royal families, thus they enact the destiny they were born to fulfill, such as Alexander III of Macedon or Alexander the Great as he is most commonly referred to. But taking a good look at history, we might find ourselves discovering another series of individuals who have molded the times they lived in as well as posterity, not by actions of war, but through their revolutions of word, theories and philosophies. My thoughts take me to Confucius, a Chinese revolutionist of human values.

Confucius was born somewhere around 551 BC into a, financially speaking, average family. His father had been an officer in the military but died when the boy was only three years of age. It is said that, upon growing up, Confucius had no other choice but to take on such petty jobs as caring for animals, accounting or book keeping. Many suppositions around his birth and the events in his life have been cast throughout time and a lot of what concerns these issues are lacunae. I will not go around them, rather I will focus on his teaching achievements for the purpose of this essay.

Of how Confucius came to receive his education, facts again are misplaced. He is said to have studied ritual, music, bureaucratic history and that, by the time he reached middle age, he had already gained value in the sight of his townsmen. His thoughts and teachings, most of all his impressive influence, all of these can be understood in relation to Analects (Lun Yu), his "secret teachings" that explain the influence Confucius had on the evolution of Chinese culture. Confucius believed that the Golden Age of humanity was reached during Zhou dynasty (1045 -- 771 BCE). The reason for his beliefs was that its rulers had established a connection with divinity (Tian -- referring to cosmos or "Heaven"), following a sincere listening of the "word" and of the practices, collectively named rituals or "Li." The vastness of these practices encompassed issues as far along as politics going on to particular details of one's personal and private life. The Zhou dynasty had been rewarded with the government of China through the manifestation of "De," a powerful virtue. None of the principles of the old dynasty applied during Confucius' time, but he believed that the teachings, held together by a group of scholars named "Ru," could once again revive the Golden Age; this is why he became committed to the cause and decided to dedicate his entire existence to this particular legacy, hoping that, through example and teaching of the spiritual heritage, the world would eventually be restored to its true path or "Dao."

Thus Confucius positively influenced the development of a new culture by restoring some of the old values. He relied strongly on trust, army… [read more]


History of China's Importance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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The international political scene at this time is not dominated by a great power, nor should it be. Seeing how great powers manifest themselves in terms of political influence, it is basically impossible for a state to exercise the political dominance over the enormous amount of different political forces that are present in the countries around the world. Indeed, most… [read more]


WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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But there were many sound reasons for justifying an attack on a historic monastery like Monte Cassino. Rome as an objective was too important to pass on. Casulties were very heavy and the Allied generals were aware that the Normandy had already been commited to.

Since the German's intentionally chose the monastery of Monte Cassino to thwart Allied Forces, by… [read more]


History of the World in Six Glasses Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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History Of the World in Six Glasses

The great civilizations of the world have left us among their great achievements their innovations related to a certain alcoholic or caffeinated drink or another. In his book "A history of the World in Six Glasses," Tom Standage goes through the history of the world led by one of the six beverages that marked a giant step in the history of humanity until today. If beer and wine, as Standage points out in the first two parts of his book, were alcoholic beverages discovered more or less by accident in ancient times and marked the way of living of some of the greatest civilizations in the world, the spirited alcoholic drinks were discovered and developed in order to bring the resulted beverages to levels of mass consumptions by another great civilization: the Arabs. Through the process of distillation they used to make perfumes, which appears to have been already known in the fourth millennia BCE, the Arabs in Cordoba obtained in the first millennium CE a new range of drinks called spirits. The irony is evident. The alembic, a relatively rudimentary, but efficient from today's standards installation became thus famous and it is still used in private households still today. The film M.A.S.H. comes to mind when thinking of this invention that the Arabs gave the world. Three of the protagonists, Hawkeye and Trapper, later replaced by B.J Hunnicutt, live in a tent in a MASH medical unit on the front war with Korea. The presence of an alembic and their martini glasses are constant elements when the setting is their tent. The spirits keep people company in difficult times and they had their shared the praise and the blame of the world when it cam to their influence on the human behavior, like the rest of the alcoholic drinks.

The leap from the way the Greeks drank wine and the high degree alcoholic beverages obtained thorough distillation of wine or fruits or later, was huge. The new drinks developed through the distillation of wine were easier to transport over long distances and long periods of time and it soon became an exchange currency, along with other European products for slaves supplied by African slave traders. The Portuguese spirits were highly acclaimed in this case.

Standage points out that the new stage in our history, the discovery of the Americas, remains linked with the slave trade, the sugar plantations and the spirits. "Over the course of four centuries, around eleven million slaves were transported from Africa to the New World[…].Distilled drinks plaid a central role in this evil trade, which intensified as the British, French and Dutch established sugar plantations in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century" ("A History of the World in Six Glasses," p. 103-104).

Just as the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians ate and drank their gains under the form of bread, respectively that of beer, the rich planters who came to farm the lands of Barbados, had their solid and… [read more]


American History Europe Was at War Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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American History

Europe was at war and the Nazi war machine was gradually occupying every major country, it seemed that there had been nothing to stand in their way. Millions of innocent had been dying on the eastern fronts as Stalin struggled to make a barrier to stop the Germans. Matters in the U.S. were not better, with the Japanese… [read more]


Germany Won WWII Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,472 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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¶ … Germany Won WWII

Several days prior to the launch of Operation Overlord by the combined Allied forces, a German spy sent a very short coded message to occupied France, "Attack Normandy, Clear Weather, Anchor," the final word being the codename of the sender. This singular message originated from within the Allied command structure and released on the leg… [read more]


Why Was WW1 Such a Senseless War? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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World War I: A senseless Concept?

Prior to the start of World War I, there were premonitions of war. The Europeans did not anticipate the turn of events that would transpire during 1914. However, they had been 'reassured by liberal optimism' that if the war did occur, it would be decisively quick because of modern weaponry (Paxton, Hessler, 42). It is important to separate the Austro-Serbian War from the later events that brought France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia into the fight. Historians disagree as to the impetus of the war, however, most war scholars agree that the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife on June 28, 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old who shot them. Princip had been trained by the Black Hand and reportedly was passionate about uniting his people with the south Slavic Kingdom of Serbia that was independent. Efforts were made to determine whether the Kingdom of Serbia had some influence on Princip's act.

The conflict, however, spread rapidly, and the first months reportedly consisted of strong and bold attacks with troops moving rapidly on both the western and eastern fronts. The Russians were reportedly the most affected by an ultimatum between Austria to Serbia due to past Bosnian history. Russia partially mobilized based on technical considerations, with little to no thought for potential diplomatic implications (51). Around August 22, 1914, the Battle of the Frontiers occurred where approximately 27,000 French soldiers died on a single day in an offensive thrust to the east of Paris in the direction of the German borders. Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg led the German army, August 26-30th to what has been regarded as its greatest victory on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tennenberg.

Germany attacked Belgium that was considered neutral and later France in the west. In the east, Russia attacked Austria-Hungary and Germany. To the south, Serbia was attacked by Austria-Hungary after the Battle of the Marne that took place from September 5th through the 9th, 1914. According to historians, the western front was entrenched in France and stayed that way through the remainder of the war. The eastern fronts are also said to have eventually locked their position as well. Later, the first Battle of the Marne stops the German's invasion into France.

In late 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the warfare as well, reportedly after…… [read more]


World Civilization From 1500 CE to the Early Twentieth Century Assessment

Assessment  |  10 pages (3,002 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … History 1500-Present

World Civilization from 1500 AD to Present

Worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800 AD: the Rise and Implications

Europe was expanding its boundaries at the end of the medieval world: Spain and Portugal had navigated the globe. The Crusades had opened roads to the East, and the sea lanes had given way to a new world… [read more]


Home Front During WWII America Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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World War II Home Front

The Home Front

World War II was a conflict which raged across the planet, from Europe to the Pacific, and everywhere in between. Battles were fought in thousands of places that no one had ever heard of, and many Americans died in places they did not even know existed. While there were many battle fronts,… [read more]


Cold War Prior to World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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He believed that in any nuclear exchange, as many as 300 million people might die in the U.S.S.R., the United States, and Europe (Nash, 1994). To counter nuclear dependence, he developed the idea of "Flexible Response," which looked at a variety of non-nuclear solutions for any military conflict. His determination to do this was tested severely during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when the U.S.S.R. attempted to install nuclear warheads in Cuba (Nash, 1994).

Meanwhile, the United States entered into another treaty in hopes of stopping the spread of communism: the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO). This is the treaty that led the U.S. first into the Laotian conflict, and eventually, into the Viet Nam War (Nash, 1994).

The effects of the Cold War, especially in its earlier phases, thus had a profound effect on American culture. It brought us McCarthy witch hunts for Communism, pervading worry about a nuclear holocaust, and led to our devastating involvement in the Viet Nam war. It cast suspicion on people legitimately fighting for their rights as citizens, and cast suspicion on almost anyone who worked to make what they saw as improvements in American society. Ironically, the backlash to the heightened militarism and eventual opposition to the Viet Nam war brought scorn toward military personnel, the very people who had been universally praised one generation ago after helping to liberate Europe from Nazism. Eventually, excesses by not only McCarthy but others trying to silence dissenters of all kinds resulted in court rulings that made people's Constitutional rights more clear, but it would be many years until the Cold War was recognized as over.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Nash, Philip. 1994. "Nuclear Weapons in Kennedy's Foreign Policy." The Historian, 56:2.

Roberts, Geoffrey. 2000. "Starting the Cold War: Historians and the Cold War. History Review.

Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Marvin's Press, 1994. (pp. 92-94) Accessed via the Internet 4/10/05.

White, Timothy J. White. 2000. "Cold War Historigraphy: New Evidence Behind Traditional Typographies." International Social Science Review.… [read more]


America in a World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
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African-Americans benefited from the integration of some aspects of the armed forces and the G.I. Bill that extended a free education to all G.I.s, thus allowing some African-Americans to make concrete post-war gains through education.

Question 7

Why was the decision made to use the Atomic bomb against Japan in WWII? What were the arguments? Even after sixty years this is still an area of controversy. In your opinion, was the use of atomic weapons justified?

The use of atomic weapons was made, according to President Truman, to spare American lives. In other words, by dropping the atomic bomb, Truman more quickly and efficiently ended the war and spared the Americans and even the Japanese army, ultimately, needless carnage, because the Japanese army refused to agree to an unconditional surrender in a war that 'they' began at Pearl Harbor. While Truman's arguments may have some merit, the fact is that civilians composed a tremendous amount of the population he attacked over the course of his efforts, and he set the stage for the fear if not the actual use of atomic and nuclear capabilities forevermore in history.

Question 8

How did the war affect the American economy? How did it affect the New Deal? What factors of the war would fuel a post-war boom of material prosperity in the United States?

The war ended the Great Depression and the New Deal because it fueled the engines of prosperity and productivity of United States factories, despite some inevitable wartime shortages of militarily necessary products such as nylon, metal, and rationing of foodstuffs necessary for the troops such as meat and sugar. However, the massive and unprecedented levels of federal spending necessitated by such a wide-scale world conflict were to some extent foreshadowed by the New Deal's greater federal involvement in the United States private economy.

Question 9

What was the Cold War? How did the results of WWII lead to the development of the Cold War?

As fears of fascism subsided, fears of communism arose in the hearts of Americans. The formation of the Warsaw Pact, the domination of Eastern Europe by the massive Stalinist machine, all created an undeclared war between America and the U.S.S.R., which was more often than not to be fought upon the territory of other nations, such as Vietnam, rather than between the nations themselves.

Question 10

How did the thinking of the period known as the Cold War influence the United Nation/United States to become involved in the conflict between North and South Korea? Was this a logical result on your opinion?

The domino theory held that if one nation 'went communist,' then the neighboring nations would follow, illogically ignoring regional differences of government, culture, and stability.

Question 11

To what degree was communism a genuine threat to the interests and security of the United States in the 1950s? Why did communism cause such fear in the post WWII era? Was this fear reasonable? How did these fears lead to the rise of Senator Joseph… [read more]


History Book Video Term Paper

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History Book Video

The History Book": major themes and patterns that characterize the development of the modern world

The History Book" is a series of documentary cartoons that dramatize modern Western history as a series of economic paradigm shifts. Most of these shifts result in the enrichment of a smaller percentage of the population that owns property or has aristocratic… [read more]


World War I And World War II Term Paper

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World War I and World War II

World War I was also known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars, a global military upheaval, which occurred from 1914 to 1918 (Wikipedia 2006). It claimed millions of lives and is said to have helped shape the modern world. It was fought between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and won by the former. The Allied Powers, or Allies, were led by Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. The Central Powers, on the other hand, were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Much of it occurred on the Western Front within systems of opposing manned trenches and fortifications from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. It caused the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman and Russian empires. It ultimately created a decisive break with the old world order and important factors in the development of World War II roughly 20 years later (Wikipedia).

President Woodrow Wilson announced that break in the U.S.'s official relations with Germany on account of its policy of insisting on neutral rights and in mediating a compromise settlement (Wikipedia 2006). The President warned that the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, which he said violated America's dignity. Germany stopped for a while, but announced the following month that they would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. After the War came the signing of the Versailles Treaty, which required Germany to pay enormous reparations, which it borrowed from the U.S. until the suspension of the borrowings in 1931.As a whole, the experiences of this war developed into a collective national trauma for all the countries, which participated in it. These experiences completely wiped out the optimism of the 1900s and those who fought in that War came to be known as the Lost Generation because they never fully recovered from their experiences. The social trauma took many forms. One was a revolt by nationalism and what it supposedly caused and began doing towards a more internationalist world in support of organizations like the League of Nations. Another form was pacifism, which became popular. Still another was the view that only strength and military might could be relied upon for protection in this inhuman and chaotic world, which did not respect civilization. The defeated ones or losers developed their own psychological state, which rejected the lesson of the War. There was a pronounced sense of disillusionment and cynicism, specifically Nihilism, which became popular. This disillusionment toward humanity reached a cultural climax with the establishment of the Dadaist artistic movement. Many also believed that the War signaled the end of the world, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. It was observed that communist and socialist movements gathered strength from this theory and became popular (Wikipedia).

The most lasting effect of World War I in the U.S. is the systematization of society or the centralization of government power and regulation (West 1999). It combined with the Great Depression in rationalizing the… [read more]


World War I, or the Great Term Paper

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World War I, or the Great War, began as a conflict in Europe, due to the military alliances, rivalries and expansion goals of these European nations. The conflict, which broke out in August of 1914, eliminated the four great monarchial empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany and Turkey. It also shifted power from Europe to the United States and less so… [read more]


Italy and Japan's Decision to Enter World War II Essay

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France's Decision To Enter World War Two

The French generals understood that an attack on France by the Nazis was imminent but that Hitler had no interest in attacking the Maginot Line head-on and that the Nazis would simply bypass the fortifications by invading Belgium and Holland.

That left France (and her ally, Britain) with two very unattractive choices. Their first choice was to send troops into Belgium and Holland before any Nazi attack on those countries, in effect, initiating a hostile occupation of their own, given that Belgium and Holland were still neutral countries and that neither would cooperate explicitly with Britain and France out of fear of provoking Hitler if he had not already decided to invade their nations.

France and Britain's second choice was to wait for Hitler to attack Belgium and Holland before sending in troops to counter the Nazi offensive. In addition to losing momentum by allowing Nazi troops to establish themselves in the Low Countries before responding, this would also mean that the eventual battles would be much closer to French population centers. Because of the political implications of invading sovereign Belgium and Holland, the French decided on the second option of waiting for the impending Nazi attack on Belgium.

Italy's Decision to Enter World War Two

When the…… [read more]


Titu Cusi Yupanqui History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru Term Paper

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¶ … Titu Cusi Yupanqui, History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru

"History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru" -- Critical Analysis

Catherine Julien's book "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru" is a translated account initially written by Titu Cusi, the penultimate leader of the neo-Incan state. The text is impressive because it provides readers with the opportunity to learn more about the moment when the American continent was invaded as seen by Native Americans. Julien makes it possible for the masses to understand that the Incan civilization started to suffer significantly because of other reasons, as Spanish conquistadors were not the only factor causing this state to fall. Titu does not hesitate to emphasize the fact that his people suffered defeat at the hands of the Spanish. However, he also emphasizes that it is important for future generations to have a complex understanding of events surrounding the fall of the Incan Empire.

The death of Huayna Capac, Titu Cusi's grandfather, marked the beginning of a period of distress in Incan lands. Huayna's sons, Manco Inca, Huascar Inca, and Atahualpa were unwilling to allow each-other the chance to rule over the empire and got actively involved in imposing their power in the territory. Franciso Pizarro had arrived in the area at this point and realized that there was an attractive opportunity for him to exploit locals (Yupangui & Julien vii).

Titu Cusi primarily believed that Atahualpa was wrong because his pride was one of the principal reasons for which he failed to develop a healthy relationship with the Spanish. He did not appreciate Atahualpa because he was a bastard and considered that he took on Incan leadership through force instead of using proper means. Even with the fact that Titu realized that Francisco Pizarro was mainly interested in taking advantage of his people their resources, he respected the man because of his diplomacy and because he considered that he was different from most Spanish individuals as a result of his tendency to put respect first in some situations (Yupangui & Julien 53).

While most people are inclined to consider that the Andean society was peaceful before the Spanish arrived, the truth is that most individuals within this community were actually obsessed with power and went through great efforts in order to obtain it. Titu relates to how Pizarro is sometimes reluctant to act in agreement with his people's interests, but highlights that the well-organized nature of the Spanish community prevented it from experiencing significant problems. In contrast, the Inca group is ruptured by internal conflicts as Manco Inca struggles to retrieve his lands from his power-crazed brothers. Huayna Capac's death marked the beginning of a critical period when considering conditions in the Incan Empire (Yupangui & Julien 13).

Most Incas thought that the Spaniards were gods and that their behavior and appearance differentiated them significantly from what they considered to be normal people. "The Tallanas yungas also called the Spanish virachochas because of the excellence of… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

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World War II

When attempting to discern what the "real war" was in a world involving as many international powers such as those represented in World War II, it is easy to examine this issue in regards to the goals sought by those sides. For Hitler and the other Axis leaders, those goals were the implementation of fascist, totalitarian governments… [read more]


Hunchback Oppression, Isolation and World War II Movie Review

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Hunchback

Oppression, Isolation and World War II in the Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939)

In 1939, the world was a place in the immediate throes of what would become one of the deepest, darkest and deadliest periods in human history. With the escalating violence of World War II and the Holocaust, the period proved a particularly suitable contexts for the cinematic adaptation of Victory Hugo's the Hunchback of Notre Dame. Though based on a novel that was published in 1831 and revolving on a plot which occurs in the late 15th century, it is remarkable how well the film succeeds as an allegory with relevance not just to World War II but also to life in the present day. Most particularly, the themes of oppression, prejudice and authoritarian cruelty depicted in the film translate with tremendous relevance to these latter periods of history. As one watches a film that betrays many of the limitations of the cinematic form in its time and place, one remains directly effected by a set of themes that truly encapsulate something more permanent and universal about the human condition.

Particularly, in the figures of Esmerelda and Quasimodo, we are presented with both a victim and a martyr. The two figures draw us directly into a broader class conflict, serving to demonstrate the stark experiential differences between life as an aristocrat or life as a social 'other.' The film, directed by William Dieterle, appears to play up the relevance of many of these themes, perhaps because of their adaptability to the big screen or perhaps because of their mounting relevance at the time of the film's release. According to the analysis by Miller (2010), "fifteenth century Paris is a city of contrasts with an aristocracy living in glittering luxury while the poor endure almost unimaginable squalor and all the while the church offers spiritual salvation while its leaders wallow in corruption and decadence." (Miller, p. 1)

This corruptive wallowing is perhaps best embodied by the character of Jehan, who is both brother to the archdeacon Claude Frollo and close confidante to King Louis XI. Here, the viewer finds a loathsome character who best embodies the hatred, exploitation and hierarchical oppression of the aristocracy while boasting inextricable ties both to the Church and the Crown. Here, the viewer gains some understanding of the influence of corruptive power as a driving theme in the film. That Esmerelda's gypsy ethnicity is generally used as the basis for allegations of witchcraft is an important fact, especially as we consider its relevance to the global conflict raging just as the film hit movie theatres.

Particularly, the theme of authoritarian abuse was coming into strong visibility as fascism swept through Europe. The France of Hugo's novel was now ensconced by the totalitarian rule of Spain, Germany and Italy. And in all contexts, an aggressive quashing…… [read more]


WWI Overview World War I Research Paper

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[footnoteRef:10] Additionally, Austria-Hungary wanted to continue to strive to create a bridge to the east through the Balkans while Serbians wanted access to the sea[footnoteRef:11], which contributed to the tensions between the two countries and catapulted them into the World War I. [7: Ibid., 11.] [8: Ibid., 10.] [9: Ibid.] [10: Ibid.] [11: Ibid.]

Scholars speculate that there are a variety of reasons that further contributed to the escalation of a third Balkan War and its transformation into World War I. Among these reasons are alliance alignments, which forced various countries to honor alliance treaties and be drawn into the conflict; an arms race; the desire to preserve imperialistic legacies; economic rivalries; and "virulent" nationalism.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Ibid., 11.]

As previously stated, Austria-Hungary was allied with Germany, Italy, and Romania, while Serbia, France, Great Britain, and Russia were allied with each other. Furthermore, the countries that comprised the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were in naval competition with each other, which also contributed to their arms race interests.[footnoteRef:13] Additionally, after 1911, every country in Europe, except Great Britain, had mandatory male conscription, thus ensuring that they had a potentially sizeable standing army. By 1912, Germany had 646,000 enlisted men and added 130,000 by the end of the year; France had 611,000 and added 90,000 by the end of the year; and Russia had 1,332,000.[footnoteRef:14] By July 1914, when World War I broke out, the total number of enlisted men exceeded 3.6 million.[footnoteRef:15] [13: Ibid.] [14: Ibid., 12.] [15: Ibid.]

Ultimately, World War I came to an end on June 28, 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. World War I resulted in 9 million soldiers being killed with 21 million more being wounded. Civilian casualties are numbered at 10 million.[footnoteRef:16] Germany and France were the most affected by these casualties as they ended up sending 80% of their respective male populations between the ages of 15 and 49.[footnoteRef:17] Additionally, World War I marked the end of four imperial dynasties: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Turkey.[footnoteRef:18] [16: "World War I."] [17: Ibid.] [18: Ibid.]

World War I would irrevocably change the face of war. Less than 20 years later, as a result of the stipulations outlined in the Treaty of Versailles, these European countries, including the United States and Japan, would find themselves fighting each in World War II.

Bibliography

History Channel. "U.S. Enters World War I." Accessed June 22, 2013.…… [read more]


Military -- Naval Role Post-Wwii Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 3

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[footnoteRef:8] Finally, the United States Navy played an important role in America's Space program, both contributing people from its own ranks as astronauts and in retrieving men and equipment employed in that program.[footnoteRef:9] Consequently, while the U.S. Navy was primarily devoted to Cold War efforts, it filled additional roles suitable to its expanded capabilities. [1: George Baer. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993, p. 444.] [2: Stephen E. Ambrose, Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006, p. 12.] [3: Ibid., p. 78.] [4: Ibid., p. 167.] [5: John Pina Craven. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002, p. 88.] [6: Ibid., p. 39.] [7: Baer, p. 352.] [8: Ambrose, p. xxvi.] [9: Ibid., p. 430.]

3. Conclusion

During the period stretching from 1945 to 1991, the major powers of the world were engaged in a Cold War that significantly occupied their military resources, including their naval forces. Spanning the globe, this War was primarily fought by the United States and its allies according to a "Containment Strategy" using a wall of military might to surround and limit the spread of Communism. The United States Navy, in particular, sought to dominate the world's seas through its expanding capabilities and aided in conflicts involving the U.S.S.R., North and South Korea, China and Taiwan, Vietnam and surrounding countries, Cuba, Israeli and the PLO, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Grenada, Iran, Kuwait, and Iraq. For their part, the navies of the U.S.S.R. And its allies were equally dedicated to spreading Communism with U.S.S.R. capabilities eventually rivaling the U.S. Navy's capabilities. In addition to its multifaceted containment role in the Cold War, the United States Navy was instrumental in building and maintaining the security of Japan and in contributing manpower and naval capabilities to aid in the U.S. Space Program.

Bibliography

Ambrose, Stephen E., Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006.

Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.

Craven, John Pina. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002.… [read more]


Factors That Cause Britain to Lose Its Innovated Edge by WWII Essay

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Britain and WW

Factors which caused Britain to Lose WWII

Factors which Caused Britain to Lose WW11

The Great Britain lost the World War 11 though it had enjoyed the portion of eminence in the period after the World War 1. The reasons are classified under two main heads; lack of foresightedness and inability to face the opponent. The other countries had made strong technological development which paved the way for their success.

Factors which Caused Britain to Lose WW11

The history has been witnessing the rise and downfall of many countries since long. The superpowers of one era have been crushed in some other period, while the deprived nations have succeeded in changing the face of the world. It is no exaggeration to mention that every country has passed through all the stage of development and the present state of a country is the outcome of a long journey which might have started centuries ago.

Besides national affairs, there have been many events at international platform which forcefully changed the state of affairs in a country and determined its fate in a manner which was quite unpredictable before occurrence of these events. The two World Wars are examples of these events which have printed lasting impact over the fortune of the countries.

This paper casts light upon the history of the Great Britain in a particular perspective of its boom after the World War 1 (WW1) and then failure in the World War 11 (WW11). The paper explains the factors which did not go in the favour of the Great Britain when it participated in WW11 and eventually it lost its power over many countries.

The World War 1 lasted from 1914-1918[footnoteRef:2]. It was the period of political disturbance in the world and major reforms in the field of science and technology were carried out. The Great Britain, being a developed country enjoyed the wave of scientific development and invested many things which surprised the whole world[footnoteRef:3]. In addition to technological advancements, it rightly identified the need to have close connections with other parts of the world, hence trade activities were started. In its quest to boom its economy even further, the Gear Britain conquered many areas by force and some others by economy. The consequence was increased rule of Britain over major part of the world. [2: David Stevenson, 1914-1918: the history of the First World War (USA: Penguin, 2004).] [3: John Turner, Britain and the First World War (Australia, Unwim Human Ltd., 1988), 70-85.]

The situation continued to prevail for few decades. It was the time when next generation of deprived nations was born and the young individuals did not like the inherited bondage of the Great Britain. The riots and protests started massively in many countries. As the Great Britain was emerging economically, it was paving way for many foes which united themselves in the form of alliance and another war broke out. It took the form of World War 11, and despite its proper planning… [read more]


World War II Ww Essay

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Slowly the Americans invaded and liberated a number of islands until the were in a position to begin an air campaign against the Japanese homeland. With the capture of the Marianas, Iwo Jima, and finally Okinawa, the Americans came to hold the position of being able to strike at Japan with their heavy bombers and begin inflicting massive damage to… [read more]


World War II -- Techniques Essay

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[footnoteRef:11] The auto industry, which was already using line production, was quickly converted to produce massive amounts of equipment: 1/5 of America's military equipment, including nearly all tanks and vehicles, 1/3 of machine guns and 2/5 of the aviation supplies.[footnoteRef:12] Furthermore, other industries borrowed and improved upon the concept of mass production. Warplanes were now mass produced,[footnoteRef:13] with the industry particularly flourishing in California and Washington.[footnoteRef:14] In addition, the shipbuilding industry literally mass-produced ships by constructing prefabricated sections then welding them together through the most modern techniques.[footnoteRef:15] Ship production used long production lines with each job broken down into segments so simple that even workers with only brief training were able to complete them.[footnoteRef:16] Industry did not merely use existing mass production techniques; they also employed time-and-motion experts to continually refine the process.[footnoteRef:17] As a result, ship production flourished in Washington and on the Gulf Coast,[footnoteRef:18] and shipbuilding production rose 25% during the war years.[footnoteRef:19] These efforts produced several marked results for the United States, such as vastly superior air and sea mobility,[footnoteRef:20] and essentially made the United States rich again.[footnoteRef:21] [11: Overy, p. 193.] [12: Ibid., pp. 193-194.] [13: Weinberg, p.729.] [14: Ibid., p. 494.] [15: Overy, p. 194.] [16: Ibid.] [17: Ibid.] [18: Weinberg, p. 494.] [19: Overy, p. 194.] [20: Keegan, p. 81.] [21: Ibid., p. 96.]

3. Conclusion

American businesses expanded World War II production in several ways. First, America used existing factories and built many new ones while it also used idle workers and attracted new ones. Secondly, it employed large numbers of workers who received deferments, as well as women and black. Third, it built new factories in new areas. Fourth, it used and improved the most modern mass production techniques. Through these techniques, American factories churned out airplanes, tanks and other vehicles, ships, combat boots, and most equipment and supplies needed by America's armed forces. As a result, American industry met military demands and made the United States rich again.

Bibliography

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY…… [read more]


World War I Essay

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"[footnoteRef:7] Secondly, the defeat had even deeper psychological effects on the losers, particularly on Germany: Adolf Hitler, for example, fought in World War I and found Germany's defeat to be nearly unbearable, personally humiliating and consuming[footnoteRef:8]; Claus van Stauffenberg, a German officer who eventually attempted to assassinate Hitler during WWII, trained as a young soldier in a post-WWI German army intent an avenging "the humiliation of 1918."[footnoteRef:9] Third, the terms of peace were highly resented by the losers, particularly by Germany: for example, despite Germany's official agreement to the Treaty of Versailles, almost no Germans accepted the Treaty's terms of German reparations and disarmament.[footnoteRef:10] The physical devastation, humiliation of defeat and resented terms of peace eventually gave rise to the intense German nationalism that Hitler rode to power. According to Keegan, Hitler's speeches to the German people called them to a new nationhood based on the humiliation caused by defeat in WWI and the terms of peace including occupation and permanent disarmament, toward a victory that would "expunge Versailles."[footnoteRef:11] To that end, Hitler intended to totally reorder the globe through War.[footnoteRef:12] [6: Keegan, 49.] [7: Weinberg, 5-6.] [8: Overy, 10.] [9: Keegan, 65.] [10: Ibid., 9.] [11: Ibid., 12.] [12: Weinberg, 2.]

3. Conclusion

The peace terms of World War I completely disassembled the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires while taking great amounts of land from the German and Russian empires. The peace terms of the Treaty of Versailles were particularly tough on Germans, requiring admission of responsibility, reparations, occupation, disarmament and the loss of territory. The psychological effects of the war and peace terms were deep, particularly for the German people: the War itself had been physically devastating; the defeat had even deeper psychological effects of humiliation and vengeance; the terms of peace were highly resented by the losers. As a result, the time was ripe for a leader such as Adolf Hitler, who stressed German nationalism, pride and cathartic victory in yet another World War.

Works Cited

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.

Weinberg, Gerhard L. A…… [read more]


Second World War Term Paper

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There was also concern throughout the western world that the real threat was Russia and the Communists who were bent on radical governmental change. Hitler went on to systematically align with nations that would support him, even making a non-aggression policy with Poland, a nation he would swiftly overtake and whose population he would eradicate (Paxton 329). As early as 1933, Hitler had envisioned a Germany which he would lead and a Europe which would proverbially fall to its knees in his wake.

One of the ways they determined to rebuild the morale of their countrymen was to create a whipping boy of sorts. The German people would be better off emotionally and morally if there were a group that could be made into scapegoats. By placing all the people's blame on this group, the German government could effectively alleviate their own responsibility and uniformly cast the people's dissatisfaction off of themselves. Hitler and his fellow leaders attacked Jews, teen rebels, the homosexuals, Gypsies, vagrants, and the mentally or physically handicapped (Paxton 285). Starting in 1933, anyone who was not Aryan, which is to say not of "pure" German heritage, was dismissed from civil service positions. The ramifications for these non-Aryans included losing ownership of businesses as well as their homes and their positions of employment. It culminated with a declaration wherein anyone non-Aryan, particularly those with any Jewish heritage would be denied their citizenship, no matter how long the person in question had lived in the country.

In 1938, the three axis powers, Germany, Japan, and Italy met in Munich along with Great Britain's Neville Chamberlain and France's Eduoard Daladier. At this conference, the Axis countries made promises to what would become the Allied forces. Among these pledges was that Germany would not try to take any additional territory from European nations. Of course, this was an empty promise and by March of the following year, Germany would take over all of Czechoslovakia. This would be followed by the invasion of Poland five months later.

By 1941, the United States had unofficially taken sides against Germany and the Axis Powers. Although still technically neutral the U.S. had nonetheless been shipping supplies to Britain and her allies against the enemy. The United States was as reluctant to enter the war as Britain was during the era of appeasement. It would take a large-scale, unprovoked attack on American soil before the people of the United States provided the government with enough support to declare war on Japan, Italy, and Germany. The rest is history.

Works Cited:

Paxton, Robert O. Europe…… [read more]


1st World War (WWI) Term Paper

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Indeed, its creation of a spirit of antagonism among nations is also a noted and significant contributor to choices made before the war (Ross 18). The period prior to 1914 was marked with increasing imperialism as nations sought to expand their power and wealth by increasing control and territorial coverage (Ross 18). Parts of Asia and Africa were in contention… [read more]


Espionage Has Largely Term Paper

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The Yalta Conference actually makes it possible for someone to gain a more complex understanding concerning feelings between the Soviets and the West. Both sides had received intelligence information prior to the event and were prepared to take on diplomatic attitudes with the purpose of achieving their goals. "While many, including Alger Hiss, have praised Stalin's negotiating skills at Yalta,… [read more]


Shape and to Create Essay

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William the Conquerer was a rule who made it clear that he was to be treated as one more powerful and more popular than the pope, and that even the pope's envoys needed to enter England with the permission of William and that same permission was needed in order for members of the papal group to publish.

While these moves might appear incredibly controlling, William was one of the people who was able to push England into being an ideal European nation, a nation that was simply better organized and more powerful. And part of these achievements were connected to the fact that he took power away from the papacy and some of their more archaic tendencies for ruling and controlling -- old fashioned regimes which were keeping England in the dark ages for a long time. In fact, William's son Henry I ruled after William's death and was known as the "Lion of Justice" who placed higher taxes on the wealthy members of English society and on officials of the church. This trend was continued by Henry II who was strong in establishing his leadership in legal matters and who valued impartiality very strongly. He was actually the brilliant mind who established legal terms and performances known as "common law" and "trial by jury" which meant that a verdict was rendered on a court case. On the other hand, Richard the Lion-Hearted was one who followed him to the throne, but was more often gone to faraway lands, fighting battles that he didn't accomplish as much at home.

Even so, the people listed and discussed here and the events attached to them, were just some of the more influential leaders who had a tremendous…… [read more]


American History During the 1940S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,426 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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S. contributed to the decline of economic growth in the country during Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan's terms as president of the country. However, during his term, Reagan was able to bring back growth in the economy, primarily by cutting back on taxes and social programs, and increasing government revenues such as military revenues. This economic program, called the 'supply-side… [read more]


World War II the Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,359 words)
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S.S.R. The primary troops were ready to fight by 1942 against the Axis. 13

It is necessary, at this point, to get a general overview of the situation in Germany at this time. In 1944, powerful forces both from the east as well as from the west bombarded Hitler. Added to this were the threats posed by air raids and… [read more]


Great War in American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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They were being regarded as the enemy or disloyal, for the people around held biased judgement for all Asians.

Guterson reveals a remarkable side left by the war, for a community 'of five thousand damp souls', who supported themselves through salmon fishing and berry farming, in the fictional Island of San Piedro off the coast of Washington. He describes the… [read more]


World War II (WWII) Transformed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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For the most part, however, the war was fought with the same or improved weapons of the types used in World War I. During the war, the United States and other nations made great advances in aircraft and tanks. This would ensure that war would be fought in a radically different way going forward.

After World War II, the use of the atomic bomb changed the U.S. And the rest of the world in many ways. Nuclear power resulted in a 40-year-long arms race between the United States and the U.S.S.R., and nuclear annihilation continues to threaten the world even today. On a positive note, nuclear power allowed scientists to develop new sources of energy.

During the war, new technological and medical advances were created that saved lives and improved living standards in the decades ahead. Penicillin, a "miracle drug" first used to heal Allied casualties, was used domestically to defeat disease, reduce infant deaths, and extend life expectancy. DDT, a colorless chemical pesticide, destroyed harmful insects and prevented typhus and malaria.

New fuel mixtures increased the range of warplanes and later of civilian planes; jet propulsion planes transformed transoceanic flights and were in commercial use by the late 1950s. Other areas of technology developed during World War II included radar, semiconductors, freeze-dried food, infrared technologies, and synthetic materials.

World War II put an end to Nazi power and the totalitarian power that threatened to conquer the world. Americans felt safer but the cost of the war was huge. Allied military and civilian losses were 44 million. The U.S. lost almost 300,000 people in battle deaths, far less than the toll in Europe and Asia.

Domestically, the war ended isolationism, stopped the depression, provided unprecedented social and economic mobility, fostered national unity, and greatly expanded the federal government. The U.S. government spent more than $300 billion on the war, which generated jobs and prosperity and rejuvenated confidence. Finally, World War II made the United States the world's leading military and economic force. In addition, the war caused the United States and the U.S.S.R. To become rivals for global dominance.

Many people believe that WWII greatly improved the U.S. economy. Women started working more and more outside the home, and the stock market rose again. According to Professor Jane Scimeca: "During WWII, more than any previous war, women were actively identified with national defense. WWII was a time of enormous patriotism and national unity, and that really formed the identity of the women of the time."

As a result of WWII, Americans began making money and became prosperous. The government used advertisements to promote liberty bonds, blood donations, reserving supplies for the troops and the entertainment industry. Because of WWII, America proved to the rest of the world that we are a strong country.

Bibliography

Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.

Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.

Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected… [read more]


Sonar in WWI and WWII Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,448 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9

SAMPLE TEXT:

That would be detrimental to the study, and would also be confusing. Larger cases make more sense for this study, and will be used to provide insight about, and examples of, how sonar made a difference in Naval operations.

Case One: World War I

World War I, or the First World War, was also called "The Great War" (Abbatiello, 2005).… [read more]


World War One: Causes and Concerns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,893 words)
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Causes of World War One and the Treaty of Paris

The causes of World War One are both intricate and nuanced and it is difficult to point to a single cause or even a few collective causes which led to this war. Rather a complexity of problems and issues are what caused the outbreak of World War One. In many… [read more]


Inequalities of Combat Representation During the World Wars Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Treatment of Africans in World War I Versus World War II

The Treatment that the Africans Received in World War I versus World War II

The First and Second World War had a significant effect on the Africans who took part in them. Africans were subjected to significant suffering that affected their health and health outcomes during and after the world. Significant evidence shows that the Africans Soldiers and other participants of the first and the second World Wars suffered from psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder after the war. Civil rights bodies played a significant role in ensuring that Africans soldiers received fair treatment from their superior colonies during the World War II. This was not possible in the First World War. The roles of the civil bodies can be easily traced throughout the two wars; hence, the need for its analysis (Gaines 62). This study analyzes two articles trying to create a comparison of the civil rights activities of the World War I and II that fostered the fair treatment the Africans during the wars.

Civil rights and efforts contributed significantly to improving the treatment the Africans received during the World War I and II. Narratives from the civil right bodies during the World War I and II showed that the black veterans' were involved in the activities with the intention of countering the unfair treatment they received during the wars. The black veterans made an intuitive contribution by mobilizing the adoption of strategies that safeguarded the rights of blacks in the war. The black veterans were always among the members considered active in the most of the civil rights organizations where the insurgency was launched. The Africans in the World War one faced significant challenges in the war as compared to those in the World War II. For example, they suffered lack of political recognition of their contribution to the war alongside violation of the fundamental human rights.

However, presence of civil bodies such as NAACP fought for equity among the participants of the World War I. World…… [read more]


History of Timepieces Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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History Of Timepieces

A Survey of Timepieces of the Western World from 1350 to 1750

The History of timekeeping and timepieces in the Western World must first begin by taking a look into the ancient history of the Middle East. Here, mathematicians and astronomers developed methods of recording numbers, keeping time, and observing the movement of the heavens. Their developments… [read more]


History of Muslims in Europe and in the US Research Paper

Research Paper  |  21 pages (6,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

History of Muslims in Europe and in the U.S.

Islamophobia - the United States and the European continent

The Islam is at the moment one of the most important religious, cultural, and eventually political entities of the world today. According to studies made in 2009, it represents 23% of the global population of 6.9 billion people

Even so, there are… [read more]


How Did Nationalism Reveal Itself Through Films During World War II? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
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¶ … nationalism reveal itself through films during World War II?

Nationalism in World War II cinema

During World War II, the entire nation mobilized to fight. Every aspect of the United States' economy was channeled to serve the war effort, including the cinematic output of the motion picture industry. Just like factories shifted from creating nylon stockings to making parachutes for the Air Force, Hollywood shifted from making comedies and romances to cheer up Depression-era audiences to making propaganda films to support the war effort. The popularity of the movies enabled the government to use motion picture images to support their effort on a mass scale that was undreamed-of, during World War I.

Today, when Hollywood is often demonized in the rhetoric of conservative politicians as 'liberal' and 'un-American' it is easy to forget that the big studios became instrumental in the propaganda effort designed to encourage the weary American public to be filled with enthusiasm about fighting Hitler and the Japanese empire. "During WWII television was not the vehicle of mass communication that it is today. Instead that role was served by radio and by films. Films were produced and distributed to audiences within the United States, but also overseas as well. Between 1942 and 1943, films reached a weekly paid attendance of 85 million, not including the free viewing offered to millions of military service members. Thus, government officials believed films could reach the mass audience with propaganda messages better than other forms of mass media" (Christie & Clark 2008, 56)

Today, the best-remembered films of the era are classics such as Casablanca and Mrs. Miniver because they have strong narrative power that transcends the one-sided, pro-war propaganda inherent in the films. Propaganda, by definition, is a one-sided depiction of an issue designed to elicit a specific response from the viewer. "At the onset of the Second World War, the Office of War Information authored and distributed the Government Information Manual for the Motion Picture Industry to "assist the motion picture industry in its endeavor to inform the American people, via the screen, of the many problems attendant on the war program…the power, cruelty and complete cynicism of the enemy should be pictured…" (Christie & Clark 2008, 62-63). In Thomas Christie and C. Andrew M. Clark's 2008 article, "Framing Two Enemies in Mass Media: A Content Analysis of U.S. Government Influence in American Film during World War II," films of the era were viewed and 'coded' for various characterizations of the enemy. Germans were primarily shown, the viewers found, as violating people's rights and dominating by force (Christie & Clark 2008, 65-66). The Japanese were coded as being 'sneaky' and disregarding other peoples' rights. In the 11 films examined, "six of the ten government-encouraged characterizations were found" of the Japanese and in 17 depictions of the German enemy, 9 of the ten characterizations were found (Christie & Clark 2008, 67-68). The consistency of these portraits, state Christie and Clark, accompanied by "the substantial financial incentives accompanying government… [read more]


Immigrant US History Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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U.S. Immigrants

The Black and Mexican Experiences During and After World War I

The United States of America, and indeed the entire continent of North America, has been a place of racial and ethnic boundaries that create a sense of those that belong and those that do not -- of people and of "others," to put it in a more extreme manner -- ever since Europeans first arrived on the shores of the continent. The indigenous peoples of the continent, the various tribes known as Indians and then as Native Americans, were the first to be displaced and made into "others," but the African slaves and their descendants and other people that inhabited the land either through immigration or through historical existence would undergo similar experiences as the nation grew (Takaki 2008). This creation of outsiders was not limited to the decades and centuries of the populating of the continent by the European-descended immigrants, but persisted even after the borders and development of the United States was well-established, with various racial and ethnic identities having unique experiences at various points in this nation's history.

The experience of blacks in this country has been studied and commented upon quite extensively; though brought here by force they were long treated as unwanted intruders (Takaki 2008). This began to change somewhat during the period of World War I and immediately following, when African-Americans both served in the military and were accepted into industrial jobs in major cities to fill the labor shortage created by massive shipping of troops to the European front (LOC 2008). This led to a renewed celebration and assertion of African-American culture in artistic and literary avenues immediately following the war in the period known as the "Harlem Renaissance," a period which demonstrated the new pride and a certain level of integration into popular culture through the definition and dissemination of African-American culture itself (LOC 2008).

The experience of Mexican immigrants during this period was similar to that of African-Americans in some ways, but was drastically different in others. The same labor shortages in the United States that were caused by World War I and led to the movement of many African-Americans to cities for new employment opportunities also allowed Mexican nationals to immigrate over the border in order to fill these jobs, first in the fields and eventually in a variety of other industries (Vogel 2004; Takaki 2008). Even in the period immediately following the war, which was still a quite prosperous time for the United States, these workers were largely accepted as a necessary part of the labor industry and the economy, but never really integrated into society due to continuing language barriers and a sense of ethnic "difference" (Vogel 2004). When the Great Depression hit at the end of the 1920s, suddenly these "foreign" workers that had been in the country for a decade (and that had rightfully occupied much of the Southwestern and Western United States less than a century before) were no longer welcome, and… [read more]


Person in History Woodrow Wilson Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Person in History

Woodrow Wilson

For most people, Woodrow Wilson is yet another American president, whose only contribution to history is the fact that he was in charge of devising the U.S.'s foreign policy agenda during the First World War. In spite that his strategy was employed by a series of presidents following him, his memory is still ignored by most. His participation in the war was however more important than some might think, given that he was the first U.S. president to get his country actively involved in a war that did not concern it directly. The 28th American President would have certainly been glad if he lived to see the United Nations headquarters in Manhattan, New York City, and the international affairs being discussed there.

While the U.S. did not probably came to be the country Wilson wanted it to, his idea regarding a body that would support democracy and human rights materialized in the United Nations Organization. President Wilson's determination to prevent another world war from happening was perfectly exemplified through his Fourteen Points speech he held on January 8, 1918. During this speech, he emphasized essential values, such as equality in rights for everyone, and the fact that freedom needed to be present across the globe.

Most of the contemporary international public is either unaware of who Woodrow Wilson was or thinks of him as a man whose ideals proved to be failures. Indeed, the League of Nations did not succeed in achieving its purpose, given that the Axis Powers managed to emerge in Europe with little to no restraint from members of the League. President Wilson actually believed that the League of Nations would actually make certain a continuing global peace consequent to his time. One can partly attribute the fact that the League of Nations did not manage to control conditions in Europe to Wilson's demise, considering that his loss of influence led to a 1920s international organization that did not involve the U.S.

Wilson favored a somewhat idealistic strategy that would benefit international affairs. His optimistic view regarding international relations came to be known as Wilsonianism. Even though most of the international public is not acquainted with the term or with the man that is responsible for its creation, present day international affairs are largely owed to Wilson's efforts.

It would certainly be an adventure for Woodrow Wilson to be able to see his dream realized, to drive through the Turtle Bay neighborhood toward the United Nations complex, to stand next to colleagues from diverse nations, shaking their hand, and addressing the world from this location. His political and oratory abilities would certainly be welcomed by an international public, just as he…… [read more]


Unstable Postwar World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … World War I and related events of 1917-1919 (the Russian and German Revolutions, the Treaty of Versailles, and others) helped to create an unstable postwar world.

The Treaty of Versailles is widely considered one of the most disastrous peace treaties ever negotiated, and one of the primary, contributing causes to the unstable postwar environment that gave rise to World War II. This is despite the fact that the Treaty established many new independent nations, including Poland; established many colonial trusts; included a pledge of all signing nations to disarm, and created the League of Nations. However, despite Woodrow Wilson's initial protestations, Germany was forced to accept responsibility "for all losses and damages in the conflict in what was termed the war guilt clause" ("Wars and Battles," U.S. History, 2010). Germany was required to radically reduce the size of its military, totally demilitarize the Rhineland and give back the Alsace and Lorraine region to France. This created anger and resentment in the hearts of the German people. Germany felt that it was unfairly blamed for a war that was also the result of the actions of the other major European powers, not simply its own militarism. Also the unification of Germany had defined German national identity around Germany's military capabilities, a claim to fame was now stolen from it by the Versailles Treaty. In fact, many residents of other European nations, including some members of the British aristocracy, felt that Germany had been unfairly treated -- and this sense of injustice initially caused some non-Germans to fail to adequately understand the threat that the Nazi leadership posed to the rest of Europe.

Combined with the prohibitively costly war reparations, the Germany spirit and the German economy were completely depleted by the Treaty. Germany suffered the effects of the worldwide Great Depression to an even greater degree than other nations as a…… [read more]


Western Civilization the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,314 words)
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They were, of course, still thinking that by crossing the Atlantic they would reach Asia, oblivious of the fact that between Europe and Asia there was this huge piece of a whole continent. Columbus had reached before. Vespucci was the first one to realize the mistake and call the territories he had reached a New World. His name gave the… [read more]


World Wars and Their Relationships Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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There were more planes and they were much faster, the ships were more modern, and submarines and other technologies had advanced, as well. In the Second World War, many new technologies were developed, like sonar, a new type of bombsight, and the atomic bomb, which brought an end to the war.

Both wars were fought on several continents, and used air, sea, and land-based troops for battle and support. Many of the same countries participated in both wars, both in Europe and beyond. For example, in World War I the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East participated in the war, and in World War II, the Germans fought in North Africa trying to gain more territory to add to their country.

In both wars, Germany was a deciding factor in the war. They had undergone a great military build-up during the turn of the 20th century that prepared them for war. After the war, one of the treaties demanded that Germany not be allowed to rebuild its military to its pre-war levels, but Hitler began to ignore that and build up the military in secret, which helped to prepare the country for World War II. Therefore, Germany's military power helped connect both wars and helped create the background for both wars to occur.

The allies in both wars were remarkably similar, too. Germany, when it tried to get Mexico into the war, also allied with Japan. This was true in World War II, as well. Germany was also allied with Italy in World War I and in World War II. Germany was allied with Russia for a time in World War II, but ignored those ties and attacked, which led Russia to ally with the United States, Britain, and France, who were World War I allies, as well. Much of both wars were fought in Europe, although when the U.S. entered World War II, the Pacific became another battleground. So, the wars had much in common and there was a close…… [read more]


Herodotus's Work "The Histories" Is Conceived Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (809 words)
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Herodotus's work "The Histories" is conceived on two different levels. On an objective level, the historian attempts to paint the image of the people and nations of his time and to give a thorough description of the respective nation's political and religious organizations, traditions, positive and negative aspects etc. On the other hand, on a subjective level, the historian also has his own discourse, one where he uses his work to express his own beliefs and ideas about the respective ethnographies. At the same time, his historical work also transforms itself in many cases into a philosophical, often melancholic and pessimistic approach to life.

The philosophical approach is not only a perspective on life and afterlife, but also a way for Herodotus to use a series of aphorisms that help him create a more global picture of human kind, one that can be universal rather than limited to the people that he analyzes in his work. In Book 1, for example, such aphorisms abound as he tells the story of Candaules, ruler of Lydia, and how Gyges, his favorite spearman fell in love with the queen. Throughout paragraph 8 of Book 1, Herodotus mentions that "men trust their ears less than their eyes" (1.8) and that "when a woman puts off her tunic, she puts off her modesty also." These are both elements of the subjective level that Herodotus uses to picture humanity.

Similarly, he uses the phrase "in peace the sons bury their fathers, but in war the fathers bury their sons" (1.87) with different meanings. On one part, it is a simple objective observation of the times he lives in. Indeed, during Antiquity, it is likely that war could simply wipe out entire youth populations in certain towns and villages. On the other hand, it is probably also a melancholic interpretation of war and what it brings compared to peace: a distortion of the natural development of things. In a rational world, fathers should never bury their sons.

Other parts of the work are pure objective descriptions of certain facts. For example, still in book 1, paragraph 6 is strictly dedicated to a brief geographical location of the land and people ruled by Craessus. The description is almost exhaustive, naming seas, rivers, people and connecting all these elements together to give a complete picture of the location of the Lydian people.

These examples continue throughout the book, such as in Book 2,…… [read more]


Weapons of World War II Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (364 words)
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World War Two Weaponry

Like other wars, World War Two stimulated the technology of warfare tremendously. The machine gun and battle tank were first used in combat during World

War One, but both were perfected and adapted to numerous additional uses throughout the Second World War (Commager & Miller, 2002). Aircraft were in their infancy in World War One but also developed significantly in between the wars. However, the technological progress that took place in aviation in between the start of war in Europe in

1939 and its conclusion in 1945 was greater than all that took place in that field in the years between the two wars (Ambrose, 2001).

Some of the most revolutionary progress in weaponry during World War Two

included jet aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), both of which were used for the first time ever by the Nazis (Ray, 2003). The Americans introduced pressurized aircraft in the long-range, high-altitude B-29 Stratofortress bomber and the Norden bomb site used to increase the accuracy of bombs dropped from high altitude.

That device was considered top-secret throughout the war and…… [read more]


Graphic Design History Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Graphic Design History

Graphic design: space and power.

The process of graphic design refers to the creation of various sign systems. These signs are to be interpreted as standing for something else. Their value is therefore symbolical and beyond the physical representation there is a concept or idea that must be understood. However, meaning is not created in an arbitrary… [read more]


Jews in the Concentration Camps Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,231 words)
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¶ … Jewish Holocaust

THE HISTORY and RELEVANCE of the NAZI HOLOCAUST

Hitler's Ideals and the Final Solution:

Anti-Semitism was the principal doctrine of Nazism and was evident as early as Hitler's original written autobiography Mein Kampf ("my struggle"), authored while he was imprisoned briefly after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government in 1921, more than a decade… [read more]


Roman Empire the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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His desire to serve again made many nervous that certain men in political positions would also want to serve longer terms and this could threaten the balance of power because they would want to have increasingly greater levels of authority over the republic and its people. His led to a revolution in which the political structure of the Rome was forever changed.

Second Punic War

In addition to the aforementioned events and circumstances associated with the Roman Empire, the Second Punic War was also a significant event that occurred in the Roman Empire. The Second Punic War took place from 218-202 B.C. In 221 the Ruler Hannibal came into power in Carthaginian Spain. The Romans and the Spanish city of Saguntum had become allies after the first Punic war. The city of Saguntum had promised not to expand into other areas of Spain but this promise was broken. As a result Hannibal declared war on Saguntum and won. This put Rome in a difficult position because Saguntum was an ally to Rome and as such was obliged to help the city. Rome could not convince Carthage to remove Hannibal from power and so a war ensued. Hannibal had an extremely powerful and well equipped army and was able to defeat most of northern Italy. Although Hannibal won many battles, he was ultimately defeated and was never able to seize Rome.

The Roman Army

Like most armies, the Roman army did not began as a mighty force instead it developed over time. According to a book entitled Roman Warfare the Roman army was unique in that it utilized soldiers from territories that it conquered. The army would simply absorb the armies of conquered territories. In doing this, the Roman army was able to grow significantly. In addition, because the soldiers were from different regions, they had diverse skills. In many cases these were For instance some were skilled in archery. According to the book even though there were many years in which the Roman Army experienced a great deal of expansion, the Roman conquest began to dwindle as did the Roman Army. After Augustus died the army stopped expanding.

In addition to the expanded size of the Roman army throughout the years, Roman army was also extremely organized and disciplined.

The army was extremely strategic in the manner in which it handled wars and conflict. When they were overpowered at times, the army would find ways to defeat other armies through strategic planning and the element of surprise.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to examine various aspects of the Roman Empire. The research found that the introduction of Greek culture into Rome changed both the religious and familial structure of the Roman Empire.

Greek philosophy and greater independence for women developed as a result of Greek influence. As it pertained to the Roman Revolution it marked the end of the Roman Republic. The Second Punic war was interesting in that it seemed as though the empire would succumb to… [read more]


Western Civilization - World War One Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Western Civilization - World War One to the Present Era

The events that lead to the outbreak of World War One are hauntingly familiar. Preexisting strife between Austria-Hungry and Serbia was sparked to fire with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austria-Hungry throne. Ferdinand's assassin was a Slavic teenager, Gavrilo Princip, a nineteen-year-old member of the terrorist organization the Black Hand (Duffy 2007, "Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1914"). Although the Serbian government claimed that it did not officially sponsor the Black Hand's terrorist activities, and Ferdinand was no JFK, Austria Hungry saw the assassination as an opportunity to further its influence in the Balkans, a spatial region already taught with ethnic and nationalistic violence (Duffy 2007). In fact, Duffy asserts that Serbia's proposed involvement in the assassination was "unlikely" and points out that Austria-Hungry did not respond to the act of violence that took the life of their national symbol and heir to their throne for three weeks (2007). Thus, Duffy suggests there are enough facts to back up the theory that "the Austro-Hungarians opted to take the opportunity to stamp its authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungry's influence in the Balkans" (2007). While the history of ethnic and nationalistic conflict in the Balkans resulted in the spark that began WWI, neither Austria-Hungry nor Serbia were major powers in the war. Instead, each country turned to its allied nations -- Russia and Germany -- for aid (Duffy 2007). The tangle of alliances was such that a general war could not help being declared, although Germany did not want war, desiring simply to remain in its unified state as Bismark had left it (Duffy 2007). The conflict of these nations brought the British, United States, and other states into the war as conflict progressed. For this reason, a spark in the Balkans over ethnic lines led to a world war. Oddly, the situation uniquely resembles that of the current Iraq war, or third Gulf war, in which the United States became involved with the country after an act of terrorism that Iraq claimed not to support. One can only hope that this conflict will not have as dire of consequences.

Question Two

At the end of the largest and most complex war in history, the victorious Allies were not willing to sit idly by while the Triple Entente went back to business as usual. Instead the Versailles Treaty sought to sufficiently make amends for personal and property losses during the war. Some of those losses included 750,000 dead British soldiers and 116,000 dead United States' soldiers. Totally, around 8.5 million were killed and 21 million injured (Trueman 2008). Although the lost lives can never be replaced, the Treaty of Versailles sought to punish the offending nations, and it was sufficiently harsh to accomplish that goal. The treaty gave away no less than segments of land were taken from the Germans, including Alsace-Lorraine, which was given to France, and the country's… [read more]


WWI and WWII Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,615 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

WWI & WWII

World War I

Most obviously, World War I differed from other wars in its worldwide scale. Never before had a war been fought on such a large scale, nor had it ever been as brutal to soldier, citizen, and innocent alike. Bernd Huppauf describes the horror so this war in very specific terms when he mentions the… [read more]


American History X Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,713 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

American History X

Our Hero is Derek Vinyard, a Californian neo-Nazi racist played by Edward Norton.

Derek has most of the physical features of a neo-Nazi gang leader, with his head shaved bald, and a muscular body marked with swastika tattoos. His reason for choosing the racist path is having his fireman father murdered by a black man whilst trying… [read more]


Second World War Left Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,037 words)
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¶ … Second World War left the world in a complete state of disarray. Most countries around the world had suffered enormous damages, both in terms of human and economic loss. The only actual victorious actor on the international scene was the United States which came out stronger than ever before. There are various explanations for this fact, most of them connected to the American war industry that was created during the conflagration and, most importantly, to the geopolitical and geostrategic position of the country in relation to the main adversaries of the war. From this perspective, the U.S. was the only country able to support a reconstruction plan for Europe and to stand up to the Soviet challenge facing the world after the end of the war. The Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine were the main tools used by the American side to achieve these two goals. However, in order to actually grasp the importance of these two initiatives for Europe and the world, it is interesting to consider an alternative history, one which did not include the reconstruction plan and the presidential doctrine.

The Truman Doctrine was one of the first political messages that came from the United States after the end of the war. It represented a set of principles which pointed out the necessity of action for the reconstruction of Europe, as well as a political approach to the issue of the U.S.S.R. And its strive for dominance in Europe and the world. In this sense, President Truman presented in front of the Congress in March 1947 the situation concerning Greece and Turkey (the Avalon Project, 2008). He pointed out the need of both Greece and Turkey to receive financial and political support from Western countries. The basics of the doctrine was formulated by Truman who concluded that "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures" (the Avalon Project, 2008).

The most important element of the doctrine pointed out the fact that the U.S.S.R.'s force must be contained and opposed in any situation in which it tends to exercise its power over the sovereign nations of Europe. It was an important step in the history of the post war period because it showed the commitment of western nations to limit the sphere of influence of the communist power. Any other solution or course of action would have determined a situation similar to the one in Eastern Europe.

If the Truman Doctrine did not exist, Greece and Turkey would have been subject to soviet influence. In the beginning, the doctrine also referred to other regions as well. However, taking into account the fact that the Soviet army was considered to be the savior of Eastern Europe from the Nazi force, the Red Army was considered to have legitimacy in these countries. Form this point-of-view, Stalin denied eastern countries to receive support, both financial and political one… [read more]


History of the United States Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … history of the United States has been one of the most interesting objects of study for analysts and scholars alike. This is largely due to the fact that the U.S. is in general considered to be the center of world politics, economics, cultural and social life. The purpose of this essay is to consider some examples which proved the above affirmation. They will deal with particular significant events that influenced the last fifty years in America.

The 1950s represented a difficult time in the history of the world. Every major country engaged in the Second World War was slowly and painfully recovering from the disasters the conflagration had produced. The United States and the Soviet Union however created what would be called the cold war. In this conflict situation, the Korean War in the early years of the 1950s represented an important moment in the American history.

The Korean war was to some extent an expected consequence of the post world war situation. It was the first sign of the confrontation between East and West outside Europe (Jenkins, 1997). The North Korean communists supported by the U.S.S.R. invaded the South supported by the Americans. In fact this attempt was part of the wider situation and balance of power present during the Cold War. The main goal of the Korean communists was to practically unite Korea under a communist rule (Kissinger, 1995). For the Russians, the goal of their intervention was to increase communist influence in Asia, while the U.S. had the precise opposite goal.

The most affected people of this war were indeed the victims of the fighting, from both Korean sides. At the same time however, taking into account the fact that the U.S. troops along with UN troops were also involved in the war, it can be said that the victims suffered the most.

The effects on the United States were limited because people were generally engaged in day-to-day businesses. However, the Korean War is also labeled as the Forgotten War (Korea, 2004) because it was soon replaced by other major events on the international scene. However, it is important for the understanding of the first events of the Cold War. At the end of the war, Korea did not unite; therefore the North Koreans did not meet their goal. However they did achieve a sense of notoriety and drew the attention on the domino phenomenon (Kissinger, 1995). The Korean War was the first war in a series of many in which the U.S. engaged troops to defend the territorial integrity of a far off country. This would prove an important experience, especially for the wars to come.

The 1960s was representative for the civil rights movement which culminated with the 1965 Voting Rights Act. It represented the result of decades of civil struggle for the right to vote by women and African-Americans in the American society (Bolick, 1995). Also the groups that made constant pressures on the legislative body to include the right to vote… [read more]


Wii Adolf Hitler's Role in World War Term Paper

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WII

Adolf Hitler's Role in World War II

There is a common notion that the war in 1939 is a continuation of the war that ended in 1918. The Second World War was in fact a return to the unfinished business of the First World War. That is why they are numbered I and II. The idea of a progression… [read more]


World War II and the United States Term Paper

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¶ … World War II and the United States. Specifically it will compare and contrast the United States after World War I and after World War II. There were great consequences for America after World War I and World War II, and the country changed dramatically after each war. Both wars would affect the country for years to come, and… [read more]


Comparing and Contrasting WWI and WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,852 words)
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¶ … WWI & WW2

Comparing and Contrasting WWI and WWII

World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) were the most devastating military conflicts in human history which caused untold destruction and loss of millions of lives. Although both wars were fought under distinctly different circumstances, had different causes and did not involve exactly the same foes, the… [read more]


European Economics After WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,329 words)
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European Economics World War II

World War II was considered the biggest and costliest war in history in terms of both lives and money (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 2007). In a short period of six years, approximately 50 million died in battle or as a result of concentration camps, bombings, starvation and disease. Others were displaced and left… [read more]


Colosseum Few Buildings in History Have Attracted Term Paper

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Colosseum

Few buildings in history have attracted as much attention or been the site of so many historic events as the Colosseum in Rome. While the structure is a mere shadow of its former glory today, much of it still remains standing and what is there is clearly suggestive of its magnificence. Mock naval battles, contests between exotic wild beasts… [read more]


Dinner With 3 Of the Great Leaders in History Term Paper

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Dinner With 3 Leaders

The silence would be unbearable when my dinner guests first sat down at the table. I thought long and hard about who to invite to this momentous occasion and settled on an unlikely trio of 20th century giants: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Jr., and, yes, Adolf Hitler. We would need some wine to loosen our lips because few of us would be ready to break the silence and the discomfort of breaking bread with a merciless madman as Hitler seemed to be. King would undoubtedly be the least comfortable next to Hitler, as the two men left nearly opposite marks on human history.

However, I have always wanted to pick Hitler's brain. His actions altered the course of history; there is no denying that. I invited him with President Roosevelt especially because the two men were both instrumental during the Second World War. Since that war, globalization has become a reality and the world has become linked through the free market. I would like to ask Roosevelt and Hitler especially about how they felt about globalization and the repercussions of World War Two on Europe. It would also be interesting to find out what Hitler and Roosevelt thought about the European Union.…… [read more]


American History War and Peace Term Paper

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American History

War and Peace as American Objectives in the mid-20th Century

Excesses both of hope and fear, especially the American inclination to see good in certain nations or movements and evil in others, can lead us into unhappy conflicts. Our crusading zeal may have contributed much to the world, but it is time we saw the menace to peace that it also contains." - Professor John K. Fairbank, 1971.

Professor Fairbank's comment concerning America's "crusading zeal" was a fair critical analysis of our nation's move toward conflict during the period of 1945-1965. Following World War II, the country was willing to believe in the inherent good or evil mentioned by Fairbank. Protecting the weak and defining our nation as a defender and powerful ally/enemy was foremost in the minds of America's leaders. Roosevelt's post-war policies and the following Truman Doctrine set the stage for further American efforts to take world enforced peace into its own hands. What followed were policies and foreign conflicts that included the well-publicized Korean and Vietnam wars, but also actions with Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Policies during and following World War II set the stage for conflict. Roosevelt's agreements with Churchill and Stalin following the war not only fell apart, but also led to the Cold War and extreme anti-communism in the United States (Kort, 31-32). Stalin fostered many communist nations, threatening the United States and England. British and American forces responded with the support of revolutionaries and governments that took power away from the communists. American foreign policy concerning communism became clear with the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan and was emphasized by American leaders throughout the period (Kort 36-43). The Truman Doctrine expresses American concern that communism would quickly spread through any and all nations that were not protected from it, with Truman stating that, "America could not, and should not, let these free countries stand unaided" (Truman 178). In the period following the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, the United States was heavily aimed at "containment" of communist ideology (Kort 43).

The containment effort was heavily acted upon in Latin and South America. The Latin American republics (including Suriname, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil) had cooperated with the allied efforts during the war in return for economic and military aid. Brazil in particular was vulnerable to Nazi leanings and was considered to be key in many of America's World War II strategies (Freidel 219). The United States and Britain now took it upon themselves to "protect" these nations from communist leanings. At the same time, many of these nations were encouraged by the Soviet Union…… [read more]


U.S. Diplomacy During World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
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U.S. Diplomacy During World War II

World War II was a watershed event in the history of international relations, particularly in the relations between the United States and the rest of the world. Before the War, the U.S. foreign policy and public opinion were in favor of 'isolationism', although support for the 'internationalism' also existed in some pockets. As a… [read more]


World War I: Causes and Analysis Term Paper

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World War I: Causes and Analysis

Despite being precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria Hungary by a Serbian nationalist in 1914, the causes of World War I run deeper than that. In addition to the assassination as cause of World War I, we must also add imperialistic and nationalistic pressures to the list. These were the more significant causative factors that led directly to the onset of World War I. By the late 19th century, intense rivalries had emerged between the world's leading imperials power -- Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. This rivalry was built on a conflict of interests in Africa and China, the question of how to resolve the vacuum of power left by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, and aggressive German imperialism that threatened France in Morocco and Great Britain's naval superiority ("World War I" 41532). Additionally, strong nationalism was growing throughout Europe at the time, intensifying political rivalries and undermining the domestic integrity of many of the imperial powers.

Given these sociopolitical causes to the start of World War I, it is doubtful that anything could have been down to avoid the conflict. If the Archduke hadn't been assassinated, some other (relatively) minor event would have touched off a conflict that had been brewing for many years. Throughout the 19th century, Europe's imperial powers had grown without much concern for each other. Spheres of influence were roughly divided in the world, and conflicts amounted to comparatively minor scuffles. But by the beginning of the 20th century, the territorial ambitions of these empires had not abated, while the availability of uncontrolled territory certainly had. Pressure to continue expanding precipitated the descent of Europe into war in 1914.

From this we can see that the main cause of the hostilities was the imperialistic rivalry that developed between the major…… [read more]


Intelligence After World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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intelligence after World War II and during the emergence of the Cold War. Specifically, it will discuss the changes in mission, scope, organization, resources, and technology to address perceived national security concerns in the Cold War. U.S. intelligence gathering underwent a reformation after the end of World War II. New technologies made intelligence gathering more efficient and differences with the Soviet Union and others made in even more necessary. All of this combined to make U.S. intelligence more effective, more accurate, and more powerful, a trend that continues today. The Cold War helped create the modern U.S. intelligence system, and so, in effect, the Cold War helped give the intelligence agencies the scope of power and technology they have today.

The modern intelligence gathering agencies as we know them today have their roots at the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War. In 1947, President Harry Truman signed the National Security Act, which "established the National Security Council to advise the president on foreign affairs and defense policy; created the Central Intelligence Agency to gather and analyze foreign intelligence and conduct covert operations; and created a Department of Defense to coordinate the activities of the branches of the U.S. armed forces."

In 1952, he created the National Security Agency, which was supposed to engage solely in cryptology, which would seem to separate the agencies even more.

Of course, intelligence gathering and spying took place early in American history, before the American Revolution, in fact. However, the modern intelligence gathering agencies as we know them today have their roots in the National Security Act as a reaction to the growth of the Cold War around the world. The agencies we know today were very different from what Truman created in 1947. Author Amy Zegat notes, "Conforming to his military's wishes, the president sought a small central intelligence agency that would coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate intelligence, but not collect it. The original CIA was never supposed to engage in spying."

Clearly, the mission of the intelligence agencies when they were created was far different from their eventual evolution. Their scope was far less than they are today, as well. The scope then mainly concentrated on the Soviet Union and other Communist nations, and sometimes, the lack of attention to other areas proved costly. Intelligence was slim on Korea and Vietnam, for example, and that helped lead to discrepancies in intelligence regarding the nations, their intent, and the eventual onset of conflicts in these areas.

The superiority of American intelligence did not begin as soon as the agencies were created in 1947. Author Christopher Andres notes, "The U.S. intelligence community had not a single agent capable of providing a serious insight into Soviet policy, no ability to penetrate current high-grade Soviet cipher systems, and no aerial reconnaissance of more than the fringes of the Soviet Union."

It took time to build a competent system of agencies who could gather intelligence effectively, but over time, the agencies did become… [read more]


World War I Great Britain's Failure Term Paper

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World War I

Great Britain's Failure to Use Its Navy to Its Full Effectiveness in World War I

As World War I began, Great Britain was considered the supreme power in terms of naval force. Yet, the German Navy had been upgrading enough to make it of significant British concern during the war. In particular, the use of German U-boats… [read more]


World War II Put-Off by Europe's Lag Term Paper

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World War II

Put-off by Europe's lag in paying off debts from the First World War, the United States remained committed to a policy of neutrality for the first several years of World War Two. Several issues led to American involvement in the war. First, collusion between Roosevelt and Churchill caused the United States to adopt restrictive trading policies with Japan. The eloquent Churchill apparently persuaded President Roosevelt to pressure Japan through sanctions: by prohibiting further shipments of steel, iron, aviation fuel, and other military essentials (Irving). A crippled Japanese army retaliated by the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 of 1941. Congress approved entry into the war the very next day. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, which now faced enemies on two different continents. The era of American isolationism and neutrality promptly ended, even though Congress still tried to stave off the commitment of troops via the Lend-Lease Act. The Lend-Lease Act mobilized billions of dollars in weapons that could be lent or leased at will by the Americans. Weapons were lent to Allied troops but also to the Soviet Union during its offensive against the Nazis. The Lend-Lease Act also allowed the Americans to minimize troop deployment either to Europe or to Asia, while at the same time bolstering its lucrative munitions industry.

By the time the United States entered the war, Hitler's Nazis had invaded much of Europe. A blitzkrieg (lightening/flash war) strategy helped the Nazis incur major victories, especially during its invasion of Poland. During blitzkrieg, the army engages on multiple fronts using multiple means to trap the enemy. Nazi offenses were proving successful during the early stages of the war, partly due to a neutrality pact signed with the Soviet Union. The successful Nazi incursions into France, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia escalated the pressure placed on the United States to intervene.

Germany would later retract on its neutrality agreement with the Soviets, by attempting to invade Russia. The unsuccessful invasion of Moscow would become one of the reasons for the eventual Nazi defeat. An emboldened Soviet Union made inroads into Eastern Europe and eventually Germany and under pressure from several fronts at once, the Nazis were forced to surrender unconditionally. Germany surrendered less than a month after President Roosevelt died.

Their unconditional surrender came in light of joint Soviet, British, and American efforts and the leaders of those three nations would meet several times: most famously at Tehran and Yalta. At Tehran in 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin approved Operation Overlord, which would precipitate the Nazi defeat and secure the Allied stronghold over Europe. Before the unconditional surrender of the Nazis in 1945, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met again in Yalta. Their stalemated talks partially prepared the world for the Cold War.

Churchill initially hoped to incur American support of the Allied cause in Europe: to aid Great Britain and France in the campaign against Germany and…… [read more]


Ancient World Cities and Government Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The way that this had an impact on the government was to focus its resources on addressing the needs of the king. This caused many cities to have ruling classes that were dominated by officials, who were close to the nobility vs. everyone else. These elements are important in showing how the Persian cities were a combination of warfare, metropolitan areas and governments with an emphasis on the king / state. ("The Achaemenid Persian Empire," 2010)

Rome was created based on a single city state defeating all of the other communities and people in the area. Over the course of centuries, their power expanded to the point that the Romans had to develop a centralized system of government. This led to the creation of an administrative and tax system throughout the empire (with each region paying levies to the central government in Rome). Moreover, the seizing of land and treasure in the conquered territories helped to create a wealthy class in Roman society. While the peasants were forced off of the land and went to the cities to become beggars. These elements are important, in showing how Rome was developed from an individual city state by defeating the others militarily. The conquests from warfare forced the government to establish a system of collecting taxes and seizing the treasure of conquered areas. This led to the early development of an aristocracy based upon who controlled the wealth. (Kries, 2009)

Clearly, ancient city states were at an intersection for warfare and government. This is because all of them were created based on some kind of conflict that was occurring. The focus of the leadership had an impact upon how the government was established and it practices. As a result, this would shape how society developed and the most important attributes that were embraced.

References

The Achaemenid Persian Empire. (2010). Met Museum. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 6. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture6b.html

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 8. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture8b.html

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 10. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture10b.html

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 11. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture11b.html… [read more]

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