"World History" Essays

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Cold War on the Homefront Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … seeds of the Cold War were laid in the waning days of the Second World War as the leaders of the Allied nations, Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for position as to how each would influence post-war Europe. Great Britain's Winston Churchill and the United States' Franklin Roosevelt both recognized that once Hitler and Germany were defeated that dealing with the threat of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe would be the next problem that would have to be addressed. Although the military support of the Soviet Union was needed in order to bring down Germany, neutralizing the Communists after the War was already heavily on the minds of Roosevelt and Churchill as the Allies discussed how to defeat Germany.

Once Germany was defeated the rush for control of the European continent began in earnest. In an effort to avoid open conflict between the Allies the three major Allied powers met at Yalta on the Crimean Sea to decide the fate of Europe. The Soviet Union and Britain both had strong vested interests in controlling as much of Europe as possible. The United States, on the other hand, was anxious to return to its pre-War state of isolation. Isolation had been the predominant foreign policy position of the United States for several decades. The United States had been reluctantly drawn into the First World War and attempted to avoid involvement in the Second World War and the prevailing political thought was that once the War was concluded that the U.S. would like to resume its position of isolation. Unfortunately, as matters developed and the Soviet Union's power in Eastern Europe increased, the United States became intricately involved in European political affairs.

As the War in Europe came to an end, the nations in Eastern Europe which had been occupied by Soviet forces during the latter stages of the War established itself into an organization under the guidelines of a document known as the Warsaw Pact. In essence, these countries such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia were satellites of the Soviet Union and, although technically independent states, were subject to the whims and authority of the Soviet Union and Joseph Stalin. Meanwhile the nations of Eastern Europe and the United States formed a similar organization known as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). The merits of both organizations are subject to debate but suffice it so that both organizations feared the other both politically and militarily and that these organizations formed the line of demarcation relative to what would become the Cold War.

The America that entered the Second World War was not the same America when the veterans of the War began to return. Before the War the United States was displaying signs of becoming a world industrial power but with the industrial base of Europe and Japan destroyed by the effects of the War the United States emerged as the only Western industrial power. The only nation in the world capable of challenging… [read more]

Hungary Geography Hungary Is Located Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This Constitution re-styled the Hungarian economy into a Soviet model between 1948 and 1953. All private industrial firms with more than 10 workers were nationalized. The freedoms of the press, religion and assembly were suppressed. Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty of the Roman Catholic Church was sentenced to life imprisonment. Forced industrialization and land collectivization created deep and serious economic difficulties, peaking by the mid-1953. Imre Nagy won over the Communist Rakosi in the 1953 election by repudiating Rakosi's economic program of forced collectivization and heavy industry. He stopped political purges and set thousands of political prisons free. But the economic situation under him dampened. Rakozi was able to disrupt the reforms started by Nagy and wrestled power from him in 1955 (BEEA).

1956 Revolution

Events blew up on October 23, 1956 when security forces shot Budapest students marching to support Poland's conflict with the Soviet Union (BEEA 2012). An explosive popular uprising was a result. It stopped only when the Central Committee announced the appointment of Imre Nagy as prime minister on October 25 that year. Nagy dissolved the state security police, the one-party system, committed himself to free elections and sought the withdrawal of troops by the U.S.S.R. Nagy announced on November 1 that Hungary would go neutral and withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union responded with a military attack on Hungary on November 3. Numerous Hungarians fled to the West. His own Party First Secretary defected from his cabinet and fled to the Soviet Union. On November 4, Nagy formed a new government. He hit back and executed or imprisoned thousands of people. He was arrested and deported to Romania, then tried and later executed by the Communist government in June 1958 (BEEA).

Conclusion: Dim Prospects

Hungary's prospects for growth are not bright in the next few years on account of Europe's slowing economy (Laca & Zaltan 2011). The debt crises in Europe and the U.S. are viewed as the hindrances to the growth. Hungary relies on Germany, as its biggest export market, to help it recover from the recession. Growth rate is predicted to be close to 2% as against 3.1% in the previous year. Poorer showing is expected for 2011 and this year. This poorer showing can be attributed to the events in Europe, the euro zone, in particular (Laca & Zaltan). #


BEEA. Hungary. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs: U.S. Department of State,

2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.sate.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/36566.htm

CIA. Hungary. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html

EOE.…… [read more]

Second World War Acted as a Catalyst Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


Second World War acted as a catalyst for decolonisation.

The Second World War acted as a catalyst for decolonization

A mention of the British Empire creates the image of a once dominant country across the world. However, the British Empire is now a matter of history owing to several realizations that weakened the country and led to the end of… [read more]

Lithuania's Worldview. A Brief History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Soccer, rowing, volleyball, cycling, tennis, and cross-country skiing are popular past times as well ("Recreation," 2004). Local myths, folklore, and riddles are very popular. These often take form in Lithuanian folk art. A recent revival in folk art has occurred with pieces including: straw baskets, leather goods, woodcarvings, clay or straw sculptures, and amber jewelry ("The Arts," 2004).

The Lithuanian Culture's Worldview:

Lithuanians describe themselves as quite shy and quiet, when compared to Western cultures. Although when comparing themselves to other Baltic cultures, such as the Latvians and Estonians, they are not as reserved as their neighbors (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 11, 2004).

As described by D. Deimante, Lithuanians are quite a jealous nation. As she described it, if her nation feels good, then their neighbors must feel bad (personal communication, November 11, 2004). Perhaps this is due to a history of struggling for their independence. Too often, it was torn away from them, and this may have made them not only a bit possessive, but a bit jealous as well of others who haven't had to struggle as much.

Interestingly, when a study was performed on whether or not the Lithuanian people thought they were tolerant, somewhat surprising results were found. 33% of the nearly 8,000 respondent stated that it depended on what they were talking about. 28% said simply no. Another 28% said that they were tolerant some of the time. While only 8% said yes, they were tolerant (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 20, 2004). Perhaps this intolerance is fueled by world stereotypes.

Being somewhat secluded from the rest of the world, Lithuanians still often see the world in terms of stereotypes. Although they love Russian music and movies, they typically dislike Russians and see them as people who drink a lot of vodka. Americans are stereotyped as stupid, lazy and fat. The British are stereotyped, in their minds, as snobbish (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 20, 2004). It is these preconceptions that make it difficult for Lithuanians to get past ethnocentrism.

How Lithuania's Communication Pattern Reflect on Their Worldview:

As mentioned, Lithuanians are quite reserved and conservative. As an example that was given by D. Deimante, it was mentioned that in America it is common to ask people, "How are you?" even to the point that this phrase is asked multiple times per day, and even when the person asking it really does not care what the reply will be. In Lithuania, questions such as this kept to a minimum, and only asked when they are truly meant (personal communication, November 11, 2004). This has given Lithuanians the viewpoint that Americans are less sincere and more superficial.

In addition, they don't greet each other, and especially strangers, as frequently as the Western world. Although they perceive themselves as very hospitable, they do not smile without reason (personal communication, D. Deimante, November 11, 2004). Again, this gives them the perception that the Western world is less than sincere. Also, the constant greeting of one another means… [read more]

Human Costs of World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Human costs of World War II

World War Two: causality statistics

Methodological problems

There are certain problems in the accumulation and assessment of data on the Second World War that have to be taken into account before an assessment is made as to the correct casualty statistics. As many researchers point out, ascertaining the actual death statistics during the war is a very difficult task as there are various views and assessments of the figures. The most reliable documentation is often the most recent; however some of the most recent online sources do not provide adequate reference to their sources.

The Internet does provide the most up-to-date figures and statistics on this subject. However, one has to take into account whether these figures are reliable and have significant source docs to verify their reliability.

Another method that can be used to authenticate the validity of data is through peer review sites. These sites are relatively reliable as they have been reviewed by researchers and other experts.

The research method that was used in this paper was to collect as much online and offline data as possible and then to search for agreement and disparities in the figures. On this basis the site or the resource with the best average data and with the best source docs was deemed to present the most reliable casualty figures.

2. Statistics

The following Web site, secondworldwar.co.za, (Table 1) presented the best average figures and supplied adequate source information.

Another reason for choosing this site as the most accurate resource was that is has been recently updated and is also a well-known site which is open to peer review and comment.




Soviet Union*













Great Britain










New Zealand

South Africa



Total circa 61 Million

Source: (Stokes, P.)

As the author of the above site states "... An accurate figure is difficult to calculate." (ibid) the difference between World War II figures becomes evident when other charts and tables are examined.

See Addendum)

Research into the different sources of war casualties made it evident that while there were many agreements in the figures, there were also many significant differences. This is certainly the case as many reviewers note that there are obvious disparities in the figures. It was also noted in the research that some countries, when presenting their data, seemed to be biased in revealing the number of casualties during the war.

An example of these disparities is the data from another set of international data from a reputable site but which showed some differences to chart one. (See Addendum for Table 2)

This source presents a different overall casualty figure of 56,125,262. However, when compared to table one, and bearing in mind the difficulty in ascertaining absolute figures, then this table may not seem overly incorrect. However, the main disparities seem to be in the areas where there are… [read more]

Thucydides the Histories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,139 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Thucydides' "Histories" -- the making of ancient history, the making of modern historical objectivity before contemporary eyes

Why read ancient history? Assume, for the duration of a paragraph that it is unquestionably true that people who forget the past are condemned to repeat the mistakes of the past. Even if this were the case, why read the history of the Peloponnesian War? Why not a more recent historical text that Thucydides' the Histories?

The author, without the benefit of foresight stated his work was designed to last forever. But as a historical study of conflict and democratic governance, does it have lasting merit? But long after the particulars of the specifics of the war between Spartan and Athenian colonies, about place names that no longer exist, the ideologies used to defend and define the different sides remain of interest -- even for those who disdain ancient history, Thucydides earns his title as the first historian, for his work shows a concern for the ideological nature of war as well as the recording of events.

This is most apparent in Chapter IV, the Second Book, where the funeral oration of Pericles is recorded and depicted. In the words of the historian, "Pericles, son of Xanthippus, was chosen to pronounce their eulogium," of a fallen warrior Pericles himself says that it is not winning or losing battles that matters most in history, rather "hat part of our [Athenian] history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valor with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dilate on, and I shall therefore pass it by," rather "what the form of government under which our greatness grew," is of greatest importance. (2.6)

What makes us great as a nation, says Pericles, is the strength of our democratic government in Athens, not our military. Whether one agrees or disagrees if Athens meets the standards of democracy, as we conceive of it today, is irrelevant -- rather what is relevant is that for the first time, history is being cast in terms of morality, ideologically speaking, rather than the triumph of might, a significant achievement in the recording of events -- a historical narrative is shaped by political concerns and political morality, rather than merely attempts to explain away a loss with a myth or an interesting story, or to assert the glory of the winning side. "Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy," says Pericles. In other words, said the general, it does not matter whether we win or not, it matters if we "if we look to the laws," and "they afford equal justice to all in their private differences." (2.6)

Even if one cannot rely on… [read more]

Histories of Herodotus Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,178 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


C.E. Although the Histories were written in the traditional epic form, being a strong beginning, an even stronger middle and a powerful climax, its structure suggests that Herodotus was relying upon true events instead of fiction. This clash between the Persian Empire and the Greeks is told masterfully, and is generally broken up into three parts. The first three books concentrate on Persia's westward expansion by conquest until it was adjacent to Greece; the next three deal largely with resistance by Scythia, Ionia and Greece to Persian imperialism, a time when Athenians vanquished the Persian king Darius at Marathon and succeeded in repelling the Persians; the final three books cover Persia's repeated invasion of Greece ten years later under Xerxes and the empire's defeat at Salamis, Plataea and Mycale. Thus, Herodotus has provided an historical account of two empires in great conflict which has much relevance in today's world, especially in what some refer to as Western Civilization.

Most of the proof that the Histories denotes the clash of two great empires can be found in Book One. Herodotus tells us that "On the death of Alyattes, Croesus, his son, who was thirty-five years old, succeeded to the throne. Of the Greek cities, Ephesus was the first that he attacked. . . Afterwards, on some pretext or other, he made war in turn upon every Ionian and Aeolian state, bringing forward, where he could, a substantial ground of complaint. . . "


(Rawlinson 26). Croesus also "made himself master of all the Greek cities in Asia, and forced them to become his tributaries; after which he began to think of building ships, and attacking the islanders" (Rawlinson 27). With this description, it is obvious that Croesus was a great warrior, due to attacking Ephesus, every other "Ionian and Aeolian state" and his desire to build ships and seek out more soldiers, weapons and support. In addition, Croesus, after many years of battle and conquest, "brought under his sway almost all the nations to the west of the Halys. The Lycians and Cilicians alone continued free; all the other tribes he reduced and held in subjection" (Rawlinson 28). In essence, the conquests of Croesus brought all of Greece together as a unified nation which in the future would aid them tremendously against their bitter enemies the Persians.

Herodotus then relates that a certain messenger was given instructions to consult the great Greek oracles on whether "Croesus should go to war with the Persians and if so, whether he should strengthen himself by the forces of an ally." This messenger then declares to the oracle, "Croesus, of Lydia and other countries. . . now inquires of you whether he shall go to war with the Persians, and if so, whether he shall strengthen himself by the forces of a confederate" (Rawlinson 53). This description is most powerful, for it shows that Croesus and all of the Greek states are bound as one while also showing that Croesus wishes to expand his… [read more]

Development of Air Warfare in World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … air warfare in World War I

At the beginning of the First World War in 1914, aircraft technology was only a decade old. For this reason the military did not regard aircraft as being of much use except for reconnaissance. However, this situation was to change and as the military value of air warfare developed so did the… [read more]

WWII World War II Bring Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adter the attack on Pearl Harbor, the idea was embraced by the military, and it was official by 1943. The women underwent very tough training and rough living conditions. It was not until many decades after the war's end that the incredible contributions of these pilots was recognized. Until 1977, the WASP fighers retained civilian status, but they were granted military status then. (Wolf 2005)

While all of the women during the war suffered from hardships, the role of many Asian women during the war must be acknowledged as perhaps bearing the most suffering. "Comfort Women" was the euphemism used for enslaved sex workers kept prisoner by soldiers in countries being occupied by Japan. "Most comfort women were from Korea, with a significant fraction from China, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and other Japanese-occupied nations. Surviving comfort women reported being raped as frequently as thirty times in a given day." (Yazashi 2005) As few as twenty thousand, or as many as three hundred thousand, Comfort Women were kept during World War II. The brothels were usually located on military bases. The Japanese military believed that providing easy access to sex would motivate and improve performance of their soldiers, and they also believed that having prostitution under the control of the military would help slow down the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. At the beginning, most of the Comfort Women were already employed as prostitutes and gladly came to serve the military. However, even at that point many young girls were sold into the sex industry by their families. As the war progressed, the military began taking prisoners from outside of Japan through trickery or force. Many of the women became infected with Sexually transmitted diseases and many died or suffered terrible pain and injury to the reproductive system. "The freshest women were the least likely to suffer from STDs and were placed in the highest category. However, as time went on, the comfort women were downgraded as the likelihood of their acquiring STDs became more certain. When they were considered too diseased to be of any further use, they were finally abandoned. Many women reported having their uteruses rot off due to the disease acquired from servicing thousands of men over the course of several years." (Yazashi 2005)

Many opportunities were given to women during World War II to prove themselves in society, while many other opportunities were for further humiliation and degradation. Women were expected to take on many roles, but society was hesitant to accept them in those roles because it was not traditional. Women had new freedoms, but also new hardships and responsibilities that were hard to bare. The introduction of women into the workforce paved the way for the continued women's rights movement, and women contributed a lot to the American victory during World War II.


Giampaoli, Cristina. "Women in World War II: Would Life Ever be the Same?" History 175 Project [online]. San Diego: University of San Diego. [cited 4 May 2005]. Available… [read more]

Ancient Greek History the Persian Wars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,926 words)
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Athenian Greeks vs. The Persian Empire Army

At the beginning at the fifth century B.C., the city states of peninsular Greece allowed themselves to embrace their own selfish separatist ideas, confident that no outside enemy threatened them. The northern Illyrian tribes, from where the Achaeans and Dorians once came, ceased their attacks on Greece. In the south, the power of… [read more]

World War II From 1939 to 1945 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
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World War II from 1939 to 1945

It is said that World War II may be the single most complicated conflict in history and thus is difficult to explain its origin, however, many believe that is was simply a continuation of World War I (World pp). One fact remains true and that is that never have so many nations gone to war in so many different ways and by so many different means (World pp). The Treaty of Versailles may be the single most indirect cause of the war since it placed the blame solely on Germany (World pp). World War I had not solved any of the problems that had caused it, which leads many scholars to believe that World War I and II as World War Part I and Part II (World pp).

The Great Depression hit Germany second only to the United States, and the severe unemployment gave the Nazi part a surge in membership (World pp).

Japan, in desperate need of resources, invaded Manchuria in order to procure them, and with the intent to acquire more areas throughout the Asian mainland and western Pacific (World pp). For a number of reasons Japan and the U.S. were highly suspicious of each other during the mid-twentieth century, particularly after the end of World War I, in which both fought on the same side (World pp). Japan feared U.S. power in the region and the U.S. did not trust Japan, thus the two were often heated competitors economically in the region, with incremental advances by one side being viewed as a serious challenge to the other (World pp).

Opinions in the U.S. varied, yet the U.S. expansion in the Pacific had been quite significant between 1898 and the1930's, which many viewed as part of Manifest Destiny and the U.S. expansion…… [read more]

Mayan History and Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,723 words)
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Mayan History And Culture

The ancient Mayan civilization had advanced systems of astronomy and mathematics, an accurate calendar system, extensive trade routes, and a religion dominated by blood sacrifices (Jaguar pp). Although they did not have the benefit of metal tools, beasts of burden, or even the wheel, the people of this ancient civilization were still masters of architecture who… [read more]

History and Politics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (937 words)
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Russian History And Politics

Russia, the world's largest country, was formerly the dominant republic of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR, but since the union's dissolution in December 1991, it is now an independent country and an influential member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia pp).

Russia is sparsely populated with the densest population in the European part of the country, the Ural Mountain area, and in the Southeastern part of Siberia (Russia pp). There are more than 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples that call the Russian Federation home, approximately 80% is ethnically Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 0.9% Chechen, 0.8% Armenian, and the remainder of roughly 10% includes, Mordvins, Belarusians, Georgians, Avars, Kazakhs, Udmurts, Azerbaijanis, Maris, Germans, Evenks, Ingushes, Inuit, Kalmyks, Karelians, Koreans, Ossetians, Dolgan Nenetses, Tuvans, Yakuts and several others (Russia pp). Although Russian is the only official state language, the individual republics have their own native language as well (Russia pp). The dominant Christian religion is the Russian Orthodox Church, however there are various Protestant faiths, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Roman Catholicism (Russia pp).

The Russian Federation consists of numerous federal subjects, making a total of eighty-nine constituent components (Russia pp). Twenty-one republics enjoy a high degree of autonomy that correspond to some of Russia's ethnic minorities, with the remaining territory consisting of forty-nine oblasts or provinces and six krais or territories, which have ten autonomous okrugs or autonomous districts and one autonomous oblast (Russia pp). Then there are two federal cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, and seven federal districts, four in Europe and three in Asia, have recently been added (Russia pp).

The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922, and by the close of war, which claimed an estimated nine million lives, Soviet Russia was exhausted, especially after the droughts of 1920 and 1921, and unable to run the economy on sufficient scale (Russia pp). Russia eventually recovered and experienced rapid economic growth during the 1930's, however the effect of World War I together with the Civil War left a scar on its society and permanent effects on the regime (Russia pp).

Vladimir Lenin, who led the Bolshevik faction of Communists that later became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, CPSU, became the first leader of the Soviet Union (Russia pp). Lenin banned factions within the party and argued that the party should be an "elite body of professional revolutionists" who dedicated their lives to the cause, and put loyal party activists in charge of new and old political institutions, army units, factories, hospitals, universities, and food suppliers (Russia pp). On December 29, 1922, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, and the Byelorussian and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics sign a Treaty of Creation of the U.S.S.R. (Russia pp). The Soviet New…… [read more]

European Colonization What Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
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... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want." (Zinns, 2003)

Howard Zinns notes in his own analysis of Columbus' encounters that these Arawaks of the Bahamas Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were "remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing." Columbus viewed this with disdain, and because they seemed "naive and so free with their possessions," unlike Europeans, Columbus felt he and other Europeans had the right to the natives' territorial and material possessions -- Europe had a right to 'own' the Indians land, as the native populace did not have legal structures within their own forms of governance that prohibited others from taking their territory, as did the European powers of the Renaissance, dominated as Europe was "by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus." (Zinns, 2003)

Thus, the issues of land possession that were to cumulate in the virtual extrication of all the native populace from the American territory that held different views of land possession than the Europeans were culturally intertwined within Columbus' first encounters with the seemingly free natives, who did not lay conventional claims to territory or possession, the very things that European exploration was designed to obtain. And so was the institution of slavery bound to these first encounters, because Columbus found no gold in the New World, and had to return with something, he enslaved a number of men and women. He noted, "the rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were 'naked as the day they were born,' they showed 'no more embarrassment than animals,'" again applying European standards to…… [read more]

Europe After WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Europe after World War II

There is little doubt that ten years after World War II, Europe would have had a very different landscape had it not been for the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. Moreover, it is likely that many parts of Europe would not be as thriving today if these plans had not been implemented.

Given the Soviet expansion after World War II, Greece and Turkey were prime targets to have fallen under communism. This of course was the reason Truman used for granting some $400 million in military and economic aid in an effort to ward off an inevitable domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region (Truman pp). Without the aid, Greece and Turkey would have looked much like many of the Eastern European countries that fell to communism after the War. Today, they would most likely look much as they do today, for it is unlikely that communism would have succeeded more than a decade given the region's history of civil war.

The Marshall Plan was extremely successful and not only relieved widespread privation and averted the threat of a serious economic depression, it also enabled the West European nations to recover from the devastation of the War and maintain economic and political independence (Introduction pp). Moreover, it paved the way for other forms of international cooperation such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OCED, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO, and today's European Union (Introduction pp). The two major aims of the plan was to prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe and to stabilize the…… [read more]

American History -- Journal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (649 words)
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Moments later, "the plane was rocked by the shock wave of the blast when the bomb hit the ground" (53).

The third article, "Mr. Smith Goes Underground" by Thomas Mallon, concerns a specially-designed bunker, meant to house the President of the United States and his closest confidants, during a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. Mallon reminds the reader that this bunker, located in West Virginia and now open to the public for tours, was "the strangest of all Cold War relics and offers a clue to why (the U.S.) won the Cold War" (60). The current tour guide, Marvin Weikle, who helped maintain the facility for many years, always warns the visitors that what they are about to see can be quite startling, due to costing $14 million to construct in the late 1940's. Once the visitors enter the bunker, they "find themselves standing at the end of a 144 yard-long concrete corridor leading into the 112, 544 square-foot former standby capital of the United States" (63).

The last article, "Visiting the Cold War Today" By Phil Patton, describes various landmarks from Berlin, Germany to Washington, D.C. To Area 51 which as of 2000 were being opened to the public. According to Patton, "these days, there are more and more visitors to the monuments of the Cold War" and tours as often overcrowded at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station and the Nevada Test Sites. Some of the most conspicuous sites include the Titan Missile Museum in Sahaurita, Arizona, the house on Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin (the dividing line between East and West Germany during the Cold War, a.k.a. The "Iron Curtain), the Allied Museum in Berlin and the Cold War Museum which Gary Powers, the U-2 spy plane pilot, created "to honor his father and all Cold War veterans" (72). As of 2000, this museum included "a U-2, a section of the…… [read more]

World Civilization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (356 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, monasteries became a vital institution in Europe in the Middle Ages. One reason for their crucial role was the continuation of the Roman culture effects in Byzantine, in Constantinople. When western Rome fell, the culture moved to the east. However, the emperors and leaders in this new Byzantine Empire were Christian, so were able to continue the monasteries' cultures.

Further, the bishops of Rome remained in place following the fall of Rome, and many of the invaders of Rome respected these leaders, since they were at least marginally Christian themselves. Thus, as the invaders began to have disputes, they often appealed to the bishops of old Rome for resolution, and in this way, the bishop became the political and spiritual leader of post-fallen Rome. In addition, the Church had long been responsible for the conversion and education of the public, and this role continued beyond the fall of Rome. Since the invaders generally had little formal education, the monasteries were primarily responsible for their learning.

Still another aspect of the…… [read more]

Polybius Contributions to History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Polybius was a distinguished Green Historian during the Hellenistic Period (Walbank, 2002).He is noted for his work titles "The Histories" which covered major historical events that took place between 220 and 146 BC. In this paper we explore the impact of Polybius as a historian, his contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution and how his military thinking played a role in Roman conquest. From this review and analysis it is important to note that Polybius greatly influenced the American and global democracy by being one of the people from whose account the principle of separation of powers was derived. He is also an important authority on historical integrity. His role in the Roman conquest is also notable.


Polybius was a distinguished Green Historian during the Hellenistic Period (Walbank, 2002).He is noted for his work titles "The Histories" which covered major historical events that took place between 220 and 146 BC. This particular work partially described the rise of the then Roman republic as well as gradual domination over by Greece. The author is also known for his ideas regarding separation of powers in the government, as well as the drafting of the U.S. Constitution. Polybius was born in 200 BC in Acardia by Lycortas, a prominent Greek politician who later on became the Cavalry Commander in the then existing Achaean League (Magil & Moose, 2003, p.886).In this paper we explore the impact of Polybius as a historian, his contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution and how his military thinking played a role in Roman conquest.

The impact of Polybius as a historian

Polybius work as a historian is remarkable. His work on the subject of Roman history is quite detailed. Polybius's work titled "The Histories" provides a very detailed account of the accent of Rome to be an empire with an inclusion of an eyewitness account of the evens during the Sack of Carthage even in the year 146 BC. Polybius is noted to have said that historian should just chronicle events whose actual participants the given historians were able to interview. This means that he was one of the very first historians to demand accountability, factual accuracy as well as integrity in documented historical accounts. He was also one of the very first historians to champion for the need of factual integrity in the written historical literature so as to avoid bias.

While summarizing the contribution of Polybius on the study of Roman history, the work of Davidson (1991, p.10) noted that several authors have presented various opinions on Polybius' ideologies, omission, bias, methods and concerns. The work of Tarn (1927) compared the work of Polybius to dispatches and rescripts. This is because according to his opinion, the work of Polybius appeared as if he was only interested in a rather unobtrusive…… [read more]

Geneva Convention: History and Contemporary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Geneva Convention: History and Contemporary Overview

When contemporary human rights advocates speak of the Geneva Convention they are usually referring to the Fourth Geneva Convention, ratified in 1949, during the aftermath of World War II. (Farrell, 2002) the Geneva Conventions are all international agreements that define human rights in universally encompassing language, such as outlawing the taking of hostages, the mutilation and degradation of POWs, torture, executions, and discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality or political affiliations. However, no matter how sweeping the language of the documents, what is seen to constitute a universal human right will inevitably vary in different national contexts, in specific leader's opinions, and by the interpretative language of a nation's system of laws.

For example, the subjectivity of the Geneva Convention was highlighted when, in 1994, the U.S. Senate ratified the modification to the Convention known as the Torture Convention. The Senate stated "[t] hat the United States considers itself bound by the obligation under Article 16 to prevent 'cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,'" but that cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment "means the cruel, unusual and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States." ("OLC's Aug. 1, 2002 Torture Memo ('the Bybee Memo')," Discourse.net, 2006) Also, the United States considers capital punishment acceptable and not cruel and degrading, while many fellow…… [read more]

U.S. History and Foreign Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … U.S. history and foreign policy. The writer explores the five questions and devotes two pages to each answer. There were fours sources used to complete this paper.

Explain the development of containment after World War'll and the reasons for conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The development of containment after World War II had an… [read more]

Canadian History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Canadian History

Interpreting the Slant of History

The three articles: Ramsay Cook, "1942 and All That: Making a Garden out of Wilderness"; Alan Gordon, "Heroes, History, and Two Nationalisms: Jacques Cartier" and Ken Coates and William Morrison, "Winter and the Shaping of Northern History: Reflections from the Canadian North" have several commonalities, including the theme that history is slanted by the bias of the historian. Historians cannot help but be influenced by their own biases and it shows in their writing. Sometimes it is purposely slanted to suit the needs of the time: public, political or personal. While history is always filtered through the biases of the writer, it is sometimes even written to accomplish a particular purpose. Our modern culture places a high value on objective reporting, but the culture of the 17th and 18th centuries placed an even higher value on entertainment. Thus the many exaggerations of the writers of the time often went unnoticed and unchallenged.

In 1942 and All That: Making a Garden out of Wilderness, Ramsay Cook shows how historians and clergy shows how early settlers and other visitors to the Canadian North failed to adjust to it, because they brought along their own notions of the superiority of European culture and technology to the indigenous first nations people.

Many clergy and historians of religious persuasion saw the indigenous populations as inferior, because they had not developed technology. What they failed to note was that the first nations people, in this case the Micmac, actually had very good lives before the Europeans arrived. They had everything they needed for safety and comfort by working about 15 hours per week. Historians of the time also blamed the life style of the Micmac for the disease which ravaged and decimated the population. Cook states that Europeans could not see the value of the native ways, and assumed they were unhappy, since they neither cultivated nor build permanent homes.

Other misconceptions of the then current historians were that the evils of polygamy caused the heathen to be punished for their sins. What they did not see was that plural marriage had sustained the population in a wilderness which was difficult to survive, even for the Micmac. Europeans of the time wanted to civilize the Micmac to save their souls and improve their lives. The historians of the time romanticized the "noble svage" on the one hand and deplored the fact that even with the most devout teaching, the Micmac reverted to their original way of life as soon as the settlers turned their backs.

The Micmac were characterized as savage and heathen, while the settlers killed wildlife indiscriminately, taking more than could possibly be consumed. The settlers lived in the environment while the Micmac were a pert of it. The historians constantly compared gardens to heaven and wilderness to hell, Micmac to evil savages and their benefactors to saints. The free life style of the natives was seen both as a sign of their evil and its cause.… [read more]

Atomic Bomb in U.S. History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … atomic bomb in U.S. history. Specifically it will analyze the impact of the Atomic bomb on American politics and culture in the decade-and-a-half after the explosion of the first Atomic weapon over Hiroshima. The use of the first atomic bomb to end World War II in the Pacific was a world-altering event. It changed the status of the… [read more]

Architecture H-Conclusion History of the Renaissance Metaphorically Essay

Essay  |  20 pages (6,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0




History of the Renaissance

Metaphorically speaking, the term Renaissance has been associated with rebirth and images of freedom, light, openness and creativity. These connotations stem from the historical origins of the Renaissance which took place approximately from the mid 15th to early 17th centuries and was a foundational period in European history. This period saw the emergence of… [read more]

Alamo and Texas History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alamo and Texas History

The battle of Alamo and San Antonio played a critical role in Texas revolution. Rebellious Texans had captured the city of San Antonio de Bexar in December of 1835 and they had fortified the Alamo, a fortress-like former mission in the towns centre. Santa Anna was the Mexican general who made an appearance in short order at the head of a massive army and laid siege to the Alamo. His perceived cruelty during the battle was an inspiration to many Texians that included Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States. After five days of house to house fighting they forced General Martin Perfecto de Cos' and his soldiers to surrender the volunteers who became victorious then occupied Alamo which was already fortified by Cos' men and strengthened its defenses (Hardin, 2006).

February 23, 1836 saw the arrival of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's army outside San Antonio that almost caught the people by surprise since they marched through the driving snow and fowl weather and it was even a month earlier than the Texans has anticipated. The Texans and Tejanos had undauntedly prepared to defend Alamo together and they did that by holding out Santa Anna's army for 13 days (DRT, 2011) the commander of Alamo William B.Travis sent out couriers that carried pleas for help to communities in Texas but his calls were unanswered since the Texans did not have the strength to fight Santa Anna's larger army. On the eighth day of the siege a band of 32 volunteers from Gonzales arrived and this brought the number of defenders to almost two hundred ( DRT,2011) .Colonel Travis was forced to draw a line on the ground and ask any man who was willing to stay and fight to cross over the line all except one man did; this was following the possibility of help fading .the defenders viewed it, Alamo was the key to the defense of Texas and hence they were ready to give their lives as opposed to surrendering their position to General Santa Anna. Alamo's garrison includes Jim Bowie, a renowned knife fighter and David Crockett, a famed frontiersman and a former congressman Tennessee.

The final assault took place before the day break on the morning of March 6, 1836 as there was emergence of columns of Mexican soldiers from the predawn darkness and they headed for Alamo's walls. They had been slowly working their lines closer to the Alamo with their artillery reducing the mission's walls. Cannon and small arms there were fired from inside the Alamo beat back several attacks. The Mexicans the regrouped by scaling the walls and rushing into the compound. When they got inside they captured cannon on the long Barrack and church and the barricaded doors was blasted for them to open. There was a continued desperate struggle which eventually saw the defenders being overwhelmed. As soon as sunrise struck, the battle had ended and Santa Anna entered the Alamo in order to… [read more]

Humanities Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,052 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The language of classic architecture seemed the most important at the time, as it embodied a series of ideas, ranging from painting to sculpture and showed intriguing aspects of human thinking. The term renaissance was meant to stand as a hallmark concerning

One of the most important mistakes that people make when trying to find parallels between the Renaissance and the Classical period is that they look at the latter from the perspective of the former. The masses are typically inclined to believe that the Renaissance says all there is to say with regard to Classical Greece, as it was practically inspired from Ancient times and as Renaissance artists were well-acquainted with thinking in the classical period. Even with the fact that this is partly true, the reality is that Ancient Greece was very complex and that Italians did not necessarily expressed interest in matters that they considered the Renaissance to have nothing to do with.

Both the Renaissance and the Classical Period promote the belief that it is essential for art to display a naturalistic perspective concerning the world. Even with this, the former is very different because it was created in an environment that was heavily affected by Christian thinking. "In stressing the dangers to art of certain types of Christian enthusiasm, Vasari failed to acknowledge adequately the other side of the coin: the positive, galvanic part played by the church in the history of art down the centuries" (Graham-Dixon 13).

To a certain degree, one might be inclined to believe that the Renaissance was inspired to a greater level by the Dark Ages than it was inspired by the Classical Period. Individuals in Italy were practically determined to do everything in their power in order to be certain that society would acknowledge the negative effects caused by the Dark Ages and they considered that adopting attitudes expressed in the more liberal Ancient Greece the masses would be enabled to look at life from a different perspective.

The Renaissance was not necessarily a product of the fact that Italians were especially in love with values expressed during the Classical Period. "Many different cultures, together with dreams other than that of classical revival, pure and simple, played their part in it. There was more to the world of the Renaissance than Rinascita alone" (Graham-Dixon 13).

In order to gain a more complex understanding of the Renaissance and of the Classical Period, one needs to take them individually. The richness and the beauty of artwork created in these two eras are likely to be underappreciated as long as they are considered to be very similar in character. The Renaissance was not necessarily meant to replicate concepts in Ancient Greece, as it was also intended to provide the world with an intriguing account involving the importance of learning more about Ancient Rome and Greece.

Works cited:

Graham-Dixon, Andrew, "Renaissance," (University of California Press, 1999)

"The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480 -- 323 B.C.)," Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the Metropolitan… [read more]

Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta in Greece Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,198 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Greek on Mediterranean world

Sparta in Greece

The impact of Greek on the Mediterranean world

Knowledge of Mediterranean world is one aspect that is very interesting; it needs a proper social contact of both Greek as well as Roman influence on the culture of the people of that period as well as place. Similar to overriding threads interwoven… [read more]

War of the Worlds by HG Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


War of the Worlds by H.G.

Wells' "The War of the Worlds" is certainly a thought-provoking novel that addresses a series of divisive topics concerning society and the degree to which people believe they understand the concept of power. The writer provides readers with an account involving an unnamed narrator who generally feels confident concerning the power of humanity and… [read more]

Art Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (906 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


By comparison, Delacroix's painting, "Liberty leading the people" expresses fully the image of the Romanticist current. More precisely, the depiction of a strong, beautiful woman as the symbol of liberty and freedom suggests a sense of courage and bravery that is not however similar to that provided David's painting. While the former is based on revolutionary emotions and feelings, the latter focuses on the courage that is derived from mass emotions uncontrolled by any sense of state duty. The painting reflects in a way the image of the French revolution not only through the flag that Marianne, the symbol of the Revolution is holding in her hand but also through her appearance, young, strong, determined, beautiful, and committed to the liberated people.

There is a considerable difference between the two paintings in terms of the way in which the two painters decided to depict both courage and revolution. For the first part, the driving force of the Horatii came from a deep sense of education in the spirits of the war and in the political conflicts, as Rome was a constant place for political discrepancies. In the second painting, the courage comes from the masses. There is no real account of a woman having been at the heart of the French Revolution nor having the crowds motivated by one. Yet, the courage expressed by her symbolizes the forces that stood at the core of the revolution which were the common people, uneducated, yet with a particular sense for civil rights.

In terms of the way in which the two painters saw the revolution, one in Ancient Greece and the other in 19th century France, is again significant because the two pointed out distinct elements. In the first case, the so called "revolution" was pointed out implicitly and the representatives were part of the high class of ancient Rome. The nature of their revolution had a particular sense of nobleman provided even in the background of the paining. The characters are sober and full of the emotion of the event. However, the main impression is that of rationality behind the actions of the oath. By comparison, Delacroix's paining is rich in revolutionary stamina, in the belief that, despite the deaths that are depicted, there is hope in the lighter sky on the background and in the child that is also presented in the painting, maybe symbolizing the new generation that would be free from the oppression.

Overall, the neo-classical and romantic periods provided impressive examples of paintings that transformed the artistic thought and means in which reason and emotions alike can be depicted though paintings.… [read more]

Emergence of Modern Europe Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,359 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Europe

The defeat of the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) in World War II had deep and lasting effects on almost every country in the world. A new era in geopolitical struggles, economics, and political ideology came into being with the decades long tensions between the United States and Soviet Union known as the "Cold War." However, for Europe as a whole, there were both positive and negative aspects of post-war rebuilding, depending on geographical location. First and foremost, the geopolitical atmosphere of Europe changed after the war -- new countries, territories and expectations. Second, the U.S. role in Europe increased beginning with the Marshall Plan which led, in many ways, to NATO. Third, Europe was divided into two distinct political and economic camps -- the East and the West. Fourth, several economic changes dominated economic policies that are felt even today. and, finally, the most serious consequence of World War II for Europe, and one which encompassed almost every other change -- the Cold War.

Politically and culturally, most of the changes to Europe were highlighted by the Cold War. This war, not really a war at all, but an ongoing ideological conflict that had political, economic, and military complications between the Soviet Union and its allies (the Warsaw Pact Countries) and the United States and Europe (NATO). The Soviets saw the conflict as a reaction to American aggression all over the World, the West as a reaction to Stalinism and the export of communism. Most of Europe and certainly the Soviet Union, had millions dead or homeless, millions of acres of agricultural land destroyed, and an infrastructure and transportation system in shambles. The United States, however, with the exception of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, had not suffered invasion and the post-war economy was booming. A combination then of fear and economic determinism would reshape Europe in the Post-War period. This would define the next 40+ years -- a bipolar model of nations either supportive of the U.S. And policies or of the U.S.S.R.

Part 2 - the infrastructure in most of Europe was in shambles, but unlike the situation after World War I, the United States found a new determination in President Truman and his staff. Because they wanted to build up a democratic Europe, aid was put into place (the Marshall Plan) to help restore Europe to hegemony and self-sufficiency. However, because Europe was in such turmoil and there was somewhat of a power vacuum that France, England, the United States, and of course, the Soviet Union, wished to fill. Disputes between the Allied nations led to a new international balance of power between the West and the Soviets. Germany was divided into two sections; East and West, and for a time, Berlin was divided into four sectors with the United States, France, and Great Britain constituting West Berlin, the Soviets East Berlin. The immediate consequences to this division were a disaster for the German people. This, of course, was compounded by the… [read more]

Nazi Germany Nazi Propaganda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


As the image here shows, fascism thrived by creating an impression of governmental authority as glorious, infallible and touched by a divine authority. The poster of Hitler here shows his legions of faceless and anonymous followers clamoring behind him. In many ways, this is an accurate depiction of Nazi Germany, where the glory of the Fuhrer would be offset by the manner in which individual German citizens sacrificed their own personalities and values in order to be aligned with the ruling party. And such depictions were not just produced on occasions designed to extol Hitler's virtues. Quite beyond that and consistent with the values of fascism, such images became a part of the required cultural output of Germany,

Such is to say that fascism, as a way of ruling, is intended to control every dimension of civic life. This is the core distinction of fascism, which advocates the insertion of government authority into everything from the way that citizens work and worship to the way that express themselves. As to this latter characteristic, the Nazis took extensive steps to prevent any expression that contradicted its values or agenda. For instance, the History Learning Site (2012) indicates, "to ensure that everybody thought in the correct manner, Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Commerce in 1933. This organisation dealt with literature, art, music, radio, film, newspapers etc. To produce anything that was in these groups, you had to be a member of the Reich Chamber. The Nazi Party decided if you had the right credentials to be a member."

In order to have the right credentials, one had to inherently work to produce the kinds of images that are shown here. The depiction of Hitler here, rendered almost as a divine figure, suggests that one of the core reasons for the success of the Nazi party was the incredible success that it had in compelling the German people of its inherent rightness. Even as the Nazi party engaged in unspeakable atrocities and implemented policies that quite clearly made the lives of German citizens far worse, such propaganda kept these impressions well hidden from much of the German public.

For those who recognized the reality, such fascist images served quit another purpose. Namely, in its depiction of Hitler and the Nazi party as a powerful and overwhelming force, such propaganda imposes a highly intimidating impression of the ruling party. This impression was accurate and functioned as a cautionary note to any who might oppose its force. Ultimately, fascism would sweep through Germany and other parts of Europe on this strength of both the fear and support that its propaganda induced.

Works Cited:

German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.

History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.

Welch, D.…… [read more]

Marked the History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


According to the Truman Doctrine from 1947, the United States would have provided financial assistance for reconstruction and development to those countries that would accept it. Still, this plan was particularly addressed to Greece and Turkey that had privileged and at the same time strategic presence for the United States to the Mediterranean Sea. More precisely, President Truman, in his address to Congress from 12 March 1947, stated "Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East." (The Avalon Project, n.d.) Hence, the intention of President Truman was to protect and somewhat extend the U.S.'s sphere of influence over Europe so that the U.S.S.R. does not. This would eventually be done by providing economic and political assistance to Greece in particular.

Thirdly, the Truman Doctrine thru the impact it had on the split of Europe determined the way in which Europe would develop in the almost fifty years of Cold War. For instance, the lack of the Marshall Plan in countries such as Romania or Bulgaria determined a communist development in this region. At the same time though it must be underlined the fact that the Yalta Agreement between Russian president Stalin and American counterpart Roosevelt had already agreed on splitting the spheres of influence and the communist one included Romania and Bulgaria. Even so, the Marshall plan and its lack of action in Eastern Europe determined a different economic, political, social, and cultural development of Eastern Europe.

Overall it must be concluded that the Truman Doctrine with its financial perspective, the Marshall Plan had a massive impact not only on European but also on determining the spheres of influence during the Cold War, an event that was crucial for the evolution of history in the history of the 20th century.


Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

The Avalon Project. "The Truman Doctrine." The Yale Law School. N.d. Available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp… [read more]

History of the Peloponnesian War Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,673 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Thucydides stood on the edge of philosophy," Kagan explains (373). That said, Kagan also notes that while Thucydides had a "…passion for truth" he also "violates" the most important historical strategy -- to cite sources when there is "conflicting evidence," and to give reasons for preferring one source over another ( 374).

A Major reason for the Defeat of Athens

Although this section of the paper does not address who started the Peloponnesian War, it provides "a major reason" that the Athenians lost the war. In the Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine the author points to the "Plague of Athens" that struck Athens not long after the Peloponnesian War had begun in 430 B.C. (Littman, 2009, p. 458). Researchers today are not certain as to the specific disease (whether it was measles, typhoid fever, bubonic plague, anthrax, or perhaps scarlet fever or even toxic shock syndrome), but the political ramifications were "enormous," Littman reveals (458).

Pericles perished because of the disease -- along with an estimated 100,000 Athenians -- but though Thucydides contracted the plague, he survived it and lived to write an account of it, Littman explains (459). Roughly 25% of the population of Athens perished but Sparta was spared, according to Littman (458). In fact the plague was "…economically and socially devastating to Athens, both at the time and in subsequent centuries," Littman continues (458). The Peloponnesian War and the terrible plague "…depopulated Athens and changed Greek history," which, Littman concludes, might have been quite different had Athens defeated Sparta (458).

In conclusion, this paper points to many conditions and prevailing attitudes that contributed tensions to the relationship between Sparta and Athens. It also points out that both parties share blame in this matter. But the bottom line and the answer to the thesis question is that Sparta started the war after Athens had angered and agitated Sparta to the point that Sparta apparently could not resist launching the conflict.

Works Cited

Harl, Kenneth W. 2008. "Athenian Empire: 480-404 B.C." Tulane University. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.tulane.edu.

Kagan,…… [read more]

Remaking the World After the First World War Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Remaking the World After the First World War

This study examines and considers two different views of the peacemakers at Versailles following the First World War. This work specifically will consider how these historians can have different views of the same historical event. The work of Margaret Macmillan entitled "Making War, Making Peace: Versailles, 1919" states that the observation of it being "harder to make peace than war was, as one might expect of someone so witty, that of Georges Clemenceau, prime minister of France at the end of the First World War and during the peace conference that followed." (2005, p.1)

Macmillan writes that the decisions concerning the peace settlements were made under a great deal of pressure since there was fear that unless the war was ended quickly and a framework laid for an international order that was better than before the war that Europe and possibly the entire globe might fall into "anarchy, revolution and misery." (2005, p.1) Questions that remained were such as the drawing of borders in the center of Europe and the Middle East and the nature of the treaties with Germany and Austria and Hungary its allies. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 resulted in the turning upside down of society because the future was so unclear. Macmillan writes that the men who met in Paris for the peace conference in 1919, "were not, as polemicists…would have it, thoroughly vindictive, stupid and willfully short-sighted." (Macmillan, 2005, p.12)

Those men were however, according to MacMillan "among the best their nations could produce." (p.12) Macmillan reports that the 'Big Three' or the "leaders of Great Britain, France and the United States -- represented an extraordinary concentration of power." (2005, p.12) Britain was the "single greatest power…[having] the world's largest empire and its strongest navy." (2005, p.12) These three leaders faced several challenges. First, it is reported that they were up against "forces that were not easily managed." (Macmillan, 2005, p.12) Revolutionary governments are reported to have been brought to power throughout various locations in Germany. In addition, ethnic nationalism resulted from the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman empire collapsing. Macmillan asks the question of whether the leaders of the peace conference due to the limitation of options available actually made a difference and affirms that they did indeed make a difference. The leaders worked in cohesion to develop peace terms acceptable to Germany and its allies/

The general consensus of that time was that the war had been started by Germany and it was Germany who lost the war. The Treaty was not ratified since Wilson had insisted that Democrats vote against the treaty resulting in the U.S. failing to join the League of Nations. According to Sharp (2006) while the conference in Versailles made decisions they were not in possession of the means to enforce these decisions either due to lack of troops or lack of reliable agents in these areas. This resulted historically in blame being placed on these leaders for events that… [read more]

Germany's Failure in World War Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.]

Fall of Italy further blew Germany as it had to provide information regarding Italian bombers and D-Day invasion. Germany also had concentrated on developing V2 rocket, which had not been developed yet as much of the time had been wasted in Russia and North Africa along with resources. In 1945, Berlin was conquered by Russian troops and Germany had finally been defeated.


Germany failed because of its flawed war strategy. It wasted its resources and time. Although Hitler was successful in invading several European regions, it did not have the ability to deal with prolonged war.

Work Cited

Bell, P.M.H. The Origins of the Second World War in Europe. (3rd ed. 2007).

Brody, J Kenneth (1999). The Avoidable War: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935 -- 1936. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Davies, Norman (2008). No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939 -- 1945. New York: Penguin Group

Deist, Wilhelm et al., ed. Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 1: The Build-up of German Aggression. (2001). 799 pp., official German history

Jonathan M. House. The German Invasion, 1941. The Soviet-German Conflict Reading H207RB

Lewis, S.J. The fall of Poland, September 1939. Us Army Command and General Staff College

Lightbody, Bradley (2004). The Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis. Routledge Murray, Williamson A. "Strategic Bombing: The British, American, and German Experiences." In Military Innovation in the Interwar Period. Edited by Williamson A. Murray and Allan R. Millett, 96 -- 143. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Murray, Williamson A. "The World in Conflict." In The Cambridge History of Warfare.…… [read more]

Germany Research Project Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (4,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


The government even forced the youth to be a part of the army which led to Germany's s army a big and prominent one in the war. (Jarausch, 2006) Since this was the case, the entire population of Germany became highly aggressive. This aforementioned population did not include the anti-Nazis but as mentioned earlier there weren't a lot of those… [read more]

World War II -- Battle Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


According to Weinberg, the Japanese Navy's intended landing on Hawaii required victory at Midway; consequently, the loss of Midway rendered an invasion of Hawaii impossible.[footnoteRef:6] Keegan agrees that Midway was Japan's strategic objective in mid-1942[footnoteRef:7] and Overy calls the Battle of Midway "The most significant fleet engagement of the War."[footnoteRef:8] Weinberg concludes that if Japan had won at Midway, "the course of the War could have proceeded very differently."[footnoteRef:9] [6: Ibid., p. 330.] [7: Keegan, p.88.] [8: Overy, p. 43.] [9: Weinberg, p. 339.]

The assertions about the importance of Midway for Japanese expansion are supported by the authors' explanations of the Japanese adjustments after Midway. After Midway, the Japanese could not expand their domination of the Pacific. Weinberg maintains that the Japanese expansion to the East, South and in the Indian Ocean ended with the loss at Midway.[footnoteRef:10] According to Weinberg, Japanese expansion into the Indian Ocean, which the Japanese had promised to the Germans and wished to pursue, was decisively crippled by the American counterattack on the Solomon Islands that kept the Japanese preoccupied.[footnoteRef:11] Consequently, the Japanese defeat at Midway did not merely result in a stalemate; rather, it forced the halt of Japanese efforts to expand their domination of the Pacific Ocean. [10: Ibid., pp. 329, 339.] [11: Ibid., p. 339.]

Japan's loss at Midway also meant that the U.S. could take an offensive position in the Pacific, forcing the Japanese into a defensive position. As mentioned previously, Japan's initial plans to push further into the Indian Ocean were crippled by preoccupation with the American counter-attack on the Solomon Islands.[footnoteRef:12] According to Weinberg, that very American offensive, that… [read more]

Geography on Political, Cultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (994 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


After the rivers were under the control of the population of that time agriculture is reported to have "..flourished, providing the sustenance for a large and growing population. Invented in the process were the ox-drawn plow, the wheel and axle, and the sail. They also developed metallurgy, learning to use copper, tin, and bronze." (The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2006) It is reported that in Mesopotamia that "life was uncertain (the rivers were difficult to control and the land was open to invasion) and the outlook of the people was pessimistic; in contrast, the Egyptians were more optimistic (the Nile was predictable and the desert shielded them from invasion)." (The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2006) The government in Egypt centered on the Pharaoh as a 'god-king'. The Egyptian social structure was reported as being "hierarchical and pyramidal" and most of the work of the people was unpleasant. The population of Egypt and the surrounding areas such as Mesopotamia grew and expanded rapidly and the result was invasions that took place. The cultures intermingled and the Persians or Indo European people adopted the culture of Mesopotamia and became "peaceful farmers…" (The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2006)

III. The Indus Valley

Reports on the Indus Valley stated that the location was characterized by some type of centralized state government with town planning that was extensive in nature. Burnt brick appears to have been used in constructing buildings and cities were located several hundred miles away from one another. Weights and measures for the Indus Valley are quite regular and domesticated animals were owned by the early Indus Valley population. Crops were also harvested by those living in the Indus Valley and are reported to have been inclusive of such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. It is believed that these people were seafaring individuals as Indus seals have been excavated in places such as Sumer. The Indus Valley civilization is reported to have been urban which defies "both the predominant idea of India as an eternally and essentially agricultural civilization, as well as the notion that the change from 'rural' to 'urban' represents something of a logical progression. The Indus Valley people had a merchant class that, evidence suggests, engaged in extensive trading." ( )

Summary and Conclusion

It is clear that the geography in which Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley were located served to drive the growth and expansion of these areas of the world and ultimately to result in rapid expansion affecting the economic, cultural and political environment and characteristics of these civilizations.


Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm

Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of…… [read more]

Europe Faced After WWII Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


[3: Ibid.]

The transition of Eastern Europe from a command economy to a capitalist economy proved to be difficult for many states. "The fact that Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians and Slovenes have had for more than a thousand years permanent political, cultural and commercial interactions with German speaking neighbors certainly made the resumption of commercial ties with Germany and Austria after 1989 much easier.[footnoteRef:4]" These economies had a strong, thriving capitalist tradition before their incorporation into the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact. A far more rocky transition was experienced by poorer nations, such as Romania, and the former communist nation of Yugoslavia became completely fragmented into warring enclaves, cumulating most famously in the bloody Balkan wars. The dominance of the U.S.S.R., while oppressive, contained many age-old rivalries that erupted in a conflagration of rage. [4: Oldrich Kyn, "Eastern Europe in Transition," from The Transition to a Market Economy (Cheltenham, UK). excerpted: http://econc10.bu.edu/economic_systems/Theory/Transition/eetrans.htm [30 Apr 2012]]

To bring about the transition from communism to capitalism was a difficult and bracing experience, necessitating harsh measures, such as the abandonment of price controls, an end to mandatory full employment, and the selling off of state enterprises. This 'shock therapy' in effect meant that the transition would be swift and relatively brutal, forcing newly privatized entities to become competitive by shedding unproductive practices and workers. Today, it is conceded that "the shock treatment did have some beneficial effects. Manufactured exports to the West have risen; small private enterprises have thrived; and unemployment in Warsaw, Budapest, and Prague has been practically nil.[footnoteRef:5]" However, within these economies there remained some social support: subsidizes exist for rent, fuel, and transportation, as have some industrial subsidies. [5: Alice Amsden, "Beyond Shock Therapy," The America Prospect, (19 Dec 2001, http://prospect.org/article/beyond-shock-therapy-why-eastern-europes-recovery-starts-washington[30 Apr 2012]]

In recent years, Eastern Europe has shown great promise, in terms of its developing economies, while the European Union nations have grown mired in the Greek debt crisis and the falling power of the Euro. It is predicted that of all the European nations, the only ones to "grow by more than 2% this year -- Latvia, Lithuania and Poland -- are East European and outside the common currency bloc.[footnoteRef:6]" There is a great deal of irony in this position -- just as Germany became the strongest economy after its decimation in the wake of World War II, now Eastern Europe is ascending in power, given that it was protected from the European Union's exposure to the financial crisis. Few would have predicted this in the wake of the Marshall Plan in the mid-20th century, or even immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall. [6: Stephen Castle, "Europe forecasts 'mild recession,'" The New York Times, (23 Feb 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/business/global/eu-forecasts-mild-recession-for-euro-zone-in-2012.html [30 Apr 2012]]


Amsden, Alice. "Beyond Shock Therapy." The America Prospect. 19 Dec 2001.

http://prospect.org/article/beyond-shock-therapy-why-eastern-europes-recovery-starts-washington [30 Apr 2012]

Brager, Bruce L. "Yalta." From The Iron Curtain: The Cold War in Europe.

Reprinted at http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwii/articles/yalta.aspx [30 Apr 2012]

Castle, Stephen. "Europe forecasts 'mild recession.'" The New York Times.… [read more]

Chinese History 1100-1500 the Yuan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,100 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The chief difference is that Rashid, at work in Ecbatana in the western part of present-day Iran, was living under Mongol rule. Polo was close to the ruling Mongols of the Yuan dynasty, and worked for them, but he was not really their subject. Whereas Rashid would live under Mongol rule, in a time when the relations between the ruling Mongols and their subjects were often made tense by religious conflict. Muslims, referred to in Chinese documents of the time only as "Hui-hui," seemingly a derogative for "Uighur," were regarded as peculiar for their dietary customs; Leslie quotes as a primary source the Khan's official court account, the Yuan shih, for the year 1280: "The Hui-hui who pass by and are offered food will not eat a sheep that they themselves have not killed. The people are upset by this. The Emperor said: they are our slaves, how dare they not eat and drink what our court eats and drinks? He forbade it." (Leslie 181). Leslie then records a number of other edicts from the Khan, indicating unfriendliness between the ruling Mongols and the Muslim subjects. There are, in fact, numerous documents attesting to a certain level of prejudice against the Muslims among the "semu" caste under Yuan rule, which calls into question Polo's characterization from the same time period of the Mongols as being remarkably unconcerned with religious affiliation of subject peoples.

Yet I think this reveals the limitations of Polo's view of China in the Yuan period, simply because of his foreign status. As noted earlier, it seems like the status of the Yuan rulers under Kublai Khan as foreign usurpers who then attempted to assimilate to prevailing culture may have been a positive incentive for other races to approach China in this period -- at least intellectually, as in the case of both Polo and Rashid-al-Din. But it is worth noting that the refusal of Muslims to assimilate to local custom in China would eventually provoke more than edicts from the Mongols intended to attack this separatism. But by the mid-1300s, both the Han Chinese and the Muslims under Yuan imperial rule would revolt. The "Red Turban Rebellion" beginning in 1351 would present the Chinese challenge to Mongol dominance, and would eventually result in the replacement of the Mongol-run Yuan Dynasty with the Ming Dynasty, the last period when the Han Chinese would rule. But in the same decade the ten-year conflict (which would last from 1357 to 1366) between Muslims and Han Chinese, generally referred to as the "Ispah Rebellion," would effectively change the multiethnic character of the Yuan period, when the Han army would practice "ethnic cleansing" avant la letter with the foreign Muslim populations in the regions of Fuzhou, Xinghua, Huian and Quanzhou. To some extent this was occasioned by the fact that the Han Chinese castes within the Mongol Yuan dynasty -- Marco Polo's "Cathay and Manzi" -- were defined by the Mongols as the lowest castes, and placed them beneath not just… [read more]

World War I Causes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


He hoped that the conflicts among the involved nations would be settled through negotiations and dialogues. However, as the events occurred, it appeared unavoidable for America to engage itself in the fighting and help its allies. The main causes of the entrance of America into the World War I were the sinking of Lusitania, the Zimmerman telegram and the submarine… [read more]

World War I Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Through examination of the press coverage, one might conclude two very different wars were being waged. Ultimately, this is probably true of most any military or other conflict between peoples so vastly different, not only in culture but language and geographically as well.

The most dramatically different of news sources, naturally, was the editorial page. In review of a pro-German publication, one might find argument that, as Americans, should revolt from our British roots. Seek refuge in a culture less "traditional," revolt against the tyrants, no longer a "new England" but a new America. According to one such account, from a weekly publication called, Issues and Events we find such rally cry: "But we should remember we are Americans, not Britons; and our success is bound up with a coming epoch, not with that now drawing to a close. We should honor the past, but we should live in the future. " (Patton, 1915). Throughout this global conflict editorials ranged through a great many spectrums, the dichotomy, however, between "American" and German leaning opinions was as vast as the great Sahara desert. The pro-German leaning articles seamed to present two sides, one, such as above, suggesting Americans being in need of a culture shock, a culture revolution if you will, where as the other outright decried foul play in regards to American press. "The extent of faking and space grabbing in the present conflicts in Europe is almost incredible. Out of any given forty statements of fact relative to battles, army movements and war declarations printed in the daily pres no more than four are correct." (New York Morning Telegraph, 1914) These quotes come at the same time as the… [read more]

Causes of World War I Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In response to this series of events, Germany invaded one of the Low Countries, Belgium, which was neutral at the time, in an attempt to invade France as quickly as possible (Levinson, 2008). These military events were followed by the declaration of war on Germany by the United Kingdom pursuant to its moral and legal obligations to France and its obligations to defend Belgium under the terms of a 75-year-old treaty (Levinson, 2008). Consequently, Britain was also at war with Austria-Hungary and the European continent was fully engaged in the beginnings of World War I.

Some contemporary historians argued that had the precipitating of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand not occurred, the First World War would not have taken place, at least for awhile. In this regard, Bloch and Soames (1935) maintain that, "Had [the assassination] not occurred, there would have been neither an Austro-Serbian War, nor a World War, in the summer of 1914" (p. 199). In support of this assertion, Bloch and Soames (1935) suggest that existing political and military alliances would have ensured a fragile stability on the continent for years to come, but many modern historians disagree (Levinson, 2008).


The research showed that while most historians agree that the precipitating event for World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, many also agree that Europe was ripe for war given the convoluted and nebulous nature of the political and military alliances between the countries of Europe. In the final analysis, the War to End All Wars failed to do so, and the Versailles Treaty that ended the First World War simply set the stage for the Second.


Bloch, C. & Soames, J. (1935). The causes of the World War: An historical summary. London:

George Allen & Unwin.…… [read more]

First World War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, the hype of imperialism and land/territory acquisition is so prevalent and popular because many countries aspired to become superpowers. Thus, when the First World War broke out, it became an opportunity for these nations to 'showcase' their military strength and power. In addition, to become more powerful and triumphant in the Great War, these nations sought the help of their colonies, which resulted to an escalating war, since a conflict that started between two nations became a conflict of all nations because of imperialism. Imperialism is the primary reason why the First World War began, and the war cannot be averted because of the reasons that were enumerated earlier.

In conclusion, land/territory acquisition, which brought about imperialism, resulted to a complicated balance of power, since many nations (European nations, in particular) aimed to become a superpower by acquiring many colonies as they could, and strengthening their military support and power to higher degrees. Due to this complication in the balance of power, many nations became enemies, or engaged in various conflicts, and the tension that resulted from competition and disagreements over imperialism and superiority became the catalyst for World War I to break out. Therefore, due to each nation's vested interests, World War I cannot be averted or be prevented.


The Causes of the First World War." 05 April 2002. Student-Run Computing Facility Homepage. 9 July 2002 http://srcf.ucam.org/~mrs35/hist/html-nodes/subject-notes/firstww.html.

Coffman, Edward. "World War I." The World Book Encyclopedia Vol. 21. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.

Europe in 1914." 1 January 2002. Spartacus Educational. 9 July 2002 http://spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TGfww.htm.

The First World War." 11 March 2001. Schools History.

July 2002 http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/firstworldwar.htm.

The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century." 1995. Public Broadcasting Service. 9 July 2002 http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/timeline/index.html.

Murray, Karl. "The Great War: 1914-1918." 1996. 9 July 2002 http://users.tibus.com/the-great-war/ww1hist.htm.

Smitha, Frank E. "The 20th Century Conflict Attitude and Changing Religions." 1998. 9 July 2002 http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/index.html.… [read more]

World War II Broke Out Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The common way of looking at the issue is that Stalin mistrusted the Western democracies of Great Britain and France, and this mistrust had increased radically after the two countries effectively withdrew support from Czech President Benes in the face of Hitler's demands on the latter. That was in the months leading up to the Munich crisis of September 1938.… [read more]

History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


One can follow the rulers of Spain and the Netherlands, and understand how the head of the Holy Roman Empire was also a de facto family possession.

In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand, but equally gives information concerning all sides.

He explains the respective weights and roles in shaping the power structure of the monarchy. Berenger also focuses on the Enlightenment period of the Austrian historical stance and stresses the conservative turn caused later by the challenge of the French Revolution. Berenger has a talent to be consistent and remain fair with his description of the time.

Near the end of the work, Berenger continues a debate with French nationalist scholars of the Great War generation and writes about men who represented the late monarchy's internal problems. Without falling to Habsburg nostalgia or minimizing the empire's weaknesses, Berenger describes its final years in a more persuasive fashion. He argues that it was not a domestic strain but instead outside opinions that caused the monarchy's disintegration in 1918. Berenger writes that if the Habsburg Empire had not existed, it would have needed to been created. The disappearance of the Empire was the destabilizing factor of East Central Europe and also contributed to many other problems.

The Habsburgs Empire consisted of great politicians. They were adept in the method of playing their enemies against each other. They also knew how to make use of religious tensions to get the Vatican on their side and use the politics of the Catholic Church for their favor which strengthened the political hold the family had earned. Berenger's historical writing factually recreates scenes of religious tolerance. He depicts the successful pursuit of sciences to the gradual rebirth of intellectual freedom. The author uses historical facts that have been carefully researched, then interwoven to create a powerful documentation to include information vital for those wanting to learn more about the Habsburgs during the years of 1700-1918.

The monarchy created a powerful family who were very powerful throughout many countries of Western Europe. With the aid of this published work, any researcher either a novice or expert may depend on Jean Berenger's historical work, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700." It is well written and extremely descriptive when sharing the knowledge and helping people to understand the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. While there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.

Works Cited

Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire,…… [read more]

Ideological Relationship Between WWI Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This action brought the U.S. into the war and the balance of power was immediately unequal (Calvocoressi, 2001). The war was brought to a close quickly and there has not been a world war since.

World War I started for similar reasons. European nations were dividing in their loyalties and they were taking sides against each other. France and Russia became allies while Germany began to build its military services.

As the sides were chosen the nations erupted in battle and the war was begun.

Both wars held the same ideological beliefs that included the right to democracy which dovetails with the right to personal freedom. Both wars were also affected by the Industrial Revolution because it gave those battling weapons capabilities that had never before been present.

World War One had an impact on the technological development of the West. Once the new abilities were tried out in the war the West had a more clear understanding of what it would need to protect itself. The arms race was on and the West had a blue print for needs based on what it had witnessed through the First World War.

The technological experiments that were used in the First World War paved the way for western nations to prepare counter weapons in case war ever erupted on their own soil. The improved aviation abilities contributed to the escalation of the war as well as the western nation's understanding that the industrial revolution had changed the face of war (Morrow, 1993).

The world wars both dealt with Fascism and the Second World War also dealt with Nazism. Both terms are related because they believe in the superiority of a group, including a racial group. Hitler believed that whites were the superior race. The Nazi movement was based on that belief. Fascism also believes that one government or one group is superior to other and that one race is above all others.

At first glance each war appears to be based in an argument between several nations. The reality however, once one studies the underpinnings of the cause and effect of the wars is that the wars are about mankind and society's need for others. Each of the nations involved in each of the wars had governmental beliefs that may have differed slightly from others but the underlying thread of common ground was the belief that fascism was wrong, or that it was right. The wars explored the ability the world had moved into technologically and explored what humans were willing to do to each other in the name of war. The wars presented the world with the imaginary line in the sand so that each nation came down on the side of equality or fascism.

If one looks at both world wars and compares them side by side it will become clear that world war one was really only a warm up and a precursor to world war II. The first war was a testing ground for the industrial revolutions… [read more]

History Showing the Living Conditions Term Paper

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Their talk frightened her, then made her incredibly angry.

I was fifteen years old when I began to hate people. I hated the white men who murdered Emmett Till and I hated all the other whites who were responsible for the countless murders Mrs. Rice (my teacher) had told me about and those I vaguely remembered from childhood. But I… [read more]

Origins of the Second World Term Paper

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Taylor answered that argument in his opening "Second Thoughts" which prefaced the new edition of his work, where he noted with some vehemence:

My book has really little to do with Hitler. The vital question it seems to me, concerns Great Britain and France. They were the victors of the first World war. They had the decision in their hands.… [read more]

American History Mccarthyism Term Paper

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The SDI program was criticized because of its tendency to further escalate rather than prevent and stop the armaments race. The SDI program concerns the formulation and production of a "layered defense" that will help the U.S. detect and counter possible nuclear or weapons attacks, which required the formulation of a computerized system of weapons detection and manufacturing of similar weapons in defense of the U.S. when under attack.

Iran-Contra Scandal

The Iran-Contra Scandal concerns the allegations that the Reagan Administration have participated in the selling of weapons (arms) to Iran in exchange for the freedom of Americans held hostage by pro-Iranian Shiite Muslims in Lebanon. The money received by the U.S. government from Iran was then allegedly used as funding for the contra rebels in Nicaragua fighting the Sandinista government. The scandal led to the resignation of a top Reagan official, although Reagan continues to deny his innocence on the said 'exchange' and scandal. The U.S. administration's involvement in the scandal also led to the accusation of Nicaragua that U.S. acted has violated international law because of the illegal transaction that happened.… [read more]

History of Western Civilization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Philip had taken advantage of the natural potential of various other city-states, such as Macedonia. But his very disciplined army was what helped his attempts at unity. He used strategic alliances to accomplish unification of a great deal of land. He rewarded nobles for loyalty and soon.

Alexander had been taught logic, and so, with that and the great army and lands his father left him, he saw it as the right thing to do to export learning to other lands. When he first invaded Asia Minor, he took not only soldiers but scientists and philosophers as well. He was convinced that Greek learning was the best in the world, and that Greek gods were also the best in the world. Great men of the ancient world wanted to walk in the footsteps of the gods, and Alexander tried to do that. He also wanted to liberate the Greeks living in Asia Minor under Persian rule, which was not as concerned with logic and beauty as Alexander considered Greek culture to be. In victory, Alexander personified Greek virtues by honoring the dead soldiers of the adversary as well as his own. When each city was freed, Alexander left it to run itself as a Greek-style city-state, founded on ideals of democracy and logic.

Discuss the Greek civilization's fascination with its Gods & Goddesses.

The Greeks did not have a single book in which their gods and goddesses were described. They also borrowed gods and goddesses from other cultures. Each culture had developed its gods and goddesses to explain the world around them, and in part to attempt to control that world by appeasing the gods or appealing to them by sacrifice. The stories about the gods were made up by writers and priests and soothsayers who were supposed to speak for the gods, such as the one at the oracle at Delphi. But because the exploits of the gods and goddesses were made up by humans, the gods and goddesses acted much like humans, except that they were immortal. They had the same sorts of intrigues and rivalries and loves and hatreds as humans. The stories of the gods formed a sort of entertainment for Greeks. The fact that the gods and goddesses were unpredictable guaranteed that the population had to be always on its toes making sure it was at least trying to do the right thing for the gods' and goddesses' favor.… [read more]

Art History War Imagery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


War imagery has been around ever since armed struggle became a large part of Western civilization. Archaeologists have discovered images of the Battle of Kadesh, from 1275 B.C., on papyrus scrolls and wall reliefs; the Trojan War is central to the art of the Greek vase. However, art history's view of war is that of the rulers and the victors, as few artists in ancient years were visibly anti-war.

A modern perspective of artist as anti-war iconoclast comes from Francisco de Goya and his cycle of 80 prints, The Disasters of War, five of which are displayed at the Metropolitan Museum (Pollack, 2003). Created from 1810 to 1814 during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, de Goya's work depicts both the invasion and the resistance, with both sides engaged in acts against humanity. "Goya is fascinating because, though completely implicated in the court of Charles IV, he also maintained a private, independent, and satiric posture," said Met curator Gary Tinterow.

Still, while art has retreated from the front lines, art about war has never really gone away, according to Whitney curator Larry Rinder. "The 20th century has been horrific in terms of war and armed conflict, so it's inevitable that one finds this reflected in art," says Rinder (Pollack, 2003). "It did not crop up in museum shows, but that did not mean it was not being made. Artists have been expressing their views and outlooks on war since the first battles of the world were fought.


Mizra, Quddus. (2002). The art of war. Alternative Media Resources. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.amnasia.org/artofwar.html.

Pollack, Barbara. (April 8, 2003). Brief History of Protest Art. The Village Voice.…… [read more]

United States Entry Into World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


And World War I is also the first American war with seventy-two percent of Army ranks forming men joined under compulsion as at wartime, totaling filling about three million of them and depending on whom American waged and won the war. (Venzon, 58)

American entry into the war is considered a remarkable one, as, in November 1916, Woodrow Wilson was reelected president, with the slogan in the air that, he kept Americans out of war, though it was broken after five months. Wilson insisted on trading with all nations that waged the war, but England and France imposed a blockade on Germany. England destroyed the North Sea with mines. All of this violated neutral rights, yet the United States continued to trade almost with both the sides, theoretically. But as time passed, it was clear that the United States traded mainly with the Allies only. And hence, practically, the American neutrality shifted to one side. (Bass, 17)


Although these are some of the significant events, there are several stories and facts relating to why and how U.S. became part of the World War I. There are a few who say, that U.S. was never unbiased, it had been aiding the British; this theory however brings a distinct prospect on the submarine attacks with the Germans. There is a belief that the great aggressiveness of the British publicity along with the sufficient profits to the falling economy would have tempted the U.S. To join the war and not remain impartial. However some others believe that as the German army kept advancing to the Atlantic and was planning to take over Britain, U.S. would have felt that Germany would soon become a threat to her as well and that's the reason why U.S. entered the war. In general, it is not easy to associate U.S.'s entry into the world war only with some events; it was basically culmination of several factors.


Bass, Herbert J., "America's Entry Into World War I." Chicago; Holt, Rinehart And Winston, 1964, p.14-17

Andrea, Alfred J., and Overfield, James H., "The Human Record." Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994, p.63-66

Pope, Stephen, and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, "The Dictionary of The First World War" New York; St. Marten's…… [read more]

Poland Throughout Its History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The double enmity forced the country to devote one-third of its budget on defense. The country had been a battlefield that was passed over several times by the retreating and advancing armies of Germany, Austria and Russia during the war. The damage had been immense -- close to 2 million buildings, over 4.5 million livestock, 11 million acres of agricultural land and 6 million acres of forests destroyed during the war. (Dziewanowski p. 86) The economic condition was further exacerbated because the three regions of Poland did not form a single economic unit, and the partitioning powers had subordinated the interests of their annexed provinces to those of Russia, Prussia, and Austria during their rule. Poland was also an ethnically mixed country and suffered considerable ethnic and social tensions, in particular heightened anti-Semitism and charges of unjust treatment of the minorities by the Poles. Despite these daunting problems, Poland overcame most of them in the inter-war period of hardly 20 rears, which is nothing short of remarkable. For example, a republican constitution was adopted soon after independence in 1921. Financial and agrarian reforms were undertaken and industrialization progressed. Even more important, significant advances were made in the field of education which had been particularly neglected in the Russian part of the partitioned country. Most of all, the Polish culture was revived after decades of official curbs leading to reaffirmation of the Polish nationhood that had been disputed for so long. The weaknesses remained in areas such as the unequal treatment of the minorities, the condition of the peasantry that remained generally poor, and the increasing trend towards authoritarian government following the military coup in 1926 that made Pi-sudski virtual dictator. ("Poland," Columbia Encyclopedia)


In the heroic and tragic history of Poland, the First World War and the inter-war period constitutes a unique period in which the nation re-emerged from more than a century of partitioning and domination by its powerful neighbors to overcome the devastation and deprivation in a remarkably short period. It proved to be a short-lived interlude, before the wheels of history turned a full circle to bring the country under the yolk of brutal foreign rule yet again. This paper was a brief review of that turbulent and yet epochal period during which the Polish nation got an opportunity to express its independent, national aspirations to the full.

Works Cited


Biskupski, M.B. The History of Poland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Buell, Leslie Raymond. Poland: Key to Europe. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1939. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99696409

Dziewanowski, M.K. Poland in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=789373

Fisher, H.H. America and the New Poland. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928.

History of Poland" Country Reports.Org December 6, 2003. http://www.countryreports.org/history/polahist.htm

Poland." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

Pilsudski had correctly predicted before the war that all the three partitioners would be destroyed / defeated in the war giving the Poles the opportunity for independence

On August 14, 1914, just a few days after the… [read more]

Post-World War II Photographers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These ideas came from philosophers, psychoanalysts and semioticians from Europe, believing that all photographs were a lie and that no truth could be found in photographs (Norfleet 1995). Therefore, post-modernists decided that there was no reason to photograph the real world, since all documentaries were lies, and moreover, everything had already been seen and there was no such thing as originality (Norfleet 1995). Moreover, they felt that it was "impossible to make a photograph that isn't really supporting the existing power relationships in a society, regardless of the photographer's intentions" (Norfleet 1995). Words used by the post-modernists were complex, such as "simulacrum, deconstruction, and structuralism" (Norfleet 1995).

Perhaps no photographer pushed the buttons more than Robert Mapplethorpe. Said one critic, "When you are in an art setting you want to appear sophisticated and broad-minded... It's like the emperor's new clothes. You have to prove that you're unflappable" (Young 1995). Mapplethorpe gained notoriety by documenting the era of pre-Aids homosexual hedonism, when gay aesthetic was being adopted by the mainstream icons and the Studio 54 crowd (Young 1995). Moreover, photography was beginning to be accepted as a serious, collectable art form (Young 1995). Initially his work was relatively saleable and inoffensive, such as "society portraits and flowers, uptown, and the leather-hooded bondage boys in a downtown gallery" (Young 1995).

However, his work became extreme with images such as "seeing a man pushing his finger into his urethra, another drinking urine like a sacrament, Mapplethorpe himself with a whip handle up his open rectum" (Young 1995). Many believe that the two styles united in a growing myth of his personality" (Young 1995). However, Mapplethorpe's "creativity paved the way for luminaries like Cindy Sherman, Barbara Krueger, William Wegman and particularly Joel-Peter Witkin" (Young 1995).

Post-modernism has had serious repercussions, especially for documentary photography (Norfleet 1995). Although photojournalists and documentary photographers are still working, their work is almost nonexistent in the art world, as post-modernism dominates the mainstream, no one is really interested in viewing the real world anymore (Norfleet 1995).

Works Cited

About Post-Modernism." http://members.tripod.com/ambro32/postmod.html

Lacayo, Richard. "Visionary Voyeurism: In illuminating the marginal, Diane Arbus became one of the most influential artists of her time. Time. November 03, 2003.

Norfleet, Barbara. "Photography and life: pictures depend on attitudes of viewer and Maker." Nieman Reports. September 22, 1995.

Turner, Peter. History of Photography. Exeter Books. 1987.

Young, Elizabeth. "Mapplethorpe: A…… [read more]

Battles of World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Resistance at other beaches was comparatively light.

Because of the intense secrecy and multiple deception plans, the Allies indeed managed to catch the Germans almost entirely off-guard, while their commanding officer was actually on leave in Germany. Nevertheless, there was still a crucial time period within the first few hours after the initial invasion where Hitler could have authorized reinforcement in the form of tank divisions in position elsewhere to repel the landing forces on the beaches. Historians regard his failure to do so as one of Hitler's many military blunders that contributed to Germany's defeat in 1945.

Despite heavy initial casualties, within one week, the Allies had landed sixteen divisions, linked up several of the landing beaches, and controlled eighty miles of French coast, penetrating up to twenty miles in some areas. Among the ingenious devices designed and used specifically for the Normandy invasion were floating, artificial harbors called "Mulberry" bridges that allowed the Allies to drive vehicles and tanks directly onto the beaches from their transport ships far offshore.

The D-Day invasion at Normandy was the pivotal battle that enabled the Allied victory in the largest and most deadly war in human history, accounting for perhaps fifty-million deaths on three continents. Consequently, it was probably the single most important battle of all time.


1. Ambrose, S. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won (2001)

2. Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)

3. Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)

4. Lucas, J. The Last European War…… [read more]

Roman World Rome, Whose Beginning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the reasons for it was that there were always plenty of slaves to do the menial jobs. For instance, the central heating, which was common in rich people's houses, was manually constructed and installed by slaves. The principle on which central heating worked was that hot air moved through spaces under the floors and up the walls. The space was made through building the floor on top of tile; and the walls between rooms were really two walls with a gap between them (Dowling, 176). This was called a hypocaust. The hot air came from a furnace and it was the slaves' job to keep the furnace well stoked up so that the central heating worked.

Some wealthy Romans lived in villas. Villas were large farms with a luxurious house for the owners. Villas would often have rooms with painted walls and mosaic floors, and even central heating (Purcell, 356). Most towns would also have shops and a market place called a forum. At one end of the forum was a large building called the Basilica. This was a cross between a law court and a town hall. The magistrates carried out all the important business here.

The Romans believed that the spirit went to the underworld after death.

Romans also believed that the Emperors were gods, so everyone was required to make a sacrifice to the Emperor. Christians often got into trouble because they refused to do so, and they had to worship Christ in secret. Despite this secrecy, more people became Christian. By the 4th century A.D (Purcell, 345). Christianity was so popular the Emperor Constantine decided to make it the official religion of the Roman Empire.


Buckleitner, Warren. Ancient History: Lives and Times in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. School Library Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, (2004): 58.

Dowling, Melissa Barden. A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time. KronoScope, Vol. 3, No. 2, (2003): 169-184.

Dyck, Ludwig Heinrich. CAESAR'S First Great Campaigns. Military History, Vol. 20 No. 6, (2004): 50-56.

Purcell, Nicholas. The Way…… [read more]

Gypsies During World War II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Often the camps had no electricity, and little or no sanitary facilities. One of the largest of the camps was located in Salzburg, Austria, and employed the Gypsies in forced labor, such as working in a quarry or building state highways.

During this time, many of the Gypsies forced out of the cities to these camps had no way to… [read more]

How the Great Depression Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Historian Schwantes continues, "Wartime social and economic pressures scarcely left a corner untouched" (Schwantes 408). The two main centers of population, Puget Sound (Seattle) and Portland became major industrial providers during the War, but areas all over the Pacific Northwest helped support the war effort, and grew rapidly. The area produced planes, ships, timber, machinery, food, and a wide variety of other products that helped keep the war on track and production high. Society prospered, and people were working again. In addition, there were numerous large Army and Navy bases in the area, which added to the population. If the demographics had sifted dramatically from the turn of the century, now they were amazing. Schwantes notes, "The region's population shifts were phenomenal. Between 1940 and 1944, Seattle increased from 368,302 to approximately 530,000 people (650,000 in the greater metropolitan area); Tacoma from 109,408 to 140,000; and Bremerton from 15,134 to 48,000" (Schwantes 413). Young men from the area's rural regions streamed into the cities looking for jobs, and they found them. Thus, the population shifted even more toward the urban areas, a shift which has continued throughout modern history in the Pacific Northwest.

This population shift also had some detrimental and lasting social effects. Juvenile delinquency rose as more parents worked or were drafted. Because of the large influx of soldiers, prostitution increased, and so did divorce rates (Schwantes 415). The area was prospering, but socially, the increase in population in the urban areas also brought problems that had been less prevalent before. In addition, more minorities moved to the area to take advantage of the jobs available, and so, a population that had been largely white began to become more diverse and well rounded, with blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and other minorities adding to the labor force. Increased work and production brought an increased standard of life that would continue into the Baby Boom years following the war. It was a prosperous time for the country, and this was true in the Pacific Northwest, too. Some feared a major collapse in the economy after the war, but this simply did not occur. Building increased, and while the wartime industries reduced their workforce, there were other industries in the area to take up the slack. Many immigrants stayed on after the war, and the population grew another 25% between 1940 and 1947 (Schwantes 423). Of course, this created suburbs outside the major cities, a trend that continues today. After the war, the nuclear industry created electrical power and testing facilities in the area, which were a major reaction to the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Thus, each decade of change created great transformation in the Pacific Northwest, and each added its own mark on the population and politics of the area. There was uncertainty because of the proximity to the Soviet Union, but there was prosperity, too.

Today, politics are still influenced largely by the demographics of the area. As more Californians move into the area, politics continue to alter… [read more]

American History Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Truman Doctrine

As early as 1945, the United States began to recognize a threat coming from Moscow. The United States felt the threat was enough to cut reconstruction funding for Russia immediately after World War II. The Truman Doctrine essentially declared that communism and any other philosophies posed by the Soviet Union were serious threats to not only Europe… [read more]

World War II Economical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Soviet Union grew and developed without any international cooperation, trade and had to produce everything itself. Joseph Stalin proclaimed program of Industrialization which had to turn agricultural state into highly developed industrial country with strong and independent economics and mighty armed forces. This program succeeded and Soviet Union became one of the most industrialized European countries and if analyze its… [read more]

History of Espionage Class Reading Essay

Essay  |  27 pages (7,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 29


History Of Espionage Class Reading Study Guides

Jeffrey Burds, Chapter 19 of World of the Shadows: An International History of Espionage (The Golden Age of Soviet "Illegals")

This chapter opens with a quote from Stalin, who in 1937 questioned the prevailing belief that bourgeoisie states would refrain from sending "spies, wreckers, saboteurs and assassins" into socialist states.

Chapter 19 then… [read more]

China: Facts About a Future Superpower Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


During this period, the capital of China became Beijing, previously it was Nanjing. The Ming Dynasty ended in 1644, when Li Zicheng led a revolt against the Ming and established the Shun Dynasty, which was short lived when the Machu Qing Dynasty overthrew the Shun. The Qing was the last imperial dynasty in China's history, ending in 1912. The 19th century saw the slow decline of the Qing Dynasty (Keay, 2009). They lost two opium wars against the British Empire. China was made to sign unfair treaties, pay reparations, allow special privileges for foreigners, and give Hong Kong to the British. In 1895, at end of the Sino-Japanese War, China loss influence in Korea and gave Taiwan to the Japanese (Keay, 2009). The Qing dynasty also suffered from rebellions and famine. Eventually, the Qing Dynasty collapsed and the Republic of China was established by Sun Yat-sen of the Nationalist Party.

The early 20th century was a tumultuous time for China, seeing the rise and fall of the Republic, a brief period where China was ruled by warlords, the re-establishment of the Republic under Chiang Kai-shek and the second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) (Keay, 2009). After the war, China entered a civil war where Nationalists battled Communists for control of China. By 1949, the Nationalists were driven to Taiwan and the Communists took control of China under Mao Zedong (Keay, 2009). The country is currently ruled by the Communist party who is communist but also authoritarian and corporatist, in other words a socialist country with a market economy. This has helped make China the world's second largest economy; however its nominal GDP per capital is only $6, 853 (CIA). There is high level of income equality, being home to the second greatest number of billionaires while 13.4% of its population lives below the poverty line (CIA). China has an unemployment rate of 6.4% However, the economic gains in China has led to an improved life expectancy (75 years) and a lowered infant mortality rate (12 per 1000) (CIA). Despite these major improvements in health, there are still major hurdles for China particularly respiratory illnesses due to air pollution, cigarette smoking, and an increase in obesity. In order to stay competitive in the market economy, China has invested heavily into education, increasing its spending from less than U.S.$50 billion in 2003 to more than U.S.$250 billion in 2011 (CIA). China is determined to become the world's next superpower and is willing to spend whatever is necessary to achieve its goal.


China. (n.d.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html

Keay, J. (2009). China: a history. London: Harper Perennial.

Wilkinson, E.P. (2000). Chinese history:…… [read more]

History of Pharaoh and Hatshepsut Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,297 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


" She supported her assertion that identified her as her father's designated successor evidenced from inscriptions from her mortuary temple's wall: Then his majesty said to them: "This daughter of mine, Khnumetamun Hatshepsut -- may she live! -- I have appointed as my successor upon my throne she shall direct the people in every sphere of the palace; it is she indeed. Obey her words, unite yourselves at her command."

Hatshepsut was commonly described as fairly conventional pharaoh in every other aspect. Majority recognized her as a peace loving pharaoh partly following her gender. Even though there were a number of military expeditions, they turned out to be dissent from Egypt's neighbors, (Tyldesley, Joyce, 1996). Hatshepsut managed to expand the temple complex at Karnak, expanded Egypt's trade and built her mortuary temple at Deir el Bahari.

Major Accomplishments

She successfully established the trade networks that had formerly been disrupted at the times of Hyksos occupation of Egypt within the second Intermediate period; as a result she built the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She took the role of overseeing the preparations and funding for a mission within the Land of Punt. The five ships started the expedition in her name, and every ship was 70 feet (21m) long harboring many sails and accommodated 210 men that included 30 rowers and sailors. Bulk of trade goods were bought within Punt, particularly myrrh.

The most significance of the voyage was Egyptians returning bearing thirty-one live myrrh trees. Their roots were kept carefully in baskets for the duration of the voyage, and this became the first attempt to transplant foreign trees. These trees are reported to have been planted within the courts of Hatshepsut Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. The voyage also came back with living Puntites (people of the Punt).

Hatshepsut organized commemoration of the expedition in relief at Deir el-Bahri, which is as well-known for its realistic representation of the Queen of the Land of Punt, Queen Iti, who was somehow having a genetic trait known as steatopygia. She successfully sent raiding expeditions to Sinai and Byblos just after the Punt expedition. Earlier in her career she successfully led military campaigns in Nubia, the Levant, and Syria. However, it is claimed that her foreign policy was commonly peaceful.

Comparison with other Female Pharaohs

Hatshepsut reigned for a longer period and the reign was also prosperous. In her early reign, she became successful in warfare, yet she is commonly known to have inaugurated a long peaceful era. Hatshepsut managed to re-establish international trading relationships that was once lost at time of foreign occupation hence bringing a great wealth to Egypt, (Gardiner, Alan, 1964). Using this wealth she was able to initiate building projects that raised ancient Egyptian architecture to standard, that could not be rivaled by any other culture for a quite along period. Hatshepsut became more widely recognized after she build Hatshepsut's temple.

Her Death

The death of Hatshepsut took place at her middle age given typical contemporary lifespan, during… [read more]

WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944 Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It was evident that the bombings succeeded in vastly causing collateral damage to the Germany war factories, the aircraft plants, transport sector and the oil facilities, but noticeably it failed to kill the spirits and morale of the people (Rogole J.A., 2002:Pp27).


The WWII was not just a war of weapons as was the WWI but it involved much more than just that. It involved a lot of diplomacy playing out between countries hence formation of alliances which were basically means of showing allegiance to some countries. The main driving force behind the formation of the alliances was to get enough military muscle to outweigh the enemy and hence be able to either protect your own territory or even carry out expansion as Japan did.


Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II

Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE

Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp… [read more]

Geographical Pivot of History Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Geographical Pivot of History," H.J. Mackinder

Mackinder (1904) has written a classic article that paints in broad strokes through politics and geography. He sketches a vision of the movement of history based in geographical features and their effects (and limitations) on human action. He states that there is "a correlation between natural environment and political organization" (p. 423). Using this organic notion, he draws a connection between history and the landscape that shapes it powerfully.

He begins with the concept of a closed vs. open system. In the 400-year Columbian epoch, expansion was the rule. For Europe, Mackinder says, the crusades marked the beginning of expansion and modern European history (p. 431). They drew Europe out of its insular Medieval boundaries, transforming it from a settled region to a center of outward expansion. But since the land of the world has been discovered and explored almost in its entirety now, even to the poles, the system has closed. Politics must deal with an established map where all claims of ownership have already been staked. The significant consequence of this for politics is that countries will be forced to focus on the contest for efficiency rather than on territorial expansion (Mackinder, p. 422). He makes a certain prediction here. "Every explosion of social forces, instead of being dissipated in a surrounding circuit of unknown space and barbaric chaos, will be sharply re-echoed from the far side of the globe, and weak elements in the political and economic organism of the world will be shattered in consequence" (p. 422).

To describe historical dynamics, Mackinder makes several important turns of perspective. First, rather than prioritize a Euro-centric vision of history, he shifts to look at how the East has significantly affected matters in the West. European history is, he thinks, a product of Asian history. It was out of external pressure from the nomadic East (as well as the Viking pirates as sea) that Western nations crystallized to avoid extinction. What is crucial here is his concept of opposition: outside threat is the crucible for cultural advance and the formation of political ideas of nationhood. He believes that civilization and national identity coalesce when groups are forced to unite in order to battle an opponent. "A repellant personality performs a valuable social function in uniting his enemies, and it was under the pressure of external barbarism that Europe achieved her civilization" (p. 423). For Europe, therefore, resistance to the external and mobile forces of Asia created the conditions for unification. Europe was hemmed in by sea and land powers, and out of this pressure the settled people were not overwhelmed but were stimulated and mobilized (p. 428). As a concrete example, the idea of "France" was imposed on the tribes of Franks, Goths, and Romans by Hun aggression. They had to band together under the tension this threat exerted. This reaction stirred ideas of nationality and civilization.

Second, he elaborates the influential role that physical geography has played on political history. He calls… [read more]

History of Construction Technology Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  24 pages (6,960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


History Of Construction Technology

Time Periods

Tools, materials, innovations

Add (April notes) two subheadings: Construction Techniques and Construction Machines under each one.




Ancient Egyptian


Ancient Greek

Idea of "Simple Machine"




Roman Empire

Works of Vitruvius

Roman Crane


Byzantine Empire


Master builders of Byzatine

Islamic Golden Age



See YC's notes… [read more]

Guns Germs and Steel Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Guns, Germs and Steel and the Earth Island

In Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond attempts to explain why most of the significant events of the last 13,000 years have happened on the Eurasian land mass. This idea of the "Earth Island" is controversial and the holders of this idea have, including the late Nazi advisor to Rudolf Hess, Karl… [read more]

History Economic Aspects Social Aspects of Berlin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Economic Aspects, Social Aspects of Berlin

Berlin remains one of the cities in the world that has experienced constant and unique changes over time, remaining both economically and socially significant in the historical perspective.

Berlin, a middle ages trading center.

Berlin's elector's residence.

Berlin, the royal capital.

Berlin the imperial city.

Berlin survival during its National socialist period.… [read more]

Project Management History Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Project Management

History of Project Management Prior to Classical Antiquity

The current definition of project management is the very deliberate orchestration of people, resources, money and time to complete a specific project. The first step is the development of a project plan, which includes a task breakdown, a list of resources needed, a budget and a timeline. The planning phase… [read more]

Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust

There is a common misconception that the Jewish people put up little resistance against the Nazis during World War II. The following paper shows that this was not the case, and that Jewish resistance has an important place in the history of the Holocaust.

Firstly, resistance in a militant sense was almost impossible, since Germans… [read more]

Concentration Camps of WWII Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,330 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Concentration Camps of WWII -- Who was held, Where did they come from, What happened to them there and what to them after they were released.

Nazi Concentration Camps

The Holocaust has generated a lot of suffering, to its victims, and to society as a whole, given the magnitude of the event. Nazi concentration camps served as a living hell… [read more]

Chinese History There Were a Series Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Chinese History

There were a series of dynasties in Chinese history that were somewhat responsible for preventing the country from experiencing progress in its relationship with other countries, in its economy, and in the Chinese society as a whole. The Tang Dynasty detaches itself from this group, given the obvious developments that took place in the Chinese state during the… [read more]

Nations Formed Through the Combination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Nations formed through the combination of multiple ethnic cultures are often plagued by occasional disruptions due to differences between the cultures. The nation of Yugoslavia, however, formed through the combination of four major ethnic groups, Serbian, Croatians, Slovaks and Montenegro. For most of its history the Yugoslavian state existed with little or no ethnic conflict. There were period difficulties but they were quickly quelled. (Silber

This all changed, however, subsequent to the death of long time dictator, Josip Tito. Tito had successfully held the coalition together but with his death the ethnic differences that were naturally present began to have their effect. When Serbia and Croatia could not resolve their differences over the exchange of power which resulted in their each declaring independence the entire government fell apart. As the Serbs were the controlling ethnic group they began a period of harsh suppression against the other ethnic groups within the state. The eventual result was the complete breakup of the loosely organized Yugoslavian state.

Ethnicity definitely played a part in the breaking up the Yugoslavian government but the political reaction by the Serbian leadership was equally or more important. The Serbian leaders emphasized the differences between the various ethnic groups instead of attempting to organize around the similarities and in the process build a feeling of nationalism. This polarization offered the opportunity for the individual ethnic groups to build unity around their own cultural customs and mores and to become alienated from the other groups that formulated the Yugoslavian nation state. The Serbian majority manipulated the situation so that the ethnic differences were more important than any Yugoslavian nationalism. In the end the country was dissolved and individual states established built around more historical ethnic lines.

Essay Question

The end of the Second World War marked a decrease in interstate conflicts and a severe increase in intrastate conflicts. Interstate conflicts are disputes that occur between sovereign states while intrastate conflicts involve ethnic or religious groups fighting against each other or against a government to obtain secure autonomy, independence, or well-being. Often intrastate conflicts can be characterized as a civil war they are not always so.

The end of the Cold War which saw the United States remaining as the only true super military power served the purpose of reducing the risk of interstate conflict. Militarily the fall of the Soviet Union meant that there was no one available to challenge the United States and, thus, interstate conflicts became minimized. (Burg)

Unfortunately the same could not be said for intrastate conflicts. Suddenly intrastate conflicts developed throughout the world as ethnic differences that had been percolating for years began to erupt. Conflicts based upon ethnicity occurred in Yugoslavia, Rwanda, the Congo, Somalia and the Sudan.

The usual cause of these intrastate conflicts is the apparent or perceived discrimination or disadvantage felt by a specific ethnic, religious or social group. These groups have felt exploited for some considerable period of time and frustration has set in as they feel powerless to alter their… [read more]

Economic and Social Effects of the Second World War on Germany Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (9,045 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Economic and Social Effects of the Second World War on Germany

German Economy Prior to World War I

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis)

Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany

Unemployment in Germany from 1933 to 1939

The German Labor Service

Work Creation Programs

Population of Germany Prior to World War II

Summary of the German Population From 1933-1939… [read more]

History of Architectural Design and Theory of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  16 pages (5,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


¶ … human history, the concept of expression through architecture, stone, granite, metal, wood and concrete has extended through the course of human history. Since the dawn of time man has attempted to express himself and his surroundings as well as convey messages through structures. Man has honored himself, royalty and deities through constructions of ornate structures that posses such… [read more]

Communism and Soviet Union -- the Approach Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Communism and Soviet Union -- The approach might be to look at how the fall of the Berlin Wall was carried or treated throughout the world via the media

Postwar Geopolitical Conflict in Europe

The post Second World War Scenario brought social transformations throughout Europe. Some of these transformations had been peaceful while others had been violent. The forces of… [read more]

Causes of War and the Conduct of Warfare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  15 pages (3,765 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Clausewitz / Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa

No one starts a war -- or rather, no one in his senses ought to do so -- without first being clear in his mind what he intends to achieve by that war… (Clausewitz).

War is an act of violence intended to compel our enemy to fulfill our will, according to Carl von Clausewitz,… [read more]

La Malinche / Hernan Cortes Dissertation

Dissertation  |  4 pages (1,249 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


La Malinche / Hernan Cortes

The purpose of this study is to understand what the story of La Malinche and Hernan Cortes reveal about the role of secrecy in erotic love for the purpose of understanding the logic or illogic reasoning of those who are "in love" by using a hermeneutic qualitative design method, resulting in a collective picture of the human experience in love, which will hopefully give us an understanding of why secrecy is more prominent in erotic love than it is in romantic love and what the repercussions of this are. At this stage in the research, the role of secrecy in erotic love as pertaining to the story of La Malinche and Hernan Cortes, will be defined by Jung's research on anima and animus, as well as selected works by other authors that pertain to the topic of secrecy in erotic love and lovers, in general.

A variation of the above purpose statement for quantitative research is the following: The purpose of this study is to verify the theory La Malinche's love for Cortes was imbued with many secrets in her heart, which were the cause of both her gender as well as her culture. La Malinche broke free from the patriarchal rules that were supposed to keep her in her traditional role. Her love and desire for Cortes pulled something else out of her that was perhaps unconscious and it allowed her to go against all of her people and help her lover take control of her and her people's country.

2. Introduction

La Malinche is an important woman in the history of Mexico, patriarchal story tellers have made her into the quintessential representation of female sexuality at its worst as well as a woman who is passive and wanting to be raped at the same time -- and she is always blamed and guilty of her betrayal to her culture and people.

La Malinche was forced to live with secrecy in her heart because she was not in a world that allowed her to be the feminine she wanted to be. She had to lie to herself in order to become aware of her own existence and, in a way, this blinded her. Another aspect of secrecy in love is that lovers often use secrecy to keep their love alive -- as part of the belief that when love is out in public it never lasts. Having a secret lover can often be more intriguing than the actual lover and it can make people do things that they wouldn't normally do -- as the world learned from the tragic story of Medea. Being secret lovers was necessary for Cortes and La Malinche. Secrecy is a part of erotic love as it adds an element of suffering and Jung would probably agree that La Malinche did not realize what she was doing when she murdered her son because love had prompted her to act irrationally and, for her, the love that she felt as a… [read more]

Art History Comparative Analysis Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Art History Comparative Analysis

Buddhist Sculpture of the Song Dynasty

The Song Dynasty (also known as the Sung Dynasty) in China is known to have produced artwork across a multitude of media. While most often, the pottery and painting are most exalted, sculpture was also produced during this period that spanned the late tenth century to the early twelfth century CE. Among the sculptures produced during the Song Dynasty are a number of boddhisattvas, two of which are under discussion herein. Throughout this period, artistic style varied greatly, even within this subset of sculptures. The two works presented are Seated Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara (Guanyin) (hereafter referred to as Seated) and Boddhisattva Guanyin (Kuan-yin) (hereafter referred to as Kuan-yin. Careful formal analysis, paired with literature on the Song Dynasty artistic styles and goals show Kuan-yin to be a precursor to Seated.

Both of these works show the Boddhisattva seated, with the right arm perched upon the right knee, and the left leg crossed in front. Each sculpture has similar headdress, jewelry and robes. Seated faces down somewhat, with the body formed in such a way so as to suggest that the figure is turned somewhat whereas Kuan-yin sits facing forward, with its shoulders squared to the front as well. The latter is made of poly-chromed wood, and Seated is carved of wood that is covered with gesso, pigment and gilding. Both sculptures are from the eleventh century CE, and on both, the robes follow the same contours though the creases and folds in the fabric are carved deeper in Kuan-yin.

The headdresses worn by each sculpture carry a floral motif, though Seated's appears to focus more on leaves and vines whereas Kuan-yin's headdress is predominated by flowers, with clearly defined petals. Each figure wears a small smile, and Seated depicts a face that appears to be looking down, or perhaps the eyes are closed. Seated shows a graceful positioning of the right hand. Unfortunately, the right hand on Kuan-yin is missing, so a comparison cannot be made. However, one might safely presume that the fingers would be relaxed, yet outstretched, similar to the pose of hand shown in Seated.

Amid all of the similarities between these two pieces, the most striking difference is the lifelike movement of Seated. Though created in the same century, it is clear that Kuan-yin is either an earlier work or of the Southern Song Dynasty tradition as opposed to the Northern Song Dynasty style. "In sculptures, statues of boddhisattvas in wood, clay or stone are more lifelike and less symbolic than those of earlier periods, reflecting the new concept of individual personality" ("Song Dynasty"). The stiff posture of Kuan-yin contrasts against the presentation of Seated, but because both are in the same positions and dressed the same, it is a safe presumption to say that either Kuan-yin is a precursor to Seated, or that Seated is not at the end of the movement trending toward individual personality because it still demonstrates the symbols found in Kuan-yin.

Delving… [read more]

Thucydides' Ambiguous History: Did 'Might Make Right Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
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Thucydides' ambiguous history:

Did 'might make right' during the Peloponnesian War?

"...we both know that decisions about justice are made in human discussions only when both sides are under equal compulsion; but when one side is stronger, it gets as much as it can, and the weak must accept that." -- Athenians at Melos (Book 5, Paragraph 89; p.103 in Woodruff)

In the ancient Greek author Thucydides' chronicle of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, Athens is often presented as the more morally superior of the two nations in terms of its structure of government. This is not simply based upon the author's partisanship or jingoism (although the author is an Athenian). Rather it is based upon Thucydides' conviction that Athens' democratic values were fundamentally superior to oligarchic Sparta. The purity of the Athenian model is perhaps best and most famously articulated in Pericles' funeral oration.

Yet Pericles' funeral oration highlights the paradoxes of ancient Athens even in its first sentences: Pericles begins by praising the freedom the ancestors of his contemporary Athenians won for the nation. "We are more an example to others…It is called a democracy, because it is not managed for the few of the people, but the majority" (Woodruff 40). But Pericles also notes the fact that Athens presides over a great empire, presumably limiting the freedom of the residents of other Greek city-states within its sphere of influence. The most notable act of Athenian hubris and disregard for the rights of others was manifest in its treatment of Melos, the tiny Peloponnesian island that wished to remain neutral during the conflict. Athens said that it could not permit Melos to remain independent. Athens acknowledged that its demand that Melos side with Athens or face destruction was not democratic or fair. But Athens could not allow Melos to be an example to other Greek nations that Athens was weak and would allow other city-states to act against its interests -- more rebellion was likely to ensue. The "freedom and generosity" of the Athenian spirit, its openness to strangers, and tolerance is not present in the Athenian interactions with Melos (Woodruff 41). The one protest one could make in favor of Pericles' interpretation of Athenian values is…… [read more]