"World History" Essays

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Hermann Goering Term Paper

… Hermann Goering was the second most important actor during the Third Reich as he was designated to be the successor of Hitler. He was the commander of the Luftwaffe, the German Air Force, and thus the military relevance of Hermann… [read more]


Critical Review of Stalingrad by Antony Beevor Term Paper

… Critical Review of Stalingrad by Antony Beevor

There is no doubt Stalingrad was a major event in perhaps the most
significant war in world history. In Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942-
1943, by Antony Beevor, it is clear that Beevor… [read more]


Comparative and Contrasting Study of Two International Entrepreneurs Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler Term Paper

… ¶ … International Entrepreneurs: Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler

Today, given their impact on the generations that followed, it is reasonable to suggest that two of the most influential individuals of the 20th century were Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler.… [read more]


Alexander the Great the Life, Leadership Term Paper

… ALEXANDER the Great

The Life, Leadership, and Legacy of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great, who was also known as Alexander III of Macedon, lived from July 356 BC until June 11, 323 BC ("Alexander the Great"), and was the hereditary King of Macedon from 336 B.C. until 323 BC (Plutarch). Alexander the Great was also, as the movie Alexander the Great (November 24, 2004) shows, an enormously successful military commander of his time, and for that matter, of all world military history (Alexander the Great). However, Alexander's death, which took place at Nebuchadnezzar's palace in Babylon when he was just 32 years of age, reportedly on June 10-June 11, 323 B.C. (Plutarch), remains mysterious to this dayIn this essay, I shall describe the early life and education of Alexander, and also his military victories, his death, and his military legacy.

As a boy, Alexander, who was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and Philip fourth wife Olympias ("Alexander the Great"; Plutarch) was educated privately by the philosopher Aristotle, who had been Plato's student. Also, according to the article "Alexander the Great":

Aristotle was Alexander's tutor and he gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy... Aristotle gave him a copy of the Iliad which he always kept with him and read frequently.

Despite the excellent education that Alexander received from Aristotle, however, Alexander's major accomplishments and victories were in fact strategic military ones, and these occurred far and wide, which is extraordinary on its own: especially for a man who never even saw his 33rd birthday. As the article "Alexander the Great" states, for example, Alexander the Great is regarded as one of the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital

Persepolis. Following the unification of the…… [read more]


Technology War and Fascism Term Paper

… ¶ … Technology, War and Fascism by Herbert Marcuse. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. Marcuse wrote these essays in the 1940s and 1950s, and they have gathered together into a collection by his son. Marcuse… [read more]


Alexander the Great Term Paper

… Alexander the Great

There is not much more that can be said about Alexander the Great. He has been the subject of countless books, several movies, and hundreds of years of speculation. People have varying opinions about Alexander. Many doubt… [read more]


Ming Rulers Term Paper

… Ming Rulers

An Examination of the Accomplishments and Failures of the Ming Rulers

The Ming dynasty endured from 1368 to 1644, and provided an interval of domestic rule between periods of Mongol and Manchu dominance ("Ming Dynasty" 1). During this… [read more]


Bolotnikov's Rebellions Term Paper

… These conditions added to the rebellion.

The rebellion was also a political struggle as to who should rule Russia.

It was a revolt along with the dynastic struggle which was prevalent after the death of Tsar Boris Gudonov in the… [read more]


German Political System Term Paper

… Politics

German Government

The German Bundestag is the lower house of the legislature in Germany, and many think it is the center of German government. It is a group made up of representatives elected by the people. The type of work that takes place there is both legislative and leadership based. The group is where bills are introduced in the legislative process. They are voted on by the Bundestag, read, commented on and studied, revised, and then if passed, given to the Bundesrat, so the Bundestag is responsible for most of the legislative process, and they can veto (not pass) a bill, too. The Lander is more closely related to the Bundesrat because that is how the Lander goes through the government and legislative process, and this is where the deputies of the Lander sit. Therefore, the relationship between the Lander and the Bundesrat is much closer than that with the Bundestag. The Bundestag differs from the French National Assembly in that the Budestag has more power. They can reject the president's candidate for Federal Chancellor, they can nominate their own candidate, and they elect the Federal Chancellor, and they also have the power to dismiss him. Thus, while the roles are similar, the French National Assembly has less power with leadership. They exist to adopt and supervise, rather than to elect and dismiss.

B. 2. Rempel feels the…… [read more]


John F. Kennedy and Nikita Term Paper

… Kennedy," 2005).

Overview of Nikita Khrushchev:

Nikita Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovja, in what is now known as Kursk Oblast of the Russian Federation. He was originally trained and worked as a pipe fitter for a variety of mines, but it was during World War I, that Khrushchev's leadership would begin to emerge, as he began to be involved in trade union activities, following the Bolshevik revolution, in 1917. A year later, Krushchev became a Party member and held various management and Party positions in both Donbass and Kiev. In 1931, he transferred to Moscow, and four years later, he became 1st Secretary of the Moscow City Committee. In 1938, he was given the position of 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Ukranian Communist Party. Krushchev continued to work his way up the Party ladder and was a member of the Politburo from 1939 ("Nikita Khrushchev," 2005).

During the Second World War, Khruschev served as a political officer, holding a rank similar to Lieutenant General, in the United States.

He coordinated the defense of the Ukraine and then was the senior political officer in the South of the Soviet Union throughout the war. Stalin's death in March of 1953 instigated a power struggle between several different factions within the Party. Khrushchev prevailed and became Party leader on September 7th, 1953 ("Nikita Khrushchev," 2005).

A Comparison of Kennedy vs. Khrushchev:

Khrushchev was a powerful leader of Russia during a chaotic time. He immediately began to seek a course of reform, which was exemplified in his famous Secret Speech, that was given to the 20th Party Congress, in 1956. Khrushchev alienated himself from the more conservative members of his Party, speaking out against Stalin's actions, especially those crimes committed during the Great Purges (Khrushchev, 1956).

This is in direct comparison to Kennedy's early leadership style. Kennedy too refused to simply do as the Democratic Party demanded. He often voted against Party lines, to the chagrin of traditional Liberals. Although both men would alienate themselves from some of their Party members, both would gain increased acceptance from more moderate Party members, and respect from many because of their willingness to do what they felt was right, not what was popular.

Their dedication to their visionary leadership goals was a similarity, while their personal styles were in severe contrast. Khrushchev was often seen as uncivilized and boorish. He had a reputation for his significant temper and often resorted to interupting speakers to insult them. Khrushchev was known for pounding his fists on the table and shouting during a United Nations conference in 1960, and even taking off his shoe and pounding it violently on the table, when asked how he could oppose Western captilist imperialism given his actions to rapidly assimilate Eastern Europe (Khrushcheva, 2000). Whereas Kennedy grew up in a wealthy, refined family and would never have considered to resort to such measures to get his point across.

Yet, both men were incredibly charismatic, able to eloquently express… [read more]


Paul Rusesabagina Hotel Rwanda Term Paper

… Hotel Rwanda -- Response

It is often said that Americans, because of the youth of the American nation, have little sense of a common world history. However, the drama of the film "Hotel Rwanda" also suggests that we as Americans may have too much of a sense of genocide as a historical, rather than a contemporary concern. Genocide is often thought of as something that takes or took place in the far past -- 'back in the days of the Holocaust' -- when genocide is a crime that continues to be perpetuated, again and again, in contemporary history, often to the continued blindness of the world's eyes and the world's media. How many times, one finds one's mind and heart provoked to ask, upon viewing a film such as "Hotel Rwanda," must Americans vow 'never again' -- when genocide is a crime that seems to occur again and again?

The film "Hotel Rwanda" was based on a true story of the civil war that plagued Rwanda's capital city of Kigali. What transpired during 1994 is often described as a civil, that is internally perpetuated, genocide. Because the genocide took place within an African nation, between polarized tribes and regional ethnic groups, and because it did not threaten to spill over into other nations that neighbored the major European powers unlike the genocides of Europe, this African genocide was lagetly ignored by the world.

The events that led up to the story of "Hotel Rwanda" began when the Hutu militia came to power. The Hutu army aimed to systemattically elimated all of the Tutsis from the nation. However, the owner of the title hotel was a real-life Hutu with a Tutsi wife. He resolved, partly out of necessity and partly out of compassion, to act with discipline, fearlessness, and quiet reistance to the Rwandan genocidal army forces of 'his' ethnic tribe. In a largely unrecognized act of kinness at the time, thousands of children, neighbors and other refugees who sought sanctuary at his luxury hotel…… [read more]


Mesopotamia &amp Egypt Term Paper

… Originating deep in Africa, the Nile River descends through many cataracts to sea level at the delta in Egypt, where in its annual flooding, rich soil is deposited. Hemmed in by its narrow valleys, the Nile flows through regions that may not have a single drop of rainfall in a decade (Von Soden, 103). Yet crops grow luxuriantly from the fertilized silt, just as they did in ancient times. Thus, the great Nile made life possible and allowed the peoples of Egypt to build one of the greatest civilizations of all time.

In the days of the Pharaohs, the land of Egypt was dotted with marshes and island ridges, and what is now arid desert valley was grassy meadows well suited for grazing cattle, hunting and, of course, the erection of buildings. The fertility of Egypt, as Braidwood recounts, "was proverbial, and at the end of its history, when Egypt had become a province of the Roman Empire, it was the granary of the Mediterranean world" (356). In addition, the naturally-occurring rock outcrops in Egypt, such as those found in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens in Lower Egypt, played a very important role in Egypt's ability to construct buildings and tombs. And like the Mesopotamians, the Nile River also provided mud for bricks and pottery that was made by the local peoples for their own homes mostly situated along the banks of the Nile, where soil for cultivation and water for drinking and irrigation was plentiful.

Of course, the most prominent use of stone in ancient Egypt was for the construction of tombs and buildings associated with various religious beliefs. The mastaba was a rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber and connected with the outside by a shaft. With this design, it is significant to note that in Mesopotamia there was a relative indifference to the cult of burial and to the permanence of the tomb, while in Egypt, such matters were considered to be of the first importance. About 2750 B.C.E., another important structure appeared on the wind-swept plains of Egypt, being the Stepped Pyramid of King Zoser of the 3rd dynasty. Raised at Saqqara, this pyramid stood as the compromise between the mastaba and the later true pyramids at Gizeh and resembles in part the great ziggurats of Mesopotamia.

In conclusion, it is abundantly clear that the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians fully understood the natures of their environments and utilized them in order to create and develop their own individual societies that literally changed the world forever.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Braidwood, Robert J. The Near East and the Foundations for Civilization. New York: Collier Publishing, 1952.

Sasson, Jack, ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. UK: Hendrickson Publishers, 2000.

Trigger, Bruce. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Von Soden, Wolfram. The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East. Berlin: William B.…… [read more]


Modernity Might We Not Argue Term Paper

… Modernity

Might we not argue that modernity begins with the establishment of the bourgeoisie and that as a result, the vast majority of us are better off than we were before? Please include a definition of the word "modernity."

The concept of modernity is, first, necessarily a relative one, depending on one's (and/or one's group) position: economically; socially; culturally, and vis-a-vis both one's past and one's future; and one's lifestyle; concerns; hopes, and aspirations. In medieval and later Europe, modernity meant the rise of merchant and industrial classes (as opposed to strictly agrarian societies), and with that, the rise of the bourgeoisie (merchants and tradesmen): a brand new social class. In post-Civil War America, modernity included mass migration to large cities (i.e., leaving the farm behind) and mass industrialization (and with it, the rise of huge cities and a new American bourgeoisie). According to Webster's New American Dictionary (1995), the term "modern" means: "of, relating to, or characteristic of the present or the immediate past: CONTEMPORARY" (p. 333). The relationship of modernity, within today's world, to being either better or worse off is, in my opinion, likely a complex and dialectical one: modernity is both good and bad (i.e. both better and worse for us, in terms of our everyday lives). The good (or better) is contained within the bad (or worse), and the bad (or worse) within the good (or better).

The term "bourgeoisie" is also a relative one, depending on one's nationality, outlook, and materialistic and/or other perspectives. The original European concepts of "bourgeois" (used as an adjective) and "bourgeoisie" (used as a descriptive noun) probably originated in the 11 or 12th centuries, with the rise of medieval European cities considered, then, centers for commerce or trade: Western Mecca for merchants and tradesmen, the first capitalists.

Today, however, the terms "bourgeois" and "bourgeoisie" are synonymous with cultural shallowness; material worship; acquisitiveness; lack of historical perspective; absence of cultural or social sophistication. If modernity began with the rise of the bourgeoisie, that likely represented significant progress for serfs or peasants who now sought non-agrarian, easier, more equal ways of life. Medieval landowners losing live-in serf labor, though, were probably less overjoyed. The rise of the European bourgeoisie also brought a gradual end to feudalism, throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. This was good for the serf, bad for the landowner: that is, an example of progress being good for some, bad for others. In the 19th century, the European bourgeoisie pushed for civil rights and religious freedoms, which the bourgeoisie of Europe, America, and other places today take for granted. Such rights, though, were absent under feudalism. But about this time, key differences sprang up within and around the bourgeoisie: stratifications leading to "class consciousness" (which would lead, Marx argued, to revolutions).

In America since 1865, the spread of capitalism and the influences of technology have combined to create an ever-expanding middle class, to which everyone may (in theory, at least) aspire. The industrial bourgeoisie (e.g., Rockefeller, Carnegie, Mellon)… [read more]


Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Saw Term Paper

… In the United States, for example, when the Union Pacific Railroads traversed the thousands of miles of American soil; often, if the railways failed to pass through an existing town, the people moved away; in fact, new towns and cities were often formed by virtue of where the railroads converged. This began another large trend that would continue to this day: the urbanization of the developed world.

Essentially, it was during the nineteenth century that an increasing number of people began to move away from rural farming communities and into the city. This was made possible by the vast distances that goods and foods could be transported. In other words, cities were able to be supported by larger areas of land because these new modes of transportation could supply people's needs with greater efficiency. The move to the city was also fostered by what came to be known as the Industrial Revolution. This revolution began in cloth factories in England, but soon spread throughout Europe and the Americas, and altered the manner in which many previously home made goods were produced. Businessmen discovered that they could increase production and lower costs by setting up massive plants by which products could be manufactured far more quickly. This generated far more urban jobs, thus contributing greatly to the swelling western cities.

This new form of manufacturing also managed to drastically increase the quality and quantity of military weaponry. The American Civil War, seeded by the American Revolution, drove much of this advancement in warfare, with disastrous results. Guns produced in independent factories became more reliable, more powerful, more accurate, and far more easy to handle. However, by the 1860's military tactics had changed little since Napoleon's time. This lead to casualties and carnage on a massive scale; unmatched until the First World War. The war did, however, formally unify the United States and abolish slavery in the Americas.

Overall, many of the political ideals that brought about the American and French Revolutions at the end of the eighteenth century were still being fought to realize throughout the nineteenth century. Specifically, the sweeping proclamation that "all men are created equal." This statement, accepted by self-evidence, demanded that a number of things change in the order and organization of western society. After all, if all men are equal, slavery is completely unjustified. Also, if all men are created equal, it brings into question the legitimacy of social positions held by the powerful and the wealthy. "Debates over the criteria for political fitness, a legacy from the eighteenth century, became a staple of public debates across Europe and the Untied States in the Victorian age, dramatizing once again the divisions characterizing the middle orders." (Gay 16). The fact that political rights were extended to the middle and lower classes grated ideological credence to the woes of poverty and the needs of the common man. The nineteenth century saw this played out through the Napoleonic Revolution, the American Civil War, and through the consequences of the… [read more]


Cod: A Biography Term Paper

… Kurlansky's research also shows that men from Bristol, England also probably found North American before Columbus, and again, they were seeking cod. They had been shut out of Icelandic cod purchasing by the German Hanseatic League, and so they were seeking new sources of the fish for England and Europe. There are no records of what they actually discovered, but they did find enough cod so that they did not need to renegotiate to buy cod through the Hanseatic League. The general thought is that they found an area off North America that was rich in cod. In fact, after the English colonized America, cod was one of their most profitable trade items, and the British trade sanctions which kept Americans from trading their cod with other countries was one of the things that helped ultimately lead to the Revolutionary War and American independence from Great Britain. The cod then, is an historic and important fish, as Kurlansky notes, "If ever there was a fish made to endure, it is the Atlantic cod -- the common fish. But it has among its predators man, an openmouthed species greedier than the cod" (Kurlansky 45). Man has ultimately decimated much of the cod fisheries of the world, but the significance of the fish in world history cannot be reduced. The cod helped lead explorers, merchants, and the curious to North American shores long before Columbus and his men found the West Indies.

In conclusion, it is quite clear that the codfish indirectly led to the discovery of North America by the Vikings and by the English, and perhaps even by the Basques, years before Columbus ever set foot in the West Indies. Codfish also led to the economic success of New England, and one of the first geographical names in the country was "Cape Cod," named in the early 1600s by an Englishman. Cod were economically important to the world, and finding them was important business. Searching for more cod led to the discovery of North America, and ultimately, to a great change in world politics and Britain's influence on the world.

References

Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the…… [read more]


Alexander the Great King Philip II Term Paper

… Alexander the Great

King Philip II did not leave his son Alexander's destiny to chance. He had the boy learn how to play the lyre, recite and debate and placed him under the tutorship of no less than Aristotle (Smitha… [read more]


Biases Present in Our Culture Term Paper

… However, these wrongs have been given more footage in cinema, including stories of slave uprisings in Cuba and Brazil along with the story (Quilombo) of a fugitive slave republic in the "new" world called "Palmares," which withstood repeated attacks by the Portuguese (about one every 15 months) for 100 hundred years.

Not all Europeans accepted what was happening blindly. The French writer Montaigne argued that the conquering Europeans were far more barbaric than the natives they so easily conquered with their superior weapons and brutal methods. He identified the real reason for these actions -- greed (as he said, pearls and pepper). Shakespeare made a reference to it in The Tempest, in the character "Caliban" (a play on 'cannibal'), who complained that the European Prospero had stolen his land.

The most egregious defense of Western domination over other cultures is that they viewed it as the "natural order of things." This brings us back to the opening of the chapter, with Narcissus admiring his reflection, seeing nothing else but himself. The Europeans believed their language was better, their skin color better, their culture better, and that because of this it was their right to violently take lands from other peoples.

What this chapter shows clearly is evidence that the victors write the history. If the European conquerors had come with cannon and gunpowder and had been greeted with indigenous people who had bigger cannons and something more powerful than gunpowder, history would have been written quite differently. "Might makes right" has never been a good justification for any actions, whether it be a bully on the playground or a shipload…… [read more]


Industrial Revolution in America Term Paper

… The transfer of technology that America had until 1830 lead the nation to more success in technology. Mark Thompson proved this in his Was The Nineteenth Century American Industrial Revolution Solely Dependent on the Transfer of British Technology?, stating that The ensuing transfer of technology up to 1830, was to see a one way traffic of technology from Great Britain to America. Yet after 1830, the U.S. was to become proficient in its own right in building the heavy locomotives and trucks that she used. Thus by 1839, of the four hundred and fifty locomotives in the United States, nearly three quarters had been built in America.

Influences of the Industrial Revolution in American Society

Economic growth, demand for more laborers, population growth, utilization of machineries, international trading, slavery, educational reform, and many others, were among the general effects and influences of the industrial revolution in American society.

In terms of education, the period of industrial revolution saw the need for educational improvement. The technological advances England were developing during the beginning of the industrial revolution had inspired the American society to widen more of their knowledge in science and technology to keep up with the quick pace England improves its technology and economy.

Generally, with the advancements in technology, and the emergence of different industries, aiming for higher goals became one of the cultures of most Americans in the period of industrial revolution. They started to dream for better ways of living. This, they saw, is attainable through involvement in the different job opportunities that the industrial sector offers. Many were given the chance to reach for the same goal, in which men and women almost had equal opportunities in the workforce.

The American society, in general, became active participants during the industrial revolution in the discovery of technological advancements that helped the world build a convenient and quick-pace society.

Conclusion

Based from some historical literatures, there are several contradicting views on the effects and influences of the Industrial Revolution in American society. Questions were raised whether the period caused more negative or more positive consequences to the American society. Despite of this, however, it is no doubt that the period of the industrial revolution has brought advancements to our society in terms of technology. The period opened the economy of America, England, and every nation worldwide, with new machineries that facilitate the operation of different industries. The period became the cradle of inventions that were of great use and of great help in building the world with an improved economy.

In conclusion, the period of the industrial revolution helped in making possible every convenience that we have in our contemporary society.

The intelligence of the period's geniuses have drastically changed and transformed many aspects in our lives.

Bibliography

Anderson, Curt. The Two Countries that Invented the Industrial Revolution.

American History. 14 Dec 2003. http://americanhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.darex.com%2Findurevo.htm

Chandler, Alfred.

Houghton Mifflin. 14 Dec 2003. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_045300_industrialre.htm

Komlos, John. The Industrial Revolution as the Escape from the Malthusian Trap.

University of Munich. 14… [read more]


Labor Policies Term Paper

… The [state] recognizes work to be the duty of all citizens of the republic and proclaims the watchword: "He who does not work shall not eat (First Constitution of the Soviet Union, 1918 http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob103.html)."

This labor policy sounds productive in… [read more]


Ensured the Success Essay

… As in the Soviet Union, thousands of books, plays, and films were banned, but an entire body of pro-Nazi culture was created to take their place. (Shirer, 241-243) The active promotion of this culture, which glorified Germany and the Aryan worker, served as both entertainment for the masses and propaganda for the state.

Of course, all these social programs cost money. Rearmament required all spare state funds, so the government established programs of "voluntary" donation and wage deduction, through which the people could fund their own enlightenment.

With the Gestapo handy to encourage reluctant donors, participation in these programs was nearly universal. (Frei, 83)

Hitler's government had achieved nothing short of a public relations miracle. Not only had the Third Reich implemented an ambitious array of morale-boosting social programs, the citizenry had happily footed the bill. With such a strong social fabric in place, the Third Reich looked as if it could achieve anything.

III. The foundations of a strong society in place, the leaders of the Third Reich set about preparing the next generation of Nazis. In order to keep alive the fervor and devotion that had been so essential to the initial success of Hitler's regime, it would be necessary to indoctrinate the nation's youth with the core values of Nazism. Ideally, education would begin at a very young age.

Germany was already known for its intellectual tradition. Most of Europe began introducing mandatory schooling for children in the 1870s, but in parts of Germany, the same laws had been in place since the sixteenth century. (Eksteins, 71) During the nineteenth century, German scholarly works reached such renown that proficiency in the language was considered essential among Western academics. (Eksteins, 71) Thus, when Hitler came to power in 1933, Germany's educational framework was outstanding at all levels.

The Nazis bent this venerable system to their needs, while leaving most of the infrastructure intact. Character was of utmost importance in the Nazi education, as the sacrifices required of German men and women would not come easily to the undisciplined or morally soft. Hygiene and physical fitness were also areas of emphasis, as were studies of race and Aryan culture. (Frei, 87-88) In order to curtail the intelligentsia, by nature a skeptical group, and strengthen the party's power base in the working class, access to higher education was limited after 1933. (Childs, 65) From the lowest levels to the highest, the Nazi educational system was designed to produce capable, dedicated soldiers, workers, and civil servants.

Perhaps even more important than the schools in the creation of young Nazis was the Hitler Youth. Germany's Youth Movement had taken root at the turn of the century. The Nazis recognized its potential for indoctrination, and molded the institution to conform to the ideology of the state. At first, the Hitler Youth was attractive to young people as an outlet for their energies and a chance for group identity. The group's numbers swelled until, in 1939, membership was made mandatory. (Frei, 85) As war… [read more]


Accordingly Term Paper

… He then argues that the European conquest and exploitation of the Americas resulted from the fact that Europeans were geographically closer to the Americas than were African and Asian maritime-oriented civilizations, and that the conquest itself was facilitated by the great epidemics of Eastern Hemisphere diseases which decimated the populations and destroyed the civilizations of the "New World."

Blaut, a geographer by profession, makes his point through a telling graphic titled "maps of the world before and after 1500 AD." It contains dots representing "dated place-name mentions" in Brenner's articles. No region outside of Europe is ever mentioned before 1500 AD. After 1500 AD, references occur more frequently but tend only to reflect what Blaut regards as "Brenner's view that capitalism began to diffuse outward to the rest of the world after its birth in northwestern Europe."

Given the more enlightened racial framework of today, Eurocentric historians today support their views with "hard" evidence drawn from agronomy, climatology, demographics, etc. rather than openly racialist claims. Few today would argue that the Europeans were genetically endowed with gifts for invention or rationality, or chosen by god. Rather, fortuitous historical circumstances moved them to the head of the class. It is exactly these pretensions to hard, scientific evidence that Blaut succeeds in demolishing. Barely disguising his contempt, he answers one false claim after another. When 4 Eric J. Jones asserts that Europeans were solely destined to become capitalists after the Middle Ages, Blaut cites Tome Pires, the 17th century Portuguese chronicler, who described Indian merchants thusly: "They are men who understand merchandise; they are... properly steeped in the sound and harmony of it." He adds, "[T]hose of our people who want to be clerks and factors ought to go there and learn, because the business of trade is a science." Among these Eurocentric historians farming practices loom a larger than any other supposedly objective criterion underpinning the rise of the West. The West is the world of the spirited, inventive yeoman farmer, while the repressive East employed unproductive farming techniques. Benefiting from his early training and fieldwork in agronomy, Blaut presents an alternative interpretation. For example, while Michael Mann considers soil fertility in Europe to be the key to its rise, Blaut points out that until the arrival of the potato from South America, a vast swath of land across Europe remained unproductive because of excess rainfall, conditions beneficial only to potato growth. Meanwhile, crop rotation -- supposedly unique to the West -- was found in the rest of the world. But, the question of "Eurocentrism" remains a vexing problem for academia. In the broadest sense, Eurocentrism can be understood as the implicit view that societies and cultures of European origin constitute the "natural" norm for assessing what goes on in the rest of the world.

Within this vast area of debate, one particular subtopic has been an object of intense scrutiny among scholars: the real-or-alleged centrality of Europe in preparing the explosion of economic development, science and technology, the Enlightenment and… [read more]


Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

… The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and… [read more]


German Unification Occupies Term Paper

… The peace treaties signed after the war served as a sharp blow to already wounded ego of the French. The Germans did everything in their power to belittle the French, which is considered the gravest mistake made by the Bismarck… [read more]


Machine vs. Nature Term Paper

… Man is so complicated a machine that it is impossible to get a clear idea of the machine beforehand, and hence impossible to define it. For this reason, all the investigations have been vain, which the greatest philosophers have made a priori, that is to say, in so far as they use, as it were, the wings of the spirit. Thus it is only a posteriori or by trying to disentangle the soul from the organs of the body, so to speak, that one can reach the highest probability concerning man's own nature, even though one can not discover with certainty what his nature is" (La Mettrie et al. 89).

La Mettrie based his views on his own "observations," not on scientific study. Today, his "findings" seem sadly out of date, and a bit too romanticized. "Winston Churchill once said that 'the further back you look, the further ahead in the future you can see'" (Moore and Simon 76), and this is surely the case with Le Mettrie's writings.

The human body is a machine which winds its own springs. It is the living image of perpetual movement. Nourishment keeps up the movements which fever excites"

La Mettrie et al. 93). Today, we tend to look at man not as much as a machine, but more a soul and a heart. The body is an incredible machine, but it is what is inside each man that gives him or her their own unique personality, outlook, and feelings about the world around them. The natural world also includes many incredible machines, but none of them have a soul, and that is what will always differentiate man from machines, and the natural world.

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=70160745"La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, et al. Man a Machine. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1912.

Moore, Stephen, and Simon, Julian L. "The Greatest Century That Ever Was." The World & I, Vol. 15. 1 March 2000, pp 76. Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Boulder, CO:…… [read more]


World War II Essay

… [footnoteRef:18] [17: Geoffrey Parker, The Cambridge History of Warfare (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 451.] [18: Overy, pp. 4, 31, 76; Weinberg, p. 1.]

Keegan and Ferguson do not specifically mention the importance of World War I… [read more]


World War Analysis WWI Research Paper

… The next ten years after the War were the cause of great prosperity for U.S. Huge developments in radios and household items were made and new creations like cars and aeroplanes were formed. The standard of living was also significantly improved. During the mid-1920s U.S. was producing products that were distributed worldwide including the Ford line. Innovative ideas were introduced for example the proposal by Frederick W. Taylor on scientific management (Armstrong 2012-2013, 217) This ensured quicker production of products across the country leading to lowered production cost and consequently a reduced cost to the buyer. All these changes and improvements would probably not have occurred if U.S. had not participated in the World War 1. A significant impact was made to its industry and overall economy. The trend of products being issued on credit also commenced during the post-war period. Although warnings were made by economists with regards to the extensive number of products issued on credit; this was ignored by the American citizens. Focus was made on advertising and this altered the mind-set of the citizen as the same adverts were run regardless of discrimination in the regions. This resulted in diminishing of the distinction of classes and therefore a 'universal national culture' was created. (Armstrong 2012-2013, 217). Along with this focus was also made on portraying ideas through novels and therefore many famous novels were published during the 1920s. In these novels the writers aimed at delivering the message that Americans have become too involved with the idea of 'making money' and as a result deviated from their own culture. It was particularly criticized that that their values were lost in the post-War era. This stance that U.S. had taken regarding neutrality was now completely obsolete and therefore an end of the period of separateness from international affairs. The entire participation in the War became covered with the greed to make money. Their work did pay off eventually resulting in making it stable country with a booming economy. Nevertheless it can be observed that since participation in the War, the mind-set of the society has been completely altered. The basic purpose of every citizen is a stabilized income and savings for their retirement. This started as a result of the World War one. It is clearly seen that this War did not only have an economical effect but social and political as well. During the nineteenth century period huge chunks of money was received from other countries however during the World War One period this halted as all the finance was utilized for the War. The foreign investments came down to $3.3 billion from $7.2 billion (Rockoff, 2004, 20).

However, this all came to a standstill when suddenly there was a collapse in the New York stock market. Thousands were left bankrupt and a huge number of people lost their savings. The country which had become one of the richest in the world after World War I entered the Great Depression. This period lasted from 1929 to… [read more]


World War II -- Eastern Term Paper

… In a fatal display of hubris and thoughtlessness, Hitler split his forces, sending them north and south. This split resulted in the overextension of his forces and delays that pushed the invasion into the devastating Russian Winter. Spread thin and inadequately prepared for fighting through the extreme cold and snow of Russia, German forces suffered their greatest casualties and ultimately endured the failure of their massive invasion.

As all consulted sources agree, German forces never recovered from the failure of Barbarossa. The concentration of German forces on this Eastern Front due to Hitler's obsession with conquering Russia caused the Germans to all but abandon the Battle of Britain, thus saving Britain from certain defeat. Furthermore, the defeat contributed to the mutual distrust between Hitler and his generals, crippling Germany's ability to effectively fight the War. Finally, the failure of Barbarossa weakened the Third Reich in aspects from which it never recovered, turning Germany's focus to the immense Eastern Front, overextending German forces and inflicting huge casualties on the Germans. Consequently, it can be reasonably concluded that Hitler's personal flaws directly resulted in the failure of Barbarossa and Germany's loss in World War II.

Bibliography

Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.

Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why…… [read more]


History of China's Importance Research Paper

… The international political scene at this time is not dominated by a great power, nor should it be. Seeing how great powers manifest themselves in terms of political influence, it is basically impossible for a state to exercise the political… [read more]


History Final Essay

… ¶ … individuals take over the world by weapons and conquers. Posterity then comes to know them as righteous rulers, courageous warriors and wise kings. Most of these individuals are regularly descendents of noble, quite often royal families, thus they enact the destiny they were born to fulfill, such as Alexander III of Macedon or Alexander the Great as he is most commonly referred to. But taking a good look at history, we might find ourselves discovering another series of individuals who have molded the times they lived in as well as posterity, not by actions of war, but through their revolutions of word, theories and philosophies. My thoughts take me to Confucius, a Chinese revolutionist of human values.

Confucius was born somewhere around 551 BC into a, financially speaking, average family. His father had been an officer in the military but died when the boy was only three years of age. It is said that, upon growing up, Confucius had no other choice but to take on such petty jobs as caring for animals, accounting or book keeping. Many suppositions around his birth and the events in his life have been cast throughout time and a lot of what concerns these issues are lacunae. I will not go around them, rather I will focus on his teaching achievements for the purpose of this essay.

Of how Confucius came to receive his education, facts again are misplaced. He is said to have studied ritual, music, bureaucratic history and that, by the time he reached middle age, he had already gained value in the sight of his townsmen. His thoughts and teachings, most of all his impressive influence, all of these can be understood in relation to Analects (Lun Yu), his "secret teachings" that explain the influence Confucius had on the evolution of Chinese culture. Confucius believed that the Golden Age of humanity was reached during Zhou dynasty (1045 -- 771 BCE). The reason for his beliefs was that its rulers had established a connection with divinity (Tian -- referring to cosmos or "Heaven"), following a sincere listening of the "word" and of the practices, collectively named rituals or "Li." The vastness of these practices encompassed issues as far along as politics going on to particular details of one's personal and private life. The Zhou dynasty had been rewarded with the government of China through the manifestation of "De," a powerful virtue. None of the principles of the old dynasty applied during Confucius' time, but he believed that the teachings, held together by a group of scholars named "Ru," could once again revive the Golden Age; this is why he became committed to the cause and decided to dedicate his entire existence to this particular legacy, hoping that, through example and teaching of the spiritual heritage, the world would eventually be restored to its true path or "Dao."

Thus Confucius positively influenced the development of a new culture by restoring some of the old values. He relied strongly on trust, army… [read more]


Atrocities Happening in Recent Modern Book Report

… From this point onwards, the tensions between such groups are inevitable and increase as time evolves.

Another reason for which a group of people may try to inflict decisive harm on another group is peer pressure and fear. At least in the case study provided by Gross, it was relatively obvious that 1941 was one of the most tensed years in the history of the war as well as in that of Poland's. Seeing that the German forces were keen in eliminating as many Jews as possible and given the nature of the events on other war theaters, the local communities were also frightened for their own security and therefore adapted to the pressures of the many.

Finally another reason for which people kill other people at such a massive pace is also connected to the influences they receive from outside. For instance, in Poland, the Jewish problem was not a new aspect, but rather one that had been promoted at the radio or through other means for years before the actual event in 1941. Similarly, in Rwanda, the role of the radio was crucial in bringing about the spirit of rebellion and of violence on the Tutsi. Therefore, again, the role of external factors may determine such dramatic changes in human behavior.

Overall, it can be concluded that Gorss's book is essential for understanding better the nature of genocide and the way in which communities can transform as a result of artificial construction, peer pressure, fear, and external influences.

Works Cited

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005

Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995

Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).

The Atlantic. "World War II: The Holocaust ." Oct 16,…… [read more]


World War I Term Paper

… " (Adriane Ruggiero, page xviii-xix) A group of strongly nationalistic individuals was able to convince the Japanese that their problems will end only if they go to war. Japan believed that it was the most important power in the Pacific and Western Europe was trying to minimize its power. Japan saw Great Britain and the United States as their bigger enemies.

After Japan conquered the Eastern colonies of Great Britain, Holland and France, it ruled an empire which extended from South Asia to East Indies and incorporated islands from the South Pacific. As a result of this expansion; Japan was able to provide its armies with the needed weapons. Japan and Germany agreed to be allies and to support one another if a country will want to attack them.

"While proclaiming its neutrality, the United States spoke out against Japanese aggression, gave aid to the Chinese now fighting the Japanese invaders, and disdained Japan's desire for power in the Pacific." (Adriane Ruggiero, page xx-xxi) President Franklin Roosevelt ended trading with Japan when Indochina was attacked by the Japanese army. The Japanese government took this act as a declaration of war. Although in 1941 United States tried to reach an agreement with Japan, this action could not be finalized. As a result Japan prepared to attack the United States of America, but their plans were discovered by the Americans. The Japanese refused to retreat their armies from China and Indochina and attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

"Thus, war between United States and Japan, and also between the United States and Germany -- because of the pact between Germany and Japan -- began." (Adriane Ruggiero, page xx) It was a bloody war, in which men, women and child lost their lives.

The worst event from the Second World War was represented by Holocaust. This event represents a dark time in German history. "The early days of Nazi rule saw uncoordinated and localized abuse of Germany's Jewish population." (Max Hastings, page 432-433) Hitler's government left the Jewish population with no rights. The German leader believed that there were many reasons for killing all the Jews, but the main reason is that they were to blame for Germany's loss in World War I. Jews were also seen as subhuman because in Hitler vision the perfect people had to have blond hair, blue eyes, and need to be white. Polish and Russian Jews were killed in large numbers in the Second World War. The Jewish people were taken in well organized places in which they were starved, put to hard work, beaten and finally killed in the gas chambers. The most important place where Jewish people were tortured and killed is Auschwitz, in Poland. The exact number of Jews who were killed World War II it is not known.

Also, another important loss of lives took place when Americans dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As a result Japan recognized its defeat, on September 2, 1945. On May 8, 1945, Germany surrendered and on… [read more]


First World War Term Paper

… The Eastern Front was the largest battlefield from World War I. Russia, and from 1916 Romania, fought on one side and Germany and Austria-Hungary on the other one. Also, on the Eastern Front trenches were built, but due to a lack of manpower warfare was more fluid. "Handicapping lengthy advances by either side, however, were the region's primitive transportation network and harsh winter conditions, on which successful offensive inevitably ground to a halt." (Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 611)

After Russian troops invaded German Poland and East Prussia, in August 1914 Russia was defeated by Germany at Tannenberg. Germany needed to take two army groups from the Western Front to defend themselves from the Russian assaults. This action caused the defeat of Germany in the Battle of Marne.

Due to Russia's inability to pass through German line, in 1917 Russian Revolution was triggered. The monarch was changed with Vladimir Lenin. In December 1917, he signed an armistice with the Central Powers, "freeing German troops to face the other Allies on the Western Front." (World War I)

The battle of Tannenberg was the first important fight from the Eastern Front. The battle began on 26 August 1914; with Russians on one side, and the Germans on the other side. The Germans found about Russian plans through radio messages which were decoded and defeated the Red Army on Masurian Lakes in 8-14 September. The Austro-Hungarian army wanted to invade Serbia, but its plan was aggravated by the Russian army's intervention. The Austro-Hungarian army needed to fight both the Serbian army and the Russian army and as a result it could not conquer Serbia.

In 1914 the Ottoman Empire joined the War on the Central Powers side. The Allies tried to defeat the Ottoman Empire, but their plan was a total failure. They were defeated first on the Dardanelles, and although they invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in January 1916 they needed to retreat their army from the Peninsula. British and Italian troops also fought against the Turk army. In 1915 the First Battle of the Isonzo took place. The second Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Caporetto, took place two years after that, and was proven to be a success for Austria-Hungary. Due to German aggression on the sea, in 1917 the United States of America joined the war as part of the allied army. Soon after their entrance in the war, the Americans declared war against Germany.

After the armistice with Russia, Germany was able to build back its defense on the Western Front. The Second Battle of Marne began on July 15, 1918. Due to a better defense from the Allied side, the Germans needed to move their troops towards the north where they hoped they will be able to win the war. The Ottoman Empire needed to sign a treaty with the Allies in October 1918 and on November 11, 1918, Germany was obliged to seek an armistice with the Allies. This event marked the end of… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… World War II or the Second World War turned out to be a war that was proceeding by 1939 and then finished up 1945. It had a lot to do with a huge mainstream of the world's states -- will… [read more]


World War II Why Did This War Happen Essay

… ¶ … World War II Happen?

The world had barely stopped hemorrhaging from the ravages of the "War to End All Wars" when World War II broke out in 1939 following Germany's invasion of Poland. Given the bloody and enormously… [read more]


World War II Choices Reexamining History Weinberg Essay

… World War II Choices

Reexamining history

Weinberg framed the argument of his book beautifully. World War II was very much a war that was based on choices and what can go horribly right or wrong when those choices are made on the global scale. Germany should have been neutered and put in control after the first World War. To a certain degree, they were, but Hitler was able to remobilize and regroup Germany despite the best intentions and somewhat effective actions of the Allies and other stakeholder countries that were involved.

As far as choices, countries on the other side like Germany, Italy and Japan had their own nefarious options and France, Great Britain and Russia had their own. Russia was a special case because they were actually allied with Germany at one point and then switched sides. That being said, it is generally agreed the pact to divide Poland was never truly taken seriously and that it was just a matter of time before the two countries went to war anyway. The agreement in 1939 to divide Poland was apparently just delaying the inevitable (1).

Britain is also an example of a country whose choices changed dramatically over the development of the war and what led up to it. Their dithering and placation of Hitler prior to the war was disastrous and, in retrospect, an insanely stupid decision. The ensuing choices and inherent leadership saved the day.

A choice of Japan that seems to be foolish in modern times was the decision of Japan to intentionally bring the United States into the war. It was widely assumed, at least by some, that the United States would become involved eventually and reasonable people can argue what would have happened had Japan not attacked Pearl Harbor. However, since they did and since the resulting events are quite clear up to and including the atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshama and Nagasaki, the choices the Hirohito made had vast and deadly consequences. Despite the victory that…… [read more]


WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present Essay

… WWII

History Making Decades WWII-Present

Many consider the end of WWII to have ushered in the modern era in global politics. One reason for this is based on WWII as an end -- the end of Nazi politics in Europe… [read more]


WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino Term Paper

… But there were many sound reasons for justifying an attack on a historic monastery like Monte Cassino. Rome as an objective was too important to pass on. Casulties were very heavy and the Allied generals were aware that the Normandy… [read more]


Inequalities of Combat Representation During the World Wars Research Paper

… Treatment of Africans in World War I Versus World War II

The Treatment that the Africans Received in World War I versus World War II

The First and Second World War had a significant effect on the Africans who took part in them. Africans were subjected to significant suffering that affected their health and health outcomes during and after the world. Significant evidence shows that the Africans Soldiers and other participants of the first and the second World Wars suffered from psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder after the war. Civil rights bodies played a significant role in ensuring that Africans soldiers received fair treatment from their superior colonies during the World War II. This was not possible in the First World War. The roles of the civil bodies can be easily traced throughout the two wars; hence, the need for its analysis (Gaines 62). This study analyzes two articles trying to create a comparison of the civil rights activities of the World War I and II that fostered the fair treatment the Africans during the wars.

Civil rights and efforts contributed significantly to improving the treatment the Africans received during the World War I and II. Narratives from the civil right bodies during the World War I and II showed that the black veterans' were involved in the activities with the intention of countering the unfair treatment they received during the wars. The black veterans made an intuitive contribution by mobilizing the adoption of strategies that safeguarded the rights of blacks in the war. The black veterans were always among the members considered active in the most of the civil rights organizations where the insurgency was launched. The Africans in the World War one faced significant challenges in the war as compared to those in the World War II. For example, they suffered lack of political recognition of their contribution to the war alongside violation of the fundamental human rights.

However, presence of civil bodies such as NAACP fought for equity among the participants of the World War I. World…… [read more]


World War One: Causes and Concerns Term Paper

… Causes of World War One and the Treaty of Paris

The causes of World War One are both intricate and nuanced and it is difficult to point to a single cause or even a few collective causes which led to… [read more]


Sonar in WWI and WWII Research Paper

… That would be detrimental to the study, and would also be confusing. Larger cases make more sense for this study, and will be used to provide insight about, and examples of, how sonar made a difference in Naval operations.

Case… [read more]


Shape and to Create Essay

… William the Conquerer was a rule who made it clear that he was to be treated as one more powerful and more popular than the pope, and that even the pope's envoys needed to enter England with the permission of William and that same permission was needed in order for members of the papal group to publish.

While these moves might appear incredibly controlling, William was one of the people who was able to push England into being an ideal European nation, a nation that was simply better organized and more powerful. And part of these achievements were connected to the fact that he took power away from the papacy and some of their more archaic tendencies for ruling and controlling -- old fashioned regimes which were keeping England in the dark ages for a long time. In fact, William's son Henry I ruled after William's death and was known as the "Lion of Justice" who placed higher taxes on the wealthy members of English society and on officials of the church. This trend was continued by Henry II who was strong in establishing his leadership in legal matters and who valued impartiality very strongly. He was actually the brilliant mind who established legal terms and performances known as "common law" and "trial by jury" which meant that a verdict was rendered on a court case. On the other hand, Richard the Lion-Hearted was one who followed him to the throne, but was more often gone to faraway lands, fighting battles that he didn't accomplish as much at home.

Even so, the people listed and discussed here and the events attached to them, were just some of the more influential leaders who had a tremendous…… [read more]


Espionage Has Largely Term Paper

… The Yalta Conference actually makes it possible for someone to gain a more complex understanding concerning feelings between the Soviets and the West. Both sides had received intelligence information prior to the event and were prepared to take on diplomatic… [read more]


1st World War (WWI) Term Paper

… Indeed, its creation of a spirit of antagonism among nations is also a noted and significant contributor to choices made before the war (Ross 18). The period prior to 1914 was marked with increasing imperialism as nations sought to expand… [read more]


WWI Overview World War I Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:10] Additionally, Austria-Hungary wanted to continue to strive to create a bridge to the east through the Balkans while Serbians wanted access to the sea[footnoteRef:11], which contributed to the tensions between the two countries and catapulted them into the World War I. [7: Ibid., 11.] [8: Ibid., 10.] [9: Ibid.] [10: Ibid.] [11: Ibid.]

Scholars speculate that there are a variety of reasons that further contributed to the escalation of a third Balkan War and its transformation into World War I. Among these reasons are alliance alignments, which forced various countries to honor alliance treaties and be drawn into the conflict; an arms race; the desire to preserve imperialistic legacies; economic rivalries; and "virulent" nationalism.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Ibid., 11.]

As previously stated, Austria-Hungary was allied with Germany, Italy, and Romania, while Serbia, France, Great Britain, and Russia were allied with each other. Furthermore, the countries that comprised the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were in naval competition with each other, which also contributed to their arms race interests.[footnoteRef:13] Additionally, after 1911, every country in Europe, except Great Britain, had mandatory male conscription, thus ensuring that they had a potentially sizeable standing army. By 1912, Germany had 646,000 enlisted men and added 130,000 by the end of the year; France had 611,000 and added 90,000 by the end of the year; and Russia had 1,332,000.[footnoteRef:14] By July 1914, when World War I broke out, the total number of enlisted men exceeded 3.6 million.[footnoteRef:15] [13: Ibid.] [14: Ibid., 12.] [15: Ibid.]

Ultimately, World War I came to an end on June 28, 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. World War I resulted in 9 million soldiers being killed with 21 million more being wounded. Civilian casualties are numbered at 10 million.[footnoteRef:16] Germany and France were the most affected by these casualties as they ended up sending 80% of their respective male populations between the ages of 15 and 49.[footnoteRef:17] Additionally, World War I marked the end of four imperial dynasties: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Turkey.[footnoteRef:18] [16: "World War I."] [17: Ibid.] [18: Ibid.]

World War I would irrevocably change the face of war. Less than 20 years later, as a result of the stipulations outlined in the Treaty of Versailles, these European countries, including the United States and Japan, would find themselves fighting each in World War II.

Bibliography

History Channel. "U.S. Enters World War I." Accessed June 22, 2013.…… [read more]


Hunchback Oppression, Isolation and World War II Movie Review

… Hunchback

Oppression, Isolation and World War II in the Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939)

In 1939, the world was a place in the immediate throes of what would become one of the deepest, darkest and deadliest periods in human history. With the escalating violence of World War II and the Holocaust, the period proved a particularly suitable contexts for the cinematic adaptation of Victory Hugo's the Hunchback of Notre Dame. Though based on a novel that was published in 1831 and revolving on a plot which occurs in the late 15th century, it is remarkable how well the film succeeds as an allegory with relevance not just to World War II but also to life in the present day. Most particularly, the themes of oppression, prejudice and authoritarian cruelty depicted in the film translate with tremendous relevance to these latter periods of history. As one watches a film that betrays many of the limitations of the cinematic form in its time and place, one remains directly effected by a set of themes that truly encapsulate something more permanent and universal about the human condition.

Particularly, in the figures of Esmerelda and Quasimodo, we are presented with both a victim and a martyr. The two figures draw us directly into a broader class conflict, serving to demonstrate the stark experiential differences between life as an aristocrat or life as a social 'other.' The film, directed by William Dieterle, appears to play up the relevance of many of these themes, perhaps because of their adaptability to the big screen or perhaps because of their mounting relevance at the time of the film's release. According to the analysis by Miller (2010), "fifteenth century Paris is a city of contrasts with an aristocracy living in glittering luxury while the poor endure almost unimaginable squalor and all the while the church offers spiritual salvation while its leaders wallow in corruption and decadence." (Miller, p. 1)

This corruptive wallowing is perhaps best embodied by the character of Jehan, who is both brother to the archdeacon Claude Frollo and close confidante to King Louis XI. Here, the viewer finds a loathsome character who best embodies the hatred, exploitation and hierarchical oppression of the aristocracy while boasting inextricable ties both to the Church and the Crown. Here, the viewer gains some understanding of the influence of corruptive power as a driving theme in the film. That Esmerelda's gypsy ethnicity is generally used as the basis for allegations of witchcraft is an important fact, especially as we consider its relevance to the global conflict raging just as the film hit movie theatres.

Particularly, the theme of authoritarian abuse was coming into strong visibility as fascism swept through Europe. The France of Hugo's novel was now ensconced by the totalitarian rule of Spain, Germany and Italy. And in all contexts, an aggressive quashing…… [read more]


Military -- Naval Role Post-Wwii Essay

… [footnoteRef:8] Finally, the United States Navy played an important role in America's Space program, both contributing people from its own ranks as astronauts and in retrieving men and equipment employed in that program.[footnoteRef:9] Consequently, while the U.S. Navy was primarily devoted to Cold War efforts, it filled additional roles suitable to its expanded capabilities. [1: George Baer. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993, p. 444.] [2: Stephen E. Ambrose, Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006, p. 12.] [3: Ibid., p. 78.] [4: Ibid., p. 167.] [5: John Pina Craven. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002, p. 88.] [6: Ibid., p. 39.] [7: Baer, p. 352.] [8: Ambrose, p. xxvi.] [9: Ibid., p. 430.]

3. Conclusion

During the period stretching from 1945 to 1991, the major powers of the world were engaged in a Cold War that significantly occupied their military resources, including their naval forces. Spanning the globe, this War was primarily fought by the United States and its allies according to a "Containment Strategy" using a wall of military might to surround and limit the spread of Communism. The United States Navy, in particular, sought to dominate the world's seas through its expanding capabilities and aided in conflicts involving the U.S.S.R., North and South Korea, China and Taiwan, Vietnam and surrounding countries, Cuba, Israeli and the PLO, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Grenada, Iran, Kuwait, and Iraq. For their part, the navies of the U.S.S.R. And its allies were equally dedicated to spreading Communism with U.S.S.R. capabilities eventually rivaling the U.S. Navy's capabilities. In addition to its multifaceted containment role in the Cold War, the United States Navy was instrumental in building and maintaining the security of Japan and in contributing manpower and naval capabilities to aid in the U.S. Space Program.

Bibliography

Ambrose, Stephen E., Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006.

Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.

Craven, John Pina. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002.… [read more]


Factors That Cause Britain to Lose Its Innovated Edge by WWII Essay

… Britain and WW

Factors which caused Britain to Lose WWII

Factors which Caused Britain to Lose WW11

The Great Britain lost the World War 11 though it had enjoyed the portion of eminence in the period after the World War 1. The reasons are classified under two main heads; lack of foresightedness and inability to face the opponent. The other countries had made strong technological development which paved the way for their success.

Factors which Caused Britain to Lose WW11

The history has been witnessing the rise and downfall of many countries since long. The superpowers of one era have been crushed in some other period, while the deprived nations have succeeded in changing the face of the world. It is no exaggeration to mention that every country has passed through all the stage of development and the present state of a country is the outcome of a long journey which might have started centuries ago.

Besides national affairs, there have been many events at international platform which forcefully changed the state of affairs in a country and determined its fate in a manner which was quite unpredictable before occurrence of these events. The two World Wars are examples of these events which have printed lasting impact over the fortune of the countries.

This paper casts light upon the history of the Great Britain in a particular perspective of its boom after the World War 1 (WW1) and then failure in the World War 11 (WW11). The paper explains the factors which did not go in the favour of the Great Britain when it participated in WW11 and eventually it lost its power over many countries.

The World War 1 lasted from 1914-1918[footnoteRef:2]. It was the period of political disturbance in the world and major reforms in the field of science and technology were carried out. The Great Britain, being a developed country enjoyed the wave of scientific development and invested many things which surprised the whole world[footnoteRef:3]. In addition to technological advancements, it rightly identified the need to have close connections with other parts of the world, hence trade activities were started. In its quest to boom its economy even further, the Gear Britain conquered many areas by force and some others by economy. The consequence was increased rule of Britain over major part of the world. [2: David Stevenson, 1914-1918: the history of the First World War (USA: Penguin, 2004).] [3: John Turner, Britain and the First World War (Australia, Unwim Human Ltd., 1988), 70-85.]

The situation continued to prevail for few decades. It was the time when next generation of deprived nations was born and the young individuals did not like the inherited bondage of the Great Britain. The riots and protests started massively in many countries. As the Great Britain was emerging economically, it was paving way for many foes which united themselves in the form of alliance and another war broke out. It took the form of World War 11, and despite its proper planning… [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… World War II

When attempting to discern what the "real war" was in a world involving as many international powers such as those represented in World War II, it is easy to examine this issue in regards to the goals… [read more]


World War II Ww Essay

… Slowly the Americans invaded and liberated a number of islands until the were in a position to begin an air campaign against the Japanese homeland. With the capture of the Marianas, Iwo Jima, and finally Okinawa, the Americans came to… [read more]


World War II -- Techniques Essay

… [footnoteRef:11] The auto industry, which was already using line production, was quickly converted to produce massive amounts of equipment: 1/5 of America's military equipment, including nearly all tanks and vehicles, 1/3 of machine guns and 2/5 of the aviation supplies.[footnoteRef:12] Furthermore, other industries borrowed and improved upon the concept of mass production. Warplanes were now mass produced,[footnoteRef:13] with the industry particularly flourishing in California and Washington.[footnoteRef:14] In addition, the shipbuilding industry literally mass-produced ships by constructing prefabricated sections then welding them together through the most modern techniques.[footnoteRef:15] Ship production used long production lines with each job broken down into segments so simple that even workers with only brief training were able to complete them.[footnoteRef:16] Industry did not merely use existing mass production techniques; they also employed time-and-motion experts to continually refine the process.[footnoteRef:17] As a result, ship production flourished in Washington and on the Gulf Coast,[footnoteRef:18] and shipbuilding production rose 25% during the war years.[footnoteRef:19] These efforts produced several marked results for the United States, such as vastly superior air and sea mobility,[footnoteRef:20] and essentially made the United States rich again.[footnoteRef:21] [11: Overy, p. 193.] [12: Ibid., pp. 193-194.] [13: Weinberg, p.729.] [14: Ibid., p. 494.] [15: Overy, p. 194.] [16: Ibid.] [17: Ibid.] [18: Weinberg, p. 494.] [19: Overy, p. 194.] [20: Keegan, p. 81.] [21: Ibid., p. 96.]

3. Conclusion

American businesses expanded World War II production in several ways. First, America used existing factories and built many new ones while it also used idle workers and attracted new ones. Secondly, it employed large numbers of workers who received deferments, as well as women and black. Third, it built new factories in new areas. Fourth, it used and improved the most modern mass production techniques. Through these techniques, American factories churned out airplanes, tanks and other vehicles, ships, combat boots, and most equipment and supplies needed by America's armed forces. As a result, American industry met military demands and made the United States rich again.

Bibliography

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY…… [read more]


Titu Cusi Yupanqui History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru Term Paper

… ¶ … Titu Cusi Yupanqui, History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru

"History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru" -- Critical Analysis

Catherine Julien's book "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru" is a translated account initially written by Titu Cusi, the penultimate leader of the neo-Incan state. The text is impressive because it provides readers with the opportunity to learn more about the moment when the American continent was invaded as seen by Native Americans. Julien makes it possible for the masses to understand that the Incan civilization started to suffer significantly because of other reasons, as Spanish conquistadors were not the only factor causing this state to fall. Titu does not hesitate to emphasize the fact that his people suffered defeat at the hands of the Spanish. However, he also emphasizes that it is important for future generations to have a complex understanding of events surrounding the fall of the Incan Empire.

The death of Huayna Capac, Titu Cusi's grandfather, marked the beginning of a period of distress in Incan lands. Huayna's sons, Manco Inca, Huascar Inca, and Atahualpa were unwilling to allow each-other the chance to rule over the empire and got actively involved in imposing their power in the territory. Franciso Pizarro had arrived in the area at this point and realized that there was an attractive opportunity for him to exploit locals (Yupangui & Julien vii).

Titu Cusi primarily believed that Atahualpa was wrong because his pride was one of the principal reasons for which he failed to develop a healthy relationship with the Spanish. He did not appreciate Atahualpa because he was a bastard and considered that he took on Incan leadership through force instead of using proper means. Even with the fact that Titu realized that Francisco Pizarro was mainly interested in taking advantage of his people their resources, he respected the man because of his diplomacy and because he considered that he was different from most Spanish individuals as a result of his tendency to put respect first in some situations (Yupangui & Julien 53).

While most people are inclined to consider that the Andean society was peaceful before the Spanish arrived, the truth is that most individuals within this community were actually obsessed with power and went through great efforts in order to obtain it. Titu relates to how Pizarro is sometimes reluctant to act in agreement with his people's interests, but highlights that the well-organized nature of the Spanish community prevented it from experiencing significant problems. In contrast, the Inca group is ruptured by internal conflicts as Manco Inca struggles to retrieve his lands from his power-crazed brothers. Huayna Capac's death marked the beginning of a critical period when considering conditions in the Incan Empire (Yupangui & Julien 13).

Most Incas thought that the Spaniards were gods and that their behavior and appearance differentiated them significantly from what they considered to be normal people. "The Tallanas yungas also called the Spanish virachochas because of the excellence of… [read more]


Italy and Japan's Decision to Enter World War II Essay

… France's Decision To Enter World War Two

The French generals understood that an attack on France by the Nazis was imminent but that Hitler had no interest in attacking the Maginot Line head-on and that the Nazis would simply bypass the fortifications by invading Belgium and Holland.

That left France (and her ally, Britain) with two very unattractive choices. Their first choice was to send troops into Belgium and Holland before any Nazi attack on those countries, in effect, initiating a hostile occupation of their own, given that Belgium and Holland were still neutral countries and that neither would cooperate explicitly with Britain and France out of fear of provoking Hitler if he had not already decided to invade their nations.

France and Britain's second choice was to wait for Hitler to attack Belgium and Holland before sending in troops to counter the Nazi offensive. In addition to losing momentum by allowing Nazi troops to establish themselves in the Low Countries before responding, this would also mean that the eventual battles would be much closer to French population centers. Because of the political implications of invading sovereign Belgium and Holland, the French decided on the second option of waiting for the impending Nazi attack on Belgium.

Italy's Decision to Enter World War Two

When the…… [read more]


World War I Essay

… "[footnoteRef:7] Secondly, the defeat had even deeper psychological effects on the losers, particularly on Germany: Adolf Hitler, for example, fought in World War I and found Germany's defeat to be nearly unbearable, personally humiliating and consuming[footnoteRef:8]; Claus van Stauffenberg, a German officer who eventually attempted to assassinate Hitler during WWII, trained as a young soldier in a post-WWI German army intent an avenging "the humiliation of 1918."[footnoteRef:9] Third, the terms of peace were highly resented by the losers, particularly by Germany: for example, despite Germany's official agreement to the Treaty of Versailles, almost no Germans accepted the Treaty's terms of German reparations and disarmament.[footnoteRef:10] The physical devastation, humiliation of defeat and resented terms of peace eventually gave rise to the intense German nationalism that Hitler rode to power. According to Keegan, Hitler's speeches to the German people called them to a new nationhood based on the humiliation caused by defeat in WWI and the terms of peace including occupation and permanent disarmament, toward a victory that would "expunge Versailles."[footnoteRef:11] To that end, Hitler intended to totally reorder the globe through War.[footnoteRef:12] [6: Keegan, 49.] [7: Weinberg, 5-6.] [8: Overy, 10.] [9: Keegan, 65.] [10: Ibid., 9.] [11: Ibid., 12.] [12: Weinberg, 2.]

3. Conclusion

The peace terms of World War I completely disassembled the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires while taking great amounts of land from the German and Russian empires. The peace terms of the Treaty of Versailles were particularly tough on Germans, requiring admission of responsibility, reparations, occupation, disarmament and the loss of territory. The psychological effects of the war and peace terms were deep, particularly for the German people: the War itself had been physically devastating; the defeat had even deeper psychological effects of humiliation and vengeance; the terms of peace were highly resented by the losers. As a result, the time was ripe for a leader such as Adolf Hitler, who stressed German nationalism, pride and cathartic victory in yet another World War.

Works Cited

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.

Weinberg, Gerhard L. A…… [read more]


Home Front During WWII America Essay

… World War II Home Front

The Home Front

World War II was a conflict which raged across the planet, from Europe to the Pacific, and everywhere in between. Battles were fought in thousands of places that no one had ever… [read more]


World Civilization From 1500 CE to the Early Twentieth Century Assessment

… ¶ … History 1500-Present

World Civilization from 1500 AD to Present

Worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800 AD: the Rise and Implications

Europe was expanding its boundaries at the end of the medieval world: Spain and Portugal had navigated the… [read more]


Second World War Term Paper

… There was also concern throughout the western world that the real threat was Russia and the Communists who were bent on radical governmental change. Hitler went on to systematically align with nations that would support him, even making a non-aggression policy with Poland, a nation he would swiftly overtake and whose population he would eradicate (Paxton 329). As early as 1933, Hitler had envisioned a Germany which he would lead and a Europe which would proverbially fall to its knees in his wake.

One of the ways they determined to rebuild the morale of their countrymen was to create a whipping boy of sorts. The German people would be better off emotionally and morally if there were a group that could be made into scapegoats. By placing all the people's blame on this group, the German government could effectively alleviate their own responsibility and uniformly cast the people's dissatisfaction off of themselves. Hitler and his fellow leaders attacked Jews, teen rebels, the homosexuals, Gypsies, vagrants, and the mentally or physically handicapped (Paxton 285). Starting in 1933, anyone who was not Aryan, which is to say not of "pure" German heritage, was dismissed from civil service positions. The ramifications for these non-Aryans included losing ownership of businesses as well as their homes and their positions of employment. It culminated with a declaration wherein anyone non-Aryan, particularly those with any Jewish heritage would be denied their citizenship, no matter how long the person in question had lived in the country.

In 1938, the three axis powers, Germany, Japan, and Italy met in Munich along with Great Britain's Neville Chamberlain and France's Eduoard Daladier. At this conference, the Axis countries made promises to what would become the Allied forces. Among these pledges was that Germany would not try to take any additional territory from European nations. Of course, this was an empty promise and by March of the following year, Germany would take over all of Czechoslovakia. This would be followed by the invasion of Poland five months later.

By 1941, the United States had unofficially taken sides against Germany and the Axis Powers. Although still technically neutral the U.S. had nonetheless been shipping supplies to Britain and her allies against the enemy. The United States was as reluctant to enter the war as Britain was during the era of appeasement. It would take a large-scale, unprovoked attack on American soil before the people of the United States provided the government with enough support to declare war on Japan, Italy, and Germany. The rest is history.

Works Cited:

Paxton, Robert O. Europe…… [read more]


Why Was WW1 Such a Senseless War? Essay

… World War I: A senseless Concept?

Prior to the start of World War I, there were premonitions of war. The Europeans did not anticipate the turn of events that would transpire during 1914. However, they had been 'reassured by liberal optimism' that if the war did occur, it would be decisively quick because of modern weaponry (Paxton, Hessler, 42). It is important to separate the Austro-Serbian War from the later events that brought France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia into the fight. Historians disagree as to the impetus of the war, however, most war scholars agree that the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife on June 28, 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old who shot them. Princip had been trained by the Black Hand and reportedly was passionate about uniting his people with the south Slavic Kingdom of Serbia that was independent. Efforts were made to determine whether the Kingdom of Serbia had some influence on Princip's act.

The conflict, however, spread rapidly, and the first months reportedly consisted of strong and bold attacks with troops moving rapidly on both the western and eastern fronts. The Russians were reportedly the most affected by an ultimatum between Austria to Serbia due to past Bosnian history. Russia partially mobilized based on technical considerations, with little to no thought for potential diplomatic implications (51). Around August 22, 1914, the Battle of the Frontiers occurred where approximately 27,000 French soldiers died on a single day in an offensive thrust to the east of Paris in the direction of the German borders. Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg led the German army, August 26-30th to what has been regarded as its greatest victory on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tennenberg.

Germany attacked Belgium that was considered neutral and later France in the west. In the east, Russia attacked Austria-Hungary and Germany. To the south, Serbia was attacked by Austria-Hungary after the Battle of the Marne that took place from September 5th through the 9th, 1914. According to historians, the western front was entrenched in France and stayed that way through the remainder of the war. The eastern fronts are also said to have eventually locked their position as well. Later, the first Battle of the Marne stops the German's invasion into France.

In late 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the warfare as well, reportedly after…… [read more]


History of the World in Six Glasses Thesis

… History Of the World in Six Glasses

The great civilizations of the world have left us among their great achievements their innovations related to a certain alcoholic or caffeinated drink or another. In his book "A history of the World in Six Glasses," Tom Standage goes through the history of the world led by one of the six beverages that marked a giant step in the history of humanity until today. If beer and wine, as Standage points out in the first two parts of his book, were alcoholic beverages discovered more or less by accident in ancient times and marked the way of living of some of the greatest civilizations in the world, the spirited alcoholic drinks were discovered and developed in order to bring the resulted beverages to levels of mass consumptions by another great civilization: the Arabs. Through the process of distillation they used to make perfumes, which appears to have been already known in the fourth millennia BCE, the Arabs in Cordoba obtained in the first millennium CE a new range of drinks called spirits. The irony is evident. The alembic, a relatively rudimentary, but efficient from today's standards installation became thus famous and it is still used in private households still today. The film M.A.S.H. comes to mind when thinking of this invention that the Arabs gave the world. Three of the protagonists, Hawkeye and Trapper, later replaced by B.J Hunnicutt, live in a tent in a MASH medical unit on the front war with Korea. The presence of an alembic and their martini glasses are constant elements when the setting is their tent. The spirits keep people company in difficult times and they had their shared the praise and the blame of the world when it cam to their influence on the human behavior, like the rest of the alcoholic drinks.

The leap from the way the Greeks drank wine and the high degree alcoholic beverages obtained thorough distillation of wine or fruits or later, was huge. The new drinks developed through the distillation of wine were easier to transport over long distances and long periods of time and it soon became an exchange currency, along with other European products for slaves supplied by African slave traders. The Portuguese spirits were highly acclaimed in this case.

Standage points out that the new stage in our history, the discovery of the Americas, remains linked with the slave trade, the sugar plantations and the spirits. "Over the course of four centuries, around eleven million slaves were transported from Africa to the New World[…].Distilled drinks plaid a central role in this evil trade, which intensified as the British, French and Dutch established sugar plantations in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century" ("A History of the World in Six Glasses," p. 103-104).

Just as the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians ate and drank their gains under the form of bread, respectively that of beer, the rich planters who came to farm the lands of Barbados, had their solid and… [read more]


American History Europe Was at War Thesis

… American History

Europe was at war and the Nazi war machine was gradually occupying every major country, it seemed that there had been nothing to stand in their way. Millions of innocent had been dying on the eastern fronts as… [read more]


Germany Won WWII Research Proposal

… ¶ … Germany Won WWII

Several days prior to the launch of Operation Overlord by the combined Allied forces, a German spy sent a very short coded message to occupied France, "Attack Normandy, Clear Weather, Anchor," the final word being… [read more]


World War I, or the Great Term Paper

… World War I, or the Great War, began as a conflict in Europe, due to the military alliances, rivalries and expansion goals of these European nations. The conflict, which broke out in August of 1914, eliminated the four great monarchial… [read more]


World War I And World War II Term Paper

… World War I and World War II

World War I was also known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars, a global military upheaval, which occurred from 1914 to 1918 (Wikipedia 2006). It claimed millions of lives and is said to have helped shape the modern world. It was fought between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and won by the former. The Allied Powers, or Allies, were led by Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. The Central Powers, on the other hand, were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Much of it occurred on the Western Front within systems of opposing manned trenches and fortifications from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. It caused the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman and Russian empires. It ultimately created a decisive break with the old world order and important factors in the development of World War II roughly 20 years later (Wikipedia).

President Woodrow Wilson announced that break in the U.S.'s official relations with Germany on account of its policy of insisting on neutral rights and in mediating a compromise settlement (Wikipedia 2006). The President warned that the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, which he said violated America's dignity. Germany stopped for a while, but announced the following month that they would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. After the War came the signing of the Versailles Treaty, which required Germany to pay enormous reparations, which it borrowed from the U.S. until the suspension of the borrowings in 1931.As a whole, the experiences of this war developed into a collective national trauma for all the countries, which participated in it. These experiences completely wiped out the optimism of the 1900s and those who fought in that War came to be known as the Lost Generation because they never fully recovered from their experiences. The social trauma took many forms. One was a revolt by nationalism and what it supposedly caused and began doing towards a more internationalist world in support of organizations like the League of Nations. Another form was pacifism, which became popular. Still another was the view that only strength and military might could be relied upon for protection in this inhuman and chaotic world, which did not respect civilization. The defeated ones or losers developed their own psychological state, which rejected the lesson of the War. There was a pronounced sense of disillusionment and cynicism, specifically Nihilism, which became popular. This disillusionment toward humanity reached a cultural climax with the establishment of the Dadaist artistic movement. Many also believed that the War signaled the end of the world, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. It was observed that communist and socialist movements gathered strength from this theory and became popular (Wikipedia).

The most lasting effect of World War I in the U.S. is the systematization of society or the centralization of government power and regulation (West 1999). It combined with the Great Depression in rationalizing the… [read more]


History Book Video Term Paper

… History Book Video

The History Book": major themes and patterns that characterize the development of the modern world

The History Book" is a series of documentary cartoons that dramatize modern Western history as a series of economic paradigm shifts. Most… [read more]


America in a World Term Paper

… African-Americans benefited from the integration of some aspects of the armed forces and the G.I. Bill that extended a free education to all G.I.s, thus allowing some African-Americans to make concrete post-war gains through education.

Question 7

Why was the decision made to use the Atomic bomb against Japan in WWII? What were the arguments? Even after sixty years this is still an area of controversy. In your opinion, was the use of atomic weapons justified?

The use of atomic weapons was made, according to President Truman, to spare American lives. In other words, by dropping the atomic bomb, Truman more quickly and efficiently ended the war and spared the Americans and even the Japanese army, ultimately, needless carnage, because the Japanese army refused to agree to an unconditional surrender in a war that 'they' began at Pearl Harbor. While Truman's arguments may have some merit, the fact is that civilians composed a tremendous amount of the population he attacked over the course of his efforts, and he set the stage for the fear if not the actual use of atomic and nuclear capabilities forevermore in history.

Question 8

How did the war affect the American economy? How did it affect the New Deal? What factors of the war would fuel a post-war boom of material prosperity in the United States?

The war ended the Great Depression and the New Deal because it fueled the engines of prosperity and productivity of United States factories, despite some inevitable wartime shortages of militarily necessary products such as nylon, metal, and rationing of foodstuffs necessary for the troops such as meat and sugar. However, the massive and unprecedented levels of federal spending necessitated by such a wide-scale world conflict were to some extent foreshadowed by the New Deal's greater federal involvement in the United States private economy.

Question 9

What was the Cold War? How did the results of WWII lead to the development of the Cold War?

As fears of fascism subsided, fears of communism arose in the hearts of Americans. The formation of the Warsaw Pact, the domination of Eastern Europe by the massive Stalinist machine, all created an undeclared war between America and the U.S.S.R., which was more often than not to be fought upon the territory of other nations, such as Vietnam, rather than between the nations themselves.

Question 10

How did the thinking of the period known as the Cold War influence the United Nation/United States to become involved in the conflict between North and South Korea? Was this a logical result on your opinion?

The domino theory held that if one nation 'went communist,' then the neighboring nations would follow, illogically ignoring regional differences of government, culture, and stability.

Question 11

To what degree was communism a genuine threat to the interests and security of the United States in the 1950s? Why did communism cause such fear in the post WWII era? Was this fear reasonable? How did these fears lead to the rise of Senator Joseph… [read more]


Cold War Prior to World Term Paper

… He believed that in any nuclear exchange, as many as 300 million people might die in the U.S.S.R., the United States, and Europe (Nash, 1994). To counter nuclear dependence, he developed the idea of "Flexible Response," which looked at a variety of non-nuclear solutions for any military conflict. His determination to do this was tested severely during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when the U.S.S.R. attempted to install nuclear warheads in Cuba (Nash, 1994).

Meanwhile, the United States entered into another treaty in hopes of stopping the spread of communism: the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO). This is the treaty that led the U.S. first into the Laotian conflict, and eventually, into the Viet Nam War (Nash, 1994).

The effects of the Cold War, especially in its earlier phases, thus had a profound effect on American culture. It brought us McCarthy witch hunts for Communism, pervading worry about a nuclear holocaust, and led to our devastating involvement in the Viet Nam war. It cast suspicion on people legitimately fighting for their rights as citizens, and cast suspicion on almost anyone who worked to make what they saw as improvements in American society. Ironically, the backlash to the heightened militarism and eventual opposition to the Viet Nam war brought scorn toward military personnel, the very people who had been universally praised one generation ago after helping to liberate Europe from Nazism. Eventually, excesses by not only McCarthy but others trying to silence dissenters of all kinds resulted in court rulings that made people's Constitutional rights more clear, but it would be many years until the Cold War was recognized as over.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Nash, Philip. 1994. "Nuclear Weapons in Kennedy's Foreign Policy." The Historian, 56:2.

Roberts, Geoffrey. 2000. "Starting the Cold War: Historians and the Cold War. History Review.

Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Marvin's Press, 1994. (pp. 92-94) Accessed via the Internet 4/10/05.

White, Timothy J. White. 2000. "Cold War Historigraphy: New Evidence Behind Traditional Typographies." International Social Science Review.… [read more]


World War II (WWII) Transformed Term Paper

… For the most part, however, the war was fought with the same or improved weapons of the types used in World War I. During the war, the United States and other nations made great advances in aircraft and tanks. This would ensure that war would be fought in a radically different way going forward.

After World War II, the use of the atomic bomb changed the U.S. And the rest of the world in many ways. Nuclear power resulted in a 40-year-long arms race between the United States and the U.S.S.R., and nuclear annihilation continues to threaten the world even today. On a positive note, nuclear power allowed scientists to develop new sources of energy.

During the war, new technological and medical advances were created that saved lives and improved living standards in the decades ahead. Penicillin, a "miracle drug" first used to heal Allied casualties, was used domestically to defeat disease, reduce infant deaths, and extend life expectancy. DDT, a colorless chemical pesticide, destroyed harmful insects and prevented typhus and malaria.

New fuel mixtures increased the range of warplanes and later of civilian planes; jet propulsion planes transformed transoceanic flights and were in commercial use by the late 1950s. Other areas of technology developed during World War II included radar, semiconductors, freeze-dried food, infrared technologies, and synthetic materials.

World War II put an end to Nazi power and the totalitarian power that threatened to conquer the world. Americans felt safer but the cost of the war was huge. Allied military and civilian losses were 44 million. The U.S. lost almost 300,000 people in battle deaths, far less than the toll in Europe and Asia.

Domestically, the war ended isolationism, stopped the depression, provided unprecedented social and economic mobility, fostered national unity, and greatly expanded the federal government. The U.S. government spent more than $300 billion on the war, which generated jobs and prosperity and rejuvenated confidence. Finally, World War II made the United States the world's leading military and economic force. In addition, the war caused the United States and the U.S.S.R. To become rivals for global dominance.

Many people believe that WWII greatly improved the U.S. economy. Women started working more and more outside the home, and the stock market rose again. According to Professor Jane Scimeca: "During WWII, more than any previous war, women were actively identified with national defense. WWII was a time of enormous patriotism and national unity, and that really formed the identity of the women of the time."

As a result of WWII, Americans began making money and became prosperous. The government used advertisements to promote liberty bonds, blood donations, reserving supplies for the troops and the entertainment industry. Because of WWII, America proved to the rest of the world that we are a strong country.

Bibliography

Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.

Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.

Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected… [read more]


Great War in American History Term Paper

… They were being regarded as the enemy or disloyal, for the people around held biased judgement for all Asians.

Guterson reveals a remarkable side left by the war, for a community 'of five thousand damp souls', who supported themselves through… [read more]


World War II the Role Term Paper

… S.S.R. The primary troops were ready to fight by 1942 against the Axis. 13

It is necessary, at this point, to get a general overview of the situation in Germany at this time. In 1944, powerful forces both from the… [read more]


American History During the 1940S Term Paper

… S. contributed to the decline of economic growth in the country during Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan's terms as president of the country. However, during his term, Reagan was able to bring back growth in the economy, primarily by cutting… [read more]


WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944 Essay

… It was evident that the bombings succeeded in vastly causing collateral damage to the Germany war factories, the aircraft plants, transport sector and the oil facilities, but noticeably it failed to kill the spirits and morale of the people (Rogole J.A., 2002:Pp27).

Conclusion

The WWII was not just a war of weapons as was the WWI but it involved much more than just that. It involved a lot of diplomacy playing out between countries hence formation of alliances which were basically means of showing allegiance to some countries. The main driving force behind the formation of the alliances was to get enough military muscle to outweigh the enemy and hence be able to either protect your own territory or even carry out expansion as Japan did.

References

Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II

Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE

Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp… [read more]

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