"World History" Essays

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Accordingly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


He then argues that the European conquest and exploitation of the Americas resulted from the fact that Europeans were geographically closer to the Americas than were African and Asian maritime-oriented civilizations, and that the conquest itself was facilitated by the great epidemics of Eastern Hemisphere diseases which decimated the populations and destroyed the civilizations of the "New World."

Blaut, a geographer by profession, makes his point through a telling graphic titled "maps of the world before and after 1500 AD." It contains dots representing "dated place-name mentions" in Brenner's articles. No region outside of Europe is ever mentioned before 1500 AD. After 1500 AD, references occur more frequently but tend only to reflect what Blaut regards as "Brenner's view that capitalism began to diffuse outward to the rest of the world after its birth in northwestern Europe."

Given the more enlightened racial framework of today, Eurocentric historians today support their views with "hard" evidence drawn from agronomy, climatology, demographics, etc. rather than openly racialist claims. Few today would argue that the Europeans were genetically endowed with gifts for invention or rationality, or chosen by god. Rather, fortuitous historical circumstances moved them to the head of the class. It is exactly these pretensions to hard, scientific evidence that Blaut succeeds in demolishing. Barely disguising his contempt, he answers one false claim after another. When 4 Eric J. Jones asserts that Europeans were solely destined to become capitalists after the Middle Ages, Blaut cites Tome Pires, the 17th century Portuguese chronicler, who described Indian merchants thusly: "They are men who understand merchandise; they are... properly steeped in the sound and harmony of it." He adds, "[T]hose of our people who want to be clerks and factors ought to go there and learn, because the business of trade is a science." Among these Eurocentric historians farming practices loom a larger than any other supposedly objective criterion underpinning the rise of the West. The West is the world of the spirited, inventive yeoman farmer, while the repressive East employed unproductive farming techniques. Benefiting from his early training and fieldwork in agronomy, Blaut presents an alternative interpretation. For example, while Michael Mann considers soil fertility in Europe to be the key to its rise, Blaut points out that until the arrival of the potato from South America, a vast swath of land across Europe remained unproductive because of excess rainfall, conditions beneficial only to potato growth. Meanwhile, crop rotation -- supposedly unique to the West -- was found in the rest of the world. But, the question of "Eurocentrism" remains a vexing problem for academia. In the broadest sense, Eurocentrism can be understood as the implicit view that societies and cultures of European origin constitute the "natural" norm for assessing what goes on in the rest of the world.

Within this vast area of debate, one particular subtopic has been an object of intense scrutiny among scholars: the real-or-alleged centrality of Europe in preparing the explosion of economic development, science and technology, the Enlightenment and… [read more]

Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  23 pages (6,251 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and immortality.

Of course, things have changed in the more than two thousand years since Alexander's time. In recent centuries, the… [read more]

German Unification Occupies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The peace treaties signed after the war served as a sharp blow to already wounded ego of the French. The Germans did everything in their power to belittle the French, which is considered the gravest mistake made by the Bismarck regime. This was because this created severe bitterness in the hearts and minds of French people who staunchly opposed Germans… [read more]

Machine vs. Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Man is so complicated a machine that it is impossible to get a clear idea of the machine beforehand, and hence impossible to define it. For this reason, all the investigations have been vain, which the greatest philosophers have made a priori, that is to say, in so far as they use, as it were, the wings of the spirit. Thus it is only a posteriori or by trying to disentangle the soul from the organs of the body, so to speak, that one can reach the highest probability concerning man's own nature, even though one can not discover with certainty what his nature is" (La Mettrie et al. 89).

La Mettrie based his views on his own "observations," not on scientific study. Today, his "findings" seem sadly out of date, and a bit too romanticized. "Winston Churchill once said that 'the further back you look, the further ahead in the future you can see'" (Moore and Simon 76), and this is surely the case with Le Mettrie's writings.

The human body is a machine which winds its own springs. It is the living image of perpetual movement. Nourishment keeps up the movements which fever excites"

La Mettrie et al. 93). Today, we tend to look at man not as much as a machine, but more a soul and a heart. The body is an incredible machine, but it is what is inside each man that gives him or her their own unique personality, outlook, and feelings about the world around them. The natural world also includes many incredible machines, but none of them have a soul, and that is what will always differentiate man from machines, and the natural world.

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=70160745"La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, et al. Man a Machine. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1912.

Moore, Stephen, and Simon, Julian L. "The Greatest Century That Ever Was." The World & I, Vol. 15. 1 March 2000, pp 76. Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Boulder, CO:…… [read more]

World War II Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


[footnoteRef:18] [17: Geoffrey Parker, The Cambridge History of Warfare (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 451.] [18: Overy, pp. 4, 31, 76; Weinberg, p. 1.]

Keegan and Ferguson do not specifically mention the importance of World War I developments of tanks; however, they discuss of the extensive use of tanks during World War II.[footnoteRef:19] For the airplane, in… [read more]

World War Analysis WWI Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The next ten years after the War were the cause of great prosperity for U.S. Huge developments in radios and household items were made and new creations like cars and aeroplanes were formed. The standard of living was also significantly improved. During the mid-1920s U.S. was producing products that were distributed worldwide including the Ford line. Innovative ideas were introduced for example the proposal by Frederick W. Taylor on scientific management (Armstrong 2012-2013, 217) This ensured quicker production of products across the country leading to lowered production cost and consequently a reduced cost to the buyer. All these changes and improvements would probably not have occurred if U.S. had not participated in the World War 1. A significant impact was made to its industry and overall economy. The trend of products being issued on credit also commenced during the post-war period. Although warnings were made by economists with regards to the extensive number of products issued on credit; this was ignored by the American citizens. Focus was made on advertising and this altered the mind-set of the citizen as the same adverts were run regardless of discrimination in the regions. This resulted in diminishing of the distinction of classes and therefore a 'universal national culture' was created. (Armstrong 2012-2013, 217). Along with this focus was also made on portraying ideas through novels and therefore many famous novels were published during the 1920s. In these novels the writers aimed at delivering the message that Americans have become too involved with the idea of 'making money' and as a result deviated from their own culture. It was particularly criticized that that their values were lost in the post-War era. This stance that U.S. had taken regarding neutrality was now completely obsolete and therefore an end of the period of separateness from international affairs. The entire participation in the War became covered with the greed to make money. Their work did pay off eventually resulting in making it stable country with a booming economy. Nevertheless it can be observed that since participation in the War, the mind-set of the society has been completely altered. The basic purpose of every citizen is a stabilized income and savings for their retirement. This started as a result of the World War one. It is clearly seen that this War did not only have an economical effect but social and political as well. During the nineteenth century period huge chunks of money was received from other countries however during the World War One period this halted as all the finance was utilized for the War. The foreign investments came down to $3.3 billion from $7.2 billion (Rockoff, 2004, 20).

However, this all came to a standstill when suddenly there was a collapse in the New York stock market. Thousands were left bankrupt and a huge number of people lost their savings. The country which had become one of the richest in the world after World War I entered the Great Depression. This period lasted from 1929 to… [read more]

World War II -- Eastern Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In a fatal display of hubris and thoughtlessness, Hitler split his forces, sending them north and south. This split resulted in the overextension of his forces and delays that pushed the invasion into the devastating Russian Winter. Spread thin and inadequately prepared for fighting through the extreme cold and snow of Russia, German forces suffered their greatest casualties and ultimately endured the failure of their massive invasion.

As all consulted sources agree, German forces never recovered from the failure of Barbarossa. The concentration of German forces on this Eastern Front due to Hitler's obsession with conquering Russia caused the Germans to all but abandon the Battle of Britain, thus saving Britain from certain defeat. Furthermore, the defeat contributed to the mutual distrust between Hitler and his generals, crippling Germany's ability to effectively fight the War. Finally, the failure of Barbarossa weakened the Third Reich in aspects from which it never recovered, turning Germany's focus to the immense Eastern Front, overextending German forces and inflicting huge casualties on the Germans. Consequently, it can be reasonably concluded that Hitler's personal flaws directly resulted in the failure of Barbarossa and Germany's loss in World War II.


Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.

Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why…… [read more]

History of China's Importance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,315 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


The international political scene at this time is not dominated by a great power, nor should it be. Seeing how great powers manifest themselves in terms of political influence, it is basically impossible for a state to exercise the political dominance over the enormous amount of different political forces that are present in the countries around the world. Indeed, most… [read more]

History Final Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,391 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … individuals take over the world by weapons and conquers. Posterity then comes to know them as righteous rulers, courageous warriors and wise kings. Most of these individuals are regularly descendents of noble, quite often royal families, thus they enact the destiny they were born to fulfill, such as Alexander III of Macedon or Alexander the Great as he is most commonly referred to. But taking a good look at history, we might find ourselves discovering another series of individuals who have molded the times they lived in as well as posterity, not by actions of war, but through their revolutions of word, theories and philosophies. My thoughts take me to Confucius, a Chinese revolutionist of human values.

Confucius was born somewhere around 551 BC into a, financially speaking, average family. His father had been an officer in the military but died when the boy was only three years of age. It is said that, upon growing up, Confucius had no other choice but to take on such petty jobs as caring for animals, accounting or book keeping. Many suppositions around his birth and the events in his life have been cast throughout time and a lot of what concerns these issues are lacunae. I will not go around them, rather I will focus on his teaching achievements for the purpose of this essay.

Of how Confucius came to receive his education, facts again are misplaced. He is said to have studied ritual, music, bureaucratic history and that, by the time he reached middle age, he had already gained value in the sight of his townsmen. His thoughts and teachings, most of all his impressive influence, all of these can be understood in relation to Analects (Lun Yu), his "secret teachings" that explain the influence Confucius had on the evolution of Chinese culture. Confucius believed that the Golden Age of humanity was reached during Zhou dynasty (1045 -- 771 BCE). The reason for his beliefs was that its rulers had established a connection with divinity (Tian -- referring to cosmos or "Heaven"), following a sincere listening of the "word" and of the practices, collectively named rituals or "Li." The vastness of these practices encompassed issues as far along as politics going on to particular details of one's personal and private life. The Zhou dynasty had been rewarded with the government of China through the manifestation of "De," a powerful virtue. None of the principles of the old dynasty applied during Confucius' time, but he believed that the teachings, held together by a group of scholars named "Ru," could once again revive the Golden Age; this is why he became committed to the cause and decided to dedicate his entire existence to this particular legacy, hoping that, through example and teaching of the spiritual heritage, the world would eventually be restored to its true path or "Dao."

Thus Confucius positively influenced the development of a new culture by restoring some of the old values. He relied strongly on trust, army… [read more]

Atrocities Happening in Recent Modern Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


From this point onwards, the tensions between such groups are inevitable and increase as time evolves.

Another reason for which a group of people may try to inflict decisive harm on another group is peer pressure and fear. At least in the case study provided by Gross, it was relatively obvious that 1941 was one of the most tensed years in the history of the war as well as in that of Poland's. Seeing that the German forces were keen in eliminating as many Jews as possible and given the nature of the events on other war theaters, the local communities were also frightened for their own security and therefore adapted to the pressures of the many.

Finally another reason for which people kill other people at such a massive pace is also connected to the influences they receive from outside. For instance, in Poland, the Jewish problem was not a new aspect, but rather one that had been promoted at the radio or through other means for years before the actual event in 1941. Similarly, in Rwanda, the role of the radio was crucial in bringing about the spirit of rebellion and of violence on the Tutsi. Therefore, again, the role of external factors may determine such dramatic changes in human behavior.

Overall, it can be concluded that Gorss's book is essential for understanding better the nature of genocide and the way in which communities can transform as a result of artificial construction, peer pressure, fear, and external influences.

Works Cited

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005

Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995

Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).

The Atlantic. "World War II: The Holocaust ." Oct 16,…… [read more]

World War I Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


" (Adriane Ruggiero, page xviii-xix) A group of strongly nationalistic individuals was able to convince the Japanese that their problems will end only if they go to war. Japan believed that it was the most important power in the Pacific and Western Europe was trying to minimize its power. Japan saw Great Britain and the United States as their bigger enemies.

After Japan conquered the Eastern colonies of Great Britain, Holland and France, it ruled an empire which extended from South Asia to East Indies and incorporated islands from the South Pacific. As a result of this expansion; Japan was able to provide its armies with the needed weapons. Japan and Germany agreed to be allies and to support one another if a country will want to attack them.

"While proclaiming its neutrality, the United States spoke out against Japanese aggression, gave aid to the Chinese now fighting the Japanese invaders, and disdained Japan's desire for power in the Pacific." (Adriane Ruggiero, page xx-xxi) President Franklin Roosevelt ended trading with Japan when Indochina was attacked by the Japanese army. The Japanese government took this act as a declaration of war. Although in 1941 United States tried to reach an agreement with Japan, this action could not be finalized. As a result Japan prepared to attack the United States of America, but their plans were discovered by the Americans. The Japanese refused to retreat their armies from China and Indochina and attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

"Thus, war between United States and Japan, and also between the United States and Germany -- because of the pact between Germany and Japan -- began." (Adriane Ruggiero, page xx) It was a bloody war, in which men, women and child lost their lives.

The worst event from the Second World War was represented by Holocaust. This event represents a dark time in German history. "The early days of Nazi rule saw uncoordinated and localized abuse of Germany's Jewish population." (Max Hastings, page 432-433) Hitler's government left the Jewish population with no rights. The German leader believed that there were many reasons for killing all the Jews, but the main reason is that they were to blame for Germany's loss in World War I. Jews were also seen as subhuman because in Hitler vision the perfect people had to have blond hair, blue eyes, and need to be white. Polish and Russian Jews were killed in large numbers in the Second World War. The Jewish people were taken in well organized places in which they were starved, put to hard work, beaten and finally killed in the gas chambers. The most important place where Jewish people were tortured and killed is Auschwitz, in Poland. The exact number of Jews who were killed World War II it is not known.

Also, another important loss of lives took place when Americans dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As a result Japan recognized its defeat, on September 2, 1945. On May 8, 1945, Germany surrendered and on… [read more]

First World War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The Eastern Front was the largest battlefield from World War I. Russia, and from 1916 Romania, fought on one side and Germany and Austria-Hungary on the other one. Also, on the Eastern Front trenches were built, but due to a lack of manpower warfare was more fluid. "Handicapping lengthy advances by either side, however, were the region's primitive transportation network and harsh winter conditions, on which successful offensive inevitably ground to a halt." (Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 611)

After Russian troops invaded German Poland and East Prussia, in August 1914 Russia was defeated by Germany at Tannenberg. Germany needed to take two army groups from the Western Front to defend themselves from the Russian assaults. This action caused the defeat of Germany in the Battle of Marne.

Due to Russia's inability to pass through German line, in 1917 Russian Revolution was triggered. The monarch was changed with Vladimir Lenin. In December 1917, he signed an armistice with the Central Powers, "freeing German troops to face the other Allies on the Western Front." (World War I)

The battle of Tannenberg was the first important fight from the Eastern Front. The battle began on 26 August 1914; with Russians on one side, and the Germans on the other side. The Germans found about Russian plans through radio messages which were decoded and defeated the Red Army on Masurian Lakes in 8-14 September. The Austro-Hungarian army wanted to invade Serbia, but its plan was aggravated by the Russian army's intervention. The Austro-Hungarian army needed to fight both the Serbian army and the Russian army and as a result it could not conquer Serbia.

In 1914 the Ottoman Empire joined the War on the Central Powers side. The Allies tried to defeat the Ottoman Empire, but their plan was a total failure. They were defeated first on the Dardanelles, and although they invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in January 1916 they needed to retreat their army from the Peninsula. British and Italian troops also fought against the Turk army. In 1915 the First Battle of the Isonzo took place. The second Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Caporetto, took place two years after that, and was proven to be a success for Austria-Hungary. Due to German aggression on the sea, in 1917 the United States of America joined the war as part of the allied army. Soon after their entrance in the war, the Americans declared war against Germany.

After the armistice with Russia, Germany was able to build back its defense on the Western Front. The Second Battle of Marne began on July 15, 1918. Due to a better defense from the Allied side, the Germans needed to move their troops towards the north where they hoped they will be able to win the war. The Ottoman Empire needed to sign a treaty with the Allies in October 1918 and on November 11, 1918, Germany was obliged to seek an armistice with the Allies. This event marked the end of… [read more]

World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


World War II or the Second World War turned out to be a war that was proceeding by 1939 and then finished up 1945. It had a lot to do with a huge mainstream of the world's states -- will involves all of the big powers -- ultimately starting two contrasting military associations: the Axis and the Allies. It was… [read more]

World War II Why Did This War Happen Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … World War II Happen?

The world had barely stopped hemorrhaging from the ravages of the "War to End All Wars" when World War II broke out in 1939 following Germany's invasion of Poland. Given the bloody and enormously costly outcome of the First World War and the efforts by the international community to forge an international organization that… [read more]

World War II Choices Reexamining History Weinberg Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (668 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


World War II Choices

Reexamining history

Weinberg framed the argument of his book beautifully. World War II was very much a war that was based on choices and what can go horribly right or wrong when those choices are made on the global scale. Germany should have been neutered and put in control after the first World War. To a certain degree, they were, but Hitler was able to remobilize and regroup Germany despite the best intentions and somewhat effective actions of the Allies and other stakeholder countries that were involved.

As far as choices, countries on the other side like Germany, Italy and Japan had their own nefarious options and France, Great Britain and Russia had their own. Russia was a special case because they were actually allied with Germany at one point and then switched sides. That being said, it is generally agreed the pact to divide Poland was never truly taken seriously and that it was just a matter of time before the two countries went to war anyway. The agreement in 1939 to divide Poland was apparently just delaying the inevitable (1).

Britain is also an example of a country whose choices changed dramatically over the development of the war and what led up to it. Their dithering and placation of Hitler prior to the war was disastrous and, in retrospect, an insanely stupid decision. The ensuing choices and inherent leadership saved the day.

A choice of Japan that seems to be foolish in modern times was the decision of Japan to intentionally bring the United States into the war. It was widely assumed, at least by some, that the United States would become involved eventually and reasonable people can argue what would have happened had Japan not attacked Pearl Harbor. However, since they did and since the resulting events are quite clear up to and including the atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshama and Nagasaki, the choices the Hirohito made had vast and deadly consequences. Despite the victory that…… [read more]

WWII History Making Decades WWII-Present Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,515 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



History Making Decades WWII-Present

Many consider the end of WWII to have ushered in the modern era in global politics. One reason for this is based on WWII as an end -- the end of Nazi politics in Europe and of European politics as dominating politics on a worldwide scale. Another reason for naming WWII as the beginning of… [read more]

WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,237 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But there were many sound reasons for justifying an attack on a historic monastery like Monte Cassino. Rome as an objective was too important to pass on. Casulties were very heavy and the Allied generals were aware that the Normandy had already been commited to.

Since the German's intentionally chose the monastery of Monte Cassino to thwart Allied Forces, by… [read more]

Inequalities of Combat Representation During the World Wars Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Treatment of Africans in World War I Versus World War II

The Treatment that the Africans Received in World War I versus World War II

The First and Second World War had a significant effect on the Africans who took part in them. Africans were subjected to significant suffering that affected their health and health outcomes during and after the world. Significant evidence shows that the Africans Soldiers and other participants of the first and the second World Wars suffered from psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder after the war. Civil rights bodies played a significant role in ensuring that Africans soldiers received fair treatment from their superior colonies during the World War II. This was not possible in the First World War. The roles of the civil bodies can be easily traced throughout the two wars; hence, the need for its analysis (Gaines 62). This study analyzes two articles trying to create a comparison of the civil rights activities of the World War I and II that fostered the fair treatment the Africans during the wars.

Civil rights and efforts contributed significantly to improving the treatment the Africans received during the World War I and II. Narratives from the civil right bodies during the World War I and II showed that the black veterans' were involved in the activities with the intention of countering the unfair treatment they received during the wars. The black veterans made an intuitive contribution by mobilizing the adoption of strategies that safeguarded the rights of blacks in the war. The black veterans were always among the members considered active in the most of the civil rights organizations where the insurgency was launched. The Africans in the World War one faced significant challenges in the war as compared to those in the World War II. For example, they suffered lack of political recognition of their contribution to the war alongside violation of the fundamental human rights.

However, presence of civil bodies such as NAACP fought for equity among the participants of the World War I. World…… [read more]

World War One: Causes and Concerns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Causes of World War One and the Treaty of Paris

The causes of World War One are both intricate and nuanced and it is difficult to point to a single cause or even a few collective causes which led to this war. Rather a complexity of problems and issues are what caused the outbreak of World War One. In many… [read more]

Sonar in WWI and WWII Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,448 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


That would be detrimental to the study, and would also be confusing. Larger cases make more sense for this study, and will be used to provide insight about, and examples of, how sonar made a difference in Naval operations.

Case One: World War I

World War I, or the First World War, was also called "The Great War" (Abbatiello, 2005).… [read more]

Shape and to Create Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


William the Conquerer was a rule who made it clear that he was to be treated as one more powerful and more popular than the pope, and that even the pope's envoys needed to enter England with the permission of William and that same permission was needed in order for members of the papal group to publish.

While these moves might appear incredibly controlling, William was one of the people who was able to push England into being an ideal European nation, a nation that was simply better organized and more powerful. And part of these achievements were connected to the fact that he took power away from the papacy and some of their more archaic tendencies for ruling and controlling -- old fashioned regimes which were keeping England in the dark ages for a long time. In fact, William's son Henry I ruled after William's death and was known as the "Lion of Justice" who placed higher taxes on the wealthy members of English society and on officials of the church. This trend was continued by Henry II who was strong in establishing his leadership in legal matters and who valued impartiality very strongly. He was actually the brilliant mind who established legal terms and performances known as "common law" and "trial by jury" which meant that a verdict was rendered on a court case. On the other hand, Richard the Lion-Hearted was one who followed him to the throne, but was more often gone to faraway lands, fighting battles that he didn't accomplish as much at home.

Even so, the people listed and discussed here and the events attached to them, were just some of the more influential leaders who had a tremendous…… [read more]

Espionage Has Largely Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Yalta Conference actually makes it possible for someone to gain a more complex understanding concerning feelings between the Soviets and the West. Both sides had received intelligence information prior to the event and were prepared to take on diplomatic attitudes with the purpose of achieving their goals. "While many, including Alger Hiss, have praised Stalin's negotiating skills at Yalta,… [read more]

1st World War (WWI) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,489 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Indeed, its creation of a spirit of antagonism among nations is also a noted and significant contributor to choices made before the war (Ross 18). The period prior to 1914 was marked with increasing imperialism as nations sought to expand their power and wealth by increasing control and territorial coverage (Ross 18). Parts of Asia and Africa were in contention… [read more]

WWI Overview World War I Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


[footnoteRef:10] Additionally, Austria-Hungary wanted to continue to strive to create a bridge to the east through the Balkans while Serbians wanted access to the sea[footnoteRef:11], which contributed to the tensions between the two countries and catapulted them into the World War I. [7: Ibid., 11.] [8: Ibid., 10.] [9: Ibid.] [10: Ibid.] [11: Ibid.]

Scholars speculate that there are a variety of reasons that further contributed to the escalation of a third Balkan War and its transformation into World War I. Among these reasons are alliance alignments, which forced various countries to honor alliance treaties and be drawn into the conflict; an arms race; the desire to preserve imperialistic legacies; economic rivalries; and "virulent" nationalism.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Ibid., 11.]

As previously stated, Austria-Hungary was allied with Germany, Italy, and Romania, while Serbia, France, Great Britain, and Russia were allied with each other. Furthermore, the countries that comprised the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were in naval competition with each other, which also contributed to their arms race interests.[footnoteRef:13] Additionally, after 1911, every country in Europe, except Great Britain, had mandatory male conscription, thus ensuring that they had a potentially sizeable standing army. By 1912, Germany had 646,000 enlisted men and added 130,000 by the end of the year; France had 611,000 and added 90,000 by the end of the year; and Russia had 1,332,000.[footnoteRef:14] By July 1914, when World War I broke out, the total number of enlisted men exceeded 3.6 million.[footnoteRef:15] [13: Ibid.] [14: Ibid., 12.] [15: Ibid.]

Ultimately, World War I came to an end on June 28, 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. World War I resulted in 9 million soldiers being killed with 21 million more being wounded. Civilian casualties are numbered at 10 million.[footnoteRef:16] Germany and France were the most affected by these casualties as they ended up sending 80% of their respective male populations between the ages of 15 and 49.[footnoteRef:17] Additionally, World War I marked the end of four imperial dynasties: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Turkey.[footnoteRef:18] [16: "World War I."] [17: Ibid.] [18: Ibid.]

World War I would irrevocably change the face of war. Less than 20 years later, as a result of the stipulations outlined in the Treaty of Versailles, these European countries, including the United States and Japan, would find themselves fighting each in World War II.


History Channel. "U.S. Enters World War I." Accessed June 22, 2013.…… [read more]

Hunchback Oppression, Isolation and World War II Movie Review

Movie Review  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Oppression, Isolation and World War II in the Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939)

In 1939, the world was a place in the immediate throes of what would become one of the deepest, darkest and deadliest periods in human history. With the escalating violence of World War II and the Holocaust, the period proved a particularly suitable contexts for the cinematic adaptation of Victory Hugo's the Hunchback of Notre Dame. Though based on a novel that was published in 1831 and revolving on a plot which occurs in the late 15th century, it is remarkable how well the film succeeds as an allegory with relevance not just to World War II but also to life in the present day. Most particularly, the themes of oppression, prejudice and authoritarian cruelty depicted in the film translate with tremendous relevance to these latter periods of history. As one watches a film that betrays many of the limitations of the cinematic form in its time and place, one remains directly effected by a set of themes that truly encapsulate something more permanent and universal about the human condition.

Particularly, in the figures of Esmerelda and Quasimodo, we are presented with both a victim and a martyr. The two figures draw us directly into a broader class conflict, serving to demonstrate the stark experiential differences between life as an aristocrat or life as a social 'other.' The film, directed by William Dieterle, appears to play up the relevance of many of these themes, perhaps because of their adaptability to the big screen or perhaps because of their mounting relevance at the time of the film's release. According to the analysis by Miller (2010), "fifteenth century Paris is a city of contrasts with an aristocracy living in glittering luxury while the poor endure almost unimaginable squalor and all the while the church offers spiritual salvation while its leaders wallow in corruption and decadence." (Miller, p. 1)

This corruptive wallowing is perhaps best embodied by the character of Jehan, who is both brother to the archdeacon Claude Frollo and close confidante to King Louis XI. Here, the viewer finds a loathsome character who best embodies the hatred, exploitation and hierarchical oppression of the aristocracy while boasting inextricable ties both to the Church and the Crown. Here, the viewer gains some understanding of the influence of corruptive power as a driving theme in the film. That Esmerelda's gypsy ethnicity is generally used as the basis for allegations of witchcraft is an important fact, especially as we consider its relevance to the global conflict raging just as the film hit movie theatres.

Particularly, the theme of authoritarian abuse was coming into strong visibility as fascism swept through Europe. The France of Hugo's novel was now ensconced by the totalitarian rule of Spain, Germany and Italy. And in all contexts, an aggressive quashing…… [read more]

Military -- Naval Role Post-Wwii Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


[footnoteRef:8] Finally, the United States Navy played an important role in America's Space program, both contributing people from its own ranks as astronauts and in retrieving men and equipment employed in that program.[footnoteRef:9] Consequently, while the U.S. Navy was primarily devoted to Cold War efforts, it filled additional roles suitable to its expanded capabilities. [1: George Baer. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993, p. 444.] [2: Stephen E. Ambrose, Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006, p. 12.] [3: Ibid., p. 78.] [4: Ibid., p. 167.] [5: John Pina Craven. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002, p. 88.] [6: Ibid., p. 39.] [7: Baer, p. 352.] [8: Ambrose, p. xxvi.] [9: Ibid., p. 430.]

3. Conclusion

During the period stretching from 1945 to 1991, the major powers of the world were engaged in a Cold War that significantly occupied their military resources, including their naval forces. Spanning the globe, this War was primarily fought by the United States and its allies according to a "Containment Strategy" using a wall of military might to surround and limit the spread of Communism. The United States Navy, in particular, sought to dominate the world's seas through its expanding capabilities and aided in conflicts involving the U.S.S.R., North and South Korea, China and Taiwan, Vietnam and surrounding countries, Cuba, Israeli and the PLO, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Grenada, Iran, Kuwait, and Iraq. For their part, the navies of the U.S.S.R. And its allies were equally dedicated to spreading Communism with U.S.S.R. capabilities eventually rivaling the U.S. Navy's capabilities. In addition to its multifaceted containment role in the Cold War, the United States Navy was instrumental in building and maintaining the security of Japan and in contributing manpower and naval capabilities to aid in the U.S. Space Program.


Ambrose, Stephen E., Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006.

Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.

Craven, John Pina. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002.… [read more]

Factors That Cause Britain to Lose Its Innovated Edge by WWII Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Britain and WW

Factors which caused Britain to Lose WWII

Factors which Caused Britain to Lose WW11

The Great Britain lost the World War 11 though it had enjoyed the portion of eminence in the period after the World War 1. The reasons are classified under two main heads; lack of foresightedness and inability to face the opponent. The other countries had made strong technological development which paved the way for their success.

Factors which Caused Britain to Lose WW11

The history has been witnessing the rise and downfall of many countries since long. The superpowers of one era have been crushed in some other period, while the deprived nations have succeeded in changing the face of the world. It is no exaggeration to mention that every country has passed through all the stage of development and the present state of a country is the outcome of a long journey which might have started centuries ago.

Besides national affairs, there have been many events at international platform which forcefully changed the state of affairs in a country and determined its fate in a manner which was quite unpredictable before occurrence of these events. The two World Wars are examples of these events which have printed lasting impact over the fortune of the countries.

This paper casts light upon the history of the Great Britain in a particular perspective of its boom after the World War 1 (WW1) and then failure in the World War 11 (WW11). The paper explains the factors which did not go in the favour of the Great Britain when it participated in WW11 and eventually it lost its power over many countries.

The World War 1 lasted from 1914-1918[footnoteRef:2]. It was the period of political disturbance in the world and major reforms in the field of science and technology were carried out. The Great Britain, being a developed country enjoyed the wave of scientific development and invested many things which surprised the whole world[footnoteRef:3]. In addition to technological advancements, it rightly identified the need to have close connections with other parts of the world, hence trade activities were started. In its quest to boom its economy even further, the Gear Britain conquered many areas by force and some others by economy. The consequence was increased rule of Britain over major part of the world. [2: David Stevenson, 1914-1918: the history of the First World War (USA: Penguin, 2004).] [3: John Turner, Britain and the First World War (Australia, Unwim Human Ltd., 1988), 70-85.]

The situation continued to prevail for few decades. It was the time when next generation of deprived nations was born and the young individuals did not like the inherited bondage of the Great Britain. The riots and protests started massively in many countries. As the Great Britain was emerging economically, it was paving way for many foes which united themselves in the form of alliance and another war broke out. It took the form of World War 11, and despite its proper planning… [read more]

World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


World War II

When attempting to discern what the "real war" was in a world involving as many international powers such as those represented in World War II, it is easy to examine this issue in regards to the goals sought by those sides. For Hitler and the other Axis leaders, those goals were the implementation of fascist, totalitarian governments… [read more]

World War II Ww Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Slowly the Americans invaded and liberated a number of islands until the were in a position to begin an air campaign against the Japanese homeland. With the capture of the Marianas, Iwo Jima, and finally Okinawa, the Americans came to hold the position of being able to strike at Japan with their heavy bombers and begin inflicting massive damage to… [read more]

World War II -- Techniques Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


[footnoteRef:11] The auto industry, which was already using line production, was quickly converted to produce massive amounts of equipment: 1/5 of America's military equipment, including nearly all tanks and vehicles, 1/3 of machine guns and 2/5 of the aviation supplies.[footnoteRef:12] Furthermore, other industries borrowed and improved upon the concept of mass production. Warplanes were now mass produced,[footnoteRef:13] with the industry particularly flourishing in California and Washington.[footnoteRef:14] In addition, the shipbuilding industry literally mass-produced ships by constructing prefabricated sections then welding them together through the most modern techniques.[footnoteRef:15] Ship production used long production lines with each job broken down into segments so simple that even workers with only brief training were able to complete them.[footnoteRef:16] Industry did not merely use existing mass production techniques; they also employed time-and-motion experts to continually refine the process.[footnoteRef:17] As a result, ship production flourished in Washington and on the Gulf Coast,[footnoteRef:18] and shipbuilding production rose 25% during the war years.[footnoteRef:19] These efforts produced several marked results for the United States, such as vastly superior air and sea mobility,[footnoteRef:20] and essentially made the United States rich again.[footnoteRef:21] [11: Overy, p. 193.] [12: Ibid., pp. 193-194.] [13: Weinberg, p.729.] [14: Ibid., p. 494.] [15: Overy, p. 194.] [16: Ibid.] [17: Ibid.] [18: Weinberg, p. 494.] [19: Overy, p. 194.] [20: Keegan, p. 81.] [21: Ibid., p. 96.]

3. Conclusion

American businesses expanded World War II production in several ways. First, America used existing factories and built many new ones while it also used idle workers and attracted new ones. Secondly, it employed large numbers of workers who received deferments, as well as women and black. Third, it built new factories in new areas. Fourth, it used and improved the most modern mass production techniques. Through these techniques, American factories churned out airplanes, tanks and other vehicles, ships, combat boots, and most equipment and supplies needed by America's armed forces. As a result, American industry met military demands and made the United States rich again.


Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY…… [read more]

Titu Cusi Yupanqui History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Titu Cusi Yupanqui, History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru

"History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru" -- Critical Analysis

Catherine Julien's book "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru" is a translated account initially written by Titu Cusi, the penultimate leader of the neo-Incan state. The text is impressive because it provides readers with the opportunity to learn more about the moment when the American continent was invaded as seen by Native Americans. Julien makes it possible for the masses to understand that the Incan civilization started to suffer significantly because of other reasons, as Spanish conquistadors were not the only factor causing this state to fall. Titu does not hesitate to emphasize the fact that his people suffered defeat at the hands of the Spanish. However, he also emphasizes that it is important for future generations to have a complex understanding of events surrounding the fall of the Incan Empire.

The death of Huayna Capac, Titu Cusi's grandfather, marked the beginning of a period of distress in Incan lands. Huayna's sons, Manco Inca, Huascar Inca, and Atahualpa were unwilling to allow each-other the chance to rule over the empire and got actively involved in imposing their power in the territory. Franciso Pizarro had arrived in the area at this point and realized that there was an attractive opportunity for him to exploit locals (Yupangui & Julien vii).

Titu Cusi primarily believed that Atahualpa was wrong because his pride was one of the principal reasons for which he failed to develop a healthy relationship with the Spanish. He did not appreciate Atahualpa because he was a bastard and considered that he took on Incan leadership through force instead of using proper means. Even with the fact that Titu realized that Francisco Pizarro was mainly interested in taking advantage of his people their resources, he respected the man because of his diplomacy and because he considered that he was different from most Spanish individuals as a result of his tendency to put respect first in some situations (Yupangui & Julien 53).

While most people are inclined to consider that the Andean society was peaceful before the Spanish arrived, the truth is that most individuals within this community were actually obsessed with power and went through great efforts in order to obtain it. Titu relates to how Pizarro is sometimes reluctant to act in agreement with his people's interests, but highlights that the well-organized nature of the Spanish community prevented it from experiencing significant problems. In contrast, the Inca group is ruptured by internal conflicts as Manco Inca struggles to retrieve his lands from his power-crazed brothers. Huayna Capac's death marked the beginning of a critical period when considering conditions in the Incan Empire (Yupangui & Julien 13).

Most Incas thought that the Spaniards were gods and that their behavior and appearance differentiated them significantly from what they considered to be normal people. "The Tallanas yungas also called the Spanish virachochas because of the excellence of… [read more]

Italy and Japan's Decision to Enter World War II Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


France's Decision To Enter World War Two

The French generals understood that an attack on France by the Nazis was imminent but that Hitler had no interest in attacking the Maginot Line head-on and that the Nazis would simply bypass the fortifications by invading Belgium and Holland.

That left France (and her ally, Britain) with two very unattractive choices. Their first choice was to send troops into Belgium and Holland before any Nazi attack on those countries, in effect, initiating a hostile occupation of their own, given that Belgium and Holland were still neutral countries and that neither would cooperate explicitly with Britain and France out of fear of provoking Hitler if he had not already decided to invade their nations.

France and Britain's second choice was to wait for Hitler to attack Belgium and Holland before sending in troops to counter the Nazi offensive. In addition to losing momentum by allowing Nazi troops to establish themselves in the Low Countries before responding, this would also mean that the eventual battles would be much closer to French population centers. Because of the political implications of invading sovereign Belgium and Holland, the French decided on the second option of waiting for the impending Nazi attack on Belgium.

Italy's Decision to Enter World War Two

When the…… [read more]

World War I Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


"[footnoteRef:7] Secondly, the defeat had even deeper psychological effects on the losers, particularly on Germany: Adolf Hitler, for example, fought in World War I and found Germany's defeat to be nearly unbearable, personally humiliating and consuming[footnoteRef:8]; Claus van Stauffenberg, a German officer who eventually attempted to assassinate Hitler during WWII, trained as a young soldier in a post-WWI German army intent an avenging "the humiliation of 1918."[footnoteRef:9] Third, the terms of peace were highly resented by the losers, particularly by Germany: for example, despite Germany's official agreement to the Treaty of Versailles, almost no Germans accepted the Treaty's terms of German reparations and disarmament.[footnoteRef:10] The physical devastation, humiliation of defeat and resented terms of peace eventually gave rise to the intense German nationalism that Hitler rode to power. According to Keegan, Hitler's speeches to the German people called them to a new nationhood based on the humiliation caused by defeat in WWI and the terms of peace including occupation and permanent disarmament, toward a victory that would "expunge Versailles."[footnoteRef:11] To that end, Hitler intended to totally reorder the globe through War.[footnoteRef:12] [6: Keegan, 49.] [7: Weinberg, 5-6.] [8: Overy, 10.] [9: Keegan, 65.] [10: Ibid., 9.] [11: Ibid., 12.] [12: Weinberg, 2.]

3. Conclusion

The peace terms of World War I completely disassembled the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires while taking great amounts of land from the German and Russian empires. The peace terms of the Treaty of Versailles were particularly tough on Germans, requiring admission of responsibility, reparations, occupation, disarmament and the loss of territory. The psychological effects of the war and peace terms were deep, particularly for the German people: the War itself had been physically devastating; the defeat had even deeper psychological effects of humiliation and vengeance; the terms of peace were highly resented by the losers. As a result, the time was ripe for a leader such as Adolf Hitler, who stressed German nationalism, pride and cathartic victory in yet another World War.

Works Cited

Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.

Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.

Weinberg, Gerhard L. A…… [read more]

Home Front During WWII America Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


World War II Home Front

The Home Front

World War II was a conflict which raged across the planet, from Europe to the Pacific, and everywhere in between. Battles were fought in thousands of places that no one had ever heard of, and many Americans died in places they did not even know existed. While there were many battle fronts,… [read more]

World Civilization From 1500 CE to the Early Twentieth Century Assessment

Assessment  |  10 pages (3,002 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … History 1500-Present

World Civilization from 1500 AD to Present

Worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800 AD: the Rise and Implications

Europe was expanding its boundaries at the end of the medieval world: Spain and Portugal had navigated the globe. The Crusades had opened roads to the East, and the sea lanes had given way to a new world… [read more]

Second World War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There was also concern throughout the western world that the real threat was Russia and the Communists who were bent on radical governmental change. Hitler went on to systematically align with nations that would support him, even making a non-aggression policy with Poland, a nation he would swiftly overtake and whose population he would eradicate (Paxton 329). As early as 1933, Hitler had envisioned a Germany which he would lead and a Europe which would proverbially fall to its knees in his wake.

One of the ways they determined to rebuild the morale of their countrymen was to create a whipping boy of sorts. The German people would be better off emotionally and morally if there were a group that could be made into scapegoats. By placing all the people's blame on this group, the German government could effectively alleviate their own responsibility and uniformly cast the people's dissatisfaction off of themselves. Hitler and his fellow leaders attacked Jews, teen rebels, the homosexuals, Gypsies, vagrants, and the mentally or physically handicapped (Paxton 285). Starting in 1933, anyone who was not Aryan, which is to say not of "pure" German heritage, was dismissed from civil service positions. The ramifications for these non-Aryans included losing ownership of businesses as well as their homes and their positions of employment. It culminated with a declaration wherein anyone non-Aryan, particularly those with any Jewish heritage would be denied their citizenship, no matter how long the person in question had lived in the country.

In 1938, the three axis powers, Germany, Japan, and Italy met in Munich along with Great Britain's Neville Chamberlain and France's Eduoard Daladier. At this conference, the Axis countries made promises to what would become the Allied forces. Among these pledges was that Germany would not try to take any additional territory from European nations. Of course, this was an empty promise and by March of the following year, Germany would take over all of Czechoslovakia. This would be followed by the invasion of Poland five months later.

By 1941, the United States had unofficially taken sides against Germany and the Axis Powers. Although still technically neutral the U.S. had nonetheless been shipping supplies to Britain and her allies against the enemy. The United States was as reluctant to enter the war as Britain was during the era of appeasement. It would take a large-scale, unprovoked attack on American soil before the people of the United States provided the government with enough support to declare war on Japan, Italy, and Germany. The rest is history.

Works Cited:

Paxton, Robert O. Europe…… [read more]

Why Was WW1 Such a Senseless War? Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


World War I: A senseless Concept?

Prior to the start of World War I, there were premonitions of war. The Europeans did not anticipate the turn of events that would transpire during 1914. However, they had been 'reassured by liberal optimism' that if the war did occur, it would be decisively quick because of modern weaponry (Paxton, Hessler, 42). It is important to separate the Austro-Serbian War from the later events that brought France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia into the fight. Historians disagree as to the impetus of the war, however, most war scholars agree that the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife on June 28, 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old who shot them. Princip had been trained by the Black Hand and reportedly was passionate about uniting his people with the south Slavic Kingdom of Serbia that was independent. Efforts were made to determine whether the Kingdom of Serbia had some influence on Princip's act.

The conflict, however, spread rapidly, and the first months reportedly consisted of strong and bold attacks with troops moving rapidly on both the western and eastern fronts. The Russians were reportedly the most affected by an ultimatum between Austria to Serbia due to past Bosnian history. Russia partially mobilized based on technical considerations, with little to no thought for potential diplomatic implications (51). Around August 22, 1914, the Battle of the Frontiers occurred where approximately 27,000 French soldiers died on a single day in an offensive thrust to the east of Paris in the direction of the German borders. Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg led the German army, August 26-30th to what has been regarded as its greatest victory on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tennenberg.

Germany attacked Belgium that was considered neutral and later France in the west. In the east, Russia attacked Austria-Hungary and Germany. To the south, Serbia was attacked by Austria-Hungary after the Battle of the Marne that took place from September 5th through the 9th, 1914. According to historians, the western front was entrenched in France and stayed that way through the remainder of the war. The eastern fronts are also said to have eventually locked their position as well. Later, the first Battle of the Marne stops the German's invasion into France.

In late 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the warfare as well, reportedly after…… [read more]

History of the World in Six Glasses Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,287 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


History Of the World in Six Glasses

The great civilizations of the world have left us among their great achievements their innovations related to a certain alcoholic or caffeinated drink or another. In his book "A history of the World in Six Glasses," Tom Standage goes through the history of the world led by one of the six beverages that marked a giant step in the history of humanity until today. If beer and wine, as Standage points out in the first two parts of his book, were alcoholic beverages discovered more or less by accident in ancient times and marked the way of living of some of the greatest civilizations in the world, the spirited alcoholic drinks were discovered and developed in order to bring the resulted beverages to levels of mass consumptions by another great civilization: the Arabs. Through the process of distillation they used to make perfumes, which appears to have been already known in the fourth millennia BCE, the Arabs in Cordoba obtained in the first millennium CE a new range of drinks called spirits. The irony is evident. The alembic, a relatively rudimentary, but efficient from today's standards installation became thus famous and it is still used in private households still today. The film M.A.S.H. comes to mind when thinking of this invention that the Arabs gave the world. Three of the protagonists, Hawkeye and Trapper, later replaced by B.J Hunnicutt, live in a tent in a MASH medical unit on the front war with Korea. The presence of an alembic and their martini glasses are constant elements when the setting is their tent. The spirits keep people company in difficult times and they had their shared the praise and the blame of the world when it cam to their influence on the human behavior, like the rest of the alcoholic drinks.

The leap from the way the Greeks drank wine and the high degree alcoholic beverages obtained thorough distillation of wine or fruits or later, was huge. The new drinks developed through the distillation of wine were easier to transport over long distances and long periods of time and it soon became an exchange currency, along with other European products for slaves supplied by African slave traders. The Portuguese spirits were highly acclaimed in this case.

Standage points out that the new stage in our history, the discovery of the Americas, remains linked with the slave trade, the sugar plantations and the spirits. "Over the course of four centuries, around eleven million slaves were transported from Africa to the New World[…].Distilled drinks plaid a central role in this evil trade, which intensified as the British, French and Dutch established sugar plantations in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century" ("A History of the World in Six Glasses," p. 103-104).

Just as the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians ate and drank their gains under the form of bread, respectively that of beer, the rich planters who came to farm the lands of Barbados, had their solid and… [read more]

American History Europe Was at War Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American History

Europe was at war and the Nazi war machine was gradually occupying every major country, it seemed that there had been nothing to stand in their way. Millions of innocent had been dying on the eastern fronts as Stalin struggled to make a barrier to stop the Germans. Matters in the U.S. were not better, with the Japanese… [read more]

Germany Won WWII Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,472 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Germany Won WWII

Several days prior to the launch of Operation Overlord by the combined Allied forces, a German spy sent a very short coded message to occupied France, "Attack Normandy, Clear Weather, Anchor," the final word being the codename of the sender. This singular message originated from within the Allied command structure and released on the leg… [read more]

World War I, or the Great Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,881 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


World War I, or the Great War, began as a conflict in Europe, due to the military alliances, rivalries and expansion goals of these European nations. The conflict, which broke out in August of 1914, eliminated the four great monarchial empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany and Turkey. It also shifted power from Europe to the United States and less so… [read more]

World War I And World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


World War I and World War II

World War I was also known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars, a global military upheaval, which occurred from 1914 to 1918 (Wikipedia 2006). It claimed millions of lives and is said to have helped shape the modern world. It was fought between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and won by the former. The Allied Powers, or Allies, were led by Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. The Central Powers, on the other hand, were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Much of it occurred on the Western Front within systems of opposing manned trenches and fortifications from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. It caused the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman and Russian empires. It ultimately created a decisive break with the old world order and important factors in the development of World War II roughly 20 years later (Wikipedia).

President Woodrow Wilson announced that break in the U.S.'s official relations with Germany on account of its policy of insisting on neutral rights and in mediating a compromise settlement (Wikipedia 2006). The President warned that the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, which he said violated America's dignity. Germany stopped for a while, but announced the following month that they would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. After the War came the signing of the Versailles Treaty, which required Germany to pay enormous reparations, which it borrowed from the U.S. until the suspension of the borrowings in 1931.As a whole, the experiences of this war developed into a collective national trauma for all the countries, which participated in it. These experiences completely wiped out the optimism of the 1900s and those who fought in that War came to be known as the Lost Generation because they never fully recovered from their experiences. The social trauma took many forms. One was a revolt by nationalism and what it supposedly caused and began doing towards a more internationalist world in support of organizations like the League of Nations. Another form was pacifism, which became popular. Still another was the view that only strength and military might could be relied upon for protection in this inhuman and chaotic world, which did not respect civilization. The defeated ones or losers developed their own psychological state, which rejected the lesson of the War. There was a pronounced sense of disillusionment and cynicism, specifically Nihilism, which became popular. This disillusionment toward humanity reached a cultural climax with the establishment of the Dadaist artistic movement. Many also believed that the War signaled the end of the world, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. It was observed that communist and socialist movements gathered strength from this theory and became popular (Wikipedia).

The most lasting effect of World War I in the U.S. is the systematization of society or the centralization of government power and regulation (West 1999). It combined with the Great Depression in rationalizing the… [read more]

History Book Video Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


History Book Video

The History Book": major themes and patterns that characterize the development of the modern world

The History Book" is a series of documentary cartoons that dramatize modern Western history as a series of economic paradigm shifts. Most of these shifts result in the enrichment of a smaller percentage of the population that owns property or has aristocratic… [read more]

America in a World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,155 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


African-Americans benefited from the integration of some aspects of the armed forces and the G.I. Bill that extended a free education to all G.I.s, thus allowing some African-Americans to make concrete post-war gains through education.

Question 7

Why was the decision made to use the Atomic bomb against Japan in WWII? What were the arguments? Even after sixty years this is still an area of controversy. In your opinion, was the use of atomic weapons justified?

The use of atomic weapons was made, according to President Truman, to spare American lives. In other words, by dropping the atomic bomb, Truman more quickly and efficiently ended the war and spared the Americans and even the Japanese army, ultimately, needless carnage, because the Japanese army refused to agree to an unconditional surrender in a war that 'they' began at Pearl Harbor. While Truman's arguments may have some merit, the fact is that civilians composed a tremendous amount of the population he attacked over the course of his efforts, and he set the stage for the fear if not the actual use of atomic and nuclear capabilities forevermore in history.

Question 8

How did the war affect the American economy? How did it affect the New Deal? What factors of the war would fuel a post-war boom of material prosperity in the United States?

The war ended the Great Depression and the New Deal because it fueled the engines of prosperity and productivity of United States factories, despite some inevitable wartime shortages of militarily necessary products such as nylon, metal, and rationing of foodstuffs necessary for the troops such as meat and sugar. However, the massive and unprecedented levels of federal spending necessitated by such a wide-scale world conflict were to some extent foreshadowed by the New Deal's greater federal involvement in the United States private economy.

Question 9

What was the Cold War? How did the results of WWII lead to the development of the Cold War?

As fears of fascism subsided, fears of communism arose in the hearts of Americans. The formation of the Warsaw Pact, the domination of Eastern Europe by the massive Stalinist machine, all created an undeclared war between America and the U.S.S.R., which was more often than not to be fought upon the territory of other nations, such as Vietnam, rather than between the nations themselves.

Question 10

How did the thinking of the period known as the Cold War influence the United Nation/United States to become involved in the conflict between North and South Korea? Was this a logical result on your opinion?

The domino theory held that if one nation 'went communist,' then the neighboring nations would follow, illogically ignoring regional differences of government, culture, and stability.

Question 11

To what degree was communism a genuine threat to the interests and security of the United States in the 1950s? Why did communism cause such fear in the post WWII era? Was this fear reasonable? How did these fears lead to the rise of Senator Joseph… [read more]

Cold War Prior to World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He believed that in any nuclear exchange, as many as 300 million people might die in the U.S.S.R., the United States, and Europe (Nash, 1994). To counter nuclear dependence, he developed the idea of "Flexible Response," which looked at a variety of non-nuclear solutions for any military conflict. His determination to do this was tested severely during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, when the U.S.S.R. attempted to install nuclear warheads in Cuba (Nash, 1994).

Meanwhile, the United States entered into another treaty in hopes of stopping the spread of communism: the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO). This is the treaty that led the U.S. first into the Laotian conflict, and eventually, into the Viet Nam War (Nash, 1994).

The effects of the Cold War, especially in its earlier phases, thus had a profound effect on American culture. It brought us McCarthy witch hunts for Communism, pervading worry about a nuclear holocaust, and led to our devastating involvement in the Viet Nam war. It cast suspicion on people legitimately fighting for their rights as citizens, and cast suspicion on almost anyone who worked to make what they saw as improvements in American society. Ironically, the backlash to the heightened militarism and eventual opposition to the Viet Nam war brought scorn toward military personnel, the very people who had been universally praised one generation ago after helping to liberate Europe from Nazism. Eventually, excesses by not only McCarthy but others trying to silence dissenters of all kinds resulted in court rulings that made people's Constitutional rights more clear, but it would be many years until the Cold War was recognized as over.


Nash, Philip. 1994. "Nuclear Weapons in Kennedy's Foreign Policy." The Historian, 56:2.

Roberts, Geoffrey. 2000. "Starting the Cold War: Historians and the Cold War. History Review.

Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Marvin's Press, 1994. (pp. 92-94) Accessed via the Internet 4/10/05.

White, Timothy J. White. 2000. "Cold War Historigraphy: New Evidence Behind Traditional Typographies." International Social Science Review.… [read more]

World War II (WWII) Transformed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For the most part, however, the war was fought with the same or improved weapons of the types used in World War I. During the war, the United States and other nations made great advances in aircraft and tanks. This would ensure that war would be fought in a radically different way going forward.

After World War II, the use of the atomic bomb changed the U.S. And the rest of the world in many ways. Nuclear power resulted in a 40-year-long arms race between the United States and the U.S.S.R., and nuclear annihilation continues to threaten the world even today. On a positive note, nuclear power allowed scientists to develop new sources of energy.

During the war, new technological and medical advances were created that saved lives and improved living standards in the decades ahead. Penicillin, a "miracle drug" first used to heal Allied casualties, was used domestically to defeat disease, reduce infant deaths, and extend life expectancy. DDT, a colorless chemical pesticide, destroyed harmful insects and prevented typhus and malaria.

New fuel mixtures increased the range of warplanes and later of civilian planes; jet propulsion planes transformed transoceanic flights and were in commercial use by the late 1950s. Other areas of technology developed during World War II included radar, semiconductors, freeze-dried food, infrared technologies, and synthetic materials.

World War II put an end to Nazi power and the totalitarian power that threatened to conquer the world. Americans felt safer but the cost of the war was huge. Allied military and civilian losses were 44 million. The U.S. lost almost 300,000 people in battle deaths, far less than the toll in Europe and Asia.

Domestically, the war ended isolationism, stopped the depression, provided unprecedented social and economic mobility, fostered national unity, and greatly expanded the federal government. The U.S. government spent more than $300 billion on the war, which generated jobs and prosperity and rejuvenated confidence. Finally, World War II made the United States the world's leading military and economic force. In addition, the war caused the United States and the U.S.S.R. To become rivals for global dominance.

Many people believe that WWII greatly improved the U.S. economy. Women started working more and more outside the home, and the stock market rose again. According to Professor Jane Scimeca: "During WWII, more than any previous war, women were actively identified with national defense. WWII was a time of enormous patriotism and national unity, and that really formed the identity of the women of the time."

As a result of WWII, Americans began making money and became prosperous. The government used advertisements to promote liberty bonds, blood donations, reserving supplies for the troops and the entertainment industry. Because of WWII, America proved to the rest of the world that we are a strong country.


Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.

Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.

Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected… [read more]

Great War in American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They were being regarded as the enemy or disloyal, for the people around held biased judgement for all Asians.

Guterson reveals a remarkable side left by the war, for a community 'of five thousand damp souls', who supported themselves through salmon fishing and berry farming, in the fictional Island of San Piedro off the coast of Washington. He describes the… [read more]

World War II the Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


S.S.R. The primary troops were ready to fight by 1942 against the Axis. 13

It is necessary, at this point, to get a general overview of the situation in Germany at this time. In 1944, powerful forces both from the east as well as from the west bombarded Hitler. Added to this were the threats posed by air raids and… [read more]

American History During the 1940S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,426 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


S. contributed to the decline of economic growth in the country during Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan's terms as president of the country. However, during his term, Reagan was able to bring back growth in the economy, primarily by cutting back on taxes and social programs, and increasing government revenues such as military revenues. This economic program, called the 'supply-side… [read more]

WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944 Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It was evident that the bombings succeeded in vastly causing collateral damage to the Germany war factories, the aircraft plants, transport sector and the oil facilities, but noticeably it failed to kill the spirits and morale of the people (Rogole J.A., 2002:Pp27).


The WWII was not just a war of weapons as was the WWI but it involved much more than just that. It involved a lot of diplomacy playing out between countries hence formation of alliances which were basically means of showing allegiance to some countries. The main driving force behind the formation of the alliances was to get enough military muscle to outweigh the enemy and hence be able to either protect your own territory or even carry out expansion as Japan did.


Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II

Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE

Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp… [read more]

History of Pharaoh and Hatshepsut Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


" She supported her assertion that identified her as her father's designated successor evidenced from inscriptions from her mortuary temple's wall: Then his majesty said to them: "This daughter of mine, Khnumetamun Hatshepsut -- may she live! -- I have appointed as my successor upon my throne she shall direct the people in every sphere of the palace; it is she indeed. Obey her words, unite yourselves at her command."

Hatshepsut was commonly described as fairly conventional pharaoh in every other aspect. Majority recognized her as a peace loving pharaoh partly following her gender. Even though there were a number of military expeditions, they turned out to be dissent from Egypt's neighbors, (Tyldesley, Joyce, 1996). Hatshepsut managed to expand the temple complex at Karnak, expanded Egypt's trade and built her mortuary temple at Deir el Bahari.

Major Accomplishments

She successfully established the trade networks that had formerly been disrupted at the times of Hyksos occupation of Egypt within the second Intermediate period; as a result she built the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She took the role of overseeing the preparations and funding for a mission within the Land of Punt. The five ships started the expedition in her name, and every ship was 70 feet (21m) long harboring many sails and accommodated 210 men that included 30 rowers and sailors. Bulk of trade goods were bought within Punt, particularly myrrh.

The most significance of the voyage was Egyptians returning bearing thirty-one live myrrh trees. Their roots were kept carefully in baskets for the duration of the voyage, and this became the first attempt to transplant foreign trees. These trees are reported to have been planted within the courts of Hatshepsut Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. The voyage also came back with living Puntites (people of the Punt).

Hatshepsut organized commemoration of the expedition in relief at Deir el-Bahri, which is as well-known for its realistic representation of the Queen of the Land of Punt, Queen Iti, who was somehow having a genetic trait known as steatopygia. She successfully sent raiding expeditions to Sinai and Byblos just after the Punt expedition. Earlier in her career she successfully led military campaigns in Nubia, the Levant, and Syria. However, it is claimed that her foreign policy was commonly peaceful.

Comparison with other Female Pharaohs

Hatshepsut reigned for a longer period and the reign was also prosperous. In her early reign, she became successful in warfare, yet she is commonly known to have inaugurated a long peaceful era. Hatshepsut managed to re-establish international trading relationships that was once lost at time of foreign occupation hence bringing a great wealth to Egypt, (Gardiner, Alan, 1964). Using this wealth she was able to initiate building projects that raised ancient Egyptian architecture to standard, that could not be rivaled by any other culture for a quite along period. Hatshepsut became more widely recognized after she build Hatshepsut's temple.

Her Death

The death of Hatshepsut took place at her middle age given typical contemporary lifespan, during… [read more]

China: Facts About a Future Superpower Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


During this period, the capital of China became Beijing, previously it was Nanjing. The Ming Dynasty ended in 1644, when Li Zicheng led a revolt against the Ming and established the Shun Dynasty, which was short lived when the Machu Qing Dynasty overthrew the Shun. The Qing was the last imperial dynasty in China's history, ending in 1912. The 19th century saw the slow decline of the Qing Dynasty (Keay, 2009). They lost two opium wars against the British Empire. China was made to sign unfair treaties, pay reparations, allow special privileges for foreigners, and give Hong Kong to the British. In 1895, at end of the Sino-Japanese War, China loss influence in Korea and gave Taiwan to the Japanese (Keay, 2009). The Qing dynasty also suffered from rebellions and famine. Eventually, the Qing Dynasty collapsed and the Republic of China was established by Sun Yat-sen of the Nationalist Party.

The early 20th century was a tumultuous time for China, seeing the rise and fall of the Republic, a brief period where China was ruled by warlords, the re-establishment of the Republic under Chiang Kai-shek and the second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) (Keay, 2009). After the war, China entered a civil war where Nationalists battled Communists for control of China. By 1949, the Nationalists were driven to Taiwan and the Communists took control of China under Mao Zedong (Keay, 2009). The country is currently ruled by the Communist party who is communist but also authoritarian and corporatist, in other words a socialist country with a market economy. This has helped make China the world's second largest economy; however its nominal GDP per capital is only $6, 853 (CIA). There is high level of income equality, being home to the second greatest number of billionaires while 13.4% of its population lives below the poverty line (CIA). China has an unemployment rate of 6.4% However, the economic gains in China has led to an improved life expectancy (75 years) and a lowered infant mortality rate (12 per 1000) (CIA). Despite these major improvements in health, there are still major hurdles for China particularly respiratory illnesses due to air pollution, cigarette smoking, and an increase in obesity. In order to stay competitive in the market economy, China has invested heavily into education, increasing its spending from less than U.S.$50 billion in 2003 to more than U.S.$250 billion in 2011 (CIA). China is determined to become the world's next superpower and is willing to spend whatever is necessary to achieve its goal.


China. (n.d.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html

Keay, J. (2009). China: a history. London: Harper Perennial.

Wilkinson, E.P. (2000). Chinese history:…… [read more]

History of Espionage Class Reading Essay

Essay  |  27 pages (7,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 29


History Of Espionage Class Reading Study Guides

Jeffrey Burds, Chapter 19 of World of the Shadows: An International History of Espionage (The Golden Age of Soviet "Illegals")

This chapter opens with a quote from Stalin, who in 1937 questioned the prevailing belief that bourgeoisie states would refrain from sending "spies, wreckers, saboteurs and assassins" into socialist states.

Chapter 19 then… [read more]

Causes of World War I Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In response to this series of events, Germany invaded one of the Low Countries, Belgium, which was neutral at the time, in an attempt to invade France as quickly as possible (Levinson, 2008). These military events were followed by the declaration of war on Germany by the United Kingdom pursuant to its moral and legal obligations to France and its obligations to defend Belgium under the terms of a 75-year-old treaty (Levinson, 2008). Consequently, Britain was also at war with Austria-Hungary and the European continent was fully engaged in the beginnings of World War I.

Some contemporary historians argued that had the precipitating of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand not occurred, the First World War would not have taken place, at least for awhile. In this regard, Bloch and Soames (1935) maintain that, "Had [the assassination] not occurred, there would have been neither an Austro-Serbian War, nor a World War, in the summer of 1914" (p. 199). In support of this assertion, Bloch and Soames (1935) suggest that existing political and military alliances would have ensured a fragile stability on the continent for years to come, but many modern historians disagree (Levinson, 2008).


The research showed that while most historians agree that the precipitating event for World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, many also agree that Europe was ripe for war given the convoluted and nebulous nature of the political and military alliances between the countries of Europe. In the final analysis, the War to End All Wars failed to do so, and the Versailles Treaty that ended the First World War simply set the stage for the Second.


Bloch, C. & Soames, J. (1935). The causes of the World War: An historical summary. London:

George Allen & Unwin.…… [read more]

History of the Peloponnesian War Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,673 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Thucydides stood on the edge of philosophy," Kagan explains (373). That said, Kagan also notes that while Thucydides had a "…passion for truth" he also "violates" the most important historical strategy -- to cite sources when there is "conflicting evidence," and to give reasons for preferring one source over another ( 374).

A Major reason for the Defeat of Athens

Although this section of the paper does not address who started the Peloponnesian War, it provides "a major reason" that the Athenians lost the war. In the Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine the author points to the "Plague of Athens" that struck Athens not long after the Peloponnesian War had begun in 430 B.C. (Littman, 2009, p. 458). Researchers today are not certain as to the specific disease (whether it was measles, typhoid fever, bubonic plague, anthrax, or perhaps scarlet fever or even toxic shock syndrome), but the political ramifications were "enormous," Littman reveals (458).

Pericles perished because of the disease -- along with an estimated 100,000 Athenians -- but though Thucydides contracted the plague, he survived it and lived to write an account of it, Littman explains (459). Roughly 25% of the population of Athens perished but Sparta was spared, according to Littman (458). In fact the plague was "…economically and socially devastating to Athens, both at the time and in subsequent centuries," Littman continues (458). The Peloponnesian War and the terrible plague "…depopulated Athens and changed Greek history," which, Littman concludes, might have been quite different had Athens defeated Sparta (458).

In conclusion, this paper points to many conditions and prevailing attitudes that contributed tensions to the relationship between Sparta and Athens. It also points out that both parties share blame in this matter. But the bottom line and the answer to the thesis question is that Sparta started the war after Athens had angered and agitated Sparta to the point that Sparta apparently could not resist launching the conflict.

Works Cited

Harl, Kenneth W. 2008. "Athenian Empire: 480-404 B.C." Tulane University. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.tulane.edu.

Kagan,…… [read more]

Marked the History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


According to the Truman Doctrine from 1947, the United States would have provided financial assistance for reconstruction and development to those countries that would accept it. Still, this plan was particularly addressed to Greece and Turkey that had privileged and at the same time strategic presence for the United States to the Mediterranean Sea. More precisely, President Truman, in his address to Congress from 12 March 1947, stated "Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East." (The Avalon Project, n.d.) Hence, the intention of President Truman was to protect and somewhat extend the U.S.'s sphere of influence over Europe so that the U.S.S.R. does not. This would eventually be done by providing economic and political assistance to Greece in particular.

Thirdly, the Truman Doctrine thru the impact it had on the split of Europe determined the way in which Europe would develop in the almost fifty years of Cold War. For instance, the lack of the Marshall Plan in countries such as Romania or Bulgaria determined a communist development in this region. At the same time though it must be underlined the fact that the Yalta Agreement between Russian president Stalin and American counterpart Roosevelt had already agreed on splitting the spheres of influence and the communist one included Romania and Bulgaria. Even so, the Marshall plan and its lack of action in Eastern Europe determined a different economic, political, social, and cultural development of Eastern Europe.

Overall it must be concluded that the Truman Doctrine with its financial perspective, the Marshall Plan had a massive impact not only on European but also on determining the spheres of influence during the Cold War, an event that was crucial for the evolution of history in the history of the 20th century.


Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

The Avalon Project. "The Truman Doctrine." The Yale Law School. N.d. Available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp… [read more]

Nazi Germany Nazi Propaganda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


As the image here shows, fascism thrived by creating an impression of governmental authority as glorious, infallible and touched by a divine authority. The poster of Hitler here shows his legions of faceless and anonymous followers clamoring behind him. In many ways, this is an accurate depiction of Nazi Germany, where the glory of the Fuhrer would be offset by the manner in which individual German citizens sacrificed their own personalities and values in order to be aligned with the ruling party. And such depictions were not just produced on occasions designed to extol Hitler's virtues. Quite beyond that and consistent with the values of fascism, such images became a part of the required cultural output of Germany,

Such is to say that fascism, as a way of ruling, is intended to control every dimension of civic life. This is the core distinction of fascism, which advocates the insertion of government authority into everything from the way that citizens work and worship to the way that express themselves. As to this latter characteristic, the Nazis took extensive steps to prevent any expression that contradicted its values or agenda. For instance, the History Learning Site (2012) indicates, "to ensure that everybody thought in the correct manner, Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Commerce in 1933. This organisation dealt with literature, art, music, radio, film, newspapers etc. To produce anything that was in these groups, you had to be a member of the Reich Chamber. The Nazi Party decided if you had the right credentials to be a member."

In order to have the right credentials, one had to inherently work to produce the kinds of images that are shown here. The depiction of Hitler here, rendered almost as a divine figure, suggests that one of the core reasons for the success of the Nazi party was the incredible success that it had in compelling the German people of its inherent rightness. Even as the Nazi party engaged in unspeakable atrocities and implemented policies that quite clearly made the lives of German citizens far worse, such propaganda kept these impressions well hidden from much of the German public.

For those who recognized the reality, such fascist images served quit another purpose. Namely, in its depiction of Hitler and the Nazi party as a powerful and overwhelming force, such propaganda imposes a highly intimidating impression of the ruling party. This impression was accurate and functioned as a cautionary note to any who might oppose its force. Ultimately, fascism would sweep through Germany and other parts of Europe on this strength of both the fear and support that its propaganda induced.

Works Cited:

German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.

History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.

Welch, D.…… [read more]

Emergence of Modern Europe Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Europe

The defeat of the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) in World War II had deep and lasting effects on almost every country in the world. A new era in geopolitical struggles, economics, and political ideology came into being with the decades long tensions between the United States and Soviet Union known as the "Cold War." However, for Europe as a whole, there were both positive and negative aspects of post-war rebuilding, depending on geographical location. First and foremost, the geopolitical atmosphere of Europe changed after the war -- new countries, territories and expectations. Second, the U.S. role in Europe increased beginning with the Marshall Plan which led, in many ways, to NATO. Third, Europe was divided into two distinct political and economic camps -- the East and the West. Fourth, several economic changes dominated economic policies that are felt even today. and, finally, the most serious consequence of World War II for Europe, and one which encompassed almost every other change -- the Cold War.

Politically and culturally, most of the changes to Europe were highlighted by the Cold War. This war, not really a war at all, but an ongoing ideological conflict that had political, economic, and military complications between the Soviet Union and its allies (the Warsaw Pact Countries) and the United States and Europe (NATO). The Soviets saw the conflict as a reaction to American aggression all over the World, the West as a reaction to Stalinism and the export of communism. Most of Europe and certainly the Soviet Union, had millions dead or homeless, millions of acres of agricultural land destroyed, and an infrastructure and transportation system in shambles. The United States, however, with the exception of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, had not suffered invasion and the post-war economy was booming. A combination then of fear and economic determinism would reshape Europe in the Post-War period. This would define the next 40+ years -- a bipolar model of nations either supportive of the U.S. And policies or of the U.S.S.R.

Part 2 - the infrastructure in most of Europe was in shambles, but unlike the situation after World War I, the United States found a new determination in President Truman and his staff. Because they wanted to build up a democratic Europe, aid was put into place (the Marshall Plan) to help restore Europe to hegemony and self-sufficiency. However, because Europe was in such turmoil and there was somewhat of a power vacuum that France, England, the United States, and of course, the Soviet Union, wished to fill. Disputes between the Allied nations led to a new international balance of power between the West and the Soviets. Germany was divided into two sections; East and West, and for a time, Berlin was divided into four sectors with the United States, France, and Great Britain constituting West Berlin, the Soviets East Berlin. The immediate consequences to this division were a disaster for the German people. This, of course, was compounded by the… [read more]

Art Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


By comparison, Delacroix's painting, "Liberty leading the people" expresses fully the image of the Romanticist current. More precisely, the depiction of a strong, beautiful woman as the symbol of liberty and freedom suggests a sense of courage and bravery that is not however similar to that provided David's painting. While the former is based on revolutionary emotions and feelings, the latter focuses on the courage that is derived from mass emotions uncontrolled by any sense of state duty. The painting reflects in a way the image of the French revolution not only through the flag that Marianne, the symbol of the Revolution is holding in her hand but also through her appearance, young, strong, determined, beautiful, and committed to the liberated people.

There is a considerable difference between the two paintings in terms of the way in which the two painters decided to depict both courage and revolution. For the first part, the driving force of the Horatii came from a deep sense of education in the spirits of the war and in the political conflicts, as Rome was a constant place for political discrepancies. In the second painting, the courage comes from the masses. There is no real account of a woman having been at the heart of the French Revolution nor having the crowds motivated by one. Yet, the courage expressed by her symbolizes the forces that stood at the core of the revolution which were the common people, uneducated, yet with a particular sense for civil rights.

In terms of the way in which the two painters saw the revolution, one in Ancient Greece and the other in 19th century France, is again significant because the two pointed out distinct elements. In the first case, the so called "revolution" was pointed out implicitly and the representatives were part of the high class of ancient Rome. The nature of their revolution had a particular sense of nobleman provided even in the background of the paining. The characters are sober and full of the emotion of the event. However, the main impression is that of rationality behind the actions of the oath. By comparison, Delacroix's paining is rich in revolutionary stamina, in the belief that, despite the deaths that are depicted, there is hope in the lighter sky on the background and in the child that is also presented in the painting, maybe symbolizing the new generation that would be free from the oppression.

Overall, the neo-classical and romantic periods provided impressive examples of paintings that transformed the artistic thought and means in which reason and emotions alike can be depicted though paintings.… [read more]

War of the Worlds by HG Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


War of the Worlds by H.G.

Wells' "The War of the Worlds" is certainly a thought-provoking novel that addresses a series of divisive topics concerning society and the degree to which people believe they understand the concept of power. The writer provides readers with an account involving an unnamed narrator who generally feels confident concerning the power of humanity and… [read more]

Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta in Greece Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,198 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Greek on Mediterranean world

Sparta in Greece

The impact of Greek on the Mediterranean world

Knowledge of Mediterranean world is one aspect that is very interesting; it needs a proper social contact of both Greek as well as Roman influence on the culture of the people of that period as well as place. Similar to overriding threads interwoven… [read more]

Remaking the World After the First World War Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Remaking the World After the First World War

This study examines and considers two different views of the peacemakers at Versailles following the First World War. This work specifically will consider how these historians can have different views of the same historical event. The work of Margaret Macmillan entitled "Making War, Making Peace: Versailles, 1919" states that the observation of it being "harder to make peace than war was, as one might expect of someone so witty, that of Georges Clemenceau, prime minister of France at the end of the First World War and during the peace conference that followed." (2005, p.1)

Macmillan writes that the decisions concerning the peace settlements were made under a great deal of pressure since there was fear that unless the war was ended quickly and a framework laid for an international order that was better than before the war that Europe and possibly the entire globe might fall into "anarchy, revolution and misery." (2005, p.1) Questions that remained were such as the drawing of borders in the center of Europe and the Middle East and the nature of the treaties with Germany and Austria and Hungary its allies. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 resulted in the turning upside down of society because the future was so unclear. Macmillan writes that the men who met in Paris for the peace conference in 1919, "were not, as polemicists…would have it, thoroughly vindictive, stupid and willfully short-sighted." (Macmillan, 2005, p.12)

Those men were however, according to MacMillan "among the best their nations could produce." (p.12) Macmillan reports that the 'Big Three' or the "leaders of Great Britain, France and the United States -- represented an extraordinary concentration of power." (2005, p.12) Britain was the "single greatest power…[having] the world's largest empire and its strongest navy." (2005, p.12) These three leaders faced several challenges. First, it is reported that they were up against "forces that were not easily managed." (Macmillan, 2005, p.12) Revolutionary governments are reported to have been brought to power throughout various locations in Germany. In addition, ethnic nationalism resulted from the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman empire collapsing. Macmillan asks the question of whether the leaders of the peace conference due to the limitation of options available actually made a difference and affirms that they did indeed make a difference. The leaders worked in cohesion to develop peace terms acceptable to Germany and its allies/

The general consensus of that time was that the war had been started by Germany and it was Germany who lost the war. The Treaty was not ratified since Wilson had insisted that Democrats vote against the treaty resulting in the U.S. failing to join the League of Nations. According to Sharp (2006) while the conference in Versailles made decisions they were not in possession of the means to enforce these decisions either due to lack of troops or lack of reliable agents in these areas. This resulted historically in blame being placed on these leaders for events that… [read more]

Humanities Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The language of classic architecture seemed the most important at the time, as it embodied a series of ideas, ranging from painting to sculpture and showed intriguing aspects of human thinking. The term renaissance was meant to stand as a hallmark concerning

One of the most important mistakes that people make when trying to find parallels between the Renaissance and the Classical period is that they look at the latter from the perspective of the former. The masses are typically inclined to believe that the Renaissance says all there is to say with regard to Classical Greece, as it was practically inspired from Ancient times and as Renaissance artists were well-acquainted with thinking in the classical period. Even with the fact that this is partly true, the reality is that Ancient Greece was very complex and that Italians did not necessarily expressed interest in matters that they considered the Renaissance to have nothing to do with.

Both the Renaissance and the Classical Period promote the belief that it is essential for art to display a naturalistic perspective concerning the world. Even with this, the former is very different because it was created in an environment that was heavily affected by Christian thinking. "In stressing the dangers to art of certain types of Christian enthusiasm, Vasari failed to acknowledge adequately the other side of the coin: the positive, galvanic part played by the church in the history of art down the centuries" (Graham-Dixon 13).

To a certain degree, one might be inclined to believe that the Renaissance was inspired to a greater level by the Dark Ages than it was inspired by the Classical Period. Individuals in Italy were practically determined to do everything in their power in order to be certain that society would acknowledge the negative effects caused by the Dark Ages and they considered that adopting attitudes expressed in the more liberal Ancient Greece the masses would be enabled to look at life from a different perspective.

The Renaissance was not necessarily a product of the fact that Italians were especially in love with values expressed during the Classical Period. "Many different cultures, together with dreams other than that of classical revival, pure and simple, played their part in it. There was more to the world of the Renaissance than Rinascita alone" (Graham-Dixon 13).

In order to gain a more complex understanding of the Renaissance and of the Classical Period, one needs to take them individually. The richness and the beauty of artwork created in these two eras are likely to be underappreciated as long as they are considered to be very similar in character. The Renaissance was not necessarily meant to replicate concepts in Ancient Greece, as it was also intended to provide the world with an intriguing account involving the importance of learning more about Ancient Rome and Greece.

Works cited:

Graham-Dixon, Andrew, "Renaissance," (University of California Press, 1999)

"The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480 -- 323 B.C.)," Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the Metropolitan… [read more]

Germany's Failure in World War Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.]

Fall of Italy further blew Germany as it had to provide information regarding Italian bombers and D-Day invasion. Germany also had concentrated on developing V2 rocket, which had not been developed yet as much of the time had been wasted in Russia and North Africa along with resources. In 1945, Berlin was conquered by Russian troops and Germany had finally been defeated.


Germany failed because of its flawed war strategy. It wasted its resources and time. Although Hitler was successful in invading several European regions, it did not have the ability to deal with prolonged war.

Work Cited

Bell, P.M.H. The Origins of the Second World War in Europe. (3rd ed. 2007).

Brody, J Kenneth (1999). The Avoidable War: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935 -- 1936. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Davies, Norman (2008). No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939 -- 1945. New York: Penguin Group

Deist, Wilhelm et al., ed. Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 1: The Build-up of German Aggression. (2001). 799 pp., official German history

Jonathan M. House. The German Invasion, 1941. The Soviet-German Conflict Reading H207RB

Lewis, S.J. The fall of Poland, September 1939. Us Army Command and General Staff College

Lightbody, Bradley (2004). The Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis. Routledge Murray, Williamson A. "Strategic Bombing: The British, American, and German Experiences." In Military Innovation in the Interwar Period. Edited by Williamson A. Murray and Allan R. Millett, 96 -- 143. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Murray, Williamson A. "The World in Conflict." In The Cambridge History of Warfare.…… [read more]

Germany Research Project Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The government even forced the youth to be a part of the army which led to Germany's s army a big and prominent one in the war. (Jarausch, 2006) Since this was the case, the entire population of Germany became highly aggressive. This aforementioned population did not include the anti-Nazis but as mentioned earlier there weren't a lot of those… [read more]

Alamo and Texas History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alamo and Texas History

The battle of Alamo and San Antonio played a critical role in Texas revolution. Rebellious Texans had captured the city of San Antonio de Bexar in December of 1835 and they had fortified the Alamo, a fortress-like former mission in the towns centre. Santa Anna was the Mexican general who made an appearance in short order at the head of a massive army and laid siege to the Alamo. His perceived cruelty during the battle was an inspiration to many Texians that included Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States. After five days of house to house fighting they forced General Martin Perfecto de Cos' and his soldiers to surrender the volunteers who became victorious then occupied Alamo which was already fortified by Cos' men and strengthened its defenses (Hardin, 2006).

February 23, 1836 saw the arrival of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's army outside San Antonio that almost caught the people by surprise since they marched through the driving snow and fowl weather and it was even a month earlier than the Texans has anticipated. The Texans and Tejanos had undauntedly prepared to defend Alamo together and they did that by holding out Santa Anna's army for 13 days (DRT, 2011) the commander of Alamo William B.Travis sent out couriers that carried pleas for help to communities in Texas but his calls were unanswered since the Texans did not have the strength to fight Santa Anna's larger army. On the eighth day of the siege a band of 32 volunteers from Gonzales arrived and this brought the number of defenders to almost two hundred ( DRT,2011) .Colonel Travis was forced to draw a line on the ground and ask any man who was willing to stay and fight to cross over the line all except one man did; this was following the possibility of help fading .the defenders viewed it, Alamo was the key to the defense of Texas and hence they were ready to give their lives as opposed to surrendering their position to General Santa Anna. Alamo's garrison includes Jim Bowie, a renowned knife fighter and David Crockett, a famed frontiersman and a former congressman Tennessee.

The final assault took place before the day break on the morning of March 6, 1836 as there was emergence of columns of Mexican soldiers from the predawn darkness and they headed for Alamo's walls. They had been slowly working their lines closer to the Alamo with their artillery reducing the mission's walls. Cannon and small arms there were fired from inside the Alamo beat back several attacks. The Mexicans the regrouped by scaling the walls and rushing into the compound. When they got inside they captured cannon on the long Barrack and church and the barricaded doors was blasted for them to open. There was a continued desperate struggle which eventually saw the defenders being overwhelmed. As soon as sunrise struck, the battle had ended and Santa Anna entered the Alamo in order to… [read more]

World War II -- Battle Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


According to Weinberg, the Japanese Navy's intended landing on Hawaii required victory at Midway; consequently, the loss of Midway rendered an invasion of Hawaii impossible.[footnoteRef:6] Keegan agrees that Midway was Japan's strategic objective in mid-1942[footnoteRef:7] and Overy calls the Battle of Midway "The most significant fleet engagement of the War."[footnoteRef:8] Weinberg concludes that if Japan had won at Midway, "the course of the War could have proceeded very differently."[footnoteRef:9] [6: Ibid., p. 330.] [7: Keegan, p.88.] [8: Overy, p. 43.] [9: Weinberg, p. 339.]

The assertions about the importance of Midway for Japanese expansion are supported by the authors' explanations of the Japanese adjustments after Midway. After Midway, the Japanese could not expand their domination of the Pacific. Weinberg maintains that the Japanese expansion to the East, South and in the Indian Ocean ended with the loss at Midway.[footnoteRef:10] According to Weinberg, Japanese expansion into the Indian Ocean, which the Japanese had promised to the Germans and wished to pursue, was decisively crippled by the American counterattack on the Solomon Islands that kept the Japanese preoccupied.[footnoteRef:11] Consequently, the Japanese defeat at Midway did not merely result in a stalemate; rather, it forced the halt of Japanese efforts to expand their domination of the Pacific Ocean. [10: Ibid., pp. 329, 339.] [11: Ibid., p. 339.]

Japan's loss at Midway also meant that the U.S. could take an offensive position in the Pacific, forcing the Japanese into a defensive position. As mentioned previously, Japan's initial plans to push further into the Indian Ocean were crippled by preoccupation with the American counter-attack on the Solomon Islands.[footnoteRef:12] According to Weinberg, that very American offensive, that… [read more]

Architecture H-Conclusion History of the Renaissance Metaphorically Essay

Essay  |  20 pages (6,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0




History of the Renaissance

Metaphorically speaking, the term Renaissance has been associated with rebirth and images of freedom, light, openness and creativity. These connotations stem from the historical origins of the Renaissance which took place approximately from the mid 15th to early 17th centuries and was a foundational period in European history. This period saw the emergence of… [read more]

Geography on Political, Cultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


After the rivers were under the control of the population of that time agriculture is reported to have "..flourished, providing the sustenance for a large and growing population. Invented in the process were the ox-drawn plow, the wheel and axle, and the sail. They also developed metallurgy, learning to use copper, tin, and bronze." (The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2006) It is reported that in Mesopotamia that "life was uncertain (the rivers were difficult to control and the land was open to invasion) and the outlook of the people was pessimistic; in contrast, the Egyptians were more optimistic (the Nile was predictable and the desert shielded them from invasion)." (The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2006) The government in Egypt centered on the Pharaoh as a 'god-king'. The Egyptian social structure was reported as being "hierarchical and pyramidal" and most of the work of the people was unpleasant. The population of Egypt and the surrounding areas such as Mesopotamia grew and expanded rapidly and the result was invasions that took place. The cultures intermingled and the Persians or Indo European people adopted the culture of Mesopotamia and became "peaceful farmers…" (The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2006)

III. The Indus Valley

Reports on the Indus Valley stated that the location was characterized by some type of centralized state government with town planning that was extensive in nature. Burnt brick appears to have been used in constructing buildings and cities were located several hundred miles away from one another. Weights and measures for the Indus Valley are quite regular and domesticated animals were owned by the early Indus Valley population. Crops were also harvested by those living in the Indus Valley and are reported to have been inclusive of such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. It is believed that these people were seafaring individuals as Indus seals have been excavated in places such as Sumer. The Indus Valley civilization is reported to have been urban which defies "both the predominant idea of India as an eternally and essentially agricultural civilization, as well as the notion that the change from 'rural' to 'urban' represents something of a logical progression. The Indus Valley people had a merchant class that, evidence suggests, engaged in extensive trading." ( )

Summary and Conclusion

It is clear that the geography in which Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley were located served to drive the growth and expansion of these areas of the world and ultimately to result in rapid expansion affecting the economic, cultural and political environment and characteristics of these civilizations.


Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm

Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of…… [read more]

Polybius Contributions to History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Polybius was a distinguished Green Historian during the Hellenistic Period (Walbank, 2002).He is noted for his work titles "The Histories" which covered major historical events that took place between 220 and 146 BC. In this paper we explore the impact of Polybius as a historian, his contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution and how his military thinking played a role in Roman conquest. From this review and analysis it is important to note that Polybius greatly influenced the American and global democracy by being one of the people from whose account the principle of separation of powers was derived. He is also an important authority on historical integrity. His role in the Roman conquest is also notable.


Polybius was a distinguished Green Historian during the Hellenistic Period (Walbank, 2002).He is noted for his work titles "The Histories" which covered major historical events that took place between 220 and 146 BC. This particular work partially described the rise of the then Roman republic as well as gradual domination over by Greece. The author is also known for his ideas regarding separation of powers in the government, as well as the drafting of the U.S. Constitution. Polybius was born in 200 BC in Acardia by Lycortas, a prominent Greek politician who later on became the Cavalry Commander in the then existing Achaean League (Magil & Moose, 2003, p.886).In this paper we explore the impact of Polybius as a historian, his contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution and how his military thinking played a role in Roman conquest.

The impact of Polybius as a historian

Polybius work as a historian is remarkable. His work on the subject of Roman history is quite detailed. Polybius's work titled "The Histories" provides a very detailed account of the accent of Rome to be an empire with an inclusion of an eyewitness account of the evens during the Sack of Carthage even in the year 146 BC. Polybius is noted to have said that historian should just chronicle events whose actual participants the given historians were able to interview. This means that he was one of the very first historians to demand accountability, factual accuracy as well as integrity in documented historical accounts. He was also one of the very first historians to champion for the need of factual integrity in the written historical literature so as to avoid bias.

While summarizing the contribution of Polybius on the study of Roman history, the work of Davidson (1991, p.10) noted that several authors have presented various opinions on Polybius' ideologies, omission, bias, methods and concerns. The work of Tarn (1927) compared the work of Polybius to dispatches and rescripts. This is because according to his opinion, the work of Polybius appeared as if he was only interested in a rather unobtrusive…… [read more]

Europe Faced After WWII Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


[3: Ibid.]

The transition of Eastern Europe from a command economy to a capitalist economy proved to be difficult for many states. "The fact that Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians and Slovenes have had for more than a thousand years permanent political, cultural and commercial interactions with German speaking neighbors certainly made the resumption of commercial ties with Germany and Austria after 1989 much easier.[footnoteRef:4]" These economies had a strong, thriving capitalist tradition before their incorporation into the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact. A far more rocky transition was experienced by poorer nations, such as Romania, and the former communist nation of Yugoslavia became completely fragmented into warring enclaves, cumulating most famously in the bloody Balkan wars. The dominance of the U.S.S.R., while oppressive, contained many age-old rivalries that erupted in a conflagration of rage. [4: Oldrich Kyn, "Eastern Europe in Transition," from The Transition to a Market Economy (Cheltenham, UK). excerpted: http://econc10.bu.edu/economic_systems/Theory/Transition/eetrans.htm [30 Apr 2012]]

To bring about the transition from communism to capitalism was a difficult and bracing experience, necessitating harsh measures, such as the abandonment of price controls, an end to mandatory full employment, and the selling off of state enterprises. This 'shock therapy' in effect meant that the transition would be swift and relatively brutal, forcing newly privatized entities to become competitive by shedding unproductive practices and workers. Today, it is conceded that "the shock treatment did have some beneficial effects. Manufactured exports to the West have risen; small private enterprises have thrived; and unemployment in Warsaw, Budapest, and Prague has been practically nil.[footnoteRef:5]" However, within these economies there remained some social support: subsidizes exist for rent, fuel, and transportation, as have some industrial subsidies. [5: Alice Amsden, "Beyond Shock Therapy," The America Prospect, (19 Dec 2001, http://prospect.org/article/beyond-shock-therapy-why-eastern-europes-recovery-starts-washington[30 Apr 2012]]

In recent years, Eastern Europe has shown great promise, in terms of its developing economies, while the European Union nations have grown mired in the Greek debt crisis and the falling power of the Euro. It is predicted that of all the European nations, the only ones to "grow by more than 2% this year -- Latvia, Lithuania and Poland -- are East European and outside the common currency bloc.[footnoteRef:6]" There is a great deal of irony in this position -- just as Germany became the strongest economy after its decimation in the wake of World War II, now Eastern Europe is ascending in power, given that it was protected from the European Union's exposure to the financial crisis. Few would have predicted this in the wake of the Marshall Plan in the mid-20th century, or even immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall. [6: Stephen Castle, "Europe forecasts 'mild recession,'" The New York Times, (23 Feb 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/business/global/eu-forecasts-mild-recession-for-euro-zone-in-2012.html [30 Apr 2012]]


Amsden, Alice. "Beyond Shock Therapy." The America Prospect. 19 Dec 2001.

http://prospect.org/article/beyond-shock-therapy-why-eastern-europes-recovery-starts-washington [30 Apr 2012]

Brager, Bruce L. "Yalta." From The Iron Curtain: The Cold War in Europe.

Reprinted at http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwii/articles/yalta.aspx [30 Apr 2012]

Castle, Stephen. "Europe forecasts 'mild recession.'" The New York Times.… [read more]

Second World War Acted as a Catalyst Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


Second World War acted as a catalyst for decolonisation.

The Second World War acted as a catalyst for decolonization

A mention of the British Empire creates the image of a once dominant country across the world. However, the British Empire is now a matter of history owing to several realizations that weakened the country and led to the end of… [read more]

Hungary Geography Hungary Is Located Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This Constitution re-styled the Hungarian economy into a Soviet model between 1948 and 1953. All private industrial firms with more than 10 workers were nationalized. The freedoms of the press, religion and assembly were suppressed. Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty of the Roman Catholic Church was sentenced to life imprisonment. Forced industrialization and land collectivization created deep and serious economic difficulties, peaking by the mid-1953. Imre Nagy won over the Communist Rakosi in the 1953 election by repudiating Rakosi's economic program of forced collectivization and heavy industry. He stopped political purges and set thousands of political prisons free. But the economic situation under him dampened. Rakozi was able to disrupt the reforms started by Nagy and wrestled power from him in 1955 (BEEA).

1956 Revolution

Events blew up on October 23, 1956 when security forces shot Budapest students marching to support Poland's conflict with the Soviet Union (BEEA 2012). An explosive popular uprising was a result. It stopped only when the Central Committee announced the appointment of Imre Nagy as prime minister on October 25 that year. Nagy dissolved the state security police, the one-party system, committed himself to free elections and sought the withdrawal of troops by the U.S.S.R. Nagy announced on November 1 that Hungary would go neutral and withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union responded with a military attack on Hungary on November 3. Numerous Hungarians fled to the West. His own Party First Secretary defected from his cabinet and fled to the Soviet Union. On November 4, Nagy formed a new government. He hit back and executed or imprisoned thousands of people. He was arrested and deported to Romania, then tried and later executed by the Communist government in June 1958 (BEEA).

Conclusion: Dim Prospects

Hungary's prospects for growth are not bright in the next few years on account of Europe's slowing economy (Laca & Zaltan 2011). The debt crises in Europe and the U.S. are viewed as the hindrances to the growth. Hungary relies on Germany, as its biggest export market, to help it recover from the recession. Growth rate is predicted to be close to 2% as against 3.1% in the previous year. Poorer showing is expected for 2011 and this year. This poorer showing can be attributed to the events in Europe, the euro zone, in particular (Laca & Zaltan). #


BEEA. Hungary. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs: U.S. Department of State,

2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.sate.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/36566.htm

CIA. Hungary. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html

EOE.…… [read more]

Cold War on the Homefront Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … seeds of the Cold War were laid in the waning days of the Second World War as the leaders of the Allied nations, Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for position as to how each would influence post-war Europe. Great Britain's Winston Churchill and the United States' Franklin Roosevelt both recognized that once Hitler and Germany were defeated that dealing with the threat of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe would be the next problem that would have to be addressed. Although the military support of the Soviet Union was needed in order to bring down Germany, neutralizing the Communists after the War was already heavily on the minds of Roosevelt and Churchill as the Allies discussed how to defeat Germany.

Once Germany was defeated the rush for control of the European continent began in earnest. In an effort to avoid open conflict between the Allies the three major Allied powers met at Yalta on the Crimean Sea to decide the fate of Europe. The Soviet Union and Britain both had strong vested interests in controlling as much of Europe as possible. The United States, on the other hand, was anxious to return to its pre-War state of isolation. Isolation had been the predominant foreign policy position of the United States for several decades. The United States had been reluctantly drawn into the First World War and attempted to avoid involvement in the Second World War and the prevailing political thought was that once the War was concluded that the U.S. would like to resume its position of isolation. Unfortunately, as matters developed and the Soviet Union's power in Eastern Europe increased, the United States became intricately involved in European political affairs.

As the War in Europe came to an end, the nations in Eastern Europe which had been occupied by Soviet forces during the latter stages of the War established itself into an organization under the guidelines of a document known as the Warsaw Pact. In essence, these countries such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia were satellites of the Soviet Union and, although technically independent states, were subject to the whims and authority of the Soviet Union and Joseph Stalin. Meanwhile the nations of Eastern Europe and the United States formed a similar organization known as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). The merits of both organizations are subject to debate but suffice it so that both organizations feared the other both politically and militarily and that these organizations formed the line of demarcation relative to what would become the Cold War.

The America that entered the Second World War was not the same America when the veterans of the War began to return. Before the War the United States was displaying signs of becoming a world industrial power but with the industrial base of Europe and Japan destroyed by the effects of the War the United States emerged as the only Western industrial power. The only nation in the world capable of challenging… [read more]

Ancient World Cities and Government Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The way that this had an impact on the government was to focus its resources on addressing the needs of the king. This caused many cities to have ruling classes that were dominated by officials, who were close to the nobility vs. everyone else. These elements are important in showing how the Persian cities were a combination of warfare, metropolitan areas and governments with an emphasis on the king / state. ("The Achaemenid Persian Empire," 2010)

Rome was created based on a single city state defeating all of the other communities and people in the area. Over the course of centuries, their power expanded to the point that the Romans had to develop a centralized system of government. This led to the creation of an administrative and tax system throughout the empire (with each region paying levies to the central government in Rome). Moreover, the seizing of land and treasure in the conquered territories helped to create a wealthy class in Roman society. While the peasants were forced off of the land and went to the cities to become beggars. These elements are important, in showing how Rome was developed from an individual city state by defeating the others militarily. The conquests from warfare forced the government to establish a system of collecting taxes and seizing the treasure of conquered areas. This led to the early development of an aristocracy based upon who controlled the wealth. (Kries, 2009)

Clearly, ancient city states were at an intersection for warfare and government. This is because all of them were created based on some kind of conflict that was occurring. The focus of the leadership had an impact upon how the government was established and it practices. As a result, this would shape how society developed and the most important attributes that were embraced.


The Achaemenid Persian Empire. (2010). Met Museum. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 6. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture6b.html

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 8. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture8b.html

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 10. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture10b.html

Kries, S. (2009). Lecture 11. History Guide. Retrieved from: http://historyguide.org/ancient/lecture11b.html… [read more]

Chinese History 1100-1500 the Yuan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The chief difference is that Rashid, at work in Ecbatana in the western part of present-day Iran, was living under Mongol rule. Polo was close to the ruling Mongols of the Yuan dynasty, and worked for them, but he was not really their subject. Whereas Rashid would live under Mongol rule, in a time when the relations between the ruling Mongols and their subjects were often made tense by religious conflict. Muslims, referred to in Chinese documents of the time only as "Hui-hui," seemingly a derogative for "Uighur," were regarded as peculiar for their dietary customs; Leslie quotes as a primary source the Khan's official court account, the Yuan shih, for the year 1280: "The Hui-hui who pass by and are offered food will not eat a sheep that they themselves have not killed. The people are upset by this. The Emperor said: they are our slaves, how dare they not eat and drink what our court eats and drinks? He forbade it." (Leslie 181). Leslie then records a number of other edicts from the Khan, indicating unfriendliness between the ruling Mongols and the Muslim subjects. There are, in fact, numerous documents attesting to a certain level of prejudice against the Muslims among the "semu" caste under Yuan rule, which calls into question Polo's characterization from the same time period of the Mongols as being remarkably unconcerned with religious affiliation of subject peoples.

Yet I think this reveals the limitations of Polo's view of China in the Yuan period, simply because of his foreign status. As noted earlier, it seems like the status of the Yuan rulers under Kublai Khan as foreign usurpers who then attempted to assimilate to prevailing culture may have been a positive incentive for other races to approach China in this period -- at least intellectually, as in the case of both Polo and Rashid-al-Din. But it is worth noting that the refusal of Muslims to assimilate to local custom in China would eventually provoke more than edicts from the Mongols intended to attack this separatism. But by the mid-1300s, both the Han Chinese and the Muslims under Yuan imperial rule would revolt. The "Red Turban Rebellion" beginning in 1351 would present the Chinese challenge to Mongol dominance, and would eventually result in the replacement of the Mongol-run Yuan Dynasty with the Ming Dynasty, the last period when the Han Chinese would rule. But in the same decade the ten-year conflict (which would last from 1357 to 1366) between Muslims and Han Chinese, generally referred to as the "Ispah Rebellion," would effectively change the multiethnic character of the Yuan period, when the Han army would practice "ethnic cleansing" avant la letter with the foreign Muslim populations in the regions of Fuzhou, Xinghua, Huian and Quanzhou. To some extent this was occasioned by the fact that the Han Chinese castes within the Mongol Yuan dynasty -- Marco Polo's "Cathay and Manzi" -- were defined by the Mongols as the lowest castes, and placed them beneath not just… [read more]

World War I Causes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


He hoped that the conflicts among the involved nations would be settled through negotiations and dialogues. However, as the events occurred, it appeared unavoidable for America to engage itself in the fighting and help its allies. The main causes of the entrance of America into the World War I were the sinking of Lusitania, the Zimmerman telegram and the submarine… [read more]

History of Timepieces Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,438 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


History Of Timepieces

A Survey of Timepieces of the Western World from 1350 to 1750

The History of timekeeping and timepieces in the Western World must first begin by taking a look into the ancient history of the Middle East. Here, mathematicians and astronomers developed methods of recording numbers, keeping time, and observing the movement of the heavens. Their developments… [read more]

History of Muslims in Europe and in the US Research Paper

Research Paper  |  21 pages (6,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


History of Muslims in Europe and in the U.S.

Islamophobia - the United States and the European continent

The Islam is at the moment one of the most important religious, cultural, and eventually political entities of the world today. According to studies made in 2009, it represents 23% of the global population of 6.9 billion people

Even so, there are… [read more]

How Did Nationalism Reveal Itself Through Films During World War II? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … nationalism reveal itself through films during World War II?

Nationalism in World War II cinema

During World War II, the entire nation mobilized to fight. Every aspect of the United States' economy was channeled to serve the war effort, including the cinematic output of the motion picture industry. Just like factories shifted from creating nylon stockings to making parachutes for the Air Force, Hollywood shifted from making comedies and romances to cheer up Depression-era audiences to making propaganda films to support the war effort. The popularity of the movies enabled the government to use motion picture images to support their effort on a mass scale that was undreamed-of, during World War I.

Today, when Hollywood is often demonized in the rhetoric of conservative politicians as 'liberal' and 'un-American' it is easy to forget that the big studios became instrumental in the propaganda effort designed to encourage the weary American public to be filled with enthusiasm about fighting Hitler and the Japanese empire. "During WWII television was not the vehicle of mass communication that it is today. Instead that role was served by radio and by films. Films were produced and distributed to audiences within the United States, but also overseas as well. Between 1942 and 1943, films reached a weekly paid attendance of 85 million, not including the free viewing offered to millions of military service members. Thus, government officials believed films could reach the mass audience with propaganda messages better than other forms of mass media" (Christie & Clark 2008, 56)

Today, the best-remembered films of the era are classics such as Casablanca and Mrs. Miniver because they have strong narrative power that transcends the one-sided, pro-war propaganda inherent in the films. Propaganda, by definition, is a one-sided depiction of an issue designed to elicit a specific response from the viewer. "At the onset of the Second World War, the Office of War Information authored and distributed the Government Information Manual for the Motion Picture Industry to "assist the motion picture industry in its endeavor to inform the American people, via the screen, of the many problems attendant on the war program…the power, cruelty and complete cynicism of the enemy should be pictured…" (Christie & Clark 2008, 62-63). In Thomas Christie and C. Andrew M. Clark's 2008 article, "Framing Two Enemies in Mass Media: A Content Analysis of U.S. Government Influence in American Film during World War II," films of the era were viewed and 'coded' for various characterizations of the enemy. Germans were primarily shown, the viewers found, as violating people's rights and dominating by force (Christie & Clark 2008, 65-66). The Japanese were coded as being 'sneaky' and disregarding other peoples' rights. In the 11 films examined, "six of the ten government-encouraged characterizations were found" of the Japanese and in 17 depictions of the German enemy, 9 of the ten characterizations were found (Christie & Clark 2008, 67-68). The consistency of these portraits, state Christie and Clark, accompanied by "the substantial financial incentives accompanying government… [read more]

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