Study "World History" Essays 111-165

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Italian Unification Process and Camillo Benso Di Carvour as the Italian Bismarck Research Paper

… Italian Unification Process

Unification processes of Germany and Italy during the second half of the nineteenth century

Cavour and Bismarck

the theoretical explanations of unification process

Ernest Gellner

Eric Habsbawm

Benedict Anderson

Explanation of nationalism in Italy and Germany

The… [read more]

Industrialization in Europe Increased Term Paper

… Among the weapons that the native warriors were using were wooden and stone weapons as well as straw shields. The weapons that the European armies used were very powerful they had the ability to kill many people at a go. The native warriors were easily overpowered by the European armies. They destroyed their weapons easily as they were more advantaged since their weapons could destroy the weapons that the natives were using. The European armies launched the hand grenades on groups of the warriors which killed a large number of them at a single instance. The native warriors could not defend themselves efficiently against the armies as they were very strong compared to them when it came to the weapons.

Europeans had an army that was organized and well trained. On the other hand the natives merely had a self-defense force which was only mediocre. These were not well organized and they were not under good leadership. They had not been trained in any way and they merely came together so as to try and oppose the European armies. The lack of organization among the native warriors made them weak and hence they were easily defeated by the European armies (European Imperialism and Reactions, 1914).

Europeans introduced germs which the native people had not been exposed to before, particularly the small pox germ. The Europeans had been exposed to small pox over time and therefore they had built natural immunity against it. Therefore many natives died from the disease that they were exposed to. This reasons made it easy for the European armies to defeat the natives with great ease.


European Imperialism and Reactions. (1914) China, Ottoman Empire, and Japan; effects of European imperialism

The British Empire. (2003). The British Empire. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from

The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism. (2001). Wake Forest Student, Faculty and Staff Web Pages. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from… [read more]

Humor in 3 Films Comedy Term Paper

… In a sense, the globe balloon is representative of his ambitions and dreams and when it unexpectedly pops, Hynkel is forced back to reality and dealing with politics. Additionally, Hynkel is also preoccupied with trying to make allies with Benzino Napaloni, the Dictator of Bacteria and a parody of Italy's Benito Mussolini (The Great Dictator).

The most impactful scene in the film is its closing sequence. In a case of mistaken identity, the Jewish barber is mistaken for Hynkel as he attempts to flee Tomania to Osterlich, where he believes he will be safe. This final scene is especially important because it allows Chaplin to voice his criticisms on Hitler and the political turmoil in Europe. In this speech, Chaplin states, "Greed has poisoned men's souls, has barricaded the world with hate; has goose-stepped us into misery and bloodshed…The misery that is now upon us is but the passing of greed, the bitterness of men who fear the way of human progress (The Great Dictator). Chaplin's speech continues to resonate to modern times and demonstrates that although times change, people do not.

Some Like It Hot, directed by Billy Wilder, provides social commentary on a completely different issue altogether. In the film, issues of sex and gender are explored through cross-dressing and courtship. In the film, Joe and Gerry are forced to disguise themselves in order to escape Chicago after witnessing a mob hit and subsequently assume the identities of Josephine and Daphne, respectively (Some Like It Hot). Throughout the film, there is much sexual tension that arises because of their disguises. For example, although Joe and Gerry are attracted to Marilyn Monroe's Sugar Kane, they are unable to act upon their impulses, at least when they are in drag. However, drag costuming does not prevent Gerry/Daphne from being pursued by a wealthy Mr. Fielding who attempts to woo her with flowers and jewels and ultimately proposes to her at the end of the film; Mr. Fielding also completely overlooks the fact that Daphne is in fact Gerry and does not let gender and sex come between them as he refuses to withdraw his proposal on the sole fact Gerry is not a woman.

Likewise, social class also plays a major role in the film. In Some Like It Hot, Sugar Kane sets out to escape her past and wants to marry a rich man regardless of the consequences. By adopting the persona of Junior, Joe woos Sugar Kane into believing he is rich and ultimately demonstrates that society is too focused on appearances and wealth when he succeeds in attracting Sugar Kane. While Sugar Kane attempts to use sex to lure Junior, he reciprocally uses wealth and status to lure her. Ultimately, Sugar Kane realizes Junior, Joe, and Josephine are one in the same and resolves to reunite with him despite him being on the run, poor, and despite the fact that he lied to her.

The influences of these three films can be seen in many contemporary films.… [read more]

Culture -- Memory Essay

… (2010) Her writing is a kind of example of the theories of Trioullot, Levy, & Sznaider at play in real life. Dixon describes the cosmopolitan memory of the Armenian genocide by the Turks as part of the strategy to shift toward a more democratic nation in Turkey. (Dixon, 2010,-Page 468) She brings to light, both directly and indirectly how memory is used as part of military and political strategies of those with the power and the means to reshape and represent historical events. Dixon specifically notes the original narrative, which is what actually happened (an Armenian genocide by the Turks), and what the modified narrative became, as well as the strategies of dissemination and assimilation of the new official narrative, which essentially makes claim that the Armenian genocide did not happen and if it did, the Armenians committed heinous, yet documented acts for which they deserved such treatment. The cosmopolitan memory of the Armenian genocide offers no collective apology and redefines Armenians as subjects within Turkish history and Turkish culture.

Merridale is one author who does not wish to write about memory. That is, Merridale believes that to write about memory is a dangerous trend in which many researchers indulge to which they narrowly do justice. She also argues for the fallibility of memory, with special regard to violence and trauma, such as in this history of Communist Russia, her primary historical interest for the piece. Her perspective is interesting and valid because it extends the context within which readers consider memory and collective memory. Often those who write upon subjects that they do not agree with personally offer valuable insight and contrast to other writers who take on the same subject with eagerness and enthusiasm, instead of with uneasiness and reluctance as Dixon does here.


Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, 187 -- 206. Verso: London & New York.

Dixon, J.M. (2010) Defending the Nation? Maintaining Turkey's Narrative of Armenian Genocide. South European Society and Politics. 15(3), 467 -- 485.

Levy, D., & Sznaider, N. (2001) Memory and the Holocaust in a Global Age, 465 -- 467.

Merridale, C. Soviet Memories:…… [read more]

Genocide in Germany Term Paper

… Gilbert, Martin

Martin Gilbert's book tells the story of the Holocaust from the perspective of the Jews. Particularly, it discusses the stories of some of the Jews who were doing everything they could to stay alive, including going into hiding. This helps the research process because it shows that people who were not even certain about the specific atrocities that were being committed by the Nazis were so afraid that they would risk anything to avoid capture.

Paxton, Robert

This is a comprehensive history of recent European events. It has a large section on World War II and the Holocaust in particular. This text is useful because it puts the Holocaust in the context of the Second World War and explains its impact on the rest of the war.

Rossel, Seymour

This book discusses the Holocaust and discusses why the Jewish people were targeted by the Nazis. It makes an important point about the scapegoat theory of political discourse and how the Nazis used this to make people fear the Jews. This is important to my argument because it shows some potential reason for such an inhumane act.

D. How will you demonstrate that are aware of opposing positions on your topic?

I have conducted research and there are still many people who do not believe that the Holocaust happened. There are also some who think that not as many people died as are claimed. In a research paper, the views of this group of people would have to be addressed. By discussing this and taking about how wrong they are, it adds proof…… [read more]

Revolution Talking About a Revolution? Creative Writing

… Manufacturing a Revolution

If the French Revolution can be considered a true revolution based solely on the grounds that it caused a major change in the course of world history, then it would seem obvious that the Industrial Revolution must also be considered a true revolution. This social revolution has fundamentally altered civilization on a worldwide basis far more directly, extremely, and pervasively than any single nation's change in administration ever could (Goloboy & Mancall, 2008). There might be another criterion that excludes industrialization from this moniker, however.

While the French Revolution's effects might have been indistinct and uncertain for over a century, the period of the Revolution itself is well defined and concrete. The period known as the Industrial Revolution, however, is far less distinct; though there are certain key events that can be pointed to as evidence of the start of the "revolutionary" period and statistical data that clearly indicates when in history industrialization reached a certain location, indicating the spread of this "revolution," there is no effective start or especially and end date to the period (Goloboy & Mancall, 2008). One could even argue that the Industrial Revolution is still ongoing, as there are parts of the world to which it is still spreading or has not even begun to spread, and as processes continue to become more refined and less skilled-worker-dependent -- more industrialized, in other words -- even in the developed world. Thus, it is possible to say that the Industrial Revolution is a true revolution only in the abstract sense as a process that leads to a great change in the state of affairs, but not in the concrete sense of a specific event or period that constituted this change in its entirety.


Both the French and the Industrial Revolution caused significant turns or changes in history and the state of civilization. According to strict definitions of the word, however, the French Revolution would have to be considered the truer revolution of the two despite having had a lesser overall impact on world and arguably even national affairs. In the end, war is simply more concrete than process.


Goloboy, J. & Mancall, P. (2008). Industrial Revolution. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Neely, S. (2008). A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Online Etymology Dictionary. (2012).…… [read more]

Weimar Republic the Legend Essay

… However, people began to be skeptical when the war did not progress as it should have. One of the groups that was hit the hardest by the war was the women. They had been forced into service in factories, but they still could not feed their families. Every good was for the soldiers first and for the rest of the population second. Bread had to be filled with ingredients such as "bean flour and sometimes sawdust" (Weitz 9). The author also talks about something called the turnip winter during which people had to subsist on this one food source. Weitz quotes one citizen as relating that "during the war, [he] remembered eating turnips for breakfast, unpacking the school lunch his mother had sent him to find turnips, and going home to a dinner of still more turnips" (9).

All of this, and the poor treatment of sailors and soldiers toward the end of the war, led to revolts among the citizens of Germany. The way they saw it, a once proud country was reduced to a state of fealty to foreign powers because of the miscues of the present government. During this time, the government changed from a monarchy to one which was run by the people (a condition of the armistice), and became the breeding ground of radical elements that would one day rule the country. The authors take different approaches to tell the story of a Germany that was tired of the status quo and accepted an evil empire to fill the void.


Peukert, Detlev J.K. The Weimar Republic. New York: Hill and Wang, 1987. Print.

Weitz, Eric. D. Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University…… [read more]

East Asia Essay

… East Asia

Shaping the Course of East Asian Culture Since the 1860's

The 19th century brought about a great deal of challenge and impending changes for East Asia. Powers were escalating in the west, and the Japanese and Chinese governments… [read more]

Learning and Education Essay

… Personal Reflections on Learning and Education

My Visit to the Holocaust Museum

As a high school student, I studied world history because it was a required course for all students. I managed to earn a good grade because I have… [read more]

European Studies When Most People Hear Research Paper

… European Studies

When most people hear about the Middle Ages, they will often think of: a knight fighting their enemies or various types of monarchies. While these are all certain elements of this time, there is much more to this… [read more]

Marshall Plan Research Paper

… Marshall Plan

Designing Europe in the Aftermath of World War II: The Marshall Plan and its Lasting Effects

The twentieth century was a period of major change and reorganization in the international geopolitical power structure, as globalization truly got underway… [read more]

Mongol Plague the Mongols Creative Writing

… He describes his exit from the court, and final words by Mangu Khan, stating, "Finally he said: 'You have along way to go, comfort yourself with food, so that you may reach your country in good health.' And he had me given to drink, and then I went out from before him, and after that I went not back again."[footnoteRef:11] These do not seem to be the actions of a vicious leader, despite previous reports by Ibn al-Athir describing the plague that was the Mongols. [9: "William of Rubruck."] [10: "William of Rubruck."] [11: "William of Rubruck."]

Ibn al-Athir's account of the invasion of the Tatar's is ghastly, quite appropriately describing the timeless pain of a once-conquered people. He is, however, mistaken in stating, "For indeed history does not contain anything which approaches or comes near unto it."[footnoteRef:12] History is rife with such stories, including the Christian-led Crusades, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and, quite recently, the American occupation of Vietnam. Innumerable atrocities were committed within each incident, and on behalf of countries which are now, in most instances, attempting to uphold peace. Therefore, criticism of this particular conquest would be more than warranted, given the savagery and swiftness; however, broad criticism of the Mongols as a people and culture is not at all warranted. [12: William of Rubruck."]

Works Cited

1. "Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221 CE." A Literary History of Persia,. Ed.

Jerome S. Arkenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1902. Web.

2. "William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols." UW Departments Web Server. Silk Road Seattle. Web. 23 Nov. 2010 .… [read more]

Gallic Campaigns Caesar Research Paper

… The Britons had a structure that was more like the Germanic tribes, but they also had a hierarchical government like the Romans and the Gauls. [22: Commentarii de Bellum Gallico. Trans W.A. MacDevitt. New York: Everyman's Library, 1915.3:1.] [23: Athena… [read more]

Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that… [read more]

Compare the Holocaust to Two Other State Sponsored Persecution of a Group of People Term Paper

… Genocide

Despite the fact that humans have been violently killing off humans since the beginning of civilization, the word "genocide," which encompasses that of "holocaust," did not exist before 1944. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-Jewish attorney, who wanted to describe the… [read more]

Martin Luther King Junior of All Famous Essay

… Martin Luther King Junior

Of all famous twentieth century leaders, few have come to possess as lasting an impact on their people and their culture as Martin Luther King, Jr. In fact, the one man who it can safely be… [read more]

Economic Revolution in the American South Thesis

… ¶ … Southern Economy: Century of Reconstruction

Today, there remains a sense of cultural and economic difference between North and South that is felt by many inhabitants on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line. In some degree, the vestiges of divergent histories leading up to and following the American Civil War are still evident, especially in the educational, professional and economic disadvantages often associated with life in the South. The article by Gavin Wright, entitled "The Economic Revolution in the American South" chronicles the moment at which, the author contends, the South begin finally to move toward some measure of equality with the North. Writing in 1987 for The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Gavin uses this moment of so-called 'revolution' as a prompt to reflect on the historical patterns devising the stagnant economy that had strangled the south for a century.

The crux of the Wright study is that there are fundamental forces at play in the economic development of labor markets which were intervened upon by the cultural and political circumstances of the South. As the Industrial Revolution began to alter American populace distribution in the late 19th century, the South had been dramatically disrupted by the forced alteration of its labor approach and by the tumult that followed this change. Wright explains that there existed certain distinctions between North and South for many years based upon agricultural temperament, but that these differences would promote a wide array or more salient human concerns. The article indicates that sharp differences between North and South "were rooted in certain geo-agricultural continuities, such as familiarity with seeds, crops, livestock, and climate. This 'natural' regional separation was ratified and institutionalized by slavery, which served to insulate the South from outside labor flows after 1807, when importation of slaves ended. Then the region was consumed by the turbulence of war and Reconstruction at the very time when a truly national (non-Southern) labor market was developing elsewhere." (164)

Wright continues by noting that the realities of immigration played no small part in this…… [read more]

Roman Catholic Church and Nazi Germany Thesis

… ¶ … Roman Catholic Church and Nazi Germany

The world community has for the most part recovered emotionally and psychologically from the horrors of WWII that Nazi Germany -- led by Adolph Hitler -- perpetrated on the millions of people,… [read more]

Middle Ages Essay

… ¶ … Middle Ages

While the Middle Ages are often regarded with angst and often ridiculed, it is worth noting that good things did emerge from these so-called "dark ages." Like many times in the past, the Middle Ages might seem ancient now but were progressing at a rate that seemed normal to them. Technology improved, making life in general better. Literature also heard fresh voices that reflect the times. Many advancements prove the Middle Ages were a far cry from dark.

Many changes occurred in the Middle Ages that changed the way the world works. For example, ways of production were changed, which had an enormous effect on the economy. Gunpowder, the canon, and the compass were all invented in the Middle Ages. The eleventh century was filled with "men of prayer, men of war, and men of work" (Noble 352). Other advancements lead to easier farming and "labor-saving devices" (Duiker 263), including hammers, scythes, axes, hammers,…… [read more]

Southernization Lynda Shaffer Uses Essay

… Southernization

Lynda Shaffer uses the term southernization as something akin to the term westernization. There is no mere coincidence of language that leads Shaffer to use this term, however; not only are the two words used to describe highly similar cultural phenomena, but Shaffer contends that southernization actually set Europe and the rest of the world for westernization. The movement of certain technologies and cultural developments from South Asia to the North and eventually through Europe by way of the caliphates, Shaffer contends, allowed for the cultural developments of Western Europe during and after the Middle Ages that led to the process of westernization.

Part of this southernization consisted of -- and depended on -- the development of trade routes into China and Africa by the Indians. This civilization was already quite strong; cotton was first domesticated and cultivated in the Indus River valley, leading to the development of cheap fabrics and clothing -- and many things to trade…… [read more]

Feudalism Is the Direct Result Thesis

… Feudalism is the direct result of a lack of effective governmental control. During the Middle Ages, feudalism became a popular way of dealing with this lack though a state of affairs that was based upon strength and power. In other… [read more]

Industrial Revolution Started in Britain Essay

… Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries but gradually spread to other European countries, North America and the rest of the world. Major developments took place in areas such as agriculture, mining, transportation and… [read more]

Persian Gulf War 1990 91 Thesis

… Persian Gulf War 1990-1991

Why America Became Involved in the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

Iraq had launched a full-scale attack against Kuwait after claiming the smaller country was undermining Iraqi efforts to keep oil off the world market and, as… [read more]

Swiss and Swedish Neutrality Thesis

… Neutrality of Switzerland and Sweden has garnered a great deal of attention over the years. The purpose of this discussion is to compare and contrast Switzerland's and Sweden's policies of neutrality in theory and in practice. In addition the research… [read more]

Industrialization 1776-1900 Term Paper

… ¶ … Industrial Revolution is the most significant movement of its time because it radically changed many aspects of life and of living. Tools and machines evolved as needs in the environment changed. Momentous progress includes a radical revolution of the textile industry, which could not be predicted or foreseen. Necessity is the mother of invention and, as we shall see, the inventions of the Industrial Revolution prove this statement true. Without ingenuity, however, invention would be difficult and the modern revolution reveals that when the right minds converge with the right needs of society, great things can be accomplished.

Great Britain was the "home" (Craig 627) of the Industrial Revolution. Several factors come into play for this with the primary reason being that Great Britain was the "single largest free-trade area in Europe" (627). The political structure was stable in Great Britain and with a solid banking system along with a good public credit created a "good investment climate" (627). The earliest signs of the Industrial Revolution emerge with rise of mechanical inventions. The spinning jenny was patented in 1769 and it "broke the bottle neck between the productive capacity of the spinners and the weavers" (628). In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented a modified version of the spinning wheel that accelerated improvements in other areas dealing with weaving. Edmond Cartwright's invention of a new power loom demanded an increase for cotton. With Crompton's version of the spinning jenny, yarn was being produced twice as quickly as it was before. While these inventions and modifications seem rather insignificant, their effects were felt not only across Europe but across other continents as well. In America, southern farmers benefited because everything happened faster. The inventions of this era brought different cultures together, demonstrating how they affected the entire globe.

Another significant invention to emerge from the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. Stanley Chodorow claims that the steam engine was the "most important" (Chodorow 718) in that it remained the sole source of artificial power until the invention of electricity. The steam engine is linked to two "basic commodities of modern industrialization - coal and iron" (718).

The steam engine's primary function was pumping coal from mines in England but the machine's popularity spread quickly and was modified for many other functions as well. The progression of the steam engine's evolution represents man's ability to improve upon his inventions. In 1777, workers used the steam engine as a hammer to shape iron. In 1783, it workers used it to roll iron into sheets. It did not take long for steam to…… [read more]

Adolf Hitler Term Paper

… Hitler as Evil

There is no doubt that Adolf Hitler is remembered as one of the most evil geniuses of the twentieth century. Countless observations and evaluations on Hitler's personality and life reveal an artistic, charismatic man that turned to… [read more]

People First Settled in Villages? Essay

… ¶ … people first settled in villages?

People settled in villages for several reasons. First, they were mostly related in blood to the other people in the village. Then, similar looks, customs, ways of dressing, speaking and cooking kept familiar people living near each other. As families grew, so did the village. Families lived in huts close by so that they could help each other. Women helped other women with childrearing; cooking, gathering firewood, growing crops, and tending to the sick, aged and their husbands. The men banded together in groups to hunt, make weapons, defend the women and children, build homes and make decisions about the future with others. Growing crops made the families live in the same area for many years, until the firewood ran out and the land ceased to be fertile. Then the whole village would move.

Scholars give the name culture to the way of life of a people, including its arts and crafts." Customs and ways of building, dressing, practicing their religion, cooking and doing other elemental things in one's society keep similar individuals and groups together. Similarities in costumes, wearing hair and style of decoration tend to keep groups of similar customs together, though migration of groups changed the way people dressed and looked, with other styles influencing them (Encyclopedia p 75).

Another reason for settling in a village is linguistics. When groups grow up together they understand each others' language. When they meet others from outside the village or the area or region they live in, they do not understand the language as well and feel alienated. The language one knows tends to keep people who speak the language together. As groups migrated, languages spread. Songs and music, stories and myths were outgrowths of the linguistics of a tribe.

Animals had a lot to do with villages. If the villages raised domestic livestock, these were cared for by members of the village in turns and necessitated cooperation between the residents. Individuals could raise livestock, but they needed to have large families in order to do so, hence the need to live near others, either family members or neighbors who also raised animals and could cooperate.

Why has it been relatively difficult for scholars to study the Indus valley civilization?

Because the languages of the ancient people have not been translated until fairly recently (some are still being translated), scholars have found it difficult to study the history of the Indus Valley civilizations. In 2006 a stone axe with script from 1500 BC was found near Mayiladuthurai in India by a schoolteacher which help scholars discover more about the past. From the Neolithic age, 3,500 years ago, the polished stone is engraved with four signs which have been identified by epigraphists as Indus Valley script (Subramanian 1). But this axe is not the only artifact which has been found to add to the mystery. Dozens…… [read more]

Samurai Have a Significant Impact on Japanese Term Paper

… ¶ … Samurai have a Significant Impact on Japanese Culture and Historical Events in the Long Run?

The samurai were an aristocratic warrior class that emerged in Japan during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and which… [read more]

Seven Years War Term Paper

… ¶ … war broke out in 1756 between France and Great Britain. Along with that, difference between American and Canadian colonists had erupted two years before that began, which cased the war to lead to the fall of New France.… [read more]

Changes in the Standard of Living During the Industrial Revolution Term Paper

… Standard of Living Industrial Revolu

The industrial revolution is a foundational period in human history. There is really nothing about society before the industrial revolution that has not changed in some fashion as a result of it. To some degree,… [read more]

Hermann Goering Term Paper

… Hermann Goering was the second most important actor during the Third Reich as he was designated to be the successor of Hitler. He was the commander of the Luftwaffe, the German Air Force, and thus the military relevance of Hermann… [read more]

Critical Review of Stalingrad by Antony Beevor Term Paper

… Critical Review of Stalingrad by Antony Beevor

There is no doubt Stalingrad was a major event in perhaps the most
significant war in world history. In Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942-
1943, by Antony Beevor, it is clear that Beevor… [read more]

Comparative and Contrasting Study of Two International Entrepreneurs Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler Term Paper

… ¶ … International Entrepreneurs: Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler

Today, given their impact on the generations that followed, it is reasonable to suggest that two of the most influential individuals of the 20th century were Henry Ford and Adolf Hitler.… [read more]

Alexander the Great the Life, Leadership Term Paper

… ALEXANDER the Great

The Life, Leadership, and Legacy of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great, who was also known as Alexander III of Macedon, lived from July 356 BC until June 11, 323 BC ("Alexander the Great"), and was the hereditary King of Macedon from 336 B.C. until 323 BC (Plutarch). Alexander the Great was also, as the movie Alexander the Great (November 24, 2004) shows, an enormously successful military commander of his time, and for that matter, of all world military history (Alexander the Great). However, Alexander's death, which took place at Nebuchadnezzar's palace in Babylon when he was just 32 years of age, reportedly on June 10-June 11, 323 B.C. (Plutarch), remains mysterious to this dayIn this essay, I shall describe the early life and education of Alexander, and also his military victories, his death, and his military legacy.

As a boy, Alexander, who was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and Philip fourth wife Olympias ("Alexander the Great"; Plutarch) was educated privately by the philosopher Aristotle, who had been Plato's student. Also, according to the article "Alexander the Great":

Aristotle was Alexander's tutor and he gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy... Aristotle gave him a copy of the Iliad which he always kept with him and read frequently.

Despite the excellent education that Alexander received from Aristotle, however, Alexander's major accomplishments and victories were in fact strategic military ones, and these occurred far and wide, which is extraordinary on its own: especially for a man who never even saw his 33rd birthday. As the article "Alexander the Great" states, for example, Alexander the Great is regarded as one of the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital

Persepolis. Following the unification of the…… [read more]

Technology War and Fascism Term Paper

… ¶ … Technology, War and Fascism by Herbert Marcuse. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. Marcuse wrote these essays in the 1940s and 1950s, and they have gathered together into a collection by his son. Marcuse… [read more]

Alexander the Great Term Paper

… Alexander the Great

There is not much more that can be said about Alexander the Great. He has been the subject of countless books, several movies, and hundreds of years of speculation. People have varying opinions about Alexander. Many doubt… [read more]

Ming Rulers Term Paper

… Ming Rulers

An Examination of the Accomplishments and Failures of the Ming Rulers

The Ming dynasty endured from 1368 to 1644, and provided an interval of domestic rule between periods of Mongol and Manchu dominance ("Ming Dynasty" 1). During this… [read more]

Bolotnikov's Rebellions Term Paper

… These conditions added to the rebellion.

The rebellion was also a political struggle as to who should rule Russia.

It was a revolt along with the dynastic struggle which was prevalent after the death of Tsar Boris Gudonov in the… [read more]

German Political System Term Paper

… Politics

German Government

The German Bundestag is the lower house of the legislature in Germany, and many think it is the center of German government. It is a group made up of representatives elected by the people. The type of work that takes place there is both legislative and leadership based. The group is where bills are introduced in the legislative process. They are voted on by the Bundestag, read, commented on and studied, revised, and then if passed, given to the Bundesrat, so the Bundestag is responsible for most of the legislative process, and they can veto (not pass) a bill, too. The Lander is more closely related to the Bundesrat because that is how the Lander goes through the government and legislative process, and this is where the deputies of the Lander sit. Therefore, the relationship between the Lander and the Bundesrat is much closer than that with the Bundestag. The Bundestag differs from the French National Assembly in that the Budestag has more power. They can reject the president's candidate for Federal Chancellor, they can nominate their own candidate, and they elect the Federal Chancellor, and they also have the power to dismiss him. Thus, while the roles are similar, the French National Assembly has less power with leadership. They exist to adopt and supervise, rather than to elect and dismiss.

B. 2. Rempel feels the…… [read more]

John F. Kennedy and Nikita Term Paper

… Kennedy," 2005).

Overview of Nikita Khrushchev:

Nikita Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovja, in what is now known as Kursk Oblast of the Russian Federation. He was originally trained and worked as a pipe fitter for a variety… [read more]

Paul Rusesabagina Hotel Rwanda Term Paper

… Hotel Rwanda -- Response

It is often said that Americans, because of the youth of the American nation, have little sense of a common world history. However, the drama of the film "Hotel Rwanda" also suggests that we as Americans may have too much of a sense of genocide as a historical, rather than a contemporary concern. Genocide is often thought of as something that takes or took place in the far past -- 'back in the days of the Holocaust' -- when genocide is a crime that continues to be perpetuated, again and again, in contemporary history, often to the continued blindness of the world's eyes and the world's media. How many times, one finds one's mind and heart provoked to ask, upon viewing a film such as "Hotel Rwanda," must Americans vow 'never again' -- when genocide is a crime that seems to occur again and again?

The film "Hotel Rwanda" was based on a true story of the civil war that plagued Rwanda's capital city of Kigali. What transpired during 1994 is often described as a civil, that is internally perpetuated, genocide. Because the genocide took place within an African nation, between polarized tribes and regional ethnic groups, and because it did not threaten to spill over into other nations that neighbored the major European powers unlike the genocides of Europe, this African genocide was lagetly ignored by the world.

The events that led up to the story of "Hotel Rwanda" began when the Hutu militia came to power. The Hutu army aimed to systemattically elimated all of the Tutsis from the nation. However, the owner of the title hotel was a real-life Hutu with a Tutsi wife. He resolved, partly out of necessity and partly out of compassion, to act with discipline, fearlessness, and quiet reistance to the Rwandan genocidal army forces of 'his' ethnic tribe. In a largely unrecognized act of kinness at the time, thousands of children, neighbors and other refugees who sought sanctuary at his luxury hotel…… [read more]

Mesopotamia and Egypt Term Paper

… Originating deep in Africa, the Nile River descends through many cataracts to sea level at the delta in Egypt, where in its annual flooding, rich soil is deposited. Hemmed in by its narrow valleys, the Nile flows through regions that… [read more]

Modernity Might We Not Argue Term Paper

… Modernity

Might we not argue that modernity begins with the establishment of the bourgeoisie and that as a result, the vast majority of us are better off than we were before? Please include a definition of the word "modernity."

The… [read more]

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries Saw Term Paper

… In the United States, for example, when the Union Pacific Railroads traversed the thousands of miles of American soil; often, if the railways failed to pass through an existing town, the people moved away; in fact, new towns and cities… [read more]

Cod: A Biography Term Paper

… Kurlansky's research also shows that men from Bristol, England also probably found North American before Columbus, and again, they were seeking cod. They had been shut out of Icelandic cod purchasing by the German Hanseatic League, and so they were seeking new sources of the fish for England and Europe. There are no records of what they actually discovered, but they did find enough cod so that they did not need to renegotiate to buy cod through the Hanseatic League. The general thought is that they found an area off North America that was rich in cod. In fact, after the English colonized America, cod was one of their most profitable trade items, and the British trade sanctions which kept Americans from trading their cod with other countries was one of the things that helped ultimately lead to the Revolutionary War and American independence from Great Britain. The cod then, is an historic and important fish, as Kurlansky notes, "If ever there was a fish made to endure, it is the Atlantic cod -- the common fish. But it has among its predators man, an openmouthed species greedier than the cod" (Kurlansky 45). Man has ultimately decimated much of the cod fisheries of the world, but the significance of the fish in world history cannot be reduced. The cod helped lead explorers, merchants, and the curious to North American shores long before Columbus and his men found the West Indies.

In conclusion, it is quite clear that the codfish indirectly led to the discovery of North America by the Vikings and by the English, and perhaps even by the Basques, years before Columbus ever set foot in the West Indies. Codfish also led to the economic success of New England, and one of the first geographical names in the country was "Cape Cod," named in the early 1600s by an Englishman. Cod were economically important to the world, and finding them was important business. Searching for more cod led to the discovery of North America, and ultimately, to a great change in world politics and Britain's influence on the world.


Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the…… [read more]

Alexander the Great King Philip II Term Paper

… Alexander the Great

King Philip II did not leave his son Alexander's destiny to chance. He had the boy learn how to play the lyre, recite and debate and placed him under the tutorship of no less than Aristotle (Smitha… [read more]

Biases Present in Our Culture Term Paper

… However, these wrongs have been given more footage in cinema, including stories of slave uprisings in Cuba and Brazil along with the story (Quilombo) of a fugitive slave republic in the "new" world called "Palmares," which withstood repeated attacks by the Portuguese (about one every 15 months) for 100 hundred years.

Not all Europeans accepted what was happening blindly. The French writer Montaigne argued that the conquering Europeans were far more barbaric than the natives they so easily conquered with their superior weapons and brutal methods. He identified the real reason for these actions -- greed (as he said, pearls and pepper). Shakespeare made a reference to it in The Tempest, in the character "Caliban" (a play on 'cannibal'), who complained that the European Prospero had stolen his land.

The most egregious defense of Western domination over other cultures is that they viewed it as the "natural order of things." This brings us back to the opening of the chapter, with Narcissus admiring his reflection, seeing nothing else but himself. The Europeans believed their language was better, their skin color better, their culture better, and that because of this it was their right to violently take lands from other peoples.

What this chapter shows clearly is evidence that the victors write the history. If the European conquerors had come with cannon and gunpowder and had been greeted with indigenous people who had bigger cannons and something more powerful than gunpowder, history would have been written quite differently. "Might makes right" has never been a good justification for any actions, whether it be a bully on the playground or a shipload…… [read more]

Industrial Revolution in America Term Paper

… The transfer of technology that America had until 1830 lead the nation to more success in technology. Mark Thompson proved this in his Was The Nineteenth Century American Industrial Revolution Solely Dependent on the Transfer of British Technology?, stating that The ensuing transfer of technology up to 1830, was to see a one way traffic of technology from Great Britain to America. Yet after 1830, the U.S. was to become proficient in its own right in building the heavy locomotives and trucks that she used. Thus by 1839, of the four hundred and fifty locomotives in the United States, nearly three quarters had been built in America.

Influences of the Industrial Revolution in American Society

Economic growth, demand for more laborers, population growth, utilization of machineries, international trading, slavery, educational reform, and many others, were among the general effects and influences of the industrial revolution in American society.

In terms of education, the period of industrial revolution saw the need for educational improvement. The technological advances England were developing during the beginning of the industrial revolution had inspired the American society to widen more of their knowledge in science and technology to keep up with the quick pace England improves its technology and economy.

Generally, with the advancements in technology, and the emergence of different industries, aiming for higher goals became one of the cultures of most Americans in the period of industrial revolution. They started to dream for better ways of living. This, they saw, is attainable through involvement in the different job opportunities that the industrial sector offers. Many were given the chance to reach for the same goal, in which men and women almost had equal opportunities in the workforce.

The American society, in general, became active participants during the industrial revolution in the discovery of technological advancements that helped the world build a convenient and quick-pace society.


Based from some historical literatures, there are several contradicting views on the effects and influences of the Industrial Revolution in American society. Questions were raised whether the period caused more negative or more positive consequences to the American society. Despite of this, however, it is no doubt that the period of the industrial revolution has brought advancements to our society in terms of technology. The period opened the economy of America, England, and every nation worldwide, with new machineries that facilitate the operation of different industries. The period became the cradle of inventions that were of great use and of great help in building the world with an improved economy.

In conclusion, the period of the industrial revolution helped in making possible every convenience that we have in our contemporary society.

The intelligence of the period's geniuses have drastically changed and transformed many aspects in our lives.


Anderson, Curt. The Two Countries that Invented the Industrial Revolution.

American History. 14 Dec 2003.

Chandler, Alfred.

Houghton Mifflin. 14 Dec 2003.

Komlos, John. The Industrial Revolution as the Escape from the Malthusian Trap.

University of Munich. 14… [read more]

Labor Policies Term Paper

… The [state] recognizes work to be the duty of all citizens of the republic and proclaims the watchword: "He who does not work shall not eat (First Constitution of the Soviet Union, 1918"

This labor policy sounds productive in… [read more]

Ensured the Success Essay

… As in the Soviet Union, thousands of books, plays, and films were banned, but an entire body of pro-Nazi culture was created to take their place. (Shirer, 241-243) The active promotion of this culture, which glorified Germany and the Aryan worker, served as both entertainment for the masses and propaganda for the state.

Of course, all these social programs cost money. Rearmament required all spare state funds, so the government established programs of "voluntary" donation and wage deduction, through which the people could fund their own enlightenment.

With the Gestapo handy to encourage reluctant donors, participation in these programs was nearly universal. (Frei, 83)

Hitler's government had achieved nothing short of a public relations miracle. Not only had the Third Reich implemented an ambitious array of morale-boosting social programs, the citizenry had happily footed the bill. With such a strong social fabric in place, the Third Reich looked as if it could achieve anything.

III. The foundations of a strong society in place, the leaders of the Third Reich set about preparing the next generation of Nazis. In order to keep alive the fervor and devotion that had been so essential to the initial success of Hitler's regime, it would be necessary to indoctrinate the nation's youth with the core values of Nazism. Ideally, education would begin at a very young age.

Germany was already known for its intellectual tradition. Most of Europe began introducing mandatory schooling for children in the 1870s, but in parts of Germany, the same laws had been in place since the sixteenth century. (Eksteins, 71) During the nineteenth century, German scholarly works reached such renown that proficiency in the language was considered essential among Western academics. (Eksteins, 71) Thus, when Hitler came to power in 1933, Germany's educational framework was outstanding at all levels.

The Nazis bent this venerable system to their needs, while leaving most of the infrastructure intact. Character was of utmost importance in the Nazi education, as the sacrifices required of German men and women would not come easily to the undisciplined or morally soft. Hygiene and physical fitness were also areas of emphasis, as were studies of race and Aryan culture. (Frei, 87-88) In order to curtail the intelligentsia, by nature a skeptical group, and strengthen the party's power base in the working class, access to higher education was limited after 1933. (Childs, 65) From the lowest levels to the highest, the Nazi educational system was designed to produce capable, dedicated soldiers, workers, and civil servants.

Perhaps even more important than the schools in the creation of young Nazis was the Hitler Youth. Germany's Youth Movement had taken root at the turn of the century. The Nazis recognized its potential for indoctrination, and molded the institution to conform to the ideology of the state. At first, the Hitler Youth was attractive to young people as an outlet for their energies and a chance for group identity. The group's numbers swelled until, in 1939, membership was made mandatory. (Frei, 85) As war… [read more]

Accordingly Term Paper

… He then argues that the European conquest and exploitation of the Americas resulted from the fact that Europeans were geographically closer to the Americas than were African and Asian maritime-oriented civilizations, and that the conquest itself was facilitated by the great epidemics of Eastern Hemisphere diseases which decimated the populations and destroyed the civilizations of the "New World."

Blaut, a geographer by profession, makes his point through a telling graphic titled "maps of the world before and after 1500 AD." It contains dots representing "dated place-name mentions" in Brenner's articles. No region outside of Europe is ever mentioned before 1500 AD. After 1500 AD, references occur more frequently but tend only to reflect what Blaut regards as "Brenner's view that capitalism began to diffuse outward to the rest of the world after its birth in northwestern Europe."

Given the more enlightened racial framework of today, Eurocentric historians today support their views with "hard" evidence drawn from agronomy, climatology, demographics, etc. rather than openly racialist claims. Few today would argue that the Europeans were genetically endowed with gifts for invention or rationality, or chosen by god. Rather, fortuitous historical circumstances moved them to the head of the class. It is exactly these pretensions to hard, scientific evidence that Blaut succeeds in demolishing. Barely disguising his contempt, he answers one false claim after another. When 4 Eric J. Jones asserts that Europeans were solely destined to become capitalists after the Middle Ages, Blaut cites Tome Pires, the 17th century Portuguese chronicler, who described Indian merchants thusly: "They are men who understand merchandise; they are... properly steeped in the sound and harmony of it." He adds, "[T]hose of our people who want to be clerks and factors ought to go there and learn, because the business of trade is a science." Among these Eurocentric historians farming practices loom a larger than any other supposedly objective criterion underpinning the rise of the West. The West is the world of the spirited, inventive yeoman farmer, while the repressive East employed unproductive farming techniques. Benefiting from his early training and fieldwork in agronomy, Blaut presents an alternative interpretation. For example, while Michael Mann considers soil fertility in Europe to be the key to its rise, Blaut points out that until the arrival of the potato from South America, a vast swath of land across Europe remained unproductive because of excess rainfall, conditions beneficial only to potato growth. Meanwhile, crop rotation -- supposedly unique to the West -- was found in the rest of the world. But, the question of "Eurocentrism" remains a vexing problem for academia. In the broadest sense, Eurocentrism can be understood as the implicit view that societies and cultures of European origin constitute the "natural" norm for assessing what goes on in the rest of the world.

Within this vast area of debate, one particular subtopic has been an object of intense scrutiny among scholars: the real-or-alleged centrality of Europe in preparing the explosion of economic development, science and technology, the Enlightenment and… [read more]

Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

… The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and… [read more]

German Unification Occupies Term Paper

… The peace treaties signed after the war served as a sharp blow to already wounded ego of the French. The Germans did everything in their power to belittle the French, which is considered the gravest mistake made by the Bismarck… [read more]

Machine vs. Nature Term Paper

… Man is so complicated a machine that it is impossible to get a clear idea of the machine beforehand, and hence impossible to define it. For this reason, all the investigations have been vain, which the greatest philosophers have made a priori, that is to say, in so far as they use, as it were, the wings of the spirit. Thus it is only a posteriori or by trying to disentangle the soul from the organs of the body, so to speak, that one can reach the highest probability concerning man's own nature, even though one can not discover with certainty what his nature is" (La Mettrie et al. 89).

La Mettrie based his views on his own "observations," not on scientific study. Today, his "findings" seem sadly out of date, and a bit too romanticized. "Winston Churchill once said that 'the further back you look, the further ahead in the future you can see'" (Moore and Simon 76), and this is surely the case with Le Mettrie's writings.

The human body is a machine which winds its own springs. It is the living image of perpetual movement. Nourishment keeps up the movements which fever excites"

La Mettrie et al. 93). Today, we tend to look at man not as much as a machine, but more a soul and a heart. The body is an incredible machine, but it is what is inside each man that gives him or her their own unique personality, outlook, and feelings about the world around them. The natural world also includes many incredible machines, but none of them have a soul, and that is what will always differentiate man from machines, and the natural world.

Works Cited"La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, et al. Man a Machine. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1912.

Moore, Stephen, and Simon, Julian L. "The Greatest Century That Ever Was." The World & I, Vol. 15. 1 March 2000, pp 76. Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Boulder, CO:…… [read more]

World War II Essay

… [footnoteRef:18] [17: Geoffrey Parker, The Cambridge History of Warfare (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 451.] [18: Overy, pp. 4, 31, 76; Weinberg, p. 1.]

Keegan and Ferguson do not specifically mention the importance of World War I… [read more]

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