"World History" Essays

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World War I Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Through examination of the press coverage, one might conclude two very different wars were being waged. Ultimately, this is probably true of most any military or other conflict between peoples so vastly different, not only in culture but language and geographically as well.

The most dramatically different of news sources, naturally, was the editorial page. In review of a pro-German publication, one might find argument that, as Americans, should revolt from our British roots. Seek refuge in a culture less "traditional," revolt against the tyrants, no longer a "new England" but a new America. According to one such account, from a weekly publication called, Issues and Events we find such rally cry: "But we should remember we are Americans, not Britons; and our success is bound up with a coming epoch, not with that now drawing to a close. We should honor the past, but we should live in the future. " (Patton, 1915). Throughout this global conflict editorials ranged through a great many spectrums, the dichotomy, however, between "American" and German leaning opinions was as vast as the great Sahara desert. The pro-German leaning articles seamed to present two sides, one, such as above, suggesting Americans being in need of a culture shock, a culture revolution if you will, where as the other outright decried foul play in regards to American press. "The extent of faking and space grabbing in the present conflicts in Europe is almost incredible. Out of any given forty statements of fact relative to battles, army movements and war declarations printed in the daily pres no more than four are correct." (New York Morning Telegraph, 1914) These quotes come at the same time as the… [read more]

Immigrant US History Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


U.S. Immigrants

The Black and Mexican Experiences During and After World War I

The United States of America, and indeed the entire continent of North America, has been a place of racial and ethnic boundaries that create a sense of those that belong and those that do not -- of people and of "others," to put it in a more extreme manner -- ever since Europeans first arrived on the shores of the continent. The indigenous peoples of the continent, the various tribes known as Indians and then as Native Americans, were the first to be displaced and made into "others," but the African slaves and their descendants and other people that inhabited the land either through immigration or through historical existence would undergo similar experiences as the nation grew (Takaki 2008). This creation of outsiders was not limited to the decades and centuries of the populating of the continent by the European-descended immigrants, but persisted even after the borders and development of the United States was well-established, with various racial and ethnic identities having unique experiences at various points in this nation's history.

The experience of blacks in this country has been studied and commented upon quite extensively; though brought here by force they were long treated as unwanted intruders (Takaki 2008). This began to change somewhat during the period of World War I and immediately following, when African-Americans both served in the military and were accepted into industrial jobs in major cities to fill the labor shortage created by massive shipping of troops to the European front (LOC 2008). This led to a renewed celebration and assertion of African-American culture in artistic and literary avenues immediately following the war in the period known as the "Harlem Renaissance," a period which demonstrated the new pride and a certain level of integration into popular culture through the definition and dissemination of African-American culture itself (LOC 2008).

The experience of Mexican immigrants during this period was similar to that of African-Americans in some ways, but was drastically different in others. The same labor shortages in the United States that were caused by World War I and led to the movement of many African-Americans to cities for new employment opportunities also allowed Mexican nationals to immigrate over the border in order to fill these jobs, first in the fields and eventually in a variety of other industries (Vogel 2004; Takaki 2008). Even in the period immediately following the war, which was still a quite prosperous time for the United States, these workers were largely accepted as a necessary part of the labor industry and the economy, but never really integrated into society due to continuing language barriers and a sense of ethnic "difference" (Vogel 2004). When the Great Depression hit at the end of the 1920s, suddenly these "foreign" workers that had been in the country for a decade (and that had rightfully occupied much of the Southwestern and Western United States less than a century before) were no longer welcome, and… [read more]

Person in History Woodrow Wilson Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Person in History

Woodrow Wilson

For most people, Woodrow Wilson is yet another American president, whose only contribution to history is the fact that he was in charge of devising the U.S.'s foreign policy agenda during the First World War. In spite that his strategy was employed by a series of presidents following him, his memory is still ignored by most. His participation in the war was however more important than some might think, given that he was the first U.S. president to get his country actively involved in a war that did not concern it directly. The 28th American President would have certainly been glad if he lived to see the United Nations headquarters in Manhattan, New York City, and the international affairs being discussed there.

While the U.S. did not probably came to be the country Wilson wanted it to, his idea regarding a body that would support democracy and human rights materialized in the United Nations Organization. President Wilson's determination to prevent another world war from happening was perfectly exemplified through his Fourteen Points speech he held on January 8, 1918. During this speech, he emphasized essential values, such as equality in rights for everyone, and the fact that freedom needed to be present across the globe.

Most of the contemporary international public is either unaware of who Woodrow Wilson was or thinks of him as a man whose ideals proved to be failures. Indeed, the League of Nations did not succeed in achieving its purpose, given that the Axis Powers managed to emerge in Europe with little to no restraint from members of the League. President Wilson actually believed that the League of Nations would actually make certain a continuing global peace consequent to his time. One can partly attribute the fact that the League of Nations did not manage to control conditions in Europe to Wilson's demise, considering that his loss of influence led to a 1920s international organization that did not involve the U.S.

Wilson favored a somewhat idealistic strategy that would benefit international affairs. His optimistic view regarding international relations came to be known as Wilsonianism. Even though most of the international public is not acquainted with the term or with the man that is responsible for its creation, present day international affairs are largely owed to Wilson's efforts.

It would certainly be an adventure for Woodrow Wilson to be able to see his dream realized, to drive through the Turtle Bay neighborhood toward the United Nations complex, to stand next to colleagues from diverse nations, shaking their hand, and addressing the world from this location. His political and oratory abilities would certainly be welcomed by an international public, just as he…… [read more]

Unstable Postwar World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … World War I and related events of 1917-1919 (the Russian and German Revolutions, the Treaty of Versailles, and others) helped to create an unstable postwar world.

The Treaty of Versailles is widely considered one of the most disastrous peace treaties ever negotiated, and one of the primary, contributing causes to the unstable postwar environment that gave rise to World War II. This is despite the fact that the Treaty established many new independent nations, including Poland; established many colonial trusts; included a pledge of all signing nations to disarm, and created the League of Nations. However, despite Woodrow Wilson's initial protestations, Germany was forced to accept responsibility "for all losses and damages in the conflict in what was termed the war guilt clause" ("Wars and Battles," U.S. History, 2010). Germany was required to radically reduce the size of its military, totally demilitarize the Rhineland and give back the Alsace and Lorraine region to France. This created anger and resentment in the hearts of the German people. Germany felt that it was unfairly blamed for a war that was also the result of the actions of the other major European powers, not simply its own militarism. Also the unification of Germany had defined German national identity around Germany's military capabilities, a claim to fame was now stolen from it by the Versailles Treaty. In fact, many residents of other European nations, including some members of the British aristocracy, felt that Germany had been unfairly treated -- and this sense of injustice initially caused some non-Germans to fail to adequately understand the threat that the Nazi leadership posed to the rest of Europe.

Combined with the prohibitively costly war reparations, the Germany spirit and the German economy were completely depleted by the Treaty. Germany suffered the effects of the worldwide Great Depression to an even greater degree than other nations as a…… [read more]

Western Civilization the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,314 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


They were, of course, still thinking that by crossing the Atlantic they would reach Asia, oblivious of the fact that between Europe and Asia there was this huge piece of a whole continent. Columbus had reached before. Vespucci was the first one to realize the mistake and call the territories he had reached a New World. His name gave the… [read more]

World Wars and Their Relationships Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


There were more planes and they were much faster, the ships were more modern, and submarines and other technologies had advanced, as well. In the Second World War, many new technologies were developed, like sonar, a new type of bombsight, and the atomic bomb, which brought an end to the war.

Both wars were fought on several continents, and used air, sea, and land-based troops for battle and support. Many of the same countries participated in both wars, both in Europe and beyond. For example, in World War I the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East participated in the war, and in World War II, the Germans fought in North Africa trying to gain more territory to add to their country.

In both wars, Germany was a deciding factor in the war. They had undergone a great military build-up during the turn of the 20th century that prepared them for war. After the war, one of the treaties demanded that Germany not be allowed to rebuild its military to its pre-war levels, but Hitler began to ignore that and build up the military in secret, which helped to prepare the country for World War II. Therefore, Germany's military power helped connect both wars and helped create the background for both wars to occur.

The allies in both wars were remarkably similar, too. Germany, when it tried to get Mexico into the war, also allied with Japan. This was true in World War II, as well. Germany was also allied with Italy in World War I and in World War II. Germany was allied with Russia for a time in World War II, but ignored those ties and attacked, which led Russia to ally with the United States, Britain, and France, who were World War I allies, as well. Much of both wars were fought in Europe, although when the U.S. entered World War II, the Pacific became another battleground. So, the wars had much in common and there was a close…… [read more]

Herodotus's Work "The Histories" Is Conceived Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (809 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Herodotus's work "The Histories" is conceived on two different levels. On an objective level, the historian attempts to paint the image of the people and nations of his time and to give a thorough description of the respective nation's political and religious organizations, traditions, positive and negative aspects etc. On the other hand, on a subjective level, the historian also has his own discourse, one where he uses his work to express his own beliefs and ideas about the respective ethnographies. At the same time, his historical work also transforms itself in many cases into a philosophical, often melancholic and pessimistic approach to life.

The philosophical approach is not only a perspective on life and afterlife, but also a way for Herodotus to use a series of aphorisms that help him create a more global picture of human kind, one that can be universal rather than limited to the people that he analyzes in his work. In Book 1, for example, such aphorisms abound as he tells the story of Candaules, ruler of Lydia, and how Gyges, his favorite spearman fell in love with the queen. Throughout paragraph 8 of Book 1, Herodotus mentions that "men trust their ears less than their eyes" (1.8) and that "when a woman puts off her tunic, she puts off her modesty also." These are both elements of the subjective level that Herodotus uses to picture humanity.

Similarly, he uses the phrase "in peace the sons bury their fathers, but in war the fathers bury their sons" (1.87) with different meanings. On one part, it is a simple objective observation of the times he lives in. Indeed, during Antiquity, it is likely that war could simply wipe out entire youth populations in certain towns and villages. On the other hand, it is probably also a melancholic interpretation of war and what it brings compared to peace: a distortion of the natural development of things. In a rational world, fathers should never bury their sons.

Other parts of the work are pure objective descriptions of certain facts. For example, still in book 1, paragraph 6 is strictly dedicated to a brief geographical location of the land and people ruled by Craessus. The description is almost exhaustive, naming seas, rivers, people and connecting all these elements together to give a complete picture of the location of the Lydian people.

These examples continue throughout the book, such as in Book 2,…… [read more]

Weapons of World War II Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (364 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


World War Two Weaponry

Like other wars, World War Two stimulated the technology of warfare tremendously. The machine gun and battle tank were first used in combat during World

War One, but both were perfected and adapted to numerous additional uses throughout the Second World War (Commager & Miller, 2002). Aircraft were in their infancy in World War One but also developed significantly in between the wars. However, the technological progress that took place in aviation in between the start of war in Europe in

1939 and its conclusion in 1945 was greater than all that took place in that field in the years between the two wars (Ambrose, 2001).

Some of the most revolutionary progress in weaponry during World War Two

included jet aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), both of which were used for the first time ever by the Nazis (Ray, 2003). The Americans introduced pressurized aircraft in the long-range, high-altitude B-29 Stratofortress bomber and the Norden bomb site used to increase the accuracy of bombs dropped from high altitude.

That device was considered top-secret throughout the war and…… [read more]

Graphic Design History Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Graphic Design History

Graphic design: space and power.

The process of graphic design refers to the creation of various sign systems. These signs are to be interpreted as standing for something else. Their value is therefore symbolical and beyond the physical representation there is a concept or idea that must be understood. However, meaning is not created in an arbitrary… [read more]

Jews in the Concentration Camps Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,231 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Jewish Holocaust


Hitler's Ideals and the Final Solution:

Anti-Semitism was the principal doctrine of Nazism and was evident as early as Hitler's original written autobiography Mein Kampf ("my struggle"), authored while he was imprisoned briefly after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government in 1921, more than a decade… [read more]

Roman Empire the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


His desire to serve again made many nervous that certain men in political positions would also want to serve longer terms and this could threaten the balance of power because they would want to have increasingly greater levels of authority over the republic and its people. His led to a revolution in which the political structure of the Rome was forever changed.

Second Punic War

In addition to the aforementioned events and circumstances associated with the Roman Empire, the Second Punic War was also a significant event that occurred in the Roman Empire. The Second Punic War took place from 218-202 B.C. In 221 the Ruler Hannibal came into power in Carthaginian Spain. The Romans and the Spanish city of Saguntum had become allies after the first Punic war. The city of Saguntum had promised not to expand into other areas of Spain but this promise was broken. As a result Hannibal declared war on Saguntum and won. This put Rome in a difficult position because Saguntum was an ally to Rome and as such was obliged to help the city. Rome could not convince Carthage to remove Hannibal from power and so a war ensued. Hannibal had an extremely powerful and well equipped army and was able to defeat most of northern Italy. Although Hannibal won many battles, he was ultimately defeated and was never able to seize Rome.

The Roman Army

Like most armies, the Roman army did not began as a mighty force instead it developed over time. According to a book entitled Roman Warfare the Roman army was unique in that it utilized soldiers from territories that it conquered. The army would simply absorb the armies of conquered territories. In doing this, the Roman army was able to grow significantly. In addition, because the soldiers were from different regions, they had diverse skills. In many cases these were For instance some were skilled in archery. According to the book even though there were many years in which the Roman Army experienced a great deal of expansion, the Roman conquest began to dwindle as did the Roman Army. After Augustus died the army stopped expanding.

In addition to the expanded size of the Roman army throughout the years, Roman army was also extremely organized and disciplined.

The army was extremely strategic in the manner in which it handled wars and conflict. When they were overpowered at times, the army would find ways to defeat other armies through strategic planning and the element of surprise.


The purpose of this discussion was to examine various aspects of the Roman Empire. The research found that the introduction of Greek culture into Rome changed both the religious and familial structure of the Roman Empire.

Greek philosophy and greater independence for women developed as a result of Greek influence. As it pertained to the Roman Revolution it marked the end of the Roman Republic. The Second Punic war was interesting in that it seemed as though the empire would succumb to… [read more]

Western Civilization - World War One Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Western Civilization - World War One to the Present Era

The events that lead to the outbreak of World War One are hauntingly familiar. Preexisting strife between Austria-Hungry and Serbia was sparked to fire with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austria-Hungry throne. Ferdinand's assassin was a Slavic teenager, Gavrilo Princip, a nineteen-year-old member of the terrorist organization the Black Hand (Duffy 2007, "Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1914"). Although the Serbian government claimed that it did not officially sponsor the Black Hand's terrorist activities, and Ferdinand was no JFK, Austria Hungry saw the assassination as an opportunity to further its influence in the Balkans, a spatial region already taught with ethnic and nationalistic violence (Duffy 2007). In fact, Duffy asserts that Serbia's proposed involvement in the assassination was "unlikely" and points out that Austria-Hungry did not respond to the act of violence that took the life of their national symbol and heir to their throne for three weeks (2007). Thus, Duffy suggests there are enough facts to back up the theory that "the Austro-Hungarians opted to take the opportunity to stamp its authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungry's influence in the Balkans" (2007). While the history of ethnic and nationalistic conflict in the Balkans resulted in the spark that began WWI, neither Austria-Hungry nor Serbia were major powers in the war. Instead, each country turned to its allied nations -- Russia and Germany -- for aid (Duffy 2007). The tangle of alliances was such that a general war could not help being declared, although Germany did not want war, desiring simply to remain in its unified state as Bismark had left it (Duffy 2007). The conflict of these nations brought the British, United States, and other states into the war as conflict progressed. For this reason, a spark in the Balkans over ethnic lines led to a world war. Oddly, the situation uniquely resembles that of the current Iraq war, or third Gulf war, in which the United States became involved with the country after an act of terrorism that Iraq claimed not to support. One can only hope that this conflict will not have as dire of consequences.

Question Two

At the end of the largest and most complex war in history, the victorious Allies were not willing to sit idly by while the Triple Entente went back to business as usual. Instead the Versailles Treaty sought to sufficiently make amends for personal and property losses during the war. Some of those losses included 750,000 dead British soldiers and 116,000 dead United States' soldiers. Totally, around 8.5 million were killed and 21 million injured (Trueman 2008). Although the lost lives can never be replaced, the Treaty of Versailles sought to punish the offending nations, and it was sufficiently harsh to accomplish that goal. The treaty gave away no less than segments of land were taken from the Germans, including Alsace-Lorraine, which was given to France, and the country's… [read more]

WWI and WWII Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,615 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



World War I

Most obviously, World War I differed from other wars in its worldwide scale. Never before had a war been fought on such a large scale, nor had it ever been as brutal to soldier, citizen, and innocent alike. Bernd Huppauf describes the horror so this war in very specific terms when he mentions the… [read more]

American History X Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,713 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


American History X

Our Hero is Derek Vinyard, a Californian neo-Nazi racist played by Edward Norton.

Derek has most of the physical features of a neo-Nazi gang leader, with his head shaved bald, and a muscular body marked with swastika tattoos. His reason for choosing the racist path is having his fireman father murdered by a black man whilst trying… [read more]

Second World War Left Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,037 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Second World War left the world in a complete state of disarray. Most countries around the world had suffered enormous damages, both in terms of human and economic loss. The only actual victorious actor on the international scene was the United States which came out stronger than ever before. There are various explanations for this fact, most of them connected to the American war industry that was created during the conflagration and, most importantly, to the geopolitical and geostrategic position of the country in relation to the main adversaries of the war. From this perspective, the U.S. was the only country able to support a reconstruction plan for Europe and to stand up to the Soviet challenge facing the world after the end of the war. The Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine were the main tools used by the American side to achieve these two goals. However, in order to actually grasp the importance of these two initiatives for Europe and the world, it is interesting to consider an alternative history, one which did not include the reconstruction plan and the presidential doctrine.

The Truman Doctrine was one of the first political messages that came from the United States after the end of the war. It represented a set of principles which pointed out the necessity of action for the reconstruction of Europe, as well as a political approach to the issue of the U.S.S.R. And its strive for dominance in Europe and the world. In this sense, President Truman presented in front of the Congress in March 1947 the situation concerning Greece and Turkey (the Avalon Project, 2008). He pointed out the need of both Greece and Turkey to receive financial and political support from Western countries. The basics of the doctrine was formulated by Truman who concluded that "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures" (the Avalon Project, 2008).

The most important element of the doctrine pointed out the fact that the U.S.S.R.'s force must be contained and opposed in any situation in which it tends to exercise its power over the sovereign nations of Europe. It was an important step in the history of the post war period because it showed the commitment of western nations to limit the sphere of influence of the communist power. Any other solution or course of action would have determined a situation similar to the one in Eastern Europe.

If the Truman Doctrine did not exist, Greece and Turkey would have been subject to soviet influence. In the beginning, the doctrine also referred to other regions as well. However, taking into account the fact that the Soviet army was considered to be the savior of Eastern Europe from the Nazi force, the Red Army was considered to have legitimacy in these countries. Form this point-of-view, Stalin denied eastern countries to receive support, both financial and political one… [read more]

History of the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,231 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … history of the United States has been one of the most interesting objects of study for analysts and scholars alike. This is largely due to the fact that the U.S. is in general considered to be the center of world politics, economics, cultural and social life. The purpose of this essay is to consider some examples which proved the above affirmation. They will deal with particular significant events that influenced the last fifty years in America.

The 1950s represented a difficult time in the history of the world. Every major country engaged in the Second World War was slowly and painfully recovering from the disasters the conflagration had produced. The United States and the Soviet Union however created what would be called the cold war. In this conflict situation, the Korean War in the early years of the 1950s represented an important moment in the American history.

The Korean war was to some extent an expected consequence of the post world war situation. It was the first sign of the confrontation between East and West outside Europe (Jenkins, 1997). The North Korean communists supported by the U.S.S.R. invaded the South supported by the Americans. In fact this attempt was part of the wider situation and balance of power present during the Cold War. The main goal of the Korean communists was to practically unite Korea under a communist rule (Kissinger, 1995). For the Russians, the goal of their intervention was to increase communist influence in Asia, while the U.S. had the precise opposite goal.

The most affected people of this war were indeed the victims of the fighting, from both Korean sides. At the same time however, taking into account the fact that the U.S. troops along with UN troops were also involved in the war, it can be said that the victims suffered the most.

The effects on the United States were limited because people were generally engaged in day-to-day businesses. However, the Korean War is also labeled as the Forgotten War (Korea, 2004) because it was soon replaced by other major events on the international scene. However, it is important for the understanding of the first events of the Cold War. At the end of the war, Korea did not unite; therefore the North Koreans did not meet their goal. However they did achieve a sense of notoriety and drew the attention on the domino phenomenon (Kissinger, 1995). The Korean War was the first war in a series of many in which the U.S. engaged troops to defend the territorial integrity of a far off country. This would prove an important experience, especially for the wars to come.

The 1960s was representative for the civil rights movement which culminated with the 1965 Voting Rights Act. It represented the result of decades of civil struggle for the right to vote by women and African-Americans in the American society (Bolick, 1995). Also the groups that made constant pressures on the legislative body to include the right to vote… [read more]

Wii Adolf Hitler's Role in World War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,653 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Adolf Hitler's Role in World War II

There is a common notion that the war in 1939 is a continuation of the war that ended in 1918. The Second World War was in fact a return to the unfinished business of the First World War. That is why they are numbered I and II. The idea of a progression… [read more]

World War II and the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,799 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … World War II and the United States. Specifically it will compare and contrast the United States after World War I and after World War II. There were great consequences for America after World War I and World War II, and the country changed dramatically after each war. Both wars would affect the country for years to come, and… [read more]

Comparing and Contrasting WWI and WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,852 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … WWI & WW2

Comparing and Contrasting WWI and WWII

World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) were the most devastating military conflicts in human history which caused untold destruction and loss of millions of lives. Although both wars were fought under distinctly different circumstances, had different causes and did not involve exactly the same foes, the… [read more]

European Economics After WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,329 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


European Economics World War II

World War II was considered the biggest and costliest war in history in terms of both lives and money (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 2007). In a short period of six years, approximately 50 million died in battle or as a result of concentration camps, bombings, starvation and disease. Others were displaced and left… [read more]

Colosseum Few Buildings in History Have Attracted Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,642 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Few buildings in history have attracted as much attention or been the site of so many historic events as the Colosseum in Rome. While the structure is a mere shadow of its former glory today, much of it still remains standing and what is there is clearly suggestive of its magnificence. Mock naval battles, contests between exotic wild beasts… [read more]

Dinner With 3 Of the Great Leaders in History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (419 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Dinner With 3 Leaders

The silence would be unbearable when my dinner guests first sat down at the table. I thought long and hard about who to invite to this momentous occasion and settled on an unlikely trio of 20th century giants: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Jr., and, yes, Adolf Hitler. We would need some wine to loosen our lips because few of us would be ready to break the silence and the discomfort of breaking bread with a merciless madman as Hitler seemed to be. King would undoubtedly be the least comfortable next to Hitler, as the two men left nearly opposite marks on human history.

However, I have always wanted to pick Hitler's brain. His actions altered the course of history; there is no denying that. I invited him with President Roosevelt especially because the two men were both instrumental during the Second World War. Since that war, globalization has become a reality and the world has become linked through the free market. I would like to ask Roosevelt and Hitler especially about how they felt about globalization and the repercussions of World War Two on Europe. It would also be interesting to find out what Hitler and Roosevelt thought about the European Union.…… [read more]

American History War and Peace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (876 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


American History

War and Peace as American Objectives in the mid-20th Century

Excesses both of hope and fear, especially the American inclination to see good in certain nations or movements and evil in others, can lead us into unhappy conflicts. Our crusading zeal may have contributed much to the world, but it is time we saw the menace to peace that it also contains." - Professor John K. Fairbank, 1971.

Professor Fairbank's comment concerning America's "crusading zeal" was a fair critical analysis of our nation's move toward conflict during the period of 1945-1965. Following World War II, the country was willing to believe in the inherent good or evil mentioned by Fairbank. Protecting the weak and defining our nation as a defender and powerful ally/enemy was foremost in the minds of America's leaders. Roosevelt's post-war policies and the following Truman Doctrine set the stage for further American efforts to take world enforced peace into its own hands. What followed were policies and foreign conflicts that included the well-publicized Korean and Vietnam wars, but also actions with Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Policies during and following World War II set the stage for conflict. Roosevelt's agreements with Churchill and Stalin following the war not only fell apart, but also led to the Cold War and extreme anti-communism in the United States (Kort, 31-32). Stalin fostered many communist nations, threatening the United States and England. British and American forces responded with the support of revolutionaries and governments that took power away from the communists. American foreign policy concerning communism became clear with the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan and was emphasized by American leaders throughout the period (Kort 36-43). The Truman Doctrine expresses American concern that communism would quickly spread through any and all nations that were not protected from it, with Truman stating that, "America could not, and should not, let these free countries stand unaided" (Truman 178). In the period following the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, the United States was heavily aimed at "containment" of communist ideology (Kort 43).

The containment effort was heavily acted upon in Latin and South America. The Latin American republics (including Suriname, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil) had cooperated with the allied efforts during the war in return for economic and military aid. Brazil in particular was vulnerable to Nazi leanings and was considered to be key in many of America's World War II strategies (Freidel 219). The United States and Britain now took it upon themselves to "protect" these nations from communist leanings. At the same time, many of these nations were encouraged by the Soviet Union…… [read more]

U.S. Diplomacy During World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


U.S. Diplomacy During World War II

World War II was a watershed event in the history of international relations, particularly in the relations between the United States and the rest of the world. Before the War, the U.S. foreign policy and public opinion were in favor of 'isolationism', although support for the 'internationalism' also existed in some pockets. As a… [read more]

World War I: Causes and Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


World War I: Causes and Analysis

Despite being precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria Hungary by a Serbian nationalist in 1914, the causes of World War I run deeper than that. In addition to the assassination as cause of World War I, we must also add imperialistic and nationalistic pressures to the list. These were the more significant causative factors that led directly to the onset of World War I. By the late 19th century, intense rivalries had emerged between the world's leading imperials power -- Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. This rivalry was built on a conflict of interests in Africa and China, the question of how to resolve the vacuum of power left by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, and aggressive German imperialism that threatened France in Morocco and Great Britain's naval superiority ("World War I" 41532). Additionally, strong nationalism was growing throughout Europe at the time, intensifying political rivalries and undermining the domestic integrity of many of the imperial powers.

Given these sociopolitical causes to the start of World War I, it is doubtful that anything could have been down to avoid the conflict. If the Archduke hadn't been assassinated, some other (relatively) minor event would have touched off a conflict that had been brewing for many years. Throughout the 19th century, Europe's imperial powers had grown without much concern for each other. Spheres of influence were roughly divided in the world, and conflicts amounted to comparatively minor scuffles. But by the beginning of the 20th century, the territorial ambitions of these empires had not abated, while the availability of uncontrolled territory certainly had. Pressure to continue expanding precipitated the descent of Europe into war in 1914.

From this we can see that the main cause of the hostilities was the imperialistic rivalry that developed between the major…… [read more]

Intelligence After World War II Term Paper

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intelligence after World War II and during the emergence of the Cold War. Specifically, it will discuss the changes in mission, scope, organization, resources, and technology to address perceived national security concerns in the Cold War. U.S. intelligence gathering underwent a reformation after the end of World War II. New technologies made intelligence gathering more efficient and differences with the Soviet Union and others made in even more necessary. All of this combined to make U.S. intelligence more effective, more accurate, and more powerful, a trend that continues today. The Cold War helped create the modern U.S. intelligence system, and so, in effect, the Cold War helped give the intelligence agencies the scope of power and technology they have today.

The modern intelligence gathering agencies as we know them today have their roots at the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War. In 1947, President Harry Truman signed the National Security Act, which "established the National Security Council to advise the president on foreign affairs and defense policy; created the Central Intelligence Agency to gather and analyze foreign intelligence and conduct covert operations; and created a Department of Defense to coordinate the activities of the branches of the U.S. armed forces."

In 1952, he created the National Security Agency, which was supposed to engage solely in cryptology, which would seem to separate the agencies even more.

Of course, intelligence gathering and spying took place early in American history, before the American Revolution, in fact. However, the modern intelligence gathering agencies as we know them today have their roots in the National Security Act as a reaction to the growth of the Cold War around the world. The agencies we know today were very different from what Truman created in 1947. Author Amy Zegat notes, "Conforming to his military's wishes, the president sought a small central intelligence agency that would coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate intelligence, but not collect it. The original CIA was never supposed to engage in spying."

Clearly, the mission of the intelligence agencies when they were created was far different from their eventual evolution. Their scope was far less than they are today, as well. The scope then mainly concentrated on the Soviet Union and other Communist nations, and sometimes, the lack of attention to other areas proved costly. Intelligence was slim on Korea and Vietnam, for example, and that helped lead to discrepancies in intelligence regarding the nations, their intent, and the eventual onset of conflicts in these areas.

The superiority of American intelligence did not begin as soon as the agencies were created in 1947. Author Christopher Andres notes, "The U.S. intelligence community had not a single agent capable of providing a serious insight into Soviet policy, no ability to penetrate current high-grade Soviet cipher systems, and no aerial reconnaissance of more than the fringes of the Soviet Union."

It took time to build a competent system of agencies who could gather intelligence effectively, but over time, the agencies did become… [read more]

World War I Great Britain's Failure Term Paper

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World War I

Great Britain's Failure to Use Its Navy to Its Full Effectiveness in World War I

As World War I began, Great Britain was considered the supreme power in terms of naval force. Yet, the German Navy had been upgrading enough to make it of significant British concern during the war. In particular, the use of German U-boats… [read more]

World War II Put-Off by Europe's Lag Term Paper

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World War II

Put-off by Europe's lag in paying off debts from the First World War, the United States remained committed to a policy of neutrality for the first several years of World War Two. Several issues led to American involvement in the war. First, collusion between Roosevelt and Churchill caused the United States to adopt restrictive trading policies with Japan. The eloquent Churchill apparently persuaded President Roosevelt to pressure Japan through sanctions: by prohibiting further shipments of steel, iron, aviation fuel, and other military essentials (Irving). A crippled Japanese army retaliated by the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 of 1941. Congress approved entry into the war the very next day. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, which now faced enemies on two different continents. The era of American isolationism and neutrality promptly ended, even though Congress still tried to stave off the commitment of troops via the Lend-Lease Act. The Lend-Lease Act mobilized billions of dollars in weapons that could be lent or leased at will by the Americans. Weapons were lent to Allied troops but also to the Soviet Union during its offensive against the Nazis. The Lend-Lease Act also allowed the Americans to minimize troop deployment either to Europe or to Asia, while at the same time bolstering its lucrative munitions industry.

By the time the United States entered the war, Hitler's Nazis had invaded much of Europe. A blitzkrieg (lightening/flash war) strategy helped the Nazis incur major victories, especially during its invasion of Poland. During blitzkrieg, the army engages on multiple fronts using multiple means to trap the enemy. Nazi offenses were proving successful during the early stages of the war, partly due to a neutrality pact signed with the Soviet Union. The successful Nazi incursions into France, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia escalated the pressure placed on the United States to intervene.

Germany would later retract on its neutrality agreement with the Soviets, by attempting to invade Russia. The unsuccessful invasion of Moscow would become one of the reasons for the eventual Nazi defeat. An emboldened Soviet Union made inroads into Eastern Europe and eventually Germany and under pressure from several fronts at once, the Nazis were forced to surrender unconditionally. Germany surrendered less than a month after President Roosevelt died.

Their unconditional surrender came in light of joint Soviet, British, and American efforts and the leaders of those three nations would meet several times: most famously at Tehran and Yalta. At Tehran in 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin approved Operation Overlord, which would precipitate the Nazi defeat and secure the Allied stronghold over Europe. Before the unconditional surrender of the Nazis in 1945, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met again in Yalta. Their stalemated talks partially prepared the world for the Cold War.

Churchill initially hoped to incur American support of the Allied cause in Europe: to aid Great Britain and France in the campaign against Germany and…… [read more]

Atomic Bomb in U.S. History Term Paper

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¶ … atomic bomb in U.S. history. Specifically it will analyze the impact of the Atomic bomb on American politics and culture in the decade-and-a-half after the explosion of the first Atomic weapon over Hiroshima. The use of the first atomic bomb to end World War II in the Pacific was a world-altering event. It changed the status of the… [read more]

U.S. History and Foreign Policy Term Paper

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¶ … U.S. history and foreign policy. The writer explores the five questions and devotes two pages to each answer. There were fours sources used to complete this paper.

Explain the development of containment after World War'll and the reasons for conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The development of containment after World War II had an… [read more]

Canadian History Term Paper

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Canadian History

Interpreting the Slant of History

The three articles: Ramsay Cook, "1942 and All That: Making a Garden out of Wilderness"; Alan Gordon, "Heroes, History, and Two Nationalisms: Jacques Cartier" and Ken Coates and William Morrison, "Winter and the Shaping of Northern History: Reflections from the Canadian North" have several commonalities, including the theme that history is slanted by the bias of the historian. Historians cannot help but be influenced by their own biases and it shows in their writing. Sometimes it is purposely slanted to suit the needs of the time: public, political or personal. While history is always filtered through the biases of the writer, it is sometimes even written to accomplish a particular purpose. Our modern culture places a high value on objective reporting, but the culture of the 17th and 18th centuries placed an even higher value on entertainment. Thus the many exaggerations of the writers of the time often went unnoticed and unchallenged.

In 1942 and All That: Making a Garden out of Wilderness, Ramsay Cook shows how historians and clergy shows how early settlers and other visitors to the Canadian North failed to adjust to it, because they brought along their own notions of the superiority of European culture and technology to the indigenous first nations people.

Many clergy and historians of religious persuasion saw the indigenous populations as inferior, because they had not developed technology. What they failed to note was that the first nations people, in this case the Micmac, actually had very good lives before the Europeans arrived. They had everything they needed for safety and comfort by working about 15 hours per week. Historians of the time also blamed the life style of the Micmac for the disease which ravaged and decimated the population. Cook states that Europeans could not see the value of the native ways, and assumed they were unhappy, since they neither cultivated nor build permanent homes.

Other misconceptions of the then current historians were that the evils of polygamy caused the heathen to be punished for their sins. What they did not see was that plural marriage had sustained the population in a wilderness which was difficult to survive, even for the Micmac. Europeans of the time wanted to civilize the Micmac to save their souls and improve their lives. The historians of the time romanticized the "noble svage" on the one hand and deplored the fact that even with the most devout teaching, the Micmac reverted to their original way of life as soon as the settlers turned their backs.

The Micmac were characterized as savage and heathen, while the settlers killed wildlife indiscriminately, taking more than could possibly be consumed. The settlers lived in the environment while the Micmac were a pert of it. The historians constantly compared gardens to heaven and wilderness to hell, Micmac to evil savages and their benefactors to saints. The free life style of the natives was seen both as a sign of their evil and its cause.… [read more]

Geneva Convention: History and Contemporary Term Paper

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¶ … Geneva Convention: History and Contemporary Overview

When contemporary human rights advocates speak of the Geneva Convention they are usually referring to the Fourth Geneva Convention, ratified in 1949, during the aftermath of World War II. (Farrell, 2002) the Geneva Conventions are all international agreements that define human rights in universally encompassing language, such as outlawing the taking of hostages, the mutilation and degradation of POWs, torture, executions, and discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality or political affiliations. However, no matter how sweeping the language of the documents, what is seen to constitute a universal human right will inevitably vary in different national contexts, in specific leader's opinions, and by the interpretative language of a nation's system of laws.

For example, the subjectivity of the Geneva Convention was highlighted when, in 1994, the U.S. Senate ratified the modification to the Convention known as the Torture Convention. The Senate stated "[t] hat the United States considers itself bound by the obligation under Article 16 to prevent 'cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,'" but that cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment "means the cruel, unusual and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States." ("OLC's Aug. 1, 2002 Torture Memo ('the Bybee Memo')," Discourse.net, 2006) Also, the United States considers capital punishment acceptable and not cruel and degrading, while many fellow…… [read more]

World Civilization Term Paper

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Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, monasteries became a vital institution in Europe in the Middle Ages. One reason for their crucial role was the continuation of the Roman culture effects in Byzantine, in Constantinople. When western Rome fell, the culture moved to the east. However, the emperors and leaders in this new Byzantine Empire were Christian, so were able to continue the monasteries' cultures.

Further, the bishops of Rome remained in place following the fall of Rome, and many of the invaders of Rome respected these leaders, since they were at least marginally Christian themselves. Thus, as the invaders began to have disputes, they often appealed to the bishops of old Rome for resolution, and in this way, the bishop became the political and spiritual leader of post-fallen Rome. In addition, the Church had long been responsible for the conversion and education of the public, and this role continued beyond the fall of Rome. Since the invaders generally had little formal education, the monasteries were primarily responsible for their learning.

Still another aspect of the…… [read more]

American History -- Journal Term Paper

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Moments later, "the plane was rocked by the shock wave of the blast when the bomb hit the ground" (53).

The third article, "Mr. Smith Goes Underground" by Thomas Mallon, concerns a specially-designed bunker, meant to house the President of the United States and his closest confidants, during a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. Mallon reminds the reader that this bunker, located in West Virginia and now open to the public for tours, was "the strangest of all Cold War relics and offers a clue to why (the U.S.) won the Cold War" (60). The current tour guide, Marvin Weikle, who helped maintain the facility for many years, always warns the visitors that what they are about to see can be quite startling, due to costing $14 million to construct in the late 1940's. Once the visitors enter the bunker, they "find themselves standing at the end of a 144 yard-long concrete corridor leading into the 112, 544 square-foot former standby capital of the United States" (63).

The last article, "Visiting the Cold War Today" By Phil Patton, describes various landmarks from Berlin, Germany to Washington, D.C. To Area 51 which as of 2000 were being opened to the public. According to Patton, "these days, there are more and more visitors to the monuments of the Cold War" and tours as often overcrowded at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station and the Nevada Test Sites. Some of the most conspicuous sites include the Titan Missile Museum in Sahaurita, Arizona, the house on Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin (the dividing line between East and West Germany during the Cold War, a.k.a. The "Iron Curtain), the Allied Museum in Berlin and the Cold War Museum which Gary Powers, the U-2 spy plane pilot, created "to honor his father and all Cold War veterans" (72). As of 2000, this museum included "a U-2, a section of the…… [read more]

Europe After WWII Term Paper

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Europe after World War II

There is little doubt that ten years after World War II, Europe would have had a very different landscape had it not been for the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. Moreover, it is likely that many parts of Europe would not be as thriving today if these plans had not been implemented.

Given the Soviet expansion after World War II, Greece and Turkey were prime targets to have fallen under communism. This of course was the reason Truman used for granting some $400 million in military and economic aid in an effort to ward off an inevitable domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region (Truman pp). Without the aid, Greece and Turkey would have looked much like many of the Eastern European countries that fell to communism after the War. Today, they would most likely look much as they do today, for it is unlikely that communism would have succeeded more than a decade given the region's history of civil war.

The Marshall Plan was extremely successful and not only relieved widespread privation and averted the threat of a serious economic depression, it also enabled the West European nations to recover from the devastation of the War and maintain economic and political independence (Introduction pp). Moreover, it paved the way for other forms of international cooperation such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OCED, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO, and today's European Union (Introduction pp). The two major aims of the plan was to prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe and to stabilize the…… [read more]

World War II From 1939 to 1945 Term Paper

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World War II from 1939 to 1945

It is said that World War II may be the single most complicated conflict in history and thus is difficult to explain its origin, however, many believe that is was simply a continuation of World War I (World pp). One fact remains true and that is that never have so many nations gone to war in so many different ways and by so many different means (World pp). The Treaty of Versailles may be the single most indirect cause of the war since it placed the blame solely on Germany (World pp). World War I had not solved any of the problems that had caused it, which leads many scholars to believe that World War I and II as World War Part I and Part II (World pp).

The Great Depression hit Germany second only to the United States, and the severe unemployment gave the Nazi part a surge in membership (World pp).

Japan, in desperate need of resources, invaded Manchuria in order to procure them, and with the intent to acquire more areas throughout the Asian mainland and western Pacific (World pp). For a number of reasons Japan and the U.S. were highly suspicious of each other during the mid-twentieth century, particularly after the end of World War I, in which both fought on the same side (World pp). Japan feared U.S. power in the region and the U.S. did not trust Japan, thus the two were often heated competitors economically in the region, with incremental advances by one side being viewed as a serious challenge to the other (World pp).

Opinions in the U.S. varied, yet the U.S. expansion in the Pacific had been quite significant between 1898 and the1930's, which many viewed as part of Manifest Destiny and the U.S. expansion…… [read more]

European Colonization What Issues Term Paper

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... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want." (Zinns, 2003)

Howard Zinns notes in his own analysis of Columbus' encounters that these Arawaks of the Bahamas Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were "remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing." Columbus viewed this with disdain, and because they seemed "naive and so free with their possessions," unlike Europeans, Columbus felt he and other Europeans had the right to the natives' territorial and material possessions -- Europe had a right to 'own' the Indians land, as the native populace did not have legal structures within their own forms of governance that prohibited others from taking their territory, as did the European powers of the Renaissance, dominated as Europe was "by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus." (Zinns, 2003)

Thus, the issues of land possession that were to cumulate in the virtual extrication of all the native populace from the American territory that held different views of land possession than the Europeans were culturally intertwined within Columbus' first encounters with the seemingly free natives, who did not lay conventional claims to territory or possession, the very things that European exploration was designed to obtain. And so was the institution of slavery bound to these first encounters, because Columbus found no gold in the New World, and had to return with something, he enslaved a number of men and women. He noted, "the rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were 'naked as the day they were born,' they showed 'no more embarrassment than animals,'" again applying European standards to…… [read more]

History and Politics Term Paper

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Russian History And Politics

Russia, the world's largest country, was formerly the dominant republic of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR, but since the union's dissolution in December 1991, it is now an independent country and an influential member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia pp).

Russia is sparsely populated with the densest population in the European part of the country, the Ural Mountain area, and in the Southeastern part of Siberia (Russia pp). There are more than 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples that call the Russian Federation home, approximately 80% is ethnically Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 0.9% Chechen, 0.8% Armenian, and the remainder of roughly 10% includes, Mordvins, Belarusians, Georgians, Avars, Kazakhs, Udmurts, Azerbaijanis, Maris, Germans, Evenks, Ingushes, Inuit, Kalmyks, Karelians, Koreans, Ossetians, Dolgan Nenetses, Tuvans, Yakuts and several others (Russia pp). Although Russian is the only official state language, the individual republics have their own native language as well (Russia pp). The dominant Christian religion is the Russian Orthodox Church, however there are various Protestant faiths, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Roman Catholicism (Russia pp).

The Russian Federation consists of numerous federal subjects, making a total of eighty-nine constituent components (Russia pp). Twenty-one republics enjoy a high degree of autonomy that correspond to some of Russia's ethnic minorities, with the remaining territory consisting of forty-nine oblasts or provinces and six krais or territories, which have ten autonomous okrugs or autonomous districts and one autonomous oblast (Russia pp). Then there are two federal cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, and seven federal districts, four in Europe and three in Asia, have recently been added (Russia pp).

The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922, and by the close of war, which claimed an estimated nine million lives, Soviet Russia was exhausted, especially after the droughts of 1920 and 1921, and unable to run the economy on sufficient scale (Russia pp). Russia eventually recovered and experienced rapid economic growth during the 1930's, however the effect of World War I together with the Civil War left a scar on its society and permanent effects on the regime (Russia pp).

Vladimir Lenin, who led the Bolshevik faction of Communists that later became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, CPSU, became the first leader of the Soviet Union (Russia pp). Lenin banned factions within the party and argued that the party should be an "elite body of professional revolutionists" who dedicated their lives to the cause, and put loyal party activists in charge of new and old political institutions, army units, factories, hospitals, universities, and food suppliers (Russia pp). On December 29, 1922, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, and the Byelorussian and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics sign a Treaty of Creation of the U.S.S.R. (Russia pp). The Soviet New…… [read more]

Ancient Greek History the Persian Wars Term Paper

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Athenian Greeks vs. The Persian Empire Army

At the beginning at the fifth century B.C., the city states of peninsular Greece allowed themselves to embrace their own selfish separatist ideas, confident that no outside enemy threatened them. The northern Illyrian tribes, from where the Achaeans and Dorians once came, ceased their attacks on Greece. In the south, the power of… [read more]

Mayan History and Culture Term Paper

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Mayan History And Culture

The ancient Mayan civilization had advanced systems of astronomy and mathematics, an accurate calendar system, extensive trade routes, and a religion dominated by blood sacrifices (Jaguar pp). Although they did not have the benefit of metal tools, beasts of burden, or even the wheel, the people of this ancient civilization were still masters of architecture who… [read more]

WWII World War II Bring Term Paper

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Adter the attack on Pearl Harbor, the idea was embraced by the military, and it was official by 1943. The women underwent very tough training and rough living conditions. It was not until many decades after the war's end that the incredible contributions of these pilots was recognized. Until 1977, the WASP fighers retained civilian status, but they were granted military status then. (Wolf 2005)

While all of the women during the war suffered from hardships, the role of many Asian women during the war must be acknowledged as perhaps bearing the most suffering. "Comfort Women" was the euphemism used for enslaved sex workers kept prisoner by soldiers in countries being occupied by Japan. "Most comfort women were from Korea, with a significant fraction from China, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and other Japanese-occupied nations. Surviving comfort women reported being raped as frequently as thirty times in a given day." (Yazashi 2005) As few as twenty thousand, or as many as three hundred thousand, Comfort Women were kept during World War II. The brothels were usually located on military bases. The Japanese military believed that providing easy access to sex would motivate and improve performance of their soldiers, and they also believed that having prostitution under the control of the military would help slow down the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. At the beginning, most of the Comfort Women were already employed as prostitutes and gladly came to serve the military. However, even at that point many young girls were sold into the sex industry by their families. As the war progressed, the military began taking prisoners from outside of Japan through trickery or force. Many of the women became infected with Sexually transmitted diseases and many died or suffered terrible pain and injury to the reproductive system. "The freshest women were the least likely to suffer from STDs and were placed in the highest category. However, as time went on, the comfort women were downgraded as the likelihood of their acquiring STDs became more certain. When they were considered too diseased to be of any further use, they were finally abandoned. Many women reported having their uteruses rot off due to the disease acquired from servicing thousands of men over the course of several years." (Yazashi 2005)

Many opportunities were given to women during World War II to prove themselves in society, while many other opportunities were for further humiliation and degradation. Women were expected to take on many roles, but society was hesitant to accept them in those roles because it was not traditional. Women had new freedoms, but also new hardships and responsibilities that were hard to bare. The introduction of women into the workforce paved the way for the continued women's rights movement, and women contributed a lot to the American victory during World War II.


Giampaoli, Cristina. "Women in World War II: Would Life Ever be the Same?" History 175 Project [online]. San Diego: University of San Diego. [cited 4 May 2005]. Available… [read more]

Development of Air Warfare in World Term Paper

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¶ … air warfare in World War I

At the beginning of the First World War in 1914, aircraft technology was only a decade old. For this reason the military did not regard aircraft as being of much use except for reconnaissance. However, this situation was to change and as the military value of air warfare developed so did the… [read more]

Histories of Herodotus Term Paper

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C.E. Although the Histories were written in the traditional epic form, being a strong beginning, an even stronger middle and a powerful climax, its structure suggests that Herodotus was relying upon true events instead of fiction. This clash between the Persian Empire and the Greeks is told masterfully, and is generally broken up into three parts. The first three books concentrate on Persia's westward expansion by conquest until it was adjacent to Greece; the next three deal largely with resistance by Scythia, Ionia and Greece to Persian imperialism, a time when Athenians vanquished the Persian king Darius at Marathon and succeeded in repelling the Persians; the final three books cover Persia's repeated invasion of Greece ten years later under Xerxes and the empire's defeat at Salamis, Plataea and Mycale. Thus, Herodotus has provided an historical account of two empires in great conflict which has much relevance in today's world, especially in what some refer to as Western Civilization.

Most of the proof that the Histories denotes the clash of two great empires can be found in Book One. Herodotus tells us that "On the death of Alyattes, Croesus, his son, who was thirty-five years old, succeeded to the throne. Of the Greek cities, Ephesus was the first that he attacked. . . Afterwards, on some pretext or other, he made war in turn upon every Ionian and Aeolian state, bringing forward, where he could, a substantial ground of complaint. . . "


(Rawlinson 26). Croesus also "made himself master of all the Greek cities in Asia, and forced them to become his tributaries; after which he began to think of building ships, and attacking the islanders" (Rawlinson 27). With this description, it is obvious that Croesus was a great warrior, due to attacking Ephesus, every other "Ionian and Aeolian state" and his desire to build ships and seek out more soldiers, weapons and support. In addition, Croesus, after many years of battle and conquest, "brought under his sway almost all the nations to the west of the Halys. The Lycians and Cilicians alone continued free; all the other tribes he reduced and held in subjection" (Rawlinson 28). In essence, the conquests of Croesus brought all of Greece together as a unified nation which in the future would aid them tremendously against their bitter enemies the Persians.

Herodotus then relates that a certain messenger was given instructions to consult the great Greek oracles on whether "Croesus should go to war with the Persians and if so, whether he should strengthen himself by the forces of an ally." This messenger then declares to the oracle, "Croesus, of Lydia and other countries. . . now inquires of you whether he shall go to war with the Persians, and if so, whether he shall strengthen himself by the forces of a confederate" (Rawlinson 53). This description is most powerful, for it shows that Croesus and all of the Greek states are bound as one while also showing that Croesus wishes to expand his… [read more]

Thucydides the Histories Term Paper

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Thucydides' "Histories" -- the making of ancient history, the making of modern historical objectivity before contemporary eyes

Why read ancient history? Assume, for the duration of a paragraph that it is unquestionably true that people who forget the past are condemned to repeat the mistakes of the past. Even if this were the case, why read the history of the Peloponnesian War? Why not a more recent historical text that Thucydides' the Histories?

The author, without the benefit of foresight stated his work was designed to last forever. But as a historical study of conflict and democratic governance, does it have lasting merit? But long after the particulars of the specifics of the war between Spartan and Athenian colonies, about place names that no longer exist, the ideologies used to defend and define the different sides remain of interest -- even for those who disdain ancient history, Thucydides earns his title as the first historian, for his work shows a concern for the ideological nature of war as well as the recording of events.

This is most apparent in Chapter IV, the Second Book, where the funeral oration of Pericles is recorded and depicted. In the words of the historian, "Pericles, son of Xanthippus, was chosen to pronounce their eulogium," of a fallen warrior Pericles himself says that it is not winning or losing battles that matters most in history, rather "hat part of our [Athenian] history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valor with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dilate on, and I shall therefore pass it by," rather "what the form of government under which our greatness grew," is of greatest importance. (2.6)

What makes us great as a nation, says Pericles, is the strength of our democratic government in Athens, not our military. Whether one agrees or disagrees if Athens meets the standards of democracy, as we conceive of it today, is irrelevant -- rather what is relevant is that for the first time, history is being cast in terms of morality, ideologically speaking, rather than the triumph of might, a significant achievement in the recording of events -- a historical narrative is shaped by political concerns and political morality, rather than merely attempts to explain away a loss with a myth or an interesting story, or to assert the glory of the winning side. "Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy," says Pericles. In other words, said the general, it does not matter whether we win or not, it matters if we "if we look to the laws," and "they afford equal justice to all in their private differences." (2.6)

Even if one cannot rely on… [read more]

Lithuania's Worldview. A Brief History Term Paper

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Soccer, rowing, volleyball, cycling, tennis, and cross-country skiing are popular past times as well ("Recreation," 2004). Local myths, folklore, and riddles are very popular. These often take form in Lithuanian folk art. A recent revival in folk art has occurred with pieces including: straw baskets, leather goods, woodcarvings, clay or straw sculptures, and amber jewelry ("The Arts," 2004).

The Lithuanian Culture's Worldview:

Lithuanians describe themselves as quite shy and quiet, when compared to Western cultures. Although when comparing themselves to other Baltic cultures, such as the Latvians and Estonians, they are not as reserved as their neighbors (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 11, 2004).

As described by D. Deimante, Lithuanians are quite a jealous nation. As she described it, if her nation feels good, then their neighbors must feel bad (personal communication, November 11, 2004). Perhaps this is due to a history of struggling for their independence. Too often, it was torn away from them, and this may have made them not only a bit possessive, but a bit jealous as well of others who haven't had to struggle as much.

Interestingly, when a study was performed on whether or not the Lithuanian people thought they were tolerant, somewhat surprising results were found. 33% of the nearly 8,000 respondent stated that it depended on what they were talking about. 28% said simply no. Another 28% said that they were tolerant some of the time. While only 8% said yes, they were tolerant (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 20, 2004). Perhaps this intolerance is fueled by world stereotypes.

Being somewhat secluded from the rest of the world, Lithuanians still often see the world in terms of stereotypes. Although they love Russian music and movies, they typically dislike Russians and see them as people who drink a lot of vodka. Americans are stereotyped as stupid, lazy and fat. The British are stereotyped, in their minds, as snobbish (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 20, 2004). It is these preconceptions that make it difficult for Lithuanians to get past ethnocentrism.

How Lithuania's Communication Pattern Reflect on Their Worldview:

As mentioned, Lithuanians are quite reserved and conservative. As an example that was given by D. Deimante, it was mentioned that in America it is common to ask people, "How are you?" even to the point that this phrase is asked multiple times per day, and even when the person asking it really does not care what the reply will be. In Lithuania, questions such as this kept to a minimum, and only asked when they are truly meant (personal communication, November 11, 2004). This has given Lithuanians the viewpoint that Americans are less sincere and more superficial.

In addition, they don't greet each other, and especially strangers, as frequently as the Western world. Although they perceive themselves as very hospitable, they do not smile without reason (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 11, 2004). Again, this gives them the perception that the Western world is less than sincere. Also, the constant greeting of one another means… [read more]

Human Costs of World War II Term Paper

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Human costs of World War II

World War Two: causality statistics

Methodological problems

There are certain problems in the accumulation and assessment of data on the Second World War that have to be taken into account before an assessment is made as to the correct casualty statistics. As many researchers point out, ascertaining the actual death statistics during the war is a very difficult task as there are various views and assessments of the figures. The most reliable documentation is often the most recent; however some of the most recent online sources do not provide adequate reference to their sources.

The Internet does provide the most up-to-date figures and statistics on this subject. However, one has to take into account whether these figures are reliable and have significant source docs to verify their reliability.

Another method that can be used to authenticate the validity of data is through peer review sites. These sites are relatively reliable as they have been reviewed by researchers and other experts.

The research method that was used in this paper was to collect as much online and offline data as possible and then to search for agreement and disparities in the figures. On this basis the site or the resource with the best average data and with the best source docs was deemed to present the most reliable casualty figures.

2. Statistics

The following Web site, secondworldwar.co.za, (Table 1) presented the best average figures and supplied adequate source information.

Another reason for choosing this site as the most accurate resource was that is has been recently updated and is also a well-known site which is open to peer review and comment.




Soviet Union*













Great Britain










New Zealand

South Africa



Total circa 61 Million

Source: (Stokes, P.)

As the author of the above site states "... An accurate figure is difficult to calculate." (ibid) the difference between World War II figures becomes evident when other charts and tables are examined.

See Addendum)

Research into the different sources of war casualties made it evident that while there were many agreements in the figures, there were also many significant differences. This is certainly the case as many reviewers note that there are obvious disparities in the figures. It was also noted in the research that some countries, when presenting their data, seemed to be biased in revealing the number of casualties during the war.

An example of these disparities is the data from another set of international data from a reputable site but which showed some differences to chart one. (See Addendum for Table 2)

This source presents a different overall casualty figure of 56,125,262. However, when compared to table one, and bearing in mind the difficulty in ascertaining absolute figures, then this table may not seem overly incorrect. However, the main disparities seem to be in the areas where there are… [read more]

World War II Economical Term Paper

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Soviet Union grew and developed without any international cooperation, trade and had to produce everything itself. Joseph Stalin proclaimed program of Industrialization which had to turn agricultural state into highly developed industrial country with strong and independent economics and mighty armed forces. This program succeeded and Soviet Union became one of the most industrialized European countries and if analyze its… [read more]

American History Role Term Paper

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The Truman Doctrine

As early as 1945, the United States began to recognize a threat coming from Moscow. The United States felt the threat was enough to cut reconstruction funding for Russia immediately after World War II. The Truman Doctrine essentially declared that communism and any other philosophies posed by the Soviet Union were serious threats to not only Europe… [read more]

How the Great Depression Term Paper

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Historian Schwantes continues, "Wartime social and economic pressures scarcely left a corner untouched" (Schwantes 408). The two main centers of population, Puget Sound (Seattle) and Portland became major industrial providers during the War, but areas all over the Pacific Northwest helped support the war effort, and grew rapidly. The area produced planes, ships, timber, machinery, food, and a wide variety of other products that helped keep the war on track and production high. Society prospered, and people were working again. In addition, there were numerous large Army and Navy bases in the area, which added to the population. If the demographics had sifted dramatically from the turn of the century, now they were amazing. Schwantes notes, "The region's population shifts were phenomenal. Between 1940 and 1944, Seattle increased from 368,302 to approximately 530,000 people (650,000 in the greater metropolitan area); Tacoma from 109,408 to 140,000; and Bremerton from 15,134 to 48,000" (Schwantes 413). Young men from the area's rural regions streamed into the cities looking for jobs, and they found them. Thus, the population shifted even more toward the urban areas, a shift which has continued throughout modern history in the Pacific Northwest.

This population shift also had some detrimental and lasting social effects. Juvenile delinquency rose as more parents worked or were drafted. Because of the large influx of soldiers, prostitution increased, and so did divorce rates (Schwantes 415). The area was prospering, but socially, the increase in population in the urban areas also brought problems that had been less prevalent before. In addition, more minorities moved to the area to take advantage of the jobs available, and so, a population that had been largely white began to become more diverse and well rounded, with blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and other minorities adding to the labor force. Increased work and production brought an increased standard of life that would continue into the Baby Boom years following the war. It was a prosperous time for the country, and this was true in the Pacific Northwest, too. Some feared a major collapse in the economy after the war, but this simply did not occur. Building increased, and while the wartime industries reduced their workforce, there were other industries in the area to take up the slack. Many immigrants stayed on after the war, and the population grew another 25% between 1940 and 1947 (Schwantes 423). Of course, this created suburbs outside the major cities, a trend that continues today. After the war, the nuclear industry created electrical power and testing facilities in the area, which were a major reaction to the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Thus, each decade of change created great transformation in the Pacific Northwest, and each added its own mark on the population and politics of the area. There was uncertainty because of the proximity to the Soviet Union, but there was prosperity, too.

Today, politics are still influenced largely by the demographics of the area. As more Californians move into the area, politics continue to alter… [read more]

Gypsies During World War II Term Paper

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Often the camps had no electricity, and little or no sanitary facilities. One of the largest of the camps was located in Salzburg, Austria, and employed the Gypsies in forced labor, such as working in a quarry or building state highways.

During this time, many of the Gypsies forced out of the cities to these camps had no way to… [read more]

Roman World Rome, Whose Beginning Term Paper

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One of the reasons for it was that there were always plenty of slaves to do the menial jobs. For instance, the central heating, which was common in rich people's houses, was manually constructed and installed by slaves. The principle on which central heating worked was that hot air moved through spaces under the floors and up the walls. The space was made through building the floor on top of tile; and the walls between rooms were really two walls with a gap between them (Dowling, 176). This was called a hypocaust. The hot air came from a furnace and it was the slaves' job to keep the furnace well stoked up so that the central heating worked.

Some wealthy Romans lived in villas. Villas were large farms with a luxurious house for the owners. Villas would often have rooms with painted walls and mosaic floors, and even central heating (Purcell, 356). Most towns would also have shops and a market place called a forum. At one end of the forum was a large building called the Basilica. This was a cross between a law court and a town hall. The magistrates carried out all the important business here.

The Romans believed that the spirit went to the underworld after death.

Romans also believed that the Emperors were gods, so everyone was required to make a sacrifice to the Emperor. Christians often got into trouble because they refused to do so, and they had to worship Christ in secret. Despite this secrecy, more people became Christian. By the 4th century A.D (Purcell, 345). Christianity was so popular the Emperor Constantine decided to make it the official religion of the Roman Empire.


Buckleitner, Warren. Ancient History: Lives and Times in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. School Library Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, (2004): 58.

Dowling, Melissa Barden. A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time. KronoScope, Vol. 3, No. 2, (2003): 169-184.

Dyck, Ludwig Heinrich. CAESAR'S First Great Campaigns. Military History, Vol. 20 No. 6, (2004): 50-56.

Purcell, Nicholas. The Way…… [read more]

Battles of World War II Term Paper

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Resistance at other beaches was comparatively light.

Because of the intense secrecy and multiple deception plans, the Allies indeed managed to catch the Germans almost entirely off-guard, while their commanding officer was actually on leave in Germany. Nevertheless, there was still a crucial time period within the first few hours after the initial invasion where Hitler could have authorized reinforcement in the form of tank divisions in position elsewhere to repel the landing forces on the beaches. Historians regard his failure to do so as one of Hitler's many military blunders that contributed to Germany's defeat in 1945.

Despite heavy initial casualties, within one week, the Allies had landed sixteen divisions, linked up several of the landing beaches, and controlled eighty miles of French coast, penetrating up to twenty miles in some areas. Among the ingenious devices designed and used specifically for the Normandy invasion were floating, artificial harbors called "Mulberry" bridges that allowed the Allies to drive vehicles and tanks directly onto the beaches from their transport ships far offshore.

The D-Day invasion at Normandy was the pivotal battle that enabled the Allied victory in the largest and most deadly war in human history, accounting for perhaps fifty-million deaths on three continents. Consequently, it was probably the single most important battle of all time.


1. Ambrose, S. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won (2001)

2. Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)

3. Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)

4. Lucas, J. The Last European War…… [read more]

Post-World War II Photographers Term Paper

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These ideas came from philosophers, psychoanalysts and semioticians from Europe, believing that all photographs were a lie and that no truth could be found in photographs (Norfleet 1995). Therefore, post-modernists decided that there was no reason to photograph the real world, since all documentaries were lies, and moreover, everything had already been seen and there was no such thing as originality (Norfleet 1995). Moreover, they felt that it was "impossible to make a photograph that isn't really supporting the existing power relationships in a society, regardless of the photographer's intentions" (Norfleet 1995). Words used by the post-modernists were complex, such as "simulacrum, deconstruction, and structuralism" (Norfleet 1995).

Perhaps no photographer pushed the buttons more than Robert Mapplethorpe. Said one critic, "When you are in an art setting you want to appear sophisticated and broad-minded... It's like the emperor's new clothes. You have to prove that you're unflappable" (Young 1995). Mapplethorpe gained notoriety by documenting the era of pre-Aids homosexual hedonism, when gay aesthetic was being adopted by the mainstream icons and the Studio 54 crowd (Young 1995). Moreover, photography was beginning to be accepted as a serious, collectable art form (Young 1995). Initially his work was relatively saleable and inoffensive, such as "society portraits and flowers, uptown, and the leather-hooded bondage boys in a downtown gallery" (Young 1995).

However, his work became extreme with images such as "seeing a man pushing his finger into his urethra, another drinking urine like a sacrament, Mapplethorpe himself with a whip handle up his open rectum" (Young 1995). Many believe that the two styles united in a growing myth of his personality" (Young 1995). However, Mapplethorpe's "creativity paved the way for luminaries like Cindy Sherman, Barbara Krueger, William Wegman and particularly Joel-Peter Witkin" (Young 1995).

Post-modernism has had serious repercussions, especially for documentary photography (Norfleet 1995). Although photojournalists and documentary photographers are still working, their work is almost nonexistent in the art world, as post-modernism dominates the mainstream, no one is really interested in viewing the real world anymore (Norfleet 1995).

Works Cited

About Post-Modernism." http://members.tripod.com/ambro32/postmod.html

Lacayo, Richard. "Visionary Voyeurism: In illuminating the marginal, Diane Arbus became one of the most influential artists of her time. Time. November 03, 2003.

Norfleet, Barbara. "Photography and life: pictures depend on attitudes of viewer and Maker." Nieman Reports. September 22, 1995.

Turner, Peter. History of Photography. Exeter Books. 1987.

Young, Elizabeth. "Mapplethorpe: A…… [read more]

Poland Throughout Its History Term Paper

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The double enmity forced the country to devote one-third of its budget on defense. The country had been a battlefield that was passed over several times by the retreating and advancing armies of Germany, Austria and Russia during the war. The damage had been immense -- close to 2 million buildings, over 4.5 million livestock, 11 million acres of agricultural land and 6 million acres of forests destroyed during the war. (Dziewanowski p. 86) The economic condition was further exacerbated because the three regions of Poland did not form a single economic unit, and the partitioning powers had subordinated the interests of their annexed provinces to those of Russia, Prussia, and Austria during their rule. Poland was also an ethnically mixed country and suffered considerable ethnic and social tensions, in particular heightened anti-Semitism and charges of unjust treatment of the minorities by the Poles. Despite these daunting problems, Poland overcame most of them in the inter-war period of hardly 20 rears, which is nothing short of remarkable. For example, a republican constitution was adopted soon after independence in 1921. Financial and agrarian reforms were undertaken and industrialization progressed. Even more important, significant advances were made in the field of education which had been particularly neglected in the Russian part of the partitioned country. Most of all, the Polish culture was revived after decades of official curbs leading to reaffirmation of the Polish nationhood that had been disputed for so long. The weaknesses remained in areas such as the unequal treatment of the minorities, the condition of the peasantry that remained generally poor, and the increasing trend towards authoritarian government following the military coup in 1926 that made Pi-sudski virtual dictator. ("Poland," Columbia Encyclopedia)


In the heroic and tragic history of Poland, the First World War and the inter-war period constitutes a unique period in which the nation re-emerged from more than a century of partitioning and domination by its powerful neighbors to overcome the devastation and deprivation in a remarkably short period. It proved to be a short-lived interlude, before the wheels of history turned a full circle to bring the country under the yolk of brutal foreign rule yet again. This paper was a brief review of that turbulent and yet epochal period during which the Polish nation got an opportunity to express its independent, national aspirations to the full.

Works Cited


Biskupski, M.B. The History of Poland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Buell, Leslie Raymond. Poland: Key to Europe. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1939. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99696409

Dziewanowski, M.K. Poland in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=789373

Fisher, H.H. America and the New Poland. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928.

History of Poland" Country Reports.Org December 6, 2003. http://www.countryreports.org/history/polahist.htm

Poland." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

Pilsudski had correctly predicted before the war that all the three partitioners would be destroyed / defeated in the war giving the Poles the opportunity for independence

On August 14, 1914, just a few days after the… [read more]

United States Entry Into World Term Paper

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And World War I is also the first American war with seventy-two percent of Army ranks forming men joined under compulsion as at wartime, totaling filling about three million of them and depending on whom American waged and won the war. (Venzon, 58)

American entry into the war is considered a remarkable one, as, in November 1916, Woodrow Wilson was reelected president, with the slogan in the air that, he kept Americans out of war, though it was broken after five months. Wilson insisted on trading with all nations that waged the war, but England and France imposed a blockade on Germany. England destroyed the North Sea with mines. All of this violated neutral rights, yet the United States continued to trade almost with both the sides, theoretically. But as time passed, it was clear that the United States traded mainly with the Allies only. And hence, practically, the American neutrality shifted to one side. (Bass, 17)


Although these are some of the significant events, there are several stories and facts relating to why and how U.S. became part of the World War I. There are a few who say, that U.S. was never unbiased, it had been aiding the British; this theory however brings a distinct prospect on the submarine attacks with the Germans. There is a belief that the great aggressiveness of the British publicity along with the sufficient profits to the falling economy would have tempted the U.S. To join the war and not remain impartial. However some others believe that as the German army kept advancing to the Atlantic and was planning to take over Britain, U.S. would have felt that Germany would soon become a threat to her as well and that's the reason why U.S. entered the war. In general, it is not easy to associate U.S.'s entry into the world war only with some events; it was basically culmination of several factors.


Bass, Herbert J., "America's Entry Into World War I." Chicago; Holt, Rinehart And Winston, 1964, p.14-17

Andrea, Alfred J., and Overfield, James H., "The Human Record." Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994, p.63-66

Pope, Stephen, and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, "The Dictionary of The First World War" New York; St. Marten's…… [read more]

Art History War Imagery Term Paper

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War imagery has been around ever since armed struggle became a large part of Western civilization. Archaeologists have discovered images of the Battle of Kadesh, from 1275 B.C., on papyrus scrolls and wall reliefs; the Trojan War is central to the art of the Greek vase. However, art history's view of war is that of the rulers and the victors, as few artists in ancient years were visibly anti-war.

A modern perspective of artist as anti-war iconoclast comes from Francisco de Goya and his cycle of 80 prints, The Disasters of War, five of which are displayed at the Metropolitan Museum (Pollack, 2003). Created from 1810 to 1814 during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, de Goya's work depicts both the invasion and the resistance, with both sides engaged in acts against humanity. "Goya is fascinating because, though completely implicated in the court of Charles IV, he also maintained a private, independent, and satiric posture," said Met curator Gary Tinterow.

Still, while art has retreated from the front lines, art about war has never really gone away, according to Whitney curator Larry Rinder. "The 20th century has been horrific in terms of war and armed conflict, so it's inevitable that one finds this reflected in art," says Rinder (Pollack, 2003). "It did not crop up in museum shows, but that did not mean it was not being made. Artists have been expressing their views and outlooks on war since the first battles of the world were fought.


Mizra, Quddus. (2002). The art of war. Alternative Media Resources. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.amnasia.org/artofwar.html.

Pollack, Barbara. (April 8, 2003). Brief History of Protest Art. The Village Voice.…… [read more]

History of Western Civilization Term Paper

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Philip had taken advantage of the natural potential of various other city-states, such as Macedonia. But his very disciplined army was what helped his attempts at unity. He used strategic alliances to accomplish unification of a great deal of land. He rewarded nobles for loyalty and soon.

Alexander had been taught logic, and so, with that and the great army and lands his father left him, he saw it as the right thing to do to export learning to other lands. When he first invaded Asia Minor, he took not only soldiers but scientists and philosophers as well. He was convinced that Greek learning was the best in the world, and that Greek gods were also the best in the world. Great men of the ancient world wanted to walk in the footsteps of the gods, and Alexander tried to do that. He also wanted to liberate the Greeks living in Asia Minor under Persian rule, which was not as concerned with logic and beauty as Alexander considered Greek culture to be. In victory, Alexander personified Greek virtues by honoring the dead soldiers of the adversary as well as his own. When each city was freed, Alexander left it to run itself as a Greek-style city-state, founded on ideals of democracy and logic.

Discuss the Greek civilization's fascination with its Gods & Goddesses.

The Greeks did not have a single book in which their gods and goddesses were described. They also borrowed gods and goddesses from other cultures. Each culture had developed its gods and goddesses to explain the world around them, and in part to attempt to control that world by appeasing the gods or appealing to them by sacrifice. The stories about the gods were made up by writers and priests and soothsayers who were supposed to speak for the gods, such as the one at the oracle at Delphi. But because the exploits of the gods and goddesses were made up by humans, the gods and goddesses acted much like humans, except that they were immortal. They had the same sorts of intrigues and rivalries and loves and hatreds as humans. The stories of the gods formed a sort of entertainment for Greeks. The fact that the gods and goddesses were unpredictable guaranteed that the population had to be always on its toes making sure it was at least trying to do the right thing for the gods' and goddesses' favor.… [read more]

American History Mccarthyism Term Paper

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The SDI program was criticized because of its tendency to further escalate rather than prevent and stop the armaments race. The SDI program concerns the formulation and production of a "layered defense" that will help the U.S. detect and counter possible nuclear or weapons attacks, which required the formulation of a computerized system of weapons detection and manufacturing of similar weapons in defense of the U.S. when under attack.

Iran-Contra Scandal

The Iran-Contra Scandal concerns the allegations that the Reagan Administration have participated in the selling of weapons (arms) to Iran in exchange for the freedom of Americans held hostage by pro-Iranian Shiite Muslims in Lebanon. The money received by the U.S. government from Iran was then allegedly used as funding for the contra rebels in Nicaragua fighting the Sandinista government. The scandal led to the resignation of a top Reagan official, although Reagan continues to deny his innocence on the said 'exchange' and scandal. The U.S. administration's involvement in the scandal also led to the accusation of Nicaragua that U.S. acted has violated international law because of the illegal transaction that happened.… [read more]

History Showing the Living Conditions Term Paper

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Their talk frightened her, then made her incredibly angry.

I was fifteen years old when I began to hate people. I hated the white men who murdered Emmett Till and I hated all the other whites who were responsible for the countless murders Mrs. Rice (my teacher) had told me about and those I vaguely remembered from childhood. But I… [read more]

Origins of the Second World Term Paper

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Taylor answered that argument in his opening "Second Thoughts" which prefaced the new edition of his work, where he noted with some vehemence:

My book has really little to do with Hitler. The vital question it seems to me, concerns Great Britain and France. They were the victors of the first World war. They had the decision in their hands.… [read more]

Ideological Relationship Between WWI Term Paper

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This action brought the U.S. into the war and the balance of power was immediately unequal (Calvocoressi, 2001). The war was brought to a close quickly and there has not been a world war since.

World War I started for similar reasons. European nations were dividing in their loyalties and they were taking sides against each other. France and Russia became allies while Germany began to build its military services.

As the sides were chosen the nations erupted in battle and the war was begun.

Both wars held the same ideological beliefs that included the right to democracy which dovetails with the right to personal freedom. Both wars were also affected by the Industrial Revolution because it gave those battling weapons capabilities that had never before been present.

World War One had an impact on the technological development of the West. Once the new abilities were tried out in the war the West had a more clear understanding of what it would need to protect itself. The arms race was on and the West had a blue print for needs based on what it had witnessed through the First World War.

The technological experiments that were used in the First World War paved the way for western nations to prepare counter weapons in case war ever erupted on their own soil. The improved aviation abilities contributed to the escalation of the war as well as the western nation's understanding that the industrial revolution had changed the face of war (Morrow, 1993).

The world wars both dealt with Fascism and the Second World War also dealt with Nazism. Both terms are related because they believe in the superiority of a group, including a racial group. Hitler believed that whites were the superior race. The Nazi movement was based on that belief. Fascism also believes that one government or one group is superior to other and that one race is above all others.

At first glance each war appears to be based in an argument between several nations. The reality however, once one studies the underpinnings of the cause and effect of the wars is that the wars are about mankind and society's need for others. Each of the nations involved in each of the wars had governmental beliefs that may have differed slightly from others but the underlying thread of common ground was the belief that fascism was wrong, or that it was right. The wars explored the ability the world had moved into technologically and explored what humans were willing to do to each other in the name of war. The wars presented the world with the imaginary line in the sand so that each nation came down on the side of equality or fascism.

If one looks at both world wars and compares them side by side it will become clear that world war one was really only a warm up and a precursor to world war II. The first war was a testing ground for the industrial revolutions… [read more]

History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700 Term Paper

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One can follow the rulers of Spain and the Netherlands, and understand how the head of the Holy Roman Empire was also a de facto family possession.

In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand, but equally gives information concerning all sides.

He explains the respective weights and roles in shaping the power structure of the monarchy. Berenger also focuses on the Enlightenment period of the Austrian historical stance and stresses the conservative turn caused later by the challenge of the French Revolution. Berenger has a talent to be consistent and remain fair with his description of the time.

Near the end of the work, Berenger continues a debate with French nationalist scholars of the Great War generation and writes about men who represented the late monarchy's internal problems. Without falling to Habsburg nostalgia or minimizing the empire's weaknesses, Berenger describes its final years in a more persuasive fashion. He argues that it was not a domestic strain but instead outside opinions that caused the monarchy's disintegration in 1918. Berenger writes that if the Habsburg Empire had not existed, it would have needed to been created. The disappearance of the Empire was the destabilizing factor of East Central Europe and also contributed to many other problems.

The Habsburgs Empire consisted of great politicians. They were adept in the method of playing their enemies against each other. They also knew how to make use of religious tensions to get the Vatican on their side and use the politics of the Catholic Church for their favor which strengthened the political hold the family had earned. Berenger's historical writing factually recreates scenes of religious tolerance. He depicts the successful pursuit of sciences to the gradual rebirth of intellectual freedom. The author uses historical facts that have been carefully researched, then interwoven to create a powerful documentation to include information vital for those wanting to learn more about the Habsburgs during the years of 1700-1918.

The monarchy created a powerful family who were very powerful throughout many countries of Western Europe. With the aid of this published work, any researcher either a novice or expert may depend on Jean Berenger's historical work, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700." It is well written and extremely descriptive when sharing the knowledge and helping people to understand the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. While there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.

Works Cited

Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire,…… [read more]

World War II Broke Out Term Paper

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The common way of looking at the issue is that Stalin mistrusted the Western democracies of Great Britain and France, and this mistrust had increased radically after the two countries effectively withdrew support from Czech President Benes in the face of Hitler's demands on the latter. That was in the months leading up to the Munich crisis of September 1938.… [read more]

First World War Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, the hype of imperialism and land/territory acquisition is so prevalent and popular because many countries aspired to become superpowers. Thus, when the First World War broke out, it became an opportunity for these nations to 'showcase' their military strength and power. In addition, to become more powerful and triumphant in the Great War, these nations sought the help of their colonies, which resulted to an escalating war, since a conflict that started between two nations became a conflict of all nations because of imperialism. Imperialism is the primary reason why the First World War began, and the war cannot be averted because of the reasons that were enumerated earlier.

In conclusion, land/territory acquisition, which brought about imperialism, resulted to a complicated balance of power, since many nations (European nations, in particular) aimed to become a superpower by acquiring many colonies as they could, and strengthening their military support and power to higher degrees. Due to this complication in the balance of power, many nations became enemies, or engaged in various conflicts, and the tension that resulted from competition and disagreements over imperialism and superiority became the catalyst for World War I to break out. Therefore, due to each nation's vested interests, World War I cannot be averted or be prevented.


The Causes of the First World War." 05 April 2002. Student-Run Computing Facility Homepage. 9 July 2002 http://srcf.ucam.org/~mrs35/hist/html-nodes/subject-notes/firstww.html.

Coffman, Edward. "World War I." The World Book Encyclopedia Vol. 21. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.

Europe in 1914." 1 January 2002. Spartacus Educational. 9 July 2002 http://spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TGfww.htm.

The First World War." 11 March 2001. Schools History.

July 2002 http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/firstworldwar.htm.

The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century." 1995. Public Broadcasting Service. 9 July 2002 http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/timeline/index.html.

Murray, Karl. "The Great War: 1914-1918." 1996. 9 July 2002 http://users.tibus.com/the-great-war/ww1hist.htm.

Smitha, Frank E. "The 20th Century Conflict Attitude and Changing Religions." 1998. 9 July 2002 http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/index.html.… [read more]

Memory and History: Les Lieux De Memoire Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Memory and History: Les Lieux de Memoire," Pierre Nora takes a lucid and as objective as possible closer look at the way the world today relates to memory, on one hand and history, on the other, compared to the way it used to in past times. Noting that the civilized world as we know it is less and less bound by tradition and more and more individualistic, the author points to the increased speed the contemporary societies rush towards pushing the present into the past.

History gradually looses its didactical role and the way sciences are developing today tends to diversify and brake into various branches of what stood once under the umbrella of history. History and memory appear to have entered a new age that requires a change of approach and different manifestations. In order to be remembered by, lost worlds as well as lost ways of life need monuments, what Pierre Nora calls lieux de memoire. This is where history begins. These lieux de memoire have much to do with death and less with the living things. They are commemorative and nothing else. They emphasize more the brake with the past and give little room to continuity. They are the result of criticism and interpretation.

Looking at how our society "organizes the past," Nora concludes that what we call history has little to do with memory. Taking the memory of the Holocaust and the way his contemporaries, especially those in the artistic world, use it in their artistic expression, James Young offers the example of an unconventional memorial that appears to fit the immensity of the Holocaust and the unimaginably huge importance it bears for the further development of the human race. Jochen Gerz and Esthern Shalev Gerz's Monument Against Fascism in Harburg-Hamburg is "a forty foot high lead covered column that was gradually sunk into the ground after people were allowed to add inscriptions of their names as well as other things on it (Young, year?). The column is obviously no longer to be seen since it was eventually completely sunk into the ground. Those who envisioned it found the most suitable way to create a form of memory in the middle of the very society that only a few decades ago harbored the deeds of the fascists engaged in accomplishing their Ultimate Plan.…… [read more]

End All Peace Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (457 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This is also the case with the second reading, which considers Africa as a region of major conflict during and after the Second World War. This review of "World War II in Colonial Africa" by Richard Osborne is intriguing in various ways.

One of these is the description of Mussolini's role in creating a platform of the war involving the African continent. It seems to me that he was a typical politician in this regard, seeking power and relevance rather than acting as a true and caring leader for his people. Like conspiracy theories and intolerance, it appears that little has changed in this regard either. Politicians today remain deceptive, power hungry, and essentially uncaring of anything but their own welfare.

Finally, this reading reminded me of the most horrifying thing that resulted from World War II, which is nuclear weapons. Even today, it appears that there is an almost unholy terror of the power unleashed by the discovery of uranium ore and its potential for destruction. As such, it appears that World War II truly brought home the idea of innocent suffering for the gain of politicians.

The review provided a lot of information about Osborne's work and the Second World War. Most importantly it interested me in thinking about the topic and what can be learned…… [read more]

First Impressions of the New World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In addition, the people seemed open, friendly, and completely unfamiliar with Europeans, which must have seemed like it would give Columbus an advantage in trading.

Cortes was sent specifically in search of wealth, and he found significant wealth when he encountered the Aztecs. In fact, Moctezuma sent gifts of gold to him as way of trying to encourage him to leave. However, Cortes was immediately aware of the fact that, if Moctezuma had enough gold to send huge gifts of it to arriving strangers, then there had to be significant amounts of gold available. Because he was sent to find wealth, the confirmation that there was significant wealth to find would have colored his reports and made him very optimistic about the New World.

Diaz was a soldier, which meant that his job was ensuring the safety of Cortes and the other conquistadors. Therefore, what he saw in the New World encouraged him about the possibilities he would be able to accomplish his job. Though Moctezuma was a respected Aztec leader, those people who had been conquered by the Aztecs bristled under his leadership. This encouraged Diaz to believe that Cortes would be able to take over Montezuma's governing position, and, when Cortes was successfully able to place Montezuma under house arrest, that belief was substantiated. Given that Cortes had burned the ships in order to prevent his men from fleeing and returning home, the fact that the Aztec leader was conquered with a relative lack of violence must have been encouraging to him.… [read more]

Americanization: Phantom Menace Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,076 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The cultural alternative during the Cold War was clearly not appealing either: it does not follow that the lack of military rivals to America renders its culture irresistible, as the presence of a former military rival left little cultural trace on those countries which now complain of encroaching Americanism.

Vicente Verdu is at least honest enough to admit that, when he complains about Americanization, he is actually complaining about something else. He concludes his screed by asking "Is this Americanization sufficiently appreciated? Probably not, because how can it be distinguished from globalization? And how can we distinguish it from ourselves?" (Verdu 2002). In other words, Verdu thinks it impossible to distinguish Americanization from globalization, just as earlier he had made it clear that what he is objecting to is not a cultural but an economic system, or rather an economic system so all-encompassing that it replaces cultural systems: "the final phase of capitalism, of which the United States is decidedly in charge, has ceased to be a system of material production. It has become a civilization, and sooner or later all of us will be caught up in it, for better or worse." (Verdu 2002). It does not seem to follow, however, that capitalism and globalization are inherently American -- indeed, the most terrifying aspect of capitalism (as Marx noted) is its ability overnight to cause everything seemingly solid to melt into air. In other words, the global capitalist economy that Verdu conflates with Americanization could overnight become Chineseification with no alteration to globalized capitalism itself. If Verdu has identified a valid process happening in the world, his willingness to pin it to America rather than see it as fundamentally transnational and amoral is a flaw in his argument.

Rice-Oxley, O'Connor, and Verdu are all making valid critiques of the world, but where their arguments fall apart is in assuming there is something inherently American about the process. In point of fact, "American" culture is as readily disposable in this dynamic as those subaltern cultures that Americanization supposedly effaces and replaces. The lessons of history are, as suggested, vastly more complex: Jewish culture survived Alexander the Great and later survived the Caesars. Soviet culture hardly had an impact even in those countries that might be thought to welcome an alternative to American military and cultural dominance. The real lesson here is that empires rise and fall -- the process remains the same, but the specifics differ each time. It is not difficult to imagine that, in a hundred years' time, the next Mark Rice-Oxley or Vicente Verdu will be complaining about the insidious global ubiquity of Chinese culture.

Works Cited

O'Connor, Brendon. "A Brief History of Anti-Americanism: From Cultural History to Terrorism." Australasian Journal of American Studies 23:1 (July 2004): 77-92. Web. Accessed 6 March 2014 at: http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/a.j.a.s/Articles/1_04/OConnor.pdf

Rice-Oxley, M. "In 2,000 Years, Will The World Remember Disney Or Plato?." 15 Jan 2004. Christian Science Monitor. Web. Accessed 6 March 2014 at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0115/p16s02-usfp.html

Verdu, Vicente. "We Are All Americans." El… [read more]

My Travel to Delphi Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,076 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


However, none had the oracle. This is likely due to the unique geological features of the site, such as the chasm and the natural gases that emitted from the area to induce intoxication and possibly hallucination. The function of the oracle at Delphi seems similar to the functions of shaman and medicine men and women around the world. From Siberia to South America, shamans were gatekeepers to other dimensions, and could communicate with non-human entities such as gods or spirits. In many cases, the shaman did not need to sit in a special place like the adyton, which is why Delphi is unique.

Delphi was highly relevant in ancient Greece, and was mentioned throughout Greek literature. One of the most famous mentions of the oracle at Delphi is in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex, in which the titular king learns of his fate. Historic legends show that kings deferred to the Delphic authority in deciding whether or not to wage wars or pursue political campaigns. For instance, King Croesus apparently sought counsel regarding the invasion of the Persian Kingdom (De Boer & Hale, 2013). Delphi also became associated with the Pythain games, which attracted Greeks for an annual gathering. Therefore, Delphi held a patriotic connotation, as being a seat of Pan-Hellenic culture that united people from around the Greek peninsula (UNESCO, 2014). Mythologies associated with Apollo were also linked to Delphi, which was known as the "navel of the world," (De Boer & Hale, 2013). A nearby mountain called Parnassus offers further clues to the function of Delphi in Greek culture. "The high god Zeus, distressed over mankind's wickedness, sends a flood to cover the earth, but two pious human beings, Deucalion (Prometheus's son) and Pyrrha (Prometheus's niece), survive by climbing Mount Parnassus," (DeBoer & Hale, 2013). Mount Parnassus is currently a major ski resort, while Delphi remains one of the most important archaeological sites in Greece and is on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

As I visit Delphi, I wear traditional Greek clothing including loosely draped clothes in the summer. In the winter, I require further protection against the elements, especially if I intend to visit Mount Parnassus. I approach the oracle with reverence and respect, knowing that I could also fall under the trance from the fumes emitting from mother earth. I ask important questions, and heed the advice of the oracle because what she speaks is true. If I happen to arrive during the Pythian games, I might also partake in food and drink, as well as music. There will be poets, politicians, and philosophers there with me, soaking up the ambiance of Delphi.


De Boer, J.Z. & Hale, J.R. (2013). The oracle of Delphi: Was she really stoned? Biblical Archaeological Society. Retrieved online: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/daily-life-and-practice/the-oracle-of-delphi%E2%80%94was-she-really-stoned/

Nevins, J. (n.d.). The Oracle at Delphi. Retrieved online: http://www.coastal.edu/ashes2art/delphi2/misc-essays/oracle_of_delphi.html

"The Oracle at Delphi," (n.d). Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/background/7_p1.html

UNESCO (2014). Archaeological site of Delphi. Retrieved online: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/393

Wikipedia (2014) for all images.… [read more]

Remembering the U.S.A. and USSR Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,073 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


By openly touting American achievements in the realm of household technology -- while subtly taunting the communist economic engine's allegedly substandard treatment of women -- Nixon challenges his rival by suggesting that Russian visitors to the exhibition will invariably become enamored with the American ideals of comfort and convenience.

Considering the rhetorical strategies being pursued by both the American and Russian governments at this time -- in which each nation aggressively defended the virtues of either capitalism or communism, largely in an effort to justify further imperialistic expansion -- the tone of Nixon's comments while visiting Moscow is understandable. An increasingly defiant Khrushchev references his most audacious Soviet policy ambitions, "his Seven-Year Plan for economic development & #8230; introduced in 1958 in the midst of depression & #8230; in which the Soviet Union intended to overtake the United States in an arena in which it had previously enjoyed full dominance" (Jakabovics 3), seemingly provoking Nixon to respond in kind. When the Soviet Premier dismissively observes the construction of the American National Exhibition before proclaiming to the Vice President that "we haven't quite reached 42 years, and in another 7 years, we'll be at the level of America, and after that we'll go farther" (1959), his explicit mention of the Seven-Year Plan is intended to act as a both a veiled threat and an ominous warning. When Nixon coolly rebuffs Khrushchev's boast, reminding him that in many fields of technology America still remained firmly entrenched on the cutting edge, the combative exchange served to encapsulate the ever growing divide between capitalism in the U.S.A. And communism the U.S.S.R. Fifty years after the Kitchen Debates took place, reading over the words and phrases used by two leaders of the nations that would eventually aim nuclear warheads at one another's soil is disconcerting to say the least. The transcript of this historic exchange demonstrates that despite the diplomatic stakes at hand, men are prone to becoming driven by a seemingly animalistic instinct to compete with one another for supremacy and domination over their rivals. With the clear vision afforded by hindsight, it is clear that American leaders were well-served to use heavy-handed negotiating tactics, but at the time the Kitchen Debates occurred, the rhetorical clash between Nixon and Khrushchev would stand as a precursor of the Cold War to come.

Works Cited

Jakabovics, Barrie Robyn. "Displaying American Abundance Abroad: The Misinterpretation of the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow." Paper presented. 2007. Web.

Nixon, Richard M., and Nikita Khrushchev. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland

University. TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Kitchen Debate - Transcript. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959. Web.


Reid, Susan E. "Who Will Beat Whom?: Soviet Popular Reception of the American National

Exhibition in Moscow, 1959." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 9.4

(2008): 855-904. Web.

/9.4.reid.pdf>… [read more]

Hernan Cortes and Bernal Diaz Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,181 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Hernan Cortes and Bernal Diaz; an Assessment of the Underlying Motivations

There is a saying which states history is written by the victor. This is certainly the case when examining the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the history which survives is almost exclusively from Spanish perspective. The perspective of the victor has traditionally been the perspective of the leaders,… [read more]

Influential Factor in the Evolution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


World War II had thus caused a shift in influential power and both the United States and the Soviet Union wanted to exploit the new reconstructed framework of the world. The Soviet Union sought to do so by expanding socialism to countries in Europe, looking thus to dominate states in the sphere whereas the U.S. And other Western nations believed… [read more]

Cold War it Is Important Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


It is instructive to note that the missiles in question had the potential of reaching the United States. As the U.S. was preparing for military action through the deployment of Polaris submarines as well as naval blockage of Cuba amongst other actions, the then leader of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, deemed it fit to ready Warsaw Pact forces for any eventuality. In the words of Philips (2001), it was during the standoff that "for the first time during the Cold War the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union faced each other in direct conflict" (p.105). The world waited with baited breath as tensions between the Soviet Union and the U.S. continued to increase. As Philips (2001) further points out, people from across the world followed the unfolding events carefully so as to see which country would be the first to concede, withdraw or surrender. It is for this reason that the Cuban Missile Crisis remains one of the events that contributed towards the further deepening of the Cold War.

As I had already pointed out elsewhere in this text, the Cold War was deepened or made worse by a myriad of events. No single event can therefore be regarded the key cause of the worsening relations between the concerned nations during the Cold War period. In that regard therefore, several other events including but not limited to the Vietnam War could also have deepened the Cold War. Having lasted for 40 years, the Cold War was officially halted in 1991.


Goff, R., Moss, W., Terry, J., Upshur, J., & Schroeder, M. (2008). The Twentieth Century and Beyond - A Global History (7th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Hanhimaki, J.S. & Westad, O.A. (Eds.). (2004). The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Philips, S. (2001). The Cold War: Conflict in Europe and Asia. Burlington,…… [read more]

Alexander -- the Great Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Historians, after a lot of research on his character concluded that he loved to fight so much so that his love for war exceeded his love for ruling by great measures. This love for fighting and conquering always kept him on his toes and he never settled to rule one place for long. But he was always on a lookout for one war to win or the other. (The Motivations of Alexander the Great: What motivated the famous general as he was conquering the world?, 2013)

Another reason for continuous warfare was his desire and love for being honored on conquering more land and bringing peace than settling down and running the administration of one kingdom. Unlike Hitler, who actually ruled his kingdom while others expanded it for him, Alexander considered expanding his empire his responsibility while others rule it for him. His glory lied in winning battles and being recognized for his battling abilities (and for saving the world and bringing peace) than for being the ruler of one area / kingdom conquered and expanded by others. (The Motivations of Alexander the Great: What motivated the famous general as he was conquering the world?, 2013)


Engels, D. (2013). Alexander the Great. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/alexander-the-great

Gabel, C. And Willbanks, J. (2011). Great Commanders. Kansas: United States Combined Arms Center.

HubPages (2013). The Motivations of Alexander the Great: What motivated the famous general as he was conquering the world?. Retrieved from: http://adamvera.hubpages.com/hub/The-Motivations-of-Alexander-the-Great

Overtoom, N. (2011). Contesting the Greatness of Alexander the Great: The Representation of Alexander in the Histories of Polybius and Livy. College Park: University of Maryland.

Southern Utah University (2005). Alexander The Great I. Cedar City: Southern Utah University. pp. 1-7.

Worthington, I. (1999). How 'Great' Was Alexander?.…… [read more]

Human Civilization, the Unpredictable Nature Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (771 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


While historians like Gaddis have always been concerned primarily with observing, recording and archiving an accurate account of significant events, including armed conflicts between international actors, political scientists engage in the tenuous process of constructing theoretical frameworks through which to explain why such conflicts occur on such a consistent basis. As renowned American political scientist Joseph S. Nye explains in Understanding Global Conflict and Cooperation: An Introduction to Theory and History, the perpetually fluid balance of power between states is best maintained through a system of international politics4.

3. Ibid, p. 53

4. Joseph S. Nye and David Welch, Understanding Global Conflict and Cooperation: An Introduction to Theory and History, 9th ed. (New York: Longman, 2012), p. 15

As opposed to the steadfastly reflective approach taken by historians, who prefer to examine instances of war in terms of territorial gains, casualties and human loss, and other quantifiable measures, political scientists analyze international conflict as a natural function of order and stability. Rather than study the Cold War as an exercise in crisis management between the leaders of competing superpowers, as a historian is apt to approach the decades-long conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, political science demands that the ideological aspirations of both nations be accounted for the most likely motivator each combatant's strategic decision making5. Indeed, as the conclusion of the Cold War was largely precipitated by the cultural absorption and acceptance of American ideals by long-suffering Soviet citizens6, the assertion by political scientists that international conflicts emerge from social phenomena reacting in unexpected ways is widely demonstrable.

5. Yuen F. Khong, Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 104

6. Richard E. Neustadt and Ernest R. May, Thinking in Time: The Uses of History for Decision

Makers, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986).


Gaddis, John L. The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. Oxford University

Press, 2002.

Khong, Yuen F. Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam

Decisions of 1965, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), pp. 3-18 and 97-147.

Neustadt, Richard E., and Ernest R. May, Thinking in Time: The Uses of History for Decision

Makers, (New York: Simon and Schuster,…… [read more]

History Industrial Revolution What Impact Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


As the standard of living of most people rose, there were some people whose standard of living declined and these were the ones who had to lose their jobs to the machines. Also, as the cities expanded there was considerable increase in pollution as well as significant decline in the health of the people. The cities started to become overcrowded and the chances of spread of contagious diseases and infections also increased until the healthcare department worked day in and day out to resolve and prevent these issues.

There were also some developments in the American colonies that cannot be discretely categorized as being economic or social as they can be considered in both the categories. After and during the Industrial Revolution there was considerable decrease in the manual labor and productivity had a direct relation with the use of machines for which only a few people were needed to operate. Since most of the people who were previously employed in any industry did not have the knowledge and practical skills to operate these machines, young people and especially women were hired at low wages to do this job. At the same time, they were given the incentive that they will be taught how to work on these machines. Even though this action could be partially justified, this led to the formation of many labor unions throughout the continent and these labor unions continue to exist and fight for the rights of the workers till now.


The Industrial Revolution in England impacted the American colonies in terms of economy and society; both positively and adversely. The Industrial Revolution was the idea of the Great Britain and they started to revolutionize the country by erecting industries for the production of goods in the middle of the 18th century, following which the industrialists of the American colonies started building mills in the continent as well. Industrial Revolution can be held responsible for the significant changes that were seen in the economic situation of the American colonies as well as the social situation. According to the facts and the analysts, Industrial Revolution in the American colonies had significant effect on its economy as the cost of production and efficiency of production both increased by many folds. Moreover, the Industrial Revolution that led to the modernization of the society also impacted the social living of the people of the country; in a good way as well as in a negative way.


Bianchetti, Ann, "Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age," Academic journal article from Social Education, 68 (2002): 5.

Welsh, Jim, "The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology," Journal…… [read more]

Vietnam War the Lessons Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Presidential leadership

The Vietnam War was also a central focus in the presidential campaigns and also official agreements and commitments that were made by various presidents that ascended to power during the war period. Of greatest significance was the agreement by JF Kennedy to send the initial troops in 1961 also known as the U.S. Army Special Forces or the Green Berets. By 1962 Kenned has seen over 9,000 of the Special forces go into Vietnam to cushion the South Vietnam from the intimidation and propaganda by the Vietcong. This won him great admiration among the U.S. citizens and almost guaranteed him a second round with little opposition, until that vision was cut shot upon his assassination. Upon the assassination of President Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson inherited the Vietnam dilemma and he equally reaffirmed the mission of the National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 273 which indicated that the U.S. was still committed to aiding the South Vietnam in this war.

In 1964, Johnson once more used the incidents at the Gulf of Tonkin to win his second term in office. This was after he was authorized by the congress to use possible force to protect the U.S. army and citizens within the gulf taking into account the increased war and violent activities that were taking place between the North and South Vietnam at the Gulf of Tonkin and even the firing at the Maddox which was a destroyer on a fact finding and intelligence collection mission (The History Place, 1999). Johnson exercised maximum restraint in this occasion that led to minimum casualties and admiration from the U.S. citizens back at home hence giving him an easy win in the elections of 1964. This is an indication that war can dictate the direction of politics as it did in the case of the two presidents.

Cultural/social disruptions

The Vietnam War totally destroyed the communal and societal mesh that bound the people of Vietnam together. This is however not restricted to Vietnam as even the families in the U.S.A. suffered extensively, particularly the families that had their own volunteers to the war who lost their lives or terminally injured in the war. They live in pain and at antagonism with the state each day with a deep feeling that the war should not have started in the first place and that the compensations were not adequate for the pain they go through.

The war also led to the destruction of significant societal amenities like schools which meant that the literacy levels went down within the community in general, which meant that there were no more jobs for the teachers as well as the slower economic developments realized among the Vietnam. The Vietnam War created absolute chaos at a personal level among the citizens of Vietnam as well as at the social level. The Vietnamese who resided in the war torn areas turned to refugees and their lifestyle totally altered and maybe forever so. It is estimated that there are more than four million… [read more]

John Maynard Keynes' 1919 Book "The Economic Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


John Maynard Keynes' 1919 book "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" provides information making it possible for readers to understand how individuals in Europe played an active role in bringing the continent to a particularly damaged state consequent to the First World War. This process was lengthy and it began long before the war actually came into effect, as Europeans during the 1870s started to promote an illusion concerning how everything was perfect and that they could do anything they wanted to without risking to deteriorate their general condition. Previous to 1870 people across Europe appear to have had a more complex understanding of the fragility of the social order entailing countries on the continent and the relationship between them.

From Keynes' point-of-view, European countries had invested a great deal of sources in industries that were likely to be unprofitable in the long run (Keynes 9). The fact that they became obsessed with technological progress and did not consider the economic impact of their actions led to the increasing set of conflicts from the early twentieth century. Moreover, most European countries during the period had the tendency to focus on personal progress rather than to try and support each-other in achieving success and stability. This led to a series if divergences appearing between European countries as a result of considering that they were not exploiting their position sufficiently.

According to Keynes, major European powers wanted to secure their position on the continent after 1870. These countries wanted to be prepared in case of a large conflict and they thus got Europe as a whole to express more interest in the military aspect of progress rather than in trying to achieve economic progress. Germany, for example, changed their orientation from being "agricultural and mainly self-supporting" (Keynes 13) to being "a vast and complicated industrial machine, dependent on its working on its equipoise of many factors outside Germany as well as within." (Keynes 13)

Keynes was particularly concerned in using his book with the purpose of denouncing behavior in Germany and other European countries. He emphasized that what many perceived as constructive progress was actually the result of irresponsible behavior that was going to lead to significant problems (Berend & Berend 224). What many individuals, especially the Germans and the Russians, believed to be the result of their passion, was actually the result of exploiting resources at an abnormal rate and of increasing the number of people without realizing that this destabilized economies.

The First World War and people's struggle to recover from its consequences have taken a huge toll on Europe. While the continent was ravaged from the fighting that went on within its borders, the French and the British devised a peace strategy that was likely to damage it even further. It seemed that the Germans were not the only ones who were blind as a result of their power during the period. The Central Powers started the war in an attempt to demonstrate that they were one of the… [read more]